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Sample records for nonlinear damage postulate

  1. Source term and radiation dose estimates for postulated damage to the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; McPherson, R.B.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Watson, E.C.; Ayer, J.E.

    1979-02-01

    Three scenarios representing significant levels of containment loss due to moderate, substantial, and major damage to the 102 Building at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center are postulated, and the potential radiation doses to the general population as a result of the airborne releases of radionuclides are estimated. The damage scenarios are not correlated to any specific level of seismic activity. The three scenarios are: (1) Moderate damage scenario--perforation of the enclosures in and the structure comprising the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. (2) Substantial damage scenario--complete loss of containment of the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory and loss of the filters sealing the inlet to the Radioactive Materials Laboratory hot cells. (3) Major damage scenario--the damage outlined in (2) plus the perforation of enclosures holding significant inventories of dispersible plutonium in and the structure comprising the Advanced Fuels Laboratory.

  2. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  3. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornn, Luke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  4. Extreme nonlinear optics and laser damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldutis, Evaldas

    2010-11-01

    The study of laser induced damage threshold caused by series of identical laser pulses (LID-T-N) on gamma radiation resistant glasses and their analogs is performed applying know-how ultra stable laser radiation. The presented results and analysis of earlier received results show that nonlinear optical phenomena in extreme conditions of interaction are different from the traditional nonlinear optical processes, because they depend not only on intensity of electromagnetic field of laser radiation, but also on the pulse number in series of identical laser pulses. This range of laser intensities is not wide; it is different for each material and determines the range of Extreme Nonlinear Optics. The dependence of LID-T-N on pulse number N for different kinds of high quality transparent glasses was observed. The study of dynamics of these processes (i.e. the study of dependence on N) at different intensities in series of incident laser pulses provides new information about properties of the materials useful for studying laser damage fundamentals and their application. The expectation that gamma radiation resistant glasses could give useful information for technology of resistant optics for high power lasers has not proved. The received results well correspond with the earlier proposed model of laser damage.

  5. Nonlinear damage detection in composite structures using bispectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Pickering, Simon; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Literature offers a quantitative number of diagnostic methods that can continuously provide detailed information of the material defects and damages in aerospace and civil engineering applications. Indeed, low velocity impact damages can considerably degrade the integrity of structural components and, if not detected, they can result in catastrophic failure conditions. This paper presents a nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method, based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for the detection of the nonlinear signature in a damaged composite structure. The proposed technique, based on a bispectral analysis of ultrasonic input waveforms, allows for the evaluation of the nonlinear response due to the presence of cracks and delaminations. Indeed, such a methodology was used to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the structure, by exploiting the frequency mixing of the original waveform acquired from a sparse array of sensors. The robustness of bispectral analysis was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged carbon fibre reinforce plastic (CFRP) composite panel, and the nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy. Unlike other linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods for damage detection, this methodology does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the nonlinear source, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Moreover, bispectral analysis can be considered as a nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) technique for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  6. Damage detection in structures through nonlinear excitation and system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Muhammad R.; Bordonaro, Giancarlo G.; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Duke, John C., Jr.

    2008-03-01

    Variations in parameters representing natural frequency, damping and effective nonlinearities before and after damage initiation in a beam carrying a lumped mass are assessed. The identification of these parameters is performed by exploiting and modeling nonlinear behavior of the beam-mass system and matching an approximate solution of the representative model with quantities obtained from spectral analysis of measured vibrations. The representative model and identified coefficients are validated through comparison of measured and predicted responses. Percentage variations of the identified parameters before and after damage initiation are determined to establish their sensitivities to the state of damage of the beam. The results show that damping and effective nonlinearity parameters are more sensitive to damage initiation than the system's natural frequency. Moreover, the sensitivity of nonlinear parameters to damage is better established using a physically-derived parameter rather than spectral amplitudes of harmonic components.

  7. Linear and Nonlinear Damage Detection Using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Vanlanduit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Because a Scanning Laser Vibrometer (SLV can perform vibration measurements with a high spatial resolution, it is an ideal instrument to accurately locate damage in a structure. Unfortunately, the use of linear damage detection features, as for instance FRFs or modal parameters, does not always lead to a successful identification of the damage location. Measurement noise and nonlinear distortions can make the damage detection procedure difficult. In this article, a combined linear-nonlinear strategy to detect and locate damage in a structure with the aid of a SLV, will be proposed. To minimize the effect of noise, the modal parameters will be estimated using a Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE. Both noise and nonlinear distortion levels are extracted using the residuals of a two-dimensional spline fit. The validation of the technique will be performed on SLV measurements of a delaminated composite plate.

  8. Nonlinear structural damage detection using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Qu, Wenzhong

    2012-04-01

    An actual structure including connections and interfaces may exist nonlinear. Because of many complicated problems about nonlinear structural health monitoring (SHM), relatively little progress have been made in this aspect. Statistical pattern recognition techniques have been demonstrated to be competitive with other methods when applied to real engineering datasets. When a structure existing 'breathing' cracks that open and close under operational loading may cause a linear structural system to respond to its operational and environmental loads in a nonlinear manner nonlinear. In this paper, a vibration-based structural health monitoring when the structure exists cracks is investigated with autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM). Vibration experiments are carried out with a model frame. Time-series data in different cases such as: initial linear structure; linear structure with mass changed; nonlinear structure; nonlinear structure with mass changed are acquired.AR model of acceleration time-series is established, and different kernel function types and corresponding parameters are chosen and compared, which can more accurate, more effectively locate the damage. Different cases damaged states and different damage positions have been recognized successfully. AR-SVM method for the insufficient training samples is proved to be practical and efficient on structure nonlinear damage detection.

  9. An Approach for Nonlinear Fatigue Damage Evaluation in Asphalt Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Thongram, Sonika

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue due to vehicular loads is one of the primary distress mechanisms in asphalt pavements. It happens primarily due to deterioration in asphalt material with load repetitions. Degradation of asphalt material may be evaluated using different parameters. In view of degradation, the incremental damage in a given pavement section would be different for different repetitions, even with same loadings. Therefore, the damage progression becomes nonlinear with repetitions. Accounting such nonlinearity in damage accumulation, and based on different damage evaluation parameters, this paper presents an equivalent approach for fatigue damage evaluation in asphalt pavements. Traditional fatigue equation adopted in mechanistic-empirical pavement design has been used in the present work. Four different criteria, namely number of load repetitions, asphalt stiffness reduction, strain enhancement and fatigue life reduction with repetitions are considered for damage estimation. The proposed approach could estimate same value of nonlinear damage, irrespective of the criteria used. The simplest form of criterion i.e. the number of load repetitions can be used for fatigue performance evaluation. Probabilistically, the damage propagation is also correlated and assessed with the failure probability.

  10. Nonlinear active control of damaged piezoelectric smart laminated plates and damage detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yi-ming; RUAN Jian-li

    2008-01-01

    Considering mass and stiffness of piezoelectric layers and damage effects of composite layers,nonlinear dynamic equations of damaged piezoelectric smart laminated plates are derived.The derivation is based on the Hamilton's principle,the higherorder shear deformation plate theory, von Karman type geometrically nonlinear straindisplacement relations,and the strain energy equivalence theory.A negative velocity feedback control algorithm coupling the direct and converse piezoelectric effects is used to realize the active control and damage detection with a closed control loop. Simply supported rectangular laminated plates with immovable edges are used in numerical computation.Influence of the piezoelectric layers'location on the vibration control is investigated.In addition,effects of the degree and location of damage on the sensor output voltage are discussed.A method for damage detection is introduced.

  11. Multi-level damage detection with nonlinear ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear ultrasonic method of second harmonic generation is used to detect multiple levels of damage on a single specimen. There is a breadth of research in the literature that measures the second harmonic and the resulting nonlinear parameter to monitor increasing amounts of uniform damage, but for this method to be applicable as an in situ technique, it must be able to scan an area of a structure with varying amounts of damage over a region. To investigate this, an aluminum alloy sample is shot-peened to two intensity levels along its length, to produce different sections of cold work and residual stress as a function of spatial location. Previous research has shown that the residual stress and cold work introduced in a material from shot peening causes an increase in the nonlinear parameter. Rayleigh waves are generated in the sample and the first and second harmonic amplitudes are measured at increasing propagation distances that encompass an undamaged section and two sections, each with different levels of shot peening. Results show that the nonlinear parameter increases as the Rayleigh wedge sensor is scanned over the shot peening sections.

  12. Performance analysis of damaged buildings applying scenario of related non-linear analyses and damage coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with methodology developed and presented for analyzing the damage on structures exposed to accidental and seismic actions. The procedure is based on non-linear numerical analysis, taking into account the principles of Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD. The stiffness matrix of the effects of vertical action is used as the initial stiffness matrix in non-linear analysis which simulates the collapse of individual ground-floor columns, forming thereby a number of possible scenarios. By the end of the analysis that simulates the collapse of individual columns, the stiffness matrix is used as the initial stiffness matrix for Non-linear Static Pushover Analysis (NSPA of bi-directional seismic action (X and Y directions. Target displacement analyses were conducted using the Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM. The structure's conditions/state was assessed based on the calculated global and inter-storey drifts and the damage coefficient developed. The damage level to the building was established using an integrated approach based on global and inter-storey drifts, so that, depending on the level of displacements for which the drifts are identified, a more reliable answer can be obtained. Applying the damage coefficient, a prompt, reliable and accurate indication can be obtained on the damage level to the entire structure in the capacitive domain, from elastic and non-linear to collapse state.

  13. Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gang Kyu; Park, Sun Jong; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae [Dept. of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Buckling of Damaged Composite Cylindrical Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-lin; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the first order shear deformation theory(FSDT), the nonlinear dynamic equations involving transverse shear deformation and initial geometric imperfections were obtained by Hamilton's philosophy. Geometric deformation of the composite cylindrical shell was treated as the initial geometric imperfection in the dynamic equations, which were solved by the semi-analytical method in this paper. Stiffness reduction was employed for the damaged sub-layer, and the equivalent stiffness matrix was obtained for the delaminated area. By circumferential Fourier series expansions for shell displacements and loads and by using Galerkin technique, the nonlinear partial differential equations were transformed to ordinary differential equations which were finally solved by the finite difference method. The buckling was judged from shell responses by B-R criteria, and critical loads were then determined. The effect of the initial geometric deformation on the dynamic response and buckling of composite cylindrical shell was also discussed, as well as the effects of concomitant delamination and sub-layer matrix damages.

  15. Analysis of interlaminar stress and nonlinear dynamic response for composite laminated plates with interfacial damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, F. H.; Fu, Y. M.

    2008-12-01

    By considering the effect of interfacial damage and using the variation principle, three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic governing equations of the laminated plates with interfacial damage are derived based on the general six-degrees-of-freedom plate theory towards the accurate stress analysis. The solutions of interlaminar stress and nonlinear dynamic response for a simply supported laminated plate with interfacial damage are obtained by using the finite difference method, and the results are validated by comparison with the solution of nonlinear finite element method. In numerical calculations, the effects of interfacial damage on the stress in the interface and the nonlinear dynamic response of laminated plates are discussed.

  16. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Loren W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  17. Koch's postulates, carnivorous cows, and tuberculosis today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrah, Frank L

    2011-07-01

    With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change--strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors.

  18. The postulates of gravitational thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, E A

    1996-01-01

    The general principles and logical structure of a thermodynamic formalism that incorporates strongly self-gravitating systems are presented. This framework generalizes and simplifies the formulation of thermodynamics developed by Callen. The definition of extensive variables, the homogeneity properties of intensive parameters, and the fundamental problem of gravitational thermodynamics are discussed in detail. In particular, extensive parameters include quasilocal quantities and are naturally incorporated into a set of basic general postulates for thermodynamics. These include additivity of entropies (Massieu functions) and the generalized second law. Fundamental equations are no longer homogeneous first-order functions of their extensive variables. It is shown that the postulates lead to a formal resolution of the fundamental problem despite non-additivity of extensive parameters and thermodynamic potentials. Therefore, all the results of (gravitational) thermodynamics are an outgrowth of these postulates. T...

  19. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  20. Fatigue damage localization using time-domain features extracted from nonlinear Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Lu, Ye; Cheng, Li

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear guided waves are sensitive to small-scale fatigue damage that may hardly be identified by traditional techniques. A characterization method for fatigue damage is established based on nonlinear Lamb waves in conjunction with the use of a piezoelectric sensor network. Theories on nonlinear Lamb waves for damage detection are first introduced briefly. Then, the ineffectiveness of using pure frequency-domain information of nonlinear wave signals for locating damage is discussed. With a revisit to traditional gross-damage localization techniques based on the time of flight, the idea of using temporal signal features of nonlinear Lamb waves to locate fatigue damage is introduced. This process involves a time-frequency analysis that enables the damage-induced nonlinear signal features, which are either undiscernible in the original time history or uninformative in the frequency spectrum, to be revealed. Subsequently, a finite element modeling technique is employed, accounting for various sources of nonlinearities in a fatigued medium. A piezoelectric sensor network is configured to actively generate and acquire probing Lamb waves that involve damageinduced nonlinear features. A probability-based diagnostic imaging algorithm is further proposed, presenting results in diagnostic images intuitively. The approach is experimentally verified on a fatigue-damaged aluminum plate, showing reasonably good accuracy. Compared to existing nonlinear ultrasonics-based inspection techniques, this approach uses a permanently attached sensor network that well accommodates automated online health monitoring; more significantly, it utilizes time-domain information of higher-order harmonics from time-frequency analysis, and demonstrates a great potential for quantitative characterization of small-scale damage with improved localization accuracy.

  1. Analysis of interlaminar stress and nonlinear dynamic response for composite laminated plates with interfacial damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. H. Zhu; Y. M. Fu

    2008-01-01

    By considering the effect of interfacial damage and using the variation principle, three-dimensional nonli-near dynamic governing equations of the laminated plates with interfacial damage are derived based on the general six-degrees-of-freedom plate theory towards the accurate stress analysis. The solutions of interlaminar stress and nonlinear dynamic response for a simply supported laminated plate with interfacial damage are obtained by using the finite dif-ference method, and the results are validated by compari-son with the solution of nonlinear finite element method. In numerical calculations, the effects of interfacial damage on the stress in the interface and the nonlinear dynamic response of laminated plates are discussed.

  2. EFFECT OF DAMAGE ON NONLINEAR DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VISCOELASTIC RECTANGULAR PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-fang; FU Yi-ming

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of viscoelastic rectangular plates including the damage effects under the action of a transverse periodic load were studied. Using the von Karman equations, Boltzmann superposition principle and continuum damage mechanics, the nonlinear dynamic equations in terms of the mid-plane displacements for the viscoelastic thin plates with damage effect were derived. By adopting the finite difference method and Newmark method, these equations were solved. The results were compared with the available data. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the external loading parameters and geometric dimensions of the plate on the nonlinear dynamic responses of the plate were discussed. Research results show that the nonlinear dynamic response of the structure will change remarkably when the damage effect is considered.

  3. Insights into alkali-silica reaction damage in mortar through acoustic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, M.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.; Kurtis, K. E.

    2016-02-01

    The progression of damage as a result of alkali-silica reaction in mortar samples is monitored by using the Nonlinear Impact Resonance Acoustic Spectroscopy (NIRAS) method and expansion measurements, which were performed daily. Results of this study show a strong correlation between the cumulative average nonlinearity parameter and expansion for each sample type, and a strong linear relationship between fourteen-day expansion and the cumulative average nonlinearity of among sample types. In addition to the cumulative average nonlinearity parameter, the standard deviation of average nonlinearity parameter shows strong correlation with the fourteen-day expansion of sample types. Results provide insights to the relationship with the acoustic nonlinearity and damage caused by the ASR.

  4. A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4232 A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND DAMAGE IN CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) Unni Santhosh and...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad 5d. PROJECT...Composite Materials, 2010 A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad Research

  5. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weiliang, E-mail: wwl@whu.edu.cn; Qu, Wenzhong, E-mail: qwz@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Xiao, Li, E-mail: qwz@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Shen, Yanfeng, E-mail: shen5@email.sc.edu; Giurgiutiu, Victor, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from

  6. Metamodel for nonlinear dynamic response analysis of damaged laminated composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage affects negatively the safety of the structure and can lead to failure. Thus, it is recommended to use structural health monitoring techniques in order to detect, localize and quantify damage. The main aim of the current work is the development of a numerical metamodel to investigate the dynamic behavior of damaged composite structures. Hence, a metamodelling for damage prediction and dynamic behavior analysis of laminate composite structures is proposed, wherein the stress state in the structure is used as indicative parameters and artificial neural networks as a learning tool.

  7. Acousto-ultrasonics-based fatigue damage characterization: Linear versus nonlinear signal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhongqing; Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Cheng, Li; Wang, Qiang; Qing, Xinlin

    2014-03-01

    Engineering structures are prone to fatigue damage over service lifespan, entailing early detection and continuous monitoring of the fatigue damage from its initiation through growth. A hybrid approach for characterizing fatigue damage was developed, using two genres of damage indices constructed based on the linear and the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves. The feasibility, precision and practicability of using linear and nonlinear signal features, for quantitatively evaluating multiple barely visible fatigue cracks in a metallic structure, was compared. Miniaturized piezoelectric elements were networked to actively generate and acquire acousto-ultrasonic waves. The active sensing, in conjunction with a diagnostic imaging algorithm, enabled quantitative evaluation of fatigue damage and facilitated embeddable health monitoring. Results unveiled that the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves outperform their linear counterparts in terms of the detectability. Despite the deficiency in perceiving small-scale damage and the possibility of conveying false alarms, linear features show advantages in noise tolerance and therefore superior practicability. The comparison has consequently motivated an amalgamation of linear and nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves, targeting the prediction of multi-scale damage ranging from microscopic fatigue cracks to macroscopic gross damage.

  8. A proof of Bertrand's postulate

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    Andrea Asperti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formalization, in the Matita Interactive Theorem Prover, of some results by Chebyshev concerning the distribution of prime numbers, subsuming, as a corollary, Bertrand's postulate.Even if Chebyshev's result has been later superseded by the stronger prime number theorem, his machinery, and in particular the two functions psi and theta still play a central role in the modern development of number theory. The proof makes use of most part of the machinery of elementary arithmetics, and in particular of properties of prime numbers, gcd, products and summations, providing a natural benchmark for assessing the actual development of the arithmetical knowledge base.

  9. Nonlinear features identified by Volterra series for damage detection in a buckled beam

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    Shiki S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a new index for damage detection based on nonlinear features extracted from prediction errors computed by multiple convolutions using the discrete-time Volterra series. A reference Volterra model is identified with data in the healthy condition and used for monitoring the system operating with linear or nonlinear behavior. When the system has some structural change, possibly associated with damage, the index metrics computed could give an alert to separate the linear and nonlinear contributions, besides provide a diagnostic about the structural state. To show the applicability of the method, an experimental test is performed using nonlinear vibration signals measured in a clamped buckled beam subject to different levels of force applied and with simulated damages through discontinuities inserted in the beam surface.

  10. Dynamical Behavior of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Timoshenko Beams with Damage on a Viscoelastic Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛冬发; 张燕; 程昌钧

    2004-01-01

    Based on convolution-type constitutive equations for linear viscoelastic materials with damage and the hypotheses of Timoshenko beams with large deflections, the nonlinear equations governing dynamical behavior of Timoshenko beams with damage on viscoelastic foundation were firstly derived. By using the Galerkin method in spatial domain, the nonlinear integro-partial differential equations were transformed into a set of integro-ordinary differential equations. The numerical methods in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as the phase-trajectory diagram, Poincare section and bifurcation figure, were used to solve the simplified systems of equations. It could be seen that simplified dynamical systems possess the plenty of nonlinear dynamical properties. The influence of load and material parameters on the dynamic behavior of nonlinear system were investigated in detail.

  11. Baseline-free damage visualization using noncontact laser nonlinear ultrasonics and state space geometrical changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon; Park, Byeongjin

    2015-06-01

    Damage often causes a structural system to exhibit severe nonlinear behaviors, and the resulting nonlinear features are often much more sensitive to the damage than their linear counterparts. This study develops a laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS) so that certain types of damage can be detected without any sensor placement. The proposed LNWMS utilizes a pulse laser to generate ultrasonic waves and a laser vibrometer for ultrasonic measurement. Under the broadband excitation of the pulse laser, a nonlinear source generates modulations at various frequency values due to interactions among various input frequency components. State space attractors are reconstructed from the ultrasonic responses measured by LNWMS, and a damage feature called Bhattacharyya distance (BD) is computed from the state space attractors to quantify the degree of damage-induced nonlinearity. By computing the BD values over the entire target surface using laser scanning, damage can be localized and visualized without relying on the baseline data obtained from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique has been successfully used for visualizing fatigue crack in an aluminum plate and delamination and debonding in a glass fiber reinforced polymer wind turbine blade.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of damaged Reddy-Bickford beams supported on an elastic Pasternak foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Vladimir; Petković, Marko D.

    2016-12-01

    Geometrically nonlinear free and forced vibrations of damaged high order shear deformable beams resting on a nonlinear Pasternak foundation are investigated in this paper. Equations of motion are derived for the beam which is under subjected combined action of arbitrarily distributed or concentrated transverse loading as well as axial loading. To account for shear deformations, the concept of high order shear deformation is used in comparison with the concept of first order shear deformation theory. Analyses are performed to investigate the effects of the specific stiffness of the foundation on the damaged beam frequencies and displacements with the aim of equalising the response of a damaged and an intact beam. According to that, functions of the foundation stiffness are determined depending on the location and size of the damage as a result of the possibility for the damaged beam to behave like one that is intact. An advanced p-version of the finite element method is developed for geometrically nonlinear vibrations of damaged Reddy-Bickford beams. The present study gives a clear view of the nonlinear dynamical behaviour of four types of beams according to high order shear deformation theory - an intact beam, a damaged beam, a damaged beam on an elastic foundation and intact beam on elastic foundation. The paper also presents the derivation of a new set of two nonlinear partial differential equations where only the transverse and axial displacements figure. The forced nonlinear vibrations problem is solved in the time domain using the Newmark integration method. Free vibration analysis carried out by harmonic balance and the use of continuation methods and backbone curves are constructed.

  13. Nonlinear ultrasonic stimulated thermography for damage assessment in isotropic fatigued structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Gian Piero Malfense; Calla', Danielle; Ginzburg, Dmitri; Ciampa, Francesco; Meo, Michele

    2017-09-01

    Traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used to analyse that a structure is free of any harmful damage. However, these techniques still lack sensitivity to detect the presence of material micro-flaws in the form of fatigue damage and often require time-consuming procedures and expensive equipment. This research work presents a novel "nonlinear ultrasonic stimulated thermography" (NUST) method able to overcome some of the limitations of traditional linear ultrasonic/thermography NDE-SHM systems and to provide a reliable, rapid and cost effective estimation of fatigue damage in isotropic materials. Such a hybrid imaging approach combines the high sensitivity of nonlinear acoustic/ultrasonic techniques to detect micro-damage, with local defect frequency selection and infrared imaging. When exciting structures with an optimised frequency, nonlinear elastic waves are observed and higher frictional work at the fatigue damaged area is generated due to clapping and rubbing of the crack faces. This results in heat at cracked location that can be measured using an infrared camera. A Laser Vibrometer (LV) was used to evaluate the extent that individual frequency components contribute to the heating of the damage region by quantifying the out-of-plane velocity associated with the fundamental and second order harmonic responses. It was experimentally demonstrated the relationship between a nonlinear ultrasound parameter (βratio) of the material nonlinear response to the actual temperature rises near the crack. These results demonstrated that heat generation at damaged regions could be amplified by exciting at frequencies that provide nonlinear responses, thus improving the imaging of material damage and the reliability of NUST in a quick and reproducible manner.

  14. Analysis of nonlinear deformations and damage in CFRP textile laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Lucas, T.; Price, D.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Composite materials usually demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture due to their heterogeneity and microstructure, in contrast to more traditional homogeneous structural materials like metals and alloys. Damage evolution affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These damage modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation, numerical simulations and microtomography analysis. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates linked to their quasi-static bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of woven CFRP material under large-deflection bending. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit to study the deformation behaviour and damage in woven CFRP laminates. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination process. X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) analysis is carried out to investigate internal damage mechanisms such as cracking and delaminations. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data and MicroCT scans.

  15. Characterization of surface damage of a solid plate under tensile loading using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This letter reports experimental observation of a direct correlation between the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (NP) measured with nonlinear Rayleigh waves and the accumulation of plasticity damage in an AZ31 magnesium alloy plate specimen.Rayleigh waves are generated and detected with wedge transducers,and the NPs are measured at different stress levels.The results show that there is a significant increase in the NPs with monotonic tensile loads surpassing the material's yielding stress.The research sugge...

  16. Nonlinear response of plain concrete shear walls with elastic-damaging behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, S.; Schreyer, H.L.

    1997-02-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical and computational efforts on the modeling of small scale shear walls. Small scale shear walls are used extensively in the study of shear wall behavior because the construction and testing of full size walls are rather expensive. A finite element code is developed which incorporates nonlinear constitutive relations of damage mechanics. The program is used to obtain nonlinear load-deformation curves and to address the initial loss of stiffness due to shrinkage cracking. The program can also be used to monitor the continuous degradation of the fundamental frequency due to progressive damage.

  17. Fatigue damage evaluation of austenitic stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic waves in low cycle regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A "mountain shape" correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The "mountain shape" correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.

  18. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  19. Non destructive characterization of cortical bone micro-damage by nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Haupert

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a nonlinear ultrasound technique, the so-called nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS technique, for detecting early microdamage accumulation in cortical bone induced by four-point bending fatigue. Small parallelepiped beam-shaped human cortical bone specimens were subjected to cyclic four-point bending fatigue in several steps. The specimens were prepared to control damage localization during four-point bending fatigue cycling and to unambiguously identify resonant modes for NRUS measurements. NRUS measurements were achieved to follow the evolution of the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior during fatigue-induced damage. After each fatigue step, a small number of specimens was removed from the protocol and set apart to quantitatively assess the microcrack number density and length using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-µCT. The results showed a significant effect of damage steps on the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior. No significant change in the overall length of microcracks was observed in damaged regions compared to the load-free control regions. Only an increased number of shortest microcracks, those in the lowest quartile, was noticed. This was suggestive of newly formed microcracks during the early phases of damage accumulation. The variation of nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior was significantly correlated to the variation of the density of short microcracks. Our results suggest that the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior is sensitive to early bone microdamage. Therefore NRUS technique can be used to monitor fatigue microdamage progression in in vitro experiments.

  20. Concrete damage diagnosed using the non-classical nonlinear acoustic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Dao; Liu Xiao-Zhou; Gong Xiu-Fen; Nazarov V E; Ma Li

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the strength of concrete is seriously affected by damage and cracking. In this paper, six concrete samples under different damage levels are studied. The experimental results show a linear dependence of the resonance frequency shift on strain amplitude at the fundamental frequency, and approximate quadratic dependence of the am-plitudes of the second and third harmonics on strain amplitude at the fundamental frequency as well. In addition, the amplitude of the third harmonics is shown to increase with the increase of damage level, which is even higher than that of the second harmonics in samples with higher damage levels. These are three properties of non-classical nonlinear acoustics. The nonlinear parameters increase from 106 to 108 with damage level, and are more sensitive to the damage level of the concrete than the linear parameters obtained by using traditional acoustics methods. So, this method based on non-classical nonlinear acoustics may provide a better means of non-destructive testing (NDT) of concrete and other porous materials.

  1. Investigations in silicate glasses. I. Radiation damage. II. Optical nonlinearity. [Gamma rays and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, M.J.

    1976-11-15

    The investigation of two poorly understood but technologically important physical properties of silicate glasses and related materials is described. The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance to investigate the nature of radiation-induced damage in glasses exposed to a variety of high-energy radiation sources is discussed first. Second, the measurement of the nonlinear index of refraction coefficient in a variety of optical materials related to the design of high-power laser systems is described. The radiation damage investigations rely heavily on the comparison of experimental results for different experimental situations. The comparison of EPR lineshapes, absolute spin densities and power saturation behavior is used to probe a variety of microscopic and macroscopic aspects of radiation damage in glasses. Comparison of radiation damage associated with exposure to gamma rays and fast neutrons (and combinations thereof) are interpreted in terms of the microscopic damage mechanisms which are expected to be associated with the specific radiations. Comparison of radiation damage behavior in different types of glasses is also interpreted in terms of the behavior expected for the specific materials. The body of data which is generated is found to be internally self-consistent and is also generally consistent with the radiation damage behavior expected for specific situations. A new and versatile technique for measuring the nonlinear index of refraction coefficient, n/sub 2/, in optical materials is described. The technique utilizes a 1 ns pulsed neodymium-glass laser system and time-resolved interferometry to determine the ratio of the coefficient n/sub 2/ of sample materials to the n/sub 2/ of CS/sub 2/. This method avoids some of the complications associated with performing absolute measurements of n/sub 2/ and allows the use of a relatively simple experimental technique. The measurements determine the nonlinear index ratios of the samples with an accuracy of about

  2. Damage Evaluation of Critical Components of Tilted Support Spring Nonlinear System under a Rectangular Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionless nonlinear dynamical equations of a tilted support spring nonlinear packaging system with critical components were obtained under a rectangular pulse. To evaluate the damage characteristics of shocks to packaged products with critical components, a concept of the damage boundary surface was presented and applied to a titled support spring system, with the dimensionless critical acceleration of the system, the dimensionless critical velocity, and the frequency parameter ratio of the system taken as the three basic parameters. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the frequency parameter ratio, the mass ratio, the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration, the angle of the system, and the damping ratio on the damage boundary surface of critical components were discussed. It was demonstrated that with the increase of the frequency parameter ratio, the decrease of the angle, and/or the increase of the mass ratio, the safety zone of critical components can be broadened, and increasing the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration or the damping ratio may lead to a decrease of the damage zone for critical components. The results may lead to a thorough understanding of the design principles for the tilted support spring nonlinear system.

  3. Rational interpretation of the postulates in plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly focussed on revisited of the two well-known postulates of plasticity, i.e., the Drucker and the Il’iushin postulate, and it describes their rational interpretation within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics and using exterior calculus. It shows that the Il’iushin and the Drucker postulate is the integral form and local form of the irreversible thermodynamics of plastic deformation, respectively. The Drucker and Il’iushin postulate is equivalent for both soft and hardening materials.

  4. NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATING FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEM AND DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF CIVIL STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimian, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is defined as the capability to monitor the performance behavior of civil infrastructure systems as well as to detect, localize, and quantify damage in these systems. SHM technologies contribute to enhance the resilience of civil infrastructures, which are vulnerable to structural aging, degradation, and deterioration and to extreme events due to natural and man-made hazards. Given the limited financial resources available to renovate or replace them, it is ...

  5. Use of stochastic optimization techniques for damage detection in complex nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarkhani R.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of stochastic optimization techniques in the finite element model updating approach was investigated for damage detection in a quarter-scale two-span reinforced concrete bridge system which was tested experimentally at the University of Nevada, Reno. The damage sequence in the structure was induced by a range of progressively increasing excitations in the transverse direction of the specimen. Intermediate non-destructive white noise excitations and response measurements were used for system identification and damage detection purposes. It is shown that, when evaluated together with the strain gauge measurements and visual inspection results, the applied finite element model updating algorithm on this complex nonlinear system could accurately detect, localize, and quantify the damage in the tested bridge columns throughout the different phases of the experiment.

  6. Experimental damage detection of cracked beams by using nonlinear characteristics of forced response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreaus, U.; Baragatti, P.

    2012-08-01

    Experimental evaluation of the flexural forced vibrations of a steel cantilever beam having a transverse surface crack extending uniformly along the width of the beam was performed, where an actual fatigue crack was introduced instead - as usual - of a narrow slot. The nonlinear aspects of the dynamic response of the beam under harmonic excitation were considered and the relevant quantitative parameters were evaluated, in order to relate the nonlinear resonances to the presence and size of the crack. To this end, the existence of sub- and super-harmonic components in the Fourier spectra of the acceleration signals was evidenced, and their amplitudes were quantified. In particular, the acceleration signals were measured in different positions along the beam axis and under different forcing levels at the beam tip. The remarkable relevance of the above mentioned nonlinear characteristics, and their substantial independence on force magnitude and measurement point were worthily noted in comparison with the behavior of the intact beam. Thus, a reliable method of damage detection was proposed which was based on simple tests requiring only harmonically forcing and acceleration measuring in any point non-necessarily near the crack. Then, the time-history of the acceleration recorded at the beam tip was numerically processed in order to obtain the time-histories of velocity and displacement. The nonlinear features of the forced response were described and given a physical interpretation in order to define parameters suitable for damage detection. The efficiency of such parameters was discussed with respect to the their capability of detecting damage and a procedure for damage detection was proposed which was able to detect even small cracks by using simple instruments. A finite element model of the cantilever beam was finally assembled and tuned in order to numerically simulate the results of the experimental tests.

  7. Ultrasonic nonlinear guided wave inspection of microscopic damage in a composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Borigo, Cody; Owens, Steven; Lissenden, Clifford; Rose, Joseph; Hakoda, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Sudden structural failure is a severe safety threat to many types of military and industrial composite structures. Because sudden structural failure may occur in a composite structure shortly after macroscale damage initiates, reliable early diagnosis of microdamage formation in the composite structure is critical to ensure safe operation and to reduce maintenance costs. Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely used for long-range defect detection in various structures. When guided waves are generated under certain excitation conditions, in addition to the traditional linear wave mode (known as the fundamental harmonic wave mode), a number of nonlinear higher-order harmonic wave modes are also be generated. Research shows that the nonlinear parameters of a higher-order harmonic wave mode could have excellent sensitivity to microstructural changes in a material. In this work, we successfully employed a nonlinear guided wave structural health monitoring (SHM) method to detect microscopic impact damage in a 32-layer carbon/epoxy fiber-reinforced composite plate. Our effort has demonstrated that, utilizing appropriate transducer design, equipment, excitation signals, and signal processing techniques, nonlinear guided wave parameter measurements can be reliably used to monitor microdamage initiation and growth in composite structures.

  8. Stochastic filtering for damage identification through nonlinear structural finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroza, Rodrigo; Ebrahimian, Hamed; Conte, Joel P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a novel framework that combines advanced mechanics-based nonlinear (hysteretic) finite element (FE) models and stochastic filtering techniques to estimate unknown time-invariant parameters of nonlinear inelastic material models used in the FE model. Using input-output data recorded during earthquake events, the proposed framework updates the nonlinear FE model of the structure. The updated FE model can be directly used for damage identification and further used for damage prognosis. To update the unknown time-invariant parameters of the FE model, two alternative stochastic filtering methods are used: the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). A three-dimensional, 5-story, 2-by-1 bay reinforced concrete (RC) frame is used to verify the proposed framework. The RC frame is modeled using fiber-section displacement-based beam-column elements with distributed plasticity and is subjected to the ground motion recorded at the Sylmar station during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The results indicate that the proposed framework accurately estimate the unknown material parameters of the nonlinear FE model. The UKF outperforms the EKF when the relative root-mean-square error of the recorded responses are compared. In addition, the results suggest that the convergence of the estimate of modeling parameters is smoother and faster when the UKF is utilized.

  9. Assessment of Alkali-Silica Reaction Damage in Mortars with Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Jayapalan, A. R.; Kurtis, K. E.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a nonlinear ultrasonic modulation technique is employed to assess the damage state of portland cement mortar samples induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Due to the nonlinear interaction of propagating waves caused by distributed microcracks that are agitated from its equilibrium state, the ultrasonic responses of samples produce sideband frequencies around the frequency of propagating waves. The amplitude of the sidebands depends on the amplitude of the input signals and is particularly sensitive to the state of damage evolved in the sample. Therefore, the development of internal microcracks with increasing duration of exposure to aggressive conditions can be quantitatively related to the variation of external ultrasonic measurements. The ultrasonic results are compared with results from standard ASR expansion measurements (ASTM C 1260), and a proportionally increasing relation was found in the early stages. In addition, aggregates with different alkali-reactivity (i.e., low reactivity or high reactivity) were examined in a similar manner. The results indicate that the nonlinear parameter obtained from ultrasonic tests directly reflects the difference of aggregate reactivity. This clearly indicates that the developed nonlinear ultrasonic method is potentially a good alternative for a more rapid and still reliable assessment of aggregate alkali-reactivity.

  10. A theoretical and computational setting for a geometrically nonlinear gradient damage modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjar, B.

    The present work deals with the extension to the geometrically nonlinear case of recently proposed ideas on elastic- and elastoplastic-damage modelling frameworks within the infinitesimal theory. The particularity of these models is that the damage part of the modelling involves the gradient of damage quantity which, together with the equations of motion, are ensuing from a new formulation of the principle of virtual power. It is shown how the thermodynamics of irreversible processes is crucial in the characterization of the dissipative phenomena and in setting the convenient forms for the constitutive relations. On the numerical side, we discuss the problem of numerically integrating these equations and the implementation within the context of the finite element method is described in detail. And finally, we present a set of representative numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  11. A limit analysis approach to derive a thermodynamic damage potential for non-linear geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrech, A.; Poulet, T.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a mathematical model which describes the continuum damage of non-linear geo-materials. The model accounts for full thermo-mechanical coupling as well as irreversible failure and its effect on shear heating. It involves multi-mechanisms creep to describe the material rheology depending on time, temperature, pressure and water content. This coupled thermo-mechanical model combined with the upper bound theory is used to formulate a potential capable of predicting the damage evolution. The model is implemented and applied to a cross-sectional geological layer subjected to extension. It reveals that damage accelerates the creation of faults and accentuates the localization of shear zones, thereby competing with the increase in material rigidity due to rate dependency, especially at high temperature.

  12. The development of controlled damage mechanisms-based design method for nonlinear static pushover analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the original method of controlled building damage mechanisms based on Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis (NSPA-DMBD. The optimal building damage mechanism is determined based on the solution of the Capacity Design Method (CDM, and the response of the building is considered in incremental situations. The development of damage mechanism of a system in such incremental situations is being controlled on the strain level, examining the relationship of current and limit strains in concrete and reinforcement steel. Since the procedure of the system damage mechanism analysis according to the NSPA-DMBD method is being iteratively implemented and designing checked after the strain reaches the limit, for this analysis a term Iterative-Interactive Design (IID has been introduced. By selecting, monitoring and controlling the optimal damage mechanism of the system and by developed NSPA-DMBD method, damage mechanism of the building is being controlled and the level of resistance to an early collapse is being increased. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36043

  13. Study on the nonlinear electromagnetic acoustic resonancee method for th evaluation of hidden damage in a metallic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Choon Su; Seo, Dae Cheol [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Wan [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunngkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Recently, much attention has been paid to nonlinear ultrasonic technology as a potential tool to assess hidden damages that cannot be detected by conventional ultrasonic testing. One nonlinear ultrasonic technique is measurement of the resonance frequency shift, which is based on the hysteresis of the material elasticity. Sophisticated measurement of resonance frequency is required, because the change in resonance frequency is usually quite small. In this investigation, the nonlinear electromagnetic acoustic resonance (NEMAR) method was employed. The NEMAR method uses noncontact electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) in order to minimize the effect of the transducer on the frequency response of the object. Aluminum plate specimens that underwent three point bending fatigue were tested witha shear wave EMAT. The hysteretic nonlinear parameter α, a key indicator of damage, was calculated from the resonance frequency shift at several levels of input voltage. The hysteretic nonlinear parameter of a damaged sample was compared to that of an intact one, showing a difference in the values.

  14. Damage Detection of Closed Crack in a Metallic Plate Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Time Reversal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial cracks in metallic structures incline to be closed at rest. Such incipient damage generally fails to be detected and located with traditional linear ultrasonic techniques because ultrasonic waves penetrate the contact area of the closed crack. In this paper, an imaging algorithm based on nonlinear ultrasonic time reversal method is proposed to detect closed cracks in aluminum plates. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducer arrays are used to generate, receive, and reemit ultrasonic wave signals. The closed crack is simulated by tightening a bolt on the aluminum plate. By applying large amplitude excitation voltage on the PZT transducers, the closed crack could be opened and closed. The transmitted waves recorded by PZT array contain nonlinear components, the signals are time reversed and emitted back, and the tone burst reconstructions are achieved. The linear reciprocity and the time reversibility break down due to the presence of the nonlinear components. The correlation coefficient between the original excitation signal and the reconstructed signal is calculated to define the damage index for individual sensing path and is used to develop an imaging algorithm to locate the closed crack on the plate. The experimental results demonstrate that incident wave signals and their reconstructed signals can be used to accurately detect and locate closed cracks.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic response analysis of localized damaged laminated composite structures in the context of component mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, S.; Trivaudey, F.; Bouhaddi, N.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is the prediction of the dynamic response of damaged laminated composite structures in the context of component mode synthesis. Hence, a method of damage localization of complex structures is proposed. The dynamic behavior of transversely isotropic layers is expressed through elasticity coupled with damage based on an existing macro model for cracked structures. The damage is located only in some regions of the whole structure, which is decomposed on substructures. The incremental linear dynamic governing equations are obtained by using the classical linear Kirchhoff-Love theory of plates. Then, considering the damage-induced nonlinearity, the obtained nonlinear dynamic equations are solved in time domain. However, a detailed finite element modelling of such structure on the scale of localized damage would generate very high computational costs. To reduce this cost, Component Mode Synthesis method (CMS) is used for modelling a nonlinear fine-scale substructure damaged, connected to linear dynamic models of the remaining substructures, which can be condensed and not updated at each iteration. Numerical results show that the mechanical properties of the structure highly change when damage is taken into account. Under an impact load, damage increases and reaches its highest value with the maximum of the applied load and then remains unchanged. Besides, the eigenfrequencies of the damaged structure decrease comparing with those of an undamaged one. This methodology can be used for monitoring strategies and lifetime estimations of hybrid complex structures due to the damage state is known in space and time.

  16. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Diagnosis and Prognosis of ASR Damage in Dry Cask Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jianmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Bazant, Zdenek [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Guimaraes, Maria [Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deleterious chemical process that may occur in cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes, where the hydroxyl ions in the highly alkaline pore solution attack the siloxane groups in the siliceous minerals in the aggregates. The reaction produces a cross-linked alkali-silica gel. The ASR gel swells in the presence of water. Expansion of the gel results in cracking when the swelling-induced stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the concrete. As the ASR continues, cracks may grow and eventually coalesce, which results in reduced service life and a decrease safety of concrete structures. Since concrete is widely used as a critical structural component in dry cask storage of used nuclear fuels, ASR damage poses a significant threat to the sustainability of long term dry cask storage systems. Therefore, techniques for effectively detecting, managing and mitigating ASR damage are needed. Currently, there are no nondestructive methods to accurately detect ASR damage in existing concrete structures. The only current way of accurately assessing ASR damage is to drill a core from an existing structure, and conduct microscopy on this drilled cylindrical core. Clearly, such a practice is not applicable to dry cask storage systems. To meet these needs, this research is aimed at developing (1) a suite of nonlinear ultrasonic quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) techniques to characterize ASR damage, and (2) a physics-based model for ASR damage evolution using the QNDE data. Outcomes of this research will provide a nondestructive diagnostic tool to evaluate the extent of the ASR damage, and a prognostic tool to estimate the future reliability and safety of the concrete structures in dry cask storage systems

  17. Evaluation of frost damage in cement-based materials by a nonlinear elastic wave technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance of concrete is a major concern in cold regions. RILEM (International union of laboratories and experts in construction materials, systems and structures) recommendations provide two alternatives for evaluating frost damage by nondestructive evaluation methods for concrete like materials. The first method is based on the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement, while the second alternative technique is based on the resonant vibration test. In this study, we monitor the frost damage in Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5 and aggregate to cement ratio of 3. The samples are completely saturated by water and are frozen for 24 hours at -25°C. The frost damage is monitored after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 freezing-thawing cycles by nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS). The results obtained are compared with those obtained by resonant vibration tests, the second alternative technique recommended by RILEM. The obtained results show that NIRAS is more sensitive to early stages of damage than the standard resonant vibration tests.

  18. Bayesian nonlinear structural FE model and seismic input identification for damage assessment of civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroza, Rodrigo; Ebrahimian, Hamed; Li, Yong; Conte, Joel P.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology is proposed to update mechanics-based nonlinear finite element (FE) models of civil structures subjected to unknown input excitation. The approach allows to jointly estimate unknown time-invariant model parameters of a nonlinear FE model of the structure and the unknown time histories of input excitations using spatially-sparse output response measurements recorded during an earthquake event. The unscented Kalman filter, which circumvents the computation of FE response sensitivities with respect to the unknown model parameters and unknown input excitations by using a deterministic sampling approach, is employed as the estimation tool. The use of measurement data obtained from arrays of heterogeneous sensors, including accelerometers, displacement sensors, and strain gauges is investigated. Based on the estimated FE model parameters and input excitations, the updated nonlinear FE model can be interrogated to detect, localize, classify, and assess damage in the structure. Numerically simulated response data of a three-dimensional 4-story 2-by-1 bay steel frame structure with six unknown model parameters subjected to unknown bi-directional horizontal seismic excitation, and a three-dimensional 5-story 2-by-1 bay reinforced concrete frame structure with nine unknown model parameters subjected to unknown bi-directional horizontal seismic excitation are used to illustrate and validate the proposed methodology. The results of the validation studies show the excellent performance and robustness of the proposed algorithm to jointly estimate unknown FE model parameters and unknown input excitations.

  19. Nonlinear finite element model updating for damage identification of civil structures using batch Bayesian estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Hamed; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P.; de Callafon, Raymond A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a framework for structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage identification of civil structures. This framework integrates advanced mechanics-based nonlinear finite element (FE) modeling and analysis techniques with a batch Bayesian estimation approach to estimate time-invariant model parameters used in the FE model of the structure of interest. The framework uses input excitation and dynamic response of the structure and updates a nonlinear FE model of the structure to minimize the discrepancies between predicted and measured response time histories. The updated FE model can then be interrogated to detect, localize, classify, and quantify the state of damage and predict the remaining useful life of the structure. As opposed to recursive estimation methods, in the batch Bayesian estimation approach, the entire time history of the input excitation and output response of the structure are used as a batch of data to estimate the FE model parameters through a number of iterations. In the case of non-informative prior, the batch Bayesian method leads to an extended maximum likelihood (ML) estimation method to estimate jointly time-invariant model parameters and the measurement noise amplitude. The extended ML estimation problem is solved efficiently using a gradient-based interior-point optimization algorithm. Gradient-based optimization algorithms require the FE response sensitivities with respect to the model parameters to be identified. The FE response sensitivities are computed accurately and efficiently using the direct differentiation method (DDM). The estimation uncertainties are evaluated based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) theorem by computing the exact Fisher Information matrix using the FE response sensitivities with respect to the model parameters. The accuracy of the proposed uncertainty quantification approach is verified using a sampling approach based on the unscented transformation. Two validation studies, based on realistic

  20. Impact damage detection in smart composites using nonlinear acoustics—cointegration analysis for removal of undesired load effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Phong B.; Klepka, Andrzej; Pieczonka, Łukasz; Aymerich, Francesco; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents a reliable methodology—based on nonlinear acoustics—for impact damage detection in composite materials. The nonlinear vibro-acoustic wave modulation technique is used to detect damage. The problem of operational variability of the method with respect to the selection of frequency and amplitude of low-frequency (LF) modal excitation is investigated. This problem is addressed using the concept of stationarity of time series of vibro-acoustic data. Cointegration analysis is employed to compensate for the effect of variable operational conditions associated with LF modal (or vibration) excitation in nonlinear vibro-acoustic wave modulations. Analysis of stationary statistical characteristics of vibro-acoustic responses—after cointegration analysis—are used for damage detection. The proposed method is validated using vibro-acoustic data from laminated composite plates and composite sandwich panels. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively compensate for the effect of LF modal excitation on nonlinear vibro-acoustic wave modulations and detect the damage more accurately and robustly than the existing nonlinear acoustics based on the analysis of modulation sidebands.

  1. Uncertainty quantification for acoustic nonlinearity parameter in Lamb wave-based prediction of barely visible impact damage in composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming; Mao, Zhu; Todd, Michael D.; Su, Zhongqing

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear features extracted from Lamb wave signals (e.g., second harmonic generation) are demonstrably sensitive to microscopic damage, such as fatigue and material thermal degradation. While a majority of the existing studies in this context is focused on detecting undersized damage in metallic materials, the present study is aimed at expanding such a detection philosophy to the domain of composites, by linking the relative acoustic nonlinearity parameter (RANP) - a prominent nonlinear signal feature of Lamb waves - to barely visible impact damage (BVID) in composites. Nevertheless, considering immense uncertainties inevitably embedded in acquired signals (due to instrumentation, environment, operation, computation/estimation, etc.) which can adversely obfuscate nonlinear features, it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty of the RANP (i.e., its statistics) in order to enhance decision-making associated with its use as a detection feature. A probabilistic model is established to numerically evaluate the statistical distribution of the RANP. Using piezoelectric wafers, Lamb waves are acquired and processed to produce histograms of RANP estimates in both the healthy and damaged conditions of a CF/EP laminate, to which the model is compared, with good agreement observed between the model-predicted and experimentally-obtained statistic distributions of the RANP. With the model, BVID in the laminate is predicted. The model is further made use of to quantify the level of confidence in damage prediction results based on the concept of a receiver operating characteristic, enabling the practitioners to better understand the obtained results in the presence of uncertainties.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) using the damage plasticity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.

  3. Etching, micro hardness and laser damage threshold studies of a nonlinear optical material L-valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Kanakam, C. C.; Singh, S. P.; Pal, P. K.; Datta, P. K.

    2012-04-01

    A nonlinear optical crystal of L-valine was grown from an aqueous solution containing a small amount of phosphoric acid by the slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the unit cell parameters. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirmed the lattice parameters to be a = 9.6687(7) Å, b = 5.2709(4) Å, c = 12.0371(10) Å and β = 90.805(4)°. The results of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) indicate the presence of a small amount of phosphorus in the grown crystal. The Vickers micro hardness test was performed to study the mechanical strength of the crystals. Chemical etching studies were carried out to analyze the dislocation structure. The laser damaged threshold of the grown crystal was measured to be 11.11 GW/cm2 for 10 ns pulse at 1064 nm, which is higher than that of the standard nonlinear optical crystals like KDP. Second harmonic generation of the grown crystals was also 1.44 times that of KDP.

  4. Dependence of Microelastic-plastic Nonlinearity of Martensitic Stainless Steel on Fatigue Damage Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Self-organized substructural arrangements of dislocations formed in wavy slip metals during cyclic stress-induced fatigue produce substantial changes in the material microelastic-plastic nonlinearity, a quantitative measure of which is the nonlinearity parameter Beta extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contributions to Beta from the substructural evolution of dislocations and crack growth for fatigued martensitic 410Cb stainless steel are calculated from the Cantrell model as a function of percent full fatigue life to fracture. A wave interaction factor f(sub WI) is introduced into the model to account experimentally for the relative volume of material fatigue damage included in the volume of material swept out by an interrogating acoustic wave. For cyclic stress-controlled loading at 551 MPa and f(sub WI) = 0.013 the model predicts a monotonic increase in Beta from dislocation substructures of almost 100 percent from the virgin state to roughly 95 percent full life. Negligible contributions from cracks are predicted in this range of fatigue life. However, over the last five percent of fatigue life the model predicts a rapid monotonic increase of Beta by several thousand percent that is dominated by crack growth. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements of 410Cb stainless steel samples fatigued in uniaxial, stress-controlled cyclic loading at 551 MPa from zero to full tensile load with a measured f(sub WI) of 0.013.

  5. Static nonlinear analysis of piles cap based on the Continuum Damage Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Farani de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The piles cap is an important structural element whose function is to transfer the actions of the superstructure for a group of piles. The visual inspection of the piles cap behavior under service conditions is not possible and, in addition, the knowledge of its actual structural performance is a vital necessity for the constructions overall stability. In this paper, a two-dimensional nonlinear analysis is carried out, by means of Finite Element Method, of a reinforced concrete pile caps with two piles found in the literature. It adopts for the material concrete a constitutive model based on the Continuum Damage Mechanics, with the possibility to provide a tensile and compression differentiated behavior. The steel is described by an elastoplastic bilinear model. The equilibrium path is achieved by Arc Length iteration technique in association with the Newton - Raphson Method. The numerical results obtained with the developed computational code are compared with the available experimental and numerical results and the analytical solution, and have the objective of evaluate the potential of the proposed modeling as an investigation numerical tool to determine the rupture force and the damage distribution in the piles cap.

  6. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.S. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  7. Erythrocentaurin, Biosynthesis Postulation and Biomimetic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI,Jun; YUAN,Xiang-Hui; LIU,Zhu-Lan; LIU,Jian-Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ Erythrocentaurin is a relatively simple nature product isolated from the root of Gentiana macrophylla Pall.[1] The co-existed of gentiopicroside from the same species led to speculation that erythrocentaurin is a biosynthesis product of gentiopicroside. The transformation of secologanin to carbocyclic aglycone under biomimetic condition has already known (Scheme 1).[2,3] The postulated biosynthesis pathway of erythrocentaurin may be in the same way. In the process the cyclic hemiacetal of the aglycone opened to the dialdehyde which then undergoes a vinylogous aldol reaction, and then dehydroxylation and double bond migration to the title compound (Scheme 2).

  8. Analytical modeling of contact acoustic nonlinearity of guided waves and its application to evaluating severity of fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Su, Zhongqing

    2016-04-01

    Targeting quantitative estimate of fatigue damage, a dedicated analytical model was developed based on the modal decomposition method and the variational principle. The model well interprets the contact acoustic nonlinearity induced by a "breathing" crack in a two-dimensional scenario, and the nonlinear characteristics of guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) (e.g., reflection, transmission, mode conversion and high-order generation) when GUWs traversing the crack. Based on the model, a second-order reflection index was defined. Using the index, a fatigue damage evaluation framework was established, showing demonstrated capacity of estimating the severity of fatigue damage in a quantitative manner. The approach, in principle, does not entail a benchmarking process against baseline signals pre-acquired from pristine counterparts. The results obtained using the analytical modeling were compared with those from finite element simulation, showing good coincidence. Limitations of the model were also discussed.

  9. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific.

  10. Fault zone damage, nonlinear site response, and dynamic triggering associated with seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan

    , followed by a logarithmic recovery with time. The observed weak reductions of peak frequencies with near instantaneous recovery likely reflect nonlinear response with essentially fixed level of damage, while the larger drops followed by logarithmic recovery reflect the generation (and then recovery) of additional rock damage. The results indicate clearly that nonlinear site response may occur during medium-size earthquakes, and that the PGA threshold for in situ nonlinear site response is lower than the previously thought value of ˜100--200 Gal. The recent Mw9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake and its aftershocks generated widespread strong shakings as large as ˜3000 Gal along the east coast of Japan. I systematically analyze temporal changes of material properties and nonlinear site response in the shallow crust associated with the Tohoku main shock, using seismic data recorded by the Japanese Strong Motion Network KIK-Net. I compute the spectral ratios of windowed records from a pair of surface and borehole stations, and then use the sliding-window spectral ratios to track the temporal changes in the site response of various sites at different levels of PGA The preliminary results show clear drop of resonant frequency of up to 70% during the Tohoku main shock at 6 sites with PGA from 600 to 1300 Gal. The third part of my thesis mostly focuses on how seismic waves trigger additional earthquakes at long-range distance, also known as dynamic triggering. Here I perform a comprehensive analysis of dynamic triggering around the Babaoshan and Huangzhuang-Gaoliying faults southwest of Beijing, China. The triggered earthquakes are identified as impulsive seismic arrivals with clear P- and S-waves in 5 Hz high-pass-filtered three-component velocity seismograms during the passage of large amplitude body and surface waves of large teleseismic earthquakes. The results suggest that triggered earthquakes in this region likely occur near the transition between the velocity

  11. NONLINEAR BUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF DAMAGED COMPOSITE SANDWICH PLATES CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Ruixiang; Chen Haoran

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the first-order shear deformation plate theory and the zig-zag deformation assumption, an incremental finite element formulation for nonlinear buckling analysis of the composite sandwich plate is deduced and the temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties of composite is considered. A finite element method for thermal or thermo-mechanical coupling nonlinear buckling analysis of the composite sandwich plate with an interfacial crack damage between face and core is also developed. Numerical results and discussions concerning some typical examples show that the effects of the variation of the thermal and mechanical properties with temperature, extermal compressive loading, size of the damage zone and piy angle of the faces on the thermal buckling behavior are significant.

  12. Chameleonic equivalence postulate and wave function collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Zanzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A chameleonic solution to the cosmological constant problem and the non-equivalence of different conformal frames at the quantum level have been recently suggested [Phys. Rev. D82 (2010) 044006]. In this article we further discuss the theoretical grounds of that model and we are led to a chameleonic equivalence postulate (CEP). Whenever a theory satisfies our CEP (and some other additional conditions), a density-dependence of the mass of matter fields is naturally present. Let us summarize the main results of this paper. 1) The CEP can be considered the microscopic counterpart of the Einstein's Equivalence Principle and, hence, a chameleonic description of quantum gravity is obtained: in our model, (quantum) gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. 2) To illustrate one of the possible applications of the CEP, we point out a connection between chameleon fields and quantum-mechanical wave function collapse. The collapse is induced by the chameleonic nature of the theory. We discuss the collapse for a S...

  13. Monitoring and analysis of nonlinear dynamic damage of transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials in Linglong Gold Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study concentrates mainly on the development of failure process in composite rock mass. By use of acoustic emission(AE), convergence inspection, pressure monitoring, level measurement techniques and the modem signal analysis technology, as wellas scan electron microscopy (SEM) experiment, various aspects of nonlinear dynamic damage of composite rock mass surroundingthe transport roadway in Linglong gold mine are discussed. According to the monitoring results, the stability of the rock mass can besynthetically evaluated, and the intrinsic relation between the damage and the characteristic parameters of acoustic emission can bedetermined. The location of the damage of rock mass can also be detected based on the acoustic emission couple monitoring signals.Finally, the key factors which influence the stability of the transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials are foundout.

  14. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepak

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design through extensive experimental testing is not practical. Predictive tools are needed to perform virtual experiments of various options. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of linear elastic response, plasticity and material damage induced nonlinear behavior and mechanics of load flow in textile composites. Textile composites exhibit multiple scales of complexity. The various textile behaviors are analyzed using a two-scale finite element modeling. A framework to allow use of a wide variety of damage initiation and growth models is proposed. Plasticity induced non-linear behavior of 2x2 braided composites is investigated using a modeling approach based on Hill's yield function for orthotropic materials. The mechanics of load flow in textile composites is demonstrated using special non-standard postprocessing techniques that not only highlight the important details, but also transform the extensive amount of output data into comprehensible modes of behavior. The investigations show that the damage models differ from each other in terms of amount of degradation as well as the properties to be degraded under a particular failure mode. When compared with experimental data, predictions of some models match well for glass/epoxy composite whereas other's match well for carbon/epoxy composites. However, all the models predicted very similar response when damage factors were made similar, which shows that the magnitude of damage factors are very important. Full 3D as well as equivalent tape laminate predictions lie within the range of the experimental data for a wide variety of braided composites with different material systems, which validated the plasticity analysis. Conclusions about the effect of

  15. Identification of damage in a suspension component using narrowband and broadband nonlinear signal processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Muhammad; Adams, Douglas E.

    2007-04-01

    Fatigue tests on a stabilizer bar link of an automotive suspension system are used to initiate a crack and grow the crack size. During these tests, slow sine sweeps are used to extract narrowband restoring forces across the stabilizer bar link. The restoring forces are shown to characterize the nonlinear changes in component internal forces due to crack growth. Broadband frequency response domain techniques are used to analyze the durability response data. Nonlinear frequency domain models of the dynamic transmissibility across the cracked region are shown to change as a function of crack growth. Higher order spectra are used to show the increase in nonlinear coupling of response frequency components with the appearance and growth of the crack. It is shown that crack growth can be detected and characterized by the changes in nonlinear indicators.

  16. Dynamic Response Analysis of Bird Strike on Aircraft Windshield Based on Damage-modified Nonlinear Viscoelastic Constitutive Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinjun; Feng Zhenzhou; Wang Fusheng; Yue Zhufeng

    2007-01-01

    Damage-modified nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation and failure criterion are introduced and the three-dimensional incremental forms are deduced based on the updated Lagrangian approach. A simple tensile test model and a split Hopkinson pressure bar model are built to verify the accuracy of the subroutine implemented within the non-linear finite element program LS-DYNA. A numerical model of bird strike on windshield is established to study the responses of windshield under three different bird velocities at three sites. The bird is represented by a cylinder with a hemisphere at each end and the contact-impact coupling algorithm is used in this study. It is found that the implemented subroutine can properly describe the mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate under low and high strain rates and large deformation, and can be used validly.

  17. Bulk growth, structure, optical properties and laser damage threshold of organic nonlinear optical crystals of Imidazolium L-Ascorbate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-09-01

    Bulk, transparent organic nonlinear optical (NLO) single-crystals of imidazolium L-Ascorbate (ImLA) were grown using slow-evaporation. Crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Preliminary linear optical measurements through UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy revealed good optical transmittance and a low near-UV cutoff wavelength at 256 nm. Kurtz and Perry powder test revealed that ImLA is a phase-matchable NLO material with a second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of 1.2 times larger than that of standard KH2PO4 (KDP). Laser damage thresholds were determined for ImLA.

  18. Postulation of general quintuple fat point schemes in P^3

    CERN Document Server

    Ballico, Edoardo; Caruso, Fabrizio; Sala, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    We study the postulation of a general union Y of double, triple, quartuple and quintuple points of P^3. In characteristic 0, we prove that Y has good postulation in degree $d\\ge 11$. The proof is based on the combination of the Horace differential lemma with a computer-assisted proof. We also classify the exceptions in degree 9 and 10.

  19. 奥氏体钢容器疲劳损伤与棘轮损伤的非线性超声评价%Evaluation of Fatigue Damage and Ratcheting Damage of Austenitic Steel Container Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑锋; 轩福贞

    2015-01-01

    利用非线性超声纵波技术对奥氏体不锈钢疲劳损伤与棘轮损伤进行了无损评价。研究表明,随着循环周次的增加,棘轮损伤超声非线性参量呈现增加的趋势;相对于疲劳损伤,棘轮损伤超声非线性的数值总体更大,但是超声非线性峰值出现的时间更晚,且无显著的超声非线性下降阶段。这种超声非线性响应的差异与奥氏体不锈钢棘轮损伤和疲劳损伤过程中不同的微观结构演化有关,如棘轮损伤过程中形成的不成熟的位错胞结构和更多的马氏体相。%Nonlinear ultrasonic wave is used to inspect fatigue damage and ratcheting damage of austenitic stainless steel. Results show that: nonlinear parameter of ratcheting damage increases clearly with the increasing cycles; comparing with the nonlinear parameter of fatigue damage, nonlinear parameter of ratcheting damages is larger and has a later peak and non-obvious decline phase. The different response of acoustic nonlinearity is ascribed to the distinct evolution of microstructures between ratcheting damage and fatigue damage, such as the formation of incomplete cell structures and more martensite during ratcheting damage.

  20. Laser-induced breakdown and damage generation by nonlinear frequency conversion in ferroelectric crystals: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2013-11-28

    Using our experimental data for ns pulsed second harmonic generation (SHG) by periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} (PPSLT) crystals, we consider in detail the mechanism underlying laser-induced damage in ferroelectric crystals. This mechanism involves generation and heating of free electrons, providing an effective kinetic pathway for electric breakdown and crystal damage in ns pulsed operation via combined two-photon absorption (TPA) and induced pyroelectric field. In particular, a temperature increase in the lattice of ≈1 K induced initially by ns SHG and TPA at the rear of operating PPSLT crystal is found to induce a gradient of spontaneous polarization generating a pyroelectric field of ≈10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons generated by TPA to an energy of ≈10 eV, followed by impact ionization and crystal damage. Under the damage threshold for ns operation, the impact ionization does not lead to the avalanche-like increase of free electron density, in contrast to the case of shorter ps and fs pulses. However, the total number of collisions by free electrons, ≈10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} (generated during the pulse and accelerated to the energy of ≈10 eV), can produce widespread structural defects, which by entrapping electrons dramatically increase linear absorption for both harmonics in subsequent pulses, creating a positive feedback for crystal lattice heating, pyroelectric field and crystal damage. Under pulse repetition, defect generation starting from the rear of the crystal can propagate towards its center and front side producing damage tracks along the laser beam and stopping SHG. Theoretical analysis leads to numerical estimates and analytical approximation for the threshold laser fluence for onset of this damage mechanism, which agree well with our (i) experiments for the input 1064 nm radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG by PPSLT crystal, (ii) pulsed low frequency 532 nm radiation transmission experiments, and also (iii) with the data

  1. Viscoelastic Characterization of a Nonlinear, Glass/Epoxy Composite Including the Effects of Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Compliac Figue 12. oparion o exerimnta initliancorn 58-8R pox rsin. 6 270 11 Co CII (1a) V Q) 0 ) CD CJ. CL ~4-) ~ CU 4 0 ; &-* S- C ’L - SL 4- LL ) I C)C...34 Brown University, Technical Report No. 3, January 1968. 114. W. G. Gottenberg, J. 0. Bird and G. L. Agrawal, " An Experimental Study of Nonlinear...the Society of Rheology, Vol. 12 (1968), p. 155. 126. H. B3. Bird and B. 0. Marsh, "Viscoelastic Hysteresis Part 1, Model Prediction; Part II

  2. Nonlinear Deformation Processes and Damage Modes of Super Carbon Nanotubes with Armchair-Armchair Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Li; LIU Bin; YIN Ya-Jun; HUANG Yong-Gang; HWUANG Keh-Chih

    2008-01-01

    The tensile deformations and fractures of super carbon nanotubes (SCNTs) with armchair-armchair topology are investigated by using the atomic-scale finite element method. SCNTs generated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different characteristic aspect ratios are found to have different nonlinear behaviours under uniaxiai tensions. Specifically, an SCNT with higher aspect ratio has three distinct stages: rotation, stretch and rupture, while an SCNT with lower aspect ratio has only two stages. This information may compensate for previous work and enrich our knowledge about Y-branched CNTs and SCNTs.

  3. Development of a Nonlinear Cumulative Fatigue Damage Methodology for Aircraft Engine Components under Multiaxial Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    fatigue damage accumulation under a variety of loading conditions. These models are, for the most part, empirical approaches that have relied little on...elastic-plastic stresses listed in this table represent the surface stresses at maximum and minimum loads as determined by an elastic-plastic finite...Torsion,Load Control • R=-1 .Torsion.Strain Control © R-0,Torsion,Strain Control ■ Proportional • R=-1 .Torsion,Load Control A Runout ■ \\ n 0 X

  4. Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and Postulated Value Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's postulated personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)

  5. Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and Postulated Value Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's postulated personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)

  6. An Artificial Neural Network-Based Algorithm for Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Propagation Considering Nonlinear Damage Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace and aviation sectors, the damage tolerance concept has been applied widely so that the modeling analysis of fatigue crack growth has become more and more significant. Since the process of crack propagation is highly nonlinear and determined by many factors, such as applied stress, plastic zone in the crack tip, length of the crack, etc., it is difficult to build up a general and flexible explicit function to accurately quantify this complicated relationship. Fortunately, the artificial neural network (ANN is considered a powerful tool for establishing the nonlinear multivariate projection which shows potential in handling the fatigue crack problem. In this paper, a novel fatigue crack calculation algorithm based on a radial basis function (RBF-ANN is proposed to study this relationship from the experimental data. In addition, a parameter called the equivalent stress intensity factor is also employed as training data to account for loading interaction effects. The testing data is then placed under constant amplitude loading with different stress ratios or overloads used for model validation. Moreover, the Forman and Wheeler equations are also adopted to compare with our proposed algorithm. The current investigation shows that the ANN-based approach can deliver a better agreement with the experimental data than the other two models, which supports that the RBF-ANN has nontrivial advantages in handling the fatigue crack growth problem. Furthermore, it implies that the proposed algorithm is possibly a sophisticated and promising method to compute fatigue crack growth in terms of loading interaction effects.

  7. Pernicious Residues of Foundational Postulates: Their Impact on Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that many of the original psychoanalytic views of women were derived from misguided theories. Regrettably, residues of the foundational postulates that informed those theories still persist, assuring a pervasive gender bias even in contemporary psychoanalytic investigations. This contribution describes where those postulates reside, while proposing alternates that could prove far more useful for the theory and practice of our profession.

  8. Stage-specific, Nonlinear Surface Ozone Damage to Rice Production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Colin A.; Cui, Xiaomeng; Ding, Aijun; Ghanem, Dalia; Jiang, Fei; Yi, Fujin; Zhong, Funing

    2017-03-01

    China is one of the most heavily polluted nations and is also the largest agricultural producer. There are relatively few studies measuring the effects of pollution on crop yields in China, and most are based on experiments or simulation methods. We use observational data to study the impact of increased air pollution (surface ozone) on rice yields in Southeast China. We examine nonlinearities in the relationship between rice yields and ozone concentrations and find that an additional day with a maximum ozone concentration greater than 120 ppb is associated with a yield loss of 1.12% ± 0.83% relative to a day with maximum ozone concentration less than 60 ppb. We find that increases in mean ozone concentrations, SUM60, and AOT40 during panicle formation are associated with statistically significant yield losses, whereas such increases before and after panicle formation are not. We conclude that heightened surface ozone levels will potentially lead to reductions in rice yields that are large enough to have implications for the global rice market.

  9. Review of Response and Damage of Linear and Nonlinear Systems under Multiaxial Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Habtour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of past and recent developments in multiaxial excitation of linear and nonlinear structures is presented. The objective is to review some of the basic approaches used in the analytical and experimental methods for kinematic and dynamic analysis of flexible mechanical systems, and to identify future directions in this research area. In addition, comparison between uniaxial and multiaxial excitations and their impact on a structure’s life-cycles is provided. The importance of understanding failure mechanisms in complex structures has led to the development of a vast range of theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques to address complex dynamical effects. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the failure mechanisms of structures through experimental and virtual failure assessment based on correctly identified dynamic loads. For that reason, techniques for mapping the dynamic loads to fatigue were provided. Future research areas in structural dynamics due to multiaxial excitation are identified as (i effect of dynamic couplings, (ii modal interaction, (iii modal identification and experimental methods for flexible structures, and (iv computational models for large deformation in response to multiaxial excitation.

  10. Nonlinear absorption and optical damage threshold of carbon-based nanostructured material embedded in a protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulewicz, K. A.; Hapiddin, A.; Joseph, D.; Geckeler, K. E.; Sung, J. H.; Nickles, P. V.

    2014-12-01

    Physical processes in laser-matter interaction used to be determined by generation of fast electrons resulting from efficient conversion of the absorbed laser radiation. Composite materials offer the possibility to control the absorption by choice of the host material and dopants. Reported here strong absorption of ultrashort laser pulse in a composite carbon-based nanomaterial including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or multilayer graphene was measured in the intensity range between 1012 and 1016 W cm-2. A protein (lysozyme) was used as the host. The maximum absorption of femtosecond laser pulse has reached 92-96 %. The optical damage thresholds of the coatings were registered at an intensity of (1.1 ± 0.5) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded SWCNTs and at (3.4 ± 0.3) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded graphene. Encapsulated variant of the dispersed nanomaterial was investigated as well. It was found that supernatant protein in the coating material tends to dominate the absorption process, independently of the embedded nanomaterial. The opposite was observed for the encapsulated material.

  11. Allomorphic development: A major postulate of Vygotskian theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Jovan N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the importance of Vygotsky’s postulates on evolution and history for understanding his developmental theory, focusing especially on his thesis on the clear-cut replacement of evolution by history. That thesis shaped the general theoretical plane consisting of several opposing and almost mutually exclusive pairs of solutions, such as biology - culture, individual - collective, animal - human, evolution - history etc. Such general solutions offer too narrow a framework for elaborating a theory of ontogenesis. This is the background on which the true meaning of the postulate of allomorphic development is presented, along with an analysis of several more specific related theses. The article ends with a critical review of Vygotsky’s general postulates, pointing out to the ideological dimension of his developmental psychology.

  12. A Conceptual Derivation of Einstein's Postulates of Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion and conceptual derivation of Einstein's postulates of special relativity. The perceptron approach appears to be a fundamentally new manner of regarding physical phenomena and it is hoped that physicists will interest themselves in the concept. (Author)

  13. Ln3GaS6 (Ln = Dy, Y): new infrared nonlinear optical materials with high laser induced damage thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Li, Bing-Xuan; Liu, Bin-Wen; Fan, Yu-Hang; Li, Xiao-Guo; Zeng, Hi-Yi; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-10-21

    Two new ternary rare earth chalcogenides, Dy3GaS6 (1) and Y3GaS6 (2), are reported here. They both crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmc21 (no. 36). Both are synthesized in pure phase and show phase-matchable second harmonic generation (SHG) of about 0.2 and 0.5 times, respectively for 1 and 2, as strong as that of KTiOPO4 (KTP) based on the powder SHG measurement at the wavelength of 1910 nm. They possess high powder laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs), respectively, about 14 and 18 times that of AgGaS2 (AGS) based on the powder LIDT measurements under 1064 nm laser irradiation. They both exhibit wide transparency in the IR region (2.5–25 μm). It is believed that the title compounds are new candidates for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials in the IR region. To gain further insights into the NLO and LIDT properties of 1 and 2, the calculations of second-order NLO susceptibility and lattice energy density (LED) were also performed to explain their SHG efficiencies and high LIDTs.

  14. Fatigue damage estimation in non-linear systems using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    For non-linear systems the estimation of fatigue damage under stochastic loadings can be rather time-consuming. Usually Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is applied, but the coefficient-of-variation (COV) can be large if only a small set of simulations can be done due to otherwise excessive CPU time. ...... the COV. For a specific example dealing with stresses in a tendon in a tension leg platform the COV is thereby reduced by a factor of three....

  15. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  16. Research on Damage in Trabecular Bone of the Healthy Human Acetabulum at Small Strains Using Nonlinear Micro-finite Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hai; ZHU Zhen-nan; DAI Ke-rong; YE Ming; WANG Cheng-tao

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the pelvic trabecular bone have been studied at the continuum level. However, nothing is known about the tissue-level damage in the trabecular bone of the healthy human acetabulum at apparent small strains characteristic of habitual. By a DAWING 4000 A supercomputer, nonlinear micro-finite element (μFE) analysis was performed to quantify tissue-level damage accumulation in trabecular bone at small strains. The data indicate that damage in trabecular bone commence at 0.2% apparent strain. The findings imply that tissue yielding can initiate at very low strains in the trabecular bone of the healthy acetabulum and that this local failure has negative consequences on the apparent mechanical properties of trabecular bone.

  17. The necessity of the second postulate in special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Drory, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Many authors noted that the principle of relativity together with space-time homogeneity and isotropy restrict the form of the coordinate transformations from one inertial frame to another to being Lorentz-like. The equations contain a free parameter, $k$ (equal to $c^{-2}$ in special relativity), which value is claimed to be merely an empirical matter, so that special relativity does not need the postulate of constancy of the speed of light. I analyze this claim and argue that the distinction between the cases $k = 0$ and $k \

  18. W.E. Johnson’s ’Sufficientness’ Postulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-22

    then serving to distinguish one element of a sample from another. In the situation envisaged by Johnson, Carnap (sea Section 4 below), and others, a...Johnson’s death, Rudolph Carnap and his students vould, unknowingly, reproduce much of Johnson’s work. In 1945 Carnap introduced the function c* [= P{XT.+l...And Just as Johnson grew uneasy with his combination postulate, so too Carnap would later introduce the family of functions fc: 0 < X < am) (-(ni+k)/N

  19. The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMange, P; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Radousky, H B; Feit, M D; Demos, S G

    2007-09-25

    The bulk damage performance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals under simultaneous exposure to 1064-, 532-, and 355-nm nanosecond-laser pulses is investigated in order to probe the laser-induced defect reactions leading to damage initiation during frequency conversion. The results provide insight into the mechanisms governing the behavior of the damage initiating defects under exposure to high power laser light. In addition, it is suggested that the damage performance can be directly related to and predicted from the damage behavior of the crystal at each wavelength separately.

  20. Radiation and matter: Electrodynamics postulates and Lorenz gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.; van Heijst, G. J.; Schram, P. P.

    2016-11-01

    In general terms, we have considered matter as the system of charged particles and quantized electromagnetic field. For consistent description of the thermodynamic properties of matter, especially in an extreme state, the problem of quantization of the longitudinal and scalar potentials should be solved. In this connection, we pay attention that the traditional postulates of electrodynamics, which claim that only electric and magnetic fields are observable, is resolved by denial of the statement about validity of the Maxwell equations for microscopic fields. The Maxwell equations, as the generalization of experimental data, are valid only for averaged values. We show that microscopic electrodynamics may be based on postulation of the d'Alembert equations for four-vector of the electromagnetic field potential. The Lorenz gauge is valid for the averages potentials (and provides the implementation of the Maxwell equations for averages). The suggested concept overcomes difficulties under the electromagnetic field quantization procedure being in accordance with the results of quantum electrodynamics. As a result, longitudinal and scalar photons become real rather than virtual and may be observed in principle. The longitudinal and scalar photons provide not only the Coulomb interaction of charged particles, but also allow the electrical Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  1. The Equivalence Postulate of Quantum Mechanics, Dark Energy and The Intrinsic Curvature of Elementary Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Alon E

    2013-01-01

    The equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics offers an axiomatic approach to quantum field theories and quantum gravity. The equivalence hypothesis can be viewed as adaptation of the classical Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to quantum mechanics. The construction reveals two key identities that underly the formalism in Euclidean or Minkowski spaces. The first is a cocycle condition, which is invariant under $D$--dimensional Mobius transformations with Euclidean or Minkowski metrics. The second is a quadratic identity which is a representation of the D-dimensional quantum Hamilton--Jacobi equation. In this approach, the solutions of the associated Schrodinger equation are used to solve the nonlinear quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. A basic property of the construction is that the two solutions of the corresponding Schrodinger equation must be retained. The quantum potential, which arises in the formalism, can be interpreted as a curvature term. I propose that the quantum potential, which is always non-trivial and...

  2. Pointlessness and dangerousness of the postulates of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Moret-Bailly, J

    2001-01-01

    The formalism of quantum mechanics produces spectacular results, but its rules, its parameters are empirical, either deduced from classical physics, or from experimental results rather than from the postulates. Thus, quantum mechanics is purely phenomenological; for instance, the computation of the eigenvalues of the energy is generally a simple interpolation in the discrete space of the quantum numbers. The attempts to show that quantum electrodynamics is more precise than classical electrodynamics are based on wrong computations. The lack of paradoxes in the classical theory, the appearance of classical, true interpretations of the wave-particle duality justify the criticism of Ehrenfest and Einstein. The obscurity of the quantum concepts leads to wrong conclusions that handicap the development of physics. Just as building a laser was considered absurd before the first maser worked, the concept of photon leads to deny a type of coherent Raman scattering necessary to understand some redshifts of spectra in a...

  3. Signal-based nonlinear modelling for damage assessment under variable temperature conditions by means of acousto-ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Arredondo, M. -A.; Sierra-Perez, Julian; Tibaduiza, D. -A.

    2015-01-01

    Damage assessment can be considered as the main task within the context of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This task is not only confined to the detection of damages in its basic algorithms but also in the generation of early warnings to prevent possible catastrophes in the daily use...

  4. Dynamical Behavior of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Timoshenko Beams with Damage on a Viscoelastic Foundation%粘弹性地基上损伤粘弹性Timoshenko梁的非线性动力学行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛冬发; 张燕; 程昌钧

    2004-01-01

    Based on convolution-type constitutive equations for linear viscoelastic materials with damage and the hypotheses of Timoshenko beams with large deflections, the nonlinear equations governing dynamical behavior of Timoshenko beams with damage on viscoelastic foundation were firstly derived. By using the Galerkin method in spatial domain, the nonlinear integro-partial differential equations were transformed into a set of integro-ordinary differential equations. The numerical methods in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as the phase-trajectory diagram, Poincare section and bifurcation figure, were used to solve the simplified systems of equations. It could be seen that simplified dynamical systems possess the plenty of nonlinear dynamical properties. The influence of load and material parameters on the dynamic behavior of nonlinear system were investigated in detail.

  5. Analysis of Postulated Core Meltdown of an SRP Reactor - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, W.S.; Brown, R.J.

    1970-10-01

    An analysis was made to determine the consequences of a postulated accident in which the core of a Savannah River Plant reactor melts down following the loss of coolant. The study was made to determine (1) the potential damage to the reactor building that could impair its integrity for confining activity and (2) the need for additional facilities to prevent the activity confinement system from being overheated by the decay heat in the debris. A preliminary report on this analysis was issued previously. The sequence of events during and following the loss of coolant has now been studied in more detail, and a computer program has been written and used to investigate transient heating effects. This is the final report of the analysis and presents the conclusions.

  6. MELCOR simulation of postulated severe accidents in OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seongn Yeon; Kim Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan Yeol; Park, Jong Hwa [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Since the Fukushima accident in 2011, severe accidents of a nuclear power plant have been a target of big debate whether the defense in depth philosophy applied to current nuclear system is still vigorous enough to ensure the protection of the operators and the public. Thus an accurate prediction of severe accident has become a critical task for the nuclear engineers with reliable employment of Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). According to a recent PRA result, Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without safety injection and Station Black Out (SBO) show high probability of proceeding to severe accidents. Thus, these accident scenarios need to be evaluated properly with reliable prediction tools. Song and Ahn analyzed SBO sequences in KSNP using MELCOR 1.8.5. Park and Song examined SBLOCA scenarios based on the PSA of KNSP using MAAP 4.06. Their studies utilized severe accident database. In continuation of the further analysis, several scenarios of postulated SBO and SBLOCA in OPR1000 are investigated using the severe accident database and MELCOR 1.8.6.

  7. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Engelward, Bevin P.; Heinen, Christopher D.; Johnson, George E.; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  8. Investigations on growth, structure, optical properties and laser damage threshold of organic nonlinear optical crystals of Guanidinium L-Ascorbate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi K.; Kumar, Sanath; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2015-05-01

    Single crystals of Guanidinium L-Ascorbate (GuLA) were grown and crystal structure was determined by direct methods. GuLA crystallizes in orthorhombic, non-centrosymmetric space group P212121. The UV-cutoff was determined as 325 nm. The morphology was generated and the interplanar angles estimated and compared with experimental values. Second harmonic generation conversion efficiency was measured and compared with other salts of L-Ascorbic acid. Surface laser damage threshold was calculated as 11.3GW/cm2 for a single shot of laser of 1064 nm wavelength.

  9. Growth, structural, physical and computational perspectives of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline: a promising organic nonlinear optical material with large laser-induced damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, Ramaiah; Anitha, Kandasamy

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a systematic study of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (THP), C5H9NO3 is reported. An optical quality single crystals of THP have been successfully grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST). The single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis reveals that grown crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group (NCS), P212121. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis shows relatively a good crystalline nature. The molecular structure of THP was recognized by NMR (1H and 13C) studies and its vibrational modes were confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman vibrational studies. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of grown crystal shows high optical transparency in the visible and near-IR region with low near-UV cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. Photoluminescence study confirms ultraviolet wavelength emission of THP crystal. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal is 1.6 times greater with respect to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Nonlinear refractive index (n 2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) were determined using the Z-scan technique. The title compound owns high thermal stability of 294 °C and specific heat capacity (C P) of 1.21 J g-1 K-1 at 300 K and 11.33 J g-1 K-1 at 539 K (melting point). The laser-induced damage threshold (LDT) value of grown crystal was measured as 7.25 GW cm-2. The crystal growth mechanism and defects of grown crystal were studied by chemical etching technique. Mechanical strength was extensively studied by Vickers microhardness test and crystal void percentage analysis. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to probe the Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the optimized molecular structure to get a better insight of the molecular properties. These characterization results endorse that grown THP crystal as a

  10. Maxwell's macroscopic equations, the energy-momentum postulates, and the Lorentz law of force

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for actual (i.e., physical) models of polarization P and magnetization M, these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with the requirements of the special theory of relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. One advantage of the proposed formulation is that it side-steps the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the electromagnetic momentum inside a material medium by simply "assigning" the Abra...

  11. Crystal growth, perfection, linear and nonlinear optical, photoconductivity, dielectric, thermal and laser damage threshold properties of 4-methylimidazolium picrate: an interesting organic crystal for photonic and optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K.; Arun, A.; Mani, A.; Praveen Kumar, P.

    2016-10-01

    The 4-methylimidazolium picrate has been synthesized and characterized successfully. Single and powder x-ray diffraction studies were conducted which confirmed the crystal structure, and the value of the strain was calculated. The crystal perfection was determined by a HRXR diffractometer. The transmission spectrum exhibited a better transmittance of the crystal in the entire visible region with a lower cut-off wavelength of 209 nm. The linear absorption value was calculated by the optical limiting method. A birefringence study was also carried out. Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of the crystal were found by second harmonic generation and the z-scan technique. The crystals were also characterized by dielectric measurement and a photoconductivity analyzer to determine the dielectric property and the optical conductivity of the crystal. The laser damage threshold activity of the grown crystal was studied by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam. Thermal studies established that the compound did not undergo a phase transition and was stable up to 240 °C.

  12. Isotropic damage model and serial/parallel mix theory applied to nonlinear analysis of ferrocement thin walls. Experimental and numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. Paredes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferrocement thin walls are the structural elements that comprise the earthquake resistant system of dwellings built with this material. This article presents the results drawn from an experimental campaign carried out over full-scale precast ferrocement thin walls that were assessed under lateral static loading conditions. The tests allowed the identification of structural parameters and the evaluation of the performance of the walls under static loading conditions. Additionally, an isotropic damage model for modelling the mortar was applied, as well as the classic elasto-plastic theory for modelling the meshes and reinforcing bars. The ferrocement is considered as a composite material, thus the serial/parallel mix theory is used for modelling its mechanical behavior. In this work a methodology for the numerical analysis that allows modeling the nonlinear behavior exhibited by ferrocement walls under static loading conditions, as well as their potential use in earthquake resistant design, is proposed.

  13. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  14. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  15. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  16. Creep Damage Evaluation of Steam Turbine Rotor Steel by Using the Nonlinear Ultrasonic Technique%汽轮机转子钢蠕变损伤的非线性超声评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 轩福贞

    2016-01-01

    Creep damage is generally produced in the high temperature components of ultra-supercritical steam turbine which will detriment the structural integrity during the long term operation. Therefore, quick and effective identification of the creep damage is very critical for the service safety of steam turbine unit. In the present work, interrupted creep tests of FB2 steel which is commonly used in the ultra-supercritical steam turbine rotor have been conducted. Creep damaged specimens with various damage levels are thus generated. Using the damaged specimens, nonlinear longitudinal ultrasonic evaluation test has been performed and the nonlinear ultrasonic parameters of damaged specimens are obtained. Results indicate that nonlinear ultrasonic parameters increase with the increase of creep damage levels of steam turbine rotor steel. The microstructure of damaged specimens has been analyzed by using the transmission electron microscopy(TEM). Result reveals that the increase of nonlinear ultrasonic parameter can be ascribed to the increase of dislocation density. Furthermore, the increment of nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is related to the dislocation climbing at higher stress and to the dislocation slipping at lower stress. In terms of the dislocation theory, a correlation between the nonlinear ultrasonic parameters2A2A1 and the steady state creep strain rate has been developed accordingly.%超超临界汽轮机高温部件长期服役会产生蠕变损伤,威胁设备的强度安全,快速、有效地检出高温构件蠕变损伤状况对保证设备服役安全意义重大。采用中断蠕变试验,在实验室模拟获得了汽轮机转子钢 FB2不同程度的蠕变损伤,进行损伤后试样的非线性超声纵波表征试验。结果表明:非线性超声参量随转子钢 FB2蠕变损伤程度的增加而增大;透射电镜微观分析表明,超声非线性参量增大与位错密度增加有关;非线性超声纵波参量与高应力水平

  17. Effect of In-Vessel Retention Strategies under Postulated SGTR Accidents of OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Wonjun; Lee, Yongjae; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan-Yeol; Park, Rae-Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, MELCOR code was used to simulate the severe accident of the OPR1000. MELCOR code is computer code which enables to simulate the progression of the severe accident for light water reactors. It has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for plant risk assessment and source term analysis since 1982. According to the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 of OPR1000, typical severe accident scenarios of high probability of a transition to severe accident for OPR1000 were identified as Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA), Station Black out (SBO), Total Loss of Feed Water (TLOFW), and Steam Generator Tube Rupture. While the first three accidents are expected to result in the generation and transportation of the radioactive nuclides within the containment building as consequence of the core damage and subsequent reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure, the latter accident scenario may be progressed with possible direct release of the radioactive nuclides to the environment by bypassing the containment building. Thus it is of significance to investigate the SGTR accident with a sophisticated severe accident code. This code can simulate the whole phenomena of a severe accident such as thermal-hydraulic response, core heat-up, oxidation and relocation, and fission product release and transport. Thus many researchers have used MELCOR in severe accident studies. In this study, in-vessel retention strategies were applied for postulated SGTR accidents. Mitigation effect and adverse effect of in-vessel strategies was studied in aspect of RPV failure, fission product release and containment thermal-hydraulic and hydrogen behavior. Base case of SGTR accident and three mitigation cases were simulated using MELCOR code 1.8.6. For each mitigation cases, mitigation effect and adverse effect were investigated. Conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) RPV failure of SGTR base case occurred at 5.62 hours and fission product of RCS released to

  18. The Need to introduce CFD Methodology in Analyze Hydrogen Distribution for Postulated Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hanbee; Park, Sukyung; Kim, Kyuntae [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongkwang [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sejin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The regulatory requirements for combustible gas control systems in Korea is that mean hydrogen mole fraction shall be lower than 10 %, containment integrity shall be kept from combustion of hydrogen, and detonation and global fast turbulent combustion shall be avoided. KHNP provided some analysis which show hydrogen mole fraction is less than 10 % and detonation and global fast turbulence combustion are avoided for postulated severe accident events which covered over 90 % of CDF (core damage frequency) for each NPP. The results were from MAAP code that can simulate from the initiation of the accidents to hydrogen distribution inside containments. It is a Lumped-Parameter codes in which the transport of energy and mass is possible in only predetermined one direction. Therefore, there has been a long-history dispute whether one-dimensional LP codes could simulate the transportation of hydrogen accurately. For example, KHNP made a MAAP model to simulate hydrogen distribution in KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Plants), and the containment free volume is divided into 27 nodes in which it is assumed all the properties like each molecule mole fraction and temperate are uniform in each node. In addition, the maximum volume size of them is over 22,000 m{sup 3}, and it is not quite confident that the mole fraction of each molecules and temperature are uniform in the big size space. As for the stress test results of the Wolsong 1, civil experts asked KHNP to conduct hydrogen distribution analysis using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology, and if needed to install hydrogen ignitors in Wolsong 1 NPP. As a reviewer for KHNP's post actions to the Stress Test, the author also asked KHNP to do CFD analysis of hydrogen distribution, and KHNP finally agreed to analyze it using CFD by 2017. KHNP submitted a Shin-hanul 1 and 2 Operation License application in 2015, and the author also asked it to do CFD analysis to simulate hydrogen distribution for Shin-hanul 1 and 2

  19. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  20. A Postulated Mechanism That Leads to Materialization and Dematerialization of Matter and to Antigravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion of the postulated mechanism that leads to the materialization and dematerialization of matter and to antigravity. The mechanism also explains why an orbital electron does not radiate energy, in contradiction to classical electromagnetic theory. One of the paradoxes of special relativity is explained. A new model…

  1. Free Radical Halogenation, Selectivity, and Thermodynamics: The Polanyi Principle and Hammond's Postulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Alfred A.

    2004-01-01

    The underlying ideas of the Polanyi principle and Hammond's postulate in relation to the simple free halogenation reactions and their selectivity and thermodynamics is presented. The results indicate that the chlorine atom exhibits a slightly less selectivity in the liquid phase as compared to in the gas phase.

  2. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  3. High energy pipe line break postulations and their mitigation - examples for VVER nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L.; Kadecka, P.; Dotrel, J. [Nuclear Res. Inst., Rez (Czech Republic)

    1998-11-01

    The concept and the proposals for the protection and reinforcement of equipment against the effects of postulated rupture of the high-energy piping, in VVER Plant, are presented. The most recent version of the US NRC Guidelines has been used. The development of the legislation, the basic approach and selection of criteria for the assessment of the rupture of high energy piping, provide the basis for the application of the separation concept in the overall safety philosophy. (orig.)

  4. Postulation of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes in Seven Chinese Spring Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li-hong; ZHANG Na; HU Ya-ya; WEI Xue-jun; YANG Wen-xiang; LIU Da-qun

    2013-01-01

    To detect the leaf rust resistance genes in the 7 Chinese spring wheat clultivars Shenmian 99025, Shenmia 99042, Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 1167 and Shenmian 962, Thatcher, Thatcher backgrounded near-isogenic lines and 15 pathotypes of P. triticina were used for gene postulate at the seedling stage, and 9 of the 15 pathotypes were used in the field tests. Molecular markers closely linked to, or co-segregated with resistance genes Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr28, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr38, and Lr47 were screened to assist detection of the resistance genes. As results, 4 known resistance genes, including Lr1, Lr9, Lr26, and Lr34, and other unknown resistance genes were postulated singly or in combination in the tested cultivars. Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 962, Shenmian 1167, and Shenmian 99042 are potentially useful for wheat production and breeding programs. The result suggested that combining gene postulation, molecular markers and pedigrees is effective and more accuracy method to know the resistance genes in cultivars.

  5. Non-linear rock creep model based on hardening and damage effect%基于硬化和损伤效应的岩石非线性蠕变模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋勇军; 雷胜友; 刘向科

    2012-01-01

    岩石的蠕变过程是岩石内部应力不断调整,硬化和损伤效应不断发展并共同作用的结果.借鉴经典元件模型的建模思路,将岩石的初始屈服强度作为蠕变硬化的应力阈值,岩石的长期强度作为损伤软化的应力阈值,引入能反映岩石硬化效应的硬化函数和损伤效应的损伤变量,建立能够全面反映蠕变机制的岩石非线性蠕变模型.利用蠕变试验数据对所提出的模型进行辨识,结果表明该模型不仅能够很好地描述蠕变全过程,而且可以全面反映岩石蠕变过程中的蠕变硬化和损伤软化机制.%Rock creep process is the result that the internal stresses of rock constantly adjusts, hardening and damage effect gradually grow and take mutual effect. By means of classic element combination modeling ideas,the rock initial yield strength was regarded as the stress threshold of the creep hardening, and rock' s long-term strength served as the stress threshold of damage softening, introduced hardening function and damage variable that could reflect the effect of rock hardening and damage effect. Established nonlinear creep model of rock that could comprehensively reflect the creep mechanism. The fitted results of the test data show that nonlinear rheological model not only can effectively describe the creep process of rocks, but also can reflect creep hardening and damage softening mechanism in the creep process of rocks.

  6. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  7. The Light-Velocity Postulate: The Essential Difference between the Theories of Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Seiya

    2005-01-01

    Einstein, who had already developed the light-quantum theory, knew the inadequacy of Maxwell's theory in the microscopic sphere. Therefore, in writing his paper on special relativity, he had to set up the light-velocity postulate independently of the relativity postulate in order to make the electromagnetic foundation of physics compatible with…

  8. Infliximab-Induced Hypothyroidism: A Novel Case and Postulations concerning the Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cerniglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with cutaneous sarcoidosis who developed hypothyroidism following 17 months of infliximab therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of hypothyroidism following infliximab administration. While it is possible that the patient’s hypothyroidism was unrelated to the use of infliximab, the time course and lack of alternative explanations make such an association plausible. We postulate that hypothyroidism in this patient may have been related to the development of autoantibodies to infliximab that triggered the development of an autoimmune thyroiditis. Regardless of the mechanism, we would encourage clinicians to keep the potential mechanisms of TNF- in mind when treating patients with TNF- antagonist medications.

  9. Test of Antonovsky's postulate: high sense of coherence helps people avoid negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwälder, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    This study tested Antonovsky's postulate that a high sense of coherence (SOC) helps people avoid negative life events. It was assumed that negative life events that were uncontrollable would not show this effect, while those events that potentially could be controlled would show a significant relationship with SOC. 1,012 female nurses (M age=46.9 yr.; SD=8.9) participated in this longitudinal study and were divided into groups with low, moderate, and high SOC. Sixteen negative life events were categorized into uncontrollable and controllable events, with the controllable events divided into three sub-categories. Five one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for independent measures followed up with post hoc tests were performed, with the number of experienced events in a given category by each participant (at Time 2) as the dependent variable and the three SOC groups (formed at Time 1) as the independent variable. The results indicated that the high SOC group reported fewer controllable negative life events, while there was no significant relationship between the SOC level and uncontrollable negative life events. The findings support the postulate in Antonovsky's model, with the distinction between controllable and uncontrollable negative life events.

  10. Expel poetry from life and society, exile poets. Modern interpretations of the Platonic postulate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bartol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the most important modern interpretations of the Platonic postulate of expelling poets from the polis, formulated in two works of the thinker, the Republic and the Laws. The reflections presented in the article focus on two fundamental questions, namely the reasons behind Plato’s refusal to allow poets into his ideal state and, secondly, the aim he was going to attain by expelling artists from the community of citizens. To try to explain the reasons behind these statements, so embarrassing to present-day readers of Plato, involves considerations of Plato’s concept of the nature of poetry (art as flawed, defective and secondary reflection of the sensual world, as well as of ethical questions (art as a perfidious tool to facilitate malevolent designs towards human characters. Any investigation as to the intentions of the philosophers that preceded the formulation of the postulate concentrates thus inevitably on his vision of utopian realism. It further aims to provide sufficient arguments that Plato, oscillating in his presentation between authoritarian diagnosis and protreptic provocation, makes recipients redefine the mutual relationship between literature and philosophy.

  11. Doping effect of L-cystine on structural, UV-visible, SHG efficiency, third order nonlinear optical, laser damage threshold and surface properties of cadmium thiourea acetate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, S. M.; Anis, Mohd; Hussaini, S. S.; Kalainathan, S.; Shirsat, M. D.; Rabbani, G.

    2017-01-01

    The present article is focused to investigate the influence of L-cystine (LC) on linear-non-linear optical and laser damage threshold of cadmium thiourea acetate (CTA) crystal. The structural parameters of pure and LC doped CTA crystals have been determined using the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The functional groups of grown crystals have been identified by means of fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis has been done in the range of 200-900 nm to ascertain the uplifting influence of LC on optical properties of CTA crystal. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of LC doped CTA crystal is found to be higher than CTA and KDP crystal. The Z-scan technique has been employed to determine the third order nonlinear optical (TONLO) nature of LC doped CTA crystal at 632.8 nm. The self focusing tendency confirmed the strong kerr lensing ability of LC doped CTA crystal. The TONLO susceptibility (χ3), refraction (n2) and absorption coefficient (β) has been calculated using the Z-scan data. The laser damage threshold of pure and LC doped CTA crystals has been measured using the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its is found to be in range of GW/cm2. The surface analysis has been done by means of etching studies.

  12. Nonlinear progressive damage model for composite laminates used for low velocity impact%三维渐进损伤的复合材料层合板低速冲击模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫

    2014-01-01

    为了有效反映复合材料层合板面内和层间的非线性损伤,建立了一个新型的损伤模型,该模型基于三维实体单元和内聚力单元可以有效分析复合材料层合板在低速冲击作用下的层内和层间非线性失效行为。对于复合材料层合板面内损伤,以改进的Hashin失效准则作为起始损伤准则,提出了一种基于能量释放率的损伤变量指数渐进演化模型,既描述了复合材料损伤的渐进失效过程,又避免了材料刚度突然下降导致刚度矩阵奇异的不足,同时引入特征长度来降低结果对网格的依赖性,最终建立了单层板的渐进损伤非线性分析模型;针对层合板的层间损伤,采用内聚力单元来模拟,通过结合传统的应力失效准则和断裂力学中的能量释放率准则定义了界面损伤演化规律。该损伤模型通过商用有限元软件ABAQUS/Explicit 的用户子程序VUMAT实现,并使用该模型对碳纤维增强环氧树脂复合材料层合板在横向低速冲击作用下的损伤和变形行为进行预测分析。数值仿真的结果与试验结果进行了比较,吻合良好,验证了该模型的有效性。%In order to effectively describe the progressively intralaminar and interlaminar damage for composite laminates , a three dimensional progressive damage model for composite laminates used for low-velocity impact is presented in this paper .Being applied to three di-mensional solid elements and cohesive elements , this nonlinear damage model can be used to analyze the dynamic performance of composite structure and its failure behavior .For the in-tralaminar damage , as a function of energy release rate , this damage model in an exponential function can describe progressive development of the damage;for interlaminar damage , dam-age evolution was described by the framework of the continuum mechanics through cohesive elements.Through coding user subroutine VUMAT of finite

  13. Mechanical Model of Rock Nonlinear Creep Damage Based on Fractional Calculus%基于分数阶微积分的岩石非线性蠕变损伤力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋勇军; 雷胜友

    2013-01-01

    By means of classic element combination modeling, a new mechanical model of nonlinear creep damage is put forward containing component of fractional calculus and a damage variable for reflepting stress level and times, it also gives the constitutive and creep equations of the model. In lower stress level, the model can be effectively used to describe the rock characteristics, such as the attenuation creep and stabilization creep, moreover,if the stress level beyond the long-term strength of rocks, it can be used to reflect the accelerated creep characteristics. Comparison between the results obtained from the creep damage model and the creep test data shows that this model is not only able to describe the attenuation creep phase, the stabilization creep phase and the speed-up creep phase of the creep curve,but also to reduce the number of parameter in the creep model under the condition that the fitting precision is guaranteed. It provides a new idea for nonlinear creep model research.%借鉴元件组合模型的建模方法,将含分数阶导数的软体元件与虎克体串联,引入能反映应力水平和时间影响的损伤变量,提出一种四元件非线性蠕变损伤模型,并给出该模型的本构方程和蠕变方程.在应力水平较低时,模型能够有效地描述岩石的衰减蠕变和稳定蠕变;当应力水平超过岩石的长期强度时,能够反映加速蠕变特性.利用蠕变试验数据对所提出的模型进行辨识,结果表明该模型不但能够很好地描述蠕变曲线中衰减蠕变阶段、稳态蠕变阶段和加速蠕变阶段,而且可以在保证拟合精度的条件下减少模型中的参数,为非线性蠕变模型研究提供了一种新的思路.

  14. 压缩载荷下复合材料整体加筋板渐进损伤非线性数值分析%Nonlinear progressive damage analysis of integral stiffened composite panels under compressive load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常园园; 许希武; 郭树祥

    2011-01-01

    建立了考虑脱粘的复合材料整体加筋板渐进损伤有限元分析模型。该模型采用界面单元模拟筋条与壁板之间的连接界面,连接界面和复合材料层板分别采用Quads准则和Hashin准则作为失效判据,基于ABAQUS软件,建立了含连续损伤状态变量的材料刚度退化方案。基于该模型,采用非线性有限元方法研究了压缩载荷下复合材料整体加筋壁板在考虑初始几何缺陷时的破坏过程,分析了结构相应失效模式的细观损伤机制;详细讨论了轴向刚度比对结构承载能力及破坏模式的影响。结果表明:考虑脱粘损伤的有限元模型能有效模拟加筋板的破坏过程;在加筋板铺%A strength analysis model was presented to study the progressive damage of integral stiffened composite panels subjected to compressive loading by using the nonlinear finite element method.In the model,the debonding failure of the adhesive between the skin and stiffener was considered by adding cohesive elements between the shell elements.Quads failure criteria and Hashin's failure criteria were adopted to identify the occurring of damage events of the cohesive elements and the composite panels,respectively.Based on ABAQUS,a material degradation rule containing continuum damage status variables was presented.The process of damage initiation,propagation and catastrophic failure of the integral stiffened composite panels was simulated in detail by the proposed model,and the initial geometric imperfection was taken into account.Axial stiffness ratio of stiffener and skin was defined and conducted to study the effects to the structure on the carrying capacity and failure modes.The results indicate that: the model can predict the damage process of integral stiffened panel effectively;under the condition the ply design is reasonable,increasing the stiffness ratio can to some extent improve the unit area bearing capacity of the cross section of stiffened composite

  15. Towards a canonical elastoplastic damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Salah El-Din F.; Baluch, Mohammed H.; Al-Gadhib, Ali H.

    1994-05-01

    Fundamental aspects of elastoplastic damage are outlined. Time-independent isotropic damage is considered in order to study material degradation. By splitting the total strain tensor into its components of elastic damage and plastic damage and using recoverable energy equivalence, three distinct modes of behavior are particularized. For each mode of behavior, a suitable damage variable is culled. An in-depth analysis of this formulation reveals a certain incongruity in the assumptions postulated in some of the previously proposed models. The suggested generalized concepts are supported by experimental evidence.

  16. Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David

    2013-10-08

    Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information.

  17. An Unusual presentation Of Lateral Medullary Syndrome With Ipsilateral UMN Facial Palsy - An Anatomical Postulate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of lateral medullary syndrome include ipsilateral decreased pain and temperature sensation over face, Horner′s syndrome, gait ataxia, vertigo with nausea and vomiting and reduction of pain and temperature of contra lateral half of body (6. At times, there is also an ipsilateral facial weakness due to ischemia of the caudal part of the 7the nerve nucleus just rostral to the nucleus ambiguus (11. Rarely an ipsilateral upper motor neuron (UMN facial weakness may be present and the same may be explained by the interruption of the hypothetical looping supranuclear corticofacial fibres which are said to ascend up in the dorsolateral medulla to reach the 7th nerve nucleus from below (8, 9, 10. A single case report is presented here in support of the above neuroanatomical postulate.

  18. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  19. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  20. A Deformation Analysis Code of CANDU Fuel under the Postulated Accident: ELOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2006-11-15

    Deformations of the fuel element or fuel channel might be the main cause of the fuel failure. Therefore, the accurate prediction of the deformation and the analysis capabilities are closely related to the increase of the safety margin of the reactor. In this report, among the performance analysis or the transient behavior prediction computer codes, the analysis codes for deformation such as the ELOCA, HOTSPOT, CONTACT-1, and PTDFORM are briefly introduced and each code's objectives, applicability, and relations are explained. Especially, the user manual for ELOCA code which is the analysis code for the fuel deformation and the release of fission product during the transient period after the postulated accidents is provided so that it can be the guidance to the potential users of the code and save the time and economic loss by reducing the trial and err000.

  1. Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P.; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David

    2013-01-01

    Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information. PMID:24062431

  2. Preliminary risks associated with postulated tritium release from production reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Horton, W.H.

    1988-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor operation is evaluating the offsite risk due to tritium releases during postulated full or partial loss of heavy water moderator accidents. Preliminary determination of the frequency of average partial moderator loss (including incidents with leaks as small as 0.5 kg) yields an estimate of --1 per reactor-year. The full moderator loss frequency is conservatively chosen as 5x10/sup -3/ per reactor-year. Conditional consequences, determined with a version of the MACCS code modified to handle tritium, are found to be insignificant. The 95th percentile individual cancer risk is 2x10/sup -8/ per reactor-year within 16 km of the release point. The full moderator loss accident contributes about 80% of the evaluated risks.

  3. OVERVIEW OF MODULAR HTGR SAFETY CHARACTERIZATION AND POSTULATED ACCIDENT BEHAVIOR LICENSING STRATEGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL

    2014-06-01

    This report provides an update on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) accident analyses and risk assessments. One objective of this report is to improve the characterization of the safety case to better meet current regulatory practice, which is commonly geared to address features of today s light water reactors (LWRs). The approach makes use of surrogates for accident prevention and mitigation to make comparisons with LWRs. The safety related design features of modular HTGRs are described, along with the means for rigorously characterizing accident selection and progression methodologies. Approaches commonly used in the United States and elsewhere are described, along with detailed descriptions and comments on design basis (and beyond) postulated accident sequences.

  4. THE POSTULATE OF IMPOSSIBILITY OF SENSELESS TEXT IN THE LIGHT OF CREATIVE LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur B. Radbil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers linguistic, lingual-pragmatic and general semiotic conditions of forming of sensibility in literary utterance, which does not have the possibility of trying to find the sense within the framework of models of language standard functioning. The work treats text in this aspect as communicative situation in the field of speech interaction “author” — “reader”. The study proves that addressee’s / reader’s reception has certain potential in completion of sense “lacunae” and in comprehension of language and text deviation within the framework of fictional model offered by an author as well as outside this framework. The foundation of such approach is interpretation of “sense” as a function not of an author but of a reader$ as a function not of a proposition, but a propositional set; as a conversational implicature of specific kind. On this basis we postulate impossibility of senseless text. We also propose gradation of senselessness (in what sense the senselessness exists: ontological, logical, semiotic, epistemological, semantic, grammatical, pragmatic senselessness etc. I.e. an utterance can be senseless on the one level of reception, and quite sensible on the other level. The study exposed three types of the conditions forming impossibility of senseless text in the field of reader’s reception in the whole: pragmatic, semiotic and cultural ones. It enables in turn to postulate specific interpretation of the category of “artistry” as such property / characteristic of a text that eliminates the very possibility of senselessness. Text as anti-entropic substance always opposes to chaos and senselessness of the reality, if even it is apprehended like senseless substance as a rough approximation. 

  5. Two Versions of the Projection Postulate: From EPR Argument to One-Way Quantum Computing and Teleportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2010-01-01

    of the projection postulate (due to von Neumann and Lüders should be taken into account seriously in the analysis of the basic constructions of quantum information theory. This paper is a review devoted to such an analysis.

  6. Postulation of seedling leaf rust resistance genes in 84 Chinese winter wheat cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiao-li; LIU Tai-guo; LIU Bo; GAO Li; CHEN Wan-quan

    2015-01-01

    Wheat leaf rust (caused byPuccinia triticina) is one of the most important fungal diseases in China. There are tens of winter wheat cultivars which are approved to be released by the government at a national level and more than 100 wheat cultivars at the provincial level. But there is no information about leaf rust (Lr) genes in these cultivars, which makes it dififcult for farmers and breeders to select which cultivars they should plant in their ifelds and use in their breeding programs. The objec-tive of this paper was to identify the leaf rust resistant genes at seedling stage present in the 84 commercial wheat cultivars from China that have been released in the past few years. A set of 20 near isogenic lines with Thatcher background and 6 lines with knownLr genes were used to test the virulence of 12 races ofP. triticina (Pt). By comparing the infection types (ITs) produced on the 84 cultivars by the 12Pt races with the ITs on the differential sets, theLrgenes were postulated. In addition, 8 molecular markers ofLr genes such asLr9,Lr10,Lr19,Lr20,Lr21,Lr24,Lr26 andLr29, which are closely linked to or co-segregated with theLr gene, were used for further validation of the genes in the 84 Chinese winter wheat cultivars. TwelveLr genes, includingLr1, Lr3,(Lr3bg), (Lr3ka), Lr11, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, Lr26, Lr27, Lr30 andLr31 were postulated to be present either singly or in combinations in these Chinese wheat cultivars.Lr3 andLr26 were detected most often in the tested cultivars, with frequencies of 51.2 and 38.1%, respectively. No wheatLr genes were detected in 16 cultivars, and 4 cultivars may carry unknownLr genes other than those used in this study.Lr9,Lr20,Lr21,Lr24,Lr25andLr29 were not present in any of the 84 tested accessions.

  7. Growth, spectral, thermal, laser damage threshold, microhardness, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: L-phenylalanine DL-mandelic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaprakash, P. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Peer Mohamed, M. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnan, P. [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600 119, Tamil Nadu (India); Nageshwari, M.; Mani, G. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Lydia Caroline, M., E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-12-15

    Single crystals of L-phenylalanine dl-mandelic acid [C{sub 9}H{sub 11}NO{sub 2}. C{sub 8}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}], have been grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature using aqueous solution. The single crystal XRD study confirms monoclinic system for the grown crystal. The functional groups present in the grown crystal have been identified by FTIR and FT-Raman analyses. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the visible region with a lower cut-off wavelength of 257 nm and the optical band gap energy E{sub g} is determined to be 4.62 eV. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation was confirmed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. Further, the thermal studies confirmed no weight loss up to 150°C for the as-grown crystal. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibited three peaks (414 nm, 519 nm, 568 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. Laser damage threshold value was found to be 4.98 GW/cm{sup 2}. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the grown crystals and there by Vickers hardness number (H{sub v}), work hardening coefficient (n), yield strength (σ{sub y}), stiffness constant C{sub 11} were evaluated. The dielectric behavior of the crystal has been determined in the frequency range 50 Hz–5 MHz at various temperatures.

  8. Koch’s postulate of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and its immunogenicity in local and imported Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Abdel Nour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to study Koch’s postulate of Arcanobacterium pyogenes recovered from the necrotic lung of a kid and to compare the immunogenicity of this isolate in local and imported Saanen goats. The disease was successfully reproduced in intrathoracically challenged hamsters which showed lung congestion and liver abscesses, while hamsters that were intraperitoneally challenged showed only the formation of intestinal abscesses. The percentage of histopathologic legions in 12 observed microscopic fields per lung of three groups of hamsters (unchallenged controls, challenged intrathoracically and challenged intraperitoneally showed a significant increase in lung necrosis of the intrathoracically challenged group, followed by intraperitoneally challenged hamsters, in comparison to unchallenged controls (p0.05, while there was no significant difference in the frequency of neutrophil infiltration (p>0.05. The isolate was successfully recovered from the lungs and livers of hamsters challenged by both routes. Saanen does showed significant seroconversion using the indirect haemagglutination (HA test and slide agglutination test (SAT and at three weeks following priming and boosting with A. pyogenes antigens (p<0.05; however, only SAT showed significant seroconversion in local does at three weeks post booster (p<0.05. The possible causes and impact of the greater immunogenicity to A. pyogenes antigens in Saanen goats compared to local does are discussed.

  9. Leibniz on the parallel postulate and the foundations of geometry the unpublished manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    De Risi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a general introduction to the geometrical studies of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) and his mathematical epistemology. In particular, it focuses on his theory of parallel lines and his attempts to prove the famous Parallel Postulate. Furthermore it explains the role that Leibniz’s work played in the development of non-Euclidean geometry. The first part is an overview of his epistemology of geometry and a few of his geometrical findings, which puts them in the context of the seventeenth-century studies on the foundations of geometry. It also provides a detailed mathematical and philosophical commentary on his writings on the theory of parallels, and discusses how they were received in the eighteenth century as well as their relevance for the non-Euclidean revolution in mathematics. The second part offers a collection of Leibniz’s essays on the theory of parallels and an English translation of them. While a few of these papers have already been published (in Latin) in the standard Le...

  10. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  11. Transient behavior of a scaled RCCS test facility under postulated fault and accident scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Hu, Rui; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Gerardi, Craig D.; Farmer, Mitch T.

    2016-01-01

    Tests were performed on the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) to simulate design basis accident and postulated fault scenarios. Residing at Argonne National Laboratory, the NSTF stands nearly 26-m in total height and reflects a ½ scale reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) for high temperature gas cooled reactors. The following manuscript details three test conditions performed on the experimental test facility. The first simulated the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) boundary condition during depressurized conduction cool down accident with small primary leak, and was repeated during both winter and summer seasons. The second examined a short-circuit break between the inlet and outlet flow paths, and was performed in three incremental stages of nominal flow area break size. The third and final test case studied system behavior with varying amounts of cooling channel blockages, up to and including 50% flow areas. Nominal component temperatures, heat removal performance, and system stability will be presented to characterize the behavior at these conditions.

  12. Preliminary risks associated with postulated tritium release from production reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Horton, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor operation is assessing the off-site risk due to tritium releases during postulated full or partial loss of heavy water moderator accidents. Other sources of tritium in the reactor are less likely to contribute to off-site risk in non-fuel melting accident scenarios. Preliminary determination of the frequency of average partial moderator loss (including incidents with leaks as small as .5 kg) yields an estimate of /approximately/1 per reactor year. The full moderator loss frequency is conservatively chosen as 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/ per reactor year. Conditional consequences, determined with a version of the MACCS code modified to handle tritium, are found to be insignificant. The 95th percentile individual cancer risk is 4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ per reactor year within 16 km of the release point. The full moderator loss accident contributes about 75% of the evaluated risks. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-01

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/PBq(2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This paper suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium releases to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways.

  14. Na2ZnGe2S6: A New Infrared Nonlinear Optical Material with Good Balance between Large Second-Harmonic Generation Response and High Laser Damage Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangmao; Wu, Kui; Liu, Qiong; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-06-15

    The development of frequency-conversion technology in the infrared region is in urgent need of new excellent infrared nonlinear optical (IR NLO) materials. How to achieve a good balance between laser damage threshold (LDT) and NLO coefficient (dij) for new IR NLO candidates is still a challenge. The combination of the highly electropositive alkali metal (Na) and Zn with d(10) electronic configuration into crystal structure affords one new IR NLO material, Na2ZnGe2S6. It exhibits excellent properties including a wide transparent region (0.38-22 μm), large band gap (3.25 eV), and especially a balance between a strong NLO coefficient (30-fold that of KDP) and a high LDT (6-fold that of AgGaS2), indicating a promising application in the IR region. Moreover, novel common-vertex-linked wavelike ∞[GeS3]n chains are interestingly discovered in Na2ZnGe2S6, which rarely exist in the reported thiogermanides containing alkali metals. In addition, calculated SHG density and dipole moment demonstrate that the large NLO response is mainly attributed to the cooperative effects of the [GeS4] and [ZnS4] units.

  15. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river.

  16. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river.

  17. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  18. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  19. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  20. Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Multi-loading Suspension Bridges Considering Nonlinear Accumulative Damage%考虑非线性累积损伤的大跨多荷载桥梁的疲劳可靠度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志为; 徐幼麟

    2014-01-01

    针对大跨多荷载桥梁疲劳损伤累积非线性过程中的大量不确定性,对火车、汽车与风荷载作用下的大跨悬索桥,利用连续损伤模型提出了一个疲劳可靠度评估方法。首先,在连续损伤模型基础上,对模型参数进行分析;然后,根据工程应用的需要,适当简化疲劳模型,在连续损伤模型中引入合适的随机变量,定义疲劳可靠度分析的极限状态函数,假定多种未来可能的交通荷载和荷载增长模式,利用蒙特卡洛方法产生随机变量并计算失效概率;最后以香港青马大桥为例,讨论了该桥在不同荷载状况下使用120年后的疲劳失效概率。研究发现:若保持当前的交通状态,桥梁可保持良好状况,但未来交通荷载的快速增长会导致结构提前失效。%Taking into account uncertainties in the nonlinear process of fatigue damage accumulation for fatigue reliability analysis of multi-loading long-span bridges,a fatigue reliability assessment method for a long suspension bridge under combined highway,railway,and wind loadings was proposed using a continuum damage model (CDM ). First,the CDM based on continuum damage mechanics was briefly introduced,and main model parameters were analyzed. Then,a simplified CDM was proposed for further application to bridge structures. A limit state function for fatigue reliability analysis based on CDM was defined by introducing proper random variables into the CDM. The Monte Carlo simulation (MCS)was adopted to generate the random variables and to calculate the failure probability. Finally, the Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong was taken as a case study,and the failure probabilities of the bridge at the end of 120 years were estimated for different loading scenarios. The results indicate that the health condition of the bridge in fatigue is satisfactory under the current traffic conditions,but attentions should be paid to future traffic growth because it

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  2. Postulating hypotheses in experimental doctoral dissertations on Applied Linguistics: A qualitative investigation into rhetorical shifts and linguistic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Miin-Hwa Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which research hypotheses need to be incorporated in experimental studies often becomes a subject of discussion among academics supervising the writing of theses and dissertations. While writers are concerned about how hypotheses can be strategically linked with other elements in research reports to effectively present an introductory chapter, instructors are considering ways of guiding learners to use the appropriate language in postulating research hypotheses. Using an analytical framework developed by Swales (1990 & 2004 and specialist informants’ qualitative data, this largely qualitative investigation looks into a corpus of experimental doctoral dissertations submitted to 32 American universities from 2001 to 2009 in order to ascertain (i the degree to which research hypotheses need to be presented in dissertation introductions, (ii how hypotheses are strategically linked with other rhetorical segments, and (iii the salient linguistic mechanisms used to achieve the communicative functions. This study has revealed (i how writers shift from pertinent communicative moves to the postulation of hypotheses, and (ii the gamut of major language choices employed to postulate these hypotheses. The findings can be used to prepare teaching materials that help learners comprehend and employ the rhetorical strategies and linguistic mechanisms needed in postulating hypotheses in research reports.

  3. 3D Nonlinear Damage Analysis of Metro-station Structures Under Strong Seismic Loading%强震作用下地铁车站结构损伤破坏的三维非线性动力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    还毅; 方秦; 陈力; 柳锦春

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the dynamic response and the failure mechanism of metro-station structures under strong seismic loading, a two-dimensional (2D) and a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element models of the Daikai subway station during Kobe earthquake were established based on damaged plasticity model for concrete, extended Drucker-Prager model for soil, soil-underground structure interaction theory and artificial boundary theory. The 3 D nonlinear responses of the Daikai subway station with isolators fixed at the column ends subjected to seismic loading were also analyzed. The results show that: ( 1 ) the finite element models established in this paper can describe the dynamic properties of the reinforced concrete structure and the dynamic interaction of soil-underground structure properly; (2) the 3D numerical results agree well with the in situ observations by comparison of the numerical results of the 2D and 3D models, and the failure mode of the column in the metrostation structure under seismic loading can not be predicted precisely by the 2D analysis; (3) the 3D shock isolator, composed of dish spring and lead rubber beading, has a rather large vertical stiffness and good resistance to lateral deformation, and consequently can markedly reduce the deformation and damage of the column when fixed at the ends of the column.%为了研究地铁车站结构在强震作用下的动力响应及破坏机理,基于混凝土损伤塑性模型、岩土扩展的Drucker-Prager模型、土-结构相互作用以及人工边界等相关理论,利用ABAQUS软件建立了强震作用下地铁车站的动态响应与损伤破坏的二维、三维精细化非线性有限元分析模型,并对柱端设置隔震器的地铁车站结构进行了三维非线性动力分析.分析结果表明:所建立的有限元分析模型能较好地反映强震荷载作用下钢筋混凝土结构的动力特性以及土-地下结构之间相互作用,适用于地下结构抗震分

  4. Damage Evaluation of Hyperbolic Tangent Nonlinear Packaging System with Critical Component%双曲正切包装系统关键部件破损评价理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜久红; 王军; 王志伟

    2011-01-01

    建立二自由度非线性产品包装系统模型,得到冲击动力学方程并数值求解,研究了双曲正切包装系统关键部件的矩形脉冲响应特性。运用数值求解得到关键部件破损边界曲面,并讨论了名义频率比、阻尼、脉冲激励幅值和系统参数对关键部件破损边界的影响规律,结果表明,频率比、阻尼、脉冲激励幅值和系统参数对关键部件破损边界影响显著,研究结论为产品包装设计提供科学依据。%The shock characteristic of the hyperbolic tangent nonlinear packaging system with critical component were investigated under the action of rectangular acceleration pulse. The dynamical model of the system was developed. And the numerical results of the dynamical equations were got. The damage boundary surface of critical component was obtained based on the results. And the effect of the pulse duration, the frequency ratio, the dmaping ratio, the pulse peak acceleration in additional to the defined system parameter on the DBS of critical component was discussed. It's shown that all of their effects are noticeable. The results lead to some insights into the design of cushioning packaging.

  5. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  6. Consequences of postulated losses of LWR spent fuel and plutonium shipping packages at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Baker, D.A.; Beyer, C.E.; Friley, J.R.; Mandel, S.; Peterson, P.L.; Sominen, F.A.

    1977-10-01

    The potential consequences of the loss of a large spent fuel cask and of a single 6M plutonium shipping package into the sea for two specific accident cases are estimated. The radiation dose to man through the marine food chain following the loss of undamaged and fire-damaged packages to the continental shelf and in the deep ocean are conservatively estimated. Two failure mechanisms that could lead to release of radioactive material after loss of packages into the ocean have been considered: corrosion and hydrostatic pressure. A third possible mechanism is thermal overpressurization following burial in marine sediments. It was determined that the seals or pressure relief devices on an undamaged spent fuel cask might fail from hydrostatic forces for losses on the continental shelf although some cask designs would retain their integrity at this depth. The population dose to man through the marine food chain following these scenarios has been estimated. The dose estimates are made relating the radioactive material released and the seafood productivity in the region of the release. Doses are based on a one-year consumption of contaminated seafood. The loss of a single plutonium package on the continental shelf is estimated to produce a population dose commitment of less than 250 man-rem for recycle plutonium. The dose commitment to the average individual is less than one millirem. Doses for losses of undamaged casks to the continental shelf and deep ocean and for loss of a fire-damaged cask to the deep ocean were determined to be several orders of magnitude smaller. 22 tables, 10 figures.

  7. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  8. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  9. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  10. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  11. Study of damage constitutive model applied to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete structures%适用于混凝土结构非线性分析的损伤本构模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 林皋

    2012-01-01

    基于不可逆热力学原理提出一种简单的混凝土类准脆性材料的损伤本构模型,具有参数相对少、公式表达简单、易于数值实现等特点。采用双标量损伤变量来描述混凝土的拉伸和压缩不等性、刚度及强度退化特性;通过分解自由能为体积和剪切两部分,在体积部分引入单边效应函数来考虑裂纹闭合效应;通过对损伤变量的黏性化处理以及附加弹性条件来考虑率相关性。给出混凝土试件在单轴拉伸和压缩、双轴加载、三轴压缩以及应变率影响的不同加载条件下的数值计算结果,与试验结果比较吻合。通过对缺口梁三点弯曲加载破坏过程和重力坝地震响应的数值模拟,验证损伤模型在大尺度混凝土结构的非线性分析方面,具有较好的收敛性和计算能力。%A simple damage constitutive model for concrete-like quasi-brittle materials within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics is developed. The model needs fewer parameters, is simpler in mathematical expression and more convenient for numerical calculation. Different responses under tensile and compressive loadings as well as degradation of stiffness and strength are considered by employing two scalar damage variables. In order to take the microcrack closure effect into consideration, the Helmholtz free energy is decomposed into hydrostatic and deviatoric components, and a unilateral effect function is introduced in the hydrostatic part. The rate effect is considered by introducing viscous regularizations into the damage variable and combined with an additional elastic condition. The cases of uniaxial tensile and compressive, biaxial and triaxial compressive loadings for a concrete specimen are studied. The results agree well with the experiment. The proposed model is employed in the analyses of a three-point bending beam and a gravity dam subjected to earthquake loading. Numerical results show that the

  12. COMBINED DAMAGE FRACTURE CRITERIA FOR PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinhua; Chen Chuanyao; Hu Yuantai; Wang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical and electrical damages are introduced to study the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric ceramics in this paper. Two kinds of piezoelectric fracture criteria are established using the method of least squares combined with a damage analysis of the well-known piezoelectric fracture experiments of Park and Sun's. One is based on a linear combination of the mechanical and electrical damages and the other on their nonlinear combination. When the combined damage D is up to its critical value Dc, piezoelectric fracture occurs. It is found from the qualitative comparison of the numerical results with the experimental data that the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion can give a better prediction of piezoelectric fracture. And it is concluded from the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion that a negative electric field impedes fracture whereas the effect of a positive electric field on fracture depends on its magnitude.

  13. Theoretical aspects of nonlinear echo image system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ruiquan; FENG Shaosong

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop the nonlinear echo image system to diagnose pathological changes in biological tissue , a simple physical model to analyse the character of nonlinear reflected wave in biological medium is postulated. The propagation of large amplitude plane sound wave in layered biological media is analysed for the one dimensional case by the method of successive approximation and the expression for the second order wave reflected from any interface of layered biological media is obtained. The relations between the second order reflection coefficients and the nonlinear parameters of medium below the interface are studied in three layers interfaces. Finally, the second order reflection coefficients of four layered media are calculated numerically. The results indicate that the nonlinear parameter B/A of each layer of biological media can be determined by the reflection method.

  14. Damage Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie

    2001-01-01

    the damage location, the damage sizes and the main particulars of the struck vessel. From the numerical simulation and the analyse of the damage statistics it is found that the current formulation from the IMO SLF 43/3/2 can be used as basis for determination of the p-, r-, and v-factors. Expressions...... and methods of calculation have been discussed. The damage distributions for the different vessels have been compared and analyses regarding relations between damage parameters and main particulars have been performed. The damage statistics collected in work package 1 have been analysed for relations between...... for the distribution of the non-dimensional damage location, the non-dimensional damage length and the non-dimensional penetrations have been derived. These distributions have been used as basis for a proposal for the p- and r-factors. Two proposals for the v-factor have been performed using the damage statistics...

  15. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  16. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  17. 铝合金初期塑性变形与疲劳损伤的非线性超声无损评价方法%Nondestructive Evaluation of Early Stage Plasticity and Fatigue Damage of Aluminum Alloy Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正干; 刘斯明

    2011-01-01

    Early stage of plasticity and fatigue damage are difficult to detect by using conventional ultrasonic techniques. Nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on harmonic generation has been shown to have the ability to solve the question. A nonlinear ultrasonic high power transmission testing system is developed to detect early-stage plasticity and fatigue damage of Aluminum 2024-T4 alloy.During the test, the nonlinear parameter of the material based on the amplitude of second harmonic is monotonically correlated with the plasticity and fatigue damage of the samples. The experimental nonlinearities are successfully reduced by using the natural filter effect of piezo-electric discs, which makes the experimental method more robust. The experimental results show that the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on harmonic generation can be used to detect early-stage plasticity and fatigue damage of aluminum alloy.%利用传统超声检测方法或其他无损检测方法难以实现金属初期塑性变形和疲劳损伤的检测.为了解决这一问题,利用基于二次谐波的非线性超声检测方法,研究2024-T4铝合金的初期塑性变形与疲劳损伤缺陷的测试过程;建立非线性高能穿透法超声检测系统,发现超声非线性系数与铝合金残余塑性变形和疲劳损伤程度具有单调相关关系;通过改进试验方法,利用压电晶片的滤波效应,成功减小试样前端非线性的试验来源,提高了检测的鲁棒性.试验结果表明通过利用晶片的滤波效应,选择合适的激励频率能够减小前端仪器的非线性对试验结果的干扰,使基于二次谐波幅值的超声非线性系数能够作为表征铝合金初期塑性变形和疲劳损伤程度的特征参量应用于实际的检测过程.

  18. Nonlinear phased array imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Anthony J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.

    2016-04-01

    A technique is presented for imaging acoustic nonlinearity within a specimen using ultrasonic phased arrays. Acoustic nonlinearity is measured by evaluating the difference in energy of the transmission bandwidth within the diffuse field produced through different focusing modes. The two different modes being classical beam forming, where delays are applied to different element of a phased array to physically focus the energy at a single location (parallel firing) and focusing in post processing, whereby one element at a time is fired and a focused image produced in post processing (sequential firing). Although these two approaches are linearly equivalent the difference in physical displacement within the specimen leads to differences in nonlinear effects. These differences are localized to the areas where the amplitude is different, essentially confining the differences to the focal point. Direct measurement at the focal point are however difficult to make. In order to measure this the diffuse field is used. It is a statistical property of the diffuse field that it represents the total energy in the system. If the energy in the diffuse field for both the sequential and parallel firing case is measured then the difference between these, within the input signal bandwidth, is largely due to differences at the focal spot. This difference therefore gives a localized measurement of where energy is moving out of the transmission bandwidth due to nonlinear effects. This technique is used to image fatigue cracks and other damage types undetectable with conventional linear ultrasonic measurements.

  19. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  20. Fatigue damage detection using cyclostationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boungou, D.; Guillet, F.; Badaoui, M. El; Lyonnet, P.; Rosario, T.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present the second-order of cyclostationarity to detect and diagnose the fatigue damage of the stainless steel 316l subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF). LCF is defined by repetitive cycling in a low stress and a short period. The vibration response of material subjected to LCF provides information linked to the solicitation and to the fatigue damage. Thus, we considered a cantilever beam with breathing cracks and assumed that under the solicitation, breathing cracks generates non-linearity in the stiffness of the material and this one decreases with the damage. We used the second-order of the cyclostationarity to reveal this non-linearity and showed that the fatigue provide a random component in the signal, which increases with the fatigue damage. Thus, in the specific case of a material subjected to LCF, with a non-linear stiffness, we propose a new methodology to detect and diagnose the fatigue damage using a vibration signal. This methodology is based on the second order of the cyclostationarity.

  1. Elasto-plastic postbuckling of damaged orthotropic plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-ping; FU Yi-ming

    2008-01-01

    Based on the elasto-plastic mechanics and continuum damage theory, a yield criterion related to spherical tensor of stress is proposed to describe the mixed hardening of damaged orthotropic materials. Its dimensionless form is isomorphic with the Mises criterion for isotropic materials. Furthermore, the incremental elasto-plastic damage constitutive equations and damage evolution equations are established. Based on the classical nonlinear plate theory, the incremental nonlinear equilibrium equations of orthotropic thin plates considering damage effect are obtained, and solved with the finite difference and iteration methods. In the numerical examples, the effects of damage evolution and initial deflection on the elasto-plastic postbuckling of orthotropic plates are discussed in detail.

  2. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  3. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent

  4. Nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-01-01

    Research in nonlinear dynamics is rapidly expanding and its range of applications is extending beyond the traditional areas of science where it was first developed. Indeed while linear analysis and modelling, which has been very successful in mathematical physics and engineering, has become a mature science, many elementary phenomena of intrinsic nonlinear nature were recently experimentally detected and investigated, suggesting new theoretical work. Complex systems, as turbulent fluids, were known to be governed by intrinsically nonlinear laws since a long time ago, but received purely phenomenological descriptions. The pioneering works of Boltzmann and Poincare, probably because of their intrinsic difficulty, did not have a revolutionary impact at their time; it is only very recently that their message is reaching a significant number of mathematicians and physicists. Certainly the development of computers and computer graphics played an important role in developing geometric intuition of complex phenomena through simple numerical experiments, while a new mathematical framework to understand them was being developed.

  5. Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  6. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA)); Nelson, R.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Bollinger, L. (Air Force Inspection and Safety Center, Kirtland AFB, NM (USA)); Hoover, M.D. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  7. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from Westinghouse PFDL, Cheswick, Pennsylvania, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, R.B.; Watson, E.C.

    1979-06-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated accidents due to earthquakes, tornadoes, high straight-line winds, and floods. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays except Earthquake No. 4 and the 260-mph tornado. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following Earthquake No. 4, and the 200-mph and 260-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The deposition values following the other severe natural phenomena are below the EPA proposed guideline.

  8. Comparative Reaction Diagrams for the SN2 Reaction Formulated According to the Leffler Analysis and the Hammond Postulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Robert C; Tian, Ziqi; Jiang, De-En

    2016-05-06

    The Hammond Postulate and the Leffler analysis have provided a cornerstone in the understanding of reaction processes in organic chemistry for over 60 years, yet quantitative applications of these methodologies over the range of reactions envisaged in the original works remain elusive. In the present paper, we analyze a series of SN2 reactions in three solvents that lead to endothermic and exothermic reaction processes, and we show that within the hybridization reaction coordinate the SN2 reaction is fully consistent with both treatments. We give new presentations of the reaction energies as a function of reaction progress, which allow the generation of unified reaction coordinate diagrams that show a linear relationship between the hybridization metric of reaction progress and the relative energies of the stationary points on the potential surface as a function of structure and solvent as originally envisaged by Leffler and Hammond.

  9. The Energy Postulate and Capillarity Phenomena%多种能形式条件下的毛细现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红雨; 郭平生

    2012-01-01

    从能量公设出发,论述了吉布斯自由能判据的一般形式,由此分析了多种能形式存在时的毛细现象过程并得到了毛细现象过程一般的毛细管公式,结果表明:毛细现象过程是多种能形式的变化和相互作用的过程,毛细现象的结果由系统中各种能形式的相互作用和变化共同决定.从能量公设分析毛细现象过程,不仅揭示了毛细现象的实质,而且扩展了毛细管公式的应用范围,还开拓了处理毛细现象的思维方法.%The general form of the Gibbs free energy criterion is discussed from the energy postulate. The capillarity process including different kinds of energy was analyzed, and the general formula of the capillarity process was established. The results show that capillarity phenomena is the process of different kinds of energy change and reciprocity, and the results of capillarity phenomena was determined by change and reciprocity of different kinds of energy. The discussion of capillarity process from the energy postulate indicate capillarity essential and expanded the application field of the capillarity formula and exploit thinking method of resolve capillarity problem.

  10. In spina bifida aperta, muscle ultrasound can quantify the "second hit of damage"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Maurits, N. M.; Brouwer, O. F.; Hoving, Eelco; Sival, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    In spina bifida aperta (SBA), the "second-hit hypothesis" addresses consequences by delayed neurological damage superimposed upon the congenital myelomeningocele (MMC). This secondary damage is postulated to underlie the disappearance of leg movements shortly after birth. Innovative fetal surgery mi

  11. Predictive simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2012-04-01

    Most of the nonlinear ultrasonic studies to date have been experimental, but few theoretical predictive studies exist, especially for Lamb wave ultrasonic. Compared with nonlinear bulk waves and Rayleigh waves, nonlinear Lamb waves for structural health monitoring become more challenging due to their multi-mode dispersive features. In this paper, predictive study of nonlinear Lamb waves is done with finite element simulation. A pitch-catch method is used to interrogate a plate with a "breathing crack" which opens and closes under tension and compression. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) used as transmitter and receiver are modeled with coupled field elements. The "breathing crack" is simulated via "element birth and death" technique. The ultrasonic waves generated by the transmitter PWAS propagate into the structure, interact with the "breathing crack", acquire nonlinear features, and are picked up by the receiver PWAS. The features of the wave packets at the receiver PWAS are studied and discussed. The received signal is processed with Fast Fourier Transform to show the higher harmonics nonlinear characteristics. A baseline free damage index is introduced to assess the presence and the severity of the crack. The paper finishes with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.

  12. Nonlinear PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    From the Back Cover: The emphasis throughout the present volume is on the practical application of theoretical mathematical models helping to unravel the underlying mechanisms involved in processes from mathematical physics and biosciences. It has been conceived as a unique collection of abstract methods dealing especially with nonlinear partial differential equations (either stationary or evolutionary) that are applied to understand concrete processes involving some important applications re...

  13. Applications of nonlinear system identification to structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Robertson, A. N. (Amy N.)

    2004-01-01

    The process of implementing a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). In many cases damage causes a structure that initially behaves in a predominantly linear manner to exhibit nonlinear response when subject to its operating environment. The formation of cracks that subsequently open and close under operating loads is an example of such damage. The damage detection process can be significantly enhanced if one takes advantage of these nonlinear effects when extracting damage-sensitive features from measured data. This paper will provide an overview of nonlinear system identification techniques that are used for the feature extraction process. Specifically, three general approaches that apply nonlinear system identification techniques to the damage detection process are discussed. The first two approaches attempt to quantify the deviation of the system from its initial linear characteristics that is a direct result of damage. The third approach is to extract features from the data that are directly related to the specific nonlinearity associated with the damaged condition. To conclude this discussion, a summary of outstanding issues associated with the application of nonlinear system identification techniques to the SHM problem is presented.

  14. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  15. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Characterization Using the Noncollinear Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, A. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    The measurement of material non-linearity using ultrasound is an attractive concept, offering the potential to detect fatigue damage earlier than is possible with conventional techniques. Despite this advantage and much work in the field the currently developed approaches are primarily limited to the lab environment. This is due to the difficulty in separating the material nonlinearity from that generated by equipment. This paper reports on an approach that eliminates this problem. When two shear waves interact a third wave is generated due to the material nonlinearity. This paper shows how this interaction can be used to measure material properties in damaged specimens. It goes on to show that this approach can be used to make measurements of material non-linearity both across a specimen.

  16. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  17. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of car

  18. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    medium on the transmitted radiation WF;•  the lack of a reference source at the wavelength of trasnmitted laser radiation, which is required to implement methods for adaptive correction of the distorted WF;•  the unique to laser systems additional distorting factors available in transmission systems.These distorting factors include:• length of the optical path due to need in spatial diversity of high power laser source with a large number of matching optical elements;• thermal self-action of power laser radiation in the transport path of the radiation before its entry into forming optical system;• instability of spatio-temporal characteristics of the laser radiation source itself to take a turn for the worse conditions of radiation transmission both inside the optical path, and in the free atmosphere;• thermal irregularities and thermal deformation.It is shown that the adaptive systems differ from the active optics in that radiation wave front distortion is corrected in real time per totality of distorting factors (not only on the effect of the atmosphere with the speed ten times exceeding the effect of distortion itself. Here, the correction quality is estimated by criterion of the primary image quality.In this case, the correction continuously takes into account data about optical system parameters such as current space, temperature, time, and adjusting, thereby supporting the high quality of images under the action of distorting factors.The paper formulates and proposes the basic postulates of adaptive correction.Postulates are a set of statements and assertions, allowing us to implement effective means of adaptive correction of distortions.The paper also shows the real capabilities the methods and means of adaptive optics offer in case of efficient use of laser radiation power and what ways are possible to solve these tasks. First of all, these are:- forming a system of assumptions and minimization of distortions in the optical path, which includes a

  19. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  20. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jenkins, T.B. (Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from clean'' areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  1. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, T.B. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from ``clean`` areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  2. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 A Unified Nonlinear Feedback Functional Method for Study Both Control and Synchronization of Spatiotemporal Chaos Fang Jinqing Ali M. K. (Department of Physics, The University of Lethbridge,Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4,Canada) Two fundamental questions dominate future chaos control theories.The first is the problem of controlling hyperchaos in higher dimensional systems.The second question has yet to be addressed:the problem of controlling spatiotemporal chaos in a spatiotemporal system.In recent years, control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos and hyperchaos have became a much more important and challenging subject. The reason for this is the control and synchronism of such behaviours have extensive and great potential of interdisciplinary applications, such as security communication, information processing, medicine and so on. However, this subject is not much known and remains an outstanding open.

  4. Damage-mitigating control of mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael S.

    Damage-Mitigating Control is a field of research involving the integration of two distinct disciplines: Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. This dissertation presents a feedback control architecture for mechanical systems to achieve a tradeoff between dynamic performance and structural durability of critical plant components. The proposed damage-mitigating control system has a two-tier structure: (i) A lower-level linear output feedback controller for plant output tracking and stability robustness over a specified operating range; and (ii) An upper-level nonlinear feedback controller which takes advantage of the real-time information generated by a physics-based model of material damage. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods available for the design of linear tracking controllers are discussed. A robust sampled-data Hsbinfty controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine, similar to the Space Shuttle Main Engine, based on a 2-input/2-output, 20-state model. The mu-synthesis technique is used to design a robust sampled-data controller for a commercial-scale fossil-fueled power plant based on a 4-input/4-output, 27-state model. A procedure for the design of damage-mitigating linear tracking controllers is also presented. The concept of fuzzy control is used to synthesize upper-level nonlinear feedback controllers based on real-time damage information. Damage-mitigating controllers are designed for the reusable rocket engine and the fossil-fueled power plant. A major advantage of using the fuzzy method for damage-mitigating controller design is that the controller can be synthesized without directly dealing with the inherent nonlinearities of the damage model. Simulation results for the reusable rocket engine and the fossil-fueled power plant suggest that the fuzzy method of damage mitigation is a practical way to design damage controllers for mechanical systems. The damage controller parameter optimization method is presented as an

  5. Bi-variable damage model for fatigue life prediction of metal components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhang; Qing-Chun Meng; Xing Zhang; Wei-Ping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a bi-variable damage mechanics model is developed, which, according to thermodynamics, is accessible to derivation of damage driving force, damage evolution equation and damage evolution criteria. Furthermore, damage evolution equations of time rate are established by the generalized Drucker's postulate. The damage evolution equation of cycle rate is obtained by integrating the time damage evolution equations, and the fatigue life prediction method for smooth specimens under repeated loading with constant strain amplitude is constructed. Likewise, for notched specimens under the repeated loading with constant strain amplitude, the fatigue life prediction method is obtained on the ground of the theory of conservative integral in damage mechanics. Thus, the material parameters in the damage evolution equation can be obtained by reference to the fatigue test results of standard specimens with stress concentration factor equal to 1, 2 and 3.

  6. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  7. Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.

  8. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  9. Validação de um modelo de dano para a análise não-linear de estruturas em concreto armado = Validation of a damage model for the non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma discussão sobre a aplicabilidade de modelos de dano na análise não-linear física de estruturas em concreto armado, procurando, particularmente, validar a proposta de um modelo formulado recentemente por Pituba que compara as respostas numéricas obtidas com as respostas de modelos já testados, além de respostasexperimentais encontradas na literatura. O modelo proposto admite o concreto como meio inicialmente isótropo e que passa a apresentar deformações plásticas, bimodularidade e anisotropia induzidas pelo dano. Já o modelo proposto por Mazars considera o concreto como meio elástico e isótropo. Em seguida, apresenta-se a formulação do modelo proposto por La Borderie, que leva em conta deformações plásticas induzidas pelo dano e mantém a característica de isotropia do material. Na segunda parte do trabalho, os modelos são empregados na análise de vigas e pórtico em concreto armado, e as respostas numéricas são confrontadas com medidas experimentais. Os resultados evidenciam o bom desempenho dos modelos de dano e, em particular, valida-se o emprego do modelo proposto por Pituba nas situações estudadas. Observa-se ainda que formulações simples de modelos de danopara o concreto podem apresentar resultados bastante satisfatórios, dando margem para possíveis aplicações na prática da Engenharia de Estruturas.This work presents a discussion on the employment of a damage model recently proposed for concrete and other damage models in the non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures. The validation of the model is obtained by the comparison between numerical responses and experimental ones. The model proposed by Pituba regards concrete as an initially isotropic medium that starts to present plastic deformations, bimodularity and anisotropy induced by the damage. The model proposed by Mazars considers concrete to be an elastic and isotropic medium. Next, the model proposed by La Borderie is

  10. NONLINEAR EXPECTATIONS AND NONLINEAR MARKOV CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG SHIGE

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear expectations. The author obtains a nonlinear generalization of the well-known Kolmogorov's consistent theorem and then use it to construct filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations via nonlinear Markov chains. Compared to the author's previous results, i.e., the theory of g-expectations introduced via BSDE on a probability space, the present framework is not based on a given probability measure. Many fully nonlinear and singular situations are covered. The induced topology is a natural generalization of Lp-norms and L∞-norm in linear situations.The author also obtains the existence and uniqueness result of BSDE under this new framework and develops a nonlinear type of von Neumann-Morgenstern representation theorem to utilities and present dynamic risk measures.

  11. Remote Intelligent Identification System of Structural Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Wenbi; ZHANG Xiang; Bostrm Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to build the damage identify system, which performs "system identification" to detect the positions and extents of structural damages.The identification of structural damage can be characterized as a nonlinear process which linear prediction models such as linear regression are not suitable.However, neural network techniques may provide an effective tool for system identification.The method of damage identification using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is presented in this paper.Using this method, a simple reinforced concrete structure has been tested both in the absence and presence of noise.The results show that the RBFNN identification technology can be used with related success for the solution of dynamic damage identification problems, even in the presence of a noisy identify data.Furthermore, a remote identification system based on that is set up with Java Technologies.

  12. The TRIPS (Toll-like receptors in immuno-inflammatory pathogenesis) Hypothesis: a novel postulate to understand schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Debnath, Monojit

    2013-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that immune activation and/or immuno-inflammatory reactions during neurodevelopment apparently contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of schizophrenia. One of the important environmental factors that is known to trigger immune activation/inflammatory responses during early pregnancy is prenatal infection. Recent understanding from animal studies suggests that prenatal infection induced maternal immune activation (MIA)/inflammation in congruence with oxidative/nitrosative stress can lead to neurodevelopmental damage and behavioral abnormalities in the offspring. Although the underlying precise mechanistic processes of MIA/inflammation are yet to be completely elucidated, it is being increasingly recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that form the first line of defense against invading microorganisms could participate in the prenatal infection induced immune insults. Interestingly, some of the TLRs, especially TLR3 and TLR4 that modulate neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and neuronal plasticity by regulating the neuro-immune cross-talk in the developing and adult brain could also be affected by prenatal infection. Importantly, sustained activation of TLR3/TLR4 due to environmental factors including infection and stress has been found to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators during embryogenesis, which result into neuronal damage by necrosis/apoptosis. In recent times, ROS/RNS and immuno-inflammatory mediators are being increasingly linked to progressive brain changes in schizophrenia. Although a significant role of TLR3/TLR4 in neurodegeneration is gaining certainty, their importance in establishing a causal link between prenatal infection and immuno-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) responses and influence on adult presentation of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained. We review here the current knowledge generated from

  13. Fatigue damage propagation in unidirectional glass fibre reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Østergaard, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Damage progression in unidirectional glass fibre reinforced composites exposed to tension fatigue is investigated, and a quantitative explanation is given for the observed stiffness loss. The stiffness degradation during fatigue is directly related to fibre breaks in the load-carrying axial fibre...... needs further attention and understanding in order to improve the fatigue life-time of glass fibre reinforced composites....... bundles. The underlying mechanisms are examined using digital microscopy, and it is postulated that fatigue damage initiates due to stress concentrations between the backing (transverse) layer and the unidirectional layer, followed by a cyclic fretting and axial fibre debonding. This fretting mechanism...

  14. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  15. Earthquake Damage Assessment for RC Structures Based on Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A global damage index based on multiple linear force-deformation curves in pushover analysis is presented to evaluate the integrated damage of reinforced concrete structure. The modified coefficient is provided considering the cyclic load and hysteresis energy. The number of inelastic cycles and the coefficient of hysteresis energy concentration are also introduced as damage indices. Hence, multiple damage indices about displacement and energy for performance-based design are considered. The relation of multiple damage indices or factors and the fuzzy damage set is presented by comprehensive fuzzy evaluation; hence, a performance-based multiple fuzzy seismic damage-assessment method for reinforced concrete frame structures is established. The method can be accomplished based on pushover analysis, code spectrum, and capacity spectrum method. The fuzzy seismic damage-assessment method is verified through nonlinear analysis four different structures and the corresponding results and assessment conclusions are accurate.

  16. Homogenization-based multi-scale damage theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The research of modern mechanics reveals that the damage and failure of structures should be considered on different scales. The present paper is dedicated to establishing the multi-scale damage theory for the nonlinear structural analysis. Starting from the asymptotic expansion based homogenization theory, the multi-scale energy integration is proposed to bridge the gap between the micro and macro scales. By recalling the Helmholtz free energy based damage definition, the damage variable is represented by the multi-scale energy integration. Hence the damage evolution could be numerically simulated on the basis of the unit cell analysis rather than the experimental data identification. Finally the framework of the multi-scale damage theory is established by transforming the multi-scale damage evolution into the conventional continuum damage mechanics. The agree- ment between the simulated results and the benchmark results indicates the validity and effectiveness of the proposed theory.

  17. Dynamic Damage Model of Brittle Rock and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文学; 刘运通; 杨军; 黄风雷

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of shock-induced experiments and the ultrasonic tests of the damaged rocks, the damage evolution relation between the attenuation coefficient of sound wave and the damage dissipated energy is described. Based on the TCK and RDA models, a damage model which connects the shock compression and tensile damage is established. And then the damage model is implemented in LS-DYNA3D dynamic nonlinear program. Numerical simulation of deep-hole blasting of groove is studied by use of the damage model proposed. The rock damage evolution process and the distributing rules of stress field under the explosion load are described well fairly, which provides the theory basis for the engineering blasting design.

  18. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  19. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  20. Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Nishino, H; Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2002-01-01

    We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4 and 6 (mod 8).

  1. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  2. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  3. Identification of damage based on frequency response function (FRF data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman M. S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical joints, particularly fasteners such as bolted joints have a complex non-linear behaviour. The non-linearity might emerge from the material, geometry or by the contacts in the joints. However, damage to a structure can be happened either their connections or the material of components. The effect of damage can change the dynamic properties of the structure such as natural frequencies and mode shapes and structural performance and can cause premature failure to structure. This paper presents a damage detection method using a vibration based damage detection method based on the frequency response function (FRF data. A combination of numerical model and physical bolted jointed structure of damaged and undamaged structure will be investigated. The validation is employed to detect the presence of damage in the structure based on the frequency response function (FRF data from the parameter values used in the benchmark model and damaged model. The comparisons of the undamaged and damaged structure of the FRF have revealed the damaged structure was shifted from the undamaged structure. The effect of the FRF between undamaged and damaged structure is clearly affected by the reduction of stiffness for the damaged structure.

  4. Towards homoscedastic nonlinear cointegration for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolna, Konrad; Dao, Phong B.; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Barszcz, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the homoscedastic nonlinear cointegration. The method leads to stable variances in nonlinear cointegration residuals. The adapted Breusch-Pagan test procedure is developed to test for the presence of heteroscedasticity (or homoscedasticity) in the cointegration residuals obtained from the nonlinear cointegration analysis. Three different time series - i.e. one with a nonlinear quadratic deterministic trend, simulated vibration data and experimental wind turbine data - are used to illustrate the application of the proposed method. The proposed approach can be used for effective removal of nonlinear trends from various types of data and for reliable structural damage detection based on data that are corrupted by environmental and/or operational nonlinear trends.

  5. PBH tests for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Recently, concepts of nonlinear eigenvalues and eigenvectors are introduced. In this paper, we establish connections between the nonlinear eigenvalues and nonlinear accessibility/observability. In particular, we provide a generalization of Popov- Belevitch-Hautus (PBH) test to nonlinear accessibilit

  6. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  7. Characterization of nonlinear ultrasonic effects using the dynamic wavelet fingerprint technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongtao; Jiao, Jingpin; Meng, Xiangji; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    An improved dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) technique was developed to characterize nonlinear ultrasonic effects. The white area in the fingerprint was used as the nonlinear feature to quantify the degree of damage. The performance of different wavelet functions, the effect of scale factor and white subslice ratio on the nonlinear feature extraction were investigated, and the optimal wavelet function, scale factor and white subslice ratio for maximum damage sensitivity were determined. The proposed DWFP method was applied to the analysis of experimental signals obtained from nonlinear ultrasonic harmonic and wave-mixing experiments. It was demonstrated that the proposed DWFP method can be used to effectively extract nonlinear features from the experimental signals. Moreover, the proposed nonlinear fingerprint coefficient was sensitive to micro cracks and correlated well with the degree of damage.

  8. Damage modelling in plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)], E-mail: martin@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France); Schlosser, J.; Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2009-04-30

    The plasma facing components of controlled fusion devices are submitted to high heat fluxes in operating conditions (from 10 to 20 MW/m{sup 2}). These components are made of a carbon/carbon composite tile bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. Due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the composite and the copper alloy, significant stresses may develop during fabrication and under heat load inducing damage in the composite material as well as at the copper/composite interface. The present study describes a modelling approach aimed at predicting damage development in plasma facing components. For this purpose, damage laws related to the non-linear behaviour of both the composite material and the copper/composite joint have been identified. These constitutive laws were then introduced in a numerical model representative of a plasma facing component. Results show the development of damage within the assembly submitted to a heat load.

  9. Fracture mechanics based assessment of postulated flaws in the nozzle region of RPV-KKS under loss of coolant accidents; Bruchmechanische Bewertung von postulierten Fehlern im Stutzenbereich des RDB-KKS bei Kuehlmittelverlust-Stoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, D.; Hodulak, L.; Varfolomeyev, I. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Nagel, G. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany). Hauptverwaltung

    1998-11-01

    Safety assessment of reactor components has to encompass the nozzles, as in the event of a LOCA, the nozzle areas are subject to heavy thermal stresses due to the low temperature there of the cooling agent. The paper refers to three-dimensional, elasto-plastic FEM analyses of the integer RPV and calculations of the J-integral for various crack locations and geometries, for derivation of realistic transients. The J-integral and K values calculated with FEM have been compared with stress intensity factors determined by means of enhanced analytical methods. Calculations for description of the integer nozzle yield plastifications in the cladded and the ferritic areas, so that the K concept of linear-elastic fracture mechanics is restricted in applicability. For postulated cracks beneath the integer cladding, J-integral values are determined which are below the initiating value J{sub 1} of the material used, which excludes crack initiation. For the largest postulated, 20 mm deep surface crack and through-cladding damage, a crack growth of 0.1 mm is derived according to the crack resistance curve. The analytical method for calculating the stress intensity factors has been expanded to also include application to evaluation of nozzle edge cracks under the cladding. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Bei der sicherheitstechnischen Bewertung von Reaktorkomponenten sind auch die Stutzen zu beruecksichtigen, da der Stutzenbereich bei Kuehlmittelverlust-Faellen, bedingt durch die dort vorliegenden tiefen Temperaturen des Kuehlmediums, hohen thermischen Beanspruchungen ausgesetzt ist. Fuer realistische Transienten werden dreidimensionale, elastisch-plastische FEM-Analysen fuer den integren RDB und Berechnungen des J-Integrals fuer verschiedene Risslagen und Rissgeometrien durchgefuehrt. Die mit FEM berechneten J-Integral- und K-Werte werden mit nach weiterentwickelten analytischen Methoden ermittelten Spannungsintensitaetsfatoren verglichen. Die Berechnungen fuer den integren Stutzen ergeben

  10. Development of the CELVA-1D code to evaluate the safety of an air-ventilation system during postulated fire and explosion in the reprocessing plant. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Gunji; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kouno, Kouji; Yamazaki, Noboru; Mukaide, Shigeo; Yoshioka, Itsuo

    1998-03-01

    The CELVA-1D computer code was developed to evaluate the confinement of radioactive materials during postulated fire and explosion in a cell of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The CELVA-1D code calculates a response of temperature, pressure, flow velocity of fluid in an air-ventilation system of the plants by one-dimensional thermofluid analysis and calculates an ability to confine radioactive aerosol particles by transport, deposition, and HEPA filtration. The mathematical models in CELVA-1D were verified by comparison of the calculation with the result of JAERI`s demonstration tests simulating hypothetical fire and explosion accidents in the cell. (author)

  11. A decreased subchondral trabecular bone tissue elastic modulus is associated with pre-arthritic cartilage damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, J; Ding, Ming; van der Linden, JC

    2001-01-01

    In osteoarthritis, one postulate is that changes in the mechanical properties of the subchondral bone layer result in cartilage damage. The goal of this study was to examine changes in subchondral trabecular bone properties at the calcified tissue level in the early stages of cartilage damage....... Finite element models were constructed from microCT scans of trabectilar bone from the proximal tibia of donors with mild cartilage damage and from normal donors. In the donors with cartilage damage, macroscopic damage was present only in the medial compartment. The effective tissue elastic moduli were...... determined using a combination of finite element models and mechanical testing. The bone tissue modulus was reduced by 60% in the medial condyle of the cases with cartilage damage compared to the control specimens. Neither the presence of cartilage damage nor the anatomic site (medial vs. lateral) affected...

  12. Photothermal damage prediction of laser interstitial thermotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Li; Shifu Fan; Youquan Zhao

    2006-01-01

    An improved scattering optical model was developed under cylindrical coordinate to simulate the thermaleffect of diffusing applicator in laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). The thermal damage was calculatedby finite element method (FEM) using Pennes bio-heat transfer equation and Arrhenius injury integralformula. The numerical results showed that the scattering can considerably influence the evaluation of thelesion area, and the relationship between application powers or time and resulting tissue thermal damagewas nonlinear. Although usually applying relatively low power can avoid tissue charring, rather higherpower is recommended because it is indispensable to achieve necessary damage threshold and the therapytime can be shortened.

  13. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonella Fiacca; Nikolaos Matzakos; Nikolaos S Papageorgiou; Raffaella Servadei

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all $\\mathbb{R}$. Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower solution, we prove the existence of a solution between them. Also for a special version of the problem, we prove the existence of extremal solutions in the order interval formed by the upper and lower solutions. Then we drop the requirement that the monotone nonlinearity is defined on all of $\\mathbb{R}$. This case is important because it covers variational inequalities. Using the theory of operators of monotone type we show that the problem has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth locally Lipschitz functionals we prove the existence of at least two nontrivial solutions (multiplicity theorem).

  14. Non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete plates by the boundary element method and continuum damage mechanics = Análise não-linear de placas em concreto armado pelo método dos elementos de contorno e mecânica do dano contínuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rezende Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, non-linear analyses of reinforced concrete plates are performed by using a BEM formulation, based on Kirchhoff’s theory, which has already proved to be a robust technique to deal with plate problems. The non-linear behavior of concrete is modeled by theMazars model, which is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM and has an easy parametric identification, while the reinforcement is governed by the uniaxial elasto-plastic model with constant hardening. Initially, the different types of damage models and their parametric identification are discussed and the Mazars model is presented. Then the BEM formulation is discussed, which is based on the initial moment technique, where the remaining domain integralsare evaluated by approaching the initial moment field over internal cells. The stress distribution over the plate thickness is obtained by using a Gauss scheme in which the adopted criterion is verified ineach Gauss point defined along the plate. Then, the internal values of moments are approached by numerical integrals along the plate thickness. Finally, some numerical examples of reinforced concrete plates are analyzed, where the potentiality of the Mazars model is verified despite the difficulties of the parametric identification.Nesse trabalho são feitas análises nãolineares de placas de concreto armado,utilizando-se uma formulação do MEC (método dos elementos de contorno baseada nas hipóteses de Kirchhoff. O modelo constitutivo adotado para o concreto é o modelo proposto por Mazars baseado na Mecânica do da Dano Contínuo (MDC, sendo o comportamento não-linear das armaduras governado pelo modelo elastoplástico comencruamento isótropo. Justifica-se a escolha de tal modelo numérico pela simplicidade paramétrica do modelo de dano e pela robustez do MEC, que já provou ser eficiente na análise de placas. Inicialmente, apresenta-se uma revisão dos tipos de modelos de dano e suas implicações na identifica

  15. On Elastoplastic Damage Modelling in Unsaturated Geomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pense, Solenn; Gatmiri, Behrouz; Pouya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the context of nuclearwaste disposal, the modelling of the behaviour of host rocks and soils still needs improvement.Unsaturated porous geomaterials exhibit particular behaviourwhen exposed to suction. Their non-linear behaviour may result fromtwo different processes, plasticity which induces irreversible strains and damage which causes a deterioration of their elastic properties. Many elasto-plastic models are now available for unsaturated soils, most of them based...

  16. Modelling of the tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Abner Duarte; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Cunha, Tatiana Santos da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models to simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a Candu reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. The Candu reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA accident (without fusion), where was lost 66 m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 P Bq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped or operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3}) during the first 14 days after the accident. (author)

  17. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena P Trenado

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV, Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV. Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06 of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  18. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  19. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Hankel operator are studied and yield promising results.

  20. Nonlinear functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Fouché

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss some aspects of nonlinear functional analysis. It included reviews of Banach’s contraction theorem, Schauder’s fixed point theorem, globalising techniques and applications of homotopy theory to nonlinear functional analysis. The author emphasises that fundamentally new ideas are required in order to achieve a better understanding of phenomena which contain both nonlinear and definite infinite dimensional features.

  1. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...

  2. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  3. Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-12-08

    We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  4. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  5. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2007-12-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Králik, Juraj, E-mail: juraj.kralik@stuba.sk [Faculty of Civil Engineering, STU in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava (Slovakia); Králik, Juraj, E-mail: kralik@fa.stuba.sk [Faculty of Architecture, STU in Bratislava, Námestie Slobody 19, 812 45 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-06-08

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  8. Nonlinear imaging (NIM) of flaws in a complex composite stiffened panel using a constructive nonlinear array (CNA) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfense Fierro, Gian Piero; Meo, Michele

    2017-02-01

    Recently, there has been high interest in the capabilities of nonlinear ultrasound techniques for damage/defect detection as these techniques have been shown to be quite accurate in imaging some particular type of damage. This paper presents a Constructive Nonlinear Array (CNA) method, for the detection and imaging of material defects/damage in a complex composite stiffened panel. CNA requires the construction of an ultrasound array in a similar manner to standard phased arrays systems, which require multiple transmitting and receiving elements. The method constructively phase-match multiple captured signals at a particular position given multiple transmit positions, similar to the total focusing method (TFM) method. Unlike most of the ultrasonic linear techniques, a longer excitation signal was used to achieve a steady-state excitation at each capturing position, so that compressive and tensile stress at defect/crack locations increases the likelihood of the generation of nonlinear elastic waves. Moreover, the technique allows the reduction of instrumentation nonlinear wave generation by relying on signal attenuation to naturally filter these errors. Experimental tests were carried out on a stiffened panel with manufacturing defects. Standard industrial linear ultrasonic test were carried out for comparison. The proposed new method allows to image damages/defects in a reliable and reproducible manner and overcomes some of the main limitations of nonlinear ultrasound techniques. In particular, the effectiveness and robustness of CNA and the advantages over linear ultrasonic were clearly demonstrated allowing a better resolution and imaging of complex and realistic flaws.

  9. Conditioning-induced elastic nonlinearity in hysteretic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, A. S.; Scalerandi, M.; Antonaci, P.; Bruno, C. L. E.

    2010-08-01

    The definition and measurement of the nonlinear elastic properties of a sample is of great importance for a large number of applications, including characterization of material performances and damage detection. However, such measurements are often influenced by spurious effects due to a combination of nonlinearity and nonequilibrium phenomena. We will present experimental data to show how nonlinearity due to small cracks in concrete samples increases as a consequence of conditioning, i.e., after having perturbed them with a constant amplitude excitation. In addition, our experimental data highlight "memory effects," i.e., they show that when the excitation is removed, the elastic modulus does not return instantaneously to the initial value.

  10. Simulating of marble subjected to uni-axial loading using index-parabola damage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温世游; 李夕兵; 骆达成

    2001-01-01

    The limitations of several existing classical rock damage models were critically appraised. Thereafter, a description of a new model to estimate the response of rock was provided. The results of an investigation lead to the development and confirmation of a new index-parabola damage model. The new model is divided into two parts, fictitious damage and real damage and bordered by the critical damage point. In fictitious damage, the damage variable follows the index distribution, while in the real damage a parabolic distribution is used. Thus, the so-called index-parabola damage model is derived. The proposed damage model is applied to simulate the damage procedure of marble under uni-axial loading. The results of the tests show that the proposed model is in excellent agreement with experimental data, in particular the nonlinear characteristic of rock deformation is adequately represented.

  11. Static and Dynamic Damage Analysis of Mass Concrete in Hydropower House of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马震岳; 张存慧

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes a 3D numerical model for 15# hydropower house of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) and performs a nonlinear static and dynamic damage analysis. In this numerical model, a coupling model of finite and infinite elements for simulating infinite foundation of hydropower station is adopted. A plastic-damage model based on continuum damage mechanics, which includes the softening and damage behavior under tension is considered for the concrete material. The dynamic equilibrium equations of moti...

  12. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  13. Nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  14. Estimating nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, S. A.

    1988-03-01

    Time and frequency domain identification methods for nonlinear systems are reviewed. Parametric methods, prediction error methods, structure detection, model validation, and experiment design are discussed. Identification of a liquid level system, a heat exchanger, and a turbocharge automotive diesel engine are illustrated. Rational models are introduced. Spectral analysis for nonlinear systems is treated. Recursive estimation is mentioned.

  15. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Korytowski, A; Malanowski, K; Mitkowski, W; Szymkat, M

    2009-01-01

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain

  16. Engineered nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.

    1999-01-01

    We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...

  17. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  18. Nonlinear Maneuver Autopilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.

  19. Modelling of tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Abner Duarte

    2010-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. This exercise was accomplished with the aid of a code system (SisBAHIA) developed in the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE/UFRJ). The CANDU reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus (without fusion), where was lost 66 m{sup 3} of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped and operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3} ) during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x10{sup 9} to 5x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3} close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m{sup 3}). (author)

  20. Nonlinear modeling of neural population dynamics for hippocampal prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa H.M.; Vasilis Z Marmarelis; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.

    2009-01-01

    Developing a neural prosthesis for the damaged hippocampus requires restoring the transformation of population neural activities performed by the hippocampal circuitry. To bypass a damaged region, output spike trains need to be predicted from the input spike trains and then reinstated through stimulation. We formulate a multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear dynamic model for the input–output transformation of spike trains. In this approach, a MIMO model comprises a series of physio...

  1. Numerical Analysis of the Dynamics of Nonlinear Solids and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    of the conservation/ dissipation properties in time for the elastoplastic case 64 11.6. Concluding remarks 70 References 71 li...development of stable time-stepping algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. The focus was on inelastic solids, including finite strain elastoplastic and...set of plas- tic/ damage evolution equations (usually of a unilaterally constrained character due to the presence of the so-called yield/ damage

  2. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  3. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  4. Nonlinear cochlear mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, George

    2016-05-01

    An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of notched cracks in mortars by nonlinear ultrasonic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ren, Jun; Yin, Tingyuan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear ultrasonic technique is used to nondestructively characterise concentrated defects in cement-based materials. Cracks are artificially notched in mortar samples and five different crack widths are used to simulate increased damage of samples. The relative ratio of second harmonic amplitude to the square of fundamental ultrasonic signal amplitude is defined as the damage indicator of the nonlinear ultrasonic technique, which is measured for mortar samples in conjunction with a typical linear nondestructive evaluation parameter - ultrasonic pulse velocity. It is found that both linear and nonlinear damage parameters have a good correlation with the change of crack width, while the nonlinearity parameter shows a better sensitivity to the width increase. In addition, the nonlinearity parameter presents an exponential increase with the crack growth, indicating an accelerating nonlinear ultrasonic response of materials to increased internal damage in the late phase. The results demonstrate that the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on the second harmonic principle keeps the high sensitivity to the isolated cracks in cement-based materials, similarly to the case of distributed cracks in previous studies. The developed technique could thus be a useful experimental tool for the assessment of concentrated damage of concrete structures.

  6. Coupling of plasticity and damage in glass fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnes H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the nonlinear stress-strain response in glass fibre reinforced polymer composite laminates. Loading and unloading of these laminates indicate that the nonlinear response is caused by both damage and plasticity. A user defined material model is implemented in the finite element code LS-DYNA. The damage evolution is based on the Puck failure criterion [1], and the plastic behaviour is based on the quadratic Hill yield criterion for anisotropic materials [2].

  7. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2001-01-01

    The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical

  8. Will Nonlinear Backcalculation Help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    2000-01-01

    demonstrates, that treating the subgrade as a nonlinear elastic material, can result in more realistic moduli and a much better agreement between measured and calculated stresses and strains.The response of nonlinear elastic materials can be calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM). A much simpler...... approach is to use the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (MET), modified for a nonlinear subgrade. The paper includes an example where moduli backcalculated using FEM, linear elastic theory and MET are compared. Stresses and strains predicted by the three methods are also compared to measured values...

  9. Nonlinear graphene metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Luo, Zhiqiang; Shen, Ze Xiang; De Angelis, Francesco; Boden, Stuart A; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that the broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene can be resonantly enhanced by more than an order of magnitude through hybridization with a plasmonic metamaterial,while retaining an ultrafast nonlinear response time of ~1 ps. Transmission modulation close to ~1% is seen at a pump uence of ~0.03 mJ/cm^2 at the wavelength of ~1600 nm. This approach allows to engineer and enhance graphene's nonlinearity within a broad wavelength range enabling applications in optical switching, mode-locking and pulse shaping.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  11. DAMAGE MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF 2D 1 × 1 BRAIDED COMPOSITES UNDER UNIDIRECTIONAL TENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 许希武; 陈康

    2013-01-01

    Coupling with the periodical displacement boundary condition ,a representative volume element (RVE) model is established to simulate the progressive damage behavior of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites under unidirection-al tension by using the nonlinear finite element method .Tsai-Wu failure criterion with various damage modes and Mises criterion are considered for predicting damage initiation and progression of yarns and matrix .The anisotropic damage model for yarns and the isotropic damage model for matrix are used to simulate the microscopic damage propagation of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites .Murakami′s damage tensor is adopted to characterize each damage mode .In the simulation process ,the damage mechanisms are revealed and the tensile strength of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites is predicted from the calculated average stress-average strain curve . Numerical results show good agreement with experimental data ,thus the proposed simulation method is verified for damage mechanism analysis of 2D braided composites .

  12. SPALLATION ANALYSIS WITH A CLOSED TRANS-SCALE FORMULATION OF DAMAGE EVOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiying; BAI Yilong; XIA Mengfen; KE Fujiu

    2004-01-01

    A closed, trans-scale formulation of damage evolution based on the statistical microdamage mechanics is summarized in this paper. The dynamic function of damage bridges the mesoscopic and macroscopic evolution of damage. The spallation in an aluminium plate is studied with this formulation. It is found that the damage evolution is governed by several dimensionless parameters,i.e., imposed Deborah numbers De* and De, Mach number M and damage number S. In particular,the most critical mode of the macroscopic damage evolution, i.e., the damage localization, is determined by Deborah number De*. Deborah number De* reflects the coupling and competition between the macroscopic loading and the microdamage growth. Therefore, our results reveal the multi-scale nature of spallation. In fact, the damage localization results from the nonlinearity of the microdamage growth. In addition, the dependence of the damage rate on imposed Deborah numbers De* and De,Mach number M and damage number S is discussed.

  13. A thermodynamic approach to nonlinear ultrasonics for material state awareness and prognosis

    CERN Document Server

    Chillara, Vamshi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We develop a thermodynamic framework for modeling nonlinear ultrasonic damage sensing and prognosis in materials undergoing progressive damage. The framework is based on the internal variable approach and relies on the construction of a pseudo-elastic strain energy function that captures the energetics associated with the damage progression. The pseudo-elastic strain energy function is composed of two energy functions - one that describes how a material stores energy in an elastic fashion and the other describes how material dissipates energy or stores it in an inelastic fashion. Experimental motivation for the choice of the above two functionals is discussed and some specific choices pertaining to damage progression during fatigue and creep are presented. The thermodynamic framework is employed to model the nonlinear response of material undergoing stress relaxation and creep-like degradation. For each of the above cases, evolution of the nonlinearity parameter with damage as well as with macroscopic measura...

  14. 1.45 A resolution crystal structure of recombinant PNP in complex with a pM multisubstrate analogue inhibitor bearing one feature of the postulated transition state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnowski, Grzegorz [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); Breer, Katarzyna; Narczyk, Marta; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Czapinska, Honorata [International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); Hashimoto, Mariko; Hikishima, Sadao; Yokomatsu, Tsutomu [School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Bochtler, Matthias [International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); Schools of Chemistry and Biosciences, Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. 108, 01309 Dresden (Germany); Girstun, Agnieszka; Staron, Krzysztof [Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw (Poland); Bzowska, Agnieszka, E-mail: abzowska@biogeo.uw.edu.pl [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-01-01

    Low molecular mass purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs, E.C. 2.4.2.1) are homotrimeric enzymes that are tightly inhibited by immucillins. Due to the positive charge on the ribose like part (iminoribitol moiety) and protonation of the N7 atom of the purine ring, immucillins are believed to act as transition state analogues. Over a wide range of concentrations, immucillins bind with strong negative cooperativity to PNPs, so that only every third binding site of the enzyme is occupied (third-of-the-sites binding). 9-(5',5'-difluoro-5'-phosphonopentyl)-9-deazaguanine (DFPP-DG) shares with immucillins the protonation of the N7, but not the positive charge on the ribose like part of the molecule. We have previously shown that DFPP-DG interacts with PNPs with subnanomolar inhibition constant. Here, we report additional biochemical experiments to demonstrate that the inhibitor can be bound with the same K{sub d} ({approx}190 pM) to all three substrate binding sites of the trimeric PNP, and a crystal structure of PNP in complex with DFPP-DG at 1.45 A resolution, the highest resolution published for PNPs so far. The crystals contain the full PNP homotrimer in the asymmetric unit. DFPP-DG molecules are bound in superimposable manner and with full occupancies to all three PNP subunits. Thus the postulated third-of-the-sites binding of immucillins should be rather attribute to the second feature of the transition state, ribooxocarbenium ion character of the ligand or to the coexistence of both features characteristic for the transition state. The DFPP-DG/PNP complex structure confirms the earlier observations, that the loop from Pro57 to Gly66 covering the phosphate-binding site cannot be stabilized by phosphonate analogues. The loop from Glu250 to Gln266 covering the base-binding site is organized by the interactions of Asn243 with the Hoogsteen edge of the purine base of analogues bearing one feature of the postulated transition state (protonated N7 position).

  15. A model for the release, dispersion and environmental impact of a postulated reactor accident from a submerged commercial nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, Timothy Creston

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear power plants are inherently suitable for submerged applications and could provide power to the shore power grid or support future underwater applications. The technology exists today and the construction of a submerged commercial nuclear power plant may become desirable. A submerged reactor is safer to humans because the infinite supply of water for heat removal, particulate retention in the water column, sedimentation to the ocean floor and inherent shielding of the aquatic environment would significantly mitigate the effects of a reactor accident. A better understanding of reactor operation in this new environment is required to quantify the radioecological impact and to determine the suitability of this concept. The impact of release to the environment from a severe reactor accident is a new aspect of the field of marine radioecology. Current efforts have been centered on radioecological impacts of nuclear waste disposal, nuclear weapons testing fallout and shore nuclear plant discharges. This dissertation examines the environmental impact of a severe reactor accident in a submerged commercial nuclear power plant, modeling a postulated site on the Atlantic continental shelf adjacent to the United States. This effort models the effects of geography, decay, particle transport/dispersion, bioaccumulation and elimination with associated dose commitment. The use of a source term equivalent to the release from Chernobyl allows comparison between the impacts of that accident and the postulated submerged commercial reactor plant accident. All input parameters are evaluated using sensitivity analysis. The effect of the release on marine biota is determined. Study of the pathways to humans from gaseous radionuclides, consumption of contaminated marine biota and direct exposure as contaminated water reaches the shoreline is conducted. The model developed by this effort predicts a significant mitigation of the radioecological impact of the reactor accident release

  16. Multipolar nonlinear nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field with many useful applications for a design of nonlinear nanoantennas, light sources, nanolasers, sensors, and ultrafast miniature metadevices. A tight confinement of the local electromagnetic fields in resonant photonic nanostructures can boost nonlinear optical effects, thus offering versatile opportunities for subwavelength control of light. To achieve the desired functionalities, it is essential to gain flexible control over the near- and far-field properties of nanostructures. Thus, both modal and multipolar analyses are widely exploited for engineering nonlinear scattering from resonant nanoscale elements, in particular for enhancing the near-field interaction, tailoring the far-field multipolar interference, and optimization of the radiation directionality. Here, we review the recent advances in this recently emerged research field ranging from metallic structures exhibiting localized plasmonic resonances to hybrid metal-dielectric and all-dielectric...

  17. Solitons in nonlinear lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a comprehensive survey of results obtained for solitons and complex nonlinear wave patterns supported by purely nonlinear lattices (NLs), which represent a spatially periodic modulation of the local strength and sign of the nonlinearity, and their combinations with linear lattices. A majority of the results obtained, thus far, in this field and reviewed in this article are theoretical. Nevertheless, relevant experimental settings are surveyed too, with emphasis on perspectives for implementation of the theoretical predictions in the experiment. Physical systems discussed in the review belong to the realms of nonlinear optics (including artificial optical media, such as photonic crystals, and plasmonics) and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). The solitons are considered in one, two, and three dimensions (1D, 2D, and 3D). Basic properties of the solitons presented in the review are their existence, stability, and mobility. Although the field is still far from completion, general conclusions c...

  18. Nonlinear plasmonic antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeeb Bin Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to traditional optical elements, plasmonic antennas made from nanostructured metals permit the localization of electromagnetic fields on length scales much smaller than the wavelength of light. This results in huge amplitudes for the electromagnetic field close to the antenna being conducive for the observation of nonlinear effects already at moderate pump powers. Thus, these antennas exhibit a promising potential to achieve optical frequency conversion and all-optical control of light at the nano-scale. This opens unprecedented opportunities for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, sensing devices, on-chip optical frequency conversion, nonlinear optical metamaterials, and novel photon sources. Here, we review some of the recent advances in exploiting the potential of plasmonic antennas to realize robust nonlinear applications.

  19. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  20. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    and remains the prime source of energy in non-terrestrial applications such as those in sky-explorers. However, a renewable energy source is expensive, bulky, and its performance is weather dependent, which make testing of downstream converters very difficult. As a result, a nonlinear source emulator (NSE......) is a good solution to solve the problems associated with the use of real nonlinear sources in testing phases. However, a recent technical survey conducted during this work shows that most existing NSEs have only been concerned with simulating nonlinear systems in terrestrial applications. Furthermore......, their dynamic performance were not fast enough in order to imitate how a real nonlinear energy source would react under extreme conditions and operation modes. Particularly, a system in the sky can experience a step change of sunlight irradiation. Moreover, operation modes may include load step between nominal...

  1. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  2. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  3. Optimization under Nonlinear Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In this paper a timesaving method is proposed for maximizing likelihood functions when the parameter space is subject to nonlinear constraints, expressible as second order polynomials. The suggested approach is especially attractive when dealing with systems with many parameters.

  4. Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro-and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems development....... These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024304....... In this article, we report the first highly controlled measurements of the nonlinear response of nanomechanical cantilevers using an ultralinear detection system. This is performed for an extensive range of devices to probe the validity of Euler-Bernoulli theory in the nonlinear regime. We find that its...

  5. Nonlinear Stokes Mueller Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Samim, Masood; Barzda, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    The Stokes Mueller polarimetry is generalized to include nonlinear optical processes such as second- and third-harmonic generation, sum- and difference-frequency generations. The overall algebraic form of the polarimetry is preserved, where the incoming and outgoing radiations are represented by column vectors and the intervening medium is represented by a matrix. Expressions for the generalized nonlinear Stokes vector and the Mueller matrix are provided in terms of coherency and correlation matrices, expanded by higher-dimensional analogues of Pauli matrices. In all cases, the outgoing radiation is represented by the conventional $4\\times 1$ Stokes vector, while dimensions of the incoming radiation Stokes vector and Mueller matrix depend on the order of the process being examined. In addition, relation between nonlinear susceptibilities and the measured Mueller matrices are explicitly provided. Finally, the approach of combining linear and nonlinear optical elements is discussed within the context of polarim...

  6. Adaptive and Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-29

    in [22], we also applied the concept of zero dynamics to the problem of exact linearization of a nonlinear control system by dynamic feedback. Exact ...nonlinear systems, although it was well-known that the conditions for exact linearization are very stringent and consequently do not apply to a broad...29th IEEE Conference n Decision and Control, Invited Paper delivered by Dr. Gilliam. Exact Linearization of Zero Dynamics, 29th IEEE Conference on

  7. Nonlinear Optics and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    currently at Queen Mary College, London Patrick Dunne, (Ph.D., 1987, M.I.T., Hydrodynamic Stability, Nonlinear Waves), 1987-1988. Alecsander Dyachenko...U I I I U I I 3 9 3 V. BIOGRAPHIES A. FACULTY BRUCE BAYLY, 31, Ph.D. 1986, Princeton University. Postdoctoral visiting member 1986-88 at Courant...Caputo, A. C. Newell, and M. Shelley , "Nonlinear Wave Propagation Through a Random Medium and Soliton Tunneling", Integrable Systems and

  8. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  9. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  10. Nonlinear systems in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P

    2002-01-01

    Many achievements in medicine have come from applying linear theory to problems. Most current methods of data analysis use linear models, which are based on proportionality between two variables and/or relationships described by linear differential equations. However, nonlinear behavior commonly occurs within human systems due to their complex dynamic nature; this cannot be described adequately by linear models. Nonlinear thinking has grown among physiologists and physicians over the past century, and non-linear system theories are beginning to be applied to assist in interpreting, explaining, and predicting biological phenomena. Chaos theory describes elements manifesting behavior that is extremely sensitive to initial conditions, does not repeat itself and yet is deterministic. Complexity theory goes one step beyond chaos and is attempting to explain complex behavior that emerges within dynamic nonlinear systems. Nonlinear modeling still has not been able to explain all of the complexity present in human systems, and further models still need to be refined and developed. However, nonlinear modeling is helping to explain some system behaviors that linear systems cannot and thus will augment our understanding of the nature of complex dynamic systems within the human body in health and in disease states.

  11. Handbook of nonlinear optical crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Valentin G; Nikogosyan, David N

    1991-01-01

    This Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals provides a complete description of the properties and applications of nonlinear crystals In addition, it presents the most important equations for calculating the main parameters of nonlinear frequency converters This comprehensive reference work will be of great value to all scientists and engineers working in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser physics

  12. Health information seeking and scanning among US adults aged 50-75 years: Testing a key postulate of the information overload model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Liu, Miao; Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Krakow, Melinda; Sun, Ye

    2017-06-01

    Past research has found that older US adults (aged 50-75 years) exhibit high levels of cancer information overload and cancer worry; however, no study to date has examined whether these perceptions are related to information seeking/scanning. To explore this relationship, older adults ( N = 209, Mage = 55.56, SD = 4.24) were recruited to complete a survey measuring seeking, scanning, cancer information overload, and cancer worry. Most participants were high-scan/seekers (40.2%) followed by low-scan/seekers (21.1%), high-scan/no seekers (19.6%), and low-scan/no seekers (19.1%). Low-scan/no seekers had significantly higher cancer information overload compared to all other groups, consistent with the postulate that overload and seeking/scanning are negatively related. Low-scan/no seekers and high-scan/seekers both exhibited higher cancer worry severity, consistent with past research suggesting that cancer worry explains high levels of activity/inactivity.

  13. O problema da intuição intelectual enquanto postulado prático em Fichte [The problem of intellectual intuition as a practical postulate in Fichte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Martins Cecim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Na Modernidade, o idealista alemão Fichte reconstrói o conceito de intuição intelectual não mais em termos de um procedimento teórico-reflexivo que visa o conhecimento da pretensa coisa-em-si, mas em termos de uma intuição de cunho prático, a partir do conceito kantiano de postulado prático, o que acaba por refletir a primazia da liberdade da razão prática sobre a razão teórica, tendo em vista a impossibilidade de conhecermos as realidades absolutas. Não obstante, essa intuição é problemática por não tratar de uma realidade objetiva, mas tão somente de uma subjetividade autorreflexiva. [In Modernity, the German idealist Fichte reconstructs the intellectual intuition not in terms of a theoretical-reflexive procedure that aims at the pretense knowledge of the thing-in-itself, but in terms of a practical-oriented intuition, from the Kantian concept of practical postulate, which ultimately reflects the priority of freedom in the practical reason over the theoretical reason, taking into account the impossibility of knowing the absolute realities. Nevertheless, this intuition is problematic, for it does not concern an objective reality, but only a self-reflected subjectivity

  14. Clustered DNA damages induced in human hematopoietic cells by low doses of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Betsy M.; Bennett, Paula V.; Cintron-Torres, Nela; Hada, Megumi; Trunk, John; Monteleone, Denise; Sutherland, John C.; Laval, Jacques; Stanislaus, Marisha; Gewirtz, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces clusters of DNA damages--oxidized bases, abasic sites and strand breaks--on opposing strands within a few helical turns. Such damages have been postulated to be difficult to repair, as are double strand breaks (one type of cluster). We have shown that low doses of low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induce such damage clusters in human cells. In human cells, DSB are about 30% of the total of complex damages, and the levels of DSBs and oxidized pyrimidine clusters are similar. The dose responses for cluster induction in cells can be described by a linear relationship, implying that even low doses of ionizing radiation can produce clustered damages. Studies are in progress to determine whether clusters can be produced by mechanisms other than ionizing radiation, as well as the levels of various cluster types formed by low and high LET radiation.

  15. Oxidative stress damage as a detrimental factor in preterm birth pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar eMenon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal term and spontaneous preterm births (PTB are documented to be associated with oxidative stress (OS, and imbalances in the redox system (balance between pro- and antioxidant have been reported in the maternal-fetal intrauterine compartments. The exact mechanism of labor initiation either at term or preterm by OS is still unclear, and this lack of understanding can partially be blamed for failure of antioxidant supplementation trials in PTB prevention. Based on recent findings from our laboratory, we postulate heterogeneity in host OS response. The physiologic (at term and pathophysiologic (preterm pathways of labor are not mediated by OS alone but by OS-induced damage to intrauterine tissues, especially fetal membranes of the placenta. OS damage affects all major cellular elements in the fetal cells, and this damage promotes fetal cell senescence (aging. The aging of the fetal cells are predominated by p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38MAPK pathways. Senescing cells generate biomolecular signals that are uterotonic, triggering labor process. The aging of fetal cells is normal at term. However, aging is premature in PTB, especially in those PTBs complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM, where elements of redox imbalances and OS damage are more dominant. We postulate that fetal cell senescence signals generated by OS damage are likely triggers for labor. This review highlights the mechanisms involved in senescence development at term and preterm by OS damage and provides insight into novel fetal signals of labor initiation pathways.

  16. Spider webs: Damage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-04-01

    A study reveals that spider orb webs fail in a nonlinear fashion, owing to the hierarchical organization of the silk proteins. The discovery may serve as inspiration for engineers for the design of aerial, light-weight, robust architectures.

  17. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  18. Proof of Concept for an Ultrasensitive Technique to Detect and Localize Sources of Elastic Nonlinearity Using Phononic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniaci, M.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Morvan, B.; Krushynska, A.; Bosia, F.; Scalerandi, M.; Pugno, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    The appearance of nonlinear effects in elastic wave propagation is one of the most reliable and sensitive indicators of the onset of material damage. However, these effects are usually very small and can be detected only using cumbersome digital signal processing techniques. Here, we propose and experimentally validate an alternative approach, using the filtering and focusing properties of phononic crystals to naturally select and reflect the higher harmonics generated by nonlinear effects, enabling the realization of time-reversal procedures for nonlinear elastic source detection. The proposed device demonstrates its potential as an efficient, compact, portable, passive apparatus for nonlinear elastic wave sensing and damage detection.

  19. Postbuckling investigations of piezoelectric microdevices considering damage effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-03-11

    Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman's plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed.

  20. Postbuckling Investigations of Piezoelectric Microdevices Considering Damage Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja’s tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman’s plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed.

  1. What are the important flood damage-influencing parameters? A data mining approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U.

    2012-04-01

    Today's approaches for assessing and modeling direct flood damages are not very advanced. The usual approach consists of stage-damage functions which relate the relative or absolute damage for a certain class of objects to the inundation depth. Other characteristics of the flooding situation and of the flooded object are rarely taken into account, although flood damage is influenced by a variety of factors. In this contribution we apply a group of data-mining techniques, known as tree-structured models, to flood damage assessment. Tree-structured models are attractive candidates for identifying important damage-influencing parameters in large damage data sets and for describing quantitatively the non-linear interactions between damage and damage-influencing parameters. A very comprehensive data set of more than 2000 damage records of private households in Germany is used. Each record contains details about a variety of potential damage-influencing characteristics, such as hydrological and hydraulic aspects of the flooding situation, state of precaution of the household, early warning and emergency measures undertaken, socio-economic status of the household. Tree-structured models are used to derive the dominating damage-influencing variables and their (non-linear) interactions. We show that they are a flexible and powerful alternative to traditional damage assessment approaches.

  2. A Study of Thermal Contact using Nonlinear System Identification Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Shojaeefard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One interesting application of system identification method is to identify and control the heat transfer from the exhaust valve to the seat to keep away the valve from being damaged. In this study, two co-axial cylindrical specimens are used as exhaust valve and its seat. Using the measured temperatures at different locations of the specimens and with a semi-analytical method, the temperature distribution of the specimens is calculated and consequently, the thermal contact conductance is calculated. By applying the system identification method and having the temperatures at both sides of the contact surface, the temperature transfer function is calculated. With regard to the fact that the thermal contact has nonlinear behavior, two nonlinear black-box models called nonlinear ARX and NLN Hammerstein-Wiener models are taken for accurate estimation. Results show that the NLN Hammerstein-Wiener models with wavelet network nonlinear estimator is the best.

  3. International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    CSNDD 2012; CSNDD 2014

    2015-01-01

    This book, which presents the peer-reviewed post-proceedings of CSNDD 2012 and CSNDD 2014, addresses the important role that relevant concepts and tools from nonlinear and complex dynamics could play in present and future engineering applications. It includes 22 chapters contributed by outstanding researchers and covering various aspects of applications, including: structural health monitoring, diagnosis and damage detection, experimental methodologies, active vibration control and smart structures, passive control of structures using nonlinear energy sinks, vibro-impact dynamic MEMS/NEMS/AFM, energy-harvesting materials and structures, and time-delayed feedback control, as well as aspects of deterministic versus stochastic dynamics and control of nonlinear phenomena in physics.  Researchers and engineers interested in the challenges posed and opportunities offered by nonlinearities in the development of passive and active control strategies, energy harvesting, novel design criteria, modeling and characteriz...

  4. Damage 90: A post processor for crack initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Jean; Doghri, Issam

    1994-05-01

    A post processor is fully described which allows the calculation of the crack initiation conditions from the history of strain components taken as the output of a finite element calculation. It is based upon damage mechanics using coupled strain damage constitutive equations for linear isotropic elasticity, perfect plasticity and a unified kinetic law of damage evolution. The localization of damage allows this coupling to be considered only for the damaging point for which the input strain history is taken from a classical structure calculation in elasticity or elastoplasticity. The listing of the code, a `friendly' code, with less than 600 FORTRAN instructions is given and some examples show its ability to model ductile failure in one or multi dimensions, brittle failure, low and high cycle fatigue with the non-linear accumulation, and multi-axial fatigue.

  5. Nonlinear pulsation masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The advent of nonlinear pulsation theory really coincides with the development of the large computers after the second world war. Christy and Stobbie were the first to make use of finite difference techniques on computers to model the bumps'' observed in the classical Cepheid light and velocity curves, the so-called Hertzsprung'' sequence. Following this work a more sophisticated analysis of the light and velocity curves from the models was made by Simon and Davis using Fourier techniques. Recently a simpler amplitude equation formalism has been developed that helps explain this resonance mechanism. The determination of Population I Cepheid masses by nonlinear methods will be discussed. For the lower mass objects, such as RR Lyrae and BL Her. stars, we find general agreement using evolutionary masses and nonlinear pulsation theory. An apparent difficulty of nonlinear pulsation theory occurs in the understanding of double'' mode pulsation, which will also be discussed. Recent studies in nonlinear pulsation theory have dealt with the question of mode selection, period doubling and the trends towards chaotic behavior such as is observed in the transition from W Virginis to RV Tauri-like stars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. The ancient tropical rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) was not restricted to postulated Pleistocene refugia in Atlantic Equatorial Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, K B; González-Martínez, S C; Hardy, O J; Heuertz, M

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the history of forests and their species' demographic responses to past disturbances is important for predicting impacts of future environmental changes. Tropical rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian region in Central Africa are believed to have survived the Pleistocene glacial periods in a few major refugia, essentially centred on mountainous regions close to the Atlantic Ocean. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the phylogeographic structure of a widespread, ancient rainforest tree species, Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae), using plastid DNA sequences (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA], psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs). SSRs identified four gene pools located in Benin, West Cameroon, South Cameroon and Gabon, and São Tomé. This structure was also apparent at cpDNA. Approximate Bayesian Computation detected recent bottlenecks approximately dated to the last glacial maximum in Benin, West Cameroon and São Tomé, and an older bottleneck in South Cameroon and Gabon, suggesting a genetic effect of Pleistocene cycles of forest contraction. CpDNA haplotype distribution indicated wide-ranging long-term persistence of S. globulifera both inside and outside of postulated forest refugia. Pollen flow was four times greater than that of seed in South Cameroon and Gabon, which probably enabled rapid population recovery after bottlenecks. Furthermore, our study suggested ecotypic differentiation-coastal or swamp vs terra firme-in S. globulifera. Comparison with other tree phylogeographic studies in Central Africa highlighted the relevance of species-specific responses to environmental change in forest trees.

  7. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  8. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  9. DNA damage and autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Panayiotidis, Mihalis I. [School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Franco, Rodrigo, E-mail: rfrancocruz2@unl.edu [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  10. Damage Theory Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures.......This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures....

  11. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  12. Effective Third-Order Nonlinearities in Metallic Refractory Titanium Nitride Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsey, Nathaniel; Courtwright, Devon; DeVault, Clayton; Bonner, Carl E; Gavrilenko, Vladimir I; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Nanophotonic devices offer an unprecedented ability to concentrate light into small volumes which can greatly increase nonlinear effects. However, traditional plasmonic materials suffer from low damage thresholds and are not compatible with standard semiconductor technology. Here we study the nonlinear optical properties in the novel refractory plasmonic material titanium nitride using the Z scan method at 1550 nm and 780 nm. We compare the extracted nonlinear parameters for TiN with previous works on noble metals and note a similarly large nonlinear optical response. However, TiN films have been shown to exhibit a damage threshold up to an order of magnitude higher than gold films of a similar thickness, while also being robust, cost-efficient, bio- and CMOS compatible. Together, these properties make TiN a promising material for metal-based nonlinear optics.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Björnham, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...

  14. Nonlinear optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Barclay, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    A photonic crystal optomechanical system combining strong nonlinear optomechanical coupling, low effective mass and large optical mode spacing is introduced. This nanoscale "paddle nanocavity" device supports mechanical resonances with effective mass of 300--600 fg which couple nonlinearly to co-localized optical modes with a quadratic optomechanical coupling coefficient $g^{(2)} > 2\\pi\\times400$ MHz/nm$^2$, and a two phonon to single photon optomechanical coupling rate $\\Delta \\omega_0 > 2\\pi\\times 16$ Hz. This coupling relies on strong phonon-photon interactions in a structure whose optical mode spectrum is highly non--degenerate. Simulations indicate that nonlinear optomechanical readout of thermally driven motion in these devices should be observable for T $> 50 $ mK, and that measurement of phonon shot noise is achievable.

  15. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  16. Linearizing nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...

  17. Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  18. Nonlinear Analysis of Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psotný Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis of slender web loaded in compression was presented. To solve this problem, a specialized computer program based on FEM was created. The nonlinear finite element method equations were derived from the variational principle of minimum of potential energy. To obtain the nonlinear equilibrium paths, the Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm was used. Corresponding levels of the total potential energy were defined. The peculiarities of the effects of the initial imperfections were investigated. Special attention was focused on the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode. The stable and unstable paths of the nonlinear solution were separated. Obtained results were compared with those gained using ANSYS system.

  19. Nonlinear Metamaterials for Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multi-layer metamaterial holograms where by the nonlinear process of Third Harmonic Generation, a background free image is formed at a new frequency which is the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analyzed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.

  20. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  1. An Elastoplastic Damage Constitutive Model for Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; LIN Gao; ZHONG Hong

    2013-01-01

    An elastoplastic damage constitutive model to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete is presented.Similar to traditional plastic theory,the irreversible deformation is modeled in effective stress space.In order to better describe different stiffness degradation mechanisms of concrete under tensile and compressive loading conditions,two damage variables,i.e.,tension and compression are introduced,to quantitatively evaluate the degree of deterioration of concrete structure.The rate dependent behavior is taken into account,and this model is derived firmly in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics.Fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm is suggested to perform constitutive integration.Numerical results of the model accord well with the test results for specimens under uniaxial tension and compression,biaxial loading and triaxial loading.Failure processes of double-edge-notched (DEN) specimen are also simulated to further validate the proposed model.

  2. An elastoplastic damage constitutive model for concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lin, Gao; Zhong, Hong

    2013-04-01

    An elastoplastic damage constitutive model to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete is presented. Similar to traditional plastic theory, the irreversible deformation is modeled in effective stress space. In order to better describe different stiffness degradation mechanisms of concrete under tensile and compressive loading conditions, two damage variables, i.e., tension and compression are introduced, to quantitatively evaluate the degree of deterioration of concrete structure. The rate dependent behavior is taken into account, and this model is derived firmly in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm is suggested to perform constitutive integration. Numerical results of the model accord well with the test results for specimens under uniaxial tension and compression, biaxial loading and triaxial loading. Failure processes of double-edge-notched (DEN) specimen are also simulated to further validate the proposed model.

  3. Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

  4. Nonlinear airship aeroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessert, N.; Frederich, O.

    2005-12-01

    The aeroelastic derivatives for today's aircraft are calculated in the concept phase using a standard procedure. This scheme has to be extended for large airships, due to various nonlinearities in structural and aerodynamic behaviour. In general, the structural model of an airship is physically as well as geometrically nonlinear. The main sources of nonlinearity are large deformations and the nonlinear material behaviour of membranes. The aerodynamic solution is also included in the nonlinear problem, because the deformed airship influences the surrounding flow. Due to these nonlinearities, the aeroelastic problem for airships can only be solved by an iterative procedure. As one possibility, the coupled aerodynamic and structural dynamic problem was handled using linked standard solvers. On the structural side, the Finite-Element program package ABAQUS was extended with an interface to the aerodynamic solver VSAERO. VSAERO is based on the aerodynamic panel method using potential flow theory. The equilibrium of the internal structural and the external aerodynamic forces leads to the structural response and a trimmed flight state for the specified flight conditions (e.g. speed, altitude). The application of small perturbations around a trimmed state produces reaction forces and moments. These constraint forces are then transferred into translational and rotational acceleration fields by performing an inertia relief analysis of the disturbed structural model. The change between the trimmed flight state and the disturbed one yields the respective aeroelastic derivatives. By including the calculated derivatives in the linearised equation of motion system, it is possible to judge the stability and controllability of the investigated airship.

  5. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  6. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...

  7. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  8. Tunable nonlinear graphene metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of nonlinear graphene metasurfaces employing the controllable interaction between a graphene layer and a planar metamaterial. Such hybrid metasurfaces support two types of subradiant resonant modes, asymmetric modes of structured metamaterial elements ("metamolecules") and graphene plasmons exhibiting strong mutual coupling and avoided dispersion crossing. High tunability of graphene plasmons facilitates strong interaction between the subradiant modes, modifying the spectral position and lifetime of the associated Fano resonances. We demonstrate that strong resonant interaction, combined with the subwavelength localization of plasmons, leads to the enhanced nonlinear response and high efficiency of the second-harmonic generation.

  9. Studies on Dynamic Damage Evolution for Pp/pa Polymer Blends Under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zi-Jian; Wang, Li-Li

    The dynamic damage evolution for PP/PA blends with different compatibilizers is studied in high strain rates from two different approaches, namely by determining the unloading elastic modulus of specimen experienced impact deformation and by combining the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experimental technique with the back-propagation (BP) neural network. The results obtained by both approaches consistently show that a threshold strain ɛth exists for dynamic damage evolution, and both the damage evolution and ɛth are dependent on strain and strain rate. For non-linear visco-elastic materials, the damage evolution determined by the unloading elastic modulus provides an underestimation of real damage evolution.

  10. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  11. Potential of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Indicators for Nondestructive Testing of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Payan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a growing need for safety and reliability in Civil Engineering, acoustic methods of nondestructive testing provide answers to a real industrial need. Linear indicators (wave speed and attenuation exhibit a limited sensitivity, unlike nonlinear ones which usually have a far greater dynamic range. This paper illustrates the potential of these indicators, and evaluates its potential for in situ applications. Concrete, a structurally heterogeneous and volumetrically, mechanically damaged material, is an example of a class of materials that exhibit strong multiple scattering as well as significant elastic nonlinear response. In the context of stress monitoring in pre-stressed structures, we show that intense scattering can be applied to robustly determine velocity changes at progressively increasing applied stress using coda wave interferometry and thereby extract nonlinear coefficients. In a second part, we demonstrate the high sensitivity of nonlinear parameters to thermal damage as regard with linear ones. Then, the influence of water content and porosity on these indicators is quantified allowing to uncouple the effect of damage from environmental or structural parameters.

  12. Fatigue-damage localization in steel catenary risers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Víctor F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Risers used to transport crude oil require Structural Integrity Management plans and programs to allow proper functioning during its design life. Cyclic loading may cause fatigue damage during operation of the riser. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM is usually applied to detect damages ahead, and be confirmed by non- destructive inspection using remotely operated vehicles. With the information obtained the riser is assessed and if required mitigating measures can be implemented to prevent failure and disasters such as environmental pollution, and human and economic losses. This paper presents a study to locate fatigue damages using signals of the dynamic response. Numerical study cases were defined for a Steel Catenary Riser (SCR installed in 2000 m water depth. A damage case was considered, decreasing the stiffness value at a specific location of the structure. Dynamic analyses were performed using a commercial software that incorporates nonlinear behavior. The Modal Slope Difference, Modal Slope Difference and Damage Index methods (with two variations were applied to locate damage. Based on results the MSlD yielded the smallest error values in damage location followed by the Damage Index Method for severity values greater than 6%. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology to locate fatigue damages in deep-water SCRs.

  13. Application of Variational Iteration Method for Dropping Damage Evaluation of the Suspension Spring Packaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Song; Ning-ning Duan; An-jun Chen

    2014-01-01

    The dropping damage evaluation for packaging system is essential for safe transportation and storage. A dynamic model of nonlinear cubic-quintic Duffing oscillator for the suspension spring packaging system was proposed. Then, a first-order approximate solution was obtained by applying He’s variable iteration method. Based on the results, a damage evaluation equation was derived, which reveals the main controlling physical parameters for damage potential of drop to packaged products concretel...

  14. Orthotropic damage in high-strength steel sheets. An elasto-viscoplastic material model with mixed hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerspahic, E.; Mattiasson, K.

    2003-09-01

    Within the scope of thermodynamics with internal variables, constitutive and evolution equations (representing ductile deformation of sheets made of high strength steel alloys) with mixed hardening and damage have been derived. As a result of the derivation, the rate-dependent elastoplastic constitutive model is identified. The material is assumed to be oriented in the principal damage directions, indicating orthotropic damage. Owing to postulates within continuum damage mechanics, a general expression for degradation of elastic properties in materials has been obtained. A numerical algorithm for the integration of the constitutive equations has been developed as well, based on an elastic predictor plastic/damage corrector procedure. The plastic/damage corrector is based on a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. In order to consider viscoplastic material properties, the overstress (in the definition of the plastic multiplier) is a function of the plastic yield function.

  15. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on cross-correlation filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Andrew; Stewart, Dylan; Bunget, Gheorghe; Kramer, Patrick; Farinholt, Kevin; Friedersdorf, Fritz; Pepi, Marc; Ghoshal, Anindya

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic loading of mechanical components promotes the formation of dislocation dipoles in metals, which can serve as precursors to crack nucleation and ultimately lead to failure. In the laboratory setting, an acoustic nonlinearity parameter has been assessed as an effective indicator for characterizing the progression of fatigue damage precursors. However, the need to use monochromatic waves of medium-to-high acoustic energy has presented a constraint, making it problematic for use in field applications. This paper presents a potential approach for field measurement of acoustic nonlinearity by using general purpose ultrasonic pulser-receivers. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements during fatigue testing were analyzed by the using contact and immersion pulse-through method. A novel cross-correlation filtering technique was developed to extract the fundamental and higher harmonic waves from the signals. As in the case of the classic harmonic generation, the nonlinearity parameters of the second and third harmonics indicate a strong correlation with fatigue cycles. Consideration was given to potential nonlinearities in the measurement system, and tests have confirmed that measured second harmonic signals exhibit a linear dependence on the input signal strength, further affirming the conclusion that this parameter relates to damage precursor formation from cyclic loading.

  16. Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, M; Balachandran, B

    2013-04-01

    strain-rates introduced at the end of the structure where the load is applied. In addition, it is shown that when steep wave fronts are generated in the nonlinear viscoelastic material, energy dissipation is focused in those wave fronts implying deposition of energy in a highly localized region of the material. Novel mechanisms for brain tissue damage are proposed based on the results obtained. The first mechanism is related to the dissipation of energy at steep wave fronts, while the second one is related to the interaction of steep wave fronts with axons encountered on its way through the structure.

  17. Explosive-induced shock damage in copper and recompression of the damaged region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, W. D.; Stevens, G. D.; Hixson, R. S.; Cerreta, E. K.; Daykin, E. P.; Graeve, O. A.; La Lone, B. M.; Novitskaya, E.; Perez, C.; Rigg, P. A.; Veeser, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the dynamic spall process for copper samples in contact with detonating low-performance explosives. When a triangular shaped shock wave from detonation moves through a sample and reflects from the free surface, tension develops immediately, one or more damaged layers can form, and a spall scab can separate from the sample and move ahead of the remaining target material. For dynamic experiments, we used time-resolved velocimetry and x-ray radiography. Soft-recovered samples were analyzed using optical imaging and microscopy. Computer simulations were used to guide experiment design. We observe that for some target thicknesses the spall scab continues to run ahead of the rest of the sample, but for thinner samples, the detonation product gases accelerate the sample enough for it to impact the spall scab several microseconds or more after the initial damage formation. Our data also show signatures in the form of a late-time reshock in the time-resolved data, which support this computational prediction. A primary goal of this research was to study the wave interactions and damage processes for explosives-loaded copper and to look for evidence of this postulated recompression event. We found both experimentally and computationally that we could tailor the magnitude of the initial and recompression shocks by varying the explosive drive and the copper sample thickness; thin samples had a large recompression after spall, whereas thick samples did not recompress at all. Samples that did not recompress had spall scabs that completely separated from the sample, whereas samples with recompression remained intact. This suggests that the hypothesized recompression process closes voids in the damage layer or otherwise halts the spall formation process. This is a somewhat surprising and, in some ways controversial, result, and the one that warrants further research in the shock compression community.

  18. Acoustic nonlinearity of narrowband laser-generated surface waves in the bending fatigue of Al6061 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Taehyung; Choi, Sungho; Lee, Taehun; Jhang, Kyungyoung; Kim, Chungseok [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The present study describes the acoustic nonlinearity phenomenon of a narrowband laser generated surface wave for the characterization of an aluminum alloy subjected to bending fatigue. The surface wave is very attractive for field applications because it does not require both sides of the test materials to access the transducers and has strong acoustic nonlinear effects on the surface. The intrinsic higher-order harmonic components generated by a line-arrayed laser beam have been analyzed theoretically, and a relative acoustic nonlinear parameter has been successfully measured on the surface of a fatigue-damaged aluminum 6061 alloy. The results show that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased after fatigue damage with respect to dislocation evolution. Consequently, this study suggests that the new acoustic nonlinearity technique of a laser-generated surface wave can be potentially used to characterize surface damage resulting from bending fatigue prior to the formation of fatigue cracks.

  19. Towards Coupling of Macroseismic Intensity with Structural Damage Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouteva, Mihaela; Boshnakov, Krasimir

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on basic data of ground motion acceleration time histories during earthquakes is essential to understanding the earthquake resistant behaviour of structures. Peak and integral ground motion parameters such as peak ground motion values (acceleration, velocity and displacement), measures of the frequency content of ground motion, duration of strong shaking and various intensity measures play important roles in seismic evaluation of existing facilities and design of new systems. Macroseismic intensity is an earthquake measure related to seismic hazard and seismic risk description. Having detailed ideas on the correlations between the earthquake damage potential and macroseismic intensity is an important issue in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. Reliable earthquake hazard estimation is the major prerequisite to successful disaster risk management. The usage of advanced earthquake engineering approaches for structural response modelling is essential for reliable evaluation of the accumulated damages in the existing buildings and structures due to the history of seismic actions, occurred during their lifetime. Full nonlinear analysis taking into account single event or series of earthquakes and the large set of elaborated damage indices are suitable contemporary tools to cope with this responsible task. This paper presents some results on the correlation between observational damage states, ground motion parameters and selected analytical damage indices. Damage indices are computed on the base of nonlinear time history analysis of test reinforced structure, characterising the building stock of the Mediterranean region designed according the earthquake resistant requirements in mid XX-th century.

  20. Nonlinear elliptic systems with exponential nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said El Manouni

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of solutions for {gather*} -mathop{m div}( a(| abla u | ^N| abla u |^{N-2}u = f(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega -mathop{m div}(a(| abla v| ^N| abla v |^{N-2}v = g(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega u(x = v(x = 0 quad mbox{on }partial Omega. end{gather*} Where $Omega$ is a bounded domain in ${mathbb{R}}^N$, $Ngeq 2$, $f$ and $g$ are nonlinearities having an exponential growth on $Omega$ and $a$ is a continuous function satisfying some conditions which ensure the existence of solutions.

  1. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types of no...

  2. Postulated vasoactive neuropeptide immunopathology affecting the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier in certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions: A role for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in a number of neurological fatigue-related conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. These conditions have been attributed variably to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While autoimmune pathology, at least in part, has long been suspected in these conditions proof has been elusive. Autoimmune pathomechanisms affecting the blood–brain barrier (BBB or blood–spinal barrier (BSB may predispose the BBB/BSB to ‘leakiness’ and be a precursor to additional autoimmune events resulting in neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the paper is to postulate immunopathology of the cerebrospinal perivascular compartment involving certain vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions such as MS, ALS, PD, and CFS. Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators. PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB. Autoimmunity affecting these VNs would likely have a detrimental effect on BBB and BSB functioning arguably predisposing to further pathological processes. Virchow–Robin spaces (VRS are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS which

  3. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  4. Nonlinear Regression with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  5. Methods of nonlinear kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gorban, A. N.; Karlin, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear kinetic equations are reviewed for a wide audience of specialists and postgraduate students in physics, mathematical physics, material science, chemical engineering and interdisciplinary research. Contents: The Boltzmann equation, Phenomenology and Quasi-chemical representation of the Boltzmann equation, Kinetic models, Discrete velocity models, Direct simulation, Lattice Gas and Lattice Boltzmann models, Minimal Boltzmann models for flows at low Knudsen number, Other kinetic equati...

  6. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  7. Nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Finn

    1995-01-01

    It is generally very difficult to solve nonlinear systems, and such systems often possess chaotic solutions. In the rare event that a system is completely solvable, it is said to integrable. Such systems never have chaotic solutions. Using the Inverse Scattering Transform Method (ISTM) two...

  8. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  9. Trirefringence in nonlinear metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    De Lorenci, Vitorio A

    2012-01-01

    We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the limit of geometrical optics for a class of nearly transparent nonlinear uniaxial metamaterials for which their permittivity tensors present a negative principal component. Their permeability are assumed positive and dependent on the electric field. We show that light waves experience triple refraction -- trirefringence. Additionally to the ordinary wave, two extraordinary waves propagate in such media.

  10. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  11. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    , provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  12. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  13. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    CERN Document Server

    Leitao, J C; Gerlach, M; Altmann, E G

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g., patents) scale nonlinearly with the population~x of the cities in which they appear, i.e., $y\\sim x^\\beta, \\beta \

  14. Nonlinear Gravitational Lagrangians revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Magnano, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The Legendre transformation method, applied in 1987 to deal with purely metric gravitational Lagrangians with nonlinear dependence on the Ricci tensor, is extended to metric-affine models and is shown to provide a concise and insightful comparison of the dynamical content of the two variational frameworks.

  15. Nonlinearities in Microwave Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2012-01-01

    The research is focused on the modeling of nonlinear properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films, using Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Lumped Element Circuit theories, with purpose to enhance microwave power handling capabilities of microwave filters and optimize design of microwave circuits in micro- and nano- electronics.

  16. Nonlinear tsunami generation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear mechanism of long gravitational surface water wave generation by high-frequency bottom oscillations in a water layer of constant depth is investigated analytically. The connection between the surface wave amplitude and the parameters of bottom oscillations and source length is investigated.

  17. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  18. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...

  19. Probing material nonlinearity at various depths by time reversal mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, P. Y.; Griffa, M.; Schuetz, P.; Remillieux, M. C.; Saleh, T. A.

    2014-04-01

    In this Letter, the time reversal mirror is used to focus elastic energy at a prescribed location and to analyze the amplitude dependence of the focus signal, thus providing the nonlinearity of the medium. By varying the frequency content of the focused waveforms, the technique can be used to probe the surface, by penetrating to a depth defined by the wavelength of the focused waves. The validity of this concept is shown in the presence of gradual and distributed damage in concrete by comparing actual results with a reference nonlinear measurement and X ray tomography images.

  20. Probing material nonlinearity at various depths by time reversal mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan, C. [LMA UPR CNRS 7051, Aix Marseille Université, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille (France); Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, P. Y.; Remillieux, M. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, EES-17, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Griffa, M.; Schuetz, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Saleh, T. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-16, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    In this Letter, the time reversal mirror is used to focus elastic energy at a prescribed location and to analyze the amplitude dependence of the focus signal, thus providing the nonlinearity of the medium. By varying the frequency content of the focused waveforms, the technique can be used to probe the surface, by penetrating to a depth defined by the wavelength of the focused waves. The validity of this concept is shown in the presence of gradual and distributed damage in concrete by comparing actual results with a reference nonlinear measurement and X ray tomography images.

  1. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  2. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach is based on high-Q optical WGM resonators made with a nonlinear crystal. Such resonators have been demonstrated to dramatically enhance nonlinear...

  3. Phase retrieval using nonlinear diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hung; Barsi, Christopher; Williams, Matthew O; Kutz, J Nathan; Fleischer, Jason W

    2013-04-01

    We extend the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to phase retrieval in a nonlinear system. Using a tunable photorefractive crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the noninterferometric technique by reconstructing an unknown phase object from optical intensity measurements taken at different nonlinear strengths.

  4. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  5. 3D Progressive Damage Modeling for Laminated Composite Based on Crack Band Theory and Continuum Damage Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Pineda, Evan J.; Ranatunga, Vipul; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based 3D progressive damage analysis (PDA) tool for laminated composites was developed and implemented as a user defined material subroutine to link with a commercially available explicit finite element code. This PDA tool uses linear lamina properties from standard tests, predicts damage initiation with an easy-to-implement Hashin-Rotem failure criteria, and in the damage evolution phase, evaluates the degradation of material properties based on the crack band theory and traction-separation cohesive laws. It follows Matzenmiller et al.'s formulation to incorporate the degrading material properties into the damaged stiffness matrix. Since nonlinear shear and matrix stress-strain relations are not implemented, correction factors are used for slowing the reduction of the damaged shear stiffness terms to reflect the effect of these nonlinearities on the laminate strength predictions. This CDM based PDA tool is implemented as a user defined material (VUMAT) to link with the Abaqus/Explicit code. Strength predictions obtained, using this VUMAT, are correlated with test data for a set of notched specimens under tension and compression loads.

  6. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  7. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  8. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  9. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  10. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  11. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...

  12. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based...

  13. Investigation of the nonlinear refractive index of single-crystalline thin gold films and plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Sebastian; Razinskas, Gary; Krauss, Enno; Dreher, Christian; Wurdack, Matthias; Geisler, Peter; Pawłowska, Monika; Hecht, Bert; Brixner, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear refractive index of plasmonic materials may be used to obtain nonlinear functionality, e.g., power-dependent switching. Here, we investigate the nonlinear refractive index of single-crystalline gold in thin layers and nanostructures on dielectric substrates. In a first step, we implement a z-scan setup to investigate ~100-µm-sized thin-film samples. We determine the nonlinear refractive index of fused silica, n 2(SiO2) = 2.9 × 10-20 m2/W, in agreement with literature values. Subsequent z-scan measurements of single-crystalline gold films reveal a damage threshold of 0.22 TW/cm2 and approximate upper limits of the real and imaginary parts of the nonlinear refractive index, | n 2'(Au)| film). An upper limit for the nonlinear power-dependent phase change between two propagating near-field modes is determined to Δ φ < 0.07 rad.

  14. Nonlinear electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Srivastava, Krishna M.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is performed. It is shown that the analysis leads to the propagation of the weakly nonlinear dispersive waves, and the nonlinear behavior is governed by the nonlinear Burger's equation.

  15. Estimation of air to grass -dry and wet deposition rates, velocities, and mass interception factors for iodine for a postulated accidental scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunakara, N.; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara, K. [University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University (India); Geetha, P.V. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (India); Dileep, B.N.; Joshi, P.J. [Environmental Survey Laboratory, Kaiga Generating Station (India); Ravi, P.M. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2014-07-01

    Air to grass radionuclide transfer parameters such as dry and wet deposition rates, velocities, and mass interception factors are important basic input parameters for the estimation of radiation dose to the public around a nuclear power plant. We have carried out a study on air to grass transfer of iodine for a postulated emergency situation. A walk-in environmental chamber was designed and fabricated with facilities for exposing the plants grown in pots to controlled levels of radionuclides/stable elements. The temperature, humidity, and airflow inside the environmental chamber can be controlled to required values. The chamber has the facility for generating artificial rainfall. Grass grown in pots was kept inside the environmental chamber. Stable iodine (elemental form) was sublimed and injected into the environmental chamber suddenly to generate known concentration of iodine in the air inside the chamber. This simulated an accidental release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of iodine in the air inside the chamber was monitored continuously by drawing air from the environmental chamber through a bubbling setup (bubbling air through 1% sodium carbonate solution) and the iodine was then separated chemically and the concentration was measured by UV-VIS spectrometry. The concentration of iodine inside the chamber was monitored for every 30 min. The grass was exposed to iodine for 3 h after which the leaves were sampled and analysed for iodine concentration. From the concentration values of iodine in air and grass - the dry deposition rate, deposition velocity, and mass interception rates were estimated. The dry deposition velocity of iodine varied in the range of 0.5x10{sup -5}-3.3x10{sup -5} m s{sup -1} with a mean value of 1.7x10{sup -5} m s{sup -1}. The mass interception factor varied in the range of 0.25-13 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 4.2 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} with respect to fresh weight. The wet deposition velocity varied in the range

  16. Quantitative approach for damage detection of reinforced concrete frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analytical basis for the quantitative evaluation of damage to a reinforced concrete structure based on the vibration data obtained by using the damage detection technique. A partial reinforced concrete system of a weak beam/strong column moment frame is chosen as an example. A pushover analysis is carried out in order to numerically examine both the story shear-relative displacement characteristics and the associated damage level. In the analysis, a two dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis is employed considering several constitutive models. As a result, the degradation of the stiffness at the damaged story is characterized in association with the story relative displacement. It is also pointed out that the rotation angle of the column-base is highly correlated with the story relative displacement. Based on the analytical findings, quantitative approaches for a structural health monitoring system are suggested considering both the current sensor technologies and those available in the future.

  17. Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass $(\\simeq 10^{-12} $m$^2/$W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The non\\-li\\-near coefficient can be increased to values in the range of $10^{-10} $m$^2/$W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.

  18. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  19. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  20. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-08-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency--the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.

  1. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora

    2016-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581

  2. Nonlinear data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Reich, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on nonlinear data assimilation that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. Both contributions focus on so-called particle filters. The first contribution by Jan van Leeuwen focuses on the potential of proposal densities. It discusses the issues with present-day particle filters and explorers new ideas for proposal densities to solve them, converging to particle filters that work well in systems of any dimension, closing the contribution with a high-dimensional example. The second contribution by Cheng and Reich discusses a unified framework for ensemble-transform particle filters. This allows one to bridge successful ensemble Kalman filters with fully nonlinear particle filters, and allows a proper introduction of localization in particle filters, which has been lacking up to now.

  3. Nonlinearity without Superluminality

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signalling. As Gisin and Polchinski first pointed out, this is not true for general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signalling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no superluminal signalling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by non-relativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which di...

  4. Monte Carlo and nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Caliot, Cyril; Charon, Julien; Coustet, Christophe; Hafi, Mouna El; Eymet, Vincent; Farges, Olivier; Forest, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Galtier, Mathieu; Gautrais, Jacques; Khuong, Anaïs; Pelissier, Lionel; Piaud, Benjamin; Roger, Maxime; Terrée, Guillaume; Weitz, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is widely used to numerically predict systems behaviour. However, its powerful incremental design assumes a strong premise which has severely limited application so far: the estimation process must combine linearly over dimensions. Here we show that this premise can be alleviated by projecting nonlinearities on a polynomial basis and increasing the configuration-space dimension. Considering phytoplankton growth in light-limited environments, radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, electromagnetic scattering by particles and concentrated-solar-power-plant productions, we prove the real world usability of this advance on four test-cases that were so far regarded as impracticable by Monte Carlo approaches. We also illustrate an outstanding feature of our method when applied to sharp problems with interacting particles: handling rare events is now straightforward. Overall, our extension preserves the features that made the method popular: addressing nonlinearities does not compromise o...

  5. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  6. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Tofighi

    2012-04-01

    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  7. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  8. Controllability of nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, H. J.; Jurdjevic, V.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the controllability of nonlinear systems described by the equation dx/dt - F(x,u). Concepts formulated by Chow (1939) and Lobry (1970) are applied to establish criteria for F and its derivatives to obtain qualitative information on sets which can be obtained from x which denotes a variable of state in an arbitrary, real, analytical manifold. It is shown that controllability implies strong accessibility for a large class of manifolds including Euclidean spaces.-

  9. Stochastic Nonlinear Aeroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    STOCHASTIC NONLINEAR AEROELASTICITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In- house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601102 6. AUTHOR(S) Philip S...ABSTRACT This report documents the culmination of in- house work in the area of uncertainty quantification and probabilistic techniques for... coff U∞ cs ea lw cw Figure 6: Wing and store geometry (left), wing box structural model (middle), flutter distribution (right

  10. Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC- 48, pp. 1712-1723, (2003). [14] C.I. Byrnes, A. Isidori...Nonlinear internal models for output regulation,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC-49, pp. 2244-2247, (2004). [15] C.I. Byrnes, F. Celani, A...approach,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 48 (Dec. 2003), 2172–2190. 2. C. I. Byrnes, “Differential Forms and Dynamical Systems,” to appear

  11. Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A

    2014-10-20

    We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.

  12. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  13. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  14. Quantum well nonlinear microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.

    We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Concrete Plate Damaged Under Explosive Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAN Shi; JIANG Guoping; Chen Shengming; TANG Xiangqian

    2006-01-01

    The grisliness after-effects can be induced by explosion accident with the collapsing of the structures,the demolishing of the equipments and the casualty of the human beings.Isolation belt constructed between the blast point and the construction is one of the useful design schemes for blast resistance.The nonlinear procedure ANSYS/LSDYNA970 is used to simulate the contact deronation and the isolation belt of blast resistance filled with the air or water respectively.The results indicate that the maximal damage can be caused by the contact detonation,and the isolation belt of blast resistent filled with water can reduce the damage greatly.

  16. Indirect identification of damage functions from damage records

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhäuser, J Micha; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess future damage caused by natural disasters, it is desirable to estimate the damage caused by single events. So called damage functions provide -- for a natural disaster of certain magnitude -- a specific damage value. However, in general, the functional form of such damage functions is unknown. We study the distributions of recorded flood damages on extended scales and deduce which damage functions lead to such distributions when the floods obey Generalized Extreme Value statistics and follow Generalized Pareto distributions. Based on the finding of broad damage distributions we investigate two possible functional forms to characterize the data. In the case of Gumbel distributed extreme events, (i) a power-law distribution density with an exponent close to 2 (Zipf's law) implies an exponential damage function; (ii) stretched exponential distribution densities imply power-law damage functions. In the case of Weibull (Frechet) distributed extreme events we find correspondingly steeper (less st...

  17. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  18. Crumpling Damaged Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Giordanelli, I; Andrade,, J S; Gomes, M A F; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    Through molecular mechanics we find that non-covalent interactions modify the fractality of crumpled damaged graphene. Pristine graphene membranes are damaged by adding random vacancies and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Crumpled membranes exhibit a fractal dimension of $ 2.71 \\pm 0.02$ when all interactions between carbon atoms are considered, and $2.30 \\pm 0.05$ when non-covalent interactions are suppressed. The transition between these two values, obtained by switching on/off the non-covalent interactions of equilibrium configurations, is shown to be reversible and independent on thermalisation. In order to explain this transition, we propose a theoretical model that is compatible with our numerical findings. Finally, we also compare damaged graphene membranes with other crumpled structures, as for instance, polymerised membranes and paper sheets, that share similar scaling properties.

  19. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  20. Applications of chaos and nonlinear dynamics in engineering - Vol 1

    CERN Document Server

    Rondoni, Lamberto; Banerjee, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Chaos and nonlinear dynamics initially developed as a new emergent field with its foundation in physics and applied mathematics. The highly generic, interdisciplinary quality of the insights gained in the last few decades has spawned myriad applications in almost all branches of science and technology—and even well beyond. Wherever quantitative modeling and analysis of complex, nonlinear phenomena is required, chaos theory and its methods can play a key role.   This volume concentrates on reviewing the most relevant contemporary applications of chaotic nonlinear systems as they apply to the various cutting-edge branches of engineering. The book covers the theory as applied to robotics, electronic and communication engineering (for example chaos synchronization and cryptography) as well as to civil and mechanical engineering, where its use in damage monitoring and control is explored). Featuring contributions from active and leading research groups, this collection is ideal both as a reference and as a ‘r...

  1. Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2015-01-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  2. Catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in the bulk of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Frank R., E-mail: frank.wagner@fresnel.fr; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Akhouayri, Hassan; Commandré, Mireille [Institut Fresnel, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Campus de St Jérôme, 13013 Marseille (France); Duchateau, Guillaume [CELIA, UMR 5107 Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-28

    Due to its high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to produce periodically poled crystals, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}, KTP) is still one of the economically important nonlinear optical materials. In this overview article, we present a large study on catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in this material and the very similar RbTiOPO{sub 4} (RTP). Several different systematic studies are included: multiple pulse laser damage, multi-wavelength laser damage in KTP, damage resistance anisotropy, and variations of the laser damage thresholds for RTP crystals of different qualities. All measurements were carried out in comparable experimental conditions using a 1064 nm Q-switched laser and some were repeated at 532 nm. After summarizing the experimental results, we detail the proposed model for laser damage in this material and discuss the experimental results in this context. According to the model, nanosecond laser damage is caused by light-induced generation of transient laser-damage precursors which subsequently provide free electrons that are heated by the same nanosecond pulse. We also present a stimulated Raman scattering measurement and confront slightly different models to the experimental data. Finally, the physical nature of the transient damage precursors is discussed and similarities and differences to laser damage in other crystals are pointed out.

  3. A Geometrically Nonlinear Phase Field Theory of Brittle Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    tension. Int J Fract Mech 4:257–266 Voyiadjis G, Mozaffari N (2013) Nonlocal damage model using the phase field method: theory and applications. Int J... model of fracture. Computer simula- tions enable descriptions of fracture in brittle solids under complex loading conditions and for nonlinear and...Simple models based on the notion of theo- retical strength (Gilman1960;Clayton 2009, 2010) can provide insight into directionality of fracture

  4. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  5. Nonlinear scattering in plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear phenomena provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered nonlinear saturation on single-particle scattering of gold nanospheres by continuous-wave laser excitation and innovatively applied to improve microscopic resolution down to λ/8. However, the nonlinearity was limited to the green-orange plasmonic band of gold nanosphere, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we demonstrated that nonlinear scattering exists for various material/geometry combinations, thus expanding the applicable wavelength range. For near-infrared, gold nanorod is used, while for blue-violet, silver nanospheres are adopted. In terms of mechanism, the nonlinearity may originate from interband/intraband absorption, hot electron, or hot lattice, which are spectrally mixed in the case of gold nanosphere. For gold nanorod and silver nanosphere, nonlinear scattering occurs at plasmonic resonances, which are spectrally far from interband/intraband absorptions, so they are excluded. We found that the nonlinear index is much larger than possible contributions from hot electrons in literature. Therefore, we conclude that hot lattice is the major mechanism. In addition, we propose that similar to z-scan, which is the standard method to characterize nonlinearity of a thin sample, laser scanning microscopy should be adopted as the standard method to characterize nonlinearity from a nanostructure. Our work not only provides the physical mechanism of the nonlinear scattering, but also paves the way toward multi-color superresolution imaging based on non-bleaching plasmonic scattering.

  6. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.

    2006-01-01

    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowi......-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated....

  7. Dichromatic nonlinear eigenmodes in slab waveguide with chi(2) nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanyan, S A; Nevière, M

    2001-03-01

    The existence of purely nonlinear eigenmodes in a waveguiding structure composed of a slab with quadratic nonlinearity surrounded by (non)linear claddings is reported. Modes having bright and dark solitonlike shapes and consisting of two mutually locked harmonics are identified. Asymmetrical modes are shown to exist in symmetrical environments. Constraints for the existence of the modes are derived in terms of parameters of guiding structure materials.

  8. Self-repairing control for damaged robotic manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, G.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Driessen, B.J. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Algorithms have been developed allowing operation of robotic systems under damaged conditions. Specific areas addressed were optimal sensor location, adaptive nonlinear control, fault-tolerant robot design, and dynamic path-planning. A seven-degree-of-freedom, hydraulic manipulator, with fault-tolerant joint design was also constructed and tested. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  9. Nonlinear Control of a Reusable Rocket Engine for Life Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual development of a life-extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life-extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel (H2) and oxidizer (O2) turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. The design procedure makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life-extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of the rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using non-linear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure. Fatigue damage in fuel and oxidizer turbine blades is primarily caused by stress cycling during start-up, shutdown, and transient operations of a rocket engine. Fatigue damage in the turbine blades is one of the most serious causes for engine failure.

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Using Nonlinear Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Safe-life and damage-tolerant design philosophies of high performance structures have driven the development of various methods to evaluate nondestructively the accumulation of damage in such structures resulting from cyclic loading. Although many techniques have proven useful, none has been able to provide an unambiguous, quantitative assessment of damage accumulation at each stage of fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. A method based on nonlinear acoustics is shown to provide such a means to assess the state of metal fatigue. The salient features of an analytical model are presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with fatigue-generated dislocation substructures and cracks that predictably evolve during the metal fatigue process. The interaction is quantified by the material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The parameters typically increase monotonically by several hundred percent over the fatigue life of the metal, thus providing a unique measure of the state of fatigue. Application of the model to aluminum alloy 2024-T4, 410Cb stainless steel, and IN100 nickel-base superalloy specimens fatigued using different loading conditions yields good agreement between theory and experiment. Application of the model and measurement technique to the on-site inspection of steam turbine blades is discussed.

  11. Research on nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse because of the multi-frequency mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fan; HU Zhen-qi; YANG Lun; MA Feng-hai

    2008-01-01

    Based on the complexity of mine stratum and coupling of the multi-frequency for the damage of mine stratum, using the method of on-site inspection and mathematical statistics, the regulation and nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse in mine stratum's multi-frequency mining were put forward and systemically studied. Study result shows that the influence of multi-frequency mining in mine stratum has the feature of multi-frequency incontinuity, multi-characteristic and multi-type nonlinear collapse, strata collapse activation turned worse, presenting an accumulation effect of multi-frequency mining for the strata damage. With the example of multi-frequency mining in the mine, the real characteristics of strata collapse by multi-frequency mining and nonlinear characteristics of accumulative response damage were analyzed. Research achievements about the surface recover and controlling of strata collapse by the multi-frequency mining have instruction meaning.

  12. Nonlinear Schrodinger equation with chaotic, random, and nonperiodic nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, W B; Avelar, A T; Bazeia, D; Hussein, M S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we deal with a nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with chaotic, random, and nonperiodic cubic nonlinearity. Our goal is to study the soliton evolution, with the strength of the nonlinearity perturbed in the space and time coordinates and to check its robustness under these conditions. Comparing with a real system, the perturbation can be related to, e.g., impurities in crystalline structures, or coupling to a thermal reservoir which, on the average, enhances the nonlinearity. We also discuss the relevance of such random perturbations to the dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates and their collective excitations and transport.

  13. Application of Variational Iteration Method for Dropping Damage Evaluation of the Suspension Spring Packaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dropping damage evaluation for packaging system is essential for safe transportation and storage. A dynamic model of nonlinear cubic-quintic Duffing oscillator for the suspension spring packaging system was proposed. Then, a first-order approximate solution was obtained by applying He’s variable iteration method. Based on the results, a damage evaluation equation was derived, which reveals the main controlling physical parameters for damage potential of drop to packaged products concretely. Finally, the dropping damage boundary curves and surfaces for the system were discussed. It was found that decreasing the suspension angle can improve the safe region of the system.

  14. DAMAGE MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Chermant

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how it is possible to characterize and quantify the damages in materials using classical tools of automatic image analysis. Examples presented concern ceramic matrix composites, i.e. high tech materials. It gives important information to support the deformation and rupture mechanism of materials under mechanical solicitations.

  15. Loss and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Saleemul; Roberts, Erin; Fenton, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Loss and damage is a relative newcomer to the climate change agenda. It has the potential to reinvigorate existing mitigation and adaptation efforts, but this will ultimately require leadership from developed countries and enhanced understanding of several key issues, such as limits to adaptation.

  16. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  17. Enhancement of damage indicators in wavelet and curvature analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Raghu Prasad; N Lakshmanan; K Muthumani; N Gopalakrishnan

    2006-08-01

    Damage in a structural element induces a small perturbation in its static or dynamic displacement profile which can be captured by wavelet analysis. The paper presents the wavelet analysis of damaged linear structural elements using DB4 or BIOR6·8 family of wavelets. An expression is developed for computing the natural frequencies of a damaged beam using first order perturbation theory. Starting with a localized reduction of EI at the mid-span of a simply supported beam, damage modelling is done for a typical steel beam element. Wavelet analysis is performed for this damage model for displacement, rotation and curvature mode shapes as well as static displacement profiles. Damage indicators like displacement, slope and curvature are magnified under higher modes. Instantaneous step-wise linearity is assumed for all the nonlinear elements. A localization scheme with arbitrararily located curvature nodes within a pseudo span is developed for steady state dynamic loads, such that curvature response and damages are maximized and the scheme is numerically tested and proved.

  18. Damage modelling in Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E.; Camus, G. [Bordeaux-1 Univ. des Sciences et Technologies-3, LCTS, Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux, CNRS-UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac, (France); Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The plasma facing components (PFC) of controlled fusion devices are submitted to high heat fluxes in operating conditions (10 MW/m2 for Tore Supra and up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} for ITER, Cadarache, France). Active cooling is required to maintain a reasonable surface temperature and to avoid critical heat flux and melting of the components. The PFC developed for Tore Supra are made of a carbon/carbon (C/C) composite flat tile bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. Under operating conditions, because of the thermal expansion mismatch existing between the C/C composite and the copper alloy, these components withstand significant stresses which induce damage in the C/C material as well as at the copper/composite interface. Design tools are thus required in order to analyse the initiation and the propagation of damage in thermally loaded PFC. The present study describes a modelling approach aimed at predicting damage in actively cooled PFC. For this purpose, dedicated experimental procedures have been developed and sound constitutive laws taking into account the damage related non linear behaviour of both the C/C material and the Cu-C/C joint have been established. Various tests have first been performed on C/C samples in tension and compression, within the fibre axis and off-axis, as well as in shear using a Iosipescu type device, in order to carefully analyse the non-linear mechanical behaviour of this material. A constitutive law able to handle complex multiaxial loadings, established within a classical thermodynamical framework and using scalar damage variables, was then identified. Tensile and shear tests were also performed on C/C-Cu samples in order to identify a cohesive zone model representative of the damageable behaviour of the joint. These constitutive laws were then introduced in a numerical model representative of a PFC. Obtained results have evidenced the progressive development of damage which takes place in the assembly when

  19. Nonlinear Optical Rectennas

    CERN Document Server

    Stolz, A; Markey, L; Francs, G Colas des; Bouhelier, A

    2013-01-01

    We introduce strongly-coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion and demonstrate that a two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.

  20. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  1. Nonlinear electrodynamics with birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglov, S I

    2015-01-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with three parameters is suggested. The phenomena of vacuum birefringence takes place when there is the external constant magnetic field. We calculate the indices of refraction for two polarizations of electromagnetic waves, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic induction field. From the Bir\\'{e}fringence Magn\\'{e}tique du Vide (BMV) experiment one of the coefficients, $\\gamma\\approx 10^{-20}$ T$^{-2}$, was estimated. The canonical, symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors and dilatation current were obtained. The dilatation symmetry and the dual symmetry are broken in the model considered.

  2. Nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which

  3. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  4. Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-18

    analytic semigroup T(t) ~ eAl is exponentially stable (Notice that it is also a contraction semigroup ). 3. Be 3(U, Z) and P e £(W, 2) are bounded. 4. Ce...quite often in practice, .4 is self-adjoint. We also note that, since we assume (—A) is sectorial, we work with the semigroup exp(.4f) rather than...Uniform Output Regulation of Nonlinear Sys- tems: A convergent Dynamics Approach, Birkhauser, Boston, 2006. 23 135] A. Pazy, Semigroups of Linear

  5. Nonlinear elliptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJAIRO G. DEFIGUEIREDO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we treat the question of the existence of solutions of boundary value problems for systems of nonlinear elliptic equations of the form - deltau = f (x, u, v,Ñu,Ñv, - deltav = g(x, u, v, Ñu, Ñv, in omega, We discuss several classes of such systems using both variational and topological methods. The notion of criticality takes into consideration the coupling, which plays important roles in both a priori estimates for the solutions and Palais-Smale conditions for the associated functional in the variational case.

  6. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    damage threshold and prevents the occurrences of false alarms resulting from imperfections and noise in the measurement system. The threshold computation from only the measured signals is they key behind baseline-free damage detection in plates. Chapters 3 and 4 are concerned with nonlinear ultrasonic techniques for crack detection in metallic structures. Chapter 3 describes a nonlinear guided wave technique based on the principle of super-harmonic production due to crack induced nonlinearity. A semi-analytical method is formulated to investigate the behavior of a bilinear crack model. Upon comparing the behavior with experimental observations, it is inferred that a bilinear model can only partially capture the signal characteristics arising from a fatigue crack. A correlation between the extents of nonlinear behavior of a breathing crack with the different stages of the fatigue crack growth is also made in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, a nonlinear system identification method through coherence measurement is proposed. A popular electro-magnetic impedance circuit was used to detect acoustic nonlinearity produced by a crack. Chapters 5 and 6 comprise the final part of this thesis where wavefield images from a scanning laser vibrometer are digitally processed to detect defects in composite structures. Once processed, the defect in the scanned surface stands out as an outlier in the background of the undamaged area. An outlier analysis algorithm is then implemented to detect and localize the damage automatically. In Chapter 5, exploratory groundwork on wavefield imaging is done by obtaining wave propagation images from specimens made of different materials and with different geometries. In Chapter 6, a hitherto unnoted phenomenon of standing wave formation in delaminated composite plates is observed and explained. Novel signal and image processing techniques are also proposed in this chapter, of which the isolation of standing waves using wavenumber-frequency domain manipulation

  7. Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.  

  8. Nonlinear evolution of drift instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.W.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.R.; Smith, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of collisionless drift instabilities in a shear-free magnetic field has been studied by means of gyrokinetic particle simulation as well as numerical integration of model mode-coupling equations. The purpose of the investigation is to identify relevant nonlinear mechanisms responsible for the steady-state drift wave fluctuations. It is found that the saturation of the instability is mainly caused by the nonlinear E x B convection of the resonant electrons and their associated velocity space nonlinearity. The latter also induces energy exchange between the competing modes, which, in turn, gives rise to enhanced diffusion. The nonlinear E x B convection of the ions, which contributes to the nonlinear frequency shift, is also an important ingredient for the saturation.

  9. Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media with simultaneous nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-10

    In this paper, the Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media has been further developed when nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction appear simultaneously. To this end, the nonlinear photoinduced phase shift between the impinging and outgoing Gaussian beams from a nonlocal nonlinear sample has been generalized. It is shown that this kind of phase shift will reduce correctly to its known counterpart for the case of pure refractive nonlinearity. Using this generalized form of phase shift, the basic formulas for closed- and open-aperture beam transmittances in the far field have been provided, and a simple procedure for interpreting the Z-scan results has been proposed. In this procedure, by separately performing open- and closed-aperture Z-scan experiments and using the represented relations for the far-field transmittances, one can measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear index of refraction as well as the order of nonlocality. Theoretically, it is shown that when the absorptive nonlinearity is present in addition to the refractive nonlinearity, the sample nonlocal response can noticeably suppress the peak and enhance the valley of the Z-scan closed-aperture transmittance curves, which is due to the nonlocal action's ability to change the beam transverse dimensions.

  10. A supervised vibration-based statistical methodology for damage detection under varying environmental conditions & its laboratory assessment with a scale wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez González, A.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of vibration-based damage detection under varying environmental conditions and uncertainty is considered, and a novel, supervised, PCA-type statistical methodology is postulated. The methodology employs vibration data records from the healthy and damaged states of a structure under various environmental conditions. Unlike standard PCA-type methods in which a feature vector corresponding to the least important eigenvalues is formed in a single step, the postulated methodology uses supervised learning in which damaged-state data records are employed to sequentially form a feature vector by appending a transformed scalar element at a time under the condition that it optimally, among all remaining elements, improves damage detectability. This leads to the formulation of feature vectors with optimized sensitivity to damage, and thus high damage detectability. Within this methodology three particular methods, two non-parametric and one parametric, are formulated. These are validated and comparatively assessed via a laboratory case study focusing on damage detection on a scale wind turbine blade under varying temperature and the potential presence of sprayed water. Damage detection performance is shown to be excellent based on a single vibration response sensor and a limited frequency bandwidth.

  11. Topics on nonlinear generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Colombeau, J F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give the text of a recent introduction to nonlinear generalized functions exposed in my talk in the congress gf2011, which was asked by several participants. Three representative topics were presented: two recalls "Nonlinear generalized functions and their connections with distribution theory", "Examples of applications", and a recent development: "Locally convex topologies and compactness: a functional analysis of nonlinear generalized functions".

  12. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Phased Array Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. N.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  13. Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, J N; Croxford, A.J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging t...

  14. Research on Nonlinear Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-10

    investigated fundamental aspects of functional differential equations, including qualitative questions (stability, nonlinear oscillations ), in 142,45,47,52...Bifurcation in the Duffing equation with several parameters, II. Proc. of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Series A, 79A (1977), pp.317-326. 1I.J (with ;Ibtoas...Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 730 (1979). [54] Nonlinear oscillations in equations with delays. Proc. at A.M.S. 10th Summer Seminar on Nonlinear

  15. Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J N; Croxford, A J; Wilcox, P D

    2014-10-03

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  16. Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Boyd , Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2008). [13] M. Scully and S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6703--14-9548 Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry PhilliP SPrangle...b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry Phillip Sprangle, Luke

  17. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  18. Linearization of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A; Alvarez, M L [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E; Pascual, I [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2009-03-11

    A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the technique.

  19. The Earth's oscillating electric field (T = 1 day) in relation to the occurrence time of large EQs (Ms \\geq 5.0R). A postulated theoretical physical working model and its statistical validation

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

    2011-01-01

    The mechanically oscillating, due to tidal forces, lithosperic plate activates, because of its high content in quartzite, the generation of a piezoelectric field. Due to the same mechanical oscillation the lithosphere is generally at a state of an oscillating stress load. Therefore, large EQs which occur at the peaks of the stress load must coincide with the peaks of the generated piezoelectric potential. In this work a physical mechanism is postulated that accounts for the latter hypothesis. The postulated model is statistically tested by comparing the time of occurrence of 280 large EQs (Ms \\geq 5.0R) which occurred during the period from 2003 to 2011, to the same period of time Earth's electric field registered at ATH (Athens) and PYR (Pyrgos) monitoring sites located in Greece. The comparison has been made for the oscillating component of T = 1 day and for both the E - W and N - S directions. The statistical results indicate that the postulated model does not behave randomly. Instead, it represents a smoo...

  20. Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.

  1. Asymptotics for dissipative nonlinear equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Nakao; Kaikina, Elena I; Shishmarev, Ilya A

    2006-01-01

    Many of problems of the natural sciences lead to nonlinear partial differential equations. However, only a few of them have succeeded in being solved explicitly. Therefore different methods of qualitative analysis such as the asymptotic methods play a very important role. This is the first book in the world literature giving a systematic development of a general asymptotic theory for nonlinear partial differential equations with dissipation. Many typical well-known equations are considered as examples, such as: nonlinear heat equation, KdVB equation, nonlinear damped wave equation, Landau-Ginzburg equation, Sobolev type equations, systems of equations of Boussinesq, Navier-Stokes and others.

  2. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Benoît; Cundiff, Steven T; Gauthier, Daniel J; Karlsson, Magnus; Lu, Yan-Qing; Norwood, Robert A; Skryabin, Dmitry; Taira, Takunori

    2011-11-07

    It is now fifty years since the original observation of second harmonic generation ushered in the field of nonlinear optics, close on the heels of the invention of the laser. This feature issue celebrates this anniversary with papers that span the range from new nonlinear optical materials, through the increasingly novel methods that have been developed for phase matching, to emerging areas such as nonlinear metamaterials and plasmonic enhancement of optical properties. It is clear that the next fifty years of nonlinear optics will witness a proliferation of new applications with increasing technological impact.

  3. Nonlocal homogenization for nonlinear metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    We present a consistent theoretical approach for calculating effective nonlinear susceptibilities of metamaterials taking into account both frequency and spatial dispersion. Employing the discrete dipole model, we demonstrate that effects of spatial dispersion become especially pronounced in the vicinity of effective permittivity resonance where nonlinear susceptibilities reach their maxima. In that case spatial dispersion may enable simultaneous generation of two harmonic signals with the same frequency and polarization but different wave vectors. We also prove that the derived expressions for nonlinear susceptibilities transform into the known form when spatial dispersion effects are negligible. In addition to revealing new physical phenomena, our results provide useful theoretical tools for analysing resonant nonlinear metamaterials.

  4. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Shakouri, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically for single parabolic band semiconductors assuming a shifted Fermi-Dirac electronic distribution under an applied bias. Analytical results are in agreement with numerical simulations. Key material parameters affecting the nonlinear behavior are doping concentration, effective mass, and electron-phonon coupling. Current density thresholds at which nonlinear behavior is observable are extracted from numerical data. It is shown that the nonlinear Peltier effect can be used to enhance cooling of thin film microrefrigerator devices especially at low temperatures.

  5. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  6. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  7. Nonlinear optics in Xe-filled hollow-core PCF in high pressure and supercritical regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, M; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical Xe at 293 K offers a Kerr nonlinearity that can exceed that of fused silica while being free of Raman scattering. It also has a much higher optical damage threshold and a transparency window that extends from the UV to the infrared. We report the observation of nonlinear phenomena, such as self-phase modulation, in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with supercritical Xe. In the subcritical regime, intermodal four-wave-mixing resulted in the generation of UV light in the HE12 mode. The normal dispersion of the fiber at high pressures means that spectral broadening can clearly obtained without influence from soliton effects or material damage.

  8. DNA Repair and the Accumulation of Oxidatively Damaged DNA Are Affected by Fruit Intake in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croteau, Deborah L; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Harboe, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with elevated oxidative stress and DNA damage. To achieve healthy aging, we must begin to understand how diet affects cellular processes. We postulated that fruit-enriched diets might initiate a program of enhanced DNA repair and thereby improve genome integrity. C57Bl/6 J mice...... were fed for 14 weeks a control diet or a diet with 8% peach or nectarine extract. The activities of DNA repair enzymes, the level of DNA damage, and gene expression changes were measured. Our study showed that repair of various oxidative DNA lesions was more efficient in liver extracts derived from......-fed mice. Taken together, these results suggest that an increased intake of fruits might modulate the efficiency of DNA repair, resulting in altered levels of DNA damage....

  9. Nonlinear Response of Strong Nonlinear System Arisen in Polymer Cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed for a polymer foam-based nonlinear cushioning system. An accurate analytical solution for the nonlinear free vibration of the system is derived by applying He's variational iteration method, and conditions for resonance are obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning design.

  10. Reducing Uncertainty of Monte Carlo Estimated Fatigue Damage in Offshore Wind Turbines Using FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; H. Horn, Jan-Tore

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties related to fatigue damage estimation of non-linear systems are highly dependent on the tail behaviour and extreme values of the stress range distribution. By using a combination of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS), the accuracy of the fatigue...... estimations may be improved for the same computational efforts.The method is applied to a bottom-fixed, monopile-supported large offshore wind turbine, which is a non-linear and dynamically sensitive system. Different curve fitting techniques to the fatigue damage distribution have been used depending...

  11. Nonlinear dynamic acousto-elasticity measurement by Rayleigh wave in concrete cover evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quang Anh; Garnier, Vincent; Payan, Cédric; Chaix, Jean-François; Lott, Martin; Eiras, Jesús N.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents local non-destructive evaluation of concrete cover by using surface Rayleigh wave in nonlinear Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity (DAE) measurement. Dynamic non classical nonlinear elastic behavior like modulus decrease under applied stress and slow dynamic process has been observed in many varieties of solid, also in concrete. The measurements conducted in laboratory, consist in qualitative evaluation of concrete thermal damage. Nonlinear elastic parameters especially conditioning offset are analyzed for the cover concrete by Rayleigh wave. The results of DAE method show enhanced sensitivity when compared to velocity measurement. Afterward, this technique broadens measurements to the field.

  12. Radiation damage tolerant nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Beyerlein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing a material from the atomic level to achieve a tailored response in extreme conditions is a grand challenge in materials research. Nanostructured metals and composites provide a path to this goal because they contain interfaces that attract, absorb and annihilate point and line defects. These interfaces recover and control defects produced in materials subjected to extremes of displacement damage, impurity implantation, stress and temperature. Controlling radiation-induced-defects via interfaces is shown to be the key factor in reducing the damage and imparting stability in certain nanomaterials under conditions where bulk materials exhibit void swelling and/or embrittlement. We review the recovery of radiation-induced point defects at free surfaces and grain boundaries and stabilization of helium bubbles at interphase boundaries and present an approach for processing bulk nanocomposites containing interfaces that are stable under irradiation.

  13. Microcrack Identification in Cement-Based Materials Using Nonlinear Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Qu, J.; Kurtis, K. E.; Wu, S. C.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents results from tests that use nonlinear acoustic waves to distinguish microcracks in cement-based materials. Portland cement mortar samples prepared with alkali-reactive aggregate were exposed to an aggressive environment to induce cracking were compared to control samples, of the same composition, but which were not exposed to aggressive conditions. Two nonlinear ultrasonic methods were used to characterize the samples, with the aim of identifying the time and extent of microcracking; these techniques were a nonlinear acoustical modulation (NAM) method and a harmonic amplitude relation (HAR) method. These nonlinear acoustic results show that both methods can distinguish damaged samples from undamaged ones, demonstrating the potential of nonlinear acoustic waves to provide a quantitative evaluation of the deterioration of cement-based materials.

  14. Nonlinear forecasting of intertidal shoreface evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D. J.; Cortale, N.; Baker, K.; McNamara, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    Natural systems dominated by sediment transport are notoriously difficult to forecast. This is particularly true along the ocean coastline, a region that draws considerable human attention as economic investment and infrastructure are threatened by both persistent, long-term and acute, event driven processes (i.e., sea level rise and storm damage, respectively). Forecasting the coastline's evolution over intermediate time (daily) and space (tens of meters) scales is hindered by the complexity of sediment transport and hydrodynamics, and limited access to the detailed local forcing that drives fast scale processes. Modern remote sensing systems provide an efficient, economical means to collect data within these regions. A solar-powered digital camera installation is used to capture the coast's evolution, and machine learning algorithms are implemented to extract the shoreline and estimate the daily mean intertidal coastal profile. Methods in nonlinear time series forecasting and genetic programming applied to these data corroborate that coastal morphology at these scales is predominately driven by nonlinear internal dynamics, which partially mask external forcing signatures. Results indicate that these forecasting techniques achieve nontrivial predictive skill for spatiotemporal forecast of the upper coastline profile (as much as 43% of variance in data explained for one day predictions). This analysis provides evidence that societally relevant coastline forecasts can be achieved without knowing the forcing environment or the underlying dynamical equations that govern coastline evolution.

  15. Sensitivity of ultrasonic nonlinearity to irradiated, annealed, and re-irradiated microstructure changes in RPV steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlack, K.H., E-mail: katie.matlack@gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Kim, J.-Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Wall, J.J. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Qu, J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Jacobs, L.J. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Sokolov, M.A. [Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The planned life extension of nuclear reactors throughout the US and abroad will cause reactor vessel and internals materials to be exposed to more neutron irradiation than was originally intended. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor radiation damage would enable safe and cost-effective continued operation of nuclear reactors. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes microstructural changes that leave the material in an embrittled state. Nonlinear ultrasound is an NDE technique quantified by the measurable acoustic nonlinearity parameter, which is sensitive to microstructural changes in metallic materials such as dislocations, precipitates and their combinations. Recent research has demonstrated the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing neutron fluence in representative RPV steels. The current work considers nonlinear ultrasonic experiments conducted on similar RPV steel samples that had a combination of irradiation, annealing, re-irradiation, and/or re-annealing to a total neutron fluence of 0.5–5 × 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 290 °C. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter generally increased with increasing neutron fluence, and consistently decreased from the irradiated to the annealed state over different levels of neutron fluence. Results of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter are compared with those from previous measurements on other RPV steel samples. This comprehensive set of results illustrates the dependence of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter on neutron fluence, material composition, irradiation temperature and annealing.

  16. Sensitivity of ultrasonic nonlinearity to irradiated, annealed, and re-irradiated microstructure changes in RPV steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlack, Katie [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Kim, J-Y. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Wall, J.J. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Jacobs, L.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    The planned life extension of nuclear reactors throughout the US and abroad will cause reactor vessel and internals materials to be exposed to more neutron irradiation than was originally intended. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor radiation damage would enable safe and cost-effective continued operation of nuclear reactors. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes microstructural changes that leave the material in an embrittled state. Nonlinear ultrasound is an NDE technique quantified by the measurable acoustic nonlinearity parameter, which is sensitive to microstructural changes in metallic materials such as dislocations, precipitates and their combinations. Recent research has demonstrated the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing neutron fluence in representative RPV steels. The current work considers nonlinear ultrasonic experiments conducted on similar RPV steel samples that had a combination of irradiation, annealing, re-irradiation, and/or re-annealing to a total neutron fluence of 0.5 5 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 290 C. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter generally increased with increasing neutron fluence, and consistently decreased from the irradiated to the annealed state over different levels of neutron fluence. Results of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter are compared with those from previous measurements on other RPV steel samples. This comprehensive set of results illustrates the dependence of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter on neutron fluence, material composition, irradiation temperature and annealing.

  17. Damage Detection and Quantification Using Transmissibility Coherence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lai Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new transmissibility-based damage detection and quantification approach is proposed. Based on the operational modal analysis, the transmissibility is extracted from system responses and transmissibility coherence is defined and analyzed. Afterwards, a sensitive-damage indicator is defined in order to detect and identify the severity of damage and compared with an indicator developed by other authors. The proposed approach is validated on data from a physics-based numerical model as well as experimental data from a three-story aluminum frame structure. For both numerical simulation and experiment the results of the new indicator reveal a better performance than coherence measure proposed in Rizos et al., 2008, Rizos et al., 2002, Fassois and Sakellariou, 2007, especially when nonlinearity occurs, which might be further used in real engineering. The main contribution of this study is the construction of the relation between transmissibility coherence and frequency response function coherence and the construction of an effective indicator based on the transmissibility modal assurance criteria for damage (especially for minor nonlinearity detection as well as quantification.

  18. Evaluation of a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) due to a 160 cm{sup 2} break in a cold leg of Angra 2 nuclear power plant[LOCA; RELAP-5/MOD3.2.2g; nodalization]; Calculo do acidente postulado de perda de refrigerante por uma ruptura de 160 cm{sup 2} na perna fria da central nuclear Angra 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Carlos Vicente Goulart de; Palmieri, Elcio Tadeu; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The development of a qualified full nodalization of Angra2 NPP for RELAP5/Mod 3.2.2 gamma, aiming at the evaluation of a comprehensive number of accidents and transients, thus providing suitable safety analysis support for licensing purposes, is being carried out within the framework of CNEN internal technical cooperation, involving some of its institutes (CDTN, IPEN and IEN) and the Reactors Coordination (CODRE). This work presents a simulation of a postulated Angra2 small cold leg break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). A 160 cm{sup 2} break is supposed to occur at one cold leg between the main coolant pump and the reactor vessel and is described in the Angra2 Final Safety Analysis Report, section 15.6.4.1.3.4. The simulation of several types of transients and accidents is necessary to verify the adequate performance of the modeled logic and systems. In general, the analysis of such and accident allows to demonstrate the safety Injection System performance and the reliable transition between the high pressure safety injection, the accumulator injection and the residual heat removal phases. Furthermore, it is assumed that some components are out of service due to fail or repair in order to make a conservative analysis. The results showed a compatible behavior of the molded systems and that the simulated Emergency Core Cooling System was able to provide sufficient cooling to avoid any damage to the core. (author)

  19. Nonlinear Evolution of Ferroelectric Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiLU; Dai-NingFANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of ferroelectric domains is investigated in the paper and amodel is proposed which can be applied to numerical computation.Numerical results show that the model can accurately predict some nonlinear behavior and consist with those experimental results.

  20. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.

  1. Space curves, anholonomy and nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radha Balakrishnan

    2005-04-01

    Using classical differential geometry, we discuss the phenomenon of anholonomy that gets associated with a static and a moving curve. We obtain the expressions for the respective geometric phases in the two cases and interpret them. We show that there is a close connection between anholonomy and nonlinearity in a wide class of nonlinear systems.

  2. Balancing for unstable nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A previously obtained method of balancing for stable nonlinear systems is extended to unstable nonlinear systems. The similarity invariants obtained by the concept of LQG balancing for an unstable linear system can also be obtained by considering a past and future energy function of the system. By c

  3. Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayergoyz, I.D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.

  4. Nonlinear energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallart, Mickael; Guyomar, Daniel, E-mail: mickael.lallart@insa-lyon.fr [LGEF, INSA-Lyon, Universite de Lyon, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621 (France)

    2011-10-29

    The proliferation of wearable and left-behind devices has raised the issue of powering such systems. While primary batteries have been widely used in order to address this issue, recent trends have focused on energy harvesting products that feature high reliability and low maintenance issues. Among all the ambient sources available for energy harvesting, vibrations and heat have been of significant interest among the research community for small-scale devices. However, the conversion abilities of materials are still limited when dealing with systems featuring small dimensions. The purpose of this paper is to presents an up-to-date view of nonlinear approaches for increasing the efficiency of electromechanical and electrocaloric conversion mechanisms. From the modeling of the operation principles of the different architectures, a comparative analysis will be exposed, emphasizing the advantages and drawbacks of the presented concepts, in terms of maximal output power (under constant vibration magnitude or taking into account the damping effect), load independence, and implementation easiness.

  5. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  6. Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume brings together four lecture courses on modern aspects of water waves. The intention, through the lectures, is to present quite a range of mathematical ideas, primarily to show what is possible and what, currently, is of particular interest. Water waves of large amplitude can only be fully understood in terms of nonlinear effects, linear theory being not adequate for their description. Taking advantage of insights from physical observation, experimental evidence and numerical simulations, classical and modern mathematical approaches can be used to gain insight into their dynamics. The book presents several avenues and offers a wide range of material of current interest. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the book should be of interest to mathematicians (pure and applied), physicists and engineers. The lectures provide a useful source for those who want to begin to investigate how mathematics can be used to improve our understanding of water wave phenomena. In addition, some of the...

  7. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  8. Nonlinear transmission sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, I. S.; Sigmund, P.

    1996-05-01

    General expressions have been derived for the nonlinear yield of transmission sputtering for an incident polyatomic ion under the assumption that the molecule breaks up on entering the target and that sputter yields are enhanced due to proximity of atomic trajectories. Special attention is given to the case of negligible Coulomb explosion where projectile atoms penetrate independently. For weakly overlapping trajectories, the yield enhancement factor of a polyatomic molecule can be expressed by that of a diatom, amended with a correction for triple correlations if necessary. This expression is in good agreement with recent experimental findings on phenylalanine targets. Pertinent results on multiple scattering of atomic ions are reviewed and applied to independently-moving fragment atoms. The merits of measurements at variable layer thickness in addition to variable projectile energy are mentioned.

  9. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  10. Nonlinear rotordynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, W. B.; Zalik, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Three analytic consequences of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations are examined. The primary application of these analyses is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the Liquid Oxygen (LOX) pump of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during hot firing ground testing. The first task is to provide bounds on the coefficients of the equations which delimit the two cases of numerical solution as a circle or an annulus. The second task examines the mathematical generalization to multiple forcing functions, which includes the special problems of mass imbalance, side force, rubbing, and combination of these forces. Finally, stability and boundedness of the steady-state solutions is discussed and related to the corresponding linear problem.

  11. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  12. Nonlinear field space cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    We consider the FRW cosmological model in which the matter content of the Universe (playing the role of an inflaton or quintessence) is given by a novel generalization of the massive scalar field. The latter is a scalar version of the recently introduced nonlinear field space theory, where the physical phase space of a given field is assumed to be compactified at large energies. For our analysis, we choose the simple case of a field with the spherical phase space and endow it with the generalized Hamiltonian analogous to the XXZ Heisenberg model, normally describing a system of spins in condensed matter physics. Subsequently, we study both the homogenous cosmological sector and linear perturbations of such a test field. In the homogenous sector, we find that nonlinearity of the field phase space is becoming relevant for large volumes of the Universe and can lead to a recollapse, and possibly also at very high energies, leading to the phase of a bounce. Quantization of the field is performed in the limit where the nontrivial nature of its phase space can be neglected, while there is a nonvanishing contribution from the Lorentz symmetry breaking term of the Hamiltonian. As a result, in the leading order of the XXZ anisotropy parameter, we find that the inflationary spectral index remains unmodified with respect to the standard case but the total amplitude of perturbations is subject to a correction. The Bunch-Davies vacuum state also becomes appropriately corrected. The proposed new approach is bringing cosmology and condensed matter physics closer together, which may turn out to be beneficial for both disciplines.

  13. NONLINEAR STABILITY FOR EADY'S MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-ming; QIU Ling-cun

    2005-01-01

    Poincaré type integral inequality plays an important role in the study of nonlinear stability ( in the sense of Arnold's second theorem) for three-dimensional quasigeostophic flow. The nonlinear stability of Eady's model is one of the most important cases in the application of the method. But the best nonlinear stability criterion obtained so far and the linear stability criterion are not coincident. The two criteria coincide only when the period of the channel is infinite.additional conservation law of momentum and by rigorous estimate of integral inequality. So the new nonlinear stability criterion was obtained, which shows that for Eady 's model in the periodic channel, the linear stable implies the nonlinear stable.

  14. Nonlinear Waves in Complex Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations, it is the ......The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations......, it is the universality and robustness of the main models with respect to perturbations that developped the field. This is true for both continuous and discrete equations. In this volume we keep this broad view and draw new perspectives for nonlinear waves in complex systems. In particular we address energy flow...

  15. Terahertz Nonlinearity in Graphene Plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Jadidi, Mohammad M; Winnerl, Stephan; Sushkov, Andrei B; Drew, H Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E; Mittendorff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength graphene structures support localized plasmonic resonances in the terahertz and mid-infrared spectral regimes. The strong field confinement at the resonant frequency is predicted to significantly enhance the light-graphene interaction, which could enable nonlinear optics at low intensity in atomically thin, sub-wavelength devices. To date, the nonlinear response of graphene plasmons and their energy loss dynamics have not been experimentally studied. We measure and theoretically model the terahertz nonlinear response and energy relaxation dynamics of plasmons in graphene nanoribbons. We employ a THz pump-THz probe technique at the plasmon frequency and observe a strong saturation of plasmon absorption followed by a 10 ps relaxation time. The observed nonlinearity is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to unpatterned graphene with no plasmon resonance. We further present a thermal model for the nonlinear plasmonic absorption that supports the experimental results.

  16. Fast Numerical Nonlinear Fourier Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear Fourier transform, which is also known as the forward scattering transform, decomposes a periodic signal into nonlinearly interacting waves. In contrast to the common Fourier transform, these waves no longer have to be sinusoidal. Physically relevant waveforms are often available for the analysis instead. The details of the transform depend on the waveforms underlying the analysis, which in turn are specified through the implicit assumption that the signal is governed by a certain evolution equation. For example, water waves generated by the Korteweg-de Vries equation can be expressed in terms of cnoidal waves. Light waves in optical fiber governed by the nonlinear Schr\\"dinger equation (NSE) are another example. Nonlinear analogs of classic problems such as spectral analysis and filtering arise in many applications, with information transmission in optical fiber, as proposed by Yousefi and Kschischang, being a very recent one. The nonlinear Fourier transform is eminently suited to address them ...

  17. Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.

  18. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2009-09-15

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  19. Nonlinear Oscillators in Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester,Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    We discuss dynamical systems that produce an oscillation without an external time dependent source. Numerical results are presented for nonlinear oscillators in the Em1h's atmosphere, foremost the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBOl. These fluid dynamical oscillators, like the solar dynamo, have in common that one of the variables in a governing equation is strongly nonlinear and that the nonlinearity, to first order, has particular form. of 3rd or odd power. It is shown that this form of nonlinearity can produce the fundamental li'equency of the internal oscillation. which has a period that is favored by the dynamical condition of the fluid. The fundamental frequency maintains the oscillation, with no energy input to the system at that particular frequency. Nonlinearities of 2nd or even power could not maintain the oscillation.

  20. Asymptotic expansions in nonlinear rotordynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, William B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an examination of special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot-firing ground testing. Deadband, side force, and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency, is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as singular asymptotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency, which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies.

  1. Nonlinear hyperbolic waves in multidimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Phoolan

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of curved, nonlinear wavefronts and shock fronts are very complex phenomena. Since the 1993 publication of his work Propagation of a Curved Shock and Nonlinear Ray Theory, author Phoolan Prasad and his research group have made significant advances in the underlying theory of these phenomena. This volume presents their results and provides a self-contained account and gradual development of mathematical methods for studying successive positions of these fronts.Nonlinear Hyperbolic Waves in Multidimensions includes all introductory material on nonlinear hyperbolic waves and the theory of shock waves. The author derives the ray theory for a nonlinear wavefront, discusses kink phenomena, and develops a new theory for plane and curved shock propagation. He also derives a full set of conservation laws for a front propagating in two space dimensions, and uses these laws to obtain successive positions of a front with kinks. The treatment includes examples of the theory applied to converging wavefronts...

  2. Analysis of Nonlinear Electromagnetic Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Smith, David R

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a nonlinear metamaterial formed by integrating nonlinear components or materials into the capacitive regions of metamaterial elements. A straightforward homogenization procedure leads to general expressions for the nonlinear susceptibilities of the composite metamaterial medium. The expressions are convenient, as they enable inhomogeneous system of scattering elements to be described as a continuous medium using the standard notation of nonlinear optics. We illustrate the validity and accuracy of our theoretical framework by performing measurements on a fabricated metamaterial sample composed of an array of split ring resonators (SRRs) with packaged varactors embedded in the capacitive gaps in a manner similar to that of Wang et al. [Opt. Express 16, 16058 (2008)]. Because the SRRs exhibit a predominant magnetic response to electromagnetic fields, the varactor-loaded SRR composite can be described as a magnetic material with nonlinear terms in its effective magnetic susceptibility...

  3. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond (Purdue); Doug Adams (Purdue)

    2014-08-01

    context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.

  4. The Nonlinear Analytical Envelope Equation in quadratic nonlinear crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We here derive the so-called Nonlinear Analytical Envelope Equation (NAEE) inspired by the work of Conforti et al. [M. Conforti, A. Marini, T. X. Tran, D. Faccio, and F. Biancalana, "Interaction between optical fields and their conjugates in nonlinear media," Opt. Express 21, 31239-31252 (2013)], whose notation we follow. We present a complete model that includes $\\chi^{(2)}$ terms [M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and C. De Angelis, "Nonlinear envelope equation for broadband optical pulses in quadratic media," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053841 (2010)], $\\chi^{(3)}$ terms, and then extend the model to delayed Raman effects in the $\\chi^{(3)}$ term. We therefore get a complete model for ultrafast pulse propagation in quadratic nonlinear crystals similar to the Nonlinear Wave Equation in Frequency domain [H. Guo, X. Zeng, B. Zhou, and M. Bache, "Nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain: accurate modeling of ultrafast interaction in anisotropic nonlinear media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 494-504 (2013)], but where the envelope is...

  5. Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...

  6. Network Using Damage Progression Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Keulen

    2014-01-01

    damage (RAPID technique. Two damage metrics are used with the algorithm and a comparison is made to the more commonly used signal difference coefficient (SDC metric. Best case results show that damage is detected within 12 mm. The algorithm is also run on a more sparse network with no damage detection, therefore indicating that the selected arrangement is the most sparse arrangement with this configuration.

  7. Spatial solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero.......We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero....

  8. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2013-04-08

    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  9. Laser Induced Damage Studies in Borosilicate Glass Using nanosecond and sub nanosecond pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Vinay; Munda, D S

    2016-01-01

    The damage mechanism induced by laser pulse of different duration in borosilicate glass widely used for making confinement geometry targets which are important for laser driven shock multiplication and elongation of pressure pulse, is studied. We measured the front and rear surface damage threshold of borosilicate glass and their dependency on laser parameters. In this paper, we also study the thermal effects on the damage diameters, generated at the time of plasma formation. These induced damage width, geometries and microstructure changes are measured and analyzed with optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that at low energies symmetrical damages are found and these damage width increases nonlinearly with laser intensity. The emitted optical spectrum during the process of breakdown is also investigated and is used for the characterization of emitted plasma such as plasma temperature and free electron density. Optical emission lines from Si I at 500 nm, Si ...

  10. ON RESIDUAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH PREDICTION OF COMPOSITE SANDWICH PANELS AFTER LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zonghong; Anthony J. Vizzini; Tang Qingru

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonlinear finite element analysis on damage propagation behavior of composite sandwich panels under in-plane uniaxial quasi-static compression after a low velocity impact. The major damage modes due to the impact, including the residual indentation on the impacted facesheet, the initially crushed core under the impacted area, and the delamination are incorporated into the model. A consequential core crushing mechanism is incorporated intothe analysis by using an element deactivation technique. Damage propagation behavior, which corresponds to those observed in sandwich compression after impact (SCAI) tests, has been successfully captured in the numerical simulation. The critical far field stress corresponding to the onset of damage propagation at specified critical locations near the damage zone are captured successfully. They show a good correlation with experimental data. These values can be used to effectively predict the residual compressive strength of low-velocity impact damaged composite sandwich panels.

  11. Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials Based on the Combined Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenfeng; Mao, Hanling

    2017-07-01

    The fatigue life prediction of metallic materials is always a tough problem that needs to be solved in the mechanical engineering field because it is very important for the secure service of mechanical components. In this paper, a combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter based on the collinear wave mixing technique is applied for fatigue life prediction of a metallic material. Sweep experiments are first conducted to explore the influence of driving frequency on the interaction of two driving signals and the fatigue damage of specimens, and the amplitudes of sidebands at the difference frequency and sum frequency are tracked when the driving frequency changes. Then, collinear wave mixing tests are carried out on a pair of cylindrically notched specimens with different fatigue damage to explore the relationship between the fatigue damage and the relative nonlinear parameters. The experimental results show when the fatigue degree is below 65% the relative nonlinear parameter increases quickly, and the growth rate is approximately 130%. If the fatigue degree is above 65%, the increase in the relative nonlinear parameter is slow, which has a close relationship with the microstructure evolution of specimens. A combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is proposed to highlight the relationship of the relative nonlinear parameter and fatigue degree of specimens; the fatigue life prediction model is built based on the relationship, and the prediction error is below 3%, which is below the prediction error based on the relative nonlinear parameters at the difference and sum frequencies. Therefore, the combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter using the collinear wave mixing method can effectively estimate the fatigue degree of specimens, which provides a fast and convenient method for fatigue life prediction.

  12. Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials Based on the Combined Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenfeng; Mao, Hanling

    2017-08-01

    The fatigue life prediction of metallic materials is always a tough problem that needs to be solved in the mechanical engineering field because it is very important for the secure service of mechanical components. In this paper, a combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter based on the collinear wave mixing technique is applied for fatigue life prediction of a metallic material. Sweep experiments are first conducted to explore the influence of driving frequency on the interaction of two driving signals and the fatigue damage of specimens, and the amplitudes of sidebands at the difference frequency and sum frequency are tracked when the driving frequency changes. Then, collinear wave mixing tests are carried out on a pair of cylindrically notched specimens with different fatigue damage to explore the relationship between the fatigue damage and the relative nonlinear parameters. The experimental results show when the fatigue degree is below 65% the relative nonlinear parameter increases quickly, and the growth rate is approximately 130%. If the fatigue degree is above 65%, the increase in the relative nonlinear parameter is slow, which has a close relationship with the microstructure evolution of specimens. A combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is proposed to highlight the relationship of the relative nonlinear parameter and fatigue degree of specimens; the fatigue life prediction model is built based on the relationship, and the prediction error is below 3%, which is below the prediction error based on the relative nonlinear parameters at the difference and sum frequencies. Therefore, the combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter using the collinear wave mixing method can effectively estimate the fatigue degree of specimens, which provides a fast and convenient method for fatigue life prediction.

  13. Radiation damage in graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, John Harry Walrond

    1965-01-01

    Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This

  14. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Linguistics) help facilitate a new methodological perspective on the study of problems in interpersonal communication and could such a research contribute to develop a methodology that studied ”howabledness” (a term borrowed from Pirkko Raudaskoski) rather than disabledness? A study on ”inclusion” at a centre......Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...

  15. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  16. Reliability analysis of aero-engine blades considering nonlinear strength degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jiewei; Zhang Junhong; Yang Shuo; Bi Fengrong

    2013-01-01

    To comprehensively consider the effects of strength degeneration and failure correlation,an improved stress-strength interference (SSI) model is proposed to analyze the reliability of aeroengine blades with the fatigue failure mode.Two types of TC4 alloy experiments are conducted for the study on the damage accumulation law.All the parameters in the nonlinear damage model are obtained by the tension-compression fatigue tests,and the accuracy of the nonlinear damage model is verified by the damage tests.The strength degeneration model is put forward on the basis of the Chaboche nonlinear damage theory and the Griffith fracture criterion,and determined by measuring the fatigue toughness during the tests.From the comparison of two kinds of degeneration models based on the Miner's linear law and the nonlinear damage model respectively,the nonlinear model has a significant advantage on prediction accuracy especially in the later period of life.A time-dependent SSI reliability model is established.By computing the stress distribution using the finite element (FE) technique,the reliability of a single blade during the whole service life is obtained.Considering the failure correlation of components,a modified reliability model of aero-engine blades with common cause failure (CCF) is presented.It shows a closer and more reasonable process with the actual working condition.The improved reliability model is illustrated to be applied to aero-engine blades well,and the approach purposed in this paper is suitable for any actual machinery component of aero-engine rotor systems.

  17. Resource Letter NO-1: Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on nonlinear optics. Books, journals, and websites are introduced that cover the general subject. Journal articles and websites are cited covering the following topics: second-order nonlinearities in transparent media including second-harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, third-order and higher nonlinearities, nonlinear refractive index, absorptive nonlinearities such as saturable absorption and multiphoton absorption, and scattering nonlinearities such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Steady-state and transient phenomena, fiber optics, solitons, nonlinear wave mixing, optical phase conjugation, nonlinear spectroscopy, and multiphoton microscopy are all outlined.

  18. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  19. Nonlinear feature identification of impedance-based structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, A. C. (Amanda C.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    The impedance-based structural health monitoring technique, which utilizes electromechanical coupling properties of piezoelectric materials, has shown feasibility for use in a variety of structural health monitoring applications. Relying on high frequency local excitations (typically > 30 kHz), this technique is very sensitive to minor changes in structural integrity in the near field of piezoelectric sensors. Several damage sensitive features have been identified and used coupled with the impedance methods. Most of these methods are, however, limited to linearity assumptions of a structure. This paper presents the use of experimentally identified nonlinear features, combined with impedance methods, for structural health monitoring. Their applicability to damage detection in various frequency ranges is demonstrated using actual impedance signals measured from a portal frame structure. The performance of the nonlinear feature is compared with those of conventional impedance methods. This paper reinforces the utility of nonlinear features in structural health monitoring and suggests that their varying sensitivity in different frequency ranges may be leveraged for certain applications.

  20. Structural Health Monitoring under Nonlinear Environmental or Operational Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kullaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring is based on detecting changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is well known that environmental or operational variations can also have an influence on the vibration properties. If these effects are not taken into account, they can result in false indications of damage. If the environmental or operational variations cause nonlinear effects, they can be compensated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM without the measurement of the underlying variables. The number of Gaussian components can also be estimated. For the local linear components, minimum mean square error (MMSE estimation is applied to eliminate the environmental or operational influences. Damage is detected from the residuals after applying principal component analysis (PCA. Control charts are used for novelty detection. The proposed approach is validated using simulated data and the identified lowest natural frequencies of the Z24 Bridge under temperature variation. Nonlinear models are most effective if the data dimensionality is low. On the other hand, linear models often outperform nonlinear models for high-dimensional data.