CROSS DIFFUSION AND NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PREVENTING BLOW UP IN THE KELLER–SEGEL MODEL
CARRILLO, JOSÉ ANTONIO; HITTMEIR, SABINE; JÜ NGEL, ANSGAR
2012-01-01
A parabolic-parabolic (Patlak-)Keller-Segel model in up to three space dimensions with nonlinear cell diffusion and an additional nonlinear cross-diffusion term is analyzed. The main feature of this model is that there exists a new entropy
Anomalous Transport of Cosmic Rays in a Nonlinear Diffusion Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litvinenko, Yuri E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P. B. 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Fichtner, Horst; Walter, Dominik [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2017-05-20
We investigate analytically and numerically the transport of cosmic rays following their escape from a shock or another localized acceleration site. Observed cosmic-ray distributions in the vicinity of heliospheric and astrophysical shocks imply that anomalous, superdiffusive transport plays a role in the evolution of the energetic particles. Several authors have quantitatively described the anomalous diffusion scalings, implied by the data, by solutions of a formal transport equation with fractional derivatives. Yet the physical basis of the fractional diffusion model remains uncertain. We explore an alternative model of the cosmic-ray transport: a nonlinear diffusion equation that follows from a self-consistent treatment of the resonantly interacting cosmic-ray particles and their self-generated turbulence. The nonlinear model naturally leads to superdiffusive scalings. In the presence of convection, the model yields a power-law dependence of the particle density on the distance upstream of the shock. Although the results do not refute the use of a fractional advection–diffusion equation, they indicate a viable alternative to explain the anomalous diffusion scalings of cosmic-ray particles.
CROSS DIFFUSION AND NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PREVENTING BLOW UP IN THE KELLER–SEGEL MODEL
CARRILLO, JOSÉ ANTONIO
2012-12-01
A parabolic-parabolic (Patlak-)Keller-Segel model in up to three space dimensions with nonlinear cell diffusion and an additional nonlinear cross-diffusion term is analyzed. The main feature of this model is that there exists a new entropy functional, yielding gradient estimates for the cell density and chemical concentration. For arbitrarily small cross-diffusion coefficients and for suitable exponents of the nonlinear diffusion terms, the global-in-time existence of weak solutions is proved, thus preventing finite-time blow up of the cell density. The global existence result also holds for linear and fast diffusion of the cell density in a certain parameter range in three dimensions. Furthermore, we show L∞ bounds for the solutions to the parabolic-elliptic system. Sufficient conditions leading to the asymptotic stability of the constant steady state are given for a particular choice of the nonlinear diffusion exponents. Numerical experiments in two and three space dimensions illustrate the theoretical results. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Robust and fast nonlinear optimization of diffusion MRI microstructure models.
Harms, R L; Fritz, F J; Tobisch, A; Goebel, R; Roebroeck, A
2017-07-15
Advances in biophysical multi-compartment modeling for diffusion MRI (dMRI) have gained popularity because of greater specificity than DTI in relating the dMRI signal to underlying cellular microstructure. A large range of these diffusion microstructure models have been developed and each of the popular models comes with its own, often different, optimization algorithm, noise model and initialization strategy to estimate its parameter maps. Since data fit, accuracy and precision is hard to verify, this creates additional challenges to comparability and generalization of results from diffusion microstructure models. In addition, non-linear optimization is computationally expensive leading to very long run times, which can be prohibitive in large group or population studies. In this technical note we investigate the performance of several optimization algorithms and initialization strategies over a few of the most popular diffusion microstructure models, including NODDI and CHARMED. We evaluate whether a single well performing optimization approach exists that could be applied to many models and would equate both run time and fit aspects. All models, algorithms and strategies were implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to remove run time constraints, with which we achieve whole brain dataset fits in seconds to minutes. We then evaluated fit, accuracy, precision and run time for different models of differing complexity against three common optimization algorithms and three parameter initialization strategies. Variability of the achieved quality of fit in actual data was evaluated on ten subjects of each of two population studies with a different acquisition protocol. We find that optimization algorithms and multi-step optimization approaches have a considerable influence on performance and stability over subjects and over acquisition protocols. The gradient-free Powell conjugate-direction algorithm was found to outperform other common algorithms in terms of
Preisach hysteresis model for non-linear 2D heat diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jancskar, Ildiko; Ivanyi, Amalia
2006-01-01
This paper analyzes a non-linear heat diffusion process when the thermal diffusivity behaviour is a hysteretic function of the temperature. Modelling this temperature dependence, the discrete Preisach algorithm as general hysteresis model has been integrated into a non-linear multigrid solver. The hysteretic diffusion shows a heating-cooling asymmetry in character. The presented type of hysteresis speeds up the thermal processes in the modelled systems by a very interesting non-linear way
Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning
2001-01-01
Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which
Asymptotic behaviour of a nonlinear model for the geographic diffusion of infections diseases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirane, M.; Kouachi, S.
1994-01-01
In this paper a nonlinear diffusion model for the geographical spread of infective diseases is studied. In addition to proving well-posedness of the associated initial-boundary value problem, the large time behaviour is analyzed. (author). 4 refs
Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations
Favini, Angelo
2012-01-01
The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Zijuan; Fu, Shengmao
2016-01-01
This paper deals with a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system modeling a competitor-competitor-mutualist three-species model with diffusion, self-diffusion and nonlinear cross-diffusion and subject to Neumann boundary conditions. First, we establish the persistence of a corresponding reaction-diffusion system without self- and cross-diffusion. Second, the global asymptotic stability of the unique positive equilibrium for weakly coupled PDE system is established by using a comparison method. Moreover, under certain conditions about the intra- and inter-species effects, we prove that the uniform positive steady state is linearly unstable for the cross-diffusion system when one of the cross-diffusions is large enough. The results indicate that Turing instability can be driven solely from strong diffusion effect of the first species (or the second species or the third species) due to the pressure of the second species (or the first species).
A Nonlinear Diffusion Equation-Based Model for Ultrasound Speckle Noise Removal
Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Zhichang; Zhang, Dazhi; Wu, Boying
2018-04-01
Ultrasound images are contaminated by speckle noise, which brings difficulties in further image analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this paper, we address this problem in the view of nonlinear diffusion equation theories. We develop a nonlinear diffusion equation-based model by taking into account not only the gradient information of the image, but also the information of the gray levels of the image. By utilizing the region indicator as the variable exponent, we can adaptively control the diffusion type which alternates between the Perona-Malik diffusion and the Charbonnier diffusion according to the image gray levels. Furthermore, we analyze the proposed model with respect to the theoretical and numerical properties. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves much better speckle suppression and edge preservation when compared with the traditional despeckling methods, especially in the low gray level and low-contrast regions.
Nonlinear variational models for reaction and diffusion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanyi, G.E.
1983-08-01
There exists a natural metric w.r.t. which the density dependent diffusion operator is harmonic in the sense of Eells and Sampson. A physical corollary of this statement is the property that any two regular points on the orbit of a reaction or diffusion operator can be connected by a path along which the reaction rate is constant. (author)
A strongly nonlinear reaction-diffusion model for a deterministic diffusive epidemic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirane, M.; Kouachi, S.
1992-10-01
In the present paper the mathematical validity of a model on the spread of an infectious disease is proved. This model was proposed by Bailey. The mathematical validity is proved by means of a positivity, uniqueness and existence theorem. In spite of the apparent simplicity of the problem, the solution requires a delicate set of techniques. It seems very difficult to extend these techniques to a model in more than one dimension without imposing conditions on the diffusivities. (author). 7 refs
Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion
Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Schlake, Bä rbel
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double
Analysis of nonlinear parabolic equations modeling plasma diffusion across a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyman, J.M.; Rosenau, P.
1984-01-01
We analyse the evolutionary behavior of the solution of a pair of coupled quasilinear parabolic equations modeling the diffusion of heat and mass of a magnetically confined plasma. The solutions's behavior, due to the nonlinear diffusion coefficients, exhibits many new phenomena. In short time, the solution converges into a highly organized symmetric pattern that is almost completely independent of initial data. The asymptotic dynamics then become very simple and take place in a finite dimensional space. These conclusions are backed by extensive numerical experimentation
Brandt-Pollmann, U; Lebiedz, D; Diehl, M; Sager, S; Schlöder, J
2005-09-01
Theoretical and experimental studies related to manipulation of pattern formation in self-organizing reaction-diffusion processes by appropriate control stimuli become increasingly important both in chemical engineering and cellular biochemistry. In a model study, we demonstrate here exemplarily the application of an efficient nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) algorithm to real-time optimal feedback control of pattern formation in a bacterial chemotaxis system modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations. The corresponding drift-diffusion model type is representative for many (bio)chemical systems involving nonlinear reaction dynamics and nonlinear diffusion. We show how the computed optimal feedback control strategy exploits the system inherent physical property of wave propagation to achieve desired control aims. We discuss various applications of our approach to optimal control of spatiotemporal dynamics.
A strongly nonlinear reaction diffusion model for a deterministic diffusive epidemic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirane, M.; Kouachi, S.
1993-04-01
In the present paper the mathematical validity of a model on the spread of an infectious disease is proved. This model was proposed by Bailey. The mathematical validity is proved by means of a positivity, uniqueness and existence theorem. Moreover the large time behaviour of the global solutions is analyzed. In spite of the apparent simplicity of the problem, the solution requires a delicate set of techniques. It seems very difficult to extend these techniques to a model in more than one dimension without imposing conditions on the data. (author). 9 refs
Turing instability in reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
The Turing instability is studied in two-component reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion terms, and the regions in parametric space where Turing patterns can form are determined. The boundaries between super- and subcritical bifurcations are found. Calculations are performed for one-dimensional brusselator and oregonator models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.
2008-07-02
We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.
Markowich, Peter
2010-06-01
We study the system ct + u · ∇c = ∇c -nf(c) nt + u · ∇n = ∇n m - ∇ · (n×(c) ∇c) ut + u·∇u + ∇P - η∇u + n∇φ/ = 0 ∇·u = 0. arising in the modelling of the motion of swimming bacteria under the effect of diffusion, oxygen-taxis and transport through an incompressible fluid. The novelty with respect to previous papers in the literature lies in the presence of nonlinear porous-medium-like diffusion in the equation for the density n of the bacteria, motivated by a finite size effect. We prove that, under the constraint m ε (3/2, 2] for the adiabatic exponent, such system features global in time solutions in two space dimensions for large data. Moreover, in the case m = 2 we prove that solutions converge to constant states in the large-time limit. The proofs rely on standard energy methods and on a basic entropy estimate which cannot be achieved in the case m = 1. The case m = 2 is very special as we can provide a Lyapounov functional. We generalize our results to the three-dimensional case and obtain a smaller range of exponents m ε (m*, 2] with m* > 3/2, due to the use of classical Sobolev inequalities.
Carrillo, J. A.; Desvillettes, L.; Fellner, K.
2009-01-01
Weak solutions of the spatially inhomogeneous (diffusive) Aizenmann-Bak model of coagulation-breakup within a bounded domain with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are shown to converge, in the fast reaction limit, towards local equilibria determined by their mass. Moreover, this mass is the solution of a nonlinear diffusion equation whose nonlinearity depends on the (size-dependent) diffusion coefficient. Initial data are assumed to have integrable zero order moment and square integrable first order moment in size, and finite entropy. In contrast to our previous result [5], we are able to show the convergence without assuming uniform bounds from above and below on the number density of clusters. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Carrillo, J. A.
2009-10-30
Weak solutions of the spatially inhomogeneous (diffusive) Aizenmann-Bak model of coagulation-breakup within a bounded domain with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are shown to converge, in the fast reaction limit, towards local equilibria determined by their mass. Moreover, this mass is the solution of a nonlinear diffusion equation whose nonlinearity depends on the (size-dependent) diffusion coefficient. Initial data are assumed to have integrable zero order moment and square integrable first order moment in size, and finite entropy. In contrast to our previous result [5], we are able to show the convergence without assuming uniform bounds from above and below on the number density of clusters. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Tuan, Nguyen Huy; Van Au, Vo; Khoa, Vo Anh; Lesnic, Daniel
2017-05-01
The identification of the population density of a logistic equation backwards in time associated with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear reaction, motivated by biology and ecology fields, is investigated. The diffusion depends on an integral average of the population density whilst the reaction term is a global or local Lipschitz function of the population density. After discussing the ill-posedness of the problem, we apply the quasi-reversibility method to construct stable approximation problems. It is shown that the regularized solutions stemming from such method not only depend continuously on the final data, but also strongly converge to the exact solution in L 2-norm. New error estimates together with stability results are obtained. Furthermore, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.
Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco
2011-01-01
We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Nonlinear drift-diffusion model of gating in K and nACh ion channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaccaro, S.R. [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)], E-mail: svaccaro@physics.adelaide.edu.au
2007-09-03
The configuration of a sensor regulates the transition between the closed and open states of both voltage and ligand gated channels. The closed state dwell-time distribution f{sub c}(t) derived from a Fokker-Planck equation with a nonlinear diffusion coefficient is in good agreement with experimental data and can account for the power law approximation to f{sub c}(t) for a delayed rectifier K channel and a nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) ion channel. The solution of a master equation which approximates the Fokker-Planck equation provides a better description of the small time behaviour of the dwell-time distribution and can account for the empirical rate-amplitude correlation for these ion channels.
Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion
Burger, Martin
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double degeneracy, which creates significant novel challenges in the analysis of the system. We prove global existence of weak solutions and well-posedness of strong solutions close to equilibrium. We further study some asymptotics of the model, and in particular we characterize the large-time behavior of solutions. 2010 © Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Markowich, Peter; Lorz, Alexander; Francesco, Marco
2010-01-01
We study the system ct + u · ∇c = ∇c -nf(c) nt + u · ∇n = ∇n m - ∇ · (n×(c) ∇c) ut + u·∇u + ∇P - η∇u + n∇φ/ = 0 ∇·u = 0. arising in the modelling of the motion of swimming bacteria under the effect of diffusion, oxygen-taxis and transport through
Tredenick, Eloise C; Farrell, Troy W; Forster, W Alison; Psaltis, Steven T P
2017-01-01
The agricultural industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops and weeds in order to reduce their environmental impact and deliver improved financial returns. Enhanced foliar uptake is one means of improving efficacy. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The usefulness of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted previously in the literature, as the results of each uptake experiment are specific to each formulation of active ingredient, plant species and environmental conditions. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of hydrophilic ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a novel, nonlinear, porous diffusion model for ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which extends simple diffusion through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating: plant species variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions, ion binding effects on the cuticle surface and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms. Major influencing factors have been found to be cuticle structure, including tortuosity and density of the aqueous pores, and to a lesser extent humidity and cuticle surface ion binding effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloise C. Tredenick
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The agricultural industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops and weeds in order to reduce their environmental impact and deliver improved financial returns. Enhanced foliar uptake is one means of improving efficacy. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The usefulness of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted previously in the literature, as the results of each uptake experiment are specific to each formulation of active ingredient, plant species and environmental conditions. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of hydrophilic ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a novel, nonlinear, porous diffusion model for ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which extends simple diffusion through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating: plant species variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions, ion binding effects on the cuticle surface and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms. Major influencing factors have been found to be cuticle structure, including tortuosity and density of the aqueous pores, and to a lesser extent humidity and cuticle surface ion binding effects.
Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin
2017-02-01
The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter K 0 introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.
Nonlinear diffusion problem arising in plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.; Holland, C.J.
1978-01-01
In earlier studies of plasma diffusion with Okuda-Dawson scaling (D approx. n/sup -1/2/), perturbation theory indicated that arbitrary initial data should evolve rapidly toward the separation solution of the relevant nonlinear diffusion equation. Now a Lyapunov functional has been found which is strictly decreasing in time and bounded below. The rigorous proof that arbitrary initial data evolve toeard the separable solution is summarized. Rigorous bounds on the decay time are also presented
Macías-Díaz, J E; Macías, Siegfried; Medina-Ramírez, I E
2013-12-01
In this manuscript, we present a computational model to approximate the solutions of a partial differential equation which describes the growth dynamics of microbial films. The numerical technique reported in this work is an explicit, nonlinear finite-difference methodology which is computationally implemented using Newton's method. Our scheme is compared numerically against an implicit, linear finite-difference discretization of the same partial differential equation, whose computer coding requires an implementation of the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method. Our numerical results evince that the nonlinear approach results in a more efficient approximation to the solutions of the biofilm model considered, and demands less computer memory. Moreover, the positivity of initial profiles is preserved in the practice by the nonlinear scheme proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans functions and bifurcations of nonlinear waves of some nonlinear reaction diffusion equations
Zhang, Linghai
2017-10-01
The main purposes of this paper are to accomplish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear system of reaction diffusion equations ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ] - w, wt = ε (u - γw) and to establish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear scalar reaction diffusion equation ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ], under different conditions on the model constants. To establish the bifurcation for the system, we will study the existence and instability of a standing pulse solution if 0 1; the existence and instability of two standing wave fronts if 2 (1 + αγ) θ = αβγ and 0 traveling wave front as well as the existence and instability of a standing pulse solution if 0 traveling wave front as well as the existence and instability of an upside down standing pulse solution if 0 traveling wave back of the nonlinear scalar reaction diffusion equation ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ] -w0, where w0 = α (β - 2 θ) > 0 is a positive constant, if 0 motivation to study the existence, stability, instability and bifurcations of the nonlinear waves is to study the existence and stability/instability of infinitely many fast/slow multiple traveling pulse solutions of the nonlinear system of reaction diffusion equations. The existence and stability of infinitely many fast multiple traveling pulse solutions are of great interests in mathematical neuroscience.
Nonlinear diffuse scattering of the random-phased wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Yoshiaki; Arinaga, Shinji; Mima, Kunioki.
1983-01-01
First experimental observation of the nonlinear diffuse scattering is reported. This new effect was observed in the propagation of the random-phased wave through a nonlinear dielectric medium. This effect is ascribed to the diffusion of the wavevector of the electro-magnetic wave to the lateral direction due to the randomly distributed nonlinear increase in the refractive index. (author)
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-01-01
With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...
Nonlinear analysis of a reaction-diffusion system: Amplitude equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)
2012-10-15
A reaction-diffusion system with a nonlinear diffusion term is considered. Based on nonlinear analysis, the amplitude equations are obtained in the cases of the Hopf and Turing instabilities in the system. Turing pattern-forming regions in the parameter space are determined for supercritical and subcritical instabilities in a two-component reaction-diffusion system.
Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.
1998-01-01
The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)
On Diffusive Climatological Models.
Griffel, D. H.; Drazin, P. G.
1981-11-01
A simple, zonally and annually averaged, energy-balance climatological model with diffusive heat transport and nonlinear albedo feedback is solved numerically. Some parameters of the model are varied, one by one, to find the resultant effects on the steady solution representing the climate. In particular, the outward radiation flux, the insulation distribution and the albedo parameterization are varied. We have found an accurate yet simple analytic expression for the mean annual insolation as a function of latitude and the obliquity of the Earth's rotation axis; this has enabled us to consider the effects of the oscillation of the obliquity. We have used a continuous albedo function which fits the observed values; it considerably reduces the sensitivity of the model. Climatic cycles, calculated by solving the time-dependent equation when parameters change slowly and periodically, are compared qualitatively with paleoclimatic records.
Fast and Accurate Poisson Denoising With Trainable Nonlinear Diffusion.
Feng, Wensen; Qiao, Peng; Chen, Yunjin; Wensen Feng; Peng Qiao; Yunjin Chen; Feng, Wensen; Chen, Yunjin; Qiao, Peng
2018-06-01
The degradation of the acquired signal by Poisson noise is a common problem for various imaging applications, such as medical imaging, night vision, and microscopy. Up to now, many state-of-the-art Poisson denoising techniques mainly concentrate on achieving utmost performance, with little consideration for the computation efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we aim to propose an efficient Poisson denoising model with both high computational efficiency and recovery quality. To this end, we exploit the newly developed trainable nonlinear reaction diffusion (TNRD) model which has proven an extremely fast image restoration approach with performance surpassing recent state-of-the-arts. However, the straightforward direct gradient descent employed in the original TNRD-based denoising task is not applicable in this paper. To solve this problem, we resort to the proximal gradient descent method. We retrain the model parameters, including the linear filters and influence functions by taking into account the Poisson noise statistics, and end up with a well-trained nonlinear diffusion model specialized for Poisson denoising. The trained model provides strongly competitive results against state-of-the-art approaches, meanwhile bearing the properties of simple structure and high efficiency. Furthermore, our proposed model comes along with an additional advantage, that the diffusion process is well-suited for parallel computation on graphics processing units (GPUs). For images of size , our GPU implementation takes less than 0.1 s to produce state-of-the-art Poisson denoising performance.
Exact analytical solutions for nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chunping
2003-01-01
By using a direct method via the computer algebraic system of Mathematica, some exact analytical solutions to a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations are presented in closed form. Subsequently, the hyperbolic function solutions and the triangular function solutions of the coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations are obtained in a unified way
Super Nonlinear Electrodeposition-Diffusion-Controlled Thin-Film Selector.
Ji, Xinglong; Song, Li; He, Wei; Huang, Kejie; Yan, Zhiyuan; Zhong, Shuai; Zhang, Yishu; Zhao, Rong
2018-03-28
Selector elements with high nonlinearity are an indispensable part in constructing high density, large-scale, 3D stackable emerging nonvolatile memory and neuromorphic network. Although significant efforts have been devoted to developing novel thin-film selectors, it remains a great challenge in achieving good switching performance in the selectors to satisfy the stringent electrical criteria of diverse memory elements. In this work, we utilized high-defect-density chalcogenide glass (Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 ) in conjunction with high mobility Ag element (Ag-GST) to achieve a super nonlinear selective switching. A novel electrodeposition-diffusion dynamic selector based on Ag-GST exhibits superior selecting performance including excellent nonlinearity (<5 mV/dev), ultra-low leakage (<10 fA), and bidirectional operation. With the solid microstructure evidence and dynamic analyses, we attributed the selective switching to the competition between the electrodeposition and diffusion of Ag atoms in the glassy GST matrix under electric field. A switching model is proposed, and the in-depth understanding of the selective switching mechanism offers an insight of switching dynamics for the electrodeposition-diffusion-controlled thin-film selector. This work opens a new direction of selector designs by combining high mobility elements and high-defect-density chalcogenide glasses, which can be extended to other materials with similar properties.
Models of diffuse solar radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boland, John; Ridley, Barbara [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Brown, Bruce [Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore)
2008-04-15
For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from trigonometry, we need to have diffuse on the horizontal available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse radiation on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia [Spencer JW. A comparison of methods for estimating hourly diffuse solar radiation from global solar radiation. Sol Energy 1982; 29(1): 19-32]. Boland et al. [Modelling the diffuse fraction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Environmetrics 2001; 12: 103-16] developed a validated model for Australian conditions. We detail our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the approach reported therein, particularly the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions. Additionally, we have also constructed a method, using quadratic programming, for identifying values that are likely to be erroneous. This allows us to eliminate outliers in diffuse radiation values, the data most prone to errors in measurement. (author)
Barber, Jared; Tanase, Roxana; Yotov, Ivan
2016-06-01
Several Kalman filter algorithms are presented for data assimilation and parameter estimation for a nonlinear diffusion model of epithelial cell migration. These include the ensemble Kalman filter with Monte Carlo sampling and a stochastic collocation (SC) Kalman filter with structured sampling. Further, two types of noise are considered -uncorrelated noise resulting in one stochastic dimension for each element of the spatial grid and correlated noise parameterized by the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion resulting in one stochastic dimension for each KL term. The efficiency and accuracy of the four methods are investigated for two cases with synthetic data with and without noise, as well as data from a laboratory experiment. While it is observed that all algorithms perform reasonably well in matching the target solution and estimating the diffusion coefficient and the growth rate, it is illustrated that the algorithms that employ SC and KL expansion are computationally more efficient, as they require fewer ensemble members for comparable accuracy. In the case of SC methods, this is due to improved approximation in stochastic space compared to Monte Carlo sampling. In the case of KL methods, the parameterization of the noise results in a stochastic space of smaller dimension. The most efficient method is the one combining SC and KL expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A mixed finite element method for nonlinear diffusion equations
Burger, Martin; Carrillo, José
2010-01-01
We propose a mixed finite element method for a class of nonlinear diffusion equations, which is based on their interpretation as gradient flows in optimal transportation metrics. We introduce an appropriate linearization of the optimal transport problem, which leads to a mixed symmetric formulation. This formulation preserves the maximum principle in case of the semi-discrete scheme as well as the fully discrete scheme for a certain class of problems. In addition solutions of the mixed formulation maintain exponential convergence in the relative entropy towards the steady state in case of a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation with uniformly convex potential. We demonstrate the behavior of the proposed scheme with 2D simulations of the porous medium equations and blow-up questions in the Patlak-Keller-Segel model. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
Differential constraints and exact solutions of nonlinear diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaptsov, Oleg V; Verevkin, Igor V
2003-01-01
The differential constraints are applied to obtain explicit solutions of nonlinear diffusion equations. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the determining equations used in the search for classical Lie symmetries
An approximate method for nonlinear diffusion applied to enzyme inactivation during drying
Liou, J.K.
1982-01-01
An approximate model was developed for nonlinear diffusion with a power-function variation of the diffusion coefficient with concentration. This model may serve for the computation of desorption times and concentration profiles in non-shrinking or shrinking slabs, cylinders or spheres, under
Modelling of Innovation Diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arkadiusz Kijek
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-11-01
With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.
Nonlinear degenerate cross-diffusion systems with nonlocal interaction
Di Francesco, M.; Esposito, A.; Fagioli, S.
2017-01-01
We investigate a class of systems of partial differential equations with nonlinear cross-diffusion and nonlocal interactions, which are of interest in several contexts in social sciences, finance, biology, and real world applications. Assuming a uniform "coerciveness" assumption on the diffusion part, which allows to consider a large class of systems with degenerate cross-diffusion (i.e. of porous medium type) and relaxes sets of assumptions previously considered in the literature, we prove g...
Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.
Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S
2015-09-01
The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/λ_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, λ_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.
Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage
Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.
2015-09-01
The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /λDL , where D is the ion diffusivity, λD is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.
Nonlinear Dynamics of a Diffusing Interface
Duval, Walter M. B.
2001-01-01
Excitation of two miscible-viscous liquids inside a bounded enclosure in a microgravity environment has shown the evolution of quasi-stationary waves of various modes for a range of parameters. We examine computationally the nonlinear dynamics of the system as the interface breakup and bifurcates to resonance structures typified by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism. Results show that when the mean steady field is much smaller than the amplitude of the sinusoidal excitation, the system behaves linearly, and growth of quasi-stationary waves occurs through the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism. However, as the amplitude of excitation increases, nonlinearity occurs through subharmonic bifurcation prior to broadband chaos.
Intermittent Motion, Nonlinear Diffusion Equation and Tsallis Formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ervin K. Lenzi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate an intermittent process obtained from the combination of a nonlinear diffusion equation and pauses. We consider the porous media equation with reaction terms related to the rate of switching the particles from the diffusive mode to the resting mode or switching them from the resting to the movement. The results show that in the asymptotic limit of small and long times, the spreading of the system is essentially governed by the diffusive term. The behavior exhibited for intermediate times depends on the rates present in the reaction terms. In this scenario, we show that, in the asymptotic limits, the distributions for this process are given by in terms of power laws which may be related to the q-exponential present in the Tsallis statistics. Furthermore, we also analyze a situation characterized by different diffusive regimes, which emerges when the diffusive term is a mixing of linear and nonlinear terms.
Solution of linear and nonlinear matrix systems. Application to a nonlinear diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnet, M.; Meurant, G.
1978-01-01
Different methods of solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic systems are applied to the nonlinear system obtained by discretizing a nonlinear diffusion equation. For linear systems, methods in general use of alternating directions type or Gauss Seidel's methods are compared to more recent ones of the type of generalized conjugate gradient; the superiority of the latter is shown by numerical examples. For nonlinear systems, a method on nonlinear conjugate gradient is studied as also Newton's method and some of its variants. It should be noted, however that Newton's method is found to be more efficient when coupled with a good method for solution of the linear system. To conclude, such methods are used to solve a nonlinear diffusion problem and the numerical results obtained are to be compared [fr
Solution of linear and nonlinear matrix systems. Application to a nonlinear diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnet, M.; Meurant, G.
1978-01-01
The object of this study is to compare different methods of solving linear and nonlinear algebraic systems and to apply them to the nonlinear system obtained by discretizing a nonlinear diffusion equation. For linear systems the conventional methods of alternating direction type or Gauss Seidel's methods are compared to more recent ones of the type of generalized conjugate gradient; the superiority of the latter is shown by numerical examples. For nonlinear systems, a method of nonlinear conjugate gradient is studied together with Newton's method and some of its variants. It should be noted, however, that Newton's method is found to be more efficient when coupled with a good method for solving the linear system. As a conclusion, these methods are used to solve a nonlinear diffusion problem and the numerical results obtained are compared [fr
Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion
Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.
Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.
Identification of nonlinear anelastic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Draganescu, G E; Bereteu, L; Ercuta, A
2008-01-01
A useful nonlinear identification technique applied to the anelastic and rheologic models is presented in this paper. First introduced by Feldman, the method is based on the Hilbert transform, and is currently used for identification of the nonlinear vibrations
Malkyarenko, Dariya I; Chenevert, Thomas L
2014-12-01
To describe an efficient procedure to empirically characterize gradient nonlinearity and correct for the corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) bias on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Spatial nonlinearity scalars for individual gradient coils along superior and right directions were estimated via diffusion measurements of an isotropicic e-water phantom. Digital nonlinearity model from an independent scanner, described in the literature, was rescaled by system-specific scalars to approximate 3D bias correction maps. Correction efficacy was assessed by comparison to unbiased ADC values measured at isocenter. Empirically estimated nonlinearity scalars were confirmed by geometric distortion measurements of a regular grid phantom. The applied nonlinearity correction for arbitrarily oriented diffusion gradients reduced ADC bias from 20% down to 2% at clinically relevant offsets both for isotropic and anisotropic media. Identical performance was achieved using either corrected diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) intensities or corrected b-values for each direction in brain and ice-water. Direction-average trace image correction was adequate only for isotropic medium. Empiric scalar adjustment of an independent gradient nonlinearity model adequately described DWI bias for a clinical scanner. Observed efficiency of implemented ADC bias correction quantitatively agreed with previous theoretical predictions and numerical simulations. The described procedure provides an independent benchmark for nonlinearity bias correction of clinical MRI scanners.
Frank, T. D.
2008-02-01
We discuss two central claims made in the study by Bassler et al. [K.E. Bassler, G.H. Gunaratne, J.L. McCauley, Physica A 369 (2006) 343]. Bassler et al. claimed that Green functions and Langevin equations cannot be defined for nonlinear diffusion equations. In addition, they claimed that nonlinear diffusion equations are linear partial differential equations disguised as nonlinear ones. We review bottom-up and top-down approaches that have been used in the literature to derive Green functions for nonlinear diffusion equations and, in doing so, show that the first claim needs to be revised. We show that the second claim as well needs to be revised. To this end, we point out similarities and differences between non-autonomous linear Fokker-Planck equations and autonomous nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations. In this context, we raise the question whether Bassler et al.’s approach to financial markets is physically plausible because it necessitates the introduction of external traders and causes. Such external entities can easily be eliminated when taking self-organization principles and concepts of nonextensive thermostatistics into account and modeling financial processes by means of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations.
Coupled diffusion systems with localized nonlinear reactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, M.; Lin, Zhigui
2001-01-01
This paper deals with the blowup rate and profile near the blowup time for the system of diffusion equations uit - Î´ui = ui+1Pi(x0, t), (i = 1,...,k, uk+1 := uu) in Î© Ã— (0, T) with boundary conditions ui = 0 on âˆ‚Î© Ã— [0, T). We show that the solution has a global blowup. The exact rate...
Exact solutions of some coupled nonlinear diffusion-reaction ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
certain coupled diffusion-reaction (D-R) equations of very general nature. In recent years, various direct methods have been proposed to find the exact solu- tions not only of nonlinear partial differential equations but also of their coupled versions. These methods include unified ansatz approach [3], extended hyperbolic func ...
Exact solutions of certain nonlinear chemotaxis diffusion reaction ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
constructed coupled differential equations. The results obtained ... Nonlinear diffusion reaction equation; chemotaxis; auxiliary equation method; solitary wave solutions. ..... fact limits the scope of applications of the derived results. ... Research Fellowship and AP acknowledges DU and DST for PURSE grant for financial.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MENKA PETKOVSKA
2000-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of higher order frequency response functions (FRFs is used for the analysis of non-linear adsorption kinetics on a particle scale, for the case of non-isothermal micropore diffusion with variable diffusivity. Six series of FRFs are defined for the general non-isothermal case. A non-linerar mathematical model is postulated and the first and second order FRFs derived and simulated. A variable diffusivity influences the shapes of the second order FRFs relating the sorbate concentration in the solid phase and t he gas pressure significantly, but they still keep their characteristics which can be used for discrimination of this from other kinetic mechanisms. It is also shown that first and second order particle FRFs offter sufficient information for an easy and fast estimation of all model parameters, including those defining the system non-linearity.
Malyarenko, Dariya I; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L
2014-03-01
Gradient nonlinearity of MRI systems leads to spatially dependent b-values and consequently high non-uniformity errors (10-20%) in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements over clinically relevant field-of-views. This work seeks practical correction procedure that effectively reduces observed ADC bias for media of arbitrary anisotropy in the fewest measurements. All-inclusive bias analysis considers spatial and time-domain cross-terms for diffusion and imaging gradients. The proposed correction is based on rotation of the gradient nonlinearity tensor into the diffusion gradient frame where spatial bias of b-matrix can be approximated by its Euclidean norm. Correction efficiency of the proposed procedure is numerically evaluated for a range of model diffusion tensor anisotropies and orientations. Spatial dependence of nonlinearity correction terms accounts for the bulk (75-95%) of ADC bias for FA = 0.3-0.9. Residual ADC non-uniformity errors are amplified for anisotropic diffusion. This approximation obviates need for full diffusion tensor measurement and diagonalization to derive a corrected ADC. Practical scenarios are outlined for implementation of the correction on clinical MRI systems. The proposed simplified correction algorithm appears sufficient to control ADC non-uniformity errors in clinical studies using three orthogonal diffusion measurements. The most efficient reduction of ADC bias for anisotropic medium is achieved with non-lab-based diffusion gradients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Non-linear diffusion and pattern formation in vortex matter
Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.; Einfeld, J.; Woerdenweber, R.
2000-03-01
Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa_2Cu_3O7 superconducting thin films and crystals in externally applied magnetic fields is visualized with a magneto-optical technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex behavior is observed: 1. Roughening of the flux front^1 with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper^2. Two regimes are found where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. 2. Roughening of the flux profile similar to the Oslo model for rice-piles. 3. Fractal penetration of flux^3 with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. 4. Penetration as 'flux-rivers'. 5. The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori^4. By comparison with numerical simulations, it is shown that most of the observed behavior can be explained in terms of non-linear diffusion of vortices. ^1R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, E. Visser, J.M. Huijbregtse, J.H. Rector, B. Dam and R. Griessen, Phys.Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 2054 ^2J. Maunuksela, M. Myllys, O.-P. Kähkönen, J. Timonen, N. Provatas, M.J. Alava, T. Ala-Nissila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1515 (1997) ^3R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, B. Dam, J. Rector, R. Griessen, C. Rossel, Z.F. Ren and J.H. Wang, Phys Rev B 58 (1998) 12467 ^4C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534 (1998)
Traveling wavefront solutions to nonlinear reaction-diffusion-convection equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Indekeu, Joseph O; Smets, Ruben
2017-01-01
Physically motivated modified Fisher equations are studied in which nonlinear convection and nonlinear diffusion is allowed for besides the usual growth and spread of a population. It is pointed out that in a large variety of cases separable functions in the form of exponentially decaying sharp wavefronts solve the differential equation exactly provided a co-moving point source or sink is active at the wavefront. The velocity dispersion and front steepness may differ from those of some previously studied exact smooth traveling wave solutions. For an extension of the reaction-diffusion-convection equation, featuring a memory effect in the form of a maturity delay for growth and spread, also smooth exact wavefront solutions are obtained. The stability of the solutions is verified analytically and numerically. (paper)
Traveling wavefront solutions to nonlinear reaction-diffusion-convection equations
Indekeu, Joseph O.; Smets, Ruben
2017-08-01
Physically motivated modified Fisher equations are studied in which nonlinear convection and nonlinear diffusion is allowed for besides the usual growth and spread of a population. It is pointed out that in a large variety of cases separable functions in the form of exponentially decaying sharp wavefronts solve the differential equation exactly provided a co-moving point source or sink is active at the wavefront. The velocity dispersion and front steepness may differ from those of some previously studied exact smooth traveling wave solutions. For an extension of the reaction-diffusion-convection equation, featuring a memory effect in the form of a maturity delay for growth and spread, also smooth exact wavefront solutions are obtained. The stability of the solutions is verified analytically and numerically.
New variable separation approach: application to nonlinear diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shunli; Lou, S Y; Qu Changzheng
2003-01-01
The concept of the derivative-dependent functional separable solution (DDFSS), as a generalization to the functional separable solution, is proposed. As an application, it is used to discuss the generalized nonlinear diffusion equations based on the generalized conditional symmetry approach. As a consequence, a complete list of canonical forms for such equations which admit the DDFSS is obtained and some exact solutions to the resulting equations are described
Nonlocal Symmetries to Systems of Nonlinear Diffusion Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qu Changzheng; Kang Jing
2008-01-01
In this paper, we study potential symmetries to certain systems of nonlinear diffusion equations. Those systems have physical applications in soil science, mathematical biology, and invariant curve flows in R 3 . Lie point symmetries of the potential system, which cannot be projected to vector fields of the given dependent and independent variables, yield potential symmetries. The class of the system that admits potential symmetries is expanded.
LDRD report nonlinear model reduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Segalman, D.; Heinstein, M.
1997-09-01
The very general problem of model reduction of nonlinear systems was made tractable by focusing on the very large subclass consisting of linear subsystems connected by nonlinear interfaces. Such problems constitute a large part of the nonlinear structural problems encountered in addressing the Sandia missions. A synthesis approach to this class of problems was developed consisting of: detailed modeling of the interface mechanics; collapsing the interface simulation results into simple nonlinear interface models; constructing system models by assembling model approximations of the linear subsystems and the nonlinear interface models. These system models, though nonlinear, would have very few degrees of freedom. A paradigm problem, that of machine tool vibration, was selected for application of the reduction approach outlined above. Research results achieved along the way as well as the overall modeling of a specific machine tool have been very encouraging. In order to confirm the interface models resulting from simulation, it was necessary to develop techniques to deduce interface mechanics from experimental data collected from the overall nonlinear structure. A program to develop such techniques was also pursued with good success.
Multi-diffusive nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Casas, Gabriela A; Nobre, Fernando D
2017-01-01
Nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations, characterized by more than one diffusion term, have appeared recently in literature. Here, it is shown that these equations may be derived either from approximations in a master equation, or from a Langevin-type approach. An H-theorem is proven, relating these Fokker–Planck equations to an entropy composed by a sum of contributions, each of them associated with a given diffusion term. Moreover, the stationary state of the Fokker–Planck equation is shown to coincide with the equilibrium state, obtained by extremization of the entropy, in the sense that both procedures yield precisely the same equation. Due to the nonlinear character of this equation, the equilibrium probability may be obtained, in most cases, only by means of numerical approaches. Some examples are worked out, where the equilibrium probability distribution is computed for nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations presenting two diffusion terms, corresponding to an entropy characterized by a sum of two contributions. It is shown that the resulting equilibrium distribution, in general, presents a form that differs from a sum of the equilibrium distributions that maximizes each entropic contribution separately, although in some cases one may construct such a linear combination as a good approximation for the equilibrium distribution. (paper)
Nonlinear theory of diffusive acceleration of particles by shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malkov, M.A. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)]. E-mail: mmalkov@ucsd.edu; Drury, L. O' C. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 5 Merrion Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2001-04-01
Among the various acceleration mechanisms which have been suggested as responsible for the nonthermal particle spectra and associated radiation observed in many astrophysical and space physics environments, diffusive shock acceleration appears to be the most successful. We review the current theoretical understanding of this process, from the basic ideas of how a shock energizes a few reactionless particles to the advanced nonlinear approaches treating the shock and accelerated particles as a symbiotic self-organizing system. By means of direct solution of the nonlinear problem we set the limit to the test-particle approximation and demonstrate the fundamental role of nonlinearity in shocks of astrophysical size and lifetime. We study the bifurcation of this system, proceeding from the hydrodynamic to kinetic description under a realistic condition of Bohm diffusivity. We emphasize the importance of collective plasma phenomena for the global flow structure and acceleration efficiency by considering the injection process, an initial stage of acceleration and, the related aspects of the physics of collisionless shocks. We calculate the injection rate for different shock parameters and different species. This, together with differential acceleration resulting from nonlinear large-scale modification, determines the chemical composition of accelerated particles. The review concentrates on theoretical and analytical aspects but our strategic goal is to link the fundamental theoretical ideas with the rapidly growing wealth of observational data. (author)
Some applications of nonlinear diffusion to processing of dynamic evolution images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goltsov, Alexey N.; Nikishov, Sergey A.
1997-01-01
Model nonlinear diffusion equation with the most simple Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional was applied to locate boundaries between meaningful regions of low-level images. The method is oriented to processing images of objects that are a result of dynamic evolution: images of different organs and tissues obtained by radiography and NMR methods, electron microscope images of morphogenesis fields, etc. In the methods developed by us, parameters of the nonlinear diffusion model are chosen on the basis of the preliminary treatment of the images. The parameters of the Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional are extracted from the structure factor of the images. Owing to such a choice of the model parameters, the image to be processed is located in the vicinity of the steady-state of the diffusion equation. The suggested method allows one to separate distinct structures having specific space characteristics from the whole image. The method was applied to processing X-ray images of the lung
Cherniha, Roman
2017-01-01
This book presents several fundamental results in solving nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations and systems using symmetry-based methods. Reaction-diffusion systems are fundamental modeling tools for mathematical biology with applications to ecology, population dynamics, pattern formation, morphogenesis, enzymatic reactions and chemotaxis. The book discusses the properties of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems, which are relevant for biological applications, from the symmetry point of view, providing rigorous definitions and constructive algorithms to search for conditional symmetry (a nontrivial generalization of the well-known Lie symmetry) of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. In order to present applications to population dynamics, it focuses mainly on two- and three-component diffusive Lotka-Volterra systems. While it is primarily a valuable guide for researchers working with reaction-diffusion systems and those developing the theoretical aspects of conditional symmetry conception,...
Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.
Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A
2013-08-01
We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.
Numerical solution of non-linear diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmen, A. del; Ferreri, J.C.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a method for the numerical solution of non-linear diffusion problems using finite-differences in moving grids. Due to the presence of steep fronts in the solution domain and to the presence of advective terms originating in the grid movement, an implicit TVD scheme, first order in time and second order in space has been developed. Some algebraic details of the derivation are given. Results are shown for the pure advection of a scalar as a test case and an example dealing with the slow spreading of viscous fluids over plane surfaces. The agreement between numerical and analytical solutions is excellent. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs
2016 CIME Course on Nonlocal and Nonlinear Diffusions and Interactions : New Methods and Directions
Grillo, Gabriele
2017-01-01
Presenting a selection of topics in the area of nonlocal and nonlinear diffusions, this book places a particular emphasis on new emerging subjects such as nonlocal operators in stationary and evolutionary problems and their applications, swarming models and applications to biology and mathematical physics, and nonlocal variational problems. The authors are some of the most well-known mathematicians in this innovative field, which is presently undergoing rapid development. The intended audience includes experts in elliptic and parabolic equations who are interested in extending their expertise to the nonlinear setting, as well as Ph.D. or postdoctoral students who want to enter into the most promising research topics in the field.
Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models
Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing
2013-01-01
To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.
Nonlinear Control of Heartbeat Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Witt Thanom
2011-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of nonlinear control theory to heartbeat models. Existing heartbeat models are investigated and modified by incorporating the control input as a pacemaker to provide the control channel. A nonlinear feedback linearization technique is applied to force the output of the systems to generate artificial electrocardiogram (ECG signal using discrete data as the reference inputs. The synthetic ECG may serve as a flexible signal source to assess the effectiveness of a diagnostic ECG signal-processing device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schunert, Sebastian; Hammer, Hans; Lou, Jijie; Wang, Yaqi; Ortensi, Javier; Gleicher, Frederick; Baker, Benjamin; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard
2016-11-01
The common definition of the diffusion coeffcient as the inverse of three times the transport cross section is not compat- ible with voids. Morel introduced a non-local tensor diffusion coeffcient that remains finite in voids[1]. It can be obtained by solving an auxiliary transport problem without scattering or fission. Larsen and Trahan successfully applied this diffusion coeffcient for enhancing the accuracy of diffusion solutions of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) problems that feature large, optically thin channels in the z-direction [2]. It is demonstrated that a significant reduction of error can be achieved in particular in the optically thin region. Along the same line of thought, non-local diffusion tensors are applied modeling the TREAT reactor confirming the findings of Larsen and Trahan [3]. Previous work of the authors have introduced a flexible Nonlinear-Diffusion Acceleration (NDA) method for the first order S N equations discretized with the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM), [4], [5], [6]. This NDA method uses a scalar diffusion coeffcient in the low-order system that is obtained as the flux weighted average of the inverse transport cross section. Hence, it su?ers from very large and potentially unbounded diffusion coeffcients in the low order problem. However, it was noted that the choice of the diffusion coeffcient does not influence consistency of the method at convergence and hence the di?usion coeffcient is essentially a free parameter. The choice of the di?usion coeffcient does, however, affect the convergence behavior of the nonlinear di?usion iterations. Within this work we use Morel’s non-local di?usion coef- ficient in the aforementioned NDA formulation in lieu of the flux weighted inverse of three times the transport cross section. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that significant en- hancement of the spectral properties of NDA can be achieved in near void regions. For testing the spectral properties of the NDA
Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. C. Guo
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreri, J. C.; Carmen, A. del
1998-01-01
A numerical study of the dynamics of pattern evolution in reaction-diffusion systems is performed, although limited to one spatial dimension. The diffusion coefficients are nonlinear, based on powers of the scalar variables. The system keeps the dynamics of previous studies in the literature, but the presence of nonlinear diffusion generates a field of strong nonlinear interactions due to the presence of receding travelling waves. This field is limited by the plane of symmetry of the space domain and the last born outgoing travelling wave. These effects are discussed. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs
Liu, Ping; Shi, Junping
2018-01-01
The bifurcation of non-trivial steady state solutions of a scalar reaction-diffusion equation with nonlinear boundary conditions is considered using several new abstract bifurcation theorems. The existence and stability of positive steady state solutions are proved using a unified approach. The general results are applied to a Laplace equation with nonlinear boundary condition and bistable nonlinearity, and an elliptic equation with superlinear nonlinearity and sublinear boundary conditions.
Modelling Loudspeaker Non-Linearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agerkvist, Finn T.
2007-01-01
This paper investigates different techniques for modelling the non-linear parameters of the electrodynamic loudspeaker. The methods are tested not only for their accuracy within the range of original data, but also for the ability to work reasonable outside that range, and it is demonstrated...... that polynomial expansions are rather poor at this, whereas an inverse polynomial expansion or localized fitting functions such as the gaussian are better suited for modelling the Bl-factor and compliance. For the inductance the sigmoid function is shown to give very good results. Finally the time varying...
Fractal diffusion equations: Microscopic models with anomalous diffusion and its generalizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhincheev, V.E.
2001-04-01
To describe the ''anomalous'' diffusion the generalized diffusion equations of fractal order are deduced from microscopic models with anomalous diffusion as Comb model and Levy flights. It is shown that two types of equations are possible: with fractional temporal and fractional spatial derivatives. The solutions of these equations are obtained and the physical sense of these fractional equations is discussed. The relation between diffusion and conductivity is studied and the well-known Einstein relation is generalized for the anomalous diffusion case. It is shown that for Levy flight diffusion the Ohm's law is not applied and the current depends on electric field in a nonlinear way due to the anomalous character of Levy flights. The results of numerical simulations, which confirmed this conclusion, are also presented. (author)
On the integrability of the generalized Fisher-type nonlinear diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dengshan; Zhang Zhifei
2009-01-01
In this paper, the geometric integrability and Lax integrability of the generalized Fisher-type nonlinear diffusion equations with modified diffusion in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions are studied by the pseudo-spherical surface geometry method and prolongation technique. It is shown that the (1+1)-dimensional Fisher-type nonlinear diffusion equation is geometrically integrable in the sense of describing a pseudo-spherical surface of constant curvature -1 only for m = 2, and the generalized Fisher-type nonlinear diffusion equations in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions are Lax integrable only for m = 2. This paper extends the results in Bindu et al 2001 (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 L689) and further provides the integrability information of (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional Fisher-type nonlinear diffusion equations for m = 2
Analysis of fractional non-linear diffusion behaviors based on Adomian polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Guo-Cheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A time-fractional non-linear diffusion equation of two orders is considered to investigate strong non-linearity through porous media. An equivalent integral equation is established and Adomian polynomials are adopted to linearize non-linear terms. With the Taylor expansion of fractional order, recurrence formulae are proposed and novel numerical solutions are obtained to depict the diffusion behaviors more accurately. The result shows that the method is suitable for numerical simulation of the fractional diffusion equations of multi-orders.
Adaptive regression for modeling nonlinear relationships
Knafl, George J
2016-01-01
This book presents methods for investigating whether relationships are linear or nonlinear and for adaptively fitting appropriate models when they are nonlinear. Data analysts will learn how to incorporate nonlinearity in one or more predictor variables into regression models for different types of outcome variables. Such nonlinear dependence is often not considered in applied research, yet nonlinear relationships are common and so need to be addressed. A standard linear analysis can produce misleading conclusions, while a nonlinear analysis can provide novel insights into data, not otherwise possible. A variety of examples of the benefits of modeling nonlinear relationships are presented throughout the book. Methods are covered using what are called fractional polynomials based on real-valued power transformations of primary predictor variables combined with model selection based on likelihood cross-validation. The book covers how to formulate and conduct such adaptive fractional polynomial modeling in the s...
Existence of weak solutions to a nonlinear reaction-diffusion system with singular sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ida de Bonis
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We discuss the existence of a class of weak solutions to a nonlinear parabolic system of reaction-diffusion type endowed with singular production terms by reaction. The singularity is due to a potential occurrence of quenching localized to the domain boundary. The kind of quenching we have in mind is due to a twofold contribution: (i the choice of boundary conditions, modeling in our case the contact with an infinite reservoir filled with ready-to-react chemicals and (ii the use of a particular nonlinear, non-Lipschitz structure of the reaction kinetics. Our working techniques use fine energy estimates for approximating non-singular problems and uniform control on the set where singularities are localizing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maldonado, G.I.; Turinsky, P.J.
1995-01-01
The determination of the family of optimum core loading patterns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) involves the assessment of the core attributes for thousands of candidate loading patterns. For this reason, the computational capability to efficiently and accurately evaluate a reactor core's eigenvalue and power distribution versus burnup using a nodal diffusion generalized perturbation theory (GPT) model is developed. The GPT model is derived from the forward nonlinear iterative nodal expansion method (NEM) to explicitly enable the preservation of the finite difference matrix structure. This key feature considerably simplifies the mathematical formulation of NEM GPT and results in reduced memory storage and CPU time requirements versus the traditional response-matrix approach to NEM. In addition, a treatment within NEM GPT can account for localized nonlinear feedbacks, such as that due to fission product buildup and thermal-hydraulic effects. When compared with a standard nonlinear iterative NEM forward flux solve with feedbacks, the NEM GPT model can execute between 8 and 12 times faster. These developments are implemented within the PWR in-core nuclear fuel management optimization code FORMOSA-P, combining the robustness of its adaptive simulated annealing stochastic optimization algorithm with an NEM GPT neutronics model that efficiently and accurately evaluates core attributes associated with objective functions and constraints of candidate loading patterns
An artificial nonlinear diffusivity method for supersonic reacting flows with shocks
Fiorina, B.; Lele, S. K.
2007-03-01
A computational approach for modeling interactions between shocks waves, contact discontinuities and reactions zones with a high-order compact scheme is investigated. To prevent the formation of spurious oscillations around shocks, artificial nonlinear viscosity [A.W. Cook, W.H. Cabot, A high-wavenumber viscosity for high resolution numerical method, J. Comput. Phys. 195 (2004) 594-601] based on high-order derivative of the strain rate tensor is used. To capture temperature and species discontinuities a nonlinear diffusivity based on the entropy gradient is added. It is shown that the damping of 'wiggles' is controlled by the model constants and is largely independent of the mesh size and the shock strength. The same holds for the numerical shock thickness and allows a determination of the L2 error. In the shock tube problem, with fluids of different initial entropy separated by the diaphragm, an artificial diffusivity is required to accurately capture the contact surface. Finally, the method is applied to a shock wave propagating into a medium with non-uniform density/entropy and to a CJ detonation wave. Multi-dimensional formulation of the model is presented and is illustrated by a 2D oblique wave reflection from an inviscid wall, by a 2D supersonic blunt body flow and by a Mach reflection problem.
Nonlinear models for autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teräsvirta, Timo
This paper contains a brief survey of nonlinear models of autore- gressive conditional heteroskedasticity. The models in question are parametric nonlinear extensions of the original model by Engle (1982). After presenting the individual models, linearity testing and parameter estimation are discu...
Relation between nonlinear models and gauge ambiguities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balachandran, A.P.; Ramachandran, R.; Rupertsberger, H.; Skagerstam, B.S.
1980-01-01
We show that the solutions of a class of nonlinear models also generate gauge ambiguities in the vacuum sector of Yang-Mills theories. Our results extend known connections between gauge ambiguities and certain nonlinear sigma-models, and clarify the underlying group theory. For many nonlinear models, we also give a simple, intrinsic parametrization of physical fields (which have values in a homogeneous space of a group). (orig.)
Superspace formulation of new nonlinear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, S.J. Jr.
1983-07-01
The superspace formulation of two classes of supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models are presented. Two alternative N=1 superspace formulations are given for the d=2 supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models with Killing vector potentials: (a) formulation uses an active central charge and, (b) formulation uses a spurion superfield without inducing a classical breakdown of supersymmetry. The N=2 vector multiplet is used to construct a new class of d=4 nonlinear σ-models which when reduced to d=2 possess N=4 supersymmetry. Implications of these two classes of nonlinear σ-models for N>=4 superfield supergravity are discussed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Nur Alam
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, we apply the exp(-Φ(ξ-expansion method to construct many families of exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs via the nonlinear diffusive predator–prey system and the Bogoyavlenskii equations. These equations can be transformed to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions are obtained through the hyperbolic function, the trigonometric function, the exponential functions and the rational forms. If the parameters take specific values, then the solitary waves are derived from the traveling waves. Also, we draw 2D and 3D graphics of exact solutions for the special diffusive predator–prey system and the Bogoyavlenskii equations by the help of programming language Maple.
Mathematical modeling and applications in nonlinear dynamics
Merdan, Hüseyin
2016-01-01
The book covers nonlinear physical problems and mathematical modeling, including molecular biology, genetics, neurosciences, artificial intelligence with classical problems in mechanics and astronomy and physics. The chapters present nonlinear mathematical modeling in life science and physics through nonlinear differential equations, nonlinear discrete equations and hybrid equations. Such modeling can be effectively applied to the wide spectrum of nonlinear physical problems, including the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM)) theory, singular differential equations, impulsive dichotomous linear systems, analytical bifurcation trees of periodic motions, and almost or pseudo- almost periodic solutions in nonlinear dynamical systems. Provides methods for mathematical models with switching, thresholds, and impulses, each of particular importance for discontinuous processes Includes qualitative analysis of behaviors on Tumor-Immune Systems and methods of analysis for DNA, neural networks and epidemiology Introduces...
Nonlinear diffusion in the presence of a time-dependent external electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima e Silva, T. de; Galvao, R.M.O.
1987-09-01
The influence of a time-dependent external electric field on the nonlinear diffusion process of weakly ionized plasmas is investigated. A new solution of the diffusion equation is obtained for the case when electron-ion collisions can be neglected. (author) [pt
Polyanin, A. D.; Sorokin, V. G.
2017-12-01
The paper deals with nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with one or several delays. We formulate theorems that allow constructing exact solutions for some classes of these equations, which depend on several arbitrary functions. Examples of application of these theorems for obtaining new exact solutions in elementary functions are provided. We state basic principles of construction, selection, and use of test problems for nonlinear partial differential equations with delay. Some test problems which can be suitable for estimating accuracy of approximate analytical and numerical methods of solving reaction-diffusion equations with delay are presented. Some examples of numerical solutions of nonlinear test problems with delay are considered.
Analytically solvable models of reaction-diffusion systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zemskov, E P; Kassner, K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)
2004-05-01
We consider a class of analytically solvable models of reaction-diffusion systems. An analytical treatment is possible because the nonlinear reaction term is approximated by a piecewise linear function. As particular examples we choose front and pulse solutions to illustrate the matching procedure in the one-dimensional case.
Recent advances in modelling diffuse radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boland, John; Ridley, Barbara [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia)
2008-07-01
Boland et al (2001) developed a validated model for Australian conditions, using a logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions. Recently, Jacovides et al (2006) have verified that this model performs well for locations in Cyprus. Their analysis includes using moving average techniques to demonstrate the form of the relationship, which corresponds well to a logistic relationship. We have made significant advances in both the intuitive and theoretical justification of the use of the logistic function. In the theoretical development of the model utilising advanced non-parametric statistical methods. We have also constructed a method of identifying values that are likely to be erroneous. Using quadratic programming, we can eliminate outliers in diffuse radiation values, the data most prone to errors in measurement. Additionally, this is a first step in identifying the means for developing a generic model for estimating diffuse from global and other predictors (see Boland and Ridley 2007). Our more recent investigations focus on examining the effects of adding additional explanatory variables to enhance the predictability of the model. Examples for Australian and other locations will be presented. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potemki, Valeri G.; Borisevich, Valentine D.; Yupatov, Sergei V.
1996-01-01
This paper describes the the next evolution step in development of the direct method for solving systems of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations (SNAE). These equations arise from the finite difference approximation of original nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). This method has been extended on the SNAE with three variables. The solving SNAE bases on Reiterating General Singular Value Decomposition of rectangular matrix pencils (RGSVD-algorithm). In contrast to the computer algebra algorithm in integer arithmetic based on the reduction to the Groebner's basis that algorithm is working in floating point arithmetic and realizes the reduction to the Kronecker's form. The possibilities of the method are illustrated on the example of solving the one-dimensional diffusion equation for 3-component model isotope mixture in a ga centrifuge. The implicit scheme for the finite difference equations without simplifying the nonlinear properties of the original equations is realized. The technique offered provides convergence to the solution for the single run. The Toolbox SNAE is developed in the framework of the high performance numeric computation and visualization software MATLAB. It includes more than 30 modules in MATLAB language for solving SNAE with two and three variables. (author)
A family of analytical solutions of a nonlinear diffusion-convection equation
Hayek, Mohamed
2018-01-01
Despite its popularity in many engineering fields, the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation has no general analytical solutions. This work presents a family of closed-form analytical traveling wave solutions for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with power law nonlinearities. This kind of equations typically appears in nonlinear problems of flow and transport in porous media. The solutions that are addressed are simple and fully analytical. Three classes of analytical solutions are presented depending on the type of the nonlinear diffusion coefficient (increasing, decreasing or constant). It has shown that the structure of the traveling wave solution is strongly related to the diffusion term. The main advantage of the proposed solutions is that they are presented in a unified form contrary to existing solutions in the literature where the derivation of each solution depends on the specific values of the diffusion and convection parameters. The proposed closed-form solutions are simple to use, do not require any numerical implementation, and may be implemented in a simple spreadsheet. The analytical expressions are also useful to mathematically analyze the structure and properties of the solutions.
Chaotic behaviour of nonlinear coupled reaction–diffusion system in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
chaos in four-dimensional space by the generalized definitions of spatial ... according to nonlinear noise in the real physical world, f(φ(x),ψ(x)) and g(φ(x) ... tion in ecological system, where φm,n(s) is the host density in generations s and s + 1,.
Non-linear finite element modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...
Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion
Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin
2018-01-01
Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.
A mixed-order nonlinear diffusion compressed sensing MR image reconstruction.
Joy, Ajin; Paul, Joseph Suresh
2018-03-07
Avoid formation of staircase artifacts in nonlinear diffusion-based MR image reconstruction without compromising computational speed. Whereas second-order diffusion encourages the evolution of pixel neighborhood with uniform intensities, fourth-order diffusion considers smooth region to be not necessarily a uniform intensity region but also a planar region. Therefore, a controlled application of fourth-order diffusivity function is used to encourage second-order diffusion to reconstruct the smooth regions of the image as a plane rather than a group of blocks, while not being strong enough to introduce the undesirable speckle effect. Proposed method is compared with second- and fourth-order nonlinear diffusion reconstruction, total variation (TV), total generalized variation, and higher degree TV using in vivo data sets for different undersampling levels with application to dictionary learning-based reconstruction. It is observed that the proposed technique preserves sharp boundaries in the image while preventing the formation of staircase artifacts in the regions of smoothly varying pixel intensities. It also shows reduced error measures compared with second-order nonlinear diffusion reconstruction or TV and converges faster than TV-based methods. Because nonlinear diffusion is known to be an effective alternative to TV for edge-preserving reconstruction, the crucial aspect of staircase artifact removal is addressed. Reconstruction is found to be stable for the experimentally determined range of fourth-order regularization parameter, and therefore not does not introduce a parameter search. Hence, the computational simplicity of second-order diffusion is retained. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Ground state solutions for diffusion system with superlinear nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiming Luo
2015-03-01
where $z=(u,v\\colon\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}\\rightarrow\\mathbb{R}^{2}$, $b\\in C^{1}(\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}, \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ and $V(x\\in C(\\mathbb{R}^{N},\\mathbb{R}$. Under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, we establish the existence of ground state solutions by the generalized Nehari manifold method developed recently by Szulkin and Weth.
A synchrotron radiation study of nonlinear diffusion in Cu-Au
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, E.S.K.; Huang, P.; Kraitchman, M.; deFontaine, D.; Hoyt, J.J.; Chow, P.
1992-01-01
This paper reports a study in which alternate layers of pure copper and gold were vapor deposited on a sodium chloride substrate, the average concentration of the films being Cu-16 at% Au and the layering periodicity (modulation wavelength) being 3.31 nm. The composition modulation gives rise to satellite diffraction peaks around the (200) Bragg reelections. Synchrotron radiation at SSRL was able to detect u to third order satellite intensity the evolution of which was measured as a function of annealing time at 515 K. although the first order satellite intensity decayed as expected exponentially with time, intensities of both second and third order satellites decreased very rapidly at first, then increased before decaying exponentially. These results are in conformity with theoretical models of satellite evolution during annealing in a one-dimensional modulated system governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation
Solitary wave solutions of selective nonlinear diffusion-reaction ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An auto-Bäcklund transformation derived in the homogeneous balance method is employed to obtain several new exact solutions of certain kinds of nonlin- ear diffusion-reaction (D-R) equations. These equations arise in a variety of problems in physical, chemical, biological, social and ecological sciences. Keywords.
Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders
2011-01-01
In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi......In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general...... decomposition method that is unaffected by the rescaling or attenuation bias that arise in cross-model comparisons in nonlinear models. It recovers the degree to which a control variable, Z, mediates or explains the relationship between X and a latent outcome variable, Y*, underlying the nonlinear probability...
Modelling of diffuse solar fraction with multiple predictors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridley, Barbara; Boland, John [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Lauret, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physique du Batiment et des Systemes, University of La Reunion, Reunion (France)
2010-02-15
For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global radiation is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from direct on some other plane using trigonometry, we need to have diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia. Boland et al. developed a validated model for Australian conditions. Boland et al. detailed our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions and was the first step in identifying the means for developing a generic model for estimating diffuse from global and other predictors. We have developed a multiple predictor model, which is much simpler than previous models, and uses hourly clearness index, daily clearness index, solar altitude, apparent solar time and a measure of persistence of global radiation level as predictors. This model performs marginally better than currently used models for locations in the Northern Hemisphere and substantially better for Southern Hemisphere locations. We suggest it can be used as a universal model. (author)
Diffusion Geometry Based Nonlinear Methods for Hyperspectral Change Detection
2010-05-12
for matching biological spectra across a data base of hyperspectral pathology slides acquires with different instruments in different conditions, as...generalizing wavelets and similar scaling mechanisms. Plain Sight Systems, Inc. -7- Proprietary and Confidential To be specific, let the bi-Markov...remarkably well. Conventional nearest neighbor search , compared with a diffusion search. The data is a pathology slide ,each pixel is a digital
Modeling the diffusion of scientific publications
D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2005-01-01
textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and
Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2008-01-01
Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of thr...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....
Parameter Estimation of Nonlinear Models in Forestry.
Fekedulegn, Desta; Mac Siúrtáin, Máirtín Pádraig; Colbert, Jim J.
1999-01-01
Partial derivatives of the negative exponential, monomolecular, Mitcherlich, Gompertz, logistic, Chapman-Richards, von Bertalanffy, Weibull and the Richard’s nonlinear growth models are presented. The application of these partial derivatives in estimating the model parameters is illustrated. The parameters are estimated using the Marquardt iterative method of nonlinear regression relating top height to age of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) from the Bowmont Norway Spruce Thinnin...
Forecasting with nonlinear time series models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Anders Bredahl; Teräsvirta, Timo
In this paper, nonlinear models are restricted to mean nonlinear parametric models. Several such models popular in time series econo- metrics are presented and some of their properties discussed. This in- cludes two models based on universal approximators: the Kolmogorov- Gabor polynomial model...... applied to economic fore- casting problems, is briefly highlighted. A number of large published studies comparing macroeconomic forecasts obtained using different time series models are discussed, and the paper also contains a small simulation study comparing recursive and direct forecasts in a partic...... and two versions of a simple artificial neural network model. Techniques for generating multi-period forecasts from nonlinear models recursively are considered, and the direct (non-recursive) method for this purpose is mentioned as well. Forecasting with com- plex dynamic systems, albeit less frequently...
Model of diffusers / permeators for hydrogen processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobs, W. D.; Hang, T.
2008-01-01
Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper. (authors)
Fellner, Klemens; Tang, Bao Quoc
2018-06-01
The convergence to equilibrium for renormalised solutions to nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems is studied. The considered reaction-diffusion systems arise from chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics and satisfy the complex balanced condition. By applying the so-called entropy method, we show that if the system does not have boundary equilibria, i.e. equilibrium states lying on the boundary of R_+^N, then any renormalised solution converges exponentially to the complex balanced equilibrium with a rate, which can be computed explicitly up to a finite-dimensional inequality. This inequality is proven via a contradiction argument and thus not explicitly. An explicit method of proof, however, is provided for a specific application modelling a reversible enzyme reaction by exploiting the specific structure of the conservation laws. Our approach is also useful to study the trend to equilibrium for systems possessing boundary equilibria. More precisely, to show the convergence to equilibrium for systems with boundary equilibria, we establish a sufficient condition in terms of a modified finite-dimensional inequality along trajectories of the system. By assuming this condition, which roughly means that the system produces too much entropy to stay close to a boundary equilibrium for infinite time, the entropy method shows exponential convergence to equilibrium for renormalised solutions to complex balanced systems with boundary equilibria.
Nonlinear model predictive control theory and algorithms
Grüne, Lars
2017-01-01
This book offers readers a thorough and rigorous introduction to nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) for discrete-time and sampled-data systems. NMPC schemes with and without stabilizing terminal constraints are detailed, and intuitive examples illustrate the performance of different NMPC variants. NMPC is interpreted as an approximation of infinite-horizon optimal control so that important properties like closed-loop stability, inverse optimality and suboptimality can be derived in a uniform manner. These results are complemented by discussions of feasibility and robustness. An introduction to nonlinear optimal control algorithms yields essential insights into how the nonlinear optimization routine—the core of any nonlinear model predictive controller—works. Accompanying software in MATLAB® and C++ (downloadable from extras.springer.com/), together with an explanatory appendix in the book itself, enables readers to perform computer experiments exploring the possibilities and limitations of NMPC. T...
Topological approximation of the nonlinear Anderson model
Milovanov, Alexander V.; Iomin, Alexander
2014-06-01
We study the phenomena of Anderson localization in the presence of nonlinear interaction on a lattice. A class of nonlinear Schrödinger models with arbitrary power nonlinearity is analyzed. We conceive the various regimes of behavior, depending on the topology of resonance overlap in phase space, ranging from a fully developed chaos involving Lévy flights to pseudochaotic dynamics at the onset of delocalization. It is demonstrated that the quadratic nonlinearity plays a dynamically very distinguished role in that it is the only type of power nonlinearity permitting an abrupt localization-delocalization transition with unlimited spreading already at the delocalization border. We describe this localization-delocalization transition as a percolation transition on the infinite Cayley tree (Bethe lattice). It is found in the vicinity of the criticality that the spreading of the wave field is subdiffusive in the limit t →+∞. The second moment of the associated probability distribution grows with time as a power law ∝ tα, with the exponent α =1/3 exactly. Also we find for superquadratic nonlinearity that the analog pseudochaotic regime at the edge of chaos is self-controlling in that it has feedback on the topology of the structure on which the transport processes concentrate. Then the system automatically (without tuning of parameters) develops its percolation point. We classify this type of behavior in terms of self-organized criticality dynamics in Hilbert space. For subquadratic nonlinearities, the behavior is shown to be sensitive to the details of definition of the nonlinear term. A transport model is proposed based on modified nonlinearity, using the idea of "stripes" propagating the wave process to large distances. Theoretical investigations, presented here, are the basis for consistency analysis of the different localization-delocalization patterns in systems with many coupled degrees of freedom in association with the asymptotic properties of the
On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators
Elwakil, Ahmed S.
2009-06-01
We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Nonlinear control of the Salnikov model reaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
1999-01-01
This paper explores different nonlinear control schemes, applied to a simple model reaction. The model is the Salnikov model, consisting of two ordinary differential equations. The control strategies investigated are I/O-linearisation, Exact linearisation, exact linearisation combined with LQR...
On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators
Elwakil, Ahmed S.; Salama, Khaled N.
2009-01-01
We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
2014-01-01
the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....
Turing and Non-Turing patterns in diffusive plankton model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. K. Thakur
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate a Rosenzweig-McAurthur model and its variant for phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish population dynamics with Holling type II and III functional responses. We present the theoretical analysis of processes of pattern formation that involves organism distribution and their interaction of spatially distributed population with local diffusion. The choice of parameter values is important to study the effect of diffusion, also it depends more on the nonlinearity of the system. With the help of numerical simulations, we observe the formation of spatiotemporal patterns both inside and outside the Turing space.
Lagrangian-similarity diffusion-deposition model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horst, T.W.
1979-01-01
A Lagrangian-similarity diffusion model has been incorporated into the surface-depletion deposition model. This model predicts vertical concentration profiles far downwind of the source that agree with those of a one-dimensional gradient-transfer model
MHD diffuser model test program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idzorek, J J
1976-07-01
Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment.
MHD diffuser model test program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idzorek, J.J.
1976-07-01
Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment
Evaluation of nonlinearity and validity of nonlinear modeling for complex time series.
Suzuki, Tomoya; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Suzuki, Masuo
2007-10-01
Even if an original time series exhibits nonlinearity, it is not always effective to approximate the time series by a nonlinear model because such nonlinear models have high complexity from the viewpoint of information criteria. Therefore, we propose two measures to evaluate both the nonlinearity of a time series and validity of nonlinear modeling applied to it by nonlinear predictability and information criteria. Through numerical simulations, we confirm that the proposed measures effectively detect the nonlinearity of an observed time series and evaluate the validity of the nonlinear model. The measures are also robust against observational noises. We also analyze some real time series: the difference of the number of chickenpox and measles patients, the number of sunspots, five Japanese vowels, and the chaotic laser. We can confirm that the nonlinear model is effective for the Japanese vowel /a/, the difference of the number of measles patients, and the chaotic laser.
Nonlinear Model Reduction for RTCVD
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Newman, Andrew J; Krishnaprasad, P. S
1998-01-01
...) for semiconductor manufacturing. They focus on model reduction for the ordinary differential equation model describing heat transfer to, from, and within a semiconductor wafer in the RTCVD chamber...
Nonlinear finite element modeling of corrugated board
A. C. Gilchrist; J. C. Suhling; T. J. Urbanik
1999-01-01
In this research, an investigation on the mechanical behavior of corrugated board has been performed using finite element analysis. Numerical finite element models for corrugated board geometries have been created and executed. Both geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities were included in the models. The analyses were performed using the commercial...
Nonlinear Modelling of Low Frequency Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Erling Sandermann
1997-01-01
In the Danish LoDist project on distortion from dynamic low frequency loudspeakers a detailed nonlinear model of loudspeakers has been developed. The model has been implemented in a PC program so that it can be used to create signals for listening tests and analysis. Also, different methods...
Nonlinear Modelling of Low Frequency Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Erling Sandermann
1997-01-01
In the Danish LoDist project on distortion from dynamic low-frequency loudspeakers, a detailed nonlinear model of loudspeakers has been developed. The model has been implemented in a PC program so that it can be used to create signals for listening tests and analysis. Also, different methods...
Modeling vector nonlinear time series using POLYMARS
de Gooijer, J.G.; Ray, B.K.
2003-01-01
A modified multivariate adaptive regression splines method for modeling vector nonlinear time series is investigated. The method results in models that can capture certain types of vector self-exciting threshold autoregressive behavior, as well as provide good predictions for more general vector
Homogenization of neutronic diffusion models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capdebosq, Y.
1999-09-01
In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)
A nonlinear equation for ionic diffusion in a strong binary electrolyte
Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen
2010-01-01
The problem of the one-dimensional electro-diffusion of ions in a strong binary electrolyte is considered. The mathematical description, known as the Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) system, consists of a diffusion equation for each species augmented by transport owing to a self-consistent electrostatic field determined by the Poisson equation. This description is also relevant to other important problems in physics, such as electron and hole diffusion across semiconductor junctions and the diffusion of ions in plasmas. If concentrations do not vary appreciably over distances of the order of the Debye length, the Poisson equation can be replaced by the condition of local charge neutrality first introduced by Planck. It can then be shown that both species diffuse at the same rate with a common diffusivity that is intermediate between that of the slow and fast species (ambipolar diffusion). Here, we derive a more general theory by exploiting the ratio of the Debye length to a characteristic length scale as a small asymptotic parameter. It is shown that the concentration of either species may be described by a nonlinear partial differential equation that provides a better approximation than the classical linear equation for ambipolar diffusion, but reduces to it in the appropriate limit. PMID:21818176
Nonlinear waves in reaction-diffusion systems: The effect of transport memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manne, K. K.; Hurd, A. J.; Kenkre, V. M.
2000-01-01
Motivated by the problem of determining stress distributions in granular materials, we study the effect of finite transport correlation times on the propagation of nonlinear wave fronts in reaction-diffusion systems. We obtain results such as the possibility of spatial oscillations in the wave-front shape for certain values of the system parameters and high enough wave-front speeds. We also generalize earlier known results concerning the minimum wave-front speed and shape-speed relationships stemming from the finiteness of the correlation times. Analytic investigations are made possible by a piecewise linear representation of the nonlinearity. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Nonlinear waves in reaction-diffusion systems: The effect of transport memory
Manne, K. K.; Hurd, A. J.; Kenkre, V. M.
2000-04-01
Motivated by the problem of determining stress distributions in granular materials, we study the effect of finite transport correlation times on the propagation of nonlinear wave fronts in reaction-diffusion systems. We obtain results such as the possibility of spatial oscillations in the wave-front shape for certain values of the system parameters and high enough wave-front speeds. We also generalize earlier known results concerning the minimum wave-front speed and shape-speed relationships stemming from the finiteness of the correlation times. Analytic investigations are made possible by a piecewise linear representation of the nonlinearity.
Nonlinear friction model for servo press simulation
Ma, Ninshu; Sugitomo, Nobuhiko; Kyuno, Takunori; Tamura, Shintaro; Naka, Tetsuo
2013-12-01
The friction coefficient was measured under an idealized condition for a pulse servo motion. The measured friction coefficient and its changing with both sliding distance and a pulse motion showed that the friction resistance can be reduced due to the re-lubrication during unloading process of the pulse servo motion. Based on the measured friction coefficient and its changes with sliding distance and re-lubrication of oil, a nonlinear friction model was developed. Using the newly developed the nonlinear friction model, a deep draw simulation was performed and the formability was evaluated. The results were compared with experimental ones and the effectiveness was verified.
Marin, D.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.
2018-07-01
We investigate the solutions for a set of coupled nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations coupled by the diffusion coefficient in presence of external forces. The coupling by the diffusion coefficient implies that the diffusion of each species is influenced by the other and vice versa due to this term, which represents an interaction among them. The solutions for the stationary case are given in terms of the Tsallis distributions, when arbitrary external forces are considered. We also use the Tsallis distributions to obtain a time dependent solution for a linear external force. The results obtained from this analysis show a rich class of behavior related to anomalous diffusion, which can be characterized by compact or long-tailed distributions.
Finite element model for nonlinear shells of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, W.A.
1979-01-01
Nuclear material shipping containers have shells of revolution as basic structural components. Analytically modeling the response of these containers to severe accident impact conditions requires a nonlinear shell-of-revolution model that accounts for both geometric and material nonlinearities. Existing models are limited to large displacements, small rotations, and nonlinear materials. The paper presents a finite element model for a nonlinear shell of revolution that will account for large displacements, large strains, large rotations, and nonlinear materials
Modeling of Volatility with Non-linear Time Series Model
Kim Song Yon; Kim Mun Chol
2013-01-01
In this paper, non-linear time series models are used to describe volatility in financial time series data. To describe volatility, two of the non-linear time series are combined into form TAR (Threshold Auto-Regressive Model) with AARCH (Asymmetric Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) error term and its parameter estimation is studied.
A Fully Discrete Galerkin Method for a Nonlinear Space-Fractional Diffusion Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunying Zheng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The spatial transport process in fractal media is generally anomalous. The space-fractional advection-diffusion equation can be used to characterize such a process. In this paper, a fully discrete scheme is given for a type of nonlinear space-fractional anomalous advection-diffusion equation. In the spatial direction, we use the finite element method, and in the temporal direction, we use the modified Crank-Nicolson approximation. Here the fractional derivative indicates the Caputo derivative. The error estimate for the fully discrete scheme is derived. And the numerical examples are also included which are in line with the theoretical analysis.
On nonlinear reduced order modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.
2011-01-01
When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to
Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hal Caswell
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.
Fagioli, Simone; Radici, Emanuela
2018-01-01
We investigate the existence of weak type solutions for a class of aggregation-diffusion PDEs with nonlinear mobility obtained as large particle limit of a suitable nonlocal version of the follow-the-leader scheme, which is interpreted as the discrete Lagrangian approximation of the target continuity equation. We restrict the analysis to nonnegative initial data in $L^{\\infty} \\cap BV$ away from vacuum and supported in a closed interval with zero-velocity boundary conditions. The main novelti...
Stability, diffusion and interactions of nonlinear excitations in a many body system
Coste, Christophe; Jean, Michel Saint; Dessup, Tommy
2017-04-01
When repelling particles are confined in a quasi-one-dimensional trap by a transverse potential, a configurational phase transition happens. All particles are aligned along the trap axis at large confinement, but below a critical transverse confinement they adopt a staggered row configuration (zigzag phase). This zigzag transition is a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation in extended systems and in systems with cyclic boundary conditions in the longitudinal direction. Among many evidences, phase coexistence is exhibited by localized nonlinear patterns made of a zigzag phase embedded in otherwise aligned particles. We give the normal form at the bifurcation and we show that these patterns can be described as solitary wave envelopes that we call bubbles. They are stable in a large temperature range and can diffuse as quasi-particles, with a diffusion coefficient that may be deduced from the normal form. The potential energy of a bubble is found to be lower than that of the homogeneous bifurcated phase, which explains their stability. We observe also metastable states, that are pairs of solitary wave envelopes which spontaneously evolve toward a stable single bubble. We evidence a strong effect of the discreteness of the underlying particles system and introduce the concept of topological frustration of a bubble pair. A configuration is frustrated when the particles between the two bubbles are not organized in a modulated staggered row. For a nonfrustrated (NF) bubble pair configuration, the bubbles interaction is attractive so that the bubbles come closer and eventually merge as a single bubble. In contrast, the bubbles interaction is found to be repulsive for a frustrated (F) configuration. We describe a model of interacting solitary wave that provides all qualitative characteristics of the interaction force: it is attractive for NF-systems, repulsive for F-systems, and decreases exponentially with the bubbles distance.
Application of nonlinear nodal diffusion method for a small research reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaradat, Mustafa K.; Alawneh, Luay M.; Park, Chang Je; Lee, Byungchul
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We applied nonlinear unified nodal method for 10 MW IAEA MTR benchmark problem. • TRITION–NEWT system was used to obtain two-group burnup dependent cross sections. • The criticality and power distribution compared with reference (IAEA-TECDOC-233). • Comparison between different fuel materials was conducted. • Satisfactory results were provided using UNM for MTR core calculations. - Abstract: Nodal diffusion methods are usually used for LWR calculations and rarely used for research reactor calculations. A unified nodal method with an implementation of the coarse mesh finite difference acceleration was developed for use in plate type research reactor calculations. It was validated for two PWR benchmark problems and then applied for IAEA MTR benchmark problem for static calculations to check the validity and accuracy of the method. This work was conducted to investigate the unified nodal method capability to treat material testing reactor cores. A 10 MW research reactor core is considered with three calculation cases for low enriched uranium fuel depending on the core burnup status of fresh, beginning-of-life, and end-of-life cores. The validation work included criticality calculations, flux distribution, and power distribution; in addition, a comparison between different fuel materials with the same uranium content was conducted. The homogenized two-group cross sections were generated using the TRITON–NEWT system. The results were compared with a reference, which was taken from IAEA-TECDOC-233. The unified nodal method provides satisfactory results for an all-rod out case, and the three-dimensional, two-group diffusion model can be considered accurate enough for MTR core calculations
Nonlinear distortion in wireless systems modeling and simulation with Matlab
Gharaibeh, Khaled M
2011-01-01
This book covers the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in wireless communication systems with MATLAB simulations and techniques In this book, the author describes the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in single and multichannel wireless communication systems using both deterministic and stochastic signals. Models and simulation methods of nonlinear amplifiers explain in detail how to analyze and evaluate the performance of data communication links under nonlinear amplification. The book addresses the analysis of nonlinear systems
Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2016-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...
Nonlinear GARCH model and 1 / f noise
Kononovicius, A.; Ruseckas, J.
2015-06-01
Auto-regressive conditionally heteroskedastic (ARCH) family models are still used, by practitioners in business and economic policy making, as a conditional volatility forecasting models. Furthermore ARCH models still are attracting an interest of the researchers. In this contribution we consider the well known GARCH(1,1) process and its nonlinear modifications, reminiscent of NGARCH model. We investigate the possibility to reproduce power law statistics, probability density function and power spectral density, using ARCH family models. For this purpose we derive stochastic differential equations from the GARCH processes in consideration. We find the obtained equations to be similar to a general class of stochastic differential equations known to reproduce power law statistics. We show that linear GARCH(1,1) process has power law distribution, but its power spectral density is Brownian noise-like. However, the nonlinear modifications exhibit both power law distribution and power spectral density of the 1 /fβ form, including 1 / f noise.
Nonlinear Dynamic Models in Advanced Life Support
Jones, Harry
2002-01-01
To facilitate analysis, ALS systems are often assumed to be linear and time invariant, but they usually have important nonlinear and dynamic aspects. Nonlinear dynamic behavior can be caused by time varying inputs, changes in system parameters, nonlinear system functions, closed loop feedback delays, and limits on buffer storage or processing rates. Dynamic models are usually cataloged according to the number of state variables. The simplest dynamic models are linear, using only integration, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of the state variables. A general linear model with only two state variables can produce all the possible dynamic behavior of linear systems with many state variables, including stability, oscillation, or exponential growth and decay. Linear systems can be described using mathematical analysis. Nonlinear dynamics can be fully explored only by computer simulations of models. Unexpected behavior is produced by simple models having only two or three state variables with simple mathematical relations between them. Closed loop feedback delays are a major source of system instability. Exceeding limits on buffer storage or processing rates forces systems to change operating mode. Different equilibrium points may be reached from different initial conditions. Instead of one stable equilibrium point, the system may have several equilibrium points, oscillate at different frequencies, or even behave chaotically, depending on the system inputs and initial conditions. The frequency spectrum of an output oscillation may contain harmonics and the sums and differences of input frequencies, but it may also contain a stable limit cycle oscillation not related to input frequencies. We must investigate the nonlinear dynamic aspects of advanced life support systems to understand and counter undesirable behavior.
Analysis of nonlinear systems using ARMA [autoregressive moving average] models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunter, N.F. Jr.
1990-01-01
While many vibration systems exhibit primarily linear behavior, a significant percentage of the systems encountered in vibration and model testing are mildly to severely nonlinear. Analysis methods for such nonlinear systems are not yet well developed and the response of such systems is not accurately predicted by linear models. Nonlinear ARMA (autoregressive moving average) models are one method for the analysis and response prediction of nonlinear vibratory systems. In this paper we review the background of linear and nonlinear ARMA models, and illustrate the application of these models to nonlinear vibration systems. We conclude by summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of ARMA models and emphasizing prospects for future development. 14 refs., 11 figs
A nonlinear model for AC induced corrosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Ida
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The modeling of corrosion poses particular difficulties. The understanding of corrosion as an electrochemical process has led to simple capacitive-resistive models that take into account the resistance of the electrolytic cell and the capacitive effect of the surface potential at the interface between conductors and the electrolyte. In some models nonlinear conduction effects have been added to account for more complex observed behavior. While these models are sufficient to describe the behavior in systems with cathodic protection, the behavior in the presence of induced AC currents from power lines and from RF sources cannot be accounted for and are insufficient to describe the effects observed in the field. Field observations have shown that a rectifying effect exists that affects the cathodic protection potential and this effect is responsible for corrosion in the presence of AC currents. The rectifying effects of the metal-corrosion interface are totally missing from current models. This work proposes a nonlinear model based on finite element analysis that takes into account the nonlinear behavior of the metal-oxide interface and promises to improve modeling by including the rectification effects at the interface.
Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models
Kärger, Jörg
2005-01-01
Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.
Research on nonlinear stochastic dynamical price model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jiaorui; Xu Wei; Xie Wenxian; Ren Zhengzheng
2008-01-01
In consideration of many uncertain factors existing in economic system, nonlinear stochastic dynamical price model which is subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is proposed based on deterministic model. One-dimensional averaged Ito stochastic differential equation for the model is derived by using the stochastic averaging method, and applied to investigate the stability of the trivial solution and the first-passage failure of the stochastic price model. The stochastic price model and the methods presented in this paper are verified by numerical studies
Microscopic modeling of the Raman diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benisti, D.; Morice, O.; Gremillet, L.; Strozzi, D.
2010-01-01
In the typical conditions of density and electronic temperature of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ), a quantitative assessment of the Raman reflectivity requires an accurate calculation of the non-linear movement of each electron submitted to the waves propagating in the plasma. The interaction of a laser beam with a plasma generates an electronic wave shifted in frequency (that can be back-scattered) and an electron plasma wave (OPE). The OPE can give to the electrons a strongly non-linear movement by trapping them in a potential well. This non-linearity of microscopic origin has an impact on the plasma electronic density. We have succeeded in computing this plasma electronic density in a very accurate way by combining the principles of a perturbative approach with those of an adiabatic theory. Results show that the Raman diffusion can grow on temperature and density ranges more important than expected. We have predicted the threshold and the behavior of the Raman diffusion above this threshold as accurately as we had done it with a Vlasov code but by being 10000 times more rapid. (A.C.)
Simplified Model of Nonlinear Landau Damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yampolsky, N.A.; Fisch, N.J.
2009-01-01
The nonlinear interaction of a plasma wave with resonant electrons results in a plateau in the electron distribution function close to the phase velocity of the plasma wave. As a result, Landau damping of the plasma wave vanishes and the resonant frequency of the plasma wave downshifts. However, this simple picture is invalid when the external driving force changes the plasma wave fast enough so that the plateau cannot be fully developed. A new model to describe amplification of the plasma wave including the saturation of Landau damping and the nonlinear frequency shift is proposed. The proposed model takes into account the change of the plasma wave amplitude and describes saturation of the Landau damping rate in terms of a single fluid equation, which simplifies the description of the inherently kinetic nature of Landau damping. A proposed fluid model, incorporating these simplifications, is verified numerically using a kinetic Vlasov code.
Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.
2018-04-01
The present study examines the nonlinear behaviour of a cantilevered carbon nanotube (CNT) resonator and its mass detection sensitivity, employing a new nonlinear electrostatic load model. More specifically, a 3D finite element model is developed in order to obtain the electrostatic load distribution on cantilevered CNT resonators. A new nonlinear electrostatic load model is then proposed accounting for the end effects due to finite length. Additionally, a new nonlinear size-dependent continuum model is developed for the cantilevered CNT resonator, employing the modified couple stress theory (to account for size-effects) together with the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear damping); the size-dependent model takes into account all sources of nonlinearity, i.e. geometrical and inertial nonlinearities as well as nonlinearities associated with damping, small-scale, and electrostatic load. The nonlinear equation of motion of the cantilevered CNT resonator is obtained based on the new models developed for the CNT resonator and the electrostatic load. The Galerkin method is then applied to the nonlinear equation of motion, resulting in a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, consisting of geometrical, inertial, electrical, damping, and size-dependent nonlinear terms. This high-dimensional nonlinear discretized model is solved numerically utilizing the pseudo-arclength continuation technique. The nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the system are examined for various cases, investigating the effect of DC and AC voltages, length-scale parameter, nonlinear damping, and electrostatic load. Moreover, the mass detection sensitivity of the system is examined for possible application of the CNT resonator as a nanosensor.
Symmetries and modelling functions for diffusion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitin, A G; Spichak, S V; Vedula, Yu S; Naumovets, A G
2009-01-01
A constructive approach to the theory of diffusion processes is proposed, which is based on application of both symmetry analysis and the method of modelling functions. An algorithm for construction of the modelling functions is suggested. This algorithm is based on the error function expansion (ERFEX) of experimental concentration profiles. The high-accuracy analytical description of the profiles provided by ERFEX approximation allows a convenient extraction of the concentration dependence of diffusivity from experimental data and prediction of the diffusion process. Our analysis is exemplified by its employment in experimental results obtained for surface diffusion of lithium on the molybdenum (1 1 2) surface precovered with dysprosium. The ERFEX approximation can be directly extended to many other diffusion systems.
Thermoviscous Model Equations in Nonlinear Acoustics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders Rønne
Four nonlinear acoustical wave equations that apply to both perfect gasses and arbitrary fluids with a quadratic equation of state are studied. Shock and rarefaction wave solutions to the equations are studied. In order to assess the accuracy of the wave equations, their solutions are compared...... to solutions of the basic equations from which the wave equations are derived. A straightforward weakly nonlinear equation is the most accurate for shock modeling. A higher order wave equation is the most accurate for modeling of smooth disturbances. Investigations of the linear stability properties...... of solutions to the wave equations, reveal that the solutions may become unstable. Such instabilities are not found in the basic equations. Interacting shocks and standing shocks are investigated....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barus, R. P. P., E-mail: rismawan.ppb@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung and Centre for Material and Technical Product, Jalan Sangkuriang No. 14 Bandung (Indonesia); Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E. [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Ismunandar [Chemistry Study, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)
2014-09-25
Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar
2014-01-01
Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range
Double diffusivity model under stochastic forcing
Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Aifantis, Elias C.
2017-05-01
The "double diffusivity" model was proposed in the late 1970s, and reworked in the early 1980s, as a continuum counterpart to existing discrete models of diffusion corresponding to high diffusivity paths, such as grain boundaries and dislocation lines. It was later rejuvenated in the 1990s to interpret experimental results on diffusion in polycrystalline and nanocrystalline specimens where grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions act as high diffusivity paths. Technically, the model pans out as a system of coupled Fick-type diffusion equations to represent "regular" and "high" diffusivity paths with "source terms" accounting for the mass exchange between the two paths. The model remit was extended by analogy to describe flow in porous media with double porosity, as well as to model heat conduction in media with two nonequilibrium local temperature baths, e.g., ion and electron baths. Uncoupling of the two partial differential equations leads to a higher-ordered diffusion equation, solutions of which could be obtained in terms of classical diffusion equation solutions. Similar equations could also be derived within an "internal length" gradient (ILG) mechanics formulation applied to diffusion problems, i.e., by introducing nonlocal effects, together with inertia and viscosity, in a mechanics based formulation of diffusion theory. While being remarkably successful in studies related to various aspects of transport in inhomogeneous media with deterministic microstructures and nanostructures, its implications in the presence of stochasticity have not yet been considered. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of diffusion in nanopolycrystals whose deterministic ILG-based theoretical calculations predict a relaxation time that is only about one-tenth of the actual experimentally verified time scale. This article provides the "missing link" in this estimation by adding a vital element in the ILG structure, that of stochasticity, that takes into
Model reduction of systems with localized nonlinearities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Segalman, Daniel Joseph
2006-03-01
An LDRD funded approach to development of reduced order models for systems with local nonlinearities is presented. This method is particularly useful for problems of structural dynamics, but has potential application in other fields. The key elements of this approach are (1) employment of eigen modes of a reference linear system, (2) incorporation of basis functions with an appropriate discontinuity at the location of the nonlinearity. Galerkin solution using the above combination of basis functions appears to capture the dynamics of the system with a small basis set. For problems involving small amplitude dynamics, the addition of discontinuous (joint) modes appears to capture the nonlinear mechanics correctly while preserving the modal form of the predictions. For problems involving large amplitude dynamics of realistic joint models (macro-slip), the use of appropriate joint modes along with sufficient basis eigen modes to capture the frequencies of the system greatly enhances convergence, though the modal nature the result is lost. Also observed is that when joint modes are used in conjunction with a small number of elastic eigen modes in problems of macro-slip of realistic joint models, the resulting predictions are very similar to those of the full solution when seen through a low pass filter. This has significance both in terms of greatly reducing the number of degrees of freedom of the problem and in terms of facilitating the use of much larger time steps.
Nonlinear Inertia Classification Model and Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Classification model of support vector machine (SVM overcomes the problem of a big number of samples. But the kernel parameter and the punishment factor have great influence on the quality of SVM model. Particle swarm optimization (PSO is an evolutionary search algorithm based on the swarm intelligence, which is suitable for parameter optimization. Accordingly, a nonlinear inertia convergence classification model (NICCM is proposed after the nonlinear inertia convergence (NICPSO is developed in this paper. The velocity of NICPSO is firstly defined as the weighted velocity of the inertia PSO, and the inertia factor is selected to be a nonlinear function. NICPSO is used to optimize the kernel parameter and a punishment factor of SVM. Then, NICCM classifier is trained by using the optical punishment factor and the optical kernel parameter that comes from the optimal particle. Finally, NICCM is applied to the classification of the normal state and fault states of online power cable. It is experimentally proved that the iteration number for the proposed NICPSO to reach the optimal position decreases from 15 to 5 compared with PSO; the training duration is decreased by 0.0052 s and the recognition precision is increased by 4.12% compared with SVM.
Saxton, Michael J
2007-01-01
Modeling obstructed diffusion is essential to the understanding of diffusion-mediated processes in the crowded cellular environment. Simple Monte Carlo techniques for modeling obstructed random walks are explained and related to Brownian dynamics and more complicated Monte Carlo methods. Random number generation is reviewed in the context of random walk simulations. Programming techniques and event-driven algorithms are discussed as ways to speed simulations.
Malyarenko, Dariya I; Pang, Yuxi; Senegas, Julien; Ivancevic, Marko K; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L
2015-12-01
Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting bias due to gradient nonlinearity (GNL) causes substantial errors in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for anatomical regions imaged distant from magnet isocenter. Our previously-described approach allowed effective removal of spatial ADC bias from three orthogonal DWI measurements for mono-exponential media of arbitrary anisotropy. The present work evaluates correction feasibility and performance for quantitative diffusion parameters of the two-component IVIM model for well-perfused and nearly isotropic renal tissue. Sagittal kidney DWI scans of a volunteer were performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner near isocenter and offset superiorly. Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting due to GNL resulted both in shift and broadening of perfusion-suppressed ADC histograms for off-center DWI relative to unbiased measurements close to isocenter. Direction-average DW-bias correctors were computed based on the known gradient design provided by vendor. The computed bias maps were empirically confirmed by coronal DWI measurements for an isotropic gel-flood phantom. Both phantom and renal tissue ADC bias for off-center measurements was effectively removed by applying pre-computed 3D correction maps. Comparable ADC accuracy was achieved for corrections of both b -maps and DWI intensities in presence of IVIM perfusion. No significant bias impact was observed for IVIM perfusion fraction.
NONLINEAR MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SILVA R. G.
1999-01-01
Full Text Available A new algorithm for model predictive control is presented. The algorithm utilizes a simultaneous solution and optimization strategy to solve the model's differential equations. The equations are discretized by equidistant collocation, and along with the algebraic model equations are included as constraints in a nonlinear programming (NLP problem. This algorithm is compared with the algorithm that uses orthogonal collocation on finite elements. The equidistant collocation algorithm results in simpler equations, providing a decrease in computation time for the control moves. Simulation results are presented and show a satisfactory performance of this algorithm.
Nonlinear chaotic model for predicting storm surges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Siek
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of the methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory for building a predictive chaotic model from time series. The chaotic model predictions are made by the adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space of the observables. We implemented the univariate and multivariate chaotic models with direct and multi-steps prediction techniques and optimized these models using an exhaustive search method. The built models were tested for predicting storm surge dynamics for different stormy conditions in the North Sea, and are compared to neural network models. The results show that the chaotic models can generally provide reliable and accurate short-term storm surge predictions.
A clutter removal method for the Doppler ultrasound signal based on a nonlinear diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Peng; Xin Pengcheng; Bian Zhengzhong; Yu Gang
2008-01-01
Strong clutter components produced by stationary and slow-moving tissue structures render the lower frequency part of the spectrogram useless and degrade the accuracy of clinical ultrasound indices. An adaptive method based on the nonlinear forward-and-backward diffusion equation (FAB-DE) is proposed to remove strong clutter components from the contaminated Doppler signal. The clutter signal is extracted first by the FAB-DE accurately, in which the nonlinear diffusion coefficient function of the FAB-DE locally adjusts according to signal features and the diffusion adaptively switches between forward and backward mode. The present method has been validated by simulated and realistic pulse wave Doppler signals, and compared with the conventional high pass filter and the matching pursuit method. The simulation results, including spectrogram, mean velocity error, standard deviation of mean velocity and signal-to-clutter ratio of a decontaminated signal, demonstrate that the present FAB-DE method can remove clutter sufficiently and retain more low blood components simultaneously as compared with the other two methods. Results of the realistic Doppler blood signal, including spectrogram and low-frequency part of the spectrum, support the conclusion drawn from simulation cases
Spatiotemporal drought forecasting using nonlinear models
Vasiliades, Lampros; Loukas, Athanasios
2010-05-01
Spatiotemporal data mining is the extraction of unknown and implicit knowledge, structures, spatiotemporal relationships, or patterns not explicitly stored in spatiotemporal databases. As one of data mining techniques, forecasting is widely used to predict the unknown future based upon the patterns hidden in the current and past data. In order to achieve spatiotemporal forecasting, some mature analysis tools, e.g., time series and spatial statistics are extended to the spatial dimension and the temporal dimension, respectively. Drought forecasting plays an important role in the planning and management of natural resources and water resource systems in a river basin. Early and timelines forecasting of a drought event can help to take proactive measures and set out drought mitigation strategies to alleviate the impacts of drought. Despite the widespread application of nonlinear mathematical models, comparative studies on spatiotemporal drought forecasting using different models are still a huge task for modellers. This study uses a promising approach, the Gamma Test (GT), to select the input variables and the training data length, so that the trial and error workload could be greatly reduced. The GT enables to quickly evaluate and estimate the best mean squared error that can be achieved by a smooth model on any unseen data for a given selection of inputs, prior to model construction. The GT is applied to forecast droughts using monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) timeseries at multiple timescales in several precipitation stations at Pinios river basin in Thessaly region, Greece. Several nonlinear models have been developed efficiently, with the aid of the GT, for 1-month up to 12-month ahead forecasting. Several temporal and spatial statistical indices were considered for the performance evaluation of the models. The predicted results show reasonably good agreement with the actual data for short lead times, whereas the forecasting accuracy decreases with
A tracer diffusion model derived from microstructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehikoinen, Jarmo; Muurinen, Arto; Olin, Markus
2012-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Numerous attempts have been made to explain the tracer diffusion of various solutes in compacted clays. These attempts have commonly suffered from an inability to describe the diffusion of uncharged and charged solutes with a single unified model. Here, an internally consistent approach to describing the diffusion of solutes in a heterogeneous porous medium, such as compacted bentonite, in terms of its microstructure is presented. The microstructure is taken to be represented by a succession of unit cells, which consist of two consecutive regions (Do, 1996). In the first region, the diffusion is viewed to occur in two parallel paths: one through microcrystalline units (micropores) and the other through meso-pores between the microcrystalline units. Solutes exiting these two paths are then joined together to continue diffusing through the second, disordered, region, connecting the two adjacent microcrystalline units. Adsorption (incl. co-ion exclusion) is thought to occur in the micropores, whereas meso-pores and the disordered region accommodate free species alone. Co-ions are also assumed to experience transfer resistance into and out of the micropores, which is characterized in the model by a transmission coefficient. Although the model is not new per se, its application to compacted clays has never been attempted before. It is shown that in the limit of strong adsorption, the effective diffusivity is limited from above only by the microstructural parameters of the model porous medium. As intuitive and logical as this result may appear, it has not been proven before. In the limit of vanishing disordered region, the effective diffusivity is no longer explicitly constrained by any of the model parameters. The tortuosity of the diffusion path, i.e. the quotient of the actual diffusion path length in the porous-medium coordinates and the characteristic length of the laboratory frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-01-01
We present experimental measurements of a sidewall traveling wave in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection. The fluid, water with Prandtl number about 6.3, was confined in a 1-cm-high cylindrical cell with radius-to-height ratio Γ=5. We used simultaneous optical-shadowgraph, heat-transport, and local temperature measurements to determine the stability and characteristics of the traveling-wave state for dimensionless rotation rates 60<Ω<420. The state is well described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation for which the linear and nonlinear coefficients were determined for Ω=274. The Eckhaus-Benjamin-Feir-stability boundary was established and the phase-diffusion coefficient and nonlinear group velocity were determined in the stable regime. Higher-order corrections to the CGL equation were also investigated. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Multi-level nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for multigroup transport k-Eigenvalue problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.
2011-01-01
The nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method is an efficient and flexible transport iterative scheme for solving reactor-physics problems. This paper presents a fast iterative algorithm for solving multigroup neutron transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry. The proposed method is defined by a multi-level system of equations that includes multigroup and effective one-group low-order NDA equations. The Eigenvalue is evaluated in the exact projected solution space of smallest dimensionality, namely, by solving the effective one- group eigenvalue transport problem. Numerical results that illustrate performance of the new algorithm are demonstrated. (author)
Hu, Weiming; Hu, Ruiguang; Xie, Nianhua; Ling, Haibin; Maybank, Stephen
2014-04-01
In this paper, we propose saliency driven image multiscale nonlinear diffusion filtering. The resulting scale space in general preserves or even enhances semantically important structures such as edges, lines, or flow-like structures in the foreground, and inhibits and smoothes clutter in the background. The image is classified using multiscale information fusion based on the original image, the image at the final scale at which the diffusion process converges, and the image at a midscale. Our algorithm emphasizes the foreground features, which are important for image classification. The background image regions, whether considered as contexts of the foreground or noise to the foreground, can be globally handled by fusing information from different scales. Experimental tests of the effectiveness of the multiscale space for the image classification are conducted on the following publicly available datasets: 1) the PASCAL 2005 dataset; 2) the Oxford 102 flowers dataset; and 3) the Oxford 17 flowers dataset, with high classification rates.
Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shea, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.shea@dal.ca; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)
2014-07-28
We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.
Thermodynamic modelling of fast dopant diffusion in Si
Saltas, V.; Chroneos, A.; Vallianatos, F.
2018-04-01
In the present study, nickel and copper fast diffusion in silicon is investigated in the framework of the cBΩ thermodynamic model, which connects point defect parameters with the bulk elastic and expansion properties. All the calculated point defect thermodynamic properties (activation Gibbs free energy, activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume) exhibit temperature dependence due to the non-linear anharmonic behavior of the isothermal bulk modulus of Si. Calculated activation enthalpies (0.15-0.16 eV for Ni and 0.17-0.19 eV for Cu) are in agreement with the reported experimental results. Small values of calculated activation volumes for both dopants (˜4% of the mean atomic volume) are consistent with the interstitial diffusion of Ni and Cu in Si.
Computing diffusivities from particle models out of equilibrium
Embacher, Peter; Dirr, Nicolas; Zimmer, Johannes; Reina, Celia
2018-04-01
A new method is proposed to numerically extract the diffusivity of a (typically nonlinear) diffusion equation from underlying stochastic particle systems. The proposed strategy requires the system to be in local equilibrium and have Gaussian fluctuations but it is otherwise allowed to undergo arbitrary out-of-equilibrium evolutions. This could be potentially relevant for particle data obtained from experimental applications. The key idea underlying the method is that finite, yet large, particle systems formally obey stochastic partial differential equations of gradient flow type satisfying a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The strategy is here applied to three classic particle models, namely independent random walkers, a zero-range process and a symmetric simple exclusion process in one space dimension, to allow the comparison with analytic solutions.
Model of anisotropic nonlinearity in self-defocusing photorefractive media.
Barsi, C; Fleischer, J W
2015-09-21
We develop a phenomenological model of anisotropy in self-defocusing photorefractive crystals. In addition to an independent term due to nonlinear susceptibility, we introduce a nonlinear, non-separable correction to the spectral diffraction operator. The model successfully describes the crossover between photovoltaic and photorefractive responses and the spatially dispersive shock wave behavior of a nonlinearly spreading Gaussian input beam. It should prove useful for characterizing internal charge dynamics in complex materials and for accurate image reconstruction through nonlinear media.
Coupled Particle Transport and Pattern Formation in a Nonlinear Leaky-Box Model
Barghouty, A. F.; El-Nemr, K. W.; Baird, J. K.
2009-01-01
Effects of particle-particle coupling on particle characteristics in nonlinear leaky-box type descriptions of the acceleration and transport of energetic particles in space plasmas are examined in the framework of a simple two-particle model based on the Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. In this model, the two particles are assumed coupled via a common nonlinear source term. In analogy with a prototypical mathematical system of diffusion-driven instability, this work demonstrates that steady-state patterns with strong dependence on the magnetic turbulence but a rather weak one on the coupled particles attributes can emerge in solutions of a nonlinearly coupled leaky-box model. The insight gained from this simple model may be of wider use and significance to nonlinearly coupled leaky-box type descriptions in general.
Agent-based modelling of cholera diffusion
Augustijn-Beckers, Petronella; Doldersum, Tom; Useya, Juliana; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a spatially explicit agent-based simulation model for micro-scale cholera diffusion. The model simulates both an environmental reservoir of naturally occurring V.cholerae bacteria and hyperinfectious V. cholerae. Objective of the research is to test if runoff from open refuse
Stochastic diffusion models for substitutable technological innovations
Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.
2004-01-01
Based on the analysis of firms' stochastic adoption behaviour, this paper first points out the necessity to build more practical stochastic models. And then, stochastic evolutionary models are built for substitutable innovation diffusion system. Finally, through the computer simulation of the
Nonlinear interaction model of subsonic jet noise.
Sandham, Neil D; Salgado, Adriana M
2008-08-13
Noise generation in a subsonic round jet is studied by a simplified model, in which nonlinear interactions of spatially evolving instability modes lead to the radiation of sound. The spatial mode evolution is computed using linear parabolized stability equations. Nonlinear interactions are found on a mode-by-mode basis and the sound radiation characteristics are determined by solution of the Lilley-Goldstein equation. Since mode interactions are computed explicitly, it is possible to find their relative importance for sound radiation. The method is applied to a single stream jet for which experimental data are available. The model gives Strouhal numbers of 0.45 for the most amplified waves in the jet and 0.19 for the dominant sound radiation. While in near field axisymmetric and the first azimuthal modes are both important, far-field sound is predominantly axisymmetric. These results are in close correspondence with experiment, suggesting that the simplified model is capturing at least some of the important mechanisms of subsonic jet noise.
Nonlinear price impact from linear models
Patzelt, Felix; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe
2017-12-01
The impact of trades on asset prices is a crucial aspect of market dynamics for academics, regulators, and practitioners alike. Recently, universal and highly nonlinear master curves were observed for price impacts aggregated on all intra-day scales (Patzelt and Bouchaud 2017 arXiv:1706.04163). Here we investigate how well these curves, their scaling, and the underlying return dynamics are captured by linear ‘propagator’ models. We find that the classification of trades as price-changing versus non-price-changing can explain the price impact nonlinearities and short-term return dynamics to a very high degree. The explanatory power provided by the change indicator in addition to the order sign history increases with increasing tick size. To obtain these results, several long-standing technical issues for model calibration and testing are addressed. We present new spectral estimators for two- and three-point cross-correlations, removing the need for previously used approximations. We also show when calibration is unbiased and how to accurately reveal previously overlooked biases. Therefore, our results contribute significantly to understanding both recent empirical results and the properties of a popular class of impact models.
From spiking neuron models to linear-nonlinear models.
Ostojic, Srdjan; Brunel, Nicolas
2011-01-20
Neurons transform time-varying inputs into action potentials emitted stochastically at a time dependent rate. The mapping from current input to output firing rate is often represented with the help of phenomenological models such as the linear-nonlinear (LN) cascade, in which the output firing rate is estimated by applying to the input successively a linear temporal filter and a static non-linear transformation. These simplified models leave out the biophysical details of action potential generation. It is not a priori clear to which extent the input-output mapping of biophysically more realistic, spiking neuron models can be reduced to a simple linear-nonlinear cascade. Here we investigate this question for the leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF), exponential integrate-and-fire (EIF) and conductance-based Wang-Buzsáki models in presence of background synaptic activity. We exploit available analytic results for these models to determine the corresponding linear filter and static non-linearity in a parameter-free form. We show that the obtained functions are identical to the linear filter and static non-linearity determined using standard reverse correlation analysis. We then quantitatively compare the output of the corresponding linear-nonlinear cascade with numerical simulations of spiking neurons, systematically varying the parameters of input signal and background noise. We find that the LN cascade provides accurate estimates of the firing rates of spiking neurons in most of parameter space. For the EIF and Wang-Buzsáki models, we show that the LN cascade can be reduced to a firing rate model, the timescale of which we determine analytically. Finally we introduce an adaptive timescale rate model in which the timescale of the linear filter depends on the instantaneous firing rate. This model leads to highly accurate estimates of instantaneous firing rates.
Bag model with diffuse surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phatak, S.C.
1986-01-01
The constraint of a sharp bag boundary in the bag model is relaxed in the present work. This has been achieved by replacing the square-well potential of the bag model by a smooth scalar potential and introducing a term similar to the bag pressure term. The constraint of the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is used to obtain an expression for the added bag pressure term. The model is then used to determine the static properties of the nucleon. The calculation shows that the rms charge radius and the nucleon magnetic moment are larger than the corresponding bag model values. Also, the axial vector coupling constant and the πNN coupling constant are in better agreement with the experimental values
Multiphase Microfluidics The Diffuse Interface Model
2012-01-01
Multiphase flows are typically described assuming that the different phases are separated by a sharp interface, with appropriate boundary conditions. This approach breaks down whenever the lengthscale of the phenomenon that is being studied is comparable with the real interface thickness, as it happens, for example, in the coalescence and breakup of bubbles and drops, the wetting and dewetting of solid surfaces and, in general, im micro-devices. The diffuse interface model resolves these probems by assuming that all quantities can vary continuously, so that interfaces have a non-zero thickness, i.e. they are "diffuse". The contributions in this book review the theory and describe some relevant applications of the diffuse interface model for one-component, two-phase fluids and for liquid binary mixtures, to model multiphase flows in confined geometries.
Basko, D M
2014-02-01
We study the discrete nonlinear Schröinger equation with weak disorder, focusing on the regime when the nonlinearity is, on the one hand, weak enough for the normal modes of the linear problem to remain well resolved but, on the other, strong enough for the dynamics of the normal mode amplitudes to be chaotic for almost all modes. We show that in this regime and in the limit of high temperature, the macroscopic density ρ satisfies the nonlinear diffusion equation with a density-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(ρ) = D(0)ρ(2). An explicit expression for D(0) is obtained in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linear problem, which is then evaluated numerically. The role of the second conserved quantity (energy) in the transport is also quantitatively discussed.
Nonlinear spherical perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy
Pratap Rajvanshi, Manvendra; Bagla, J. S.
2018-06-01
Observations have confirmed the accelerated expansion of the universe. The accelerated expansion can be modelled by invoking a cosmological constant or a dynamical model of dark energy. A key difference between these models is that the equation of state parameter w for dark energy differs from ‑1 in dynamical dark energy (DDE) models. Further, the equation of state parameter is not constant for a general DDE model. Such differences can be probed using the variation of scale factor with time by measuring distances. Another significant difference between the cosmological constant and DDE models is that the latter must cluster. Linear perturbation analysis indicates that perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy do not grow to have a significant amplitude at small length scales. In this paper we study the response of quintessence dark energy to non-linear perturbations in dark matter. We use a fully relativistic model for spherically symmetric perturbations. In this study we focus on thawing models. We find that in response to non-linear perturbations in dark matter, dark energy perturbations grow at a faster rate than expected in linear perturbation theory. We find that dark energy perturbation remains localised and does not diffuse out to larger scales. The dominant drivers of the evolution of dark energy perturbations are the local Hubble flow and a supression of gradients of the scalar field. We also find that the equation of state parameter w changes in response to perturbations in dark matter such that it also becomes a function of position. The variation of w in space is correlated with density contrast for matter. Variation of w and perturbations in dark energy are more pronounced in response to large scale perturbations in matter while the dependence on the amplitude of matter perturbations is much weaker.
Parameter estimation in fractional diffusion models
Kubilius, Kęstutis; Ralchenko, Kostiantyn
2017-01-01
This book is devoted to parameter estimation in diffusion models involving fractional Brownian motion and related processes. For many years now, standard Brownian motion has been (and still remains) a popular model of randomness used to investigate processes in the natural sciences, financial markets, and the economy. The substantial limitation in the use of stochastic diffusion models with Brownian motion is due to the fact that the motion has independent increments, and, therefore, the random noise it generates is “white,” i.e., uncorrelated. However, many processes in the natural sciences, computer networks and financial markets have long-term or short-term dependences, i.e., the correlations of random noise in these processes are non-zero, and slowly or rapidly decrease with time. In particular, models of financial markets demonstrate various kinds of memory and usually this memory is modeled by fractional Brownian diffusion. Therefore, the book constructs diffusion models with memory and provides s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahid Hasnain
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This research paper represents a numerical approximation to non-linear three dimension reaction diffusion equation with non-linear source term from population genetics. Since various initial and boundary value problems exist in three dimension reaction diffusion phenomena, which are studied numerically by different numerical methods, here we use finite difference schemes (Alternating Direction Implicit and Fourth Order Douglas Implicit to approximate the solution. Accuracy is studied in term of L2, L∞ and relative error norms by random selected grids along time levels for comparison with analytical results. The test example demonstrates the accuracy, efficiency and versatility of the proposed schemes. Numerical results showed that Fourth Order Douglas Implicit scheme is very efficient and reliable for solving 3-D non-linear reaction diffusion equation.
Hasnain, Shahid; Saqib, Muhammad; Mashat, Daoud Suleiman
2017-07-01
This research paper represents a numerical approximation to non-linear three dimension reaction diffusion equation with non-linear source term from population genetics. Since various initial and boundary value problems exist in three dimension reaction diffusion phenomena, which are studied numerically by different numerical methods, here we use finite difference schemes (Alternating Direction Implicit and Fourth Order Douglas Implicit) to approximate the solution. Accuracy is studied in term of L2, L∞ and relative error norms by random selected grids along time levels for comparison with analytical results. The test example demonstrates the accuracy, efficiency and versatility of the proposed schemes. Numerical results showed that Fourth Order Douglas Implicit scheme is very efficient and reliable for solving 3-D non-linear reaction diffusion equation.
Nonlinear Model of Tape Wound Core Transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Vahedi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Recently, tape wound cores due to their excellent magnetic properties, are widely used in different types of transformers. Performance prediction of these transformers needs an accurate model with ability to determine flux distribution within the core and magnetic loss. Spiral structure of tape wound cores affects the flux distribution and always cause complication of analysis. In this paper, a model based on reluctance networks method is presented for analysis of magnetic flux in wound cores. Using this model, distribution of longitudinal and transverse fluxes within the core can be determined. To consider the nonlinearity of the core, a dynamic hysteresis model is included in the presented model. Having flux density in different points of the core, magnetic losses can be calculated. To evaluate the validity of the model, results are compared with 2-D FEM simulations. In addition, a transformer designed for series-resonant converter and simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. Comparisons show accuracy of the model besides simplicity and fast convergence
NONLINEAR PLANT PIECEWISE-CONTINUOUS MODEL MATRIX PARAMETERS ESTIMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman L. Leibov
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear plant piecewise-continuous model matrix parameters estimation technique using nonlinear model time responses and random search method. One of piecewise-continuous model application areas is defined. The results of proposed approach application for aircraft turbofan engine piecewisecontinuous model formation are presented
Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo-Negrete, D. del
2006-01-01
A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ('memory') effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an α-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the 'effective' diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, τ, with the system's size, L, τ∼L α , of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<α<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady sates in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments
Technological diffusion in the Ramsey model
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Duczynski, Petr
2002-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 3 (2002), s. 243-250 ISSN 1607-0704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : neoclassical growth model * technological diffusion Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.ijbe.org/table%20of%20content/pdf/vol1-3/06.pdf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude Rodrigue Bambe Moutsinga
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Most existing multivariate models in finance are based on diffusion models. These models typically lead to the need of solving systems of Riccati differential equations. In this paper, we introduce an efficient method for solving systems of stiff Riccati differential equations. In this technique, a combination of Laplace transform and homotopy perturbation methods is considered as an algorithm to the exact solution of the nonlinear Riccati equations. The resulting technique is applied to solving stiff diffusion model problems that include interest rates models as well as two and three-factor stochastic volatility models. We show that the present approach is relatively easy, efficient and highly accurate.
Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires
Noor, Ahmed K.
1996-01-01
The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.
Nonlinear integral equations for the sausage model
Ahn, Changrim; Balog, Janos; Ravanini, Francesco
2017-08-01
The sausage model, first proposed by Fateev, Onofri, and Zamolodchikov, is a deformation of the O(3) sigma model preserving integrability. The target space is deformed from the sphere to ‘sausage’ shape by a deformation parameter ν. This model is defined by a factorizable S-matrix which is obtained by deforming that of the O(3) sigma model by a parameter λ. Clues for the deformed sigma model are provided by various UV and IR information through the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) analysis based on the S-matrix. Application of TBA to the sausage model is, however, limited to the case of 1/λ integer where the coupled integral equations can be truncated to a finite number. In this paper, we propose a finite set of nonlinear integral equations (NLIEs), which are applicable to generic value of λ. Our derivation is based on T-Q relations extracted from the truncated TBA equations. For a consistency check, we compute next-leading order corrections of the vacuum energy and extract the S-matrix information in the IR limit. We also solved the NLIE both analytically and numerically in the UV limit to get the effective central charge and compared with that of the zero-mode dynamics to obtain exact relation between ν and λ. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.
Nonlinear Convective Models of RR Lyrae Stars
Feuchtinger, M.; Dorfi, E. A.
The nonlinear behavior of RR Lyrae pulsations is investigated using a state-of-the-art numerical technique solving the full time-dependent system of radiation hydrodynamics. Grey radiative transfer is included by a variable Eddington-factor method and we use the time-dependent turbulent convection model according to Kuhfuss (1986, A&A 160, 116) in the version of Wuchterl (1995, Comp. Phys. Comm. 89, 19). OPAL opacities extended by the Alexander molecule opacities at temperatures below 6000 K and an equation of state according to Wuchterl (1990, A&A 238, 83) close the system. The resulting nonlinear system is discretized on an adaptive mesh developed by Dorfi & Drury (1987, J. Comp. Phys. 69, 175), which is important to provide the necessary spatial resolution in critical regions like ionization zones and shock waves. Additionally, we employ a second order advection scheme, a time centered temporal discretizaton and an artificial tensor viscosity in order to treat discontinuities. We compute fundamental as well first overtone models of RR Lyrae stars for a grid of stellar parameters both with and without convective energy transport in order to give a detailed picture of the pulsation-convection interaction. In order to investigate the influence of the different features of the convection model calculations with and without overshooting, turbulent pressure and turbulent viscosity are performed and compared with each other. A standard Fourier decomposition is used to confront the resulting light and radial velocity variations with recent observations and we show that the well known RR Lyrae phase discrepancy problem (Simon 1985, ApJ 299, 723) can be resolved with these stellar pulsation computations.
Computational Models for Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. and Duke University propose to develop and demonstrate new and efficient computational methods of modeling nonlinear aeroelastic systems. The...
Modelling nonlinear viscoelastic behaviours of loudspeaker suspensions-like structures
Maillou, Balbine; Lotton, Pierrick; Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent
2018-03-01
Mechanical properties of an electrodynamic loudspeaker are mainly determined by its suspensions (surround and spider) that behave nonlinearly and typically exhibit frequency dependent viscoelastic properties such as creep effect. The paper aims at characterizing the mechanical behaviour of electrodynamic loudspeaker suspensions at low frequencies using nonlinear identification techniques developed in recent years. A Generalized Hammerstein based model can take into account both frequency dependency and nonlinear properties. As shown in the paper, the model generalizes existing nonlinear or viscoelastic models commonly used for loudspeaker modelling. It is further experimentally shown that a possible input-dependent law may play a key role in suspension characterization.
Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with...
Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique
El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.; Al-Mulla, Noah
2014-01-01
Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.
Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique
El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.
2014-01-06
Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.
Umari, P; Marzari, Nicola
2009-09-07
We calculate the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of periodic longitudinal chains of hydrogen dimers with different bond-length alternations using a diffusion quantum Monte Carlo approach. These quantities are derived from the changes in electronic polarization as a function of applied finite electric field--an approach we recently introduced and made possible by the use of a Berry-phase, many-body electric-enthalpy functional. Calculated susceptibilities and hypersusceptibilities are found to be in excellent agreement with the best estimates available from quantum chemistry--usually extrapolations to the infinite-chain limit of calculations for chains of finite length. It is found that while exchange effects dominate the proper description of the susceptibilities, second hypersusceptibilities are greatly affected by electronic correlations. We also assess how different approximations to the nodal surface of the many-body wave function affect the accuracy of the calculated susceptibilities.
Nonlinear structural mechanics theory, dynamical phenomena and modeling
Lacarbonara, Walter
2013-01-01
Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena and Modeling offers a concise, coherent presentation of the theoretical framework of nonlinear structural mechanics, computational methods, applications, parametric investigations of nonlinear phenomena and their mechanical interpretation towards design. The theoretical and computational tools that enable the formulation, solution, and interpretation of nonlinear structures are presented in a systematic fashion so as to gradually attain an increasing level of complexity of structural behaviors, under the prevailing assumptions on the geometry of deformation, the constitutive aspects and the loading scenarios. Readers will find a treatment of the foundations of nonlinear structural mechanics towards advanced reduced models, unified with modern computational tools in the framework of the prominent nonlinear structural dynamic phenomena while tackling both the mathematical and applied sciences. Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena...
Nonlinear Rheology in a Model Biological Tissue
Matoz-Fernandez, D. A.; Agoritsas, Elisabeth; Barrat, Jean-Louis; Bertin, Eric; Martens, Kirsten
2017-04-01
The rheological response of dense active matter is a topic of fundamental importance for many processes in nature such as the mechanics of biological tissues. One prominent way to probe mechanical properties of tissues is to study their response to externally applied forces. Using a particle-based model featuring random apoptosis and environment-dependent division rates, we evidence a crossover from linear flow to a shear-thinning regime with an increasing shear rate. To rationalize this nonlinear flow we derive a theoretical mean-field scenario that accounts for the interplay of mechanical and active noise in local stresses. These noises are, respectively, generated by the elastic response of the cell matrix to cell rearrangements and by the internal activity.
Coherent nonlinear quantum model for composite fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reinisch, Gilbert [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Gudmundsson, Vidar, E-mail: vidar@hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)
2014-04-01
Originally proposed by Read [1] and Jain [2], the so-called “composite-fermion” is a phenomenological quasi-particle resulting from the attachment of two local flux quanta, seen as nonlocal vortices, to electrons situated on a two-dimensional (2D) surface embedded in a strong orthogonal magnetic field. In this Letter this phenomenon is described as a highly-nonlinear and coherent mean-field quantum process of the soliton type by use of a 2D stationary Schrödinger–Poisson differential model with only two Coulomb-interacting electrons. At filling factor ν=1/3 of the lowest Landau level the solution agrees with both the exact two-electron antisymmetric Schrödinger wavefunction and with Laughlin's Jastrow-type guess for the fractional quantum Hall effect, hence providing this latter with a tentative physical justification deduced from the experimental results and based on first principles.
Nonlinear Kalman Filtering in Affine Term Structure Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Dorion, Christian; Jacobs, Kris
When the relationship between security prices and state variables in dynamic term structure models is nonlinear, existing studies usually linearize this relationship because nonlinear fi…ltering is computationally demanding. We conduct an extensive investigation of this linearization and analyze...... the potential of the unscented Kalman …filter to properly capture nonlinearities. To illustrate the advantages of the unscented Kalman …filter, we analyze the cross section of swap rates, which are relatively simple non-linear instruments, and cap prices, which are highly nonlinear in the states. An extensive...
A simple numerical model of a geometrically nonlinear Timoshenko beam
Keijdener, C.; Metrikine, A.
2015-01-01
In the original problem for which this model was developed, onedimensional flexible objects interact through a non-linear contact model. Due to the non-linear nature of the contact model, a numerical time-domain approach was adopted. One of the goals was to see if the coupling between axial and
Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan
2013-01-01
The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leaf, G.K.; Minkoff, M.
1982-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: DISPL1 is a software package for solving second-order nonlinear systems of partial differential equations including parabolic, elliptic, hyperbolic, and some mixed types. The package is designed primarily for chemical kinetics- diffusion problems, although not limited to these problems. Fairly general nonlinear boundary conditions are allowed as well as inter- face conditions for problems in an inhomogeneous medium. The spatial domain is one- or two-dimensional with rectangular Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical (in one dimension only) geometry. 2 - Method of solution: The numerical method is based on the use of Galerkin's procedure combined with the use of B-Splines (C.W.R. de-Boor's B-spline package) to generate a system of ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved by a sophisticated ODE software package which is a modified version of Hindmarsh's GEAR package, NESC Abstract 592. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The spatial domain must be rectangular with sides parallel to the coordinate geometry. Cross derivative terms are not permitted in the PDE. The order of the B-Splines is at most 12. Other parameters such as the number of mesh points in each coordinate direction, the number of PDE's etc. are set in a macro table used by the MORTRAn2 preprocessor in generating the object code
Convection and reaction in a diffusive boundary layer in a porous medium: nonlinear dynamics.
Andres, Jeanne Therese H; Cardoso, Silvana S S
2012-09-01
We study numerically the nonlinear interactions between chemical reaction and convective fingering in a diffusive boundary layer in a porous medium. The reaction enhances stability by consuming a solute that is unstably distributed in a gravitational field. We show that chemical reaction profoundly changes the dynamics of the system, by introducing a steady state, shortening the evolution time, and altering the spatial patterns of velocity and concentration of solute. In the presence of weak reaction, finger growth and merger occur effectively, driving strong convective currents in a thick layer of solute. However, as the reaction becomes stronger, finger growth is inhibited, tip-splitting is enhanced and the layer of solute becomes much thinner. Convection enhances the mass flux of solute consumed by reaction in the boundary layer but has a diminishing effect as reaction strength increases. This nonlinear behavior has striking differences to the density fingering of traveling reaction fronts, for which stronger chemical kinetics result in more effective finger merger owing to an increase in the speed of the front. In a boundary layer, a strong stabilizing effect of reaction can maintain a long-term state of convection in isolated fingers of wavelength comparable to that at onset of instability.
COMBINING LONG MEMORY AND NONLINEAR MODEL OUTPUTS FOR INFLATION FORECAST
Heri Kuswanto; Irhamah Alimuhajin; Laylia Afidah
2014-01-01
Long memory and nonlinearity have been proven as two models that are easily to be mistaken. In other words, nonlinearity is a strong candidate of spurious long memory by introducing a certain degree of fractional integration that lies in the region of long memory. Indeed, nonlinear process belongs to short memory with zero integration order. The idea of the forecast is to obtain the future condition with minimum error. Some researches argued that no matter what the model is, the important thi...
Modeling of Reaction Processes Controlled by Diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Revelli, Jorge
2003-01-01
Stochastic modeling is quite powerful in science and technology.The technics derived from this process have been used with great success in laser theory, biological systems and chemical reactions.Besides, they provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of experimental results on the field of particle's diffusion in ordered and disordered materials.In this work we analyze transport processes in one-dimensional fluctuating media, which are media that change their state in time.This fact induces changes in the movements of the particles giving rise to different phenomena and dynamics that will be described and analyzed in this work.We present some random walk models to describe these fluctuating media.These models include state transitions governed by different dynamical processes.We also analyze the trapping problem in a lattice by means of a simple model which predicts a resonance-like phenomenon.Also we study effective diffusion processes over surfaces due to random walks in the bulk.We consider different boundary conditions and transitions movements.We derive expressions that describe diffusion behaviors constrained to bulk restrictions and the dynamic of the particles.Finally it is important to mention that the theoretical results obtained from the models proposed in this work are compared with Monte Carlo simulations.We find, in general, excellent agreements between the theory and the simulations
Saito, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hiromi; Komatsu, Takashi
2006-02-01
The Retinex theory was first proposed by Land, and deals with separation of irradiance from reflectance in an observed image. The separation problem is an ill-posed problem. Land and others proposed various Retinex separation algorithms. Recently, Kimmel and others proposed a variational framework that unifies the previous Retinex algorithms such as the Poisson-equation-type Retinex algorithms developed by Horn and others, and presented a Retinex separation algorithm with the time-evolution of a linear diffusion process. However, the Kimmel's separation algorithm cannot achieve physically rational separation, if true irradiance varies among color channels. To cope with this problem, we introduce a nonlinear diffusion process into the time-evolution. Moreover, as to its extension to color images, we present two approaches to treat color channels: the independent approach to treat each color channel separately and the collective approach to treat all color channels collectively. The latter approach outperforms the former. Furthermore, we apply our separation algorithm to a high quality chroma key in which before combining a foreground frame and a background frame into an output image a color of each pixel in the foreground frame are spatially adaptively corrected through transformation of the separated irradiance. Experiments demonstrate superiority of our separation algorithm over the Kimmel's separation algorithm.
Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Theory and Applications
Grancharova, Alexandra
2012-01-01
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has become the accepted methodology to solve complex control problems related to process industries. The main motivation behind explicit NMPC is that an explicit state feedback law avoids the need for executing a numerical optimization algorithm in real time. The benefits of an explicit solution, in addition to the efficient on-line computations, include also verifiability of the implementation and the possibility to design embedded control systems with low software and hardware complexity. This book considers the multi-parametric Nonlinear Programming (mp-NLP) approaches to explicit approximate NMPC of constrained nonlinear systems, developed by the authors, as well as their applications to various NMPC problem formulations and several case studies. The following types of nonlinear systems are considered, resulting in different NMPC problem formulations: Ø Nonlinear systems described by first-principles models and nonlinear systems described by black-box models; �...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pratibha Joshi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have achieved high order solution of a three dimensional nonlinear diffusive-convective problem using modified variational iteration method. The efficiency of this approach has been shown by solving two examples. All computational work has been performed in MATHEMATICA.
Modelling of a diffusion-sorption experiment on sandstone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, P.A.
1989-11-01
The results of a diffusion-sorption experiment on a sample of Darley Dale sandstone, using simulated groundwater spiked with a mixture of 125 I, 85 Sr and 137 Cs, are modelled by a one-dimensional porous medium approach in which sorption is described by Freundlich isotherms. The governing equations are solved analytically for the special case of a linear isotherm, and numerically using the computer code RANCHDIFF for non-linear isotherms. A set of time-dependent, ordinary differential equations is obtained using the Lagrange interpolation technique and integrated by Gear's variable order predictor-corrector method. It is shown that the sorption behaviour of 85 Sr can be modelled successfully by a linear isotherm, using a sorption parameter consistent with batch-sorption tests. The behaviour of 137 Cs may be modelled by a non-linear isotherm, but the amount of 137 Cs sorbed is less than that anticipated from batch-sorption tests. 125 I is assumed to be non-sorbing and is used to determine the porosity of the sandstone. (author) 10 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs
Chu, Khim Hoong
2017-11-09
Surface diffusion coefficients may be estimated by fitting solutions of a diffusion model to batch kinetic data. For non-linear systems, a numerical solution of the diffusion model's governing equations is generally required. We report here the application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model to extract surface diffusion coefficients from batch kinetic data. The use of the Langmuir kinetics model in lieu of the conventional surface diffusion model allows derivation of an analytical expression. The parameter estimation procedure requires determining the Langmuir rate coefficient from which the pertinent surface diffusion coefficient is calculated. Surface diffusion coefficients within the 10 -9 to 10 -6 cm 2 /s range obtained by fitting the Langmuir kinetics model to experimental kinetic data taken from the literature are found to be consistent with the corresponding values obtained from the traditional surface diffusion model. The virtue of this simplified parameter estimation method is that it reduces the computational complexity as the analytical expression involves only an algebraic equation in closed form which is easily evaluated by spreadsheet computation.
Nonlinear Growth Models in M"plus" and SAS
Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam
2009-01-01
Nonlinear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified nonlinear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this article we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the M"plus" structural modeling program and the nonlinear…
Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials
2016-06-28
Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions
Theoretical models for ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Shuangchun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Dai, Xiaoyu; Tang, Zhixiang; Su, Wenhua; Fan, Dianyuan
2007-01-01
A metamaterial (MM) differs from an ordinary optical material mainly in that it has a dispersive magnetic permeability and offers greatly enhanced design freedom to alter the linear and nonlinear properties. This makes it possible for us to control the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we report on generic features of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation and demonstrate the controllability of both the linear and nonlinear parameters of models for pulse propagation in MMs. First, we derive a generalized system of coupled three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations (NLSEs) suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in a MM with both nonlinear electric polarization and nonlinear magnetization. The coupled equations recover previous models for pulse propagation in both ordinary material and a MM under the same conditions. Second, by using the coupled NLSEs in the Drude dispersive model as an example, we identify the respective roles of the dispersive electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in ultrashort pulse propagation and disclose some additional features of pulse propagation in MMs. It is shown that, for linear propagation, the sign and magnitude of space-time focusing can be controlled through adjusting the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability. For nonlinear propagation, the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability are incorporated into the nonlinear magnetization and nonlinear polarization, respectively, resulting in controllable magnetic and electric self-steepening effects and higher-order dispersively nonlinear terms in the propagation models
Nonlinear observer design for a nonlinear string/cable FEM model using contraction theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turkyilmaz, Yilmaz; Jouffroy, Jerome; Egeland, Olav
model is presented in the form of partial differential equations (PDE). Galerkin's method is then applied to obtain a set of ordinary differential equations such that the cable model is approximated by a FEM model. Based on the FEM model, a nonlinear observer is designed to estimate the cable...
Nonlinear optical susceptibilities in the diffusion modified AlxGa1-xN/GaN single quantum well
Das, T.; Panda, S.; Panda, B. K.
2018-05-01
Under thermal treatment of the post growth AlGaN/GaN single quantum well, the diffusion of Al and Ga atoms across the interface is expected to form the diffusion modified quantum well with diffusion length as a quantitative parameter for diffusion. The modification of confining potential and position-dependent effective mass in the quantum well due to diffusion is calculated taking the Fick's law. The built-in electric field which arises from spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations in the wurtzite structure is included in the effective mass equation. The electronic states are calculated from the effective mass equation using the finite difference method for several diffusion lengths. Since the effective well width decreases with increasing diffusion length, the energy levels increase with it. The intersubband energy spacing in the conduction band decreases with diffusion length due to built-in electric field and reduction of effective well width. The linear susceptibility for first-order and the nonlinear second-order and third-order susceptibilities are calculated using the compact density matrix approach taking only two levels. The calculated susceptibilities are red shifted with increase in diffusion lengths due to decrease in intersubband energy spacing.
Soft tissue deformation modelling through neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.
Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan
2018-05-30
Soft tissue deformation modelling forms the basis of development of surgical simulation, surgical planning and robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. This paper presents a new methodology for modelling of soft tissue deformation based on reaction-diffusion mechanics via neural dynamics. The potential energy stored in soft tissues due to a mechanical load to deform tissues away from their rest state is treated as the equivalent transmembrane potential energy, and it is distributed in the tissue masses in the manner of reaction-diffusion propagation of nonlinear electrical waves. The reaction-diffusion propagation of mechanical potential energy and nonrigid mechanics of motion are combined to model soft tissue deformation and its dynamics, both of which are further formulated as the dynamics of cellular neural networks to achieve real-time computational performance. The proposed methodology is implemented with a haptic device for interactive soft tissue deformation with force feedback. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology exhibits nonlinear force-displacement relationship for nonlinear soft tissue deformation. Homogeneous, anisotropic and heterogeneous soft tissue material properties can be modelled through the inherent physical properties of mass points. Graphical abstract Soft tissue deformation modelling with haptic feedback via neural dynamics-based reaction-diffusion mechanics.
Modeling the reemergence of information diffusion in social network
Yang, Dingda; Liao, Xiangwen; Shen, Huawei; Cheng, Xueqi; Chen, Guolong
2018-01-01
Information diffusion in networks is an important research topic in various fields. Existing studies either focus on modeling the process of information diffusion, e.g., independent cascade model and linear threshold model, or investigate information diffusion in networks with certain structural characteristics such as scale-free networks and small world networks. However, there are still several phenomena that have not been captured by existing information diffusion models. One of the prominent phenomena is the reemergence of information diffusion, i.e., a piece of information reemerges after the completion of its initial diffusion process. In this paper, we propose an optimized information diffusion model by introducing a new informed state into traditional susceptible-infected-removed model. We verify the proposed model via simulations in real-world social networks, and the results indicate that the model can reproduce the reemergence of information during the diffusion process.
Cluster Synchronization of Diffusively Coupled Nonlinear Systems: A Contraction-Based Approach
Aminzare, Zahra; Dey, Biswadip; Davison, Elizabeth N.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich
2018-04-01
Finding the conditions that foster synchronization in networked nonlinear systems is critical to understanding a wide range of biological and mechanical systems. However, the conditions proved in the literature for synchronization in nonlinear systems with linear coupling, such as has been used to model neuronal networks, are in general not strict enough to accurately determine the system behavior. We leverage contraction theory to derive new sufficient conditions for cluster synchronization in terms of the network structure, for a network where the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of each node may differ. Our result requires that network connections satisfy a cluster-input-equivalence condition, and we explore the influence of this requirement on network dynamics. For application to networks of nodes with FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamics, we show that our new sufficient condition is tighter than those found in previous analyses that used smooth or nonsmooth Lyapunov functions. Improving the analytical conditions for when cluster synchronization will occur based on network configuration is a significant step toward facilitating understanding and control of complex networked systems.
Model reduction of nonlinear systems subject to input disturbances
Ndoye, Ibrahima
2017-07-10
The method of convex optimization is used as a tool for model reduction of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. It is shown that under some conditions the nonlinear disturbed system can be approximated by a reduced order nonlinear system with similar disturbance-output properties to the original plant. The proposed model reduction strategy preserves the nonlinearity and the input disturbance nature of the model. It guarantees a sufficiently small error between the outputs of the original and the reduced-order systems, and also maintains the properties of input-to-state stability. The matrices of the reduced order system are given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The paper concludes with a demonstration of the proposed approach on model reduction of a nonlinear electronic circuit with additive disturbances.
Anomalous diffusion in a symbolic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S; Santoro, P A
2011-01-01
In this work, we investigate some statistical properties of symbolic sequences generated by a numerical procedure in which the symbols are repeated following the power-law probability density. In this analysis, we consider that the sum of n symbols represents the position of a particle in erratic movement. This approach reveals a rich diffusive scenario characterized by non-Gaussian distribution and, depending on the power-law exponent or the procedure used to build the walker, we may have superdiffusion, subdiffusion or usual diffusion. Additionally, we use the continuous-time random walk framework to compare the analytic results with the numerical data, thereby finding good agreement. Because of its simplicity and flexibility, this model can be a candidate for describing real systems governed by power-law probability densities.
Modeling of Nonlinear Beat Signals of TAE's
Zhang, Bo; Berk, Herbert; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin
2012-03-01
Experiments on Alcator C-Mod reveal Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) together with signals at various beat frequencies, including those at twice the mode frequency. The beat frequencies are sidebands driven by quadratic nonlinear terms in the MHD equations. These nonlinear sidebands have not yet been quantified by any existing codes. We extend the AEGIS code to capture nonlinear effects by treating the nonlinear terms as a driving source in the linear MHD solver. Our goal is to compute the spatial structure of the sidebands for realistic geometry and q-profile, which can be directly compared with experiment in order to interpret the phase contrast imaging diagnostic measurements and to enable the quantitative determination of the Alfven wave amplitude in the plasma core
Model reduction tools for nonlinear structural dynamics
Slaats, P.M.A.; Jongh, de J.; Sauren, A.A.H.J.
1995-01-01
Three mode types are proposed for reducing nonlinear dynamical system equations, resulting from finite element discretizations: tangent modes, modal derivatives, and newly added static modes. Tangent modes are obtained from an eigenvalue problem with a momentary tangent stiffness matrix. Their
Lanzafame, S; Giannelli, M; Garaci, F; Floris, R; Duggento, A; Guerrisi, M; Toschi, N
2016-05-01
An increasing number of studies have aimed to compare diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-related parameters [e.g., mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)] to complementary new indexes [e.g., mean kurtosis (MK)/radial kurtosis (RK)/axial kurtosis (AK)] derived through diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in terms of their discriminative potential about tissue disease-related microstructural alterations. Given that the DTI and DKI models provide conceptually and quantitatively different estimates of the diffusion tensor, which can also depend on fitting routine, the aim of this study was to investigate model- and algorithm-dependent differences in MD/FA/RD/AD and anisotropy mode (MO) estimates in diffusion-weighted imaging of human brain white matter. The authors employed (a) data collected from 33 healthy subjects (20-59 yr, F: 15, M: 18) within the Human Connectome Project (HCP) on a customized 3 T scanner, and (b) data from 34 healthy subjects (26-61 yr, F: 5, M: 29) acquired on a clinical 3 T scanner. The DTI model was fitted to b-value =0 and b-value =1000 s/mm(2) data while the DKI model was fitted to data comprising b-value =0, 1000 and 3000/2500 s/mm(2) [for dataset (a)/(b), respectively] through nonlinear and weighted linear least squares algorithms. In addition to MK/RK/AK maps, MD/FA/MO/RD/AD maps were estimated from both models and both algorithms. Using tract-based spatial statistics, the authors tested the null hypothesis of zero difference between the two MD/FA/MO/RD/AD estimates in brain white matter for both datasets and both algorithms. DKI-derived MD/FA/RD/AD and MO estimates were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than corresponding DTI-derived estimates. All voxelwise differences extended over most of the white matter skeleton. Fractional differences between the two estimates [(DKI - DTI)/DTI] of most invariants were seen to vary with the invariant value itself as well as with MK
Radiosity diffusion model in 3D
Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin
2001-11-01
We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.
Nonlinear model of high-dose implantation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilyuk, A.
2001-01-01
The models of high-dose implantation, using the distribution functions, are relatively simple. However, they must take into account the variation of the function of distribution of the implanted ions with increasing dose [1-4]. This variation takes place owing to the fact that the increase of the concentration of the implanted ions results in a change of the properties of the target. High-dose implantation is accompanied by sputtering, volume growth, diffusion, generation of defects, formation of new phases, etc. The variation of the distribution function is determined by many factors and is not known in advance. The variation within the framework of these models [1-4] is taken into account in advance by the introduction of intuitive assumptions on the basis of implicit considerations. Therefore, these attempts should be regarded as incorrect. The model prepared here makes it possible to take into account the sputtering of the target, volume growth and additional declaration on the implanted ions. Without any assumptions in relation to the variation of the distribution function with increasing dose. In our model it is assumed that the type of distribution function for small doses in a pure target substance is the same as in substances with implanted ions. A second assumption relates to the type of the distribution function valid for small doses in the given substances. These functions are determined as a result of a large number of theoretical and experimental investigations and are well-known at the present time. They include the symmetric and nonsymmetric Gauss distribution, the Pearson distribution, and others. We examine implantation with small doses of up to 10 14 - 10 15 cm -2 when the accurately known distribution is valid
Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics Model and Design of Complex Systems
In, Visarath; Palacios, Antonio
2009-01-01
This edited book is aimed at interdisciplinary, device-oriented, applications of nonlinear science theory and methods in complex systems. In particular, applications directed to nonlinear phenomena with space and time characteristics. Examples include: complex networks of magnetic sensor systems, coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, nano-detectors, microscale devices, stochastic resonance in multi-dimensional chaotic systems, biosensors, and stochastic signal quantization. "applications of nonlinear dynamics: model and design of complex systems" brings together the work of scientists and engineers that are applying ideas and methods from nonlinear dynamics to design and fabricate complex systems.
Nonlinear Modeling of the PEMFC Based On NNARX Approach
Shan-Jen Cheng; Te-Jen Chang; Kuang-Hsiung Tan; Shou-Ling Kuo
2015-01-01
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is such a time-vary nonlinear dynamic system. The traditional linear modeling approach is hard to estimate structure correctly of PEMFC system. From this reason, this paper presents a nonlinear modeling of the PEMFC using Neural Network Auto-regressive model with eXogenous inputs (NNARX) approach. The multilayer perception (MLP) network is applied to evaluate the structure of the NNARX model of PEMFC. The validity and accurac...
Nonlinear State Space Modeling and System Identification for Electrohydraulic Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Yan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear modeling and identification of an electrohydraulic control system for improving its tracking performance. We build the nonlinear state space model for analyzing the highly nonlinear system and then develop a Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W model which consists of a static input nonlinear block with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities, a linear time-invariant dynamic block, and a static output nonlinear block with single polynomial nonlinearity to describe it. We simplify the H-W model into a linear-in-parameters structure by using the key term separation principle and then use a modified recursive least square method with iterative estimation of internal variables to identify all the unknown parameters simultaneously. It is found that the proposed H-W model approximates the actual system better than the independent Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models. The prediction error of the H-W model is about 13%, 54%, and 58% less than the Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models, respectively.
Physics constrained nonlinear regression models for time series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majda, Andrew J; Harlim, John
2013-01-01
A central issue in contemporary science is the development of data driven statistical nonlinear dynamical models for time series of partial observations of nature or a complex physical model. It has been established recently that ad hoc quadratic multi-level regression (MLR) models can have finite-time blow up of statistical solutions and/or pathological behaviour of their invariant measure. Here a new class of physics constrained multi-level quadratic regression models are introduced, analysed and applied to build reduced stochastic models from data of nonlinear systems. These models have the advantages of incorporating memory effects in time as well as the nonlinear noise from energy conserving nonlinear interactions. The mathematical guidelines for the performance and behaviour of these physics constrained MLR models as well as filtering algorithms for their implementation are developed here. Data driven applications of these new multi-level nonlinear regression models are developed for test models involving a nonlinear oscillator with memory effects and the difficult test case of the truncated Burgers–Hopf model. These new physics constrained quadratic MLR models are proposed here as process models for Bayesian estimation through Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms of low frequency behaviour in complex physical data. (paper)
Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves
Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.
2018-01-01
For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be
Model reduction of nonlinear systems subject to input disturbances
Ndoye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2017-01-01
The method of convex optimization is used as a tool for model reduction of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. It is shown that under some conditions the nonlinear disturbed system can be approximated by a reduced order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basko, D.M.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → In a one-dimensional disordered chain of oscillators all normal modes are localized. → Nonlinearity leads to chaotic dynamics. → Chaos is concentrated on rare chaotic spots. → Chaotic spots drive energy exchange between oscillators. → Macroscopic transport coefficients are obtained. - Abstract: The subject of this study is the long-time equilibration dynamics of a strongly disordered one-dimensional chain of coupled weakly anharmonic classical oscillators. It is shown that chaos in this system has a very particular spatial structure: it can be viewed as a dilute gas of chaotic spots. Each chaotic spot corresponds to a stochastic pump which drives the Arnold diffusion of the oscillators surrounding it, thus leading to their relaxation and thermalization. The most important mechanism of equilibration at long distances is provided by random migration of the chaotic spots along the chain, which bears analogy with variable-range hopping of electrons in strongly disordered solids. The corresponding macroscopic transport equations are obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Inci Cilingir Sungu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new application of the hybrid generalized differential transform and finite difference method is proposed by solving time fractional nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations. This method is a combination of the multi-time-stepping temporal generalized differential transform and the spatial finite difference methods. The procedure first converts the time-evolutionary equations into Poisson equations which are then solved using the central difference method. The temporal differential transform method as used in the paper takes care of stability and the finite difference method on the resulting equation results in a system of diagonally dominant linear algebraic equations. The Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure then used to solve the linear system thus has assured convergence. To have optimized convergence rate, numerical experiments were done by using a combination of factors involving multi-time-stepping, spatial step size, and degree of the polynomial fit in time. It is shown that the hybrid technique is reliable, accurate, and easy to apply.
Reaction-diffusion pulses: a combustion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campos, Daniel; Llebot, Josep Enric; Fort, Joaquim
2004-01-01
We focus on a reaction-diffusion approach proposed recently for experiments on combustion processes, where the heat released by combustion follows first-order reaction kinetics. This case allows us to perform an exhaustive analytical study. Specifically, we obtain the exact expressions for the speed of the thermal pulses, their maximum temperature and the condition of self-sustenance. Finally, we propose two generalizations of the model, namely, the case of several reactants burning together, and that of time-delayed heat conduction. We find an excellent agreement between our analytical results and simulations
Reaction-diffusion pulses: a combustion model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campos, Daniel [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Dept. de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterrra (Spain); Llebot, Josep Enric [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Dept. de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterrra (Spain); Fort, Joaquim [Dept. de FIsica, Univ. de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)
2004-07-02
We focus on a reaction-diffusion approach proposed recently for experiments on combustion processes, where the heat released by combustion follows first-order reaction kinetics. This case allows us to perform an exhaustive analytical study. Specifically, we obtain the exact expressions for the speed of the thermal pulses, their maximum temperature and the condition of self-sustenance. Finally, we propose two generalizations of the model, namely, the case of several reactants burning together, and that of time-delayed heat conduction. We find an excellent agreement between our analytical results and simulations.
Phenomenological modeling of nonlinear holograms based on metallic geometric metasurfaces.
Ye, Weimin; Li, Xin; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Shuang
2016-10-31
Benefiting from efficient local phase and amplitude control at the subwavelength scale, metasurfaces offer a new platform for computer generated holography with high spatial resolution. Three-dimensional and high efficient holograms have been realized by metasurfaces constituted by subwavelength meta-atoms with spatially varying geometries or orientations. Metasurfaces have been recently extended to the nonlinear optical regime to generate holographic images in harmonic generation waves. Thus far, there has been no vector field simulation of nonlinear metasurface holograms because of the tremendous computational challenge in numerically calculating the collective nonlinear responses of the large number of different subwavelength meta-atoms in a hologram. Here, we propose a general phenomenological method to model nonlinear metasurface holograms based on the assumption that every meta-atom could be described by a localized nonlinear polarizability tensor. Applied to geometric nonlinear metasurfaces, we numerically model the holographic images formed by the second-harmonic waves of different spins. We show that, in contrast to the metasurface holograms operating in the linear optical regime, the wavelength of incident fundamental light should be slightly detuned from the fundamental resonant wavelength to optimize the efficiency and quality of nonlinear holographic images. The proposed modeling provides a general method to simulate nonlinear optical devices based on metallic metasurfaces.
Nonlinear adaptive inverse control via the unified model neural network
Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Lee, Tsu-Tian
1999-03-01
In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear adaptive inverse control via a unified model neural network. In order to overcome nonsystematic design and long training time in nonlinear adaptive inverse control, we propose the approximate transformable technique to obtain a Chebyshev Polynomials Based Unified Model (CPBUM) neural network for the feedforward/recurrent neural networks. It turns out that the proposed method can use less training time to get an inverse model. Finally, we apply this proposed method to control magnetic bearing system. The experimental results show that the proposed nonlinear adaptive inverse control architecture provides a greater flexibility and better performance in controlling magnetic bearing systems.
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with Constraint Satisfactions for a Quadcopter
Wang, Ye; Ramirez-Jaime, Andres; Xu, Feng; Puig, Vicenç
2017-01-01
This paper presents a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy combined with constraint satisfactions for a quadcopter. The full dynamics of the quadcopter describing the attitude and position are nonlinear, which are quite sensitive to changes of inputs and disturbances. By means of constraint satisfactions, partial nonlinearities and modeling errors of the control-oriented model of full dynamics can be transformed into the inequality constraints. Subsequently, the quadcopter can be controlled by an NMPC controller with the updated constraints generated by constraint satisfactions. Finally, the simulation results applied to a quadcopter simulator are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
Heterotic sigma models and non-linear strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1986-01-01
The two-dimensional supersymmetric non-linear sigma models are examined with respect to the heterotic string. The paper was presented at the workshop on :Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. The non-linear sigma model with Wess-Zumino-type term, the coupling of the fermionic superfields to the sigma model, super-conformal invariance, and the supersymmetric string, are all discussed. (U.K.)
A Detailed Analytical Study of Non-Linear Semiconductor Device Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umesh Kumar
1995-01-01
junction diode have been developed. The results of computer simulated examples have been presented in each case. The non-linear lumped model for Gunn is a unified model as it describes the diffusion effects as the-domain traves from cathode to anode. An additional feature of this model is that it describes the domain extinction and nucleation phenomena in Gunn dioder with the help of a simple timing circuit. The non-linear lumped model for SCR is general and is valid under any mode of operation in any circuit environment. The memristive circuit model for p-n junction diodes is capable of simulating realistically the diode’s dynamic behavior under reverse, forward and sinusiodal operating modes. The model uses memristor, the charge-controlled resistor to mimic various second-order effects due to conductivity modulation. It is found that both storage time and fall time of the diode can be accurately predicted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Premuda, F.
1983-01-01
Two lines in improved neutron diffusion theory extending the efficiency of finite-difference diffusion codes to the field of optically small systems, are here reviewed. The firs involves the nodal solution for tensorial diffusion equation in slab geometry and tensorial formulation in parallelepiped and cylindrical gemometry; the dependence of critical eigenvalue from small slab thicknesses is also analitically investigated and finally a regularized tensorial diffusion equation is derived for slab. The other line refer to diffusion models formally unchanged with respect to the classical one, but where new size-dependent RTGB definitions for diffusion parameters are adopted, requiring that they allow to reproduce, in diffusion approach, the terms of neutron transport global balance; the trascendental equation for the buckling, arising in slab, sphere and parallelepiped geometry from the above requirement, are reported and the sizedependence of the new diffusion coefficient and extrapolated end point is investigated
Traveling Wave Solutions of Reaction-Diffusion Equations Arising in Atherosclerosis Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narcisa Apreutesei
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this short review article, two atherosclerosis models are presented, one as a scalar equation and the other one as a system of two equations. They are given in terms of reaction-diffusion equations in an infinite strip with nonlinear boundary conditions. The existence of traveling wave solutions is studied for these models. The monostable and bistable cases are introduced and analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontorovich, V.M.; Kochanov, A.E.
1980-01-01
It is demonstrated that in the case of hard injection of relativistic electrons accompanied by the joint action of synchrotron (Compton) losses and energy-dependent spatial diffusion, a spectrum with 'breaks' is formed containing universal (with index γ = 2) and diffusion regions, both independent of the injection spectrum. The effect from non-linearity of the electron spectrum is considered in averaged electromagnetic spectra for various geometries of sources (sphere, disk, arm). It is shown that an universal region (with index α = 0.5) can occur in the radiation spectrum. (orig.)
Stochastic Modelling of the Diffusion Coefficient for Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
In the paper, a new stochastic modelling of the diffusion coefficient D is presented. The modelling is based on physical understanding of the diffusion process and on some recent experimental results. The diffusion coefficients D is strongly dependent on the w/c ratio and the temperature....
A deep belief network with PLSR for nonlinear system modeling.
Qiao, Junfei; Wang, Gongming; Li, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoli
2017-10-31
Nonlinear system modeling plays an important role in practical engineering, and deep learning-based deep belief network (DBN) is now popular in nonlinear system modeling and identification because of the strong learning ability. However, the existing weights optimization for DBN is based on gradient, which always leads to a local optimum and a poor training result. In this paper, a DBN with partial least square regression (PLSR-DBN) is proposed for nonlinear system modeling, which focuses on the problem of weights optimization for DBN using PLSR. Firstly, unsupervised contrastive divergence (CD) algorithm is used in weights initialization. Secondly, initial weights derived from CD algorithm are optimized through layer-by-layer PLSR modeling from top layer to bottom layer. Instead of gradient method, PLSR-DBN can determine the optimal weights using several PLSR models, so that a better performance of PLSR-DBN is achieved. Then, the analysis of convergence is theoretically given to guarantee the effectiveness of the proposed PLSR-DBN model. Finally, the proposed PLSR-DBN is tested on two benchmark nonlinear systems and an actual wastewater treatment system as well as a handwritten digit recognition (nonlinear mapping and modeling) with high-dimension input data. The experiment results show that the proposed PLSR-DBN has better performances of time and accuracy on nonlinear system modeling than that of other methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xia, Ya-Rong; Zhang, Shun-Li; Xin, Xiang-Peng
2018-03-01
In this paper, we propose the concept of the perturbed invariant subspaces (PISs), and study the approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with weak source by the approximate generalized conditional symmetries (AGCSs) related to the PISs. Complete classification of the perturbed equations which admit the approximate generalized functional separable solutions (AGFSSs) is obtained. As a consequence, some AGFSSs to the resulting equations are explicitly constructed by way of examples.
Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology by adopting the flight data with state-of-the-art...
Sphaleron in a non-linear sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.
1989-08-01
We present an exact classical saddle point solution in a non-linear sigma model. It has a topological charge 1/2 and mediates the vacuum transition. The quantum fluctuations and the transition rate are also examined. (author)
Computational Models for Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. and Duke University propose to develop and demonstrate a new and efficient computational method of modeling nonlinear aeroelastic systems. The...
forecasting with nonlinear time series model: a monte-carlo
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PUBLICATIONS1
Carlo method of forecasting using a special nonlinear time series model, called logistic smooth transition ... We illustrate this new method using some simulation ..... in MATLAB 7.5.0. ... process (DGP) using the logistic smooth transi-.
Discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Y.
1982-12-01
A discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures is presented. The discretization is achieved through a three dimensional spring-mass system and the dynamic response obtained by direct integration of the equations of motion using central diferences. First the viability of the model is verified through the analysis of homogeneous linear structures and then its performance in the analysis of structures subjected to impulsive or impact loads, taking into account both geometrical and physical nonlinearities is evaluated. (Author) [pt
Diffuse-interface model for rapid phase transformations in nonequilibrium systems.
Galenko, Peter; Jou, David
2005-04-01
A thermodynamic approach to rapid phase transformations within a diffuse interface in a binary system is developed. Assuming an extended set of independent thermodynamic variables formed by the union of the classic set of slow variables and the space of fast variables, we introduce finiteness of the heat and solute diffusive propagation at the finite speed of the interface advancing. To describe transformations within the diffuse interface, we use the phase-field model which allows us to follow steep but smooth changes of phase within the width of the diffuse interface. Governing equations of the phase-field model are derived for the hyperbolic model, a model with memory, and a model of nonlinear evolution of transformation within the diffuse interface. The consistency of the model is proved by the verification of the validity of the condition of positive entropy production and by outcomes of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. A comparison with existing sharp-interface and diffuse-interface versions of the model is given.
Nonlinear signal processing using neural networks: Prediction and system modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapedes, A.; Farber, R.
1987-06-01
The backpropagation learning algorithm for neural networks is developed into a formalism for nonlinear signal processing. We illustrate the method by selecting two common topics in signal processing, prediction and system modelling, and show that nonlinear applications can be handled extremely well by using neural networks. The formalism is a natural, nonlinear extension of the linear Least Mean Squares algorithm commonly used in adaptive signal processing. Simulations are presented that document the additional performance achieved by using nonlinear neural networks. First, we demonstrate that the formalism may be used to predict points in a highly chaotic time series with orders of magnitude increase in accuracy over conventional methods including the Linear Predictive Method and the Gabor-Volterra-Weiner Polynomial Method. Deterministic chaos is thought to be involved in many physical situations including the onset of turbulence in fluids, chemical reactions and plasma physics. Secondly, we demonstrate the use of the formalism in nonlinear system modelling by providing a graphic example in which it is clear that the neural network has accurately modelled the nonlinear transfer function. It is interesting to note that the formalism provides explicit, analytic, global, approximations to the nonlinear maps underlying the various time series. Furthermore, the neural net seems to be extremely parsimonious in its requirements for data points from the time series. We show that the neural net is able to perform well because it globally approximates the relevant maps by performing a kind of generalized mode decomposition of the maps. 24 refs., 13 figs.
Recommendation based on trust diffusion model.
Yuan, Jinfeng; Li, Li
2014-01-01
Recommender system is emerging as a powerful and popular tool for online information relevant to a given user. The traditional recommendation system suffers from the cold start problem and the data sparsity problem. Many methods have been proposed to solve these problems, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the trust diffusion (DiffTrust) algorithm and the probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF). DiffTrust is first used to study the possible diffusions of trust between various users. It is able to make use of the implicit relationship of the trust network, thus alleviating the data sparsity problem. The probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is then employed to combine the users' tastes with their trusted friends' interests. We evaluate the algorithm on Flixster, Moviedata, and Epinions datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the recommendation based on our proposed DiffTrust + PMF model achieves high performance in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE), Recall, and F Measure.
Nonlinear dynamics new directions models and applications
Ugalde, Edgardo
2015-01-01
This book, along with its companion volume, Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Theoretical Aspects, covers topics ranging from fractal analysis to very specific applications of the theory of dynamical systems to biology. This second volume contains mostly new applications of the theory of dynamical systems to both engineering and biology. The first volume is devoted to fundamental aspects and includes a number of important new contributions as well as some review articles that emphasize new development prospects. The topics addressed in the two volumes include a rigorous treatment of fluctuations in dynamical systems, topics in fractal analysis, studies of the transient dynamics in biological networks, synchronization in lasers, and control of chaotic systems, among others. This book also: · Develops applications of nonlinear dynamics on a diversity of topics such as patterns of synchrony in neuronal networks, laser synchronization, control of chaotic systems, and the study of transient dynam...
Special class of nonlinear damping models in flexible space structures
Hu, Anren; Singh, Ramendra P.; Taylor, Lawrence W.
1991-01-01
A special class of nonlinear damping models is investigated in which the damping force is proportional to the product of positive integer or the fractional power of the absolute values of displacement and velocity. For a one-degree-of-freedom system, the classical Krylov-Bogoliubov 'averaging' method is used, whereas for a distributed system, both an ad hoc perturbation technique and the finite difference method are employed to study the effects of nonlinear damping. The results are compared with linear viscous damping models. The amplitude decrement of free vibration for a single mode system with nonlinear models depends not only on the damping ratio but also on the initial amplitude, the time to measure the response, the frequency of the system, and the powers of displacement and velocity. For the distributed system, the action of nonlinear damping is found to reduce the energy of the system and to pass energy to lower modes.
A finite element model for nonlinear shells of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, W.A.
1979-01-01
A shell-of-revolution model was developed to analyze impact problems associated with the safety analysis of nuclear material shipping containers. The nonlinear shell theory presented by Eric Reissner in 1972 was used to develop our model. Reissner's approach includes transverse shear deformation and moments turning about the middle surface normal. With these features, this approach is valid for both thin and thick shells. His theory is formulated in terms of strain and stress resultants that refer to the undeformed geometry. This nonlinear shell model is developed using the virtual work principle associated with Reissner's equilibrium equations. First, the virtual work principle is modified for incremental loading; then it is linearized by assuming that the nonlinear portions of the strains are known. By iteration, equilibrium is then approximated for each increment. A benefit of this approach is that this iteration process makes it possible to use nonlinear material properties. (orig.)
Nonlinear mirror mode dynamics: Simulations and modeling
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Califano, F.; Hellinger, Petr; Kuznetsov, E.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Trávníček, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 113, - (2008), A08219/1-A08219/20 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702; GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Grant - others:PECS(CZ) 98024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : mirror instability * nonlinear evolution * numerical simulations * magnetic holes * mirror structures * kinetic plasma instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008
A spatial structural derivative model for ultraslow diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Wei
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the ultraslow diffusion by a spatial structural derivative, in which the exponential function ex is selected as the structural function to construct the local structural derivative diffusion equation model. The analytical solution of the diffusion equation is a form of Biexponential distribution. Its corresponding mean squared displacement is numerically calculated, and increases more slowly than the logarithmic function of time. The local structural derivative diffusion equation with the structural function ex in space is an alternative physical and mathematical modeling model to characterize a kind of ultraslow diffusion.
Observational Constraints for Modeling Diffuse Molecular Clouds
Federman, S. R.
2014-02-01
Ground-based and space-borne observations of diffuse molecular clouds suggest a number of areas where further improvements to modeling efforts is warranted. I will highlight those that have the widest applicability. The range in CO fractionation caused by selective isotope photodissociation, in particular the large 12C16O/13C16O ratios observed toward stars in Ophiuchus, is not reproduced well by current models. Our ongoing laboratory measurements of oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions in CO isotopologues may help clarify the situtation. The CH+ abundance continues to draw attention. Small scale structure seen toward ζ Per may provide additional constraints on the possible synthesis routes. The connection between results from optical transitions and those from radio and sub-millimeter wave transitions requires further effort. A study of OH+ and OH toward background stars reveals that these species favor different environments. This brings to focus the need to model each cloud along the line of sight separately, and to allow the physical conditions to vary within an individual cloud, in order to gain further insight into the chemistry. Now that an extensive set of data on molecular excitation is available, the models should seek to reproduce these data to place further constraints on the modeling results.
On an adaptive time stepping strategy for solving nonlinear diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, K.; Baines, M.J.; Sweby, P.K.
1993-01-01
A new time step selection procedure is proposed for solving non- linear diffusion equations. It has been implemented in the ASWR finite element code of Lorenz and Svoboda [10] for 2D semiconductor process modelling diffusion equations. The strategy is based on equi-distributing the local truncation errors of the numerical scheme. The use of B-splines for interpolation (as well as for the trial space) results in a banded and diagonally dominant matrix. The approximate inverse of such a matrix can be provided to a high degree of accuracy by another banded matrix, which in turn can be used to work out the approximate finite difference scheme corresponding to the ASWR finite element method, and further to calculate estimates of the local truncation errors of the numerical scheme. Numerical experiments on six full simulation problems arising in semiconductor process modelling have been carried out. Results show that our proposed strategy is more efficient and better conserves the total mass. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Modeling dendrite density from magnetic resonance diffusion measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Kroenke, CD; Østergaard, Leif
2007-01-01
in this model: (i) the dendrites and axons, which are modeled as long cylinders with two diffusion coefficients, parallel (DL) and perpendicular (DT) to the cylindrical axis, and (ii) an isotropic monoexponential diffusion component describing water diffusion within and across all other structures, i.......e., in extracellular space and glia cells. The model parameters are estimated from 153 diffusion-weighted images acquired from a formalin-fixed baboon brain. A close correspondence between the data and the signal model is found, with the model parameters consistent with literature values. The model provides......Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides a noninvasive tool to probe tissue microstructure. We propose a simplified model of neural cytoarchitecture intended to capture the essential features important for water diffusion as measured by NMR. Two components contribute to the NMR signal...
Practical Soil-Shallow Foundation Model for Nonlinear Structural Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moussa Leblouba
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Soil-shallow foundation interaction models that are incorporated into most structural analysis programs generally lack accuracy and efficiency or neglect some aspects of foundation behavior. For instance, soil-shallow foundation systems have been observed to show both small and large loops under increasing amplitude load reversals. This paper presents a practical macroelement model for soil-shallow foundation system and its stability under simultaneous horizontal and vertical loads. The model comprises three spring elements: nonlinear horizontal, nonlinear rotational, and linear vertical springs. The proposed macroelement model was verified using experimental test results from large-scale model foundations subjected to small and large cyclic loading cases.
A REMARK ON FORMAL MODELS FOR NONLINEARLY ELASTIC MEMBRANE SHELLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper gives all the two-dimensional membrane models obtained from formal asymptotic analysis of the three-dimensional geometrically exact nonlinear model of a thin elastic shell made with a Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material. Therefore, the other models can be quoted as flexural nonlinear ones. The author also gives the formal equations solved by the associated stress tensor and points out that only one of those models leads, by linearization, to the “classical” linear limiting membrane model, whose juetification has already been established by a convergence theorem.
Convex models and probabilistic approach of nonlinear fatigue failure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu Zhiping; Lin Qiang; Wang Xiaojun
2008-01-01
This paper is concerned with the nonlinear fatigue failure problem with uncertainties in the structural systems. In the present study, in order to solve the nonlinear problem by convex models, the theory of ellipsoidal algebra with the help of the thought of interval analysis is applied. In terms of the inclusion monotonic property of ellipsoidal functions, the nonlinear fatigue failure problem with uncertainties can be solved. A numerical example of 25-bar truss structures is given to illustrate the efficiency of the presented method in comparison with the probabilistic approach
Traveling waves in a diffusive predator-prey model with holling type-III functional response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Wantong; Wu Shiliang
2008-01-01
We establish the existence of traveling wave solutions and small amplitude traveling wave train solutions for a reaction-diffusion system based on a predator-prey model with Holling type-III functional response. The analysis is in the three-dimensional phase space of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation system given by the diffusive predator-prey system in the traveling wave variable. The methods used to prove the results are the shooting argument, invariant manifold theory and the Hopf bifurcation theorem
2010-09-30
Hyperfast Modeling of Nonlinear Ocean Waves A. R. Osborne Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Università di Torino Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Universit?i Torino,Dipartimento di Fisica Generale,Via Pietro Giuria 1,10125 Torino, Italy, 8. PERFORMING
An efficient method for model refinement in diffuse optical tomography
Zirak, A. R.; Khademi, M.
2007-11-01
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a non-linear, ill-posed, boundary value and optimization problem which necessitates regularization. Also, Bayesian methods are suitable owing to measurements data are sparse and correlated. In such problems which are solved with iterative methods, for stabilization and better convergence, the solution space must be small. These constraints subject to extensive and overdetermined system of equations which model retrieving criteria specially total least squares (TLS) must to refine model error. Using TLS is limited to linear systems which is not achievable when applying traditional Bayesian methods. This paper presents an efficient method for model refinement using regularized total least squares (RTLS) for treating on linearized DOT problem, having maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator and Tikhonov regulator. This is done with combination Bayesian and regularization tools as preconditioner matrices, applying them to equations and then using RTLS to the resulting linear equations. The preconditioning matrixes are guided by patient specific information as well as a priori knowledge gained from the training set. Simulation results illustrate that proposed method improves the image reconstruction performance and localize the abnormally well.
A nonlinear complementarity approach for the national energy modeling system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, S.A.; Kydes, A.S.
1995-01-01
The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a large-scale mathematical model that computes equilibrium fuel prices and quantities in the U.S. energy sector. At present, to generate these equilibrium values, NEMS sequentially solves a collection of linear programs and nonlinear equations. The NEMS solution procedure then incorporates the solutions of these linear programs and nonlinear equations in a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel approach. The authors describe how the current version of NEMS can be formulated as a particular nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP), thereby possibly avoiding current convergence problems. In addition, they show that the NCP format is equally valid for a more general form of NEMS. They also describe several promising approaches for solving the NCP form of NEMS based on recent Newton type methods for general NCPs. These approaches share the feature of needing to solve their direction-finding subproblems only approximately. Hence, they can effectively exploit the sparsity inherent in the NEMS NCP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Fractal theory is introduced into the prediction of VOC diffusion coefficient. • MSFC model of the diffusion coefficient is developed for porous building materials. • The MSFC model contains detailed pore structure parameters. • The accuracy of the MSFC model is verified by independent experiments. - Abstract: Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber.
A new model of anomalous phosphorus diffusion in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budil, M.; Poetzl, H.; Stingeder, G.; Grasserbauer, M.
1989-01-01
A model is presented to describe the 'kink and tail' diffusion of phosphorus. The diffusion behaviour of phosphorus is expplained by the motion of phosphorus-interstitial and phosphorus-vacancy pairs in different charge states. The model yields the enhancement of diffusion in the tail region depending on surface concentration. Furthermore it yields the same selfdiffusion coefficient for interstitials as the gold diffusion experiments. A transformation of the diffusion equation was found to reduce the number of simulation equations. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs
Inference of a Nonlinear Stochastic Model of the Cardiorespiratory Interaction
Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Luchinsky, D. G.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P. V.
2005-03-01
We reconstruct a nonlinear stochastic model of the cardiorespiratory interaction in terms of a set of polynomial basis functions representing the nonlinear force governing system oscillations. The strength and direction of coupling and noise intensity are simultaneously inferred from a univariate blood pressure signal. Our new inference technique does not require extensive global optimization, and it is applicable to a wide range of complex dynamical systems subject to noise.
Recent Advances in Explicit Multiparametric Nonlinear Model Predictive Control
Domínguez, Luis F.
2011-01-19
In this paper we present recent advances in multiparametric nonlinear programming (mp-NLP) algorithms for explicit nonlinear model predictive control (mp-NMPC). Three mp-NLP algorithms for NMPC are discussed, based on which novel mp-NMPC controllers are derived. The performance of the explicit controllers are then tested and compared in a simulation example involving the operation of a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Modeling of nonlinear biological phenomena modeled by S-systems.
Mansouri, Majdi M; Nounou, Hazem N; Nounou, Mohamed N; Datta, Aniruddha A
2014-03-01
A central challenge in computational modeling of biological systems is the determination of the model parameters. In such cases, estimating these variables or parameters from other easily obtained measurements can be extremely useful. For example, time-series dynamic genomic data can be used to develop models representing dynamic genetic regulatory networks, which can be used to design intervention strategies to cure major diseases and to better understand the behavior of biological systems. Unfortunately, biological measurements are usually highly infected by errors that hide the important characteristics in the data. Therefore, these noisy measurements need to be filtered to enhance their usefulness in practice. This paper addresses the problem of state and parameter estimation of biological phenomena modeled by S-systems using Bayesian approaches, where the nonlinear observed system is assumed to progress according to a probabilistic state space model. The performances of various conventional and state-of-the-art state estimation techniques are compared. These techniques include the extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), particle filter (PF), and the developed variational Bayesian filter (VBF). Specifically, two comparative studies are performed. In the first comparative study, the state variables (the enzyme CadA, the model cadBA, the cadaverine Cadav and the lysine Lys for a model of the Cad System in Escherichia coli (CSEC)) are estimated from noisy measurements of these variables, and the various estimation techniques are compared by computing the estimation root mean square error (RMSE) with respect to the noise-free data. In the second comparative study, the state variables as well as the model parameters are simultaneously estimated. In this case, in addition to comparing the performances of the various state estimation techniques, the effect of the number of estimated model parameters on the accuracy and convergence of these
A non-Linear transport model for determining shale rock characteristics
Ali, Iftikhar; Malik, Nadeem
2016-04-01
Unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs consist of tight porous rocks which are characterised by nano-scale size porous networks with ultra-low permeability [1,2]. Transport of gas through them is not well understood at the present time, and realistic transport models are needed in order to determine rock properties and for estimating future gas pressure distribution in the reservoirs. Here, we consider a recently developed non-linear gas transport equation [3], ∂p-+ U ∂p- = D ∂2p-, t > 0, (1) ∂t ∂x ∂x2 complimented with suitable initial and boundary conditions, in order to determine shale rock properties such as the permeability K, the porosity φ and the tortuosity, τ. In our new model, the apparent convection velocity, U = U(p,px), and the apparent diffusivity D = D(p), are both highly non-linear functions of the pressure. The model incorporate various flow regimes (slip, surface diffusion, transition, continuum) based upon the Knudsen number Kn, and also includes Forchchiemers turbulence correction terms. In application, the model parameters and associated compressibility factors are fully pressure dependent, giving the model more realism than previous models. See [4]. Rock properties are determined by solving an inverse problem, with model parameters adjustment to minimise the error between the model simulation and available data. It is has been found that the proposed model performs better than previous models. Results and details of the model will be presented at the conference. Corresponding author: namalik@kfupm.edu.sa and nadeem_malik@cantab.net References [1] Cui, X., Bustin, A.M. and Bustin, R., "Measurements of gas permeability and diffusivity of tight reservoir rocks: different approaches and their applications", Geofluids 9, 208-223 (2009). [2] Chiba R., Fomin S., Chugunov V., Niibori Y. and Hashida T., "Numerical Simulation of Non Fickian Diffusion and Advection in a Fractured Porous Aquifer", AIP Conference Proceedings 898, 75 (2007
Fuzzy model-based servo and model following control for nonlinear systems.
Ohtake, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Wang, Hua O
2009-12-01
This correspondence presents servo and nonlinear model following controls for a class of nonlinear systems using the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model-based control approach. First, the construction method of the augmented fuzzy system for continuous-time nonlinear systems is proposed by differentiating the original nonlinear system. Second, the dynamic fuzzy servo controller and the dynamic fuzzy model following controller, which can make outputs of the nonlinear system converge to target points and to outputs of the reference system, respectively, are introduced. Finally, the servo and model following controller design conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Design examples illustrate the utility of this approach.
Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pushkarev
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.
Regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance for skin color analysis
Tsumura, Norimichi; Kawazoe, Daisuke; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Miyake, Yoichi
2008-11-01
A simple regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance is developed based on reflectance samples calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in a two-layered skin model. This reflectance model includes the values of spectral reflectance in the visible spectra for Japanese women. The modified Lambert Beer law holds in the proposed model with a modified mean free path length in non-linear density space. The averaged RMS and maximum errors of the proposed model were 1.1 and 3.1%, respectively, in the above range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubaschewski, O.
1983-01-01
The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes
Structured inverse modeling in parabolic diffusion processess
Schulz, Volker; Siebenborn, Martin; Welker, Kathrin
2014-01-01
Often, the unknown diffusivity in diffusive processes is structured by piecewise constant patches. This paper is devoted to efficient methods for the determination of such structured diffusion parameters by exploiting shape calculus. A novel shape gradient is derived in parabolic processes. Furthermore quasi-Newton techniques are used in order to accelerate shape gradient based iterations in shape space. Numerical investigations support the theoretical results.
Symmetries and discretizations of the O(3) nonlinear sigma model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flore, Raphael [TPI, Universitaet Jena (Germany)
2011-07-01
Nonlinear sigma models possess many interesting properties like asymptotic freedom, confinement or dynamical mass generation, and hence serve as toy models for QCD and other theories. We derive a formulation of the N=2 supersymmetric extension of the O(3) nonlinear sigma model in terms of constrained field variables. Starting from this formulation, it is discussed how the model can be discretized in a way that maintains as many symmetries of the theory as possible. Finally, recent numerical results related to these discretizations are presented.
Modeling and nonlinear heading control for sailing yachts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Lin; Jouffroy, Jerome
2014-01-01
This paper presents a study on the development and testing of a model-based heading controller for a sailing yacht. Using Fossen’s compact notation for marine vehicles, we first describe a nonlinear four-degree-of-freedom (DOF) dynamic model for a sailing yacht, including roll. Our model also...
Modeling and nonlinear heading control for sailing yachts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Lin; Jouffroy, Jerome
2011-01-01
This paper presents a study on the development and testing of a model-based heading controller for a sailing yacht. Using Fossen's compact notation for marine vehicles, we first describe a nonlinear 4-DOF dynamic model for a sailing yacht, including roll. Starting from this model, we then design...
Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele
2016-01-01
We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998). In...
Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1997-11-01
Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.
Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasilainen, K.
1997-11-01
Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories
A Versatile Nonlinear Method for Predictive Modeling
Liou, Meng-Sing; Yao, Weigang
2015-01-01
As computational fluid dynamics techniques and tools become widely accepted for realworld practice today, it is intriguing to ask: what areas can it be utilized to its potential in the future. Some promising areas include design optimization and exploration of fluid dynamics phenomena (the concept of numerical wind tunnel), in which both have the common feature where some parameters are varied repeatedly and the computation can be costly. We are especially interested in the need for an accurate and efficient approach for handling these applications: (1) capturing complex nonlinear dynamics inherent in a system under consideration and (2) versatility (robustness) to encompass a range of parametric variations. In our previous paper, we proposed to use first-order Taylor expansion collected at numerous sampling points along a trajectory and assembled together via nonlinear weighting functions. The validity and performance of this approach was demonstrated for a number of problems with a vastly different input functions. In this study, we are especially interested in enhancing the method's accuracy; we extend it to include the second-orer Taylor expansion, which however requires a complicated evaluation of Hessian matrices for a system of equations, like in fluid dynamics. We propose a method to avoid these Hessian matrices, while maintaining the accuracy. Results based on the method are presented to confirm its validity.
Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS
Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam
2013-01-01
Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included. PMID:23882134
An Improved Nonlinear Five-Point Model for Photovoltaic Modules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakaros Bogning Dongue
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an improved nonlinear five-point model capable of analytically describing the electrical behaviors of a photovoltaic module for each generic operating condition of temperature and solar irradiance. The models used to replicate the electrical behaviors of operating PV modules are usually based on some simplified assumptions which provide convenient mathematical model which can be used in conventional simulation tools. Unfortunately, these assumptions cause some inaccuracies, and hence unrealistic economic returns are predicted. As an alternative, we used the advantages of a nonlinear analytical five-point model to take into account the nonideal diode effects and nonlinear effects generally ignored, which PV modules operation depends on. To verify the capability of our method to fit PV panel characteristics, the procedure was tested on three different panels. Results were compared with the data issued by manufacturers and with the results obtained using the five-parameter model proposed by other authors.
Modelling Bourdieu: An extension of the Axelrod cultural diffusion model
Trigg, Andrew B.; Bertie, Andrew J.; Himmelweit, Susan F.
2008-01-01
The contribution to the social theory of consumption of the late Pierre Bourdieu has been widely recognized, but not fully absorbed by the economics discipline. To address this lacuna, an agent-based model of Bourdieu's social theory is developed by extending Axelrod's cultural diffusion model. Bourdieu's theory is decomposed into two components: a capital effect on social interaction and an innovation effect. Whereas simulations of the capital effect are found to have a key role in the repro...
Study of the nonlinear imperfect software debugging model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jinyong; Wu, Zhibo
2016-01-01
In recent years there has been a dramatic proliferation of research on imperfect software debugging phenomena. Software debugging is a complex process and is affected by a variety of factors, including the environment, resources, personnel skills, and personnel psychologies. Therefore, the simple assumption that debugging is perfect is inconsistent with the actual software debugging process, wherein a new fault can be introduced when removing a fault. Furthermore, the fault introduction process is nonlinear, and the cumulative number of nonlinearly introduced faults increases over time. Thus, this paper proposes a nonlinear, NHPP imperfect software debugging model in consideration of the fact that fault introduction is a nonlinear process. The fitting and predictive power of the NHPP-based proposed model are validated through related experiments. Experimental results show that this model displays better fitting and predicting performance than the traditional NHPP-based perfect and imperfect software debugging models. S-confidence bounds are set to analyze the performance of the proposed model. This study also examines and discusses optimal software release-time policy comprehensively. In addition, this research on the nonlinear process of fault introduction is significant given the recent surge of studies on software-intensive products, such as cloud computing and big data. - Highlights: • Fault introduction is a nonlinear changing process during the debugging phase. • The assumption that the process of fault introduction is nonlinear is credible. • Our proposed model can better fit and accurately predict software failure behavior. • Research on fault introduction case is significant to software-intensive products.
An extended five-stream model for diffusion of ion-implanted dopants in monocrystalline silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khina, B.B.
2007-01-01
Low-energy high-dose ion implantation of different dopants (P, Sb, As, B and others) into monocrystalline silicon with subsequent thermal annealing is used for the formation of ultra-shallow p-n junctions in modern VLSI circuit technology. During annealing, dopant activation and diffusion in silicon takes place. The experimentally observed phenomenon of transient enhanced diffusion (TED), which is typically ascribed to the interaction of diffusing species with non-equilibrium point defects accumulated in silicon due to ion damage, and formation of small clusters and extended defects, hinders further down scaling of p-n junctions in VLSI circuits. TED is currently a subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigation in many binary and multicomponent systems. However, the state-of-the-art mathematical models of dopant diffusion, which are based on the so-called 'five-stream' approach, and modern TCAD software packages such as SUPREM-4 (by Silvaco Data Systems, Ltd.) that implement these models encounter severe difficulties in describing TED. Solving the intricate problem of TED suppression and development of novel regimes of ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing is impossible without elaboration of new mathematical models and computer simulation of this complex phenomenon. In this work, an extended five-stream model for diffusion in silicon is developed which takes into account all possible charge states of point defects (vacancies and silicon self-interstitials) and diffusing pairs 'dopant atom-vacancy' and 'dopant atom-silicon self-interstitial'. The model includes the drift terms for differently charged point defects and pairs in the internal electric field and the kinetics of interaction between unlike 'species' (generation and annihilation of pairs and annihilation of point defects). Expressions for diffusion coefficients and numerous sink/source terms that appear in the non-linear, non-steady-state reaction-diffusion equations are derived
Modelling and control of a nonlinear magnetostrictive actuator system
Ramli, M. H. M.; Majeed, A. P. P. Abdul; Anuar, M. A. M.; Mohamed, Z.
2018-04-01
This paper explores the implementation of a feedforward control method to a nonlinear control system, in particular, Magnetostrictive Actuators (MA) that has excellent properties of energy conversion between the mechanical and magnetic form through magnetostriction effects which could be used in actuating and sensing application. MA is known to exhibit hysteresis behaviour and it is rate dependent (the level of hysteresis depends closely on the rate of input excitation frequency). This is, nonetheless, an undesirable behaviour and has to be eliminated in realising high precision application. The MA is modelled by a phenomenological modelling approach via Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) operator to characterise the hysteresis nonlinearities. A feedforward control strategy is designed and implemented to linearize and eliminate the hysteresis by model inversion. The results show that the P-I operator has the capability to model the hysteretic nonlinearity of MA with an acceptable accuracy. Furthermore, the proposed control scheme has demonstrated to be effective in providing superior trajectory tracking.
A Simple Model for Nonlinear Confocal Ultrasonic Beams
Zhang, Dong; Zhou, Lin; Si, Li-Sheng; Gong, Xiu-Fen
2007-01-01
A confocally and coaxially arranged pair of focused transmitter and receiver represents one of the best geometries for medical ultrasonic imaging and non-invasive detection. We develop a simple theoretical model for describing the nonlinear propagation of a confocal ultrasonic beam in biological tissues. On the basis of the parabolic approximation and quasi-linear approximation, the nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is solved by using the angular spectrum approach. Gaussian superposition technique is applied to simplify the solution, and an analytical solution for the second harmonics in the confocal ultrasonic beam is presented. Measurements are performed to examine the validity of the theoretical model. This model provides a preliminary model for acoustic nonlinear microscopy.
Modeling TAE Response To Nonlinear Drives
Zhang, Bo; Berk, Herbert; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin
2012-10-01
Experiment has detected the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) with signals at twice the eigenfrequency.These harmonic modes arise from the second order perturbation in amplitude of the MHD equation for the linear modes that are driven the energetic particle free energy. The structure of TAE in realistic geometry can be calculated by generalizing the linear numerical solver (AEGIS package). We have have inserted all the nonlinear MHD source terms, where are quadratic in the linear amplitudes, into AEGIS code. We then invert the linear MHD equation at the second harmonic frequency. The ratio of amplitudes of the first and second harmonic terms are used to determine the internal field amplitude. The spatial structure of energy and density distribution are investigated. The results can be directly employed to compare with experiments and determine the Alfven wave amplitude in the plasma region.
Modeling Autoregressive Processes with Moving-Quantiles-Implied Nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isao Ishida
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce and investigate some properties of a class of nonlinear time series models based on the moving sample quantiles in the autoregressive data generating process. We derive a test fit to detect this type of nonlinearity. Using the daily realized volatility data of Standard & Poor’s 500 (S&P 500 and several other indices, we obtained good performance using these models in an out-of-sample forecasting exercise compared with the forecasts obtained based on the usual linear heterogeneous autoregressive and other models of realized volatility.
Dissipative quantum dynamics and nonlinear sigma-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, V.E.
1992-01-01
Sedov variational principle which is the generalization of the least action principle for the dissipative and irreversible processes and the classical dissipative mechanics in the phase space is considered. Quantum dynamics for the dissipative and irreversible processes is constructed. As an example of the dissipative quantum theory the nonlinear two-dimensional sigma-model is considered. The conformal anomaly of the energy momentum tensor trace for closed bosonic string on the affine-metric manifold is investigated. The two-loop metric beta-function for nonlinear dissipative sigma-model was calculated. The results are compared with the ultraviolet two-loop conterterms for affine-metric sigma model. 71 refs
Study of a diffusion flamelet model, with preferential diffusion effects included
Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Bongers, H.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.
2005-01-01
The non-premixed flamelet model of Peters [1] (model1), which does not include preferential diffusion effects is investigated. Two similar models are presented, but without the assumption of unity Lewis numbers. One of these models was derived by Peters & Pitsch [2] (model2), while the other one was
Diffusion coefficient adaptive correction in Lagrangian puff model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Wenji; Wang Dezhong; Ma Yuanwei; Ji Zhilong
2014-01-01
Lagrangian puff model is widely used in the decision support system for nuclear emergency management. The diffusion coefficient is one of the key parameters impacting puff model. An adaptive method was proposed in this paper, which could correct the diffusion coefficient in Lagrangian puff model, and it aimed to improve the accuracy of calculating the nuclide concentration distribution. This method used detected concentration data, meteorological data and source release data to estimate the actual diffusion coefficient with least square method. The diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method was evaluated by Kincaid data in MVK, and was compared with traditional Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) diffusion scheme method. The results indicate that this diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method can improve the accuracy of Lagrangian puff model. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chambarel, A.; Pumborios, M.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that many engineering problems concern the determination of a steady state solution in the case with strong thermal gradients, and results obtained using the finite-element technique are sometimes inaccurate, particularly for nonlinear problems with unadapted meshes. Building on previous results in linear problems, we propose an autoadaptive technique for nonlinear cases that uses quasi-Newtonian iterations to reevaluate an interpolation error estimation. The authors perfected an automatic refinement technique to solve the nonlinear thermal problem of temperature calculus in a cast-iron cylinder head of a diesel engine
Diffusion models in metamorphic thermo chronology: philosophy and methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munha, Jose Manuel; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta
1999-01-01
Understanding kinetics of diffusion is of major importance to the interpretation of isotopic ages in metamorphic rocks. This paper provides a review of concepts and methodologies involved on the various diffusion models that can be applied to radiogenic systems in cooling rocks. The central concept of closure temperature is critically discussed and quantitative estimates for the various diffusion models are evaluated, in order to illustrate the controlling factors and the limits of their practical application. (author)
A Comparative Study Of Stock Price Forecasting Using Nonlinear Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diteboho Xaba
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study compared the in-sample forecasting accuracy of three forecasting nonlinear models namely: the Smooth Transition Regression (STR model, the Threshold Autoregressive (TAR model and the Markov-switching Autoregressive (MS-AR model. Nonlinearity tests were used to confirm the validity of the assumptions of the study. The study used model selection criteria, SBC to select the optimal lag order and for the selection of appropriate models. The Mean Square Error (MSE, Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE served as the error measures in evaluating the forecasting ability of the models. The MS-AR models proved to perform well with lower error measures as compared to LSTR and TAR models in most cases.
forecasting with nonlinear time series model: a monte-carlo
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PUBLICATIONS1
erated recursively up to any step greater than one. For nonlinear time series model, point forecast for step one can be done easily like in the linear case but forecast for a step greater than or equal to ..... London. Franses, P. H. (1998). Time series models for business and Economic forecasting, Cam- bridge University press.
Nonlinear Dynamics of a Helicopter Model in Ground Resonance
Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.
1985-01-01
An approximate theoretical method is presented which determined the limit cycle behavior of a helicopter model which has one or two nonlinear dampers. The relationship during unstable ground resonance oscillations between lagging motion of the blades and fuselage motion is discussed. An experiment was carried out on using a helicopter scale model. The experimental results agree with those of the theoretical analysis.
Linear and Nonlinear Career Models: Metaphors, Paradigms, and Ideologies.
Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.
1991-01-01
Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…
Modeling of nonlinear responses for reciprocal transducers involving polarization switching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willatzen, Morten; Wang, Linxiang
2007-01-01
Nonlinearities and hysteresis effects in a reciprocal PZT transducer are examined by use of a dynamical mathematical model on the basis of phase-transition theory. In particular, we consider the perovskite piezoelectric ceramic in which the polarization process in the material can be modeled...... by Landau theory for the first-order phase transformation, in which each polarization state is associated with a minimum of the Landau free-energy function. Nonlinear constitutive laws are obtained by using thermodynamical equilibrium conditions, and hysteretic behavior of the material can be modeled...... intrinsically. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory is used in the parameter identification involving hysteresis effects. We use the Chebyshev collocation method in the numerical simulations. The elastic field is assumed to be coupled linearly with other fields, and the nonlinearity is in the E-D coupling...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahnam Javadi
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the $(G'/G$-expansion method is applied to solve a biological reaction-convection-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. Exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by this method. This scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential equations.
Modelling Nanoparticle Diffusion into Cancer Tumors
Podduturi, Vishwa Priya; Derosa, Pedro
2011-03-01
Cancer is one of the major, potentially deadly diseases and has been for years. Non-specific delivery of the drug can damage healthy tissue seriously affecting in many cases the patient's living condition. Nanoparticles are being used for a targeted drug delivery thereby reducing the dose. In addition, metallic nanoparticles are being used in thermal treatment of cancer cells where nanoparticles help concentrate heat in the tumor and away from living tissue. We proposed a model that combines random walk with diffusion principles. The particle drift velocity is taken from the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the velocity profile of the particle at the pores in the capillary wall is obtained using the Coventorware software. Pressure gradient and concentration gradient through the capillary wall are considered. Simulations are performed in Matlab using the Monte Carlo technique. Number of particles leaving the blood vessel through a pore is obtained as a function of blood pressure, the osmotic pressure, temperature, particle concentration, blood vessel radius, and pore size, and the relative effect of each of the parameters is discussed.
A variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Xiaoting
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper pays attention to develop a variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion. Previous investigations have indicated that the medium structure, fractal dimension or porosity may change with time or space during solute transport processes, results in time or spatial dependent anomalous diffusion phenomena. Hereby, this study makes an attempt to introduce a variable-order fractal derivative diffusion model, in which the index of fractal derivative depends on temporal moment or spatial position, to characterize the above mentioned anomalous diffusion (or transport processes. Compared with other models, the main advantages in description and the physical explanation of new model are explored by numerical simulation. Further discussions on the dissimilitude such as computational efficiency, diffusion behavior and heavy tail phenomena of the new model and variable-order fractional derivative model are also offered.
A consistent transported PDF model for treating differential molecular diffusion
Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Pei
2016-11-01
Differential molecular diffusion is a fundamentally significant phenomenon in all multi-component turbulent reacting or non-reacting flows caused by the different rates of molecular diffusion of energy and species concentrations. In the transported probability density function (PDF) method, the differential molecular diffusion can be treated by using a mean drift model developed by McDermott and Pope. This model correctly accounts for the differential molecular diffusion in the scalar mean transport and yields a correct DNS limit of the scalar variance production. The model, however, misses the molecular diffusion term in the scalar variance transport equation, which yields an inconsistent prediction of the scalar variance in the transported PDF method. In this work, a new model is introduced to remedy this problem that can yield a consistent scalar variance prediction. The model formulation along with its numerical implementation is discussed, and the model validation is conducted in a turbulent mixing layer problem.
Diffuse radiation models and monthly-average, daily, diffuse data for a wide latitude range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopinathan, K.K.; Soler, A.
1995-01-01
Several years of measured data on global and diffuse radiation and sunshine duration for 40 widely spread locations in the latitude range 36° S to 60° N are used to develop and test models for estimating monthly-mean, daily, diffuse radiation on horizontal surfaces. Applicability of the clearness-index (K) and sunshine fraction (SSO) models for diffuse estimation and the effect of combining several variables into a single multilinear equation are tested. Correlations connecting the diffuse to global fraction (HdH) with K and SSO predict Hd values more accurately than their separate use. Among clearness-index and sunshine-fraction models, SSO models are found to have better accuracy if correlations are developed for wide latitude ranges. By including a term for declinations in the correlation, the accuracy of the estimated data can be marginally improved. The addition of latitude to the equation does not help to improve the accuracy further. (author)
An analog model for quantum lightcone fluctuations in nonlinear optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, L.H.; De Lorenci, V.A.; Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N.F.
2013-01-01
We propose an analog model for quantum gravity effects using nonlinear dielectrics. Fluctuations of the spacetime lightcone are expected in quantum gravity, leading to variations in the flight times of pulses. This effect can also arise in a nonlinear material. We propose a model in which fluctuations of a background electric field, such as that produced by a squeezed photon state, can cause fluctuations in the effective lightcone for probe pulses. This leads to a variation in flight times analogous to that in quantum gravity. We make some numerical estimates which suggest that the effect might be large enough to be observable. - Highlights: ► Lightcone fluctuations, quantum fluctuations of the effective speed of light, are a feature of quantum gravity. ► Nonlinear dielectrics have a variable speed of light, analogous to the effects of gravity. ► Fluctuating electric fields create the effect of lightcone fluctuations in a nonlinear material. ► We propose to use squeezed light in a nonlinear material as an analog model of lightcone fluctuations. ► Variation in the speed of propagation of pulses is the observational signature of lightcone fluctuations.
Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Langevin-Type Piezoelectric Transducers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolás Peréz Alvarez
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Langevin transducers are employed in several applications, such as power ultrasound systems, naval hydrophones, and high-displacement actuators. Nonlinear effects can influence their performance, especially at high vibration amplitude levels. These nonlinear effects produce variations in the resonant frequency, harmonics of the excitation frequency, in addition to loss of symmetry in the frequency response and “frequency domain hysteresis”. In this context, this paper presents a simplified nonlinear dynamic model of power ultrasound transducers requiring only two parameters for simulating the most relevant nonlinear effects. One parameter reproduces the changes in the resonance frequency and the other introduces the dependence of the frequency response on the history of the system. The piezoelectric constitutive equations are extended by a linear dependence of the elastic constant on the mechanical displacement amplitude. For introducing the frequency hysteresis, the elastic constant is computed by combining the current value of the mechanical amplitude with the previous state amplitude. The model developed in this work is applied for predicting the dynamic responses of a 26 kHz ultrasonic transducer. The comparison of theoretical and experimental responses, obtained at several input voltages around the tuned frequency, shows a good agreement, indicating that the model can accurately describe the transducer nonlinear behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuehui Yin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The traditional integer-order partial differential equations and gradient regularization based image denoising techniques often suffer from staircase effect, speckle artifacts, and the loss of image contrast and texture details. To address these issues, in this paper, a difference curvature driven fractional anisotropic diffusion for image noise removal is presented, which uses two new techniques, fractional calculus and difference curvature, to describe the intensity variations in images. The fractional-order derivatives information of an image can deal well with the textures of the image and achieve a good tradeoff between eliminating speckle artifacts and restraining staircase effect. The difference curvature constructed by the second order derivatives along the direction of gradient of an image and perpendicular to the gradient can effectively distinguish between ramps and edges. Fourier transform technique is also proposed to compute the fractional-order derivative. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed denoising model can avoid speckle artifacts and staircase effect and preserve important features such as curvy edges, straight edges, ramps, corners, and textures. They are obviously superior to those of traditional integral based methods. The experimental results also reveal that our proposed model yields a good visual effect and better values of MSSIM and PSNR.
Note on off-shell relations in nonlinear sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Gang; Du, Yi-Jian; Li, Shuyi; Liu, Hanqing
2015-01-01
In this note, we investigate relations between tree-level off-shell currents in nonlinear sigma model. Under Cayley parametrization, all odd-point currents vanish. We propose and prove a generalized U(1) identity for even-point currents. The off-shell U(1) identity given in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2014)061 is a special case of the generalized identity studied in this note. The on-shell limit of this identity is equivalent with the on-shell KK relation. Thus this relation provides the full off-shell correspondence of tree-level KK relation in nonlinear sigma model.
Likelihood-Based Inference in Nonlinear Error-Correction Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbæk, Anders
We consider a class of vector nonlinear error correction models where the transfer function (or loadings) of the stationary relation- ships is nonlinear. This includes in particular the smooth transition models. A general representation theorem is given which establishes the dynamic properties...... and a linear trend in general. Gaussian likelihood-based estimators are considered for the long- run cointegration parameters, and the short-run parameters. Asymp- totic theory is provided for these and it is discussed to what extend asymptotic normality and mixed normaity can be found. A simulation study...
Nonlinear thermal reduced model for Microwave Circuit Analysis
Chang, Christophe; Sommet, Raphael; Quéré, Raymond; Dueme, Ph.
2004-01-01
With the constant increase of transistor power density, electro thermal modeling is becoming a necessity for accurate prediction of device electrical performances. For this reason, this paper deals with a methodology to obtain a precise nonlinear thermal model based on Model Order Reduction of a three dimensional thermal Finite Element (FE) description. This reduced thermal model is based on the Ritz vector approach which ensure the steady state solution in every case. An equi...
Diffuse interface methods for multiphase flow modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamet, D.
2004-01-01
Full text of publication follows:Nuclear reactor safety programs need to get a better description of some stages of identified incident or accident scenarios. For some of them, such as the reflooding of the core or the dryout of fuel rods, the heat, momentum and mass transfers taking place at the scale of droplets or bubbles are part of the key physical phenomena for which a better description is needed. Experiments are difficult to perform at these very small scales and direct numerical simulations is viewed as a promising way to give new insight into these complex two-phase flows. This type of simulations requires numerical methods that are accurate, efficient and easy to run in three space dimensions and on parallel computers. Despite many years of development, direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows is still very challenging, mostly because it requires solving moving boundary problems. To avoid this major difficulty, a new class of numerical methods is arising, called diffuse interface methods. These methods are based on physical theories dating back to van der Waals and mostly used in materials science. In these methods, interfaces separating two phases are modeled as continuous transitions zones instead of surfaces of discontinuity. Since all the physical variables encounter possibly strong but nevertheless always continuous variations across the interfacial zones, these methods virtually eliminate the difficult moving boundary problem. We show that these methods lead to a single-phase like system of equations, which makes it easier to code in 3D and to make parallel compared to more classical methods. The first method presented is dedicated to liquid-vapor flows with phase-change. It is based on the van der Waals' theory of capillarity. This method has been used to study nucleate boiling of a pure fluid and of dilute binary mixtures. We discuss the importance of the choice and the meaning of the order parameter, i.e. a scalar which discriminates one
Asymptotic solutions of diffusion models for risk reserves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Shao
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We study a family of diffusion models for risk reserves which account for the investment income earned and for the inflation experienced on claim amounts. After we defined the process of the conditional probability of ruin over finite time and imposed the appropriate boundary conditions, classical results from the theory of diffusion processes turn the stochastic differential equation to a special class of initial and boundary value problems defined by a linear diffusion equation. Armed with asymptotic analysis and perturbation theory, we obtain the asymptotic solutions of the diffusion models (possibly degenerate governing the conditional probability of ruin over a finite time in terms of interest rate.
Lévy flight with absorption: A model for diffusing diffusivity with long tails
Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.
2017-03-01
We consider diffusion of a particle in rearranging environment, so that the diffusivity of the particle is a stochastic function of time. In our previous model of "diffusing diffusivity" [Jain and Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016), 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b01527], it was shown that the mean square displacement of particle remains Fickian, i.e., ∝T at all times, but the probability distribution of particle displacement is not Gaussian at all times. It is exponential at short times and crosses over to become Gaussian only in a large time limit in the case where the distribution of D in that model has a steady state limit which is exponential, i.e., πe(D ) ˜e-D /D0 . In the present study, we model the diffusivity of a particle as a Lévy flight process so that D has a power-law tailed distribution, viz., πe(D ) ˜D-1 -α with 0 <α <1 . We find that in the short time limit, the width of displacement distribution is proportional to √{T }, implying that the diffusion is Fickian. But for long times, the width is proportional to T1 /2 α which is a characteristic of anomalous diffusion. The distribution function for the displacement of the particle is found to be a symmetric stable distribution with a stability index 2 α which preserves its shape at all times.
Testing and Inference in Nonlinear Cointegrating Vector Error Correction Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbæk, Anders
In this paper, we consider a general class of vector error correction models which allow for asymmetric and non-linear error correction. We provide asymptotic results for (quasi-)maximum likelihood (QML) based estimators and tests. General hypothesis testing is considered, where testing...... of non-stationary non-linear time series models. Thus the paper provides a full asymptotic theory for estimators as well as standard and non-standard test statistics. The derived asymptotic results prove to be new compared to results found elsewhere in the literature due to the impact of the estimated...... symmetric non-linear error correction considered. A simulation study shows that the fi…nite sample properties of the bootstrapped tests are satisfactory with good size and power properties for reasonable sample sizes....
Testing and Inference in Nonlinear Cointegrating Vector Error Correction Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbek, Anders
In this paper, we consider a general class of vector error correction models which allow for asymmetric and non-linear error correction. We provide asymptotic results for (quasi-)maximum likelihood (QML) based estimators and tests. General hypothesis testing is considered, where testing...... of non-stationary non-linear time series models. Thus the paper provides a full asymptotic theory for estimators as well as standard and non-standard test statistics. The derived asymptotic results prove to be new compared to results found elsewhere in the literature due to the impact of the estimated...... symmetric non-linear error correction are considered. A simulation study shows that the finite sample properties of the bootstrapped tests are satisfactory with good size and power properties for reasonable sample sizes....
Mathematical models for suspension bridges nonlinear structural instability
Gazzola, Filippo
2015-01-01
This work provides a detailed and up-to-the-minute survey of the various stability problems that can affect suspension bridges. In order to deduce some experimental data and rules on the behavior of suspension bridges, a number of historical events are first described, in the course of which several questions concerning their stability naturally arise. The book then surveys conventional mathematical models for suspension bridges and suggests new nonlinear alternatives, which can potentially supply answers to some stability questions. New explanations are also provided, based on the nonlinear structural behavior of bridges. All the models and responses presented in the book employ the theory of differential equations and dynamical systems in the broader sense, demonstrating that methods from nonlinear analysis can allow us to determine the thresholds of instability.
Modeling and non-linear responses of MEMS capacitive accelerometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sri Harsha C.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of an electrically actuated beam has been illustrated when the electrostatic-ally actuated micro-cantilever beam is separated from the electrode by a moderately large gap for two distinct types of geometric configurations of MEMS accelerometer. Higher order nonlinear terms have been taken into account for studying the pull in voltage analysis. A nonlinear model of gas film squeezing damping, another source of nonlinearity in MEMS devices is included in obtaining the dynamic responses. Moreover, in the present work, the possible source of nonlinearities while formulating the mathematical model of a MEMS accelerometer and their influences on the dynamic responses have been investigated. The theoretical results obtained by using MATLAB has been verified with the results obtained in FE software and has been found in good agreement. Criterion towards stable micro size accelerometer for each configuration has been investigated. This investigation clearly provides an understanding of nonlinear static and dynamics characteristics of electrostatically micro cantilever based device in MEMS.
Modelling of a bridge-shaped nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gafforelli, G; Corigliano, A; Xu, R; Kim, S G
2013-01-01
Piezoelectric MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) energy harvesting is an attractive technology for harvesting small magnitudes of energy from ambient vibrations. Increasing the operating frequency bandwidth of such devices is one of the major issues for real world applications. A MEMS-scale doubly clamped nonlinear beam resonator is designed and developed to demonstrate very wide bandwidth and high power density. In this paper a first complete theoretical discussion of nonlinear resonating piezoelectric energy harvesting is provided. The sectional behaviour of the beam is studied through the Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) specifically modified to introduce the piezoelectric coupling and nonlinear Green-Lagrange strain tensor. A lumped parameter model is built through Rayleigh-Ritz Method and the resulting nonlinear coupled equations are solved in the frequency domain through the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM). Finally, the influence of external load resistance on the dynamic behaviour is studied. The theoretical model shows that nonlinear resonant harvesters have much wider power bandwidth than that of linear resonators but their maximum power is still bounded by the mechanical damping as is the case for linear resonating harvesters
Fractional diffusion models of transport in magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.
2005-01-01
Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas deviates from the standard diffusion paradigm. Some examples include the confinement time scaling in L-mode plasmas, rapid pulse propagation phenomena, and inward transport in off-axis fueling experiments. The limitations of the diffusion paradigm can be traced back to the restrictive assumptions in which it is based. In particular, Fick's law, one of the cornerstones of diffusive transport, assumes that the fluxes only depend on local quantities, i. e. the spatial gradient of the field (s). another key issue is the Markovian assumption that neglects memory effects. Also, at a microscopic level, standard diffusion assumes and underlying Gaussian, uncorrelated stochastic process (i. e. a Brownian random walk) with well defined characteristic spatio-temporal scales. Motivated by the need to develop models of non-diffusive transport, we discuss here a class of transport models base on the use of fractional derivative operators. The models incorporates in a unified way non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian processes or memory effects, and non-diffusive scaling. At a microscopic level, the models describe an underlying stochastic process without characteristic spatio-temporal scales that generalizes the Brownian random walk. As a concrete case study to motivate and test the model, we consider transport of tracers in three-dimensional, pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We show that in this system transport is non-diffusive and cannot be described in the context of the standard diffusion parading. In particular, the probability density function (pdf) of the radial displacements of tracers is strongly non-Gaussian with algebraic decaying tails, and the moments of the tracer displacements exhibit super-diffusive scaling. there is quantitative agreement between the turbulence transport calculations and the proposed fractional diffusion model. In particular, the model
Diffusion of hydrous species in model basaltic melt
Zhang, Li; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Qinxia; Ding, Jiale; Ni, Huaiwei
2017-10-01
Water diffusion in Fe-free model basaltic melt with up to 2 wt% H2O was investigated at 1658-1846 K and 1 GPa in piston-cylinder apparatus using both hydration and diffusion couple techniques. Diffusion profiles measured by FTIR are consistent with a model in which both molecular H2O (H2Om) and hydroxyl (OH) contribute to water diffusion. OH diffusivity is roughly 13% of H2Om diffusivity, showing little dependence on temperature or water concentration. Water diffusion is dominated by the motion of OH until total H2O (H2Ot) concentration reaches 1 wt%. The dependence of apparent H2Ot diffusivity on H2Ot concentration appears to be overestimated by a previous study on MORB melt, but H2Ot diffusivity at 1 wt% H2Ot in basaltic melt is still greater than those in rhyolitic to andesitic melts. The appreciable contribution of OH to water diffusion in basaltic melt can be explained by enhanced mobility of OH, probably associated with the development of free hydroxyl bonded with network-modifying cations, as well as higher OH concentration. Calculation based on the Nernst-Einstein equation demonstrates that OH may serve as an effective charge carrier in hydrous basaltic melt, which could partly account for the previously observed strong influence of water on electrical conductivity of basaltic melt.
Diffusion properties of a guiding center plasma in a model electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettini, M.; Vulpiani, A.; Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.; De Leener, M.; Orban, J.
1986-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed to calculate the diffusion coefficient of several hundreds of charged particles across a strong magnetic field B, due to a known spectrum of electrostatic fluctuations. The results have been compared with the turbulent diffusion theory proposed by Misguich et al. The equation of motion is solved with a model electrostatic potential. This potential is also the Hamiltonian of this chaotic non-autonomous system: positive Lyapunov exponents are found in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The absolute diffusion coefficients found in two different models exhibit a transition between two scaling regions: a classical scaling at low amplitudes (D ∼ E 2 /B 2 ), and a Bohm scaling at higher amplitudes (D ∼ E/B), in agreement with the predictions for these models. The value of the diffusion coefficient obtained in the isotropic model shows a satisfactory agreement with the theory. The study of the relative diffusion of initially close particles yields a clear quantitative confirmation of the clump effect and of the validity of the theoretical treatment of such nonlinearities. (26 fig, 20 refs)
Stochastic modeling and simulation of reaction-diffusion system with Hill function dynamics.
Chen, Minghan; Li, Fei; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Young
2017-03-14
Stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems presents great challenges for spatiotemporal biological modeling and simulation. One widely used framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems is reaction diffusion master equation (RDME). Previous studies have discovered that for the RDME, when discretization size approaches zero, reaction time for bimolecular reactions in high dimensional domains tends to infinity. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the 1D domain, highly nonlinear reaction dynamics given by Hill function may also have dramatic change when discretization size is smaller than a critical value. Moreover, we discuss methods to avoid this problem: smoothing over space, fixed length smoothing over space and a hybrid method. Our analysis reveals that the switch-like Hill dynamics reduces to a linear function of discretization size when the discretization size is small enough. The three proposed methods could correctly (under certain precision) simulate Hill function dynamics in the microscopic RDME system.
Nonlinear Dynamic Model of PMBLDC Motor Considering Core Losses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fasil, Muhammed; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech
2017-01-01
The phase variable model is used commonly when simulating a motor drive system with a three-phase permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor. The phase variable model neglects core losses and this affects its accuracy when modelling fractional-slot machines. The inaccuracy of phase variable mod...... on the detailed analysis of the flux path and the variation of flux in different components of the machine. A prototype of fractional slot axial flux PMBLDC in-wheel motor is used to assess the proposed nonlinear dynamic model....... of fractional-slot machines can be attributed to considerable armature flux harmonics, which causes an increased core loss. This study proposes a nonlinear phase variable model of PMBLDC motor that considers the core losses induced in the stator and the rotor. The core loss model is developed based...
Global Nonlinear Model Identification with Multivariate Splines
De Visser, C.C.
2011-01-01
At present, model based control systems play an essential role in many aspects of modern society. Application areas of model based control systems range from food processing to medical imaging, and from process control in oil refineries to the flight control systems of modern aircraft. Central to a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gammon, M.; Shalchi, A., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)
2017-10-01
In several astrophysical applications one needs analytical forms of cosmic-ray diffusion parameters. Some examples are studies of diffusive shock acceleration and solar modulation. In the current article we explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. While we focused on magnetostatic turbulence in Paper I, we included the effect of dynamical turbulence in Paper II of the series. In the latter paper we assumed that the temporal correlation time does not depend on the wavenumber. More realistic models have been proposed in the past, such as the so-called damping model of dynamical turbulence. In the present paper we derive analytical forms for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles in two-component turbulence for this type of time-dependent turbulence. We present new formulas for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and we derive a condition for which the magnetostatic result is recovered.
Current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forger, M.; Laartz, J.; Schaeper, U.
1992-01-01
The current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models on arbitrary Riemannian manifolds is analyzed. It is found that introducing, in addition to the Noether current j μ associated with the global symmetry of the theory, a composite scalar field j, the algebra closes under Poisson brackets. (orig.)
Dynamics of breathers in discrete nonlinear Schrodinger models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Johansson, Magnus; Aubry, Serge
1998-01-01
We review some recent results concerning the existence and stability of spatially localized and temporally quasiperiodic (non-stationary) excitations in discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) models. In two dimensions, we show the existence of linearly stable, stationary and non-stationary localized...
Control mechanisms for a nonlinear model of international relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pentek, A.; Kadtke, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Inst. for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences; Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.
1997-07-15
Some issues of control in complex dynamical systems are considered. The authors discuss two control mechanisms, namely: a short range, reactive control based on the chaos control idea and a long-term strategic control based on an optimal control algorithm. They apply these control ideas to simple examples in a discrete nonlinear model of a multi-nation arms race.
S-AMP for non-linear observation models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.
2015-01-01
Recently we presented the S-AMP approach, an extension of approximate message passing (AMP), to be able to handle general invariant matrix ensembles. In this contribution we extend S-AMP to non-linear observation models. We obtain generalized AMP (GAMP) as the special case when the measurement...
Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim
1997-01-01
An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...
Modelling the nonlinearity of piezoelectric actuators in active ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Piezoelectric actuators have great capabilities as elements of intelligent structures for active vibration cancellation. One problem with this type of actuator is its nonlinear behaviour. In active vibration control systems, it is important to have an accurate model of the control branch. This paper demonstrates the ability of neural ...
Hybrid time/frequency domain modeling of nonlinear components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth
2007-01-01
This paper presents a novel, three-phase hybrid time/frequency methodology for modelling of nonlinear components. The algorithm has been implemented in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software using the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL), as a part of the work described in [1]. Modified HVDC benchmark...
A non-linear dissipative model of magnetism
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana
2010-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 6 (2010), s. 67004 ISSN 1286-4854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : non-linear dissipative model of magnetism * thermodynamics * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://epljournal.edpsciences.org/
Modeling and verifying non-linearities in heterodyne displacement interferometry
Cosijns, S.J.A.G.; Haitjema, H.; Schellekens, P.H.J.
2002-01-01
The non-linearities in a heterodyne laser interferometer system occurring from the phase measurement system of the interferometer andfrom non-ideal polarization effects of the optics are modeled into one analytical expression which includes the initial polarization state ofthe laser source, the
Multidimensional splines for modeling FET nonlinearities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barby, J A
1986-01-01
Circuit simulators like SPICE and timing simulators like MOTIS are used extensively for critical path verification of integrated circuits. MOSFET model evaluation dominates the run time of these simulators. Changes in technology results in costly updates, since modifications require reprogramming of the functions and their derivatives. The computational cost of MOSFET models can be reduced by using multidimensional polynomial splines. Since simulators based on the Newton Raphson algorithm require the function and first derivative, quadratic splines are sufficient for this purpose. The cost of updating the MOSFET model due to technology changes is greatly reduced since splines are derived from a set of points. Crucial for convergence speed of simulators is the fact that MOSFET characteristic equations are monotonic. This must be maintained by any simulation model. The splines the author designed do maintain monotonicity.
Identification of stochastic interactions in nonlinear models of structural mechanics
Kala, Zdeněk
2017-07-01
In the paper, the polynomial approximation is presented by which the Sobol sensitivity analysis can be evaluated with all sensitivity indices. The nonlinear FEM model is approximated. The input area is mapped using simulations runs of Latin Hypercube Sampling method. The domain of the approximation polynomial is chosen so that it were possible to apply large number of simulation runs of Latin Hypercube Sampling method. The method presented also makes possible to evaluate higher-order sensitivity indices, which could not be identified in case of nonlinear FEM.
Measurement Model Nonlinearity in Estimation of Dynamical Systems
Majji, Manoranjan; Junkins, J. L.; Turner, J. D.
2012-06-01
The role of nonlinearity of the measurement model and its interactions with the uncertainty of measurements and geometry of the problem is studied in this paper. An examination of the transformations of the probability density function in various coordinate systems is presented for several astrodynamics applications. Smooth and analytic nonlinear functions are considered for the studies on the exact transformation of uncertainty. Special emphasis is given to understanding the role of change of variables in the calculus of random variables. The transformation of probability density functions through mappings is shown to provide insight in to understanding the evolution of uncertainty in nonlinear systems. Examples are presented to highlight salient aspects of the discussion. A sequential orbit determination problem is analyzed, where the transformation formula provides useful insights for making the choice of coordinates for estimation of dynamic systems.
Model Reduction of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems Experiencing Hopf Bifurcation
Abdelkefi, Abdessattar
2013-06-18
In this paper, we employ the normal form to derive a reduced - order model that reproduces nonlinear dynamical behavior of aeroelastic systems that undergo Hopf bifurcation. As an example, we consider a rigid two - dimensional airfoil that is supported by nonlinear springs in the pitch and plunge directions and subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. We apply the center manifold theorem on the governing equations to derive its normal form that constitutes a simplified representation of the aeroelastic sys tem near flutter onset (manifestation of Hopf bifurcation). Then, we use the normal form to identify a self - excited oscillator governed by a time - delay ordinary differential equation that approximates the dynamical behavior while reducing the dimension of the original system. Results obtained from this oscillator show a great capability to predict properly limit cycle oscillations that take place beyond and above flutter as compared with the original aeroelastic system.
Modelization of highly nonlinear waves in coastal regions
Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre
2015-04-01
The proposed work deals with the development of a highly non-linear model for water wave propagation in coastal regions. The accurate modelization of surface gravity waves is of major interest in ocean engineering, especially in the field of marine renewable energy. These marine structures are intended to be settled in coastal regions where the effect of variable bathymetry may be significant on local wave conditions. This study presents a numerical model for the wave propagation with complex bathymetry. It is based on High-Order Spectral (HOS) method, initially limited to the propagation of non-linear wave fields over flat bottom. Such a model has been developed and validated at the LHEEA Lab. (Ecole Centrale Nantes) over the past few years and the current developments will enlarge its application range. This new numerical model will keep the interesting numerical properties of the original pseudo-spectral approach (convergence, efficiency with the use of FFTs, …) and enable the possibility to propagate highly non-linear wave fields over long time and large distance. Different validations will be provided in addition to the presentation of the method. At first, Bragg reflection will be studied with the proposed approach. If the Bragg condition is satisfied, the reflected wave generated by a sinusoidal bottom patch should be amplified as a result of resonant quadratic interactions between incident wave and bottom. Comparisons will be provided with experiments and reference solutions. Then, the method will be used to consider the transformation of a non-linear monochromatic wave as it propagates up and over a submerged bar. As the waves travel up the front slope of the bar, it steepens and high harmonics are generated due to non-linear interactions. Comparisons with experimental data will be provided. The different test cases will assess the accuracy and efficiency of the method proposed.
Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping
2015-12-15
Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Improvement of nonlinear diffusion equation using relaxed geometric mean filter for low PSNR images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nadernejad, Ehsan
2013-01-01
A new method to improve the performance of low PSNR image denoising is presented. The proposed scheme estimates edge gradient from an image that is regularised with a relaxed geometric mean filter. The proposed method consists of two stages; the first stage consists of a second order nonlinear an...
Zhu, Yanjie; Peng, Xi; Wu, Yin; Wu, Ed X; Ying, Leslie; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong
2017-02-01
To develop a new model-based method with spatial and parametric constraints (MB-SPC) aimed at accelerating diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) by directly estimating the diffusion tensor from highly undersampled k-space data. The MB-SPC method effectively incorporates the prior information on the joint sparsity of different diffusion-weighted images using an L1-L2 norm and the smoothness of the diffusion tensor using a total variation seminorm. The undersampled k-space datasets were obtained from fully sampled DTI datasets of a simulated phantom and an ex-vivo experimental rat heart with acceleration factors ranging from 2 to 4. The diffusion tensor was directly reconstructed by solving a minimization problem with a nonlinear conjugate gradient descent algorithm. The reconstruction performance was quantitatively assessed using the normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) of the DTI indices. The MB-SPC method achieves acceptable DTI measures at an acceleration factor up to 4. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the diffusion tensor more accurately than most existing methods operating at higher net acceleration factors. The proposed method can significantly reduce artifact, particularly at higher acceleration factors or lower SNRs. This method can easily be adapted to MR relaxometry parameter mapping and is thus useful in the characterization of biological tissue such as nerves, muscle, and heart tissue. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Simple Brownian diffusion an introduction to the standard theoretical models
Gillespie, Daniel T
2013-01-01
Brownian diffusion, the motion of large molecules in a sea of very many much smaller molecules, is topical because it is one of the ways in which biologically important molecules move about inside living cells. This book presents the mathematical physics that underlies the four simplest models of Brownian diffusion.
Wind Power in Europe. A Simultaneous Innovation-Diffusion Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soederholm, P.; Klaassen, G.
2007-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector. We derive a simultaneous model of wind power innovation and diffusion, which combines a rational choice model of technological diffusion and a learning curve model of dynamic cost reductions. These models are estimated using pooled annual time series data for four European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom) over the time period 1986-2000. The empirical results indicate that reductions in investment costs have been important determinants of increased diffusion of wind power, and these cost reductions can in turn be explained by learning activities and public R and D support. Feed-in tariffs also play an important role in the innovation and diffusion processes. The higher the feed-in price the higher, ceteris paribus, the rate of diffusion, and we present some preliminary empirical support for the notion that the impact on diffusion of a marginal increase in the feed-in tariff will differ depending on the support system used. High feed-in tariffs, though, also have a negative effect on cost reductions as they induce wind generators to choose high-cost sites and provide fewer incentives for cost cuts. This illustrates the importance of designing an efficient wind energy support system, which not only promotes diffusion but also provides continuous incentives for cost-reducing innovations
Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund
2007-01-01
The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...
Nonlinear Modelling of Low Frequency Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Erling Sandermann; Christensen, Knud Bank
1996-01-01
A central part of the Danish LoDist project has been the derivation of an extended equivalent circuit and a corresponding set of differential equations suitable for the simulation of high-fidelity woofers under large and very large (clipping) signal conditions. A model including suspension creep ...
Nonclassical measurements errors in nonlinear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir
Discrete choice models and in particular logit type models play an important role in understanding and quantifying individual or household behavior in relation to transport demand. An example is the choice of travel mode for a given trip under the budget and time restrictions that the individuals...... estimates of the income effect it is of interest to investigate the magnitude of the estimation bias and if possible use estimation techniques that take the measurement error problem into account. We use data from the Danish National Travel Survey (NTS) and merge it with administrative register data...... that contains very detailed information about incomes. This gives a unique opportunity to learn about the magnitude and nature of the measurement error in income reported by the respondents in the Danish NTS compared to income from the administrative register (correct measure). We find that the classical...
Quark fragmentation function and the nonlinear chiral quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Z.K.
1993-01-01
The scaling law of the fragmentation function has been proved in this paper. With that, we show that low-P T quark fragmentation function can be studied as a low energy physocs in the light-cone coordinate frame. We therefore use the nonlinear chiral quark model which is able to study the low energy physics under scale Λ CSB to study such a function. Meanwhile the formalism for studying the quark fragmentation function has been established. The nonlinear chiral quark model is quantized on the light-front. We then use old-fashioned perturbation theory to study the quark fragmentation function. Our first order result for such a function shows in agreement with the phenomenological model study of e + e - jet. The probability for u,d pair formation in the e + e - jet from our calculation is also in agreement with the phenomenological model results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Abbas
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the generalized slip condition and MHD flow of a nanofluid due to a contracting cylinder in the presence of non-linear radiative heat transfer using Buongiorno’s model. The Navier-Stokes along with energy and nanoparticle concentration equations is transformed to highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. These similar differential equations are then solved numerically by employing a shooting technique with Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. Dual solutions exist for a particular range of the unsteadiness parameter. The physical influence of the several important fluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction is discussed and shown through graphs and table in detail. The present study indicates that as increase of Brownian motion parameter and slip velocity is to decrease the nanoparticle volume fraction. Keywords: Nanofluid, Contracting cylinder, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Generalized slip condition, Numerical solution
Soliton excitations in a class of nonlinear field theory models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhan'kov, V.G.; Fedyanin, V.K.
1985-01-01
Investigation results of nonlinear models of the field theory with a lagrangian are described. The theory includes models both with zero stable vacuum epsilon=1 and with condensate epsilon=-1 (of disturbed symmetry). Conditions of existence of particle-like solutions (PLS), stability of these solutions are investigated. Soliton dynamics is studied. PLS formfactors are calculated. Statistical mechanics of solitons is built and their dynamic structure factors are calculated
The quantum nonlinear Schroedinger model with point-like defect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caudrelier, V; Mintchev, M; Ragoucy, E
2004-01-01
We establish a family of point-like impurities which preserve the quantum integrability of the nonlinear Schroedinger model in 1+1 spacetime dimensions. We briefly describe the construction of the exact second quantized solution of this model in terms of an appropriate reflection-transmission algebra. The basic physical properties of the solution, including the spacetime symmetry of the bulk scattering matrix, are also discussed. (letter to the editor)
Eddy current modeling in linear and nonlinear multifilamentary composite materials
Menana, Hocine; Farhat, Mohamad; Hinaje, Melika; Berger, Kevin; Douine, Bruno; Lévêque, Jean
2018-04-01
In this work, a numerical model is developed for a rapid computation of eddy currents in composite materials, adaptable for both carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) for NDT applications and multifilamentary high temperature superconductive (HTS) tapes for AC loss evaluation. The proposed model is based on an integro-differential formulation in terms of the electric vector potential in the frequency domain. The high anisotropy and the nonlinearity of the considered materials are easily handled in the frequency domain.
Classical solutions for the 4-dimensional σ-nonlinear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tataru-Mihai, P.
1979-01-01
By interpreting the σ-nonlinear model as describing the Gauss map associated to a certain immersion, several classes of classical solutions for the 4-dimensional model are derived. As by-products one points out i) an intimate connection between the energy-momentum tensor of the solution and the second differential form of the immersion associated to it and ii) a connection between self- (antiself-)duality of the solution and the minimality of the associated immersion. (author)
The effect of a realistic thermal diffusivity on numerical model of a subducting slab
Maierova, P.; Steinle-Neumann, G.; Cadek, O.
2010-12-01
A number of numerical studies of subducting slab assume simplified (constant or only depth-dependent) models of thermal conductivity. The available mineral physics data indicate, however, that thermal diffusivity is strongly temperature- and pressure-dependent and may also vary among different mantle materials. In the present study, we examine the influence of realistic thermal properties of mantle materials on the thermal state of the upper mantle and the dynamics of subducting slabs. On the basis of the data published in mineral physics literature we compile analytical relationships that approximate the pressure and temperature dependence of thermal diffusivity for major mineral phases of the mantle (olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite, garnet, clinopyroxenes, stishovite and perovskite). We propose a simplified composition of mineral assemblages predominating in the subducting slab and the surrounding mantle (pyrolite, mid-ocean ridge basalt, harzburgite) and we estimate their thermal diffusivity using the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The resulting complex formula for the diffusivity of each aggregate is then approximated by a simpler analytical relationship that is used in our numerical model as an input parameter. For the numerical modeling we use the Elmer software (open source finite element software for multiphysical problems, see http://www.csc.fi/english/pages/elmer). We set up a 2D Cartesian thermo-mechanical steady-state model of a subducting slab. The model is partly kinematic as the flow is driven by a boundary condition on velocity that is prescribed on the top of the subducting lithospheric plate. Reology of the material is non-linear and is coupled with the thermal equation. Using the realistic relationship for thermal diffusivity of mantle materials, we compute the thermal and flow fields for different input velocity and age of the subducting plate and we compare the results against the models assuming a constant thermal diffusivity. The importance of the
What Can the Diffusion Model Tell Us About Prospective Memory?
Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.; Smith, Rebekah E.
2011-01-01
Cognitive process models, such as Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, are useful tools for examining cost- or interference effects in event-based prospective memory (PM). The diffusion model includes several parameters that provide insight into how and why ongoing-task performance may be affected by a PM task and is ideally suited to analyze performance because both reaction time and accuracy are taken into account. Separate analyses of these measures can easily yield misleading interpretations in cases of speed-accuracy tradeoffs. The diffusion model allows us to measure possible criterion shifts and is thus an important methodological improvement over standard analyses. Performance in an ongoing lexical decision task (Smith, 2003) was analyzed with the diffusion model. The results suggest that criterion shifts play an important role when a PM task is added, but do not fully explain the cost effect on RT. PMID:21443332
Sánchez, R.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Carreras, B. A.
2005-05-01
It is argued that the modeling of plasma transport in tokamaks may benefit greatly from extending the usual local paradigm to accommodate scale-free transport mechanisms. This can be done by combining Lévy distributions and a nonlinear threshold condition within the continuous time random walk concept. The advantages of this nonlocal, nonlinear extension are illustrated by constructing a simple particle density transport model that, as a result of these ideas, spontaneously exhibits much of nondiffusive phenomenology routinely observed in tokamaks. The fluid limit of the system shows that the kind of equations that are appropriate to capture these dynamics are based on fractional differential operators. In them, effective diffusivities and pinch velocities are found that are dynamically set by the system in response to the specific characteristics of the fueling source and external perturbations. This fact suggests some dramatic consequences for the extrapolation of these transport properties to larger size systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, R.; Milligen, B.Ph. van; Carreras, B.A.
2005-01-01
It is argued that the modeling of plasma transport in tokamaks may benefit greatly from extending the usual local paradigm to accommodate scale-free transport mechanisms. This can be done by combining Levy distributions and a nonlinear threshold condition within the continuous time random walk concept. The advantages of this nonlocal, nonlinear extension are illustrated by constructing a simple particle density transport model that, as a result of these ideas, spontaneously exhibits much of nondiffusive phenomenology routinely observed in tokamaks. The fluid limit of the system shows that the kind of equations that are appropriate to capture these dynamics are based on fractional differential operators. In them, effective diffusivities and pinch velocities are found that are dynamically set by the system in response to the specific characteristics of the fueling source and external perturbations. This fact suggests some dramatic consequences for the extrapolation of these transport properties to larger size systems
Pricing Participating Products under a Generalized Jump-Diffusion Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tak Kuen Siu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a model for valuing participating life insurance products under a generalized jump-diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. It also nests a number of important and popular models in finance, including the classes of jump-diffusion models and Markovian regime-switching models. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate the practical implementation of the model and to highlight some features that can be obtained from our model.
WWER radial reflector modeling by diffusion codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petkov, P. T.; Mittag, S.
2005-01-01
The two commonly used approaches to describe the WWER radial reflectors in diffusion codes, by albedo on the core-reflector boundary and by a ring of diffusive assembly size nodes, are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the first approach are presented first, then the Koebke's equivalence theory is outlined and its implementation for the WWER radial reflectors is discussed. Results for the WWER-1000 reactor are presented. Then the boundary conditions on the outer reflector boundary are discussed. The possibility to divide the library into fuel assembly and reflector parts and to generate each library by a separate code package is discussed. Finally, the homogenization errors for rodded assemblies are presented and discussed (Author)
Dynamic Diffusion Estimation in Exponential Family Models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dedecius, Kamil; Sečkárová, Vladimíra
2013-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 11 (2013), s. 1114-1117 ISSN 1070-9908 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7D12004; GA ČR GA13-13502S Keywords : diffusion estimation * distributed estimation * paremeter estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/dedecius-0396518.pdf
Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric
2018-01-01
This paper describes a recent development of an integrated fully coupled aeroservoelastic flight dynamic model of the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM). The integrated model couples nonlinear flight dynamics to a nonlinear aeroelastic model of the GTM. The nonlinearity includes the coupling of the rigid-body aircraft states in the partial derivatives of the aeroelastic angle of attack. Aeroservoelastic modeling of the control surfaces which are modeled by the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap is also conducted. The R.T. Jones' method is implemented to approximate unsteady aerodynamics. Simulations of the GTM are conducted with simulated continuous and discrete gust loads..
Observing and modeling nonlinear dynamics in an internal combustion engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daw, C.S.; Kennel, M.B.; Finney, C.E.; Connolly, F.T.
1998-01-01
We propose a low-dimensional, physically motivated, nonlinear map as a model for cyclic combustion variation in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. A key feature is the interaction between stochastic, small-scale fluctuations in engine parameters and nonlinear deterministic coupling between successive engine cycles. Residual cylinder gas from each cycle alters the in-cylinder fuel-air ratio and thus the combustion efficiency in succeeding cycles. The model close-quote s simplicity allows rapid simulation of thousands of engine cycles, permitting statistical studies of cyclic-variation patterns and providing physical insight into this technologically important phenomenon. Using symbol statistics to characterize the noisy dynamics, we find good quantitative matches between our model and experimental time-series measurements. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Reduced Complexity Volterra Models for Nonlinear System Identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hacıoğlu Rıfat
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A broad class of nonlinear systems and filters can be modeled by the Volterra series representation. However, its practical use in nonlinear system identification is sometimes limited due to the large number of parameters associated with the Volterra filter′s structure. The parametric complexity also complicates design procedures based upon such a model. This limitation for system identification is addressed in this paper using a Fixed Pole Expansion Technique (FPET within the Volterra model structure. The FPET approach employs orthonormal basis functions derived from fixed (real or complex pole locations to expand the Volterra kernels and reduce the number of estimated parameters. That the performance of FPET can considerably reduce the number of estimated parameters is demonstrated by a digital satellite channel example in which we use the proposed method to identify the channel dynamics. Furthermore, a gradient-descent procedure that adaptively selects the pole locations in the FPET structure is developed in the paper.
Spreading Speed, Traveling Waves, and Minimal Domain Size in Impulsive Reaction–Diffusion Models
Lewis, Mark A.
2012-08-15
How growth, mortality, and dispersal in a species affect the species\\' spread and persistence constitutes a central problem in spatial ecology. We propose impulsive reaction-diffusion equation models for species with distinct reproductive and dispersal stages. These models can describe a seasonal birth pulse plus nonlinear mortality and dispersal throughout the year. Alternatively, they can describe seasonal harvesting, plus nonlinear birth and mortality as well as dispersal throughout the year. The population dynamics in the seasonal pulse is described by a discrete map that gives the density of the population at the end of a pulse as a possibly nonmonotone function of the density of the population at the beginning of the pulse. The dynamics in the dispersal stage is governed by a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation in a bounded or unbounded domain. We develop a spatially explicit theoretical framework that links species vital rates (mortality or fecundity) and dispersal characteristics with species\\' spreading speeds, traveling wave speeds, as well as minimal domain size for species persistence. We provide an explicit formula for the spreading speed in terms of model parameters, and show that the spreading speed can be characterized as the slowest speed of a class of traveling wave solutions. We also give an explicit formula for the minimal domain size using model parameters. Our results show how the diffusion coefficient, and the combination of discrete- and continuous-time growth and mortality determine the spread and persistence dynamics of the population in a wide variety of ecological scenarios. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the theoretical results. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.
Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan
2017-01-01
Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Concentration fluctuations in non-isothermal reaction-diffusion systems. II. The nonlinear case
Bedeaux, D.; Ortiz de Zárate, J.M.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Sengers, J.V.; Kjelstrup, S.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider a simple reaction-diffusion system, namely, a binary fluid mixture with an association-dissociation reaction between two species. We study fluctuations at hydrodynamic spatiotemporal scales when this mixture is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of a temperature
Duval, J.F.L.
2005-01-01
In a previous study (Langmuir 2004, 20, 10324), the electrokinetic properties of diffuse soft layers were theoretically investigated within the framework of the Debye-H¿ckel approximation valid in the limit of sufficiently low values for the Donnan potential. In the current paper, the
Multi-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with nonlinear effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleixo, Armando Nazareno Faria; Balantekin, Akif Baha; Ribeiro, Marco Antonio Candido
2001-01-01
The standard Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model and its extensions, normally used in quantum optics, idealizes the interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation by a simple Hamiltonian of a two-level atom coupled to a single bosonic mode. This Hamiltonian has a fundamental importance to the field of quantum optics and it is a central ingredient in the quantized description of any optical system involving the interaction between light and atoms. The JC Hamiltonian defines a molecule, a composite system formed from the coupling of a two-state system and a quantized harmonic oscillator. For this Hamiltonian, mostly the single-particle situation has been studied. This model can also be extended for the situation where one has N two-level systems, which interact only with the electromagnetic radiation. In this case the effects of the spatial distribution of the particles it is not taken into account and the spin angular momentum S-circumflex i of each particle contributes to form a total angular momentum J-circumflex of the system. When one considers the effects due to the spatial variation in the field intensity in a nonlinear medium it is necessary to further add a Kerr term to the standard JC Hamiltonian. This kind of nonlinear JC Hamiltonian is used in the study of micro masers. Another nonlinear variant of the JC model takes the coupling between matter and the radiation to depend on the intensity of the electromagnetic field. This model is interesting since this kind of interaction means that effectively the coupling is proportional to the amplitude of the field representing a very simple case of a nonlinear interaction corresponding to a more realistic physical situation. In this work we solve exactly the problem of the interaction of a N two-level atoms with an electromagnetic radiation when nonlinear effects due to the spatial variation in the field intensity in a nonlinear Kerr medium and the dependence on the intensity of the electromagnetic field on the matter
A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.
Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia
2016-03-01
The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Modal model for the nonlinear multimode Rayleigh endash Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ofer, D.; Alon, U.; Shvarts, D.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.
1996-01-01
A modal model for the Rayleigh endash Taylor (RT) instability, applicable at all stages of the flow, is introduced. The model includes a description of nonlinear low-order mode coupling, mode growth saturation, and post-saturation mode coupling. It is shown to significantly extend the range of applicability of a previous model proposed by Haan, to cases where nonlinear mode generation is important. Using the new modal model, we study the relative importance of mode coupling at late nonlinear stages and resolve the difference between cases in which mode generation assumes a dominant role, leading to the late time inverse cascade of modes and loss of memory of initial conditions, and cases where mode generation is not important and memory of initial conditions is retained. Effects of finite density ratios (Atwood number A<1) are also included in the model and the difference between various measures of the mixing zone penetration depth for A<1 is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions
Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy
2013-11-01
Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.
Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M; Browne, Alan L; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy
2013-01-01
Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R and D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . (paper)
Nonlinear unitary quantum collapse model with self-generated noise
Geszti, Tamás
2018-04-01
Collapse models including some external noise of unknown origin are routinely used to describe phenomena on the quantum-classical border; in particular, quantum measurement. Although containing nonlinear dynamics and thereby exposed to the possibility of superluminal signaling in individual events, such models are widely accepted on the basis of fully reproducing the non-signaling statistical predictions of quantum mechanics. Here we present a deterministic nonlinear model without any external noise, in which randomness—instead of being universally present—emerges in the measurement process, from deterministic irregular dynamics of the detectors. The treatment is based on a minimally nonlinear von Neumann equation for a Stern–Gerlach or Bell-type measuring setup, containing coordinate and momentum operators in a self-adjoint skew-symmetric, split scalar product structure over the configuration space. The microscopic states of the detectors act as a nonlocal set of hidden parameters, controlling individual outcomes. The model is shown to display pumping of weights between setup-defined basis states, with a single winner randomly selected and the rest collapsing to zero. Environmental decoherence has no role in the scenario. Through stochastic modelling, based on Pearle’s ‘gambler’s ruin’ scheme, outcome probabilities are shown to obey Born’s rule under a no-drift or ‘fair-game’ condition. This fully reproduces quantum statistical predictions, implying that the proposed non-linear deterministic model satisfies the non-signaling requirement. Our treatment is still vulnerable to hidden signaling in individual events, which remains to be handled by future research.
Weak diffusion limits of dynamic conditional correlation models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hafner, Christian M.; Laurent, Sebastien; Violante, Francesco
The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized...... by a diffusion matrix of reduced rank. The degeneracy is due to perfect collinearity between the innovations of the volatility and correlation dynamics. For the special case of constant conditional correlations, a non-degenerate diffusion limit can be obtained. Alternative sets of conditions are considered...
A simplified model exploration research of new anisotropic diffuse radiation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, Wanxiang; Li, Zhengrong; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Zhigang; Lin, Lin
2016-01-01
Graphical abstract: The specific process of measured diffuse radiation data. - Highlights: • Simplified diffuse radiation model is extremely important for solar radiation simulation and energy simulation. • A new simplified anisotropic diffuse radiation model (NSADR model) is proposed. • The accuracy of existing models and NSADR model is compared based on the measured values. • The accuracy of the NSADR model is higher than that of the existing models, and suitable for calculating diffuse radiation. - Abstract: More accurate new anisotropic diffuse radiation model (NADR model) has been proposed, but the parameters and calculation process of NADR model used in the process are complex. So it is difficult to widely used in the simulation software and engineering calculation. Based on analysis of the diffuse radiation model and measured diffuse radiation data, this paper put forward three hypotheses: (1) diffuse radiation from sky horizontal region is concentrated in a very thin layer which is close to the line source; (2) diffuse radiation from circumsolar region is concentrated in the point of the sun; (3) diffuse radiation from orthogonal region is concentrated in the point located at 90 degree angles with the Sun. Based on these hypotheses, NADR model is simplified to a new simplified anisotropic diffuse radiation model (NSADR model). Then the accuracy of NADR model and its simplified model (NSADR model) are compared with existing models based on the measured values, and the result shows that Perez model and its simplified model are relatively accurate among existing models. However, the accuracy of these two models is lower than the NADR model and NSADR model due to neglect the influence of the orthogonal diffuse radiation. The accuracy of the NSADR model is higher than that of the existing models, meanwhile, another advantage is that the NSADR model simplifies the process of solution parameters and calculation. Therefore it is more suitable for
Non-linear sigma model on the fuzzy supersphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurkcuoglu, Seckin
2004-01-01
In this note we develop fuzzy versions of the supersymmetric non-linear sigma model on the supersphere S (2,2) . In hep-th/0212133 Bott projectors have been used to obtain the fuzzy C P 1 model. Our approach utilizes the use of supersymmetric extensions of these projectors. Here we obtain these (super)-projectors and quantize them in a fashion similar to the one given in hep-th/0212133. We discuss the interpretation of the resulting model as a finite dimensional matrix model. (author)
Cardiovascular oscillations: in search of a nonlinear parametric model
Bandrivskyy, Andriy; Luchinsky, Dmitry; McClintock, Peter V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Stefanovska, Aneta; Timucin, Dogan
2003-05-01
We suggest a fresh approach to the modeling of the human cardiovascular system. Taking advantage of a new Bayesian inference technique, able to deal with stochastic nonlinear systems, we show that one can estimate parameters for models of the cardiovascular system directly from measured time series. We present preliminary results of inference of parameters of a model of coupled oscillators from measured cardiovascular data addressing cardiorespiratory interaction. We argue that the inference technique offers a very promising tool for the modeling, able to contribute significantly towards the solution of a long standing challenge -- development of new diagnostic techniques based on noninvasive measurements.
Spatio-temporal modeling of nonlinear distributed parameter systems
Li, Han-Xiong
2011-01-01
The purpose of this volume is to provide a brief review of the previous work on model reduction and identifi cation of distributed parameter systems (DPS), and develop new spatio-temporal models and their relevant identifi cation approaches. In this book, a systematic overview and classifi cation on the modeling of DPS is presented fi rst, which includes model reduction, parameter estimation and system identifi cation. Next, a class of block-oriented nonlinear systems in traditional lumped parameter systems (LPS) is extended to DPS, which results in the spatio-temporal Wiener and Hammerstein s
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.
1998-01-01
The model is suggested which describes the influence of large-angle grain boundary migration on a diffusion controlled creep rate in polycrystalline materials (Coble creep). The model is based on the concept about changing the value of migrating boundary free volume when introducing dislocations distributed over the grain bulk into this boundary. Expressions are obtained to calculate the grain boundary diffusion coefficient under conditions of boundary migration and the parameter, which characterized the value of Coble creep acceleration. A comparison is made between calculated and experimental data for Cd, Co and Fe
Verification of atmospheric diffusion models with data of atmospheric diffusion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu
2009-02-01
The atmospheric diffusion experiments were implemented by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) around Mount Tsukuba in 1989 and 1990, and the tracer gas concentration were monitored. In this study, the Gauss Plume Model and RAMS/HYPACT that are meteorological forecast code and atmospheric diffusion code with detailed physical law are made a comparison between monitored concentration. In conclusion, the Gauss Plume Model is better than RAM/HYPACT even complex topography if the estimation is around tens of kilometer form release point and the change in weather is constant for short time. This reason is difference of wind between RAMS and observation. (author)
Smith, Rachel A; Kim, Youllee; Zhu, Xun; Doudou, Dimi Théodore; Sternberg, Eleanore D; Thomas, Matthew B
2018-01-01
This study documents an investigation into the adoption and diffusion of eave tubes, a novel mosquito vector control, during a large-scale scientific field trial in West Africa. The diffusion of innovations (DOI) and the integrated model of behavior (IMB) were integrated (i.e., innovation attributes with attitudes and social pressures with norms) to predict participants' (N = 329) diffusion intentions. The findings showed that positive attitudes about the innovation's attributes were a consistent positive predictor of diffusion intentions: adopting it, maintaining it, and talking with others about it. As expected by the DOI and the IMB, the social pressure created by a descriptive norm positively predicted intentions to adopt and maintain the innovation. Drawing upon sharing research, we argued that the descriptive norm may dampen future talk about the innovation, because it may no longer be seen as a novel, useful topic to discuss. As predicted, the results showed that as the descriptive norm increased, the intention to talk about the innovation decreased. These results provide broad support for integrating the DOI and the IMB to predict diffusion and for efforts to draw on other research to understand motivations for social diffusion.
Estimation of Nonlinear DC-Motor Models Using a Sensitivity Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Morten; Jensen, J.G.
1995-01-01
A nonlinear model structure for a permanent magnet DC-motor, appropriate for simulation and controller design, is developed.......A nonlinear model structure for a permanent magnet DC-motor, appropriate for simulation and controller design, is developed....
Linear theory for filtering nonlinear multiscale systems with model error.
Berry, Tyrus; Harlim, John
2014-07-08
In this paper, we study filtering of multiscale dynamical systems with model error arising from limitations in resolving the smaller scale processes. In particular, the analysis assumes the availability of continuous-time noisy observations of all components of the slow variables. Mathematically, this paper presents new results on higher order asymptotic expansion of the first two moments of a conditional measure. In particular, we are interested in the application of filtering multiscale problems in which the conditional distribution is defined over the slow variables, given noisy observation of the slow variables alone. From the mathematical analysis, we learn that for a continuous time linear model with Gaussian noise, there exists a unique choice of parameters in a linear reduced model for the slow variables which gives the optimal filtering when only the slow variables are observed. Moreover, these parameters simultaneously give the optimal equilibrium statistical estimates of the underlying system, and as a consequence they can be estimated offline from the equilibrium statistics of the true signal. By examining a nonlinear test model, we show that the linear theory extends in this non-Gaussian, nonlinear configuration as long as we know the optimal stochastic parametrization and the correct observation model. However, when the stochastic parametrization model is inappropriate, parameters chosen for good filter performance may give poor equilibrium statistical estimates and vice versa; this finding is based on analytical and numerical results on our nonlinear test model and the two-layer Lorenz-96 model. Finally, even when the correct stochastic ansatz is given, it is imperative to estimate the parameters simultaneously and to account for the nonlinear feedback of the stochastic parameters into the reduced filter estimates. In numerical experiments on the two-layer Lorenz-96 model, we find that the parameters estimated online , as part of a filtering
Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.
2018-01-01
Elastomers are known to exhibit viscoelastic behavior under deformation, which is linked to the diffusion processes of the highly mobile and flexible polymer chains. Inspired by the theories of polymer dynamics, a micro-macro constitutive model is developed to study the viscoelastic behaviors and the relaxation process of elastomeric materials under large deformation, in which the material parameters all have a microscopic foundation or a microstructural justification. The proposed model incorporates the nonlinear material viscosity into the continuum finite-deformation viscoelasticity theories which represent the polymer networks of elastomers with an elastic ground network and a few viscous subnetworks. The developed modeling framework is capable of adopting most of strain energy density functions for hyperelastic materials and thermodynamics evolution laws of viscoelastic solids. The modeling capacity of the framework is outlined by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data of three commonly used elastomeric materials, namely, VHB4910, HNBR50 and carbon black (CB) filled elastomers. The comparison shows that the stress responses and some typical behaviors of filled and unfilled elastomers can be quantitatively predicted by the model with suitable strain energy density functions. Particularly, the strain-softening effect of elastomers could be explained by the deformation-dependent (nonlinear) viscosity of the polymer chains. The presented modeling framework is expected to be useful as a modeling platform for further study on the performance of different type of elastomeric materials.
Diffuse Scattering Model of Indoor Wideband Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franek, Ondrej; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2011-01-01
segments in total and approximately 2 min running time on average computer. Frequency independent power levels at the walls around the circumference of the room and at four receiver locations in the middle of the room are observed. It is demonstrated that after finite period of initial excitation the field...... radio coverage predictions.......This paper presents a discrete-time numerical algorithm for computing field distribution in indoor environment by diffuse scattering from walls. Calculations are performed for a rectangular room with semi-reflective walls. The walls are divided into 0.5 x 0.5 m segments, resulting in 2272 wall...
MODEL OF THE TOKAMAK EDGE DENSITY PEDESTAL INCLUDING DIFFUSIVE NEUTRALS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BURRELL, K.H.
2003-01-01
OAK-B135 Several previous analytic models of the tokamak edge density pedestal have been based on diffusive transport of plasma plus free-streaming of neutrals. This latter neutral model includes only the effect of ionization and neglects charge exchange. The present work models the edge density pedestal using diffusive transport for both the plasma and the neutrals. In contrast to the free-streaming model, a diffusion model for the neutrals includes the effect of both charge exchange and ionization and is valid when charge exchange is the dominant interaction. Surprisingly, the functional forms for the electron and neutral density profiles from the present calculation are identical to the results of the previous analytic models. There are some differences in the detailed definition of various parameters in the solution. For experimentally relevant cases where ionization and charge exchange rate are comparable, both models predict approximately the same width for the edge density pedestal
Reflector modelization for neutronic diffusion and parameters identification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argaud, J.P.
1993-04-01
Physical parameters of neutronic diffusion equations can be adjusted to decrease calculations-measurements errors. The reflector being always difficult to modelize, we choose to elaborate a new reflector model and to use the parameters of this model as adjustment coefficients in the identification procedure. Using theoretical results, and also the physical behaviour of neutronic flux solutions, the reflector model consists then in its replacement by boundary conditions for the diffusion equations on the core only. This theoretical result of non-local operator relations leads then to some discrete approximations by taking into account the multiscaled behaviour, on the core-reflector interface, of neutronic diffusion solutions. The resulting model of this approach is then compared with previous reflector modelizations, and first results indicate that this new model gives the same representation of reflector for the core than previous. (author). 12 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paraschiv, I.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Makhin, V.
2010-01-01
The effect of sheared axial flow on the Z-pinch sausage instability has been examined with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Diffuse Bennett equilibria in the presence of axial flows with parabolic and linear radial profiles have been considered, and a detailed study of the linear and nonlinear development of small perturbations from these equilibria has been performed. The consequences of both single-wavelength and random-seed perturbations were calculated. It was found that sheared flows changed the internal m=0 mode development by reducing the linear growth rates, decreasing the saturation amplitude, and modifying the instability spectrum. High spatial frequency modes were stabilized to small amplitudes and only long wavelengths continued to grow. Full stability was obtained for supersonic plasma flows.
A non-linear model of economic production processes
Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.
2003-06-01
We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.
Nonlinear Economic Model Predictive Control Strategy for Active Smart Buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santos, Rui Mirra; Zong, Yi; Sousa, Joao M. C.
2016-01-01
Nowadays, the development of advanced and innovative intelligent control techniques for energy management in buildings is a key issue within the smart grid topic. A nonlinear economic model predictive control (EMPC) scheme, based on the branch-and-bound tree search used as optimization algorithm ...... controller is shown very reliable keeping the comfort levels in the two considered seasons and shifting the load away from peak hours in order to achieve the desired flexible electricity consumption.......Nowadays, the development of advanced and innovative intelligent control techniques for energy management in buildings is a key issue within the smart grid topic. A nonlinear economic model predictive control (EMPC) scheme, based on the branch-and-bound tree search used as optimization algorithm...
Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten
2014-01-01
by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non-linear...... models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS......-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration...
Comparing Numerical Spall Simulations with a Nonlinear Spall Formation Model
Ong, L.; Melosh, H. J.
2012-12-01
Spallation accelerates lightly shocked ejecta fragments to speeds that can exceed the escape velocity of the parent body. We present high-resolution simulations of nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface. Initial results show the acceleration of near-surface material to velocities up to 1.8 times greater than the peak particle velocity in the detached shock, while experiencing little to no shock pressure. These simulations suggest a possible nonlinear spallation mechanism to produce the high-velocity, low show pressure meteorites from other planets. Here we pre-sent the numerical simulations that test the production of spall through nonlinear shock interactions in the near sur-face, and compare the results with a model proposed by Kamegai (1986 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report). We simulate near-surface shock interactions using the SALES_2 hydrocode and the Murnaghan equation of state. We model the shock interactions in two geometries: rectangular and spherical. In the rectangular case, we model a planar shock approaching the surface at a constant angle phi. In the spherical case, the shock originates at a point below the surface of the domain and radiates spherically from that point. The angle of the shock front with the surface is dependent on the radial distance of the surface point from the shock origin. We model the target as a solid with a nonlinear Murnaghan equation of state. This idealized equation of state supports nonlinear shocks but is tem-perature independent. We track the maximum pressure and maximum velocity attained in every cell in our simula-tions and compare them to the Hugoniot equations that describe the material conditions in front of and behind the shock. Our simulations demonstrate that nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface produce lightly shocked high-velocity material for both planar and cylindrical shocks. The spall is the result of the free surface boundary condi-tion, which forces a pressure gradient
Ward Identity and Scattering Amplitudes for Nonlinear Sigma Models
Low, Ian; Yin, Zhewei
2018-02-01
We present a Ward identity for nonlinear sigma models using generalized nonlinear shift symmetries, without introducing current algebra or coset space. The Ward identity constrains correlation functions of the sigma model such that the Adler's zero is guaranteed for S -matrix elements, and gives rise to a subleading single soft theorem that is valid at the quantum level and to all orders in the Goldstone decay constant. For tree amplitudes, the Ward identity leads to a novel Berends-Giele recursion relation as well as an explicit form of the subleading single soft factor. Furthermore, interactions of the cubic biadjoint scalar theory associated with the single soft limit, which was previously discovered using the Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of tree amplitudes, can be seen to emerge from matrix elements of conserved currents corresponding to the generalized shift symmetry.
NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF DEEP DRAWING PROCESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan YILDIZ
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Deep drawing process is one of the main procedures used in different branches of industry. Finding numerical solutions for determination of the mechanical behaviour of this process will save time and money. In die surfaces, which have complex geometries, it is hard to determine the effects of parameters of sheet metal forming. Some of these parameters are wrinkling, tearing, and determination of the flow of the thin sheet metal in the die and thickness change. However, the most difficult one is determination of material properties during plastic deformation. In this study, the effects of all these parameters are analyzed before producing the dies. The explicit non-linear finite element method is chosen to be used in the analysis. The numerical results obtained for non-linear material and contact models are also compared with the experiments. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is obtained. The results obtained for the models are given in detail.
Non-linear diffusion of charged particles due to stochastic electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, A.M.; Balescu, R.; Mendonca, J.T.
1989-01-01
It is well known that the energy confinement times observed in tokamak cannot be explained by the classical or neo-classical transport theory. The alternative explanations are based on the existence of various kinds of micro-instabilities, or on the stochastic destruction of the magnetic surfaces, due to the interaction of magnetic islands of different helicities. In the absence of a well established theory of anomalous transport it is perhaps important to study in some detail the diffusion coefficient of single charged particles in the presence of electromagnetic fluctuation, because it can provide the physical grounds for more complete and self-consistent calculations. In the present work we derive a general expression for the transverse diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions in a constant magnetic field and in the presence of space and time dependent electromagnetic fluctuation. We neglect macroscopic drifts due to inhomogeneity and field curvatures, but retain finite Larmor radius effects. (author) 3 refs
Nonlinear dynamics mathematical models for rigid bodies with a liquid
Lukovsky, Ivan A
2015-01-01
This book is devoted to analytically approximate methods in the nonlinear dynamics of a rigid body with cavities partly filled by liquid. It combines several methods and compares the results with experimental data. It is useful for experienced and early-stage readers interested in analytical approaches to fluid-structure interaction problems, the fundamental mathematical background and modeling the dynamics of such complex mechanical systems.
Nonlinear Stochastic Models for Water Level Dynamics in Closed Lakes
Mishchenko, A.S.; Zelikin, M.I.; Zelikina, L.F.
1995-01-01
This paper presents the results of investigation of nonlinear mathematical models of the behavior of closed lakes using the example of the Caspian Sea. Forecasting the level of the Caspian Sea is crucial both for the economy of the region and for the region's environment. The Caspian Sea is a closed reservoir; it is well known that its level changes considerably due to a variety of factors including global climate change. A series of forecasts exists based on different methods and taking...
NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TOMAS, R.; FISCHER, W.; JAIN, A.; LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.
2004-01-01
For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability
Nonlinear evolution inclusions arising from phase change models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Colli, P.; Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.; Sprekels, J.
2007-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2007), s. 1067-1098 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlinear and nonlocal evolution equations * Cahn-Hilliard type dynamics * phase transitions models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.155, year: 2007 http://www.dml.cz/bitstream/handle/10338.dmlcz/128228/CzechMathJ_57-2007-4_2.pdf
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Cooperative Control and Estimation
Ru, Pengkai
Recent advances in computational power have made it possible to do expensive online computations for control systems. It is becoming more realistic to perform computationally intensive optimization schemes online on systems that are not intrinsically stable and/or have very small time constants. Being one of the most important optimization based control approaches, model predictive control (MPC) has attracted a lot of interest from the research community due to its natural ability to incorporate constraints into its control formulation. Linear MPC has been well researched and its stability can be guaranteed in the majority of its application scenarios. However, one issue that still remains with linear MPC is that it completely ignores the system's inherent nonlinearities thus giving a sub-optimal solution. On the other hand, if achievable, nonlinear MPC, would naturally yield a globally optimal solution and take into account all the innate nonlinear characteristics. While an exact solution to a nonlinear MPC problem remains extremely computationally intensive, if not impossible, one might wonder if there is a middle ground between the two. We tried to strike a balance in this dissertation by employing a state representation technique, namely, the state dependent coefficient (SDC) representation. This new technique would render an improved performance in terms of optimality compared to linear MPC while still keeping the problem tractable. In fact, the computational power required is bounded only by a constant factor of the completely linearized MPC. The purpose of this research is to provide a theoretical framework for the design of a specific kind of nonlinear MPC controller and its extension into a general cooperative scheme. The controller is designed and implemented on quadcopter systems.
Parameter Estimation and Prediction of a Nonlinear Storage Model: an algebraic approach
Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.
2005-01-01
Generally, parameters that are nonlinear in system models are estimated by nonlinear least-squares optimization algorithms. In this paper, if a nonlinear discrete-time model with a polynomial quotient structure in input, output, and parameters, a method is proposed to re-parameterize the model such
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamura, Junji; Kido, Hiroko; Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu
2009-03-01
Straight-line or segmented plume models as atmospheric diffusion models are commonly used in probabilistic accident consequence assessment (PCA) codes due to cost and time savings. The PCA code, OSCAAR developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Present; Japan Atomic Energy Agency) uses the variable puff trajectory model to calculate atmospheric transport and dispersion of released radionuclides. In order to investigate uncertainties involved with the structure of the atmospheric dispersion/deposition model in OSCAAR, we have introduced the more sophisticated computer codes that included regional meteorological models RAMS and atmospheric transport model HYPACT, which were developed by Colorado State University, and comparative analyses between OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT have been performed. In this study, model verification of OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT was conducted using data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments, which were carried out in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken. The predictions by models and the results of the atmospheric diffusion experiments indicated relatively good agreements. And it was shown that model performance of OSCAAR was the same degree as it of RAMS/HYPACT. (author)
Shah, A A; Xing, W W; Triantafyllidis, V
2017-04-01
In this paper, we develop reduced-order models for dynamic, parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear partial differential equations using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The main challenges are to accurately and efficiently approximate the POD bases for new parameter values and, in the case of nonlinear problems, to efficiently handle the nonlinear terms. We use a Bayesian nonlinear regression approach to learn the snapshots of the solutions and the nonlinearities for new parameter values. Computational efficiency is ensured by using manifold learning to perform the emulation in a low-dimensional space. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a linear and a nonlinear example, with comparisons with a global basis approach.
Mockler, Eva; Reaney, Simeon; Mellander, Per-Erik; Wade, Andrew; Collins, Adrian; Arheimer, Berit; Bruen, Michael
2017-04-01
The agricultural sector is the most common suspected source of nutrient pollution in Irish rivers. However, it is also often the most difficult source to characterise due to its predominantly diffuse nature. Particulate phosphorus in surface water and dissolved phosphorus in groundwater are of particular concern in Irish water bodies. Hence the further development of models and indices to assess diffuse sources of contaminants are required for use by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide support for river basin planning. Understanding connectivity in the landscape is a vital component of characterising the source-pathway-receptor relationships for water-borne contaminants, and hence is a priority in this research. The DIFFUSE Project will focus on connectivity modelling and incorporation of connectivity into sediment, nutrient and pesticide risk mapping. The Irish approach to understanding and managing natural water bodies has developed substantially in recent years assisted by outputs from multiple research projects, including modelling and analysis tools developed during the Pathways and CatchmentTools projects. These include the Pollution Impact Potential (PIP) maps, which are an example of research output that is used by the EPA to support catchment management. The PIP maps integrate an understanding of the pollution pressures and mobilisation pathways and, using the source-pathways-receptor model, provide a scientific basis for evaluation of mitigation measures. These maps indicate the potential risk posed by nitrate and phosphate from diffuse agricultural sources to surface and groundwater receptors and delineate critical source areas (CSAs) as a means of facilitating the targeting of mitigation measures. Building on this previous research, the DIFFUSE Project will develop revised and new catchment managements tools focused on connectivity, sediment, phosphorus and pesticides. The DIFFUSE project will strive to identify the state
Use of nonlinear dose-effect models to predict consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.
1996-01-01
The linear dose-effect relationship was introduced as a model for the induction of cancer from exposure to nuclear radiation. Subsequently, it has been used by analogy to assess the risk of chemical carcinogens also. Recently, however, the model for radiation carcinogenesis has come increasingly under attack because its calculations contradict the epidemiological data, such as cancer in atomic bomb survivors. Even so, its proponents vigorously defend it, often using arguments that are not so much scientific as a mix of scientific, societal, and often political arguments. At least in part, the resilience of the linear model is due to two convenient properties that are exclusive to linearity: First, the risk of an event is determined solely by the event dose; second, the total risk of a population group depends only on the total population dose. In reality, the linear model has been conclusively falsified; i.e., it has been shown to make wrong predictions, and once this fact is generally realized, the scientific method calls for a new paradigm model. As all alternative models are by necessity nonlinear, all the convenient properties of the linear model are invalid, and calculational procedures have to be used that are appropriate for nonlinear models
Discrete random walk models for space-time fractional diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenflo, Rudolf; Mainardi, Francesco; Moretti, Daniele; Pagnini, Gianni; Paradisi, Paolo
2002-01-01
A physical-mathematical approach to anomalous diffusion may be based on generalized diffusion equations (containing derivatives of fractional order in space or/and time) and related random walk models. By space-time fractional diffusion equation we mean an evolution equation obtained from the standard linear diffusion equation by replacing the second-order space derivative with a Riesz-Feller derivative of order α is part of (0,2] and skewness θ (moduleθ≤{α,2-α}), and the first-order time derivative with a Caputo derivative of order β is part of (0,1]. Such evolution equation implies for the flux a fractional Fick's law which accounts for spatial and temporal non-locality. The fundamental solution (for the Cauchy problem) of the fractional diffusion equation can be interpreted as a probability density evolving in time of a peculiar self-similar stochastic process that we view as a generalized diffusion process. By adopting appropriate finite-difference schemes of solution, we generate models of random walk discrete in space and time suitable for simulating random variables whose spatial probability density evolves in time according to this fractional diffusion equation
Flux-limited diffusion models in radiation hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomraning, G.C.; Szilard, R.H.
1993-01-01
The authors discuss certain flux-limited diffusion theories which approximately describe radiative transfer in the presence of steep spatial gradients. A new formulation is presented which generalizes a flux-limited description currently in widespread use for large radiation hydrodynamic calculations. This new formation allows more than one Case discrete mode to be described by a flux-limited diffusion equation. Such behavior is not extant in existing formulations. Numerical results predicted by these flux-limited diffusion models are presented for radiation penetration into an initially cold halfspace. 37 refs., 5 figs
Fukao, Takeshi; Kurima, Shunsuke; Yokota, Tomomi
2018-05-01
This paper develops an abstract theory for subdifferential operators to give existence and uniqueness of solutions to the initial-boundary problem (P) for the nonlinear diffusion equation in an unbounded domain $\\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^N$ ($N\\in{\\mathbb N}$), written as \\[ \\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t} + (-\\Delta+1)\\beta(u) = g \\quad \\mbox{in}\\ \\Omega\\times(0, T), \\] which represents the porous media, the fast diffusion equations, etc., where $\\beta$ is a single-valued maximal monotone function on $\\mathbb{R}$, and $T>0$. Existence and uniqueness for (P) were directly proved under a growth condition for $\\beta$ even though the Stefan problem was excluded from examples of (P). This paper completely removes the growth condition for $\\beta$ by confirming Cauchy's criterion for solutions of the following approximate problem (P)$_{\\varepsilon}$ with approximate parameter $\\varepsilon>0$: \\[ \\frac{\\partial u_{\\varepsilon}}{\\partial t} + (-\\Delta+1)(\\varepsilon(-\\Delta+1)u_{\\varepsilon} + \\beta(u_{\\varepsilon}) + \\pi_{\\varepsilon}(u_{\\varepsilon})) = g \\quad \\mbox{in}\\ \\Omega\\times(0, T), \\] which is called the Cahn--Hilliard system, even if $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb{R}^N$ ($N \\in \\mathbb{N}$) is an unbounded domain. Moreover, it can be seen that the Stefan problem is covered in the framework of this paper.
Landau fluid model for weakly nonlinear dispersive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.
2005-01-01
In may astrophysical plasmas such as the solar wind, the terrestrial magnetosphere, or in the interstellar medium at small enough scales, collisions are negligible. When interested in the large-scale dynamics, a hydrodynamic approach is advantageous not only because its numerical simulations is easier than of the full Vlasov-Maxwell equations, but also because it provides a deep understanding of cross-scale nonlinear couplings. It is thus of great interest to construct fluid models that extended the classical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to collisionless situations. Two ingredients need to be included in such a model to capture the main kinetic effects: finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and Landau damping, the only fluid-particle resonance that can affect large scales and can be modeled in a relatively simple way. The Modelization of Landau damping in a fluid formalism is hardly possible in the framework of a systematic asymptotic expansion and was addressed mainly by means of parameter fitting in a linearized setting. We introduced a similar Landau fluid model but, that has the advantage of taking dispersive effects into account. This model properly describes dispersive MHD waves in quasi-parallel propagation. Since, by construction, the system correctly reproduces their linear dynamics, appropriate tests should address the nonlinear regime. In a first case, we show analytically that the weakly nonlinear modulational dynamics of quasi-parallel propagating Alfven waves is well captured. As a second test we consider the parametric decay instability of parallel Alfven waves and show that numerical simulations of the dispersive Landau fluid model lead to results that closely match the outcome of hybrid simulations. (Author)
Convergence of surface diffusion parameters with model crystal size
Cohen, Jennifer M.; Voter, Arthur F.
1994-07-01
A study of the variation in the calculated quantities for adatom diffusion with respect to the size of the model crystal is presented. The reported quantities include surface diffusion barrier heights, pre-exponential factors, and dynamical correction factors. Embedded atom method (EAM) potentials were used throughout this effort. Both the layer size and the depth of the crystal were found to influence the values of the Arrhenius factors significantly. In particular, exchange type mechanisms required a significantly larger model than standard hopping mechanisms to determine adatom diffusion barriers of equivalent accuracy. The dynamical events that govern the corrections to transition state theory (TST) did not appear to be as sensitive to crystal depth. Suitable criteria for the convergence of the diffusion parameters with regard to the rate properties are illustrated.
When mechanism matters: Bayesian forecasting using models of ecological diffusion
Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Russell, Robin E.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Powell, James A.
2017-01-01
Ecological diffusion is a theory that can be used to understand and forecast spatio-temporal processes such as dispersal, invasion, and the spread of disease. Hierarchical Bayesian modelling provides a framework to make statistical inference and probabilistic forecasts, using mechanistic ecological models. To illustrate, we show how hierarchical Bayesian models of ecological diffusion can be implemented for large data sets that are distributed densely across space and time. The hierarchical Bayesian approach is used to understand and forecast the growth and geographic spread in the prevalence of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We compare statistical inference and forecasts from our hierarchical Bayesian model to phenomenological regression-based methods that are commonly used to analyse spatial occurrence data. The mechanistic statistical model based on ecological diffusion led to important ecological insights, obviated a commonly ignored type of collinearity, and was the most accurate method for forecasting.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capdebosq, Y
1999-09-01
In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)
The inherent complexity in nonlinear business cycle model in resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Junhai; Sun Tao; Liu Lixia
2008-01-01
Based on Abraham C.-L. Chian's research, we applied nonlinear dynamic system theory to study the first-order and second-order approximate solutions to one category of the nonlinear business cycle model in resonance condition. We have also analyzed the relation between amplitude and phase of second-order approximate solutions as well as the relation between outer excitements' amplitude, frequency approximate solutions, and system bifurcation parameters. Then we studied the system quasi-periodical solutions, annulus periodical solutions and the path leading to system bifurcation and chaotic state with different parameter combinations. Finally, we conducted some numerical simulations for various complicated circumstances. Therefore this research will lay solid foundation for detecting the complexity of business cycles and systems in the future
Testing and inference in nonlinear cointegrating vector error correction models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, D.; Rahbek, A.
2013-01-01
We analyze estimators and tests for a general class of vector error correction models that allows for asymmetric and nonlinear error correction. For a given number of cointegration relationships, general hypothesis testing is considered, where testing for linearity is of particular interest. Under...... the null of linearity, parameters of nonlinear components vanish, leading to a nonstandard testing problem. We apply so-called sup-tests to resolve this issue, which requires development of new(uniform) functional central limit theory and results for convergence of stochastic integrals. We provide a full...... asymptotic theory for estimators and test statistics. The derived asymptotic results prove to be nonstandard compared to results found elsewhere in the literature due to the impact of the estimated cointegration relations. This complicates implementation of tests motivating the introduction of bootstrap...
Application of nonlinear forecasting techniques for meteorological modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Pérez-Muñuzuri
2000-10-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear forecasting method was used to predict the behavior of a cloud coverage time series several hours in advance. The method is based on the reconstruction of a chaotic strange attractor using four years of cloud absorption data obtained from half-hourly Meteosat infrared images from Northwestern Spain. An exhaustive nonlinear analysis of the time series was carried out to reconstruct the phase space of the underlying chaotic attractor. The forecast values are used by a non-hydrostatic meteorological model ARPS for daily weather prediction and their results compared with surface temperature measurements from a meteorological station and a vertical sounding. The effect of noise in the time series is analyzed in terms of the prediction results.Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; general – General (new fields
Application of nonlinear forecasting techniques for meteorological modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Pérez-Muñuzuri
Full Text Available A nonlinear forecasting method was used to predict the behavior of a cloud coverage time series several hours in advance. The method is based on the reconstruction of a chaotic strange attractor using four years of cloud absorption data obtained from half-hourly Meteosat infrared images from Northwestern Spain. An exhaustive nonlinear analysis of the time series was carried out to reconstruct the phase space of the underlying chaotic attractor. The forecast values are used by a non-hydrostatic meteorological model ARPS for daily weather prediction and their results compared with surface temperature measurements from a meteorological station and a vertical sounding. The effect of noise in the time series is analyzed in terms of the prediction results.
Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; general – General (new fields
Statistical model of a gas diffusion electrode. III. Photomicrograph study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winsel, A W
1965-12-01
A linear section through a gas diffusion electrode produces a certain distribution function of sinews with the pores. From this distribution function some qualities of the pore structure are derived, and an automatic device to determine the distribution function is described. With a statistical model of a gas diffusion electrode the behavior of a DSK electrode is discussed and compared with earlier measurements of the flow resistance of this material.
Nonlinear dynamical modeling and prediction of the terrestrial magnetospheric activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassiliadis, D.
1992-01-01
The irregular activity of the magnetosphere results from its complex internal dynamics as well as the external influence of the solar wind. The dominating self-organization of the magnetospheric plasma gives rise to repetitive, large-scale coherent behavior manifested in phenomena such as the magnetic substorm. Based on the nonlinearity of the global dynamics this dissertation examines the magnetosphere as a nonlinear dynamical system using time series analysis techniques. Initially the magnetospheric activity is modeled in terms of an autonomous system. A dimension study shows that its observed time series is self-similar, but the correlation dimension is high. The implication of a large number of degrees of freedom is confirmed by other state space techniques such as Poincare sections and search for unstable periodic orbits. At the same time a stability study of the time series in terms of Lyapunov exponents suggests that the series is not chaotic. The absence of deterministic chaos is supported by the low predictive capability of the autonomous model. Rather than chaos, it is an external input which is largely responsible for the irregularity of the magnetospheric activity. In fact, the external driving is so strong that the above state space techniques give results for magnetospheric and solar wind time series that are at least qualitatively similar. Therefore the solar wind input has to be included in a low-dimensional nonautonomous model. Indeed it is shown that such a model can reproduce the observed magnetospheric behavior up to 80-90 percent. The characteristic coefficients of the model show little variation depending on the external disturbance. The impulse response is consistent with earlier results of linear prediction filters. The model can be easily extended to contain nonlinear features of the magnetospheric activity and in particular the loading-unloading behavior of substorms
Comparison of a nonlinear dynamic model of a piping system to test data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blakely, K.D.; Howard, G.E.; Walton, W.B.; Johnson, B.A.; Chitty, D.E.
1983-01-01
Response of a nonlinear finite element model of the Heissdampfreaktor recirculation piping loop (URL) was compared to measured data, representing the physical benchmarking of a nonlinear model. Analysis-test comparisons of piping response are presented for snapback tests that induced extreme nonlinear behavior of the URL system. Nonlinearities in the system are due to twelve swaybraces (pipe supports) that possessed nonlinear force-deflection characteristics. These nonlinearities distorted system damping estimates made by using the half-power bandwidth method on Fourier transforms of measured accelerations, with the severity of distortion increasing with increasing degree of nonlinearity. Time domain methods, which are not so severely affected by the presence of nonlinearities, were used to compute system damping ratios. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were accurately and efficiently performed using the pseudo-force technique and the finite element program MSC/NASTRAN. Measured damping was incorporated into the model for snapback simulations. Acceleration time histories, acceleration Fourier transforms, and swaybrace force time histories of the nonlinear model, plus several linear models, were compared to test measurements. The nonlinear model predicted three-fourths of the measured peak accelerations to within 50%, half of the accelerations to within 25%, and one-fifth of the accelerations to within 10%. This nonlinear model predicted accelerations (in the time and frequency domains) and swaybrace forces much better than did any of the linear models, demonstrating the increased accuracy resulting from properly simulating nonlinear support behavior. In addition, earthquake response comparisons were made between the experimentally validated nonlinear model and a linear model. Significantly lower element stresses were predicted for the nonlinear model, indicating the potential usefulness of nonlinear simulations in piping design assessments. (orig.)
Diffusion Forecasting Model with Basis Functions from QR-Decomposition
Harlim, John; Yang, Haizhao
2017-12-01
The diffusion forecasting is a nonparametric approach that provably solves the Fokker-Planck PDE corresponding to Itô diffusion without knowing the underlying equation. The key idea of this method is to approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a discrete representation of the shift (Koopman) operator on a set of basis functions generated via the diffusion maps algorithm. While the choice of these basis functions is provably optimal under appropriate conditions, computing these basis functions is quite expensive since it requires the eigendecomposition of an N× N diffusion matrix, where N denotes the data size and could be very large. For large-scale forecasting problems, only a few leading eigenvectors are computationally achievable. To overcome this computational bottleneck, a new set of basis functions constructed by orthonormalizing selected columns of the diffusion matrix and its leading eigenvectors is proposed. This computation can be carried out efficiently via the unpivoted Householder QR factorization. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm will be shown in both deterministically chaotic and stochastic dynamical systems; in the former case, the superiority of the proposed basis functions over purely eigenvectors is significant, while in the latter case forecasting accuracy is improved relative to using a purely small number of eigenvectors. Supporting arguments will be provided on three- and six-dimensional chaotic ODEs, a three-dimensional SDE that mimics turbulent systems, and also on the two spatial modes associated with the boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation obtained from applying the Nonlinear Laplacian Spectral Analysis on the measured Outgoing Longwave Radiation.
Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Based On Wiener Model
T. H. Lee; J. H. Park; S. M. Lee; S. C. Lee
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider Wiener nonlinear model for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The Wiener model of the SOFC consists of a linear dynamic block and a static output non-linearity followed by the block, in which linear part is approximated by state-space model and the nonlinear part is identified by a polynomial form. To control the SOFC system, we have to consider various view points such as operating conditions, another constraint conditions, change of load current and so on. A change of ...
An SIRS model with a nonlinear incidence rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Yu; Wang, Wendi; Xiao Shiwu
2007-01-01
The global dynamics of an SIRS model with a nonlinear incidence rate is investigated. We establish a threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic, analyze the existence and asymptotic stability of equilibria, and verify the existence of bistable states, i.e., a stable disease free equilibrium and a stable endemic equilibrium or a stable limit cycle. In particular, we find that the model admits stability switches as a parameter changes. We also investigate the backward bifurcation, the Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation and obtain the Hopf bifurcation criteria and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation curves, which are important for making strategies for controlling a disease
Stability Analysis of Some Nonlinear Anaerobic Digestion Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Simeonov
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The paper deals with local asymptotic stability analysis of some mass balance dynamic models (based on one and on two-stage reaction schemes of the anaerobic digestion (AD in CSTR. The equilibrium states for models based on one (with Monod, Contois and Haldane shapes for the specific growth rate and on two-stage (only with Monod shapes for both the specific growth rate of acidogenic and methanogenic bacterial populations reaction schemes have been determined solving sets of nonlinear algebraic equations using Maples. Their stability has been analyzed systematically, which provides insight and guidance for AD bioreactors design, operation and control.
The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model
Rubincam, David
2004-01-01
A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold
A nonlinear model for ionic polymer metal composites as actuators
Bonomo, C.; Fortuna, L.; Giannone, P.; Graziani, S.; Strazzeri, S.
2007-02-01
This paper introduces a comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of motion actuators based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) working in air. Significant quantities ruling the acting properties of IPMC-based actuators are taken into account. The model is organized as follows. As a first step, the dependence of the IPMC absorbed current on the voltage applied across its thickness is taken into account; a nonlinear circuit model is proposed to describe this relationship. In a second step the transduction of the absorbed current into the IPMC mechanical reaction is modelled. The model resulting from the cascade of both the electrical and the electromechanical stages represents a novel contribution in the field of IPMCs, capable of describing the electromechanical behaviour of these materials and predicting relevant quantities in a large range of applied signals. The effect of actuator scaling is also investigated, giving interesting support to the activities involved in the design of actuating devices based on these novel materials. Evidence of the excellent agreement between the estimations obtained by using the proposed model and experimental signals is given.
Estimation methods for nonlinear state-space models in ecology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro
2011-01-01
The use of nonlinear state-space models for analyzing ecological systems is increasing. A wide range of estimation methods for such models are available to ecologists, however it is not always clear, which is the appropriate method to choose. To this end, three approaches to estimation in the theta...... logistic model for population dynamics were benchmarked by Wang (2007). Similarly, we examine and compare the estimation performance of three alternative methods using simulated data. The first approach is to partition the state-space into a finite number of states and formulate the problem as a hidden...... Markov model (HMM). The second method uses the mixed effects modeling and fast numerical integration framework of the AD Model Builder (ADMB) open-source software. The third alternative is to use the popular Bayesian framework of BUGS. The study showed that state and parameter estimation performance...
Shao, Yuan; Ramachandran, Sandhya; Arnold, Susan; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy
2017-03-01
The use of the turbulent eddy diffusion model and its variants in exposure assessment is limited due to the lack of knowledge regarding the isotropic eddy diffusion coefficient, D T . But some studies have suggested a possible relationship between D T and the air changes per hour (ACH) through a room. The main goal of this study was to accurately estimate D T for a range of ACH values by minimizing the difference between the concentrations measured and predicted by eddy diffusion model. We constructed an experimental chamber with a spatial concentration gradient away from the contaminant source, and conducted 27 3-hr long experiments using toluene and acetone under different air flow conditions (0.43-2.89 ACHs). An eddy diffusion model accounting for chamber boundary, general ventilation, and advection was developed. A mathematical expression for the slope based on the geometrical parameters of the ventilation system was also derived. There is a strong linear relationship between D T and ACH, providing a surrogate parameter for estimating D T in real-life settings. For the first time, a mathematical expression for the relationship between D T and ACH has been derived that also corrects for non-ideal conditions, and the calculated value of the slope between these two parameters is very close to the experimentally determined value. The values of D T obtained from the experiments are generally consistent with values reported in the literature. They are also independent of averaging time of measurements, allowing for comparison of values obtained from different measurement settings. These findings make the use of turbulent eddy diffusion models for exposure assessment in workplace/indoor environments more practical.
Augmented twin-nonlinear two-box behavioral models for multicarrier LTE power amplifiers.
Hammi, Oualid
2014-01-01
A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.
A non-linear state space approach to model groundwater fluctuations
Berendrecht, W.L.; Heemink, A.W.; Geer, F.C. van; Gehrels, J.C.
2006-01-01
A non-linear state space model is developed for describing groundwater fluctuations. Non-linearity is introduced by modeling the (unobserved) degree of water saturation of the root zone. The non-linear relations are based on physical concepts describing the dependence of both the actual
Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties
Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…
Jump diffusion models and the evolution of financial prices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueiredo, Annibal; Castro, Marcio T. de; Silva, Sergio da; Gleria, Iram
2011-01-01
We analyze a stochastic model to describe the evolution of financial prices. We consider the stochastic term as a sum of the Wiener noise and a jump process. We point to the effects of the jumps on the return time evolution, a central concern of the econophysics literature. The presence of jumps suggests that the process can be described by an infinitely divisible characteristic function belonging to the De Finetti class. We then extend the De Finetti functions to a generalized nonlinear model and show the model to be capable of explaining return behavior. -- Highlights: → We analyze a stochastic model to describe the evolution of financial prices. → The stochastic term is considered as a sum of the Wiener noise and a jump process. → The process can be described by an infinitely divisible characteristic function belonging to the De Finetti class. → We extend the De Finetti functions to a generalized nonlinear model.
Modelling and simulation of diffusive processes methods and applications
Basu, SK
2014-01-01
This book addresses the key issues in the modeling and simulation of diffusive processes from a wide spectrum of different applications across a broad range of disciplines. Features: discusses diffusion and molecular transport in living cells and suspended sediment in open channels; examines the modeling of peristaltic transport of nanofluids, and isotachophoretic separation of ionic samples in microfluidics; reviews thermal characterization of non-homogeneous media and scale-dependent porous dispersion resulting from velocity fluctuations; describes the modeling of nitrogen fate and transport
A nonlinear inversion for the velocity background and perturbation models
Wu, Zedong
2015-08-19
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the single scattered wavefield obtained using an image. However, current RWI methods usually neglect diving waves, which is an important source of information for extracting the long wavelength components of the velocity model. Thus, we propose a new optimization problem through breaking the velocity model into the background and the perturbation in the wave equation directly. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer the single scattering model, but includes all scattering. We optimize both components simultaneously, and thus, the objective function is nonlinear with respect to both the background and perturbation. The new introduced w can absorb the non-smooth update of background naturally. Application to the Marmousi model with frequencies that start at 5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Application to the SEG2014 demonstrates the versatility of the approach.
A penalized framework for distributed lag non-linear models.
Gasparrini, Antonio; Scheipl, Fabian; Armstrong, Ben; Kenward, Michael G
2017-09-01
Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) are a modelling tool for describing potentially non-linear and delayed dependencies. Here, we illustrate an extension of the DLNM framework through the use of penalized splines within generalized additive models (GAM). This extension offers built-in model selection procedures and the possibility of accommodating assumptions on the shape of the lag structure through specific penalties. In addition, this framework includes, as special cases, simpler models previously proposed for linear relationships (DLMs). Alternative versions of penalized DLNMs are compared with each other and with the standard unpenalized version in a simulation study. Results show that this penalized extension to the DLNM class provides greater flexibility and improved inferential properties. The framework exploits recent theoretical developments of GAMs and is implemented using efficient routines within freely available software. Real-data applications are illustrated through two reproducible examples in time series and survival analysis. © 2017 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.
Controlled Nonlinear Stochastic Delay Equations: Part I: Modeling and Approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushner, Harold J.
2012-01-01
This two-part paper deals with “foundational” issues that have not been previously considered in the modeling and numerical optimization of nonlinear stochastic delay systems. There are new classes of models, such as those with nonlinear functions of several controls (such as products), each with is own delay, controlled random Poisson measure driving terms, admissions control with delayed retrials, and others. There are two basic and interconnected themes for these models. The first, dealt with in this part, concerns the definition of admissible control. The classical definition of an admissible control as a nonanticipative relaxed control is inadequate for these models and needs to be extended. This is needed for the convergence proofs of numerical approximations for optimal controls as well as to have a well-defined model. It is shown that the new classes of admissible controls do not enlarge the range of the value functions, is closed (together with the associated paths) under weak convergence, and is approximatable by ordinary controls. The second theme, dealt with in Part II, concerns transportation equation representations, and their role in the development of numerical algorithms with much reduced memory and computational requirements.
A non-linear model of information seeking behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allen E. Foster
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The results of a qualitative, naturalistic, study of information seeking behaviour are reported in this paper. The study applied the methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling combined purposive and snowball methods, and led to a final sample of 45 inter-disciplinary researchers from the University of Sheffield. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to elicit detailed examples of information seeking. Coding of interview transcripts took place in multiple iterations over time and used Atlas-ti software to support the process. The results of the study are represented in a non-linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour. The model describes three core processes (Opening, Orientation, and Consolidation and three levels of contextual interaction (Internal Context, External Context, and Cognitive Approach, each composed of several individual activities and attributes. The interactivity and shifts described by the model show information seeking to be non-linear, dynamic, holistic, and flowing. The paper concludes by describing the whole model of behaviours as analogous to an artist's palette, in which activities remain available throughout information seeking. A summary of key implications of the model and directions for further research are included.
Nonlinear spectral mixing theory to model multispectral signatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Astrophysics and Radiation Measurements Group
1996-02-01
Nonlinear spectral mixing occurs due to multiple reflections and transmissions between discrete surfaces, e.g. leaves or facets of a rough surface. The radiosity method is an energy conserving computational method used in thermal engineering and it models nonlinear spectral mixing realistically and accurately. In contrast to the radiative transfer method the radiosity method takes into account the discreteness of the scattering surfaces (e.g. exact location, orientation and shape) such as leaves and includes mutual shading between them. An analytic radiosity-based scattering model for vegetation was developed and used to compute vegetation indices for various configurations. The leaf reflectance and transmittance was modeled using the PROSPECT model for various amounts of water, chlorophyll and variable leaf structure. The soil background was modeled using SOILSPEC with a linear mixture of reflectances of sand, clay and peat. A neural network and a geometry based retrieval scheme were used to retrieve leaf area index and chlorophyll concentration for dense canopies. Only simulated canopy reflectances in the 6 visible through short wave IR Landsat TM channels were used. The authors used an empirical function to compute the signal-to-noise ratio of a retrieved quantity.
Nonlinear ECRH and ECCD modeling in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamendje, R.; Kernbichler, W.; Heyn, M.F.; Kasilov, S.V.; Poli, E.
2003-01-01
A Monte Carlo method of evaluation of the electron distribution function which takes into account realistic orbits of electrons during their nonlinear cyclotron interaction with the wave beam has been proposed. The focus there was on a proper description of particle interaction with a wave beam while the geometry of the main magnetic field outside the beam was the simplest possible (slab model). In the actual work, a more realistic tokamak geometry has been implemented in the model. In addition, an expression for the parallel current density through Green's function has been used. This allows to reduce statistical errors which result from the fact that the current generated by particles with positive v parallel >0 is almost compensated by the current resulting from particles with v parallel <0 if the complete distribution function is taken into account in the expression for the current. The code ECNL which is a Monte Carlo kinetic equation solver based on this model, has been coupled with the beam tracing code TORBEAM. The results of nonlinear modeling of ECCD in a tokamak with ASDEX Upgrade parameters with help of this combination of codes are compared below to the results of linear modeling performed with TORBEAM alone. In addition, implications for stellarators are discussed. (orig.)
A model of non-Gaussian diffusion in heterogeneous media
Lanoiselée, Yann; Grebenkov, Denis S.
2018-04-01
Recent progress in single-particle tracking has shown evidence of the non-Gaussian distribution of displacements in living cells, both near the cellular membrane and inside the cytoskeleton. Similar behavior has also been observed in granular materials, turbulent flows, gels and colloidal suspensions, suggesting that this is a general feature of diffusion in complex media. A possible interpretation of this phenomenon is that a tracer explores a medium with spatio-temporal fluctuations which result in local changes of diffusivity. We propose and investigate an ergodic, easily interpretable model, which implements the concept of diffusing diffusivity. Depending on the parameters, the distribution of displacements can be either flat or peaked at small displacements with an exponential tail at large displacements. We show that the distribution converges slowly to a Gaussian one. We calculate statistical properties, derive the asymptotic behavior and discuss some implications and extensions.
Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bukonte, L.; Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.
2014-01-01
The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10 15 Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T m , resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures
Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation
Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet
2015-01-01
When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating
Neutron stars in non-linear coupling models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taurines, Andre R.; Vasconcellos, Cesar A.Z.; Malheiro, Manuel; Chiapparini, Marcelo
2001-01-01
We present a class of relativistic models for nuclear matter and neutron stars which exhibits a parameterization, through mathematical constants, of the non-linear meson-baryon couplings. For appropriate choices of the parameters, it recovers current QHD models found in the literature: Walecka, ZM and ZM3 models. We have found that the ZM3 model predicts a very small maximum neutron star mass, ∼ 0.72M s un. A strong similarity between the results of ZM-like models and those with exponential couplings is noted. Finally, we discuss the very intense scalar condensates found in the interior of neutron stars which may lead to negative effective masses. (author)
Neutron stars in non-linear coupling models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taurines, Andre R.; Vasconcellos, Cesar A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Malheiro, Manuel [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Chiapparini, Marcelo [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2001-07-01
We present a class of relativistic models for nuclear matter and neutron stars which exhibits a parameterization, through mathematical constants, of the non-linear meson-baryon couplings. For appropriate choices of the parameters, it recovers current QHD models found in the literature: Walecka, ZM and ZM3 models. We have found that the ZM3 model predicts a very small maximum neutron star mass, {approx} 0.72M{sub s}un. A strong similarity between the results of ZM-like models and those with exponential couplings is noted. Finally, we discuss the very intense scalar condensates found in the interior of neutron stars which may lead to negative effective masses. (author)
The parton model for the diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ducati, M.B. Gay; Machado, M.V.T.
1999-01-01
We analyze the Buchmueller-Hebecker model for diffraction processes, point out its predictions to the diffractive structure function F D(3) 2 (x IP , β,Q 2 ). The break of factorization for the F D93) 2 present in recent H1 data is well described introducing an extra soft (reggeon) contribution as an extension to the model. (author)
A nonlinear model of gold production in Malaysia
Ramli, Norashikin; Muda, Nora; Umor, Mohd Rozi
2014-06-01
Malaysia is a country which is rich in natural resources and one of it is a gold. Gold has already become an important national commodity. This study is conducted to determine a model that can be well fitted with the gold production in Malaysia from the year 1995-2010. Five nonlinear models are presented in this study which are Logistic model, Gompertz, Richard, Weibull and Chapman-Richard model. These model are used to fit the cumulative gold production in Malaysia. The best model is then selected based on the model performance. The performance of the fitted model is measured by sum squares error, root mean squares error, coefficient of determination, mean relative error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. This study has found that a Weibull model is shown to have significantly outperform compare to the other models. To confirm that Weibull is the best model, the latest data are fitted to the model. Once again, Weibull model gives the lowest readings at all types of measurement error. We can concluded that the future gold production in Malaysia can be predicted according to the Weibull model and this could be important findings for Malaysia to plan their economic activities.
A combinatorial model of malware diffusion via bluetooth connections.
Merler, Stefano; Jurman, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
We outline here the mathematical expression of a diffusion model for cellphones malware transmitted through Bluetooth channels. In particular, we provide the deterministic formula underlying the proposed infection model, in its equivalent recursive (simple but computationally heavy) and closed form (more complex but efficiently computable) expression.
A combinatorial model of malware diffusion via bluetooth connections.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Merler
Full Text Available We outline here the mathematical expression of a diffusion model for cellphones malware transmitted through Bluetooth channels. In particular, we provide the deterministic formula underlying the proposed infection model, in its equivalent recursive (simple but computationally heavy and closed form (more complex but efficiently computable expression.
Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs
Linear regressive model structures for estimation and prediction of compartmental diffusive systems
Vries, D; Keesman, K.J.; Zwart, Heiko J.
In input-output relations of (compartmental) diffusive systems, physical parameters appear non-linearly, resulting in the use of (constrained) non-linear parameter estimation techniques with its short-comings regarding global optimality and computational effort. Given a LTI system in state space
Linear regressive model structures for estimation and prediction of compartmental diffusive systems
Vries, D.; Keesman, K.J.; Zwart, H.
2006-01-01
Abstract In input-output relations of (compartmental) diffusive systems, physical parameters appear non-linearly, resulting in the use of (constrained) non-linear parameter estimation techniques with its short-comings regarding global optimality and computational effort. Given a LTI system in state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin
2013-01-01
We interpret the purely spectral forward Maxwell equation with up to third-order induced polarizations for pulse propagation and interactions in quadratic nonlinear crystals. The interpreted equation, also named the nonlinear wave equation in the frequency domain, includes quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities, delayed Raman effects, and anisotropic nonlinearities. The full potential of this wave equation is demonstrated by investigating simulations of solitons generated in the process of ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation. We show that a balance in the soliton delay can be achieved due...
Models of the delayed nonlinear Raman response in diatomic gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.; Pearson, A.
2011-01-01
We examine the delayed response of a diatomic gas to a polarizing laser field with the goal of obtaining computationally efficient methods for use with laser pulse propagation simulations. We demonstrate that for broadband pulses, heavy molecules such as O 2 and N 2 , and typical atmospheric temperatures, the initial delayed response requires only classical physics. The linear kinetic Green's function is derived from the Boltzmann equation and shown to be in excellent agreement with full density-matrix calculations. A straightforward perturbation approach for the fully nonlinear, kinetic impulse response is also presented. With the kinetic theory a reduced fluid model of the diatomic gas' orientation is derived. Transport coefficients are introduced to model the kinetic phase mixing of the delayed response. In addition to computational rapidity, the fluid model provides intuition through the use of familiar macroscopic quantities. Both the kinetic and the fluid descriptions predict a nonlinear steady-state alignment after passage of the laser pulse, which in the fluid model is interpreted as an anisotropic temperature of the diatomic fluid with respect to motion about the polarization axis.
Numerical modelling of swirling diffusive flames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parra-Santos Teresa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the mixing and combustion of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model solves 3D transient Navier Stokes for turbulent and reactive flows. Averaged velocity profiles using RNG swirl dominated k-epsilon model have been validated with experimental measurements from other sources for the non reactive case. The combustion model is Probability Density Function. Bearing in mind the annular jet has swirl number over 0.5, a vortex breakdown appears in the axis of the burner. Besides, the sudden expansion with a ratio of 2 in diameter between nozzle exits and the test chamber produces the boundary layer separation with the corresponding torus shape recirculation. Contrasting the mixing and combustion models, the last one produces the reduction of the vortex breakdown.
Diffuse solar radiation estimation models for Turkey's big cities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulgen, Koray; Hepbasli, Arif
2009-01-01
A reasonably accurate knowledge of the availability of the solar resource at any place is required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists, and hydrologists in many applications of solar energy such as solar furnaces, concentrating collectors, and interior illumination of buildings. For this purpose, in the past, various empirical models (or correlations) have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. This study deals with diffuse solar radiation estimation models along with statistical test methods used to statistically evaluate their performance. Models used to predict monthly average daily values of diffuse solar radiation are classified in four groups as follows: (i) From the diffuse fraction or cloudness index, function of the clearness index, (ii) From the diffuse fraction or cloudness index, function of the relative sunshine duration or sunshine fraction, (iii) From the diffuse coefficient, function of the clearness index, and (iv) From the diffuse coefficient, function of the relative sunshine duration or sunshine fraction. Empirical correlations are also developed to establish a relationship between the monthly average daily diffuse fraction or cloudness index (K d ) and monthly average daily diffuse coefficient (K dd ) with the monthly average daily clearness index (K T ) and monthly average daily sunshine fraction (S/S o ) for the three big cities by population in Turkey (Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir). Although the global solar radiation on a horizontal surface and sunshine duration has been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (STMS) over all country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The eight new models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in three big cites are validated, and thus, the most accurate model is selected for guiding future projects. The new models are then compared with the 32 models available in the
Diffusion theory model for optimization calculations of cold neutron sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azmy, Y.Y.
1987-01-01
Cold neutron sources are becoming increasingly important and common experimental facilities made available at many research reactors around the world due to the high utility of cold neutrons in scattering experiments. The authors describe a simple two-group diffusion model of an infinite slab LD 2 cold source. The simplicity of the model permits to obtain an analytical solution from which one can deduce the reason for the optimum thickness based solely on diffusion-type phenomena. Also, a second more sophisticated model is described and the results compared to a deterministic transport calculation. The good (particularly qualitative) agreement between the results suggests that diffusion theory methods can be used in parametric and optimization studies to avoid the generally more expensive transport calculations
Diffusion and sorption on hardened cement pastes - experiments and modelling results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jakob, A.; Sarott, F.-A.; Spieler, P.
1999-08-01
Large parts of repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste consist of cementitious materials. Radionuclides are transported by diffusion in the cement matrix or, in case of fractured or highly permeable cement, by advection and dispersion. In this work we aim at a mechanistic understanding of diffusion processes of some reactive tracers. On the laboratory scale, ten through-diffusion experiments were performed to study these processes for Cl{sup -}, I{sup -}, Cs{sup +} and Ni{sup 2+} ions in a Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC) equilibrated with an artificial pore water. Some of the experiments continued up to nearly three years with daily measurements. In all the experiments, a cement disk initially saturated with an artificial pore water was exposed on one side to a highly diluted solution containing the species of interest. On the second side, a near-zero concentration boundary was maintained to drive through-diffusion of the tracer. The changes of concentrations on both sides of the samples were monitored, allowing careful mass balances. From these data, values of the diffusive flux and the mass of tracer taken up by the cementitious material were determined as a function of time. In the subsequent modelling, the time histories of these tracer breakthroughs were fitted using five different models. The simplest model neglects all retarding mechanisms except pure diffusion. More complex models either account for instantaneous equilibrium sorption in form of linear or non-linear (Freundlich) sorption or for first-order sorption kinetics where the forward reaction may be linear or non-linear according to the Freundlich isotherm, while the back-reaction is linear. Hence, the analysis allows the extraction of the diffusion coefficient and parameter values for the sorption isotherm or rate-constants for sorption and desorption. The fits to the experimental data were carried out by an automated Marquardt-Levenberg procedure yielding error
Kumar, Alla S.; Clark, Joseph; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.
2009-02-01
Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. The excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. As the bilirubin levels rise in the blood stream, there is a continuous exchange between the extra vascular bilirubin and bilirubin in the blood stream. Exposure to phototherapy alters the concentration of bilirubin in the vascular and extra vascular regions by causing bilirubin in the skin layers to be broken down. Thus, the relative concentration of extra vascular bilirubin is reduced leading to a diffusion of bilirubin out of the vascular region. Diffuse reflectance spectra from human skin contains physiological and structural information of the skin and nearby tissue. A diffuse reflectance spectrum must be captured before and after blanching in order to isolate the intravascular and extra vascular bilirubin. A new mathematical model is proposed with extra vascular bilirubin concentration taken into consideration along with other optical parameters in defining the diffuse reflectance spectrum from human skin. A nonlinear optimization algorithm has been adopted to extract the optical properties (including bilirubin concentration) from the skin reflectance spectrum. The new system model and nonlinear algorithm have been combined to enable extraction of Bilirubin concentrations within an average error of 10%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizia, R.E.; Clark, D.E.; Glazoff, M.V.; Lister, Tedd E.; Trowbridge, T.L.
2011-01-01
A research effort was made to evaluate the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools, Thermo-Calc(copyright) and Dictra(copyright), in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. This would achieve a substantial reduction in the overall number of experiments required to achieve optimal welding and post-weld heat treatment conditions. This problem is important because diffusion welded components of Alloy 800H are being evaluated for use in assembling compact, micro-channel heat exchangers that are being proposed in the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor by the US Department of Energy. The modeling was done in close contact with experimental work. The latter included using the Gleeble 3500 System(reg sign) for welding simulation, mechanical property measurement, and light optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using a 15 μm Ni foil as a joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved, and model refinements to account for the complexity of actual alloy materials are suggested.
A diffusion model of protected population on bilocal habitat with generalized resource
Vasilyev, Maxim D.; Trofimtsev, Yuri I.; Vasilyeva, Natalya V.
2017-11-01
A model of population distribution in a two-dimensional area divided by an ecological barrier, i.e. the boundaries of natural reserve, is considered. Distribution of the population is defined by diffusion, directed migrations and areal resource. The exchange of specimens occurs between two parts of the habitat. The mathematical model is presented in the form of a boundary value problem for a system of non-linear parabolic equations with variable parameters of diffusion and growth function. The splitting space variables, sweep method and simple iteration methods were used for the numerical solution of a system. A set of programs was coded in Python. Numerical simulation results for the two-dimensional unsteady non-linear problem are analyzed in detail. The influence of migration flow coefficients and functions of natural birth/death ratio on the distributions of population densities is investigated. The results of the research would allow to describe the conditions of the stable and sustainable existence of populations in bilocal habitat containing the protected and non-protected zones.
Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.
1981-09-01
A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained. The study has been conducted using a four-phase approach. The first phase develops the solution to the steady-state radon-diffusion equation in one-dimensieered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent f water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, BB, a 200 mK. In case 2), x-ray studies of isotopic phase separation in 3 He-- 4 He bcc solids were carried out by B. A. Fraass
Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer
2007-01-01
This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.
Nonlinear flight dynamics and stability of hovering model insects
Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao
2013-01-01
Current analyses on insect dynamic flight stability are based on linear theory and limited to small disturbance motions. However, insects' aerial environment is filled with swirling eddies and wind gusts, and large disturbances are common. Here, we numerically solve the equations of motion coupled with the Navier–Stokes equations to simulate the large disturbance motions and analyse the nonlinear flight dynamics of hovering model insects. We consider two representative model insects, a model hawkmoth (large size, low wingbeat frequency) and a model dronefly (small size, high wingbeat frequency). For small and large initial disturbances, the disturbance motion grows with time, and the insects tumble and never return to the equilibrium state; the hovering flight is inherently (passively) unstable. The instability is caused by a pitch moment produced by forward/backward motion and/or a roll moment produced by side motion of the insect. PMID:23697714
Dynamics in a nonlinear Keynesian good market model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naimzada, Ahmad; Pireddu, Marina
2014-01-01
In this paper, we show how a rich variety of dynamical behaviors can emerge in the standard Keynesian income-expenditure model when a nonlinearity is introduced, both in the cases with and without endogenous government spending. A specific sigmoidal functional form is used for the adjustment mechanism of income with respect to the excess demand, in order to bound the income variation. With the aid of analytical and numerical tools, we investigate the stability conditions, bifurcations, as well as periodic and chaotic dynamics. Globally, we study multistability phenomena, i.e., the coexistence of different kinds of attractors
A Disentangled Recognition and Nonlinear Dynamics Model for Unsupervised Learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fraccaro, Marco; Kamronn, Simon Due; Paquet, Ulrich
2017-01-01
This paper takes a step towards temporal reasoning in a dynamically changing video, not in the pixel space that constitutes its frames, but in a latent space that describes the non-linear dynamics of the objects in its world. We introduce the Kalman variational auto-encoder, a framework...... for unsupervised learning of sequential data that disentangles two latent representations: an object’s representation, coming from a recognition model, and a latent state describing its dynamics. As a result, the evolution of the world can be imagined and missing data imputed, both without the need to generate...
Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard
There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...
Parameter Identification for Nonlinear Circuit Models of Power BAW Resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CONSTANTINESCU, F.
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The large signal operation of the bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators is characterized by the amplitude-frequency effect and the intermodulation effect. The measurement of these effects, together with that of the small signal frequency characteristic, are used in this paper for the parameter identification of the nonlinear circuit models developed previously by authors. As the resonator has been connected to the measurement bench by wire bonding, the parasitic elements of this connection have been taken into account, being estimated solving some electrical and magnetic field problems.
Modelling Ni diffusion in bentonite using different sorption models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfingsten, W.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. An important component of the multi barrier disposal concept for a radioactive waste repository is the bentonite backfill surrounding the canisters containing vitrified high-level waste and spent fuel located in the tunnels deep within the chosen host rock. The effectiveness of the compacted bentonite barrier is such that calculations have indicated that many radionuclides have decayed to insignificant levels before having diffused through the thickness of bentonite. These calculations are performed using the simple Kd sorption concept in which the values are taken from batch type experiments performed on dispersed systems performed for a single metal at a time, usually at trace concentrations. However, in such complex systems many radionuclides, inactive metal contaminants/ground water components may be simultaneously present in the aqueous phase at a range of concentrations varying with time during the temporal evolution of the repository system. An important aspect influencing the sorption of any radioactive metal under a set of given geochemical conditions is its competition with other metals present, and how this may vary as a function of concentration. Competitive sorption effects are not currently included in safety assessments and are thus an issue which needs to be addressed. Here we provide some first estimates of the potential influence of competitive sorption effects on the migration of radioactive metals through compacted bentonite as a function of their concentration and the concentration of competing metals. Ni(II) and Fe(II) were chosen as possible competing cations since their concentration levels are expected to have values greater than trace levels and effects might be maximal and canister corrosion represents a permanent Fe source at the bentonite interface which could influence bivalent radionuclide diffusion. The modelling of the Ni(II) diffusion/sorption has been carried out using three
A diffuse radar scattering model from Martian surface rocks
Calvin, W. M.; Jakosky, B. M.; Christensen, P. R.
1987-01-01
Remote sensing of Mars has been done with a variety of instrumentation at various wavelengths. Many of these data sets can be reconciled with a surface model of bonded fines (or duricrust) which varies widely across the surface and a surface rock distribution which varies less so. A surface rock distribution map from -60 to +60 deg latitude has been generated by Christensen. Our objective is to model the diffuse component of radar reflection based on this surface distribution of rocks. The diffuse, rather than specular, scattering is modeled because the diffuse component arises due to scattering from rocks with sizes on the order of the wavelength of the radar beam. Scattering for radio waves of 12.5 cm is then indicative of the meter scale and smaller structure of the surface. The specular term is indicative of large scale surface undulations and should not be causally related to other surface physical properties. A simplified model of diffuse scattering is described along with two rock distribution models. The results of applying the models to a planet of uniform fractional rock coverage with values ranging from 5 to 20% are discussed.
Nonlinear model of epidemic spreading in a complex social network.
Kosiński, Robert A; Grabowski, A
2007-10-01
The epidemic spreading in a human society is a complex process, which can be described on the basis of a nonlinear mathematical model. In such an approach the complex and hierarchical structure of social network (which has implications for the spreading of pathogens and can be treated as a complex network), can be taken into account. In our model each individual has one of the four permitted states: susceptible, infected, infective, unsusceptible or dead. This refers to the SEIR model used in epidemiology. The state of an individual changes in time, depending on the previous state and the interactions with other individuals. The description of the interpersonal contacts is based on the experimental observations of the social relations in the community. It includes spatial localization of the individuals and hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions. Numerical simulations were performed for different types of epidemics, giving the progress of a spreading process and typical relationships (e.g. range of epidemic in time, the epidemic curve). The spreading process has a complex and spatially chaotic character. The time dependence of the number of infective individuals shows the nonlinear character of the spreading process. We investigate the influence of the preventive vaccinations on the spreading process. In particular, for a critical value of preventively vaccinated individuals the percolation threshold is observed and the epidemic is suppressed.
On concurvity in nonlinear and nonparametric regression models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonia Amodio
2014-12-01
Full Text Available When data are affected by multicollinearity in the linear regression framework, then concurvity will be present in fitting a generalized additive model (GAM. The term concurvity describes nonlinear dependencies among the predictor variables. As collinearity results in inflated variance of the estimated regression coefficients in the linear regression model, the result of the presence of concurvity leads to instability of the estimated coefficients in GAMs. Even if the backfitting algorithm will always converge to a solution, in case of concurvity the final solution of the backfitting procedure in fitting a GAM is influenced by the starting functions. While exact concurvity is highly unlikely, approximate concurvity, the analogue of multicollinearity, is of practical concern as it can lead to upwardly biased estimates of the parameters and to underestimation of their standard errors, increasing the risk of committing type I error. We compare the existing approaches to detect concurvity, pointing out their advantages and drawbacks, using simulated and real data sets. As a result, this paper will provide a general criterion to detect concurvity in nonlinear and non parametric regression models.
Empirical intrinsic geometry for nonlinear modeling and time series filtering.
Talmon, Ronen; Coifman, Ronald R
2013-07-30
In this paper, we present a method for time series analysis based on empirical intrinsic geometry (EIG). EIG enables one to reveal the low-dimensional parametric manifold as well as to infer the underlying dynamics of high-dimensional time series. By incorporating concepts of information geometry, this method extends existing geometric analysis tools to support stochastic settings and parametrizes the geometry of empirical distributions. However, the statistical models are not required as priors; hence, EIG may be applied to a wide range of real signals without existing definitive models. We show that the inferred model is noise-resilient and invariant under different observation and instrumental modalities. In addition, we show that it can be extended efficiently to newly acquired measurements in a sequential manner. These two advantages enable us to revisit the Bayesian approach and incorporate empirical dynamics and intrinsic geometry into a nonlinear filtering framework. We show applications to nonlinear and non-Gaussian tracking problems as well as to acoustic signal localization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H.; Okuda, H.
1994-06-01
We study linear and nonlinear properties of a new computer simulation model developed to study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The model is constructed by combining a microscopic model used in the semi-classical approximation for the dielectric media and the particle model developed for the plasma simulations. It is shown that the model may be useful for studying linear and nonlinear wave propagation in the dielectric media
Malyarenko, Dariya I; Wilmes, Lisa J; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Jacobs, Michael A; Huang, Wei; Helmer, Karl G; Taouli, Bachir; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Newitt, David; Chenevert, Thomas L
2016-12-01
Previous research has shown that system-dependent gradient nonlinearity (GNL) introduces a significant spatial bias (nonuniformity) in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Here, the feasibility of centralized retrospective system-specific correction of GNL bias for quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in multisite clinical trials is demonstrated across diverse scanners independent of the scanned object. Using corrector maps generated from system characterization by ice-water phantom measurement completed in the previous project phase, GNL bias correction was performed for test ADC measurements from an independent DWI phantom (room temperature agar) at two offset locations in the bore. The precomputed three-dimensional GNL correctors were retrospectively applied to test DWI scans by the central analysis site. The correction was blinded to reference DWI of the agar phantom at magnet isocenter where the GNL bias is negligible. The performance was evaluated from changes in ADC region of interest histogram statistics before and after correction with respect to the unbiased reference ADC values provided by sites. Both absolute error and nonuniformity of the ADC map induced by GNL (median, 12%; range, -35% to +10%) were substantially reduced by correction (7-fold in median and 3-fold in range). The residual ADC nonuniformity errors were attributed to measurement noise and other non-GNL sources. Correction of systematic GNL bias resulted in a 2-fold decrease in technical variability across scanners (down to site temperature range). The described validation of GNL bias correction marks progress toward implementation of this technology in multicenter trials that utilize quantitative DWI.
Maghareh, Amin; Silva, Christian E.; Dyke, Shirley J.
2018-05-01
Hydraulic actuators play a key role in experimental structural dynamics. In a previous study, a physics-based model for a servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear physical system was developed. Later, this dynamical model was transformed into controllable canonical form for position tracking control purposes. For this study, a nonlinear device is designed and fabricated to exhibit various nonlinear force-displacement profiles depending on the initial condition and the type of materials used as replaceable coupons. Using this nonlinear system, the controllable canonical dynamical model is experimentally validated for a servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear physical system.
Modelling non-linear effects of dark energy
Bose, Benjamin; Baldi, Marco; Pourtsidou, Alkistis
2018-04-01
We investigate the capabilities of perturbation theory in capturing non-linear effects of dark energy. We test constant and evolving w models, as well as models involving momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. Specifically, we compare perturbative predictions at 1-loop level against N-body results for four non-standard equations of state as well as varying degrees of momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. The interaction is modelled phenomenologically using a time dependent drag term in the Euler equation. We make comparisons at the level of the matter power spectrum and the redshift space monopole and quadrupole. The multipoles are modelled using the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space spectrum. We find perturbation theory does very well in capturing non-linear effects coming from dark sector interaction. We isolate and quantify the 1-loop contribution coming from the interaction and from the non-standard equation of state. We find the interaction parameter ξ amplifies scale dependent signatures in the range of scales considered. Non-standard equations of state also give scale dependent signatures within this same regime. In redshift space the match with N-body is improved at smaller scales by the addition of the TNS free parameter σv. To quantify the importance of modelling the interaction, we create mock data sets for varying values of ξ using perturbation theory. This data is given errors typical of Stage IV surveys. We then perform a likelihood analysis using the first two multipoles on these sets and a ξ=0 modelling, ignoring the interaction. We find the fiducial growth parameter f is generally recovered even for very large values of ξ both at z=0.5 and z=1. The ξ=0 modelling is most biased in its estimation of f for the phantom w=‑1.1 case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeny G. Bugaev
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Geological, geophysical and seismogeological studies are now conducted in a more detail and thus provide for determining seismic sources with higher accuracy, from the first meters to first dozens of meters [Waldhauser, Schaff, 2008]. It is now possible to consider uncertainty ellipses of earthquake hypocenters, that are recorded in the updated Earthquake Catalogue, as surfaces of earthquake focus generators. In our article, it is accepted that a maximum horizontal size of an uncertainty ellipse corresponds to an area of a focus generator, and seismic events are thus classified into two groups, earthquakes with nonstiff and stiff foci. Criteria of such a classification are two limits of elastic strain and brittle strain in case of uniaxial (3⋅10–5 or omnidirectional (10–6 compression. The criteria are established from results of analyses of parameters of seismic dislocations and earthquake foci with regard to studies of surface parameters and deformation parameters of fault zones. It is recommendable that the uniaxial compression criterion shall be applied to zones of interaction between tectonic plates, and the unilateral compression criterion shall be applied to low active (interplate areas. Sample cases demonstrate the use of data sets on nonstiff and stiff foci for separate evaluation of magnitude reoccurrence curves, analyses of structured and dissipated seismicity, review of the physical nature of nonlinearity of recurrence curves and conditions of preparation of strong earthquakes. Changes of parameters of the recurrence curves with changes of data collection square areas are considered. Reviewed are changes of parameters of the recurrence curves during preparation for the Japan major earthquake of 11 March 2011 prior to and after the major shock. It is emphasized that it is important to conduct even more detailed geological and geophysical studies and to improve precision and sensitivity of local seismological monitoring networks
Diffusion approximation of neuronal models revisited
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čupera, Jakub
2014-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 11-25 ISSN 1547-1063. [International Workshop on Neural Coding (NC) /10./. Praha, 02.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0282 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : stochastic model * neuronal activity * first-passage time Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2014
Diffusion in energy materials: Governing dynamics from atomistic modelling
Parfitt, D.; Kordatos, A.; Filippatos, P. P.; Chroneos, A.
2017-09-01
Understanding diffusion in energy materials is critical to optimising the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and batteries both of which are of great technological interest as they offer high efficiency for cleaner energy conversion and storage. In the present review, we highlight the insights offered by atomistic modelling of the ionic diffusion mechanisms in SOFCs and batteries and how the growing predictive capability of high-throughput modelling, together with our new ability to control compositions and microstructures, will produce advanced materials that are designed rather than chosen for a given application. The first part of the review focuses on the oxygen diffusion mechanisms in cathode and electrolyte materials for SOFCs and in particular, doped ceria and perovskite-related phases with anisotropic structures. The second part focuses on disordered oxides and two-dimensional materials as these are very promising systems for battery applications.
Nonlinear realizations and effective Lagrangian densities for nonlinear σ-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton-Charlton, Jason Dominic
2003-01-01
Nonlinear realizations of the groups SU(N), SO(m) and SO(t,s) are analysed, described by the coset spaces SU(N) / SU(N-1) x U(1), SO(m) / SO(m-1), SO(1,m-1) / SO(1,m-2) and SO(m) / SO(m-2 x SO(2). The analysis consists of determining the transformation properties of the Goldstone Bosons, constructing the most general possible Lagrangian for the realizations, and as a result identifying the coset space metric. We view the λ matrices of SU(N) as being the basis of an (N 2 - 1) dimensional real vector space, and from this we learn how to construct the basis of a Cartan Subspace associated with a vector. This results in a mathematical structure which allows us to find expressions for coset representative elements used in the analysis. This structure is not only relevant to SU(N) breaking models, but may also be used to find results in SO(m) and SO(1,m - 1) breaking models. (author)
Diffusion maps, clustering and fuzzy Markov modeling in peptide folding transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedialkova, Lilia V.; Amat, Miguel A.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Hummer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
Using the helix-coil transitions of alanine pentapeptide as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the use of diffusion maps in the analysis of molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Diffusion maps and other nonlinear data-mining techniques provide powerful tools to visualize the distribution of structures in conformation space. The resulting low-dimensional representations help in partitioning conformation space, and in constructing Markov state models that capture the conformational dynamics. In an initial step, we use diffusion maps to reduce the dimensionality of the conformational dynamics of Ala5. The resulting pretreated data are then used in a clustering step. The identified clusters show excellent overlap with clusters obtained previously by using the backbone dihedral angles as input, with small—but nontrivial—differences reflecting torsional degrees of freedom ignored in the earlier approach. We then construct a Markov state model describing the conformational dynamics in terms of a discrete-time random walk between the clusters. We show that by combining fuzzy C-means clustering with a transition-based assignment of states, we can construct robust Markov state models. This state-assignment procedure suppresses short-time memory effects that result from the non-Markovianity of the dynamics projected onto the space of clusters. In a comparison with previous work, we demonstrate how manifold learning techniques may complement and enhance informed intuition commonly used to construct reduced descriptions of the dynamics in molecular conformation space
Diffusion maps, clustering and fuzzy Markov modeling in peptide folding transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nedialkova, Lilia V.; Amat, Miguel A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Kevrekidis, Ioannis G., E-mail: yannis@princeton.edu, E-mail: gerhard.hummer@biophys.mpg.de [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hummer, Gerhard, E-mail: yannis@princeton.edu, E-mail: gerhard.hummer@biophys.mpg.de [Department of Theoretical Biophysics, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2014-09-21
Using the helix-coil transitions of alanine pentapeptide as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the use of diffusion maps in the analysis of molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Diffusion maps and other nonlinear data-mining techniques provide powerful tools to visualize the distribution of structures in conformation space. The resulting low-dimensional representations help in partitioning conformation space, and in constructing Markov state models that capture the conformational dynamics. In an initial step, we use diffusion maps to reduce the dimensionality of the conformational dynamics of Ala5. The resulting pretreated data are then used in a clustering step. The identified clusters show excellent overlap with clusters obtained previously by using the backbone dihedral angles as input, with small—but nontrivial—differences reflecting torsional degrees of freedom ignored in the earlier approach. We then construct a Markov state model describing the conformational dynamics in terms of a discrete-time random walk between the clusters. We show that by combining fuzzy C-means clustering with a transition-based assignment of states, we can construct robust Markov state models. This state-assignment procedure suppresses short-time memory effects that result from the non-Markovianity of the dynamics projected onto the space of clusters. In a comparison with previous work, we demonstrate how manifold learning techniques may complement and enhance informed intuition commonly used to construct reduced descriptions of the dynamics in molecular conformation space.
Estimation and prediction under local volatility jump-diffusion model
Kim, Namhyoung; Lee, Younhee
2018-02-01
Volatility is an important factor in operating a company and managing risk. In the portfolio optimization and risk hedging using the option, the value of the option is evaluated using the volatility model. Various attempts have been made to predict option value. Recent studies have shown that stochastic volatility models and jump-diffusion models reflect stock price movements accurately. However, these models have practical limitations. Combining them with the local volatility model, which is widely used among practitioners, may lead to better performance. In this study, we propose a more effective and efficient method of estimating option prices by combining the local volatility model with the jump-diffusion model and apply it using both artificial and actual market data to evaluate its performance. The calibration process for estimating the jump parameters and local volatility surfaces is divided into three stages. We apply the local volatility model, stochastic volatility model, and local volatility jump-diffusion model estimated by the proposed method to KOSPI 200 index option pricing. The proposed method displays good estimation and prediction performance.