Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qian-ying Chen; Jing Gao; Kun Dai; Huan Pang; Jia-zhuang Xu; Jian-hua Tang; Zhong-ming Li
2013-01-01
Current-voltage electrical behavior of in situ microfibrillar carbon black (CB)/poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET)/polyethylene (PE) (m-CB/PET/PE) composites with various CB concentrations at ambient temperatures was studied under a direct-current electric field.The current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) curves exhibited nonlinearity beyond a critical value of voltage.The dynamic random resistor network (DRRN) model was adopted to semi-qualitatively explain the nonlinear conduction behavior of m-CB/PET/PE composites.Macroscopic nonlinearity originated from the interracial interactions between CB/PET micro fibrils and additional conduction channels.Combined with the special conductive networks,an illustration was proposed to interpret the nonlinear Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics by a field emission or tunneling mechanism between CB particles in the CB/PET microfibers intersections.
Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of sintered tungsten-vanadium oxide
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zu-Li; Yang Lin-Feng; Wang Yu; Yao Kai-Lun; Wang Chuan-Cong
2004-01-01
We have studied the densification behaviour, microstructure and electrical properties of WO3 ceramics with V2O5as the additive ranging from 0.5 to 15mo1%. Scanning electron microscopic photos indicated that the grain size of WO3-V2O5 specimens is smaller than that of pure WO3. The addition of V2O5 to WO3 showed a tendency to enhance the densification rate and to restrict the grain growth. Electrical properties of all specimens were measured for different electrodes at different temperatures. The formation of the grain boundary barrier layer was confirmed by the non-ohmic I-V behaviour. The nonlinear coefficient was obtained at the current density J=0.01, 0.1 and 1mA-cm2 for a series of WO3-V2O5 samples. The V0.Smol% specimen showed an abnormal phenomenon that the nonlinear characteristics appeared at 350℃ and disappeared at lower and higher temperatures. This implies that it could be applied as a hightemperature varistor. The double Schottky barrier model was adopted to explain the phenomena for the WO3-V2O5varistors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trezza, M.; Cirillo, C.; Sabatino, P.; Carapella, G.; Attanasio, C. [CNR-SPIN Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello”, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Prischepa, S. L. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Browka 6, Minsk 220013 (Belarus)
2013-12-16
We report on the transport properties of an array of N∼30 interconnected Nb nanowires, grown by sputtering on robust porous Si substrates. The analyzed system exhibits a broad resistive transition in zero magnetic field, H, and highly nonlinear V(I) characteristics as a function of H, which can be both consistently described by quantum tunneling of phase slips.
Arkharov, A. M.; Lavrov, N. A.; Romanovskii, V. R.
2014-06-01
The current instability is studied in high-temperature superconducting current-carrying elements with I- V characteristics described by power or exponential equations. Stability analysis of the macroscopic states is carried out in terms of a stationary zero-dimensional model. In linear temperature approximation criteria are derived that allow one to find the maximum allowable values of the induced current, induced electric field intensity, and overheating of the superconductor. A condition is formulated for the complete thermal stabilization of the superconducting composite with regard to the nonlinearity of its I- V characteristic. It is shown that both subcritical and supercritical stable states may arise. In the latter case, the current and electric field intensity are higher than the preset critical parameters of the superconductor. Conditions for these states depending on the properties of the matrix, superconductor's critical current, fill factor, and nonlinearity of the I- V characteristic are discussed. The obtained results considerably augment the class of allowable states for high-temperature superconductors: it is demonstrated that there exist stable resistive conditions from which superconductors cannot pass to the normal state even if the parameters of these conditions are supercritical.
Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes with substitutional nitrogen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaun, C.C.; Larade, B.; Mehrez, H.;
2002-01-01
We report ab initio analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen substitution doping. For zigzag semiconducting tubes, doping with a single N impurity increases current flow and, for small radii tubes, narrows the current gap. Doping a N impurity per nanotube...... unit cell generates a metallic transport behavior. Nonlinear I-V characteristics set in at high bias and a negative differential resistance region is observed for the doped tubes. These behaviors can be well understood from the alignment/mis-alignment of the current carrying bands in the nanotube leads...... due to the applied bias voltage. For a armchair metallic nanotube, a reduction of current is observed with substitutional doping due to elastic backscattering by the impurity....
Current-Voltage Characteristics of Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vodolazov, D.Y.; Peeters, F.M.; Piraux, L.
2003-01-01
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors were discussed. The I-V characteristics exhibited an unusual S behavior. The dynamics of superconducting condensate and the existence of two different critical currents resulted in such an unusual behavior....
Branching in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukrinov, Yu M [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Mahfouzi, F [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, PO Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2007-02-15
We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented.
Branching in current voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions
Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.
2007-02-01
We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented.
ELASTIC-SCATTERING AND THE CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERCONDUCTING NB-INAS-NB JUNCTIONS
VANDERPOST, N; NITTA, J; TAKAYANAGI, H
1993-01-01
Superconducting niobium contacts are attached to a 0.8-mum-long epitaxially grown InAs channel sandwiched between insulating InGaAs layers. The current-voltage characteristics show nonlinearities at submultiples of the superconducting energy gap indicative of multiple-Andreev reflections. We demonst
Current-voltage characteristics of borophene and borophane sheets.
Izadi Vishkayi, Sahar; Bagheri Tagani, Meysam
2017-08-16
Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical research on a monolayer of boron atoms, borophene, the current-voltage characteristics of three different borophene sheets, 2Pmmn, 8Pmmn, and 8Pmmm, are calculated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Borophene sheets with two and eight atoms in a unit cell are considered. Their band structure, electron density, and structural anisotropy are analyzed in detail. The results show that the 8Pmmn and 8Pmmm structures that have eight atoms in the unit cell have less anisotropy than 2Pmmn. In addition, although 8Pmmn shows a Dirac cone in the band structure, its current is lower than that of the other two. We also consider a fully hydrogenated borophene, borophane, and find that the hydrogenation process reduces the structural anisotropy and the current significantly. Our findings reveal that the current-voltage characteristics of the borophene sheets can be used to detect the type and the growth direction of the sample because it is strongly dependent on the direction of the electron transport, anisotropy, and details of the unit cell of the borophene.
Current-voltage characteristics of double-strand DNA sequences
Bezerril, L. M.; Moreira, D. A.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Fulco, U. L.; de Oliveira, E. L.; de Sousa, J. S.
2009-09-01
We use a tight-binding formulation to investigate the transmissivity and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of sequences of double-strand DNA molecules. In order to reveal the relevance of the underlying correlations in the nucleotides distribution, we compare the results for the genomic DNA sequence with those of artificial sequences (the long-range correlated Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro one) and a random sequence, which is a kind of prototype of a short-range correlated system. The random sequence is presented here with the same first neighbors pair correlations of the human DNA sequence. We found that the long-range character of the correlations is important to the transmissivity spectra, although the I-V curves seem to be mostly influenced by the short-range correlations.
Current-voltage characteristics of double-strand DNA sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bezerril, L.M.; Moreira, D.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal-RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L., E-mail: eudenilson@dfte.ufrn.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal-RN (Brazil); Fulco, U.L. [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal-RN (Brazil); Oliveira, E.L. de; Sousa, J.S. de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, 60455-760, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)
2009-09-07
We use a tight-binding formulation to investigate the transmissivity and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of sequences of double-strand DNA molecules. In order to reveal the relevance of the underlying correlations in the nucleotides distribution, we compare the results for the genomic DNA sequence with those of artificial sequences (the long-range correlated Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro one) and a random sequence, which is a kind of prototype of a short-range correlated system. The random sequence is presented here with the same first neighbors pair correlations of the human DNA sequence. We found that the long-range character of the correlations is important to the transmissivity spectra, although the I-V curves seem to be mostly influenced by the short-range correlations.
Current-voltage-temperature characteristics of DNA origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellido, Edson P; Bobadilla, Alfredo D; Rangel, Norma L; Seminario, Jorge M [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zhong Hong; Norton, Michael L [Department of Chemistry, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Sinitskii, Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)
2009-04-29
The temperature dependences of the current-voltage characteristics of a sample of triangular DNA origami deposited in a 100 nm gap between platinum electrodes are measured using a probe station. Below 240 K, the sample shows high impedance, similar to that of the substrate. Near room temperature the current shows exponential behavior with respect to the inverse of temperature. Sweep times of 1 s do not yield a steady state; however sweep times of 450 s for the bias voltage secure a steady state. The thermionic emission and hopping conduction models yield similar barriers of {approx}0.7 eV at low voltages. For high voltages, the hopping conduction mechanism yields a barrier of 0.9 eV and the thermionic emission yields 1.1 eV. The experimental data set suggests that the dominant conduction mechanism is hopping in the range 280-320 K. The results are consistent with theoretical and experimental estimates of the barrier for related molecules.
Improved analytical current voltage characteristics of a solar cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yli-Koski, M.; Tuominen, E.; Acerbis, M.; Sinkkonen, J.
1997-12-31
Application of the Green`s function method to the calculation of the current voltage characteristics of a pn-junction solar cell makes possible to extract more reliable and exact information about the behavior of the cell. With this method not only the minority carrier diffusion currents but also the drift currents in quasi- neutral regions of the solar cell can be taken into consideration. Furthermore, this approach is not limited to an exponentially decaying minority carrier generation function but is valid for any type of optical generation. In addition, the injection boundary condition is exploited with the result that not only the pn-diode current but also the current resulting from the optical generation depends on the voltage of the solar cell. Applying the method also gives the so called position dependent collection efficiency function which is defined as the probability that an electron-hole pair created at a certain point inside the solar cell will contribute to the current leaving the cell. (orig.) 15 refs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
P. Ohlckers; P. Pipinys
2009-01-01
@@ In "Electrical Conductivity and Current-Voltage Characteristics of Individual Conducting Polymer PEDOT Nanowires", Long et al.[1] reported the currentvoltage ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ) characteristics of individual poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires in the temperature range from 20 to 50K (Fig. 2(a)). The authors stated that at temperatures equal to 50 K and higher, the Ⅰ - Ⅴ curves were linear. With decreasing temperature the Ⅰ - Ⅴ curves gradually became nonlinear. The temperature behavior of Ⅰ - Ⅴ characteristics is not suitably explained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. N. Bhowmik
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We have studied current-voltage (I-V characteristics of α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔVP 0.345(± 0.001 V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (∼500-700%, magnetoresistance (70-135 % and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.
Current-voltage characteristics of an individual helical CdS nanowire rope
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Long Yun-Ze; Wang Wen-Long; Bai Feng-Lian; Chen Zhao-Jia; Jin Ai-Zi; Gu Chang-Zhi
2008-01-01
This paper studies the electronic transport in an individual helically twisted CdS nanowire rope, on which platinum microleacls are attached by focused-ion beam deposition. The current-voltage (Ⅰ - Ⅴ ) characteristics are nonlinear from 300 down to 60 K. Some step-like structures in the Ⅰ - Ⅴ curves and oscillation peaks in the differential conductance (dⅠ/dⅤ - Ⅴ) curves have been observed even at room temperature. It proposes that the observed behaviour can be attributed to Coulomb-blockade transport in the one-dimensional CdS nanowires with diameters of 6-10 nm.
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.; Suzuki, M.
2008-10-01
A fine structure of the breakpoint region in the current-voltage characteristics of the coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions in the layered superconductors is found. We establish a correspondence between the features in the current-voltage characteristics and the character of the charge oscillations in superconducting layers in the stack and explain the origin of the breakpoint region structure.
Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Hatefi Kargan
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LONG Yun-Ze; DUVAIL Jean-Luc; CHEN Zhao-Jia; JIN Ai-Zi; GU Chang-Zhi
2008-01-01
We report the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and electrical conductivity of individual template-synthesized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires (190 ± 6 nm in diameter and σRT : 11.2±2Ω-1cm-1)over a wide temperature range from 300 to 10K. With lowering temperature, the Ⅰ- Ⅴ characteristics become nonlinear around 50 K, and a clear Coulomb gap-like structure appears in the differential conductance (dI/dV)spectra. The temperature dependence of the resistance below 70 K follows ln R ∝ T-1/2, which can be interpreted as Efros-Shklovskii hopping conduction in the presence of a Coulomb gap. In addition, the influences of measurement methods such as the applied bias voltage magnitude, the two-probe and four-probe techniques used in the resistance measurements are also reported and discussed.
Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
N Hatefi Kargan
2013-01-01
In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation...
Classification of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iermolenko Ia. O.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available It is shown that computer systems for measuring current-voltage characteristics are very important for semiconductor devices production. The main criteria of efficiency of such systems are defined. It is shown that efficiency of such systems significantly depends on the methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices. The aim of this work is to analyze existing methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and to create the classification of these methods in order to specify the most effective solutions in terms of defined criteria. To achieve this aim, the most common classifications of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and their main disadvantages are considered. Automated and manual, continuous, pulse, mixed, isothermal and isodynamic methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics are analyzed. As a result of the analysis and generalization of existing methods the next classification criteria are defined: the level of automation, the form of measurement signals, the condition of semiconductor device during the measurements, and the use of mathematical processing of the measurement results. With the use of these criteria the classification scheme of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices is composed and the most effective methods are specified.
Current-Voltage Characteristics of Molecular Devices at Low Bias
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIAO Yun-Xing; CHEN Hao; R.Note; H.Mizuseki; Y.Kawazoe
2004-01-01
We use density functional theory and the Green function formalism with charge energy effect included in the self-consistent calculation of the Ⅰ- Ⅴ characteristics of a single benzene ring with an appendage of cf3, and identify some interesting properties of the Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics at low bias. The molecule picks up a fractional charge at zero bias, then the additional fractional charge produces a barrier on the junction of the molecule and contacts to perturb current flow on the molecule. This phenomenon may be useful for the design of future molecular devices.
Effect of current-voltage characteristics on plasma reforming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, N. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Environmental System Engineering; Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Environmental System Research Division; Hur, M.; Kim, K.T.; Kim, S.J.; Song, Y.H. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Environmental System Research Division
2010-07-01
Studies have shown that the energy costs associated with plasma fuel reforming can vary depending on the type of plasma generation technique. The reasons for the different energy costs, however, are not yet clear, since different types of plasma reactor lead to not only different plasma conditions but also lead to different reaction conditions that is not relevant to plasma, such as gas residence time, heat and mass flow conditions. This paper presented the results of a parametric study on methane partial oxidation which was conducted to determine the optimal operating conditions and geometrical design of an arc jet plasma fuel reformer. The arc reactor used in this study was designed to control various operating parameters such as arc length, gas residence time, and gas mixing. Two different types of power supply were tested, notably one that produced high voltage with low current, and one that produced relatively low voltage and high current. The effects of these different voltage-current characteristics on gas reforming process were analyzed based on methane conversion rates, selectivity of products, and thermal efficiencies. The study showed that the input power but not the voltage plays an important role in the present partial oxidation process. The gas residence time was also found to be an important factor in controlling the reformer process. 10 refs., 8 figs.
Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.
2005-01-01
We report the numerical calculations of the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high- superconductors. The charging effect at superconducting layers is taken into account. A set of equations is used to study the non-linear dynamics of the system. In framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model we obtain the total number of branches using fixed initial conditions for phases and their derivatives. The influence of the coupling constant \\alpha on th...
On Calculating the Current-Voltage Characteristic of Multi-Diode Models for Organic Solar Cells
Roberts, Ken
2016-01-01
We provide an alternative formulation of the exact calculation of the current-voltage characteristic of solar cells which have been modeled with a lumped parameters equivalent circuit with one or two diodes. Such models, for instance, are suitable for describing organic solar cells whose current-voltage characteristic curve has an inflection point, also known as an S-shaped anomaly. Our formulation avoids the risk of numerical overflow in the calculation. It is suitable for implementation in Fortran, C or on micro-controllers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boix, Pablo P.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain); Marchesi, Luis F. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de, Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil); Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain)
2011-11-15
A connection is established between recombination and series resistances extracted from impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage curves of polythiophene:fullerene organic solar cells. Recombination is shown to depend exclusively on the (Fermi level) voltage, which allows construction of the current-voltage characteristics in any required conditions based on a restricted set of measurements. The analysis highlights carrier recombination current as the determining mechanism of organic solar cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Current-voltage characteristics of Pb and Sn granular superconducting nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.
2003-01-01
Current-voltage characteristics of Pb and Sn granular superconducting nanowires were investigated. The nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous membranes. It was observed that phase-slip-centers were formed far below the critical temperature when dc current was introduced inside...
Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)
2007-08-15
The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained.
Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization
Stoyanov, Dimitar G
2007-01-01
The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is got.
Effects of hydrogen bonding on current-voltage characteristics of molecular junctions
Kula, Mathias; Jiang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Luo, Yi
2006-11-01
We present a first-principles study of hydrogen bonding effect on current-voltage characteristics of molecular junctions. Three model charge-transfer molecules, 2'-amino-4,4'-di(ethynylphenyl)-1-benzenethiolate (DEPBT-D), 4,4'-di(ethynylphenyl)-2'-nitro-1-benzenethiolate (DEPBT-A), and 2'-amino-4,4'-di(ethynylphenyl)-5'-nitro-1-benzenethiolate (DEPBT-DA), have been examined and compared with the corresponding hydrogen bonded complexes formed with different water molecules. Large differences in current-voltage characteristics are observed for DEPBT-D and DEPBT-A molecules with or without hydrogen bonded waters, while relatively small differences are found for DEPBT-DA. It is predicted that the presence of water clusters can drastically reduce the conductivities of the charge-transfer molecules. The underlying microscopic mechanism has been discussed.
The Current-voltage Characteristics Simulation of the Betavoltaic Power Supply
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.U. Urchuk
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In order to optimize betavoltaic power supply it was calculated the current-voltage characteristics when changing the depth of the upper p-layer and at changing doping levels structure areas. It is shown that an increase in the depth reduces the short-circuit current and thus reduces the open circuit voltage. It has been observed that the concentration of the lightly doped region more significantly influence on the current-voltage characteristics than the depth of the p-n-junction. The concentration of the n-region, equal to 1014 cm – 3, can be considered as during betavoltaic power supply design. It is shown that, by increasing the power supply activity the conversion efficiency of the structure increases, too.
Closed-form expression for the current/ voltage characteristics of pin solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taretto, K.; Rau, U.; Werner, J.H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Elektronik, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569, Stuttgart (Germany)
2003-12-01
A closed-form expression for the current-voltage relationship of pin diodes and pin solar cells is obtained. The model considers drift and diffusion currents, and assumes a uniform electric field in the intrinsic layer, equal diffusion lengths for electrons and holes and a homogeneous generation rate. We show that both drift and diffusion currents must be taken into account to describe the current over a wide range of applied voltage. The inclusion of both transport mechanisms results in diode ideality factors between 1.8 at low, and 1.2 at high applied voltages. Comparisons of current/voltage characteristics and solar cell output parameters obtained from our model with experimental data of thin-film silicon solar cells show that our model accurately explains the output characteristics of pin solar cells. (orig.)
Master Equation Approach to Current-Voltage Characteristics of Solar Cells
Oh, Sangchul; Zhang, Yiteng; Alharbi, Fahhad; Kais, Sabre
2015-03-01
The current-voltage characteristics of solar cells is obtained using quantum master equations for electrons, holes, and excitons, in which generation, recombination, and transport processes are taken into account. As a first example, we simulate a photocell with a molecular aggregate donor to investigate whether a delocalized quantum state could enhance the efficiency. As a second example, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics of conventional p-n junction solar cells and perovskite solar cells using the master equation. The connection between the drift-diffusion model and the master equation method is established. The short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage are calculated numerically as a function of the intensity of the sunlight and material properties such as energy gaps, diffusion constants, etc.
Analytical form of current-voltage characteristic of cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers
Stoyanov, Dimitar G
2007-01-01
The basic processes of ionization and recombination of gas-filled ionization chamber are presented in this article. A differential equation describing the distribution of current densities in the volume of the ionization chamber is obtained from the balance of the particles and charges densities. As a result of the differential equation solving an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers is got.
A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of high-power, relativistic diodes
Ekdahl, Carl
2016-06-01
A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of a relativistic electron diode is presented. The approximation is accurate from non-relativistic through relativistic electron energies. Although it is empirically developed, it has many of the fundamental properties of the exact diode solutions. The approximation is simple enough to be remembered and worked on almost any pocket calculator, so it has proven to be quite useful on the laboratory floor.
Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current-voltage characteristic
Kukushkin, V. A.
2016-10-01
The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current-voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.M.Mishchenko
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To define the characteristics of numerical calculations of mathematical model with one or more cyclic current voltage characteristics (CVC. This is an urgent problem, since any electric traction system device and electrified track in general, like non-linear passive or active two-terminal network in the present operating mode is described by current-voltage characteristic (CVC, which is based on the given input voltage and input current. Me-thodology. The electromagnetic process calculation in the power circuits of traction electric energy supply is the probabilistic task with solving nonlinear stochastic differential equations requiring for the development of special methods. Given the calculation difficulty, it is reasonable to perform them either by real CVC graph bypass or initially by applying its equivalent replacement with, for example, an ellipse. Findings. Numerical calculations of the mathematical model with one or more cyclic CVC can be performed by “real” CVC bypass or by "idealization" i. e. approximate replacement of real cyclic CVC. Originality. This paper presents the dynamic CVC of the DS3 and 2ES5K electric locomotives at different currents of electric locomotives. Practical value. Cyclic CVC normally and definitely can be applied in the system of electromagnetic state equations while transient state calculating in the traction system. Therefore while calculating the experimentally obtained CVC for the most “difficult and complex” (or/and the “easiest” mode is applied.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Xu; WANG Yan; YU Zhi-Ping
2006-01-01
@@ Current-voltage characteristics of ballistic carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors are characterized with an it-erative simulation program. The influence of carbon-nanotube chirality and diameter on the output current is considered. An analytical current-voltage expression under the quantum capacitance limit and low-voltage application is derived. Our simulation results are compared with actual measurement data.
Current voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with charge-imbalance effect
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.
2007-09-01
The current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of intrinsic Josephson junctions are numerically calculated taking into account the quasiparticle charge-imbalance effect. We solve numerically the full set of the equations including second order differential equations for phase differences, kinetic equations and generalized Josephson relations for a stack of Josephson junctions. The boundary conditions due to the proximity effect are used. We obtain the branch structure of IVC and investigate it as a function of disequilibrium parameter at different values of coupling constant and McCumber parameter. An increase in the disequilibrium parameter essentially changes the character of IVC at large values of McCumber parameter.
Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mans, M.; Scherbel, J.; Seidel, P.
2007-02-01
The current-voltage characteristics of a micrometre bridge of intrinsic Josephson junctions under microwave irradiation are studied. The collective switching of the group of four junctions splits up as the AC signal amplitude is gradually increased. The switching current of the remaining group of junctions is increased with increasing radiation power. We consider that microwave irradiation injects an additional quasiparticle current into the Josephson junction array. We use ideas of breakdown of quasineutrality and quasiparticle charge imbalance in the superconducting layers and explain the experimental results by the competition between the 'current effect' and the effect of suppression of the switching current by irradiation.
Current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with charge-imbalance effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukrinov, Yu.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Physical Technical Institute, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan)], E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru; Mahfouzi, F. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2007-09-01
The current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of intrinsic Josephson junctions are numerically calculated taking into account the quasiparticle charge-imbalance effect. We solve numerically the full set of the equations including second order differential equations for phase differences, kinetic equations and generalized Josephson relations for a stack of Josephson junctions. The boundary conditions due to the proximity effect are used. We obtain the branch structure of IVC and investigate it as a function of disequilibrium parameter at different values of coupling constant and McCumber parameter. An increase in the disequilibrium parameter essentially changes the character of IVC at large values of McCumber parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukrinov, Yu M [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Mans, M [Institut fur Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Scherbel, J [Institut fur Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Seidel, P [Institut fur Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany)
2007-02-15
The current-voltage characteristics of a micrometre bridge of intrinsic Josephson junctions under microwave irradiation are studied. The collective switching of the group of four junctions splits up as the AC signal amplitude is gradually increased. The switching current of the remaining group of junctions is increased with increasing radiation power. We consider that microwave irradiation injects an additional quasiparticle current into the Josephson junction array. We use ideas of breakdown of quasineutrality and quasiparticle charge imbalance in the superconducting layers and explain the experimental results by the competition between the 'current effect' and the effect of suppression of the switching current by irradiation.
Irie, A.; Shukrinov, Yu M.; Oya, G.
2008-01-01
The experimental evidence of the breakpoint on the current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) of the stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) is presented. The influence of the capacitive coupling on the IVCs of Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_y$ IJJs has been investigated. At 4.2 K, clear breakpoint region is observed on the branches in the IVCs. It is found that the hysteresis observed on the IVC is suppressed due to the coupling compared with that expected from the McCumber parameter. Measurement...
Irie, A.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Oya, G.
2008-10-01
The experimental evidence of the breakpoint on the current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) of the stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) is presented. The influence of the capacitive coupling on the IVCs of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy IJJs has been investigated. At 4.2K, clear breakpoint region is observed on the branches in the IVCs. It is found that due to the coupling between junctions, the hysteresis observed on the IVC is small compared to that expected from the McCumber parameter. Measurements agree well with the results predicted by the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model including the diffusion current.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Zuhui [Lee-Kuan-Yew Postdoctoral Fellow, 2007-2010, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Jie Binbin; Sah Chihtang, E-mail: bb_jie@msn.com [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)
2010-12-15
Impurity deionization on the direct-current current-voltage characteristics from electron-hole recombination (R-DCIV) at SiO{sub 2}/Si interface traps in MOS transistors is analyzed using the steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall recombination kinetics and the Fermi distributions for electrons and holes. Insignificant distortion is observed over 90% of the bell-shaped R-DCIV curves centered at their peaks when impurity deionization is excluded in the theory. This is due to negligible impurity deionization because of the much lower electron and hole concentrations at the interface than the impurity concentration in the 90% range. (invited papers)
Podgorny, Yu. V.; Lavrov, P. P.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.
2015-03-01
The role of a change in the spontaneous polarization charge in the formation of negative differential conductance regions of the current-voltage characteristics of thin ferroelectric films has been determined. It has been shown that the polarization recovery current, which appears due to partial depolarization of a preliminarily polarized film, prevails over the intrinsic leakage current of the ferroelectric film in the coercive field region and corresponds to the Weibull distribution. The influence of polarization recovery current decreases with decreasing voltage sweep rate.
Current-voltage characteristics of light-emitting diodes under optical and electrical excitation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Jing; Wen Yumei; Li Ping; Li Lian
2011-01-01
The factors influencing the current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated to reveal the connection of Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics under optical excitation and those under electrical excitation.By inspecting the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves under optical and electrical excitation at identical injection current,it has been found that the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves exhibit apparent differences in voltage values.Furthermore,the differences are found to originate from the junction temperatures in diverse excitation ways.Experimental results indicate that if the thermal effect of illuminating spot is depressed to an ignorable extent by using pulsed light,the junction temperature will hardly deflect from that under optical excitation,and then the Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics under two diverse excitation ways will be the same.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukrinov, Yu.M. [BLTP, JINR, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation) and Physical Technical Institute, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan)]. E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru; Mahfouzi, F. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-02-01
We study the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T {sub c} superconductors by numerical calculations and in framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model we obtain the total number of branches. The influence of the coupling parameter {alpha} on the current-voltage characteristics at fixed parameter {beta} ({beta} {sup 2} 1/{beta} {sub c}, where {beta} {sub c} is McCumber parameter) and the influence of {alpha} on {beta}-dependence of the current-voltage characteristics are investigated. We obtain the {alpha}-dependence of the branch's slopes and branch's endpoints. The presented results show new features of the coupling effect on the scheme of hysteresis jumps in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T {sub c} superconductors.
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.
2006-02-01
We study the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors by numerical calculations and in framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model we obtain the total number of branches. The influence of the coupling parameter α on the current-voltage characteristics at fixed parameter β (β2 = 1/βc, where βc is McCumber parameter) and the influence of α on β-dependence of the current-voltage characteristics are investigated. We obtain the α-dependence of the branch's slopes and branch's endpoints. The presented results show new features of the coupling effect on the scheme of hysteresis jumps in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors.
Current-voltage characteristics in macroporous silicon/SiOx/SnO2:F heterojunctions.
Garcés, Felipe A; Urteaga, Raul; Acquaroli, Leandro N; Koropecki, Roberto R; Arce, Roberto D
2012-07-25
We study the electrical characteristics of macroporous silicon/transparent conductor oxide junctions obtained by the deposition of fluorine doped-SnO2 onto macroporous silicon thin films using the spray pyrolysis technique. Macroporous silicon was prepared by the electrochemical anodization of a silicon wafer to produce pore sizes ranging between 0.9 to 1.2 μm in diameter. Scanning electronic microscopy was performed to confirm the pore filling and surface coverage. The transport of charge carriers through the interface was studied by measuring the current-voltage curves in the dark and under illumination. In the best configuration, we obtain a modest open-circuit voltage of about 70 mV and a short-circuit current of 3.5 mA/cm2 at an illumination of 110 mW/cm2. In order to analyze the effects of the illumination on the electrical properties of the junction, we proposed a model of two opposing diodes, each one associated with an independent current source. We obtain a good accordance between the experimental data and the model. The current-voltage curves in illuminated conditions are well fitted with the same parameters obtained in the dark where only the photocurrent intensities in the diodes are free parameters.
Measurement system for determination of current-voltage characteristics of PV modules
Idzkowski, Adam; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Borawski, Mateusz; Sawicki, Aleksander
2015-09-01
The realization of a laboratory stand for testing photovoltaic panels is presented here. The project of the laboratory stand was designed in SolidWorks software. The aim of the project was to control the electrical parameters of a PV panel. For this purpose a meter that measures electrical parameters i.e. voltage, current and power, was realized. The meter was created with the use of LabJack DAQ device and LabVIEW software. The presented results of measurements were obtained in different conditions (variable distance from the source of light, variable tilt angle of the panel). Current voltage characteristics of photovoltaic panel were created and all parameters could be detected in different conditions. The standard uncertainties of sample voltage, current, power measurements were calculated. The paper also gives basic information about power characteristics and efficiency of a solar cell.
Temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of niobium SNIS Josephson junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacquaniti, V; Andreone, D; Cassiago, C; De Leo, N; Fretto, M; Sosso, A [National Institute of Metrological Research, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Belogolovskii, M, E-mail: v.lacquaniti@inrim.i [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Str. Rosa Luxemburg. 72, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine)
2010-06-01
Motivated by a search for a suitable technology to fabricate Josephson junctions with a tunable damping regime, we performed a systematic study of the temperature effect on the critical current in Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}-Nb heterostructures with a nanometer-thick Al interlayer. For Al layer thicknesses ranging from 40 to 110 nm, we have observed a transition from hysteretic (below 4.2 K) to non-hysteretic (above 4.2 K) current-voltage curves. Measured supercurrent-vs-temperature characteristics which significantly differ from those of traditional SIS and SNS devices are interpreted in terms of the superconducting proximity effect between Al and Nb films. Thermal stability and good reproducibility of our junctions are demonstrated.
Smestad, Greg P.
1992-12-01
A connection is made between the luminescence or radiative recombination in an absorber material and the current voltage characteristics of a quantum converter of light. A relationship between luminescence and voltage is derived, using detailed balance and the chemical potential of the excitation, which is similar to that obtained using the techniques of Shockley and Queisser or R. T. Ross. This model relates the absorptivity and photoluminescence efficiency of the light absorber to the I V curve. In this way both thermodynamic properties, or voltage, and the kinetics, or charge transfer and current, can be combined in order to optimize materials and configurations. The model is applied to dye sensitized Ti02 solar cells, and compared with preliminary experimental data for Ru based charge transfer dyes and inorganic compounds. The luminescence model is found to be applicable to dye sensitized converters, as well as to standard silicon solar cells, light detectors, and LEDs.
Current-voltage characteristics and transition voltage spectroscopy of individual redox proteins.
Artés, Juan M; López-Martínez, Montserrat; Giraudet, Arnaud; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Sanz, Fausto; Gorostiza, Pau
2012-12-19
Understanding how molecular conductance depends on voltage is essential for characterizing molecular electronics devices. We reproducibly measured current-voltage characteristics of individual redox-active proteins by scanning tunneling microscopy under potentiostatic control in both tunneling and wired configurations. From these results, transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) data for individual redox molecules can be calculated and analyzed statistically, adding a new dimension to conductance measurements. The transition voltage (TV) is discussed in terms of the two-step electron transfer (ET) mechanism. Azurin displays the lowest TV measured to date (0.4 V), consistent with the previously reported distance decay factor. This low TV may be advantageous for fabricating and operating molecular electronic devices for different applications. Our measurements show that TVS is a helpful tool for single-molecule ET measurements and suggest a mechanism for gating of ET between partner redox proteins.
Solar Cell Parameters Extraction from a Current-Voltage Characteristic Using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjaykumar J. Patel
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The determination of solar cell parameters is very important for the evaluation of the cell performance as well as to extract maximum possible output power from the cell. In this paper, we propose a computational based binary-coded genetic algorithm (GA to extract the parameters (I0, Iph and n for a single diode model of solar cell from its current-voltage (I-V characteristic. The algorithm was implemented using LabVIEW as a programming tool and validated by applying it to the I-V curve synthesized from the literature using reported values. The values of parameters obtained by GA are in good agreement with those of the reported values for silicon and plastic solar cells. change to “After the validation of the program, it was used to extract parameters for an experimental I-V characteristic of 4 × 4 cm2 polycrystalline silicon solar cell measured under 900 W/m. The I-V characteristic obtained using GA shows excellent match with the experimental one.
Current-voltage characteristics of individual conducting polymer nanotubes and nanowires
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Long Yun-ze; Yin Zhi-Hua; Li Meng-Meng; Gu Chang-Zhi; Duvail Jean-Luc; Jin Ai-zi; Wan Mei-xiang
2009-01-01
We report the current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristics of individual polypyrrole nanotubes and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires in a temperature range from 300 K to 2 K. Considering the complex structures of such quasi-one-dimensional systems with an array of ordered conductive regions separated by disordered barriers, we use the extended fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) and thermal excitation model (Kaiser expression) to fit the temperature and electric-field dependent Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves. It is found that the Ⅰ-Ⅴ data measured at higher temperatures or higher voltages can be well fitted by the Kaiser expression. However, the low-temperature data around the zero bias clearly deviate from those obtained from this model. The deviation (or zero-bias conductance suppression)could be possibly ascribed to the occurrence of the Coulomb-gap in the density of states near the Femi level and/or the enhancement of electron-electron interaction resulting from nanosize effects, which have been revealed in the previous studies on low-temperature electronic transport in conducting polymer films, pellets and nanostructures. In addition,similar Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics and deviation are also observed in an isolated K0.27MnO2 nanowire.
Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Koiry, S. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Sürgers, C.; Guerin, D.; Lenfant, S.; Vuillaume, D.
2008-03-01
We report the deposition of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) multilayers on SiOx/Si(p++) substrates by a layer-by-layer self-assembly process. The multilayers were grafted in a glove box having nitrogen ambient with both humidity and oxygen contents water contact angle, ellipsometry, X-rayphotoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscope measurements revealed that self-assembling of the multilayers takes place in two distinct stages: (i) the first APTMS monolayer chemisorbs on a hydroxylated oxide surface by a silanization process and, (ii) the surface amino group of the first monolayer chemisorbs the hydrolyzed silane group of other APTMS molecules present in the solution, leading to the formation of a bilayer. The second stage is a self-replicating process that results in the layer-by-layer self-assembly of the multilayers with trapped NH3 + ions. The current-voltage characteristics of the multilayers exhibit a hysteresis effect along with a negative differential resistance, suggesting their potential application in the molecular memory devices. A possible mechanism for the observed hysteresis effect based on filling and de-filling of the NH3 + acting as traps is presented.
Pati, Ranjit; Karna, Shashi P.
2001-03-01
Recent advancements in the experimental measurement of conductance across a single molecule(M. A. Reed et al, Science, 278) , 252 (1997). have generated great deal of interest in the feasibility of molecular electronic devices. A successful realization of molecule based electronic devices rests on a detailed understanding of the physical principles underlying controlled transport of electron/hole across molecular units. In order to develop such a fundamental understanding, we have investigated current-voltage characteristics of metal atom (Ag, Au) substituted 1,4-dithiobenzene within Green's function approach according to Datta and coworkers( W. Tian et al, J. Chem. Phys., 109), 2874 (1998).. Ab initio Hamiltonian matrix elements are used to construct the Green's function. The calculated conductance spectrum for the molecule with S bonded to Au atoms qualitatively agrees with the experiment^1. However, large quantitative difference between the calculated and measured conductance is noted. The Au and Ag bonded 1,4-dithiobenzene molecules exhibit marked difference in their resistance and conductance spectra. The conductance of the Ag-bonded molecule is calculated to be about 1.5 times larger than that bonded with Au.
Zorba, S; Le, Q T; Watkins, N J; Yan, L; Gao, Y
2001-09-01
Atomic force microscopy was used to study the growth modes (on SiO2, MoS2, and Au substrates) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic semiconductor pentacene. Pentacene films grow on SiO2 substrate in a layer-by-layer manner with full coverage at an average thickness of 20 A and have the highest degree of molecular ordering with large dendritic grains among the pentacene films deposited on the three different substrates. Films grown on MoS2 substrate reveal two different growth modes, snowflake-like growth and granular growth, both of which seem to compete with each other. On the other hand, films deposited on Au substrate show granular structure for thinner coverages (no crystal structure) and dendritic growth for higher coverages (crystal structure). I-V measurements were performed with a platinum tip on a pentacene film deposited on a Au substrate. The I-V curves on pentacene film reveal symmetric tunneling type character. The field dependence of the current indicates that the main transport mechanism at high field intensities is hopping (Poole-Frenkel effect). From these measurements, we have estimated a field lowering coefficient of 9.77 x 10(-6) V-1/2 m1/2 and an ideality factor of 18 for pentacene.
Modeling the current-voltage characteristics of bilayer polymer photovoltaic devices
Barker, J. A.; Ramsdale, C. M.; Greenham, N. C.
2003-02-01
We have developed a numerical model to predict the current-voltage curves of bilayer conjugated polymer photovoltaic devices. The model accounts for charge photogeneration, injection, drift, diffusion, and recombination, and includes the effect of space charge on the electric field within the device. Charge separation at the polymer-polymer interface leads to the formation of bound polaron pairs which may either recombine monomolecularly or be dissociated into free charges, and we develop expressions for the field dependence of the dissociation rate. We find that the short-circuit quantum efficiency is determined by the competition between polaron pair dissociation and recombination. The model shows a logarithmic dependence of the open-circuit voltage on the incident intensity, as seen experimentally. This additional intensity-dependent voltage arises from the field required to produce a drift current that balances the current due to diffusion of carriers away from the interface.
Fabrication and current-voltage characteristics of NiOx/ZnO based MIIM tunnel diode
Singh, Aparajita; Ratnadurai, Rudraskandan; Kumar, Rajesh; Krishnan, Subramanian; Emirov, Yusuf; Bhansali, Shekhar
2015-04-01
Enhanced asymmetric and non-linear characteristics of Ni-NiOx based MIM diode has been reported by the addition of a second insulator layer ZnO to form MIIM configuration. These properties are required for applications like energy-harvesting devices, terahertz electronics, macro electronics, etc. In this work, single insulator layer Ni-NiOx-Cr and double insulator Ni-NiOx-ZnO-Cr tunnel diodes were fabricated and their I-V characteristics were studied. A significant increase by one order of magnitude in asymmetry has been observed in case of bilayer NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration at low voltages. The sensitivity of the NiOx and NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration in MIM stack was 11 V-1 and 16 V-1. The improved performance of the bilayer insulator diode is due to the second insulator which enables resonant tunneling or step-tunneling. Resonant tunneling was found to be dominant through trap assisted tunneling in the NiOx/ZnO diode.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)
2007-11-15
The elementary processes taking place in the formation of charged particles and their flow in parallel-plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry cases of ionization chamber are considered. On the basis of particles and charges balance a differential equation describing the distribution of current densities in the ionization chamber volume is obtained. As a result of the differential equation solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of an ionization chamber with homogeneous ionization is obtained. For the parallel-plane case comparision with experimental data is performed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tonkoshkur A. S.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Prolonged exposure of zinc oxide varistors to the electrical load leads to current-voltage characteristics (CVC deformation, which is associated with a change in the height and width of the intergranular barriers, which are main structural element of the varistors. Polarization phenomena in zinc oxide ceramics are studied in a number of works, but those are mainly limited to the study of the physics of the CVC deformation process and to determining the parameters of localized electronic states involved in this process. This paper presents the results on the simulation of the deformation of pulse CVC of a separate intergranular potential barrier at transient polarization/depolarization, associated with recharging of surface electronic states (SES, which cause this barrier. It is found that at high density of SES their degree of electron filling is small and the effect of DC voltage leads to a shift of pulse current-voltage characteristics into the region of small currents. Conversely, the low density SES are almost completely filled with electrons, and after crystallite polarization CVC is shifted to high currents. Experimental studies have confirmed the possibility of applying the discovered laws to ceramic varistor structures. The proposed model allows interpreting the «anomalous» effects (such as increase in the classification voltage and reduction of active losses power observed during the varistors accelerated aging test.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Aniruddha, E-mail: aniruddhamo@gmail.com; Das, Amit Kumar [Department of Physics, National Institute of technology Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Rd, A-Zone, Durgapur, West Bengal, India-713209 (India); Dey, Anubhab [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Computer Science Building, College of Engineering Trivandrum Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695016 (India); Choudhuri, Bijit [Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, Tripura, India - 799046 (India)
2016-05-06
The 1D perpendicular In{sub 2-x}O{sub 3-y} nanostructure arrays have been synthesized by using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. A low deposition rate of 0.5 A°/S produced highly porous structure. The current - voltage characteristics for the In{sub 2-x}O{sub 3-y}nanocolumnar array based were measured through a gold Schottky contact at different temperatures. The temperature dependent ideality factor was calculated from the observed current – voltage characteristics. The ideality factor was found to vary from 4.19 to 2.75 with a variation in temperature from 313 K to 473 K.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Hacke, Peter
2016-01-01
(soiling, shading, discoloration). The premise of the method that is proposed is that different degradation modes affect the light and dark I-V characteristics of the PV module in different ways, leaving distinct signatures. This work focuses on identifying and correlating these specific signatures present......This article proposes a fault identification method, based on the complementary analysis of the light and dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the photovoltaic (PV) module, to distinguish between four important degradation modes that lead to power loss in PV modules: (a) degradation...... in the light and dark I-V measurements, to specific degradation modes; a number of new dark I-V diagnostic parameters are proposed to quantify these signatures. The experimental results show that these dark I-V diagnostic parameters, complemented by light I-V performance and series resistance measurements can...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Maltsev, P. P. [Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Leiman, V. G. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Ryabova, N. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States)
2014-01-14
We evaluate the effect of the recombination associated with interlayer transitions in ungated and gated double-graphene-layer (GL) structures on the injection of electrons and holes. Using the proposed model, we derive analytical expressions for the spatial distributions of the electron and hole Fermi energies and the energy gap between the Dirac points in GLs as well as their dependences on the bias and gate voltages. The current-voltage characteristics are calculated as well. The model is based on hydrodynamic equations for the electron and hole transports in GLs under the self-consistent electric field. It is shown that in undoped double-GL structures with weak scattering of electrons and holes on disorder, the Fermi energies and the energy gap are virtually constant across the main portions of GLs, although their values strongly depend on the voltages and recombination parameters. In contrast, the electron and hole scattering on disorder lead to substantial nonuniformities. The resonant inter-GL tunneling enables N-shaped current-voltage characteristics provided that GLs are sufficiently short. The width of the current maxima is much larger than the broadening of the tunneling resonance. In the double-GL structures with relatively long GLs, the N-shaped characteristics transform into the Z-shaped characteristics. The obtained results are in line with the experimental observations [Britnell et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1794–1799 (2013)] and might be useful for design and optimization of different devices based on double-GL structures, including field-effect transistors and terahertz lasers.
Analytical two-dimensional model of solar cell current-voltage characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caldararu, F.; Caldararu, M.; Nan, S.; Nicolaescu, D.; Vasile, S. (ICCE, Bucharest (RO). R and D Center for Electron Devices)
1991-06-01
This paper describes an analytical two-dimensional model for pn junction solar cell I-V characteristic. In order to solve the two-dimensional equations for the minority carrier concentration the Laplace transformation method is used. The model eliminates Hovel's assumptions concerning a one-dimensional model and provides an I-V characteristic that is simpler than those derived from the one-dimensional model. The method can be extended to any other device with two-dimensional symmetry. (author).
Instabilities in the current-voltage characteristics of submicron BSCCO bridges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zybtsev, S G [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics RAS Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Pokrovskii, V Ya [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics RAS Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Gorlova, I G [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics RAS Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Latyshev, Yu I [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics RAS Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Timofeev, V N [A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy RAS Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-06-01
The influence of magnetic field and microwave irradiation on dynamical phase separation in submicron Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} bridges has been studied. Strong effect on the shape and metastable character of the step-like I-V characteristics are found. Under a weak field H < 2 Oe and low level microwave irradiation the step-like structure of the I-V characteristics smears out and disappears completely. The average frequency of switching between metastable states grows by 5 orders under increase of magnetic field by only 1 Oe. This behavior is explained in terms of the model of dynamical vortex lines.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pu Yan; Pang Lei; Chen Xiao-Juan; Yuan Ting-Ting; Luo Wei-Jun; Liu Xin-Yu
2011-01-01
The current voltage (IV) characteristics are greatly influenced by the dispersion effects in AlGaN/GaN highelectron mobility transistors. The direct current (DC) IV and pulsed IV measurements are performed to give a deep investigation into the dispersion effects,which are mainly related to the trap and self-heating mechanisms. The results show that traps play an important role in the kink effects,and high stress can introduce more traps and defects in the device. With the help of the pulsed IV measurements,the trapping effects and self-heating effects can be separated.The impact of time constants on the dispersion effects is also discussed. In order to achieve an accurate static DC IV measurement,the steady state of the bias points must be considered carefully to avoid the dispersion effects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Hacke, Peter
2014-01-01
Photovoltaic system (PV) maintenance and diagnostic tools are often based on performance models of the system, complemented with light current-voltage (I-V) measurements, visual inspection and/or thermal imaging. Although these are invaluable tools in diagnosing PV system performance losses...... or contacts are damaged/degraded). With the recent growth and development of new module level dc-dc optimizers and micro inverters, capable of bidirectional current flow, it is now possible to implement both dark I-V and light I-V measurements as complementary diagnostic tools. By complementing light I-V...... measurements, which reflect both the optical and electrical performance parameters of the PV device, with dark I-V measurements, which focus only on the electrical characteristic of the PV device, the optical factors determining power loss (such as partial shadows, soiling, discoloration of the plastic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashish Kumar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the I-V characteristics of Ni/GaN Schottky diodes have been studied. The Schottky diodes, having different sizes using Ni/Au and ohmic contacts using Ti/Al/Ni/Au were made on n-GaN. The GaN was epitaxially grown on c-plane sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD technique and had a thickness of about 3.7 µm. The calculated ideality factor and barrier height from current-voltage (I-V characteristics (at 300 K for two GaN Schottky diodes were close to ~1.3 and ~ 0.8 eV respectively. A high reverse leakage current in the order of 10 – 4A/cm2 (at – 1 V was observed in both diodes. A careful analysis of forward bias I-V characteristics showed very high series resistance and calculation for ideality factor indicated presence of other current transport mechanism apart from thermionic model at room temperature.
Palmour, J. W.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Ivanov, P. A.; Zhang, Q. J.
2015-06-01
Isothermal forward current-voltage characteristics of high-voltage 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky rectifiers (JBS) have been studied for the first time. Isothermal characteristics were measured with JBS having a blocking voltage of 1700 V up to a current density j ≈ 4200 A cm-2 in the temperature range 297-460 K. Quasi-isothermal current-voltage characteristics of these devices were studied with injection of minority carriers (holes) up to j ≈ 7200 A cm-2 and ambient temperatures of 297 and 460 K. The isothermal forward current-voltage characteristics make it possible to numerically calculate (for example, by an iteration procedure) the overheating in an arbitrary operation mode.
Cao, Y.; Shen, J.; Randall, C. A.; Chen, L. Q.
2014-05-01
A self-consistent model has been proposed to study the switchable current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in Cu/BaTiO3/Cu sandwiched structure combining the phase-field model of ferroelectric domains and diffusion equations for ionic/electronic transport. The electrochemical transport equations and Ginzburg-Landau equations are solved using the Chebyshev collocation algorithm. We considered a single parallel plate capacitor configuration which consists of a single layer BaTiO3 containing a single tetragonal domain orientated normal to the plate electrodes (Cu) and is subject to a sweep of ac bias from -1.0 to 1.0 V at 25 °C. Our simulation clearly shows rectifying I-V response with rectification ratios amount to 102. The diode characteristics are switchable with an even larger rectification ratio after the polarization direction is flipped. The effects of interfacial polarization charge, dopant concentration, and dielectric constant on current responses were investigated. The switchable I-V behavior is attributed to the polarization bound charges that modulate the bulk conduction.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Junqin Zhang; Yintang Yang; Lifei Lou; Yan Zhao
2008-01-01
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of 4H-SiC metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet pho-todetector with different finger widths and spacings, different carrier concentrations and thicknesses of n-type epitaxial layer are simulated. The simulation results indicate that the dark current and the pho-tocurrent both increase when the finger width increases. But the effect of finger width on the dark current is more significant. On the other hand, the effect of finger spacing on the photocurrent is more significant. When the finger spacing increases, the photocurrent decreases and the dark current is almost changeless. In addition, it is found that the smaller the carrier concentration of n-type epitaxial layer is, the smaller the dark current and the larger the photocurrent wiU be. It is also found that I-V characteristics of MSM detector also depend on the epitaxial layer thickness. The dark current of detector is smaller and the photocurrent is larger when the epitaxial layer thickness is about 3 μm.
Imer, Arife Gencer; Ocak, Yusuf Selim
2016-10-01
An organic-inorganic contact was fabricated by forming a thin film of sunset yellow dye ( SY) on a p- Si wafer. The device showed a good rectification property, and the sunset yellow thin film modified the barrier height (Φb) of Al/ p- Si contact by influencing the space charge region. The heterojunction had a strong response to the different illumination intensities and showed that it can be suitable for photodiode applications. The I- V measurements of the device were also applied in the temperature range of 100-500 K. It was seen that characteristic parameters of the device were strongly dependent upon temperature. While the value of Φb increased, the ideality factor ( n) decreased with the increase in temperature. This variation was attributed to spatial inhomogeneity at the interface. The Norde function was used to determine the temperature-dependent series resistance and Φb values, and there was a good agreement with that of ln I- V data. The values of the Richardson constant ( A*) and mean Φb were determined as 29.47 Acm-2 K-2 by means of a modified activation energy plot, matching with a theoretical one, and 1.032 eV, respectively. Therefore, it was stated that the current voltage characteristic with the temperature can be explained by thermionic emission theory with Gaussian distribution of the Φb at the interface.
Zeghdar, Kamal; Dehimi, Lakhdar; Saadoune, Achour; Sengouga, Nouredine
2015-12-01
We report the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the Schottky diode (Au/n-InP) as a function of temperature. The SILVACO-TCAD numerical simulator is used to calculate the I-V characteristic in the temperature range of 280-400 K. This is to study the effect of temperature on the I-V curves and assess the main parameters that characterize the Schottky diode such as the ideality factor, the height of the barrier and the series resistance. The I-V characteristics are analyzed on the basis of standard thermionic emission (TE) theory and the inhomogeneous barrier heights (BHs) assuming a Gaussian distribution. It is shown that the ideality factor decreases while the barrier height increases with increasing temperature, on the basis of TE theory. Furthermore, the homogeneous BH value of approximately 0.524 eV for the device has been obtained from the linear relationship between the temperature-dependent experimentally effective BHs and ideality factors. The modified Richardson plot, according to the inhomogeneity of the BHs, has a good linearity over the temperature range. The evaluated Richardson constant A* was 10.32 A·cm-2·K-2, which is close to the theoretical value of 9.4 A·cm-2·K-2 for n-InP. The temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics of the Au/n-InP Schottky diode have been successfully explained on the basis of the thermionic emission (TE) mechanism with a Gaussian distribution of the Schottky barrier heights (SBHs). Simulated I-V characteristics are in good agreement with the measurements [Korucu D, Mammadov T S. J Optoelectronics Advanced Materials, 2012, 14: 41]. The barrier height obtained using Gaussian Schottky barrier distribution is 0.52 eV, which is about half the band gap of InP.
Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Atanasova, P. Kh.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Bashashin, M. V.
2017-01-01
We have studied the current-voltage characteristic of a system of long Josephson junctions taking into account the inductive and capacitive coupling. The dependence of the average time derivative of the phase difference on the bias current and spatiotemporal dependences of the phase difference and magnetic field in each junction are considered. The possibility of branching of the current-voltage characteristic in the region of zero field step, which is associated with different numbers of fluxons in individual Josephson junctions, is demonstrated. The current-voltage characteristic of the system of Josephson junctions is compared with the case of a single junction, and it is shown that the observed branching is due to coupling between the junctions. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation associated with motion of fluxons is calculated, and the effect of coupling between junctions on the radiation power is analyzed.
Briechle, Bernd M; Kim, Youngsang; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Erbe, Artur; Sysoiev, Dmytro; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Scheer, Elke
2012-01-01
We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport through sulfur-free photochromic molecular junctions. The conductance of individual molecules contacted with gold electrodes and the current-voltage characteristics of these junctions are measured in a mechanically controlled break-junction system at room temperature and in liquid environment. We compare the transport properties of a series of molecules, labeled TSC, MN, and 4Py, with the same switching core but varying side-arms and end-groups designed for providing the mechanical and electrical contact to the gold electrodes. We perform a detailed analysis of the transport properties of TSC in its open and closed states. We find rather broad distributions of conductance values in both states. The analysis, based on the assumption that the current is carried by a single dominating molecular orbital, reveals distinct differences between both states. We discuss the appearance of diode-like behavior for the particular species 4Py that features end-groups, which preferentially couple to the metal electrode by physisorption. We show that the energetic position of the molecular orbital varies as a function of the transmission. Finally, we show for the species MN that the use of two cyano end-groups on each side considerably enhances the coupling strength compared to the typical behavior of a single cyano group.
Zuo, Yi; Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui; Kan, Bin; Ni, Wang; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Yongsheng
2015-07-15
In order to understand the photovoltaic performance differences between the recently reported DR3TBTT-HD and DR3TBDT2T based solar cells, a modified two-diode model with Hecht equation was built to simulate the corresponding current-voltage characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the poor device performance of the DR3TBDTT-HD based device mainly originated from its insufficient charge transport ability, where an average current of 5.79 mA cm(-2) was lost through this pathway at the maximum power point for the DR3TBDTT-HD device, nearly three times as large as that of the DR3TBDT2T based device under the same device fabrication conditions. The morphology studies support these simulation results, in which both Raman and 2D-GIXD data reveal that DR3TBTT-HD based blend films exhibit lower crystallinity. Spin coating at low temperature was used to increase the crystallinity of DR3TBDTT-HD based blend films, and the average current loss through insufficient charge transport at maximum power point was suppressed to 2.08 mA cm(-2). As a result, the average experimental power conversion efficiency of DR3TBDTT-HD based solar cells increased by over 40%.
Stoyanov, Dimitar G
2007-01-01
The elementary processes taking place in the formation of charged particles and their flow in the ionization chamber are considered. On the basic of particles and charges balance a differential equation describing the distribution of current densities in the ionization chamber volume is obtained. As a result of the differential equation solution an analytical form of the current-voltage.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Hacke, Peter
2014-01-01
Photovoltaic system (PV) maintenance and diagnostic tools are often based on performance models of the system, complemented with light current-voltage (I-V) measurements, visual inspection and/or thermal imaging. Although these are invaluable tools in diagnosing PV system performance losses and f...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thurzo, I. (Inst. of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Hrubcin, L. (Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Bartos, J. (Inst. of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Pincik, E. (Inst. of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia))
1993-10-01
Changes in the current-voltage characteristics and charge DLTS spectra of Schottky diodes on semi-insulating GaAs after irradiation by protons at different energies and doses are presented and discussed. Apart from a progressive degradation of the Schottky barriers with enhanced proton energy and dose, there is a threshold, positioned between 10[sup 14] and 10[sup 15] protons/cm[sup 2], for observing trap-limited transients. (orig.)
Würfel, Uli; Neher, Dieter; Spies, Annika; Albrecht, Steve
2015-04-24
This work elucidates the impact of charge transport on the photovoltaic properties of organic solar cells. Here we show that the analysis of current-voltage curves of organic solar cells under illumination with the Shockley equation results in values for ideality factor, photocurrent and parallel resistance, which lack physical meaning. Drift-diffusion simulations for a wide range of charge-carrier mobilities and illumination intensities reveal significant carrier accumulation caused by poor transport properties, which is not included in the Shockley equation. As a consequence, the separation of the quasi Fermi levels in the organic photoactive layer (internal voltage) differs substantially from the external voltage for almost all conditions. We present a new analytical model, which considers carrier transport explicitly. The model shows excellent agreement with full drift-diffusion simulations over a wide range of mobilities and illumination intensities, making it suitable for realistic efficiency predictions for organic solar cells.
Krylov, P. S.; Berestennikov, A. S.; Fefelov, S. A.; Komolov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.
2016-12-01
The resistive switching effects in composite films containing polyfunctional polymers, such as derivatives of carbazole (PVK), fluorene (PFD), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and also graphene particles (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO), the concentration of which in the polymer matrices varied in the range from 1 to 3 wt % corresponding to the percolation threshold in such systems, have been studied. The analysis of the elemental composition of the investigated composites by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have shown that the oxidation degree of Gr in GO is about 9 to 10%. It has been established that a sharp conductivity jump characterized by S-shaped current-voltage curves and the presence of their hysteresis occurs upon applying a voltage pulse to the Au/PVK (PFD; PVC): Gr (GO)/ITO/PET structures, where ITO is indium tin oxide, and PET is poly(ethylene terephthalate), with the switching time, t, in the range from 1 to 30 μs. The observed effects are attributed to the influence of redox reactions taking place on the Gr and GO particles enclosed in the polymer matrix, and the additional influence of thermomechanical properties of the polymer constituent of the matrix.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukrinov, Yu.M. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physical Technical Institute of Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Nasrulaev, Kh. [Physical Technical Institute of Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Sargolzaei, M. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oya, G.; Irie, A. [Utsunomiya University, Yoto, Utsunomiya (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan)
2002-01-01
The subgap structure in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T{sub c} superconductors is studied. An analytical formula for the I-V characteristics is obtained which had taken into account the influence of the dynamically breaking of charge neutrality (DBCN) in CuO{sub 2} layers on the subgap structure. It is shown that DBCN does not affect the positions and the amplitudes of the subgap peaks, but changes the curvature of the branches in the I-V characteristics. As a possible manifestation of the non-equivalence of the junction, the experimental I-V characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions are presented. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez, A.D.; Hart, C.; Martinez, C.M.; Ares, O. [Superconductivity Lab, IMRE-University of Havana, Vedado 10400, Havana (Cuba)
1999-07-01
The self-field and percolative influences on transport measurements of polycrystalline bridges engraved on YBaCuO thick film have been investigated. A maximum in the dependence of the critical current density on cross-sectional area of the bridge (A = 0.003 mm{sup 2}-0.3 mm{sup 2}) has been found experimentally, in samples with low critical current densities (J{sub c}<50 A cm{sup -2}). The result of the measurements are in agreement with Mulet and coworkers, who have predicted that, under certain conditions, the self-field effects on transport measurements are negligible and the J{sub c} dependence on the sample dimensions is determined by the percolative character of the transport current. Self-field influences have also been observed in current-voltage characteristics, which have been analysed using the Ambegaokar-Halperin phase-slip theory. By allowing the noise parameter ({gamma}) to change with temperature, magnetic field and transport current, adequate agreement between theoretical and experimental current-voltage characteristics has been obtained. The dependence of the noise parameter with the transport current is demonstrated to be related with the self-field. (author)
Nagase, Masanori; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki
2016-10-01
Resistance switching memory operations using the bistability in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were investigated to realize an ultrafast nonvolatile memory operating at a picosecond time scale. Resistance switching memory operations based on electron accumulation due to intersubband transitions and electron release due to tunneling current were demonstrated with high reproducibility at room temperature when the leakage of electrons accumulating in the quantum well from the deep level in the AlN barrier was suppressed. A nonvolatile memory for the processor core in a normally off computing system is expected to be realized using the bistability in the I-V characteristics of GaN/AlN RTDs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. L. Bravina
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The characterization of the asymmetries of bipolar charge-voltage and current-voltage loops of polarization reversal and unipolar current-voltage curves for Pt/PZT-film/Pt:Ti/SiO2/Si-substrate systems was performed in the dynamic mode. The asymmetry of local deformation-voltage loops was observed by piezoresponse force microscopy. The comparison of the dependences of introduced asymmetry factors for the bipolar charge-voltage and current-voltage loops and unipolar current-voltage curves on drive voltage indicates the interconnection of ferroelectric and electrical space charge transfer asymmetries.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lü Yuan-Jie; Lin Zhao-Jun; Yu Ying-Xia; Meng Ling-Guo; Cao Zhi-Fang; Luan Chong-Biao; Wang Zhan-Guo
2012-01-01
An Ni Schottky contact on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is fabricated.The flat-band voltage for the Schottky contact on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is obtained from the forward current-voltage characteristics.With the measured capacitance-voltage curve and the flat-band voltage,the polarization charge density in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is investigated,and a simple formula for calculating the polarization charge density is obtained and analyzed.With the approach described in this paper,the obtained polarization charge density agrees well with the one calculated by self-consistently solving Schrodinger's and Poisson's equations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Otto M.
1983-01-01
Current–voltage characteristics have been examined for Al–SiO2–pSi diodes with an interfacial oxide thickness of delta[approximately-equal-to]20 Å. The diodes were fabricated on and oriented substrates with an impurity concentration in the range of NA=1014–1016 cm−3. The results show that for low...... forward voltages, the diode current is increased with increased NA, but for higher forward voltages, the diode current is decreased as NA is increased. For the diodes examined in this work, the results presented lead to the conclusion that the diode current should be treated as a superposition...... of multistep tunneling recombination current and injected minority carrier diffusion current. This can explain the observed values of the diode quality factor n. The results also show that the voltage drop across the oxide Vox is increased with increased NA, with the result that the lowering of the minority...
Room temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky barrier diode
Erdoğan, Erman; Kundakçı, Mutlu
2017-02-01
Metal-semiconductors (MSs) or Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have a significant potential in the integrated device technology. In the present paper, electrical characterization of Ag/InGaN/n-Si Schottky diode have been systematically carried out by simple Thermionic method (TE) and Norde function based on the I-V characteristics. Ag ohmic and schottky contacts are deposited on InGaN/n-Si film by thermal evaporation technique under a vacuum pressure of 1×10-5 mbar. Ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance values of this diode are determined from I-V curve. These parameters are calculated by TE and Norde methods and findings are given in a comparetive manner. The results show the consistency for both method and also good agreement with other results obtained in the literature. The value of ideality factor and barrier height have been determined to be 2.84 and 0.78 eV at room temperature using simple TE method. The value of barrier height obtained with Norde method is calculated as 0.79 eV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Y., E-mail: yxc238@psu.edu; Randall, C. A.; Chen, L. Q. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Shen, J. [Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2014-05-05
A self-consistent model has been proposed to study the switchable current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in Cu/BaTiO{sub 3}/Cu sandwiched structure combining the phase-field model of ferroelectric domains and diffusion equations for ionic/electronic transport. The electrochemical transport equations and Ginzburg-Landau equations are solved using the Chebyshev collocation algorithm. We considered a single parallel plate capacitor configuration which consists of a single layer BaTiO{sub 3} containing a single tetragonal domain orientated normal to the plate electrodes (Cu) and is subject to a sweep of ac bias from −1.0 to 1.0 V at 25 °C. Our simulation clearly shows rectifying I-V response with rectification ratios amount to 10{sup 2}. The diode characteristics are switchable with an even larger rectification ratio after the polarization direction is flipped. The effects of interfacial polarization charge, dopant concentration, and dielectric constant on current responses were investigated. The switchable I-V behavior is attributed to the polarization bound charges that modulate the bulk conduction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.; Balandin, A. A., E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory (NDL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Phonon Optimized Engineered Materials (POEM) Center, Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Rumyantsev, S. L. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)
2015-02-14
We report on fabrication of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors (TFTs) and experimental investigations of their high-temperature current-voltage characteristics. The measurements show that MoS{sub 2} devices remain functional to temperatures of at least as high as 500 K. The temperature increase results in decreased threshold voltage and mobility. The comparison of the direct current (DC) and pulse measurements shows that the direct current sub-linear and super-linear output characteristics of MoS{sub 2} thin-films devices result from the Joule heating and the interplay of the threshold voltage and mobility temperature dependences. At temperatures above 450 K, a kink in the drain current occurs at zero gate voltage irrespective of the threshold voltage value. This intriguing phenomenon, referred to as a “memory step,” was attributed to the slow relaxation processes in thin films similar to those in graphene and electron glasses. The fabricated MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors demonstrated stable operation after two months of aging. The obtained results suggest new applications for MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors in extreme-temperature electronics and sensors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 S3-33, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)
2015-06-28
By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement coupled with the conventional current-voltage (I-V) measurement, we studied the carrier transport of organic double-layer diodes with a Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer (FP)/indium zinc oxide (IZO) structure. The rectifying I-V characteristics were converted into the I-E characteristics of the FP and pentacene layers. Results suggest a model in which Schottky-type electron injection from the IZO electrode to the FP layer governs the forward electrical conduction (V > 0), where the space charge electric field produced in the FP layer by accumulated holes at the pentacene/FP interface makes a significant contribution. On the other hand, Schottky-type injection by accumulated interface electrons from the pentacene layer to the FP layer governs the backward electrical conduction (V < 0). The electroluminescence generated from the pentacene layer in the region V > 0 verifies the electron transport across the FP layer, and supports the above suggested model.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Kun; FENG Jiafeng; HE Meng; L(U) Huibin; JIN Kuijuan; ZHOU Yueliang; YANG Guozhen3
2008-01-01
The current-induced resistive switching behavior in the micron-scale pillars of low-doped La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 thin films using laser molecular-beam epitaxy was reported. It was demonstrated that the current-voltage curves at 120 K showed hysteresis with several threshold currents corresponding to the switching in resistance to metastable low resistance states, and finally, four closed loops were formed. A mode was proposed, which was based on the low-temperature canted antiferromagnetism ordering for a lightly doped insulating regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Islam, S. M. Z. [IUSL, Department of Physics, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Fordham University, 441 E. Fordham Road, Bronx, New York 10458 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States); Gayen, Taposh [IUSL, Department of Physics, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Fordham University, 441 E. Fordham Road, Bronx, New York 10458 (United States); Tint, Naing; Alfano, Robert, E-mail: ralfano@sci.ccny.cuny.edu [IUSL, Department of Physics, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States); Shi, Lingyan [IUSL, Department of Physics, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States); Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J. [Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, New York 10031 (United States)
2014-11-07
The effects of fabrication temperature are investigated on the performance of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized hybrid solar cells of the composite material of zinc (hydr)oxide (ZnOH-GO)with 2 wt. % graphite oxide. The current-voltage (I-V) and photo-current measurements show that higher fabrication temperatures yield greater photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies that essentially indicate more efficient solar cells. Two Photon Fluorescence images show the effects of temperature on the internal morphologies of the solar devices based on such materials. The CdSe-QD sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells fabricated at 450 °C showing conversion of ∼10.60% under a tungsten lamp (12.1 mW/cm{sup 2}) are reported here, while using potassium iodide as an electrolyte. The output photocurrent, I (μA) with input power, P (mW/cm{sup 2}) is found to be superlinear, showing a relation of I = P{sup n}, where n = 1.4.
Islam, S. M. Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Shi, Lingyan; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.; Alfano, Robert
2014-11-01
The effects of fabrication temperature are investigated on the performance of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized hybrid solar cells of the composite material of zinc (hydr)oxide (ZnOH-GO)with 2 wt. % graphite oxide. The current-voltage (I-V) and photo-current measurements show that higher fabrication temperatures yield greater photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies that essentially indicate more efficient solar cells. Two Photon Fluorescence images show the effects of temperature on the internal morphologies of the solar devices based on such materials. The CdSe-QD sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells fabricated at 450 °C showing conversion of ˜10.60% under a tungsten lamp (12.1 mW/cm2) are reported here, while using potassium iodide as an electrolyte. The output photocurrent, I (μA) with input power, P (mW/cm2) is found to be superlinear, showing a relation of I = Pn, where n = 1.4.
Manifacier, J. C.
2010-12-01
Theoretical and numerical investigations of carriers transport in N-Semi-Insulating (SI)-N and P-SI-P diodes is extended to the case of extrinsic (N type) or SI samples with Gunn like electric field dependent mobilities. The results obtained in a preceding publication [1] are valid as long as the bulk electric field does not increase above a threshold field E th associated with the beginning of negative electron differential mobility values: μ n,diff = ( dv n/ dE) diodes. SI(N -) characterizes a SI layer which keeps, under applied bias, a free electron concentration close to its thermal equilibrium value up to the beginning of electron space charge injection. A systematic study has been made by varying the contact boundary properties: flat band, metallic, N + or P +; the length of the sample and the electric parameters of the deep compensating trap of the SI layers. We show that these steady state numerical instabilities are related to the existence of multiple current-voltage solutions when numerical modelisation is made using the drift-diffusion model.
Current-voltage model of LED light sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2012-01-01
Amplitude modulation is rarely used for dimming light-emitting diodes in polychromatic luminaires due to big color shifts caused by varying magnitude of LED driving current and nonlinear relationship between intensity of a diode and driving current. Current-voltage empirical model of light...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vishnu Gopal
2015-09-01
Full Text Available It is shown that current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb super-lattices with uni-polar blocking layers can be modelled similar to a junction diode with a finite series resistance on account of blocking barriers. As an example this paper presents the results of a study of current-voltage characteristics of a type II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diode with PbIbN architecture using a recently proposed [J. Appl. Phys. 116, 084502 (2014] method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. The thermal diffusion, generation – recombination (g-r, and ohmic currents are found as principal components besides a component of photocurrent due to background illumination. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current (diffusion + g-r, photo-current and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, Iexcess = Ir0 + K1exp(K2 V, where Ir0, K1 and K2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. The present investigations suggest that the exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage may be taking place along the localized regions in the diode. These localized regions are the shunt resistance paths on account of the surface leakage currents and/or defects and dislocations in the base of the diode.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gloos, K.; Utko, P.; Aagesen, M.;
2006-01-01
We investigate the I(V) characteristics (current versus bias voltage) of side-gated quantum-point contacts, defined in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures. These point contacts are operated in the closed-channel regime, that is, at fixed gate voltages below zero-bias pinch-off for conductance. Our...... analysis is based on a single scaling factor, extracted from the experimental I(V) characteristics. For both polarities, this scaling factor transforms the change of bias voltage into a change of electron energy. The latter is determined with respect to the top of the potential barrier of the contact....... Such a built-in energy-voltage calibration allows us to distinguish between the different contributions to the electron transport across the pinched-off contact due to thermal activation or quantum tunneling. The first involves the height of the barrier, and the latter also its length. In the model that we...
Dey, P.; Debnath, Rajesh; Singh, Swati; Mandal, S. K.; Roy, J. N.
2017-01-01
Room temperature I-V characteristics study, both in presence and absence of magnetic field (1800 Oe), has been performed on NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, having different particle size (V~14, 21 and 31 nm). Our experiments on these nanoparticles provide evidences for: (1) electrical irreversibility or hysteretic behaviour; (2) positive magnetoresistance and (3) magnetic field dependent electrical irreversibility or hysteresis in the sample. "Hysteretic" nature of I-V curve reveals the existence of electrical memory effect in the sample. Significantly, such hysteresis has been found to be tuned by magnetic field. In order to explain the observed electrical irreversibility, we have proposed a phenomenological model on the light of induced polarization in the sample. Both the positive magnetoresistance and the observed magnetic field dependence of electrical irreversibility have been explained through magnetostriction phenomenon. Interestingly, such effects are found to get reduced with increasing particle size. For NiFe2O4 nanoparticles having V=31 nm, we did not observe any irreversibility effect. This feature has been attributed to the enhanced grain surface effect that in turn gives rise to the residual polarization and hence electrical memory effect in NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, having small nanoscopic particle size.
Koehler, M.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Macedo, A. G.; Grodniski, D. Z.; Roman, L. S.; da Luz, M. G. E.
2013-07-01
A general description of dark transport properties in bi-layer organic photovoltaic devices formed by a heterojunction of a semiconducting co-polymer and fullerene (C60) is presented. The copolymers are composed of thiophene, phenylene, and fluorene units, where the thiophene content is kept constant while the fluorene/phenylene ratio is varied. Measurements show that the j × V characteristics display typical diode behavior (exponential increasing) at low and are space-charge limited at high voltages. Extending a theoretical analysis by Koehler et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5575 (2002)], a model which assumes a space-charge dependent inner series resistance—attributed to molecular and morphological aspects of the materials—is proposed. It turns out to be general and able to nicely fit the experimental curves for all the studied samples. Furthermore, the model quantifies relevant parameters (the effective mobility and the diode reverse saturation current j0) which will determine the systems efficiency. The framework hence allows to foremost the devices functioning under illumination from direct experiments of the active material in the dark.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sirikulrat, N., E-mail: scphi003@chiangmai.ac.th
2012-02-29
The current-voltage (I-V) relationship of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film-antimony doped barium strontium titanate single heterojunction diodes was investigated. The linear I-V characteristics are similar to those of the PN junction diodes. The linear conduction at a low forward bias voltage as predicted by the space charge limited current theory and the trap free square law at a higher forward voltage are observed. The overall current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the diodes are found to be well described by the Power Series Equation J= N-Ary-Summation {sub m}C{sub m}V{sup m} where C{sub m} is the leakage constant at particular power m with the best fit for the power m found to be at the fourth and fifth orders for the forward and reverse bias respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The n-n isotype heterojunction diodes of ceramic oxide semiconductors were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current density-voltage (J-V) curves were analyzed using the Power Series (PS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The J-V characteristics were found to be well described with PS at low order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermionic emission and diode leakage currents were comparatively discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crisan, A. [Institute of Cryogenics, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, Bucharest (Romania); Miu, L.; Popa, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, Bucharest (Romania); Yang, Y.; Beduz, C. [Institute of Cryogenics, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)
1997-05-01
Current-voltage characteristics of multifilamentary Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+x}/Ag tapes (short samples) produced by the 'powder in tube' technique were measured at different temperatures close to the mean-field critical temperature, and inzero applied magnetic field. After performing the required corrections due to the current flowing in the silver matrix, the I-V curves were interpreted in terms of current-induced unbinding of the thermally created vortex-antivortex pairs. Two possible mechanisms for appearance of a finite critical current in zero applied magnetic field are discussed: the Jensen-Minnhagen quasi-two-dimensional (2D) approach, that takes into account the interlayer Josephson coupling, and a model of size limitation of vortex fluctuations. From our analysis, it seems that the latter model is more suitable for this kind of superconducting material, due probably to an accentuated intrinsic anisotropy. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vijayasri, G., E-mail: vsvijiguna.physics@gmail.com; Bhowmik, R. N. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R..Venkataraman Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry – 605 014 (India)
2015-06-24
We report the influence of magnetic field on I-V characteristics of α-Fe{sub 1.64}Ga{sub 0.36}O{sub 3} sample. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman Spectroscopy have confirmed rhombohedral structure with space group R3C in the sample. The sample exhibits ferromagnetic feature at room temperature and non saturation of magnetization up to 7Tesla suggests the effect of non-collinear structure (canting) of the spins on the ferromagnetic properties. We have recorded I-V characteristics of the sample under magnetic field to study the effect of non-collinear spin structure on the electrical properties. Space charge limited current mechanism controlled the nature of non-linear I-V curves and the curves are significantly affected by magnetic field.
钙钛矿太阳能电池中S形伏安特性研究∗%S-shap ed current-voltage characteristics in p erovskite solar cell
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石将建; 孟庆波; 卫会云; 朱立峰; 许信; 徐余颛; 吕松涛; 吴会觉; 罗艳红; 李冬梅
2015-01-01
Analysis of the DC current-voltage (I-V ) characteristics is an effective approach to investigate the charge transport properties in a solar cell. The perovskite solar cell attracted wide research interest in the past two years due to their outstanding photovoltaic capacity. However, the charge transport characteristics and working principles of this kind of cells have not been clearly clarified. In this work, the I-V characteristics of the perovskite solar cell have been investigated from the experimental and theoretical perspective views. Moreover, the S-shaped I-V feature coming from the limitation of interfacial charge transport was focused on. With a series connected diode model, the I-V characteristics of the solar cell are investigated and simulated. It is found that the charge accumulation appears gradually when the interfacial charge transport velocity is decreased, lowering the output of the cell. When the interfacial charge transport decreases gradually, the short-circuit current density and the fill factor of the cell also decrease obviously. In experiments, limitations of charge transport at the front and back contacts of the cell have been designed, successfully producing varied S-shaped I-V features. It is found that both in the hole transport material-free and in the p-i-n perovskite solar cells, the S-shaped I-V characteristics can appear. Moreover, the origins of these features in various experimental conditions have also been discussed, which can be the energy barriers or large charge transport resistances in the cell. These energy barriers and resistances will lower the charge transport velocity and may cause charge accumulation, thus leading to the appearence of the S-shaped features. Meanhiwle, the emerging S-shaped I-V curves all have their own features, which may be due to the specific interfacial energy band structures. Thus, to promote the cell performance, the charge transport and interface energy barrier should be attached importance to
Current-voltage curves of gold quantum point contacts revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, K.; Nielsen, S K.; Brandbyge, Mads;
2000-01-01
We present measurements of current-voltage (I-V) curves on gold quantum point contacts (QPCs) with a conductance up to 4 G(0) (G(0) = 2e(2)/h is the conductance quantum) and voltages up to 2 V. The QPCs are formed between the gold tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and a Au(110) surface under...... clean ultra-high-vacuum conditions at room temperature. The I - V curves are found to he almost linear in contrast to previous reports. Tight-binding calculations of I - V curves for one- and two-atom contacts are in excellent agreement with our measurements. On the other hand, clearly nonlinear I - V...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Martinez, J A [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Alianza Norte 202, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (PIIT), Nueva Carretera Aeropuerto km. 10, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, CP 66600 (Mexico); Glot, A B [Posgrado, Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Carretera Acatlima Km. 2.5, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca, CP 69000 (Mexico); Gaponov, A V [Department of Radioelectronics, Dniepropetrovsk National University, Dniepropetrovsk 49050 (Ukraine); Hernandez, M B [Instituto de Mineria, Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Carretera Acatlima Km. 2.5, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca, CP 69000 (Mexico); Guerrero-Paz, J, E-mail: josue.aguilar@cimav.edu.m [Particulate Materials Lab, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, CP 42184 (Mexico)
2009-10-21
The effect of mechanical treatment in a planetary mill on the microstructure and electrical properties of tin dioxide based varistor ceramics in the system SnO{sub 2}-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} sintered in the range 1150-1450 {sup 0}C was studied. The mechanical treatment leads to an increase in shrinkage, decrease in porosity, decrease in sample diameter, change in colour of the sintered samples from grey to black and enhancement of nonlinearity. For the sample sintered at 1350 {sup 0}C the mechanical treatment enhances the nonlinearity coefficient from 11 to 31 and decreases the electric field E{sub 1} (at 10{sup -3} A cm{sup -2}) from 3500 to 2800 V cm{sup -1}. The observed changes in physical properties are explained in terms of an additional size reduction of oxide particles and a better mixing of oxide powder followed by the formation of potential barriers at the grain boundaries throughout the whole sample. In spite of the low porosity, the low-field electrical conductivity of mechanically treated ceramics is significantly increased with the growth of relative humidity. A higher humidity sensitivity is found for mechanically treated ceramics with higher barrier height and higher nonlinearity coefficient.
The PPTN-02 new-generation current-voltage transducers for measuring of photosignals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Butenko V. K.
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The measurement results of technical characteristics of new-generation current-voltage transducers which have low input resistance (<10 Оhm and providing ptotodiodes photocurrent measurement from 1·10-12 to 1·10-3 A are presented.
Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Habelok, Krzysztof; Stępień, Mariusz; Grilli, Francesco
2017-03-01
The estimation of the critical current (I c) and AC losses of high-temperature superconductor devices through modeling and simulation requires the knowledge of the critical current density (J c) of the superconducting material. This J c is in general not constant and depends both on the magnitude (B loc) and the direction (θ, relative to the tape) of the local magnetic flux density. In principle, J c(B loc,θ) can be obtained from the experimentally measured critical current I c(B a,θ), where B a is the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. However, for applications where the superconducting materials experience a local field that is close to the self-field of an isolated conductor, obtaining J c(B loc,θ) from I c(B a,θ) is not a trivial task. It is necessary to solve an inverse problem to correct for the contribution derived from the self-field. The methods presented in the literature comprise a series of approaches dealing with different degrees of mathematical regularization to fit the parameters of preconceived nonlinear formulas by means of brute force or optimization methods. In this contribution, we present a parameter-free method that provides excellent reproduction of experimental data and requires no human interaction or preconception of the J c dependence with respect to the magnetic field. In particular, it allows going from the experimental data to a ready-to-run J c(B loc,θ) model in a few minutes.
Nonlinear characteristics of an autoparametric vibration system
Yan, Zhimiao; Taha, Haithem E.; Tan, Ting
2017-03-01
The nonlinear characteristics of an autoparametric vibration system are investigated. This system consists of a base structure and a cantilever beam with a tip mass. The dynamic equations for the system are derived using the extended Hamilton's principle. The method of multiple scales (MMS) is used to determine an approximate analytical solution of the nonlinear governing equations and, hence, analyze the stability and bifurcation of the system. Compared with the numerical simulation, the first-order MMS is not sufficient. A Lagrangian-based approach is proposed to perform a second-order analysis, which is applicable to a large class of nonlinear systems. The effects of the amplitude and frequency of the external force, damping and frequency of the attached cantilever beam, and the tip mass on the nonlinear responses of the autoparametric vibration system are determined. The results show that this system exhibits many interesting nonlinear phenomena including saturation, jumps, hysteresis and different kinds of bifurcations, such as saddle-node, supercritical pitchfork and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations. Power spectra, phase portraits and Poincare maps are employed to analyze the unstable behavior and the associated Hopf bifurcation and chaos. Depending on the application of such a system, its dynamical behaviors could be exploited or avoided.
Investigations on the electrical current-voltage response in protein light receptors
Alfinito, E; Reggiani, L
2014-01-01
We report a theoretical/computational approach for modeling the current-voltage characteristics of sensing proteins. The modeling is applied to a couple of transmembrane proteins, bacteriorhodopsin and proteorhodopsin, sensitive to visible light and promising biomaterials for the development of a new generation of photo-transducers. The agreement between theory and experiments sheds new light on the microscopic interpretation of charge transfer in proteins and biological materials in general.
Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase synchronization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Haihong Li; Weiqing Liu; Qiongling Dai; Jinghua Xiao
2006-09-01
The dynamics of two uncoupled distinct Chua circuits driven by a common direct current voltage is explored experimentally. It was found that, with increasing current intensity, the dominant frequencies of these two Chua circuits will first vary at different speeds, approach an identical value for a certain current intensity and then separate. Techniques such as synchronization index and phase difference distribution were employed to analyze the phase coherence between these two Chua circuits.
Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle
Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin
2017-06-01
The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests
A linear auroral current-voltage relation in fluid theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Vedin
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Progress in our understanding of auroral currents and auroral electron acceleration has for decades been hampered by an apparent incompatibility between kinetic and fluid models of the physics involved. A well established kinetic model predicts that steady upward field-aligned currents should be linearly related to the potential drop along the field line, but collisionless fluid models that reproduce this linear current-voltage relation have not been found. Using temperatures calculated from the kinetic model in the presence of an upward auroral current, we construct here approximants for the parallel and perpendicular temperatures. Although our model is rather simplified, we find that the fluid equations predict a realistic large-scale parallel electric field and a linear current-voltage relation when these approximants are employed as nonlocal equations of state. This suggests that the concepts we introduce can be applied to the development of accurate equations of state for fluid simulations of auroral flux tubes.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Greyson Christoforo
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The determination of the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on organo-metal-halides is subject to an ongoing debate. As solar cell devices may exhibit very slow transient response, current-voltage scans in different directions may not be congruent, which is an effect often referred to as hysteresis. We here discuss time-resolved current-voltage measurements as a means to evaluate appropriate delay times (voltage settling times to be used in current-voltage measurements of solar cells. Furthermore, this method allows the analysis of transient current response to extract time constants that can be used to compare characteristic differences between devices of varying architecture types, selective contacts and changes in devices due to storage or degradation conditions.
Modeling And Simulation of Speed and flux Estimator Based on Current & voltage Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dinesh Chandra Jain
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This paper introduce a estimator based on and current & voltage model used in induction motor (IM drive. The rotor speed estimation is based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS approach. The closed loop control mechanism is based on the voltage and current model. The control and estimation algorithms utilize the synchronous coordinates as a frame of reference. A speed sensor less induction motor (IM drive with Robust control characteristics is introduced. First, a speed observation system, which is insensitive to the variations of motor parameters.
Field emission current-voltage curves as a diagnostic for scanning tunneling microscope tips
Meyer, J. A.; Stranick, S. J.; Wang, J. B.; Weiss, P. S.
1991-12-01
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a low temperature ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip positioned greater than 100 A from a planar surface have been recorded. We find curvature in the Fowler-Nordheim plots (log 10 I/V(sup 2) vs. I/V) due to the tip-plane geometry as has been predicted theoretically. Additionally, oscillations and sharp breaks in these I-V curves are observed over a wide voltage range, 50-1000 V. These I-V curves are used to characterize the STM tips prior to tunneling.
Current-voltage relationship in the auroral particle acceleration region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Morooka
2004-11-01
Full Text Available The current-voltage relationship in the auroral particle acceleration region has been studied statistically by the Akebono (EXOS-D satellite in terms of the charge carriers of the upward field-aligned current. The Akebono satellite often observed field-aligned currents which were significantly larger than the model value predicted by Knight (1973. We compared the upward field-aligned current estimated by three different methods, and found that low-energy electrons often play an important role as additional current carriers, together with the high-energy primary electrons which are expected from Knight's relation. Such additional currents have been observed especially at high and middle altitudes of the particle acceleration region. Some particular features of electron distribution functions, such as "cylindrical distribution functions" and "electron conics", have often been observed coinciding with the additional currents. They indicated time variability of the particle acceleration region. Therefore, we have concluded that the low-energy electrons within the "forbidden" region of electron phase space in the stationary model often contribute to charge carriers of the current because of the rapid time variability of the particle acceleration region. "Cylindrical distribution functions" are expected to be found below the time-varying potential difference. We statistically examined the locations of "cylindrical distribution function", and found that their altitudes are related to the location where the additional currents have been observed. This result is consistent with the idea that the low-energy electrons can also carry significant current when the acceleration region changes in time.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, S.K.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, K.
2002-01-01
We present an experimental study of current-voltage (I-V) curves on atomic-sized Au and Pt contacts formed under cryogenic vacuum (4.2 K). Whereas I-V curves for Au are almost Ohmic, the conductance G=I/V for Pt decreases with increasing voltage, resulting in distinct nonlinear I-V behavior...
Nonlinear I-V characteristics of nanoparticle compacts and nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herth, Simone [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, Xiaoping; Hugener, Teresa; Schadler, Linda; Siegel, Richard [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Hillborg, Henrik; Auletta, Tommaso [ABB AB, Corporate Research, Schweden (Sweden)
2007-07-01
Materials with nonlinear I-V characteristics are commonly used as field grading materials. In many cases, the non-linearity is achieved through the addition of equiaxed fillers to a polymer matrix. These composite field grading materials are optimized in terms of nonlinearity, conductivity, and breakdown strength. One limitation in designing new field grading materials is a robust understanding of the relationship between powder morphology, composition and electrical characteristics of the powder, as well as a robust understanding of the relationship between powder conductivity and non-linearity and composite non-linearity. In this work, treatment of ZnO powder with a SnF{sub 2} solution resulted in a powder that yielded highly non-linear behavior. The highest non-linearity was achieved for powders with at least two different phases and a rough surface, as indicated by transmission electron micrographs. In contrast, the non-linearity of the nanocomposite conductivity is mainly determined by the conductivity of the nanofiller. The electrical behavior of the non-linear powder can be understood by a polarization of the nanoparticles at the interfaces, whereas the nonlinearity of the nanocomposites can be explained by a tunnelling mechanism between two particles.
Spectral characteristics and nonlinear studies of crystal violet dye
Sukumaran, V. Sindhu; Ramalingam, A.
2006-03-01
Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this paper, the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye crystal violet are studied. The spectral characteristics of crystal violet dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique, by exciting with He-Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye crystal violet show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.
Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI; Yuchuan; XU; Haijue; XU; Dong
2006-01-01
Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.
Nonlinear charge transport in bipolar semiconductors due to electron heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molina-Valdovinos, S., E-mail: sergiom@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Académica de Física, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, CP 98060, Zacatecas, Zac, México (Mexico); Gurevich, Yu.G. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Física, Av. IPN 2508, México D.F., CP 07360, México (Mexico)
2016-05-27
It is known that when strong electric field is applied to a semiconductor sample, the current voltage characteristic deviates from the linear response. In this letter, we propose a new point of view of nonlinearity in semiconductors which is associated with the electron temperature dependence on the recombination rate. The heating of the charge carriers breaks the balance between generation and recombination, giving rise to nonequilibrium charge carriers concentration and nonlinearity. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is proposed. • The hot electron temperature violates the equilibrium between electrons and holes. • This violation gives rise to nonequilibrium concentration of electrons and holes. • This leads to nonlinear CVC (along with the heating nonlinearity).
Verification of a thermal interpretation of BSCCO-2223/Ag current voltage hysteresis
Sastry, P. V. P. S. S.; Nguyen, D. N.; Usak, P.; Schwartz, J.
2004-03-01
The current-voltage characteristic hysteresis of Bi-2223 tape in a silver matrix cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN2) at 77 K can be interpreted thermally, i.e. while the ramping-up temperature of the tape is higher than the ramping-down temperature for the same current levels. The reason for this could be hysteresis of the heat transfer coefficient. The coefficient is smaller during ramping up and larger (better cooling) during ramping down. To verify or deny this concept we have measured the surface temperature of the tape at LN2 temperature with and without a thermal insulation sheet upon the tape during ramping up over Ic and ramping down back under Ic. Different ramping rates were applied. The amplitudes of E on the tape was under 0.5 mV cm-1. In spite of measurement error and thermal fluctuations, we observed a difference between the surface temperature curve branch during ramping up and the higher branch during ramping down for a non-insulated tape. Furthermore, the measurements showed that a positive current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis pattern (with the down branch shifted to higher currents and smaller voltages) was observed even with thermal insulation. Under these conditions, however, the down branch of the temperature curve clearly revealed a higher temperature with respect to the up branch of the temperature, contrary to expectations of the thermal interpretation of I-V hysteresis. According to this result, the thermal concept of positive I-V hysteresis under stable cooling conditions can be denied. On the other hand, an accidental voltage drop in the I-V curve was observed on one degraded sample accompanied by a corresponding drop in temperature. This proves the thermal interpretation of voltage drops in I-V curves of locally degraded tapes.
Verification of a thermal interpretation of BSCCO-2223/Ag current-voltage hysteresis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sastry, P V P S S [Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Nguyen, D N [Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Usak, P [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava, Sk84239 (Slovakia); Schwartz, J [Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)
2004-03-01
The current-voltage characteristic hysteresis of Bi-2223 tape in a silver matrix cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) at 77 K can be interpreted thermally, i.e. while the ramping-up temperature of the tape is higher than the ramping-down temperature for the same current levels. The reason for this could be hysteresis of the heat transfer coefficient. The coefficient is smaller during ramping up and larger (better cooling) during ramping down. To verify or deny this concept we have measured the surface temperature of the tape at LN{sub 2} temperature with and without a thermal insulation sheet upon the tape during ramping up over I{sub c} and ramping down back under I{sub c}. Different ramping rates were applied. The amplitudes of E on the tape was under 0.5 mV cm{sup -1}. In spite of measurement error and thermal fluctuations, we observed a difference between the surface temperature curve branch during ramping up and the higher branch during ramping down for a non-insulated tape. Furthermore, the measurements showed that a positive current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis pattern (with the down branch shifted to higher currents and smaller voltages) was observed even with thermal insulation. Under these conditions, however, the down branch of the temperature curve clearly revealed a higher temperature with respect to the up branch of the temperature, contrary to expectations of the thermal interpretation of I-V hysteresis. According to this result, the thermal concept of positive I-V hysteresis under stable cooling conditions can be denied. On the other hand, an accidental voltage drop in the I-V curve was observed on one degraded sample accompanied by a corresponding drop in temperature. This proves the thermal interpretation of voltage drops in I-V curves of locally degraded tapes.
Nonlinear – characteristics study of doped SnO2
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S R Dhage; V Ravi; S K Date
2004-02-01
When tin oxide is doped with Sb2O3 and CoO, it shows highly nonlinear current ()–voltage () characteristics. Addition of CoO leads to creation of oxygen vacancies and helps in sintering of SnO2. Antimony oxide acts as a donor and increases the conductivity. The results are nearly the same when antimony oxide is replaced by tantalum oxide. The observed nonlinear coefficient, = 30 and the breakdown voltage is 120 V/mm.
NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PILES UNDER HORIZONTAL VIBRATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Yu-jia; CHENG Chang-jun; YANG Xiao
2005-01-01
The pile-soil system is regarded as a visco-elastic half-space embedded pile. Based on the method of continuum mechanics, a nonlinear mathematical model of pilesoil interaction was established-a coupling nonlinear boundary value problem. Under the case of horizontal vibration, the nonlinearly dynamical characteristics of pile applying the axis force were studied in horizontal direction in frequency domain. The effects of parameters, especially the axis force on the stiffness were studied in detail. The numerical results suggest that it is possible that the pile applying an axis force will lose its stability. So, the effect of the axis force on the pile is considered.
Nonlinear scattering of radio waves by metal objects
Shteynshleyger, V. B.
1984-07-01
Nonlinear scattering of radio waves by metal structures with resulting harmonic and intermodulation interference is analyzed from both theoretical and empirical standpoints, disregarding nonlinear effects associated with the nonlinear dependence of the electric or magnetic polarization vector on respectively the electric or magnetic field intensity in the wave propagating medium. Nonlinear characteristics of metal-oxide-metal contacts where the thin oxide film separation two metal surfaces has properties approximately those of a dielectric or a high-resistivity semiconductor are discussed. Tunneling was found to be the principal mechanism of charge carrier transfer through such a contact with a sufficiently thin film, the contact having usually a cubic or sometimes an integral sign current-voltage characteristic at 300 K and usually S-form or sometimes a cubic current-voltage characteristic at 77 K.
Current-Voltage Relations for Electrochemical Thin Films
Bazant, M Z; Bayly, B J; Bazant, Martin Z.; Chu, Kevin T.
2004-01-01
The dc response of an electrochemical thin film, such as the separator in a micro-battery, is analyzed by solving the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, subject to boundary conditions appropriate for an electrolytic/galvanic cell. The model system consists of a binary electrolyte between parallel-plate electrodes, each possessing a compact Stern layer, which mediates Faradaic reactions with nonlinear Butler-Volmer kinetics. Analytical results are obtained by matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers and compared with full numerical solutions. The analysis shows that (i) decreasing the system size relative to the Debye screening length decreases the voltage of the cell and allows currents higher than the classical diffusion-limited current; (ii) finite reaction rates lead to the important possibility of a reaction-limited current; (iii) the Stern-layer capacitance is critical for allowing the cell to achieve currents above the reaction-limited current; and (iv) all polarographic (current-v...
Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of Oil-in-Water Emulsions
Yin, Zhaoqi; Han, Yunfeng; Ren, Yingyu; Yang, Qiuyi; Jin, Ningde
2016-08-01
In this article, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions under the addition of surfactant were experimentally investigated. Firstly, based on the vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow experiment in 20 mm inner diameter (ID) testing pipe, dynamic response signals of oil-in-water emulsions were recorded using vertical multiple electrode array (VMEA) sensor. Afterwards, the recurrence plot (RP) algorithm and multi-scale weighted complexity entropy causality plane (MS-WCECP) were employed to analyse the nonlinear characteristics of the signals. The results show that the certainty is decreasing and the randomness is increasing with the increment of surfactant concentration. This article provides a novel method for revealing the nonlinear dynamic characteristics, complexity, and randomness of oil-in-water emulsions with experimental measurement signals.
Nonlinear Characteristics of Randomly Excited Transonic Flutter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Mosekilde, Erik
2002-01-01
shown that the self-sustained oscillations arise in a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. However, analysis of the experimental data also reveals that this bifurcation is modified in various ways. We present an outline of the construction of a 6 DOF model of the aeroelastic behavior of the wing structure...... reproduce several of the experimentally observed modifications of the flutter transition. In particular, the models display the characteristic phenomena of coherence resonance....
Parametric characteristic of the random vibration response of nonlinear systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xing-Jian Dong; Zhi-Ke Peng; Wen-Ming Zhang; Guang Meng; Fu-Lei Chu
2013-01-01
Volterra series is a powerful mathematical tool for nonlinear system analysis,and there is a wide range of non-linear engineering systems and structures that can be represented by a Volterra series model.In the present study,the random vibration of nonlinear systems is investigated using Volterra series.Analytical expressions were derived for the calculation of the output power spectral density (PSD) and input-output cross-PSD for nonlinear systems subjected to Gaussian excitation.Based on these expressions,it was revealed that both the output PSD and the input-output crossPSD can be expressed as polynomial functions of the nonlinear characteristic parameters or the input intensity.Numerical studies were carried out to verify the theoretical analysis result and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived relationship.The results reached in this study are of significance to the analysis and design of the nonlinear engineering systems and structures which can be represented by a Volterra series model.
Understanding the Percolation Characteristics of Nonlinear Composite Dielectrics
Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang
2016-08-01
Nonlinear composite dielectrics can function as smart materials for stress control and field grading in all fields of electrical insulations. The percolation process is a significant issue of composite dielectrics. However, the classic percolation theory mainly deals with traditional composites in which the electrical parameters of both insulation matrix and conducting fillers are independent of the applied electric field. This paper measured the nonlinear V-I characteristics of ZnO microvaristors/silicone rubber composites with several filler concentrations around an estimated percolation threshold. For the comparison with the experiment, a new microstructural model is proposed to simulate the nonlinear conducting behavior of the composite dielectrics modified by metal oxide fillers, which is based on the Voronoi network and considers the breakdown feature of the insulation matrix for near percolated composites. Through both experiment and simulation, the interior conducting mechanism and percolation process of the nonlinear composites were presented and a specific percolation threshold was determined as 33%. This work has provided a solution to better understand the characteristics of nonlinear composite dielectrics.
Method for Measuring Small Nonlinearities of Electric Characteristics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guldbrandsen, Tom; Meyer, Niels I; Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen
1965-01-01
A method is described for measuring very small deviations from linearity in electric characteristics. The measurement is based on the harmonics generated by the nonlinear element when subjected to a sine wave signal. A special bridge circuit is used to balance out the undesired harmonics...... of the signal generator together with the first harmonic frequency. The set-up measures the small-signal value and the first and second derivative with respect to voltage. The detailed circuits are given for measuring nonlinearities in Ohmic and capacitive components. In the Ohmic case, a sensitivity...
Pakarzadeh, H.; Rezaei, S. M.
2016-01-01
In this article, we investigate for the first time the dispersion and the nonlinear characteristics of the tapered photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) as a function of length z, via solving the eigenvalue equation of the guided mode using the finite-difference frequency-domain method. Since the structural parameters such as the air-hole diameter and the pitch of the microstructured cladding change along the tapered PCFs, dispersion and nonlinear properties change with the length as well. Therefore, it is important to know the exact behavior of such fiber parameters along z which is necessary for nonlinear optics applications. We simulate the z dependency of the zero-dispersion wavelength, dispersion slope, effective mode area, nonlinear parameter, and the confinement loss along the tapered PCFs and propose useful relations for describing dispersion and nonlinear parameters. The results of this article, which are in a very good agreement with the available experimental data, are important for simulating pulse propagation as well as investigating nonlinear effects such as supercontinuum generation and parametric amplification in tapered PCFs.
Variable Temperature Current-Voltage Measurements of CdTe Solar Cells
Smith, A. D.
2000-03-01
We have used a 2" x 2" Peltier heat pump chip powered with 24 V from a computer power supply to build a variable temperature stage for current voltage measurements of solar cells. A voltage divider was used to achieve several different set point temperatures from 25 oC to -24 oC. This system was used with a halogen lamp to study the electrical performance of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells fabricated in our group. These cells have the superstrate structure glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe/metal.(1) The I-V characteristic shows evidence of a blocking back-diode which sets in below room temperature. This behavior will be related to the diffusion into the CdTe of the metals used for our back contact.(2) 1. M. Shao, A. Fischer, D. Grecu, U. Jayamaha, E. Bykov, G. Contreras-Puente, R.G. Bohn, and A.D. Compaan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3045-3047 (1996). 2. D. Grecu and A.D. Compaan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 361-363 (1999).
Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of Combustion Wave in SHS Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The characteristic of combustion wave and its change were analyzed by numerical value calculation and computer simulation,based on the combustion dynamical model of SHS process. It is shown that with the change of condition parameters in SHS process various time-space order combustion waves appear.It is concluded from non-liner dynamical mechanism analysis that the strong coupling of two non-linear dynamical processes is the dynamical mechanism causing the time-space order dissipation structures.
Spectral characteristics of Compton backscattering sources. Linear and nonlinear modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potylitsyn, A.P., E-mail: potylitsyn@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolchuzhkin, A.M. [Moscow State University of Technology “STANKIN”, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons by relativistic electrons is widely used to design X-ray and gamma sources with a bandwidth better than 1% using a tight collimation. In order to obtain a reasonable intensity of the resulting beam one has to increase power of a laser pulse simultaneously with narrowing of the waist in the interaction point. It can lead to nonlinearity of CBS process which is affected on spectral characteristics of the collimated gamma beam (so-called “red-shift” of the spectral line, emission of “soft” photons with energy much less than the spectral line energy). In this paper we have analyzed such an influence using Monte-Carlo technique and have shown that even weak nonlinearity should be taken into account if the gamma beam is formed by a narrow aperture.
Bidirectional current-voltage converters based on magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites
Jia, Y.; Or, S.W.; Chan, H.L.W.; Jiao, J.; Luo, H.; Van der Zwaag, S.
2009-01-01
We report a power supply-free, bidirectional electric current-voltage converter based on a coil-wound laminated composite of magnetostrictive alloy and piezoelectric crystal. An electric current applied to the coil induces a magnetic field, resulting in an electric voltage from the composite due to
Current-voltage curve of a bipolar membrane at high current density
Aritomi, T.; Boomgaard, van den Th.; Strathmann, H.
1996-01-01
The potential drop across a bipolar membrane was measured as a function of the applied current density. As a result, an inflection point was observed in the obtained current-voltage curve at high current density. This inflection point indicates that at high current densities water supply from outsid
Current-voltage relation for thin tunnel barriers: Parabolic barrier model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kim; Brandbyge, Mads
2004-01-01
We derive a simple analytic result for the current-voltage curve for tunneling of electrons through a thin uniform insulating layer modeled by a parabolic barrier. Our model, which goes beyond the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation, is applicable also in the limit of highly transparant barri...
Current-voltage curve of a bipolar membrane at high current density
Aritomi, T.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Strathmann, H.
1996-01-01
The potential drop across a bipolar membrane was measured as a function of the applied current density. As a result, an inflection point was observed in the obtained current-voltage curve at high current density. This inflection point indicates that at high current densities water supply from
Performance characteristics and optimal analysis of a nonlinear diode refrigerator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xiu-Mei; He Ji-Zhou; Liang Hong-Ni
2011-01-01
This paper establishes a model of a nonlinear diode refrigerator consisting of two diodes switched in the opposite directions and located in two heat reservoirs with different temperatures. Based on the theory of thermal fluctuations, the expressions of the heat flux absorbed from the heat reservoirs are derived. After the heat leak between the two reservoirs is considered, the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance are obtained analytically. The influence of the heat leak and the temperature ratio on the performance characteristics of the refrigerator is analysed in detail.
Investigation on nonlinear thermo-acoustic characteristics of Rijke tube
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Kai; WU Yunfei; LI Hua; FANG Deming; ZHONG Yingjie
2011-01-01
Based on the energy conservation relationship, nonlinear thermo-acoustic effects of Rijke tube including instability range, saturation processes and higher harmonics modes were investigated. With coupling between the external flow and the inner space of a Rijke tube, the acoustic characteristics of self-excited oscillation were simulated. The experimental study was also carried out and the results were compared with those from simulation. The nonlinear factors which distort the acoustic waveform distortion were analyzed. From the results, it is seen that varying size of the nozzle outlet changes the acoustic impedance in the boundary, and leads to reduction of the nonlinear effects. The results show that the modes of self-excited oscillation could be influenced by the position of higher harmonics. In the large amplitude oscillation, the distortion of pressure wave within Rijke tube could be induced by the acoustic losses due to vortices on nozzle. It is found that the waveform distortion could be avoided by the shrinkage of nozzle.
Modeling of Z-scan characteristics for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials.
Chen, Shuqi; Zang, Weiping; Schülzgen, Axel; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jianguo; Moloney, Jerome V; Peyghambarian, Nasser
2009-12-01
We propose a Z-scan theory for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials. The Z-scan characteristics for this material are analyzed. Results show that the Z-scan curves for photonic bandgap materials with nonlinear refraction are similar to those of uniform materials exhibiting both nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption simultaneously. Effects of nonlinear absorption on reflected and transmitted Z-scan results are also discussed.
Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Smith, C. F., Jr.; Wooden, V. A.
1979-01-01
Three types of high performance silicon solar cells, BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm, BSR 10 ohm-cm, and BSR 2 ohm-cm, were evaluated for their low temperature and low intensity performance. Sixteen cells of each type were subjected to ten temperatures and nine intensities. The BSF/BSR 10 ohm-cm cells provided the best performance at 1 solar constant and +25 C with an efficiency of 14.1% while the BSR 2 ohm-cm cells had the highest low temperature and low intensity performance with an efficiency of 22.2% at 0.04 solar constant and -170 C and the most consistent cell-to-cell characteristics.
Lafleur, T.; Delattre, P. A.; Booth, J. P.; Johnson, E. V.; Dine, S.
2013-01-01
A broad-band, inline current-voltage probe, with a characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, is presented for the measurement of voltage and current waveforms, impedance, and power in rf systems. The probe, which uses capacitive and inductive sensors to determine the voltage and current, respectively, can be used for the measurement of single or multi-frequency signals into both matched and unmatched loads, over a frequency range of about 1-100 MHz. The probe calibration and impedance/power measurement technique are described in detail, and the calibrated probe results are compared with those obtained from a vector network analyzer and other commercial power meters. Use of the probe is demonstrated with the measurement of power into an unmatched capacitively coupled plasma excited by multi-frequency tailored voltage waveforms.
Lafleur, T; Delattre, P A; Booth, J P; Johnson, E V; Dine, S
2013-01-01
A broad-band, inline current-voltage probe, with a characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, is presented for the measurement of voltage and current waveforms, impedance, and power in rf systems. The probe, which uses capacitive and inductive sensors to determine the voltage and current, respectively, can be used for the measurement of single or multi-frequency signals into both matched and unmatched loads, over a frequency range of about 1-100 MHz. The probe calibration and impedance/power measurement technique are described in detail, and the calibrated probe results are compared with those obtained from a vector network analyzer and other commercial power meters. Use of the probe is demonstrated with the measurement of power into an unmatched capacitively coupled plasma excited by multi-frequency tailored voltage waveforms.
Nonlinear optical characteristics of monolayer MoSe{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le, Chinh Tam; Ullah, Farman; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Kim, Yong Soo [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest Storage Research Center, University of Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Clark, Daniel J.; Jang, Joon I. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY (United States); Sim, Yumin; Seong, Maeng-Je [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Koo-Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyoyeol [Electronics, Communication and Semiconductor Applications Department, Ulsan College (Korea, Republic of)
2016-08-15
In this study, we utilized picosecond pulses from an Nd:YAG laser to investigate the nonlinear optical characteristics of monolayer MoSe{sub 2}. Two-step growth involving the selenization of pulsed-laser-deposited MoO{sub 3} film was employed to yield the MoSe{sub 2} monolayer on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy verified the high optical quality of the monolayer. The second-order susceptibility χ{sup (2)} was calculated to be ∝50 pm V{sup -1} at the second harmonic wavelength λ{sub SHG} ∝810 nm, which is near the optical gap of the monolayer. Interestingly, our wavelength-dependent second harmonic scan can identify the bound excitonic states including negatively charged excitons much more efficiently, compared with the PL method at room temperature. Additionally, the MoSe{sub 2} monolayer exhibits a strong laser-induced damage threshold ∝16 GW cm{sup -2} under picosecond-pulse excitation{sub .} Our findings suggest that monolayer MoSe{sub 2} can be considered as a promising candidate for high-power, thin-film-based nonlinear optical devices and applications. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张平; 王弋; 付立民; 艾希成; 张建平
2015-01-01
In the present work, we investigated the dynamics of charge col ection and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cel s (DSSCs) spanning a large region of bias voltages using transient photoconductivity. The rate of charge col ection was much faster than that of charge recombination at varied voltages, which was responsible for the nearly uniform charge col ection efficiency. Based on this result, we simplified the diode characteristic model, which al owed us to directly fit the current-voltage (I-V) curve. A series of parameters related to the photo-to-electric processes in working DSSCs could be extracted from the proposed model, which could be used to evaluate the processes of charge generation, transport, and recombination in DSSCs, as wel as the rectification of DSSC devices. We applied the fitting method to DSSCs with different 4-tert-butyl pyridine (TBP) concentrations of electrolyte. It was found that the rate of charge recombination significantly differed while that of charge col ection was rather constant under different TBP concentrations, which was in good agreement with the results of I-V curve fitting. In addition, this research shows that the change of TBP concentration significantly affects the ideality factor (m) of DSSC devices.%利用瞬态光电导技术研究了在一个大的偏压范围内染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC)中的电荷收集和电荷复合过程的动力学。结果表明，在不同的电压下电荷收集速率远快于电荷复合速率，用以解释电荷的收集效率几乎不变。基于这个结果，简化了DSSC二极管特性模型，从而实现了对电流-电压(I-V)曲线的直接拟合。利用这一模型拟合的结果提取出一系列与工作条件下DSSC光电转化过程相关的参数，可以用以描述包括电荷生成、电荷收集和复合以及DSSC器件的整流特性等关键性质。将这一拟合方法应用于不同叔丁基吡啶(TBP)浓度电解液的电池，获得的结果表明
Nonlinear optical imaging characteristics in rat tail tendon
Liu, N. R.; Zhang, X. Z.; Qiu, Y. S.; Chen, R.
2013-04-01
The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of skeletal muscle fibers in tail tendons, explore the content of intrinsic components at different depths and ascertain the optimum excitation wavelength, which will help to establish a relationship between diagnosis and therapy and the tendon injury. A multiphoton microscopic imaging system was used to achieve the images and spectra via an imaging mode and a Lambda mode, respectively. This work demonstrates that the skeletal muscle fibers of the tail tendon are in good order. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals originating from certain intrinsic components are varied with depth, and the SHG/TPEF intensity ratios are varied at different excitation wavelengths. Below 800 nm is the optimum for cell TPEF, while above 800 nm is the optimum for SHG. With the development of imaging techniques, a nonlinear optical imaging system will be helpful to represent the functional behaviors of tissue related to tendon injury.
Nonlinear Vibroimpact Characteristics of a Planetary Gear Transmission System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianxing Zhou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to research the vibroimpact characteristics of a planetary gear transmission system under high speed and lightly loaded conditions, a new modeling method is proposed. In the modeling process, linear spring was used to simulate gear mesh elasticity under heavy load cases, and Hertz contact theory was used to calculate the contact force of gear pair under light load cases. Then, effects of the working conditions on the system vibroimpact characteristics are analyzed. The results show that, with input speed growing, the mesh force produced obvious fluctuations on the resonance frequencies of the sun gear and carrier torsion vibration, ring gear’s transverse vibration under the heavy load. Under light load condition, the collision vibration occurs in the gear pair; the changing trend of the contact force shows strongly nonlinear characteristics. The time of mesh-apart in gears pair decreases gradually as the load is increased; until it reaches collision vibration threshold value, the gear pair is no longer mesh-apart. With increasing of the input speed, the time of mesh-apart is decreased gradually; the fluctuation amplitude of contact force shows a linearly increasing trend. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for planetary gear transmission low-noise design.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuchs, W; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Lindemann, B
1977-01-01
) was clamped to zero and step-changes of Na activity in the outer solution ((Na)(o)) were performed with a fast-flow chamber at constant ionic strength, while the short-circuit current was recorded.3. At pre-selected times after a step-change of (Na)(o) the current response (I) to a fast voltage staircase...... was recorded. This procedure was repeated after blocking the Na channels with amiloride to obtain the current-voltage curve of transmembrane and paracellular shunt pathways. The current-voltage curve of the Na channels was computed by subtracting the shunt current from the total current.4. The instantaneous I...... transport through open Na-selective channels of the outward facing membrane of the stratum granulosum cells can be described as an electrodiffusion process which as such does not saturate with increasing (Na)(o). However, when added to the outer border of the membrane Na causes a decrease of P(Na) within...
Water environmental planning considering the influence of non-linear characteristics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Guang-ming; QIN Xiao-sheng; WANG Wei; HUANG Guo-he; LI Jian-bing; B. Statzner
2003-01-01
In practical water environmental planning, the influence of the non-linear characteristics on the benefit of environmental investment was seldom taken into consideration. This paper demonstrates that there exist a lot of non-linear behaviors in water environment by emphatically analyzing the influence of the non-linear characteristics of the economic scale, the meandering river and the model on water environmental planning, which will make a certain impact on the water environmental planning that sometimes cannot be neglected. This paper also preliminarily explores how to integrate the non-linear characteristics into water environmental planning. The results showed that compared with traditional methods, water environmental planning considering non-linear characteristics has its prevalence and it is necessary to develop the relevant planning theories and methods.
Optimisation of the Nonlinear Suspension Characteristics of a Light Commercial Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dinçer Özcan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The optimum functional characteristics of suspension components, namely, linear/nonlinear spring and nonlinear damper characteristic functions are determined using simple lumped parameter models. A quarter car model is used to represent the front independent suspension, and a half car model is used to represent the rear solid axle suspension of a light commercial vehicle. The functional shapes of the suspension characteristics used in the optimisation process are based on typical shapes supplied by a car manufacturer. The complexity of a nonlinear function optimisation problem is reduced by scaling it up or down from the aforementioned shape in the optimisation process. The nonlinear optimised suspension characteristics are first obtained using lower complexity lumped parameter models. Then, the performance of the optimised suspension units are verified using the higher fidelity and more realistic Carmaker model. An interactive software module is developed to ease the nonlinear suspension optimisation process using the Matlab Graphical User Interface tool.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Liu; Qing Ye; Aiping Luo; Jianrong Qiu; Congshan Zhu; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang
2005-01-01
The nonlinear switching characteristics of fused fiber directional couplers were studied experimentally. By using femtosecond laser pulses with pulse width of 100 fs and wavelength of about 1550 nm from a system of Ti:sapphire laser and optical parametric amplifier (OPA), the nonlinear switching properties of a null coupler and a 100% coupler were measured. The experimental results were coincident with the simulations based on nonlinear propagation equations in fiber by using super-mode theory. Nonlinear loss in fiber was also measured to get the injected power at the coupler. After deducting the nonlinear loss and input efficiency, the nonlinear switching critical peak powers for a 100% and a null fused couplers were calculated to be 9410 and 9440 W, respectively. The nonlinear loss parameter PN in an expression of αNL = αP/PN was obtained to be PN = 0.23 W.
CURRENT-VOLTAGE CURVES FOR TREATING EFFLUENT CONTAINING HEDP: DETERMINATION OF THE LIMITING CURRENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Scarazzato
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Membrane separation techniques have been explored for treating industrial effluents to allow water reuse and component recovery. In an electrodialysis system, concentration polarization causes undesirable alterations in the ionic transportation mechanism. The graphic construction of the current voltage curve is proposed for establishing the value of the limiting current density applied to the cell. The aim of this work was to determine the limiting current density in an electrodialysis bench stack, the function of which was the treatment of an electroplating effluent containing HEDP. For this, a system with five compartments was used with a working solution simulating the rinse waters of HEDP-based baths. The results demonstrated correlation between the regions defined by theory and the experimental data.
Current voltage analysis and band diagram of Ti/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes Schottky junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mini, P.A.; Sherine, Alex; Shalumon, K.T.; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Nair, S.V.; Subramanian, K.R.V. [Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (University), Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Kochi (India)
2012-08-15
Here, we report on how the energy band diagram of a nanostructured semiconductor- metal interface aligns in accordance with semiconductor morphology. Electrochemically, titanium metal is anodized to form titanium dioxide nanotubes, which forms a junction with the free Ti substrate and this junction forms a natural Schottky barrier. With reduced dimensionality of the nanotube structures (lower wall thickness), we have observed band edge movements and band gap quantum confinement effects and lowering of the Schottky barrier. These results were corroborated with the help of cyclic voltammetry, ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and impedance analysis. Current voltage analysis of the Schottky barrier showed a lowering of the barrier (by 25 %) with reducing dimensionality of the nanotube structures. At externally applied voltages higher than the Schottky barrier, charges can travel along the nanotubes and reside at an interface between the nanotubes and a high-{kappa} dielectric. This property was utilized to develop high surface area solid-state capacitors. (orig.)
Current voltage analysis and band diagram of Ti/TiO2 nanotubes Schottky junction
Mini, P. A.; Sherine, Alex; Shalumon, K. T.; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Nair, S. V.; Subramanian, K. R. V.
2012-08-01
Here, we report on how the energy band diagram of a nanostructured semiconductor- metal interface aligns in accordance with semiconductor morphology. Electrochemically, titanium metal is anodized to form titanium dioxide nanotubes, which forms a junction with the free Ti substrate and this junction forms a natural Schottky barrier. With reduced dimensionality of the nanotube structures (lower wall thickness), we have observed band edge movements and band gap quantum confinement effects and lowering of the Schottky barrier. These results were corroborated with the help of cyclic voltammetry, ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and impedance analysis. Current voltage analysis of the Schottky barrier showed a lowering of the barrier (by 25 %) with reducing dimensionality of the nanotube structures. At externally applied voltages higher than the Schottky barrier, charges can travel along the nanotubes and reside at an interface between the nanotubes and a high- κ dielectric. This property was utilized to develop high surface area solid-state capacitors.
Temperature current-voltage characterisation of MOCVD grown InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moldovan, Grigore; Humphreys, Colin J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Phillips, Andrew [phconsult Ltd., 54 Covent Garden, Cambridge, CB1 2HR (United Kingdom); Thrush, E.J. [Thomas Swan Scientific Equipment Limited, Buckingway Business Park, Cambridge, CB4 5UK (United Kingdom)
2006-06-15
A methodology of temperature current-voltage characterisation for blue GaN-based LED is described, with emphasis on artefacts arising from self-heating at high forward currents and voltage transients at low forward currents. Examples of LEDs with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC substrates are discussed, with methods of accounting and avoiding these errors. For the devices studied here it is found that tunnelling dominates the charge transport and that two parallel conduction pathways are present. A method of interpretation of extracted data is also presented, in the context of desired device performance. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Improved performance of a barrier-discharge plasma jet biased by a direct-current voltage
Li, Xuechen; Li, Yaru; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying; Dong, Lifang
2016-01-01
One of the challenges that plasma research encounters is how to generate a large-scale plasma plume at atmospheric pressure. Through utilizing a third electrode biased by a direct-current voltage, a longer plasma plume is generated by a plasma jet in dielectric barrier discharge configurations. Results indicate that the plume length increases until it reaches the third electrode with increasing the bias voltage. By fast photography, it is found that the plume consists of two types of streamers under the influence of the bias voltage, which develops from a guided streamer to a branching one with leaving the tube opening. The transition from the guided streamer to the branching one can be attributed to the electric field and the air/argon fraction. PMID:27759080
Improved performance of a barrier-discharge plasma jet biased by a direct-current voltage
Li, Xuechen; Li, Yaru; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying; Dong, Lifang
2016-10-01
One of the challenges that plasma research encounters is how to generate a large-scale plasma plume at atmospheric pressure. Through utilizing a third electrode biased by a direct-current voltage, a longer plasma plume is generated by a plasma jet in dielectric barrier discharge configurations. Results indicate that the plume length increases until it reaches the third electrode with increasing the bias voltage. By fast photography, it is found that the plume consists of two types of streamers under the influence of the bias voltage, which develops from a guided streamer to a branching one with leaving the tube opening. The transition from the guided streamer to the branching one can be attributed to the electric field and the air/argon fraction.
Ionic polarization-induced current-voltage hysteresis in CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells.
Meloni, Simone; Moehl, Thomas; Tress, Wolfgang; Franckevičius, Marius; Saliba, Michael; Lee, Yong Hui; Gao, Peng; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Graetzel, Michael
2016-02-01
CH3NH3PbX3 (MAPbX3) perovskites have attracted considerable attention as absorber materials for solar light harvesting, reaching solar to power conversion efficiencies above 20%. In spite of the rapid evolution of the efficiencies, the understanding of basic properties of these semiconductors is still ongoing. One phenomenon with so far unclear origin is the so-called hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics of these solar cells. Here we investigate the origin of this phenomenon with a combined experimental and computational approach. Experimentally the activation energy for the hysteretic process is determined and compared with the computational results. First-principles simulations show that the timescale for MA(+) rotation excludes a MA-related ferroelectric effect as possible origin for the observed hysteresis. On the other hand, the computationally determined activation energies for halide ion (vacancy) migration are in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values, suggesting that the migration of this species causes the observed hysteretic behaviour of these solar cells.
Usak, P
2003-01-01
The measurement of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of BSCCO-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes in a silver matrix has been performed on short samples (of several centimetres) as well as on long tape (1 m), wound in the form of a helical one-layer coil. Measurements at 77 K and in zero external magnetic field have revealed good reproducibility of the I-V hysteresis in most runs. Nevertheless, strange irregularities have sometimes been observed in the I-V curve behaviour during current ramping up and down. Quasi-reproducible drops from the ascending hysteretic branch in the direction of the descending one have been measured at higher voltage levels (approx 1 mV cm sup - sup 1) on the curve measured on the helical coil. These have recently been explained by a sudden change in the heat transfer coefficient [1]. Rarely and non-reproducibly we have also observed these drops on short samples at E approx 1 x 10 sup - sup 2 V m sup - sup 1 , (and even under 1 x 10 sup - sup 3 V m sup - sup 1). The accidental dro...
Zhang, Huayong; Huang, Tousheng; Dai, Liming
2015-05-01
Predator-prey interaction widely exists in nature and the research on predator-prey systems is an important field in ecology. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a seasonally perturbed predator-prey system are studied in this research. To study the nonlinear characteristics affected by a wide variety of system parameters, the PR approach is employed and periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic behaviors and the behaviors between period and quasiperiod are found in the system. Periodic-quasiperiodic-chaotic region diagrams are generated for analyzing the global characteristics of the predator-prey system with desired ranges of system parameters. The ecological significances of the dynamical characteristics are discussed and compared with the theoretical research results existing in the literature. The approach of this research demonstrates effectiveness and efficiency of PR method in analyzing the complex dynamical characteristics of nonlinear ecological systems.
A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feron, K., E-mail: Krishna.Feron@csiro.au; Fell, C. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Flagship, Newcastle, NSW 2300 (Australia); Zhou, X.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)
2014-12-07
We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects.
Wang, Zuo-Cai; Xin, Yu; Ren, Wei-Xin
2016-08-01
This paper proposes a new nonlinear joint model updating method for shear type structures based on the instantaneous characteristics of the decomposed structural dynamic responses. To obtain an accurate representation of a nonlinear system's dynamics, the nonlinear joint model is described as the nonlinear spring element with bilinear stiffness. The instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes of the decomposed mono-component are first extracted by the analytical mode decomposition (AMD) method. Then, an objective function based on the residuals of the instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes between the experimental structure and the nonlinear model is created for the nonlinear joint model updating. The optimal values of the nonlinear joint model parameters are obtained by minimizing the objective function using the simulated annealing global optimization method. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a single-story shear type structure subjected to earthquake and harmonic excitations is simulated as a numerical example. Then, a beam structure with multiple local nonlinear elements subjected to earthquake excitation is also simulated. The nonlinear beam structure is updated based on the global and local model using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed local nonlinear model updating method is more effective for structures with multiple local nonlinear elements. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the shake table test of a real high voltage switch structure. The accuracy of the proposed method is quantified both in numerical and experimental applications using the defined error indices. Both the numerical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively update the nonlinear joint model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zubov, F. I.; Zhukov, A. E.; Shernyakov, Yu M.
2015-01-01
Current-voltage and light-current characteristics of quantum-well lasers have been studied at high drive currents. The introduction of asymmetric barrier layers adjacent to the active region caused a significant suppression of the nonlinearity in the light-current characteristic and an increase...... in the external differential efficiency. As a result, the maximum wallplug efficiency increased by 9%, while the output optical power increased by 29%....
Research on nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse because of the multi-frequency mining
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Fan; HU Zhen-qi; YANG Lun; MA Feng-hai
2008-01-01
Based on the complexity of mine stratum and coupling of the multi-frequency for the damage of mine stratum, using the method of on-site inspection and mathematical statistics, the regulation and nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse in mine stratum's multi-frequency mining were put forward and systemically studied. Study result shows that the influence of multi-frequency mining in mine stratum has the feature of multi-frequency incontinuity, multi-characteristic and multi-type nonlinear collapse, strata collapse activation turned worse, presenting an accumulation effect of multi-frequency mining for the strata damage. With the example of multi-frequency mining in the mine, the real characteristics of strata collapse by multi-frequency mining and nonlinear characteristics of accumulative response damage were analyzed. Research achievements about the surface recover and controlling of strata collapse by the multi-frequency mining have instruction meaning.
Nonlinear Characteristics of an Intense Laser Pulse Propagating in Partially Stripped Plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Qiang-Lin; LIU Shi-Bing; CHEN Tao; JIANG Yi-Jian
2005-01-01
The nonlinear optic characteristics of an intense laser pulse propagating in partially stripped plasmas are investigated analytically. The phase and group velocity of the laser pulse propagation as well as the three general expressions governing the nonlinear optic behavior, based on the photon number conservation, are obtained by considering the partially stripped plasma as a nonlinear optic medium. The numerical result shows that the presence of the bound electrons in partially stripped plasma can significantly change the propagating property of the intense laser pulse.
NONLINEAR BUCKLING CHARACTERISTIC OF GRADED MULTIWEB STRUCTURE OF HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yong; ZHANG Zhi-min
2005-01-01
The graded multiweb structure of heterogeneous anisotropic materials, which makes full use of the continuous, gradual and changing physical mechanical performance of material properties, has a widespread application in aeroplane aerofoil structure and automobile lightweight structure. On the basis of laminate buckling theory,the equivalent rigidity method is adopted to establish the corresponding constitutive relation and the non-linear buckling governing equation for the graded multiweb structure. In finding the solution, the critical load of buckling under different complicated boundary conditions together with combined loads were obtained and testification of the experimental analysis shows that the calculation results can satisfy the requirements of engineering design in a satisfactory way. Results obtained from the research say that: graded materials can reduce the concentrated stress on the interface in an effective way and weaken the effect of initial defect in materials and thereby improve the strength and toughness of materials.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Ning; WU Zhigang; YANG Chao
2011-01-01
The flutter characteristics of an actuator-fin system are investigated with structural nonlinearity and dynamic stiffness of the electric motor.The component mode substitution method is used to establish the nonlinear governing equations in time domain and frequency domain based on the fundamental dynamic equations of the electric motor and decelerator.The existing describing function method and a proposed iterative method are used to obtain the flutter characteristics containing preload freeplay nonlinearity when the control command is zero.A comparison between the results of frequency domain and those of time domain is studied.Simulations are carried out when the control command is not zero and further analysis is conducted when the freeplay angle is changed.The results show that structural nonlinearity and dynamic stiffness have a significant influence on the flutter characteristics.Limit cycle oscillations(LCOs)are observed within linear flutter boundary.The response of the actuator-fin system is related to the initial disturbance.In the nonlinear condition,the amplitude of the control command has an influence on the flutter characteristics.
Characteristics of the Main Journal Bearings of an Engine Based on Non-linear Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NI Guangjian; ZHANG Junhong; CHENG Xiaoming
2009-01-01
Many simple nonlinear main journal bearing models have been studied theoretically, but the connection to existing engineering system has not been equally investigated. The consideration of the characteristics of engine main journal bearings may provide a prediction of the bearing load and lubrication. Due to the strong non-linear features in bearing lubrication procedure, it is difficult to predict those characteristics. A non-linear dynamic model is described for analyzing the characteristics of engine main journal bearings. Components such as crankshaft, main journals and con rods are found by applying the finite element method. Non-linear spring/dampers are introduced to imitate the constraint and supporting functions provided by the main bearing and oil film. The engine gas pressure is imposed as excitation on the model via the engine piston, con rod, etc. The bearing reaction force is calculated over one engine cycle, and meanwhile, the oil film thickness and pressure distribution are obtained based on Reynolds differential equation. It can be found that the maximum bearing reaction force always occurs when the maximum cylinder pressure arises in the cylinder adjacent to that bearing. The simulated minimum oil film thickness, which is 3 μm, demonstrates the reliability of the main journal bearings. This non-linear dynamic analysis may save computing efforts of engine main bearing design and also is of good precision and close connection to actual engine main journal bearing conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
Making use of disk targets composed of several peculiar materials (foam Au, foam C8H8)and hohlraum with a special structure, experiments have been done at"Xing Guang - II" laser facility,which study the characteristics of hot electrons and therelated nonlinear processes such as StimulatedRaman Scattering (SRS), Two Plasma Decay (TPD), StimulatedBrillouin Scattering (SBS), etc.
Non-linear characteristics of the endolymph-cupula nystagmus system
Mccormack, Percival D.
1988-01-01
The way a human can detect angular acceleration forces by means of the semicircular canals in the ears is discussed. The anatomy of the canals and the characteristics of the canal fluids are described. The physical implications of variation in cupula stiffness with angular acceleration are examined by analyzing cross-coupled angular acceleration and modeling mathematically the cupula-endolymph system. The system transfer function is obtained and the nonlinear characteristics of the endolymph-cupula-nystagmus system are discussed.
The study about planetary gearbox virtual prototyping with nonlinear gear contact characteristics
Yin, Huabing; Zhou, Guangming
2010-06-01
The virtual prototypes of gear transmission system built in most multi-body dynamic software have difficulties in describing the gear mesh characteristics. The gear mesh contact is modelled as rigid contact and this is not accurate for the gear mesh contact, which is elastic or flexible. The gear contact formula used in the multi-body dynamic software does not reveal the gear contact nonlinear stiffness characteristic. The model built with gear meshing contact is difficult to solve because of its time-consuming algorithm. In the paper a new method is put forward to build the virtual prototype of planetary gearbox system according to the nonlinear mesh stiffness and mesh phase obtained through FEM models. This new FEM method of gear mesh stiffness calculation is much more accurate than the common formulas. The gear mesh nonlinear stiffness of sun gear- pinion and pinion-ring gear of all the planetary gear sets in gearbox are obtained through MATALB code, which is used to read and plot the analyzing result data. The gear mesh phase differences between different pinions with suns or rings of different planetary gear set can be also obtained. With all these data modelled in simulink (or other software) and integrated with the multi-body dynamic planetary gearbox model and the gear meshing contact problem in multi-body gear models is solved easily and accurately. The interfaces for gear mesh stiffness and mesh phases are designed for multi-body dynamic model and simulink. The nonlinear planetary gear set prototyping models are integrated to become the whole planetary gear box model and the whole vehicle system model built in multi-body dynamic software can be integrated to simulate different duty conditions. At last high speed input is put into the nonlinear planetary transmission model and the different duty cases are simulated. The dynamic characteristics of different parts are obtained. The dynamic characteristic comparison between nonlinear and linear models is made
Jing, Xingjian
2015-01-01
This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain. The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...
Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of piles embedded in rock%嵌岩桩非线性动力学特性
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡春林; 程昌钧; 胡胜刚
2007-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a pile embedded in a rock were investigated.Suppose that both the materials of the pile and the soil around the pile obey nonlinear elastic and linear viscoelastic constitutive relations.The nonfinear partial differential equation governing the dynamm characteristics of the pile was first derived.The Galerkin method Wasusedto simplify the equation and to obtain a nonlinear ordinary differential equation.The methods in nonlinear dynamics were employed to solve the simplified dynamical system,and the time-path curves,phase-trajectory diagrams,power spectrum,the dynamic characteristics of the system were also considered in detail.
Evaluation of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characteristics in Heat-Treated Aluminum Alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JongBeom Kim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been known to be more sensitive to minute variation of elastic properties in material than the conventional linear ultrasonic method. In this study, the ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics in the heat-treated aluminum alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu have been evaluated. For this, the specimens were heat treated for various heating period up to 50 hours at three different heating temperatures: 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. The ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics of each specimen were evaluated by measuring the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β from the amplitudes of fundamental and second harmonic frequency components in the transmitted ultrasonic wave. After the ultrasonic test, tensile strengths and elongations were obtained by the tensile test to compare with the parameter β. The heating time showing a peak in the parameter β was identical to that showing critical change in the tensile strength and elongation, and such peak appeared at the earlier heating time in the higher heating temperature. These results suggest that the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β can be used for monitoring the variations in elastic properties of aluminum alloys according to the heat treatment.
Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of SMA intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads.
Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qingxin; Xu, Jia
2014-01-01
Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of shape memory alloy (SMA) intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads were studied in this paper. Von de Pol item was improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of SMA intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads was developed. The conditions of stochastic stability of the system were obtained in singular boundary theory. The steady-state probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was given, and the stochastic Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system were analyzed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the stability of the trivial solution varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process, which can cause stent fracture or loss. The results of this paper are helpful to application of SMA intravascular stent in biomedical engineering fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szmyd Janusz S.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the transient characteristics of the planar type SOFC cell stack, of which the standard output is 300 W. The transient response of the voltage to the manipulation of an electric current was investigated. The effects of the response and of the operating condition determined by the operating temperature of the stack were studied by mapping a current-voltage (I-V correlation. The current-based fuel control (CBFC was adopted for keeping the fuel utilization factor at constant while the value of the electric current was ramped at the constant rate. The present experimental study shows that the transient characteristics of the cell voltage are determined by primarily the operating temperature caused by the manipulation of the current. Particularly, the slope of the I-V curve and the overshoot found on the voltage was remarkably influenced by the operating temperature. The different values of the fuel utilization factor influence the height of the settled voltages. The CBFC has significance in determining the slope of the I-V characteristic, but the different values ofthe fuel utilization factor does not affect the slope as the operating temperature does. The CBFC essentially does not alter the amplitude of the overshoot on the voltage response, since this is dominated by the operating temperature and its change is caused by manipulating the current.
Global Dynamic Characteristic of Nonlinear Torsional Vibration System under Harmonically Excitation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Peiming; LIU Bin; HOU Dongxiao
2009-01-01
Torsional vibration generally causes serious instability and damage problems in many rotating machinery parts. The global dynamic characteristic of nonlinear torsional vibration system with nonlinear rigidity and nonlinear friction force is investigated. On the basis of the generalized dissipation Lagrange's equation, the dynamics equation of nonlinear torsional vibration system is deduced. The bifurcation and chaotic motion in the system subjected to an external harmonic excitation is studied by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The stability of unperturbed system is analyzed by using the stability theory of equilibrium positions of Hamiltonian systems. The criterion of existence of chaos phenomena under a periodic perturbation is given by means of Melnikov's method. It is shown that the existence of homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits in the unperturbed system implies chaos arising from breaking of homoclinic or heteroclinic orbits under perturbation. The validity of the result is checked numerically. Periodic doubling bifurcation route to chaos, quasi-periodic route to chaos, intermittency route to chaos are found to occur due to the amplitude varying in some range. The evolution of system dynamic responses is demonstrated in detail by Poincare maps and bifurcation diagrams when the system undergoes a sequence of periodic doubling or quasi-periodic bifurcations to chaos. The conclusion can provide reference for deeply researching the dynamic behavior of mechanical drive systems.
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Gaafar, M. A.
2011-09-01
A manifestation of a resonance-type hysteresis related to the parametric resonance in the system of coupled Josephson junctions is demonstrated. In contrast with the McCumber and Steward hysteresis, we find that the width of this hysteresis is inversely proportional to the McCumber parameter and it also depends on the coupling between junctions and the boundary conditions. Investigation of the time dependence of the electric charge in superconducting layers allows us to explain the origin of this hysteresis by different charge dynamics for increasing and decreasing bias current processes. The effect of the wavelength of the longitudinal plasma wave created at the resonance on the charging of superconducting layers is demonstrated. We find a strong effect of the dissipation in the system on the amplitude of the charge oscillations at the resonance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walzer, Karsten; Quaade, Ulrich; Ginger, D.S.
2002-01-01
Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we have studied both the geometric distribution and the conduction properties of organic shell capped CdSe nanocrystals adsorbed on hydrogen-passivated Si(100). At submonolayer concentrations, the nanocrystal distribution on the surface was found...... found that the current through the MIS junction is limited by the nanocrystals only in one bias direction, while in the other bias direction the current is limited by the semiconducting substrate. This property may be of relevance for the construction of hybrid electronic devices combining semiconductor...... a widening of the surface band gap by 1 eV with respect to the gap of the substrate, while a significant narrowing of the gap was observed for nanocrystals on p-Si:H. This experimental result could be explained by modeling the system as a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode. Using this model we have...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pankratov, A.L.; Sobolev, A.S.; Koshelets, V.P.
2007-01-01
)] in the millimeter and submillimeter range. The study is performed in the frame of a modified sine-Gordon model, which includes surface losses, self-pumping effect, and in an empirical way the superconducting gap. The electromagnetic coupling to the environment is modeled by a simple resistor-capacitor load (RC load...
2002-01-01
Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we have studied both the geometric distribution and the conduction properties of organic shell capped CdSe nanocrystals adsorbed on hydrogen-passivated Si(100). At submonolayer concentrations, the nanocrystal distribution on the surface was found to be highly nonhomogeneous, with an aggregation of most of the nanocrystals into islands of monolayer thickness. I-V spectra collected on nanocrystals adsorbed on n- and p-type substrates showed a...
Cataldo, Enrico; Maccarrone, Francesco; Paffuti, Giampiero
2016-01-01
We show that in a simple experiment at undergraduate level, suitable to be performed in classes of science and engineering students, it is possible to test accurately, on a popular 1N4148 p-n diode, the range of the junction currents where the Shockley equation model can be considered satisfactory. The experiment benefits from a system of temperature control and data collection driven in a LabVIEW environment. With these tools a large quantity of data can be recorded in the temporal frame of a lab session. Significant deviations of the experimental I-V with respect to the ideal behaviour curve predicted by the Shockley equation are observed, both at low and high current. A better agreement over the entire range is obtained introducing, as is customary, a four parameters model, including a parallel and a series resistance. A new iterative fitting procedure is presented which treats the I-V data of different regimes on the same level, and allows a simultaneous determination of the four parameters for each tempe...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LONG Yun-Ze
2009-01-01
@@ Recently we reported electrical properties of an individual PEDOT nanowire.[1] Ohlckers and Pipinys[2]suggested that the temperature-behavior of Ⅰ- Ⅴcurves and resistance can be described in the framework of a phonon-assisted tunneling (PhAT) model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. P. Pavlos
1999-01-01
Full Text Available A long AE index time series is used as a crucial magnetospheric quantity in order to study the underlying dynainics. For this purpose we utilize methods of nonlinear and chaotic analysis of time series. Two basic components of this analysis are the reconstruction of the experimental tiine series state space trajectory of the underlying process and the statistical testing of an null hypothesis. The null hypothesis against which the experimental time series are tested is that the observed AE index signal is generated by a linear stochastic signal possibly perturbed by a static nonlinear distortion. As dis ' ' ating statistics we use geometrical characteristics of the reconstructed state space (Part I, which is the work of this paper and dynamical characteristics (Part II, which is the work a separate paper, and "nonlinear" surrogate data, generated by two different techniques which can mimic the original (AE index signal. lie null hypothesis is tested for geometrical characteristics which are the dimension of the reconstructed trajectory and some new geometrical parameters introduced in this work for the efficient discrimination between the nonlinear stochastic surrogate data and the AE index. Finally, the estimated geometric characteristics of the magnetospheric AE index present new evidence about the nonlinear and low dimensional character of the underlying magnetospheric dynamics for the AE index.
Szelenyi, Andrea; Journee, Henricus Louis; Herrlich, Simon; Galistu, Gianni M.; van den Berg, Joris; van Dijk, J. Marc C.
Background: Transcranial electric stimulation as used during intraoperative neurostimulation is dependent on electrode and skull impedances. Objective: Threshold currents, voltages and electrode impedances were evaluated with electrical stimulation at 8 successive layers between the skin and the
Szelenyi, Andrea; Journee, Henricus Louis; Herrlich, Simon; Galistu, Gianni M.; van den Berg, Joris; van Dijk, J. Marc C.
2013-01-01
Background: Transcranial electric stimulation as used during intraoperative neurostimulation is dependent on electrode and skull impedances. Objective: Threshold currents, voltages and electrode impedances were evaluated with electrical stimulation at 8 successive layers between the skin and the cer
Programmable Solution for Solving Non-linearity Characteristics of Smart Sensor Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Khan
2007-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple but programmable technique to solve the problem of non-linear characteristics of sensors used in more sensitive applications. The nonlinearity of the output response becomes a very sensitive issue in cases where a proportional increase in the physical quantity fails to bring about a proportional increase in the signal measured. The nonlinearity is addressed by using the interpolation method on the characteristics of a given sensor, approximating it to a set of tangent lines, the tangent points of which are recognized in the code of the processor by IF-THEN code. The method suggested here eliminates the use of external circuits for interfacing, and eases the programming burden on the processor at the cost of proportionally reduced memory requirements. The mathematically worked out results are compared with the simulation and experimental results for an IR sensor selected for the purpose and used for level measurement. This work will be of paramount importance and significance in applications where the controlled signal is required to follow the input signal precisely particularly in sensitive robotic applications.
McGordon, A
1999-01-01
transport that was dominated by the interlayer material, but supercurrent transport that could be due to pinhole shorts. In addition, both geometries, especially the sandwich junction, showed large amounts of normal state noise making these junctions unsuitable for device applications. The effect of shining laser light onto a junction was investigated. The effects on the I-V characteristic were unobservable with the experimental resolution available. The effect of the light on the critical current noise of the junction was to reduce the noise peak slightly when compared to the unilluminated case- the reduction was of the order of 10%, comparable with experimental resolution. The study of the noise from Josephson Junctions is an intense field of research. Despite this, no clear picture of the current transport in these devices has emerged. Without the detailed understanding of the mechanisms of current transport in High Temperature Superconductor junctions, the design of superconducting electronics will not mo...
On the non-linear attachment characteristics of blood to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials.
Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M; Toivakka, Martti; Alam, Parvez
2014-04-01
In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. Our research reveals that the non-linear strength of attachment of blood is related to topographical characteristics on the surface of the biomaterial, the maleability of the biomaterial and the intermolecular strength of attraction between clotted blood proteins (fibrinogen) with the cellulose/kaolin components of the biomaterial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Measurement of nonlinear coefficient and phase matching characteristics of AgGaS sub 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canarelli, P.; Benko, Z.; Hielscher, A.H.; Curl, R.F.; Tittle, F.K. (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice Quantum Inst., Rice Univ., Houston, TX (US))
1992-01-01
This paper reports on a nonlinear optical characteristics of AgGaS{sub 2} that were investigated by measuring visible parametric fluorescence with a pump wavelength of 600 nm. A value of d{sub 36}(AgGaS{sub 2}) = 31 {plus minus} 5 10{sup {minus}12} m/V for the nonlinear coefficient was determined. The temperature dependence of phase matching up to 100{degrees}C was studied. A significant temperature effect, although much smaller than the LiNbO{sub 3}, was found and results in a change in the infrared difference frequency generated of {approximately}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1} {center dot} {degrees}C{sup {minus}1}.
Simulation of non-linear rf losses derived from characteristic Nb topography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Xu, Chen; Kelley, Michael [W& M. JLAB
2013-09-01
A simplified model has been developed to simulate non-linear RF losses on Nb surfaces exclusively due to topographical enhancement of surface magnetic fields. If local sharp edges are small enough, at locations where local surface fields exceed Hc, small volumes of material may become normal conducting without thermal leading to quench. These small volumes of normal material yield increases in the effective surface resistance of the Nb. Using topographic data from typical BCP?d and EP?d fine grain niobium surfaces, we have simulated field-dependent losses and found that when extrapolated to resulting cavity performance, these losses correspond well to characteristic BCP/EP high field Q0 performance differences for fine grain Nb. We describe the structure of the model, its limitations, and the effects of this type of non-linear loss contribution on SRF cavities.
Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of the Shaft System in Water Turbine Generator Set
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Zhenyue; SONG Zhiqiang
2009-01-01
A 3D finite element vibration model of water turbine generator set is constructed considering the coupling with hydropower house foundation. The method of determining guide bearing dynamic characteristic coefficients according to the swing of the shaft is proposed, which can be used for studying the self-vibration characteristic and stability of the water turbine generator set. The method fully considers the complex supporting boundary and loading conditions; especially the nonlinear variation of guide bearing dynamic characteristic coefficients and the coupling effect of the whole power-house foundation. The swing and critical rotating speed of an actual generator set shaft system are calculated. The simulated results of the generator set indicate that the coupling vibration model and calculation method presented in this paper are suitable for stability analysis of the water turbine generator set.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.
2007-10-26
In the first part of this work a model structuring concept for electrochemical systems is presented. The application of such a concept for the structuring of a process model allows it to combine different fuel cell models to form a whole model family, regardless of their level of detail. Beyond this the concept offers the opportunity to flexibly exchange model entities on different model levels. The second part of the work deals with the nonlinear behaviour of PEM fuel cells. With the help of a simple, spatially lumped and isothermal model, bistable current-voltage characteristics of PEM fuel cells operated with low humidified feed gases are predicted and discussed in detail. The cell is found to exhibit current-voltage curves with pronounced local extrema in a parameter range that is of practical interest when operated at constant feed gas flow rates. (orig.)
Fujita, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Yoneyama, Naoki; Kobayashi, Norio
2004-06-01
Current-voltage characteristics are measured in the quasi-two dimensional organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 at temperatures down to 0.5 K and in the magnetic field up to 25 T. The non-linear conduction with a threshold electric field is found in the density wave state. The features of threshold electric field obtained in the low magnetic field region are explained by the unconventional charge density wave model. In the high magnetic field region, where the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations appear, the current-voltage characteristics reveal that the density wave state synchronizes with the filling of the electron on the Landau level and continues even above a kink field 23 T.
Shen, Chunyun; Zhang, Yuwen; Li, Zheng
2016-01-01
Natural convection in a cylinder with an internally slotted annulus was solved by SIMPLE algorithm, and the effects of different slotted structures on nonlinear characteristics of natural convection were investigated. The results show that the equivalent thermal conductivity Keq increases with Rayleigh number, and reaches the maximum in the vertical orientation. Nonlinear results were obtained by simulating the fluid flow at different conditions. With increasing Rayleigh number, heat transfer is intensified and the state of heat transfer changes from the steady to unsteady. We investigated different slotted structures effects on natural convection, and analyze the corresponding nonlinear characteristics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang Zheng; Yi-hu Song; Xiao-su Yi
2001-01-01
The nonlinear J-E characteristics under self-heating equilibrium for conductive composites based on high density polyethylene were studied. The results show that there are identical conduction mechanisms under self-heating equilibrium for the composites with various initial resistivities determined by filler content or ambient temperature. The nonlinear conduction behavior was involved in the limited microstructure transformations of the conducting network induced by electrical field applied and the corresponding self-heating effect. A reversible thermal fuse (RTF) model was suggested to interpret the physical origin of the nonlinear J-E characteristics.
Cojocaru, Ludmila; Uchida, Satoshi; Jayaweera, Piyankarage V. V.; Kaneko, Shoji; Toyoshima, Yasutake; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi
2017-02-01
Physical modeling of hysteretic behavior in current-voltage (I-V) curves of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is necessary for further improving their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The reduction of hysteresis in inverted planar structure PSCs (p-PSCs) has been achieved by using a [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer. In the cases, the opposite trend of the I-V hysteresis has been observed where the forward scan shows slightly higher efficiency than the reverse scan. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model with inductance is proposed. This model consists of a Schottky diode involving a parasitic inductance focusing PCBM/Al(Ca) interface and accurately represents the opposite trend of the I-V hysteresis of the p-PSC with an inverted structure.
Razzaq, Zia
1989-01-01
Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.
Zhang, L.; Yu, C.; Sun, J. Q.
2015-03-01
It is difficult to simulate the dynamical behavior of actual financial markets indexes effectively, especially when they have nonlinear characteristics. So it is significant to propose a mathematical model with these characteristics. In this paper, we investigate a generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function (WMF) model with two nonlinear characteristics: fractal dimension D where 2 > D > 1.5 and Hurst exponent (H) where 1 > H > 0.5 firstly. And then we study the dynamical behavior of H for WMF as D and the spectrum of the time series γ change in three-dimensional space, respectively. Because WMF and the actual stock market indexes have two common features: fractal behavior using fractal dimension and long memory effect by Hurst exponent, we study the relationship between WMF and the actual stock market indexes. We choose a random value of γ and fixed value of D for WMF to simulate the S&P 500 indexes at different time ranges. As shown in the simulation results of three-dimensional space, we find that γ is important in WMF model and different γ may have the same effect for the nonlinearity of WMF. Then we calculate the skewness and kurtosis of actual Daily S&P 500 index in different time ranges which can be used to choose the value of γ. Based on these results, we choose appropriate γ, D and initial value into WMF to simulate Daily S&P 500 indexes. Using the fit line method in two-dimensional space for the simulated values, we find that the generalized WMF model is effective for simulating different actual stock market indexes in different time ranges. It may be useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of many different financial markets.
Song, Yongduan; Guo, Junxia; Huang, Xiucai
2016-06-23
This paper considers the tracking control problem for a class of multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems subject to unknown actuation characteristics and external disturbances. Neuroadaptive proportional-integral (PI) control with self-tuning gains is proposed, which is structurally simple and computationally inexpensive. Different from traditional PI control, the proposed one is able to online adjust its PI gains using stability-guaranteed analytic algorithms without involving manual tuning or trial and error process. It is shown that the proposed neuroadaptive PI control is continuous and smooth everywhere and ensures the uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals of the closed-loop system. Furthermore, the crucial compact set precondition for a neural network (NN) to function properly is guaranteed with the barrier Lyapunov function, allowing the NN unit to play its learning/approximating role during the entire system operation. The salient feature also lies in its low complexity in computation and effectiveness in dealing with modeling uncertainties and nonlinearities. Both square and nonsquare nonlinear systems are addressed. The benefits and the feasibility of the developed control are also confirmed by simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. L. Dmitrieva
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Basic peculiarities of nonlinear Kalman filtering algorithm applied to processing of interferometric signals are considered. Analytical estimates determining statistical characteristics of signal values prediction errors were obtained and analysis of errors histograms taking into account variations of different parameters of interferometric signal was carried out. Modeling of the signal prediction procedure with known fixed parameters and variable parameters of signal in the algorithm of nonlinear Kalman filtering was performed. Numerical estimates of prediction errors for interferometric signal values were obtained by formation and analysis of the errors histograms under the influence of additive noise and random variations of amplitude and frequency of interferometric signal. Nonlinear Kalman filter is shown to provide processing of signals with randomly variable parameters, however, it does not take into account directly the linearization error of harmonic function representing interferometric signal that is a filtering error source. The main drawback of the linear prediction consists in non-Gaussian statistics of prediction errors including cases of random deviations of signal amplitude and/or frequency. When implementing stochastic filtering of interferometric signals, it is reasonable to use prediction procedures based on local statistics of a signal and its parameters taken into account.
Nonlinear evolution characteristics of the climate system on the interdecadal-centennial timescale
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Xin-Quan; Zhang Wen
2005-01-01
To better understand the physical mechanism of the climate change on interdecadal-centennial timescale, this paper focuses on analysing and modelling the evolution characteristics of the climate change. The method of wavelet transform is used to pick out the interdecadal timescale oscillations from long-term instrumental observations, natural proxy records, and modelling series. The modelling series derived from the most simplified nonlinear climatic model are used to identify whether modifications are concerned with some forcings such as the solar radiation on the climate system. The results show that two major oscillations exist in various observations and model series, namely the 2030a and the 60-70a timescale respectively, and these quasi-periodicities are modulated with time. Further, modelling results suggest that the originations of these oscillations are not directly linked with the periodic variation of solar radiations such as the 1-year cycle, the 11-year cycle, and others, but possibly induced by the internal nonlinear effects of the climate system. It seems that the future study on the genesis of the climate change with interdecadal-centennial timescale should focus on the internal nonlinear dynamics in the climate system.
Experimental damage detection of cracked beams by using nonlinear characteristics of forced response
Andreaus, U.; Baragatti, P.
2012-08-01
Experimental evaluation of the flexural forced vibrations of a steel cantilever beam having a transverse surface crack extending uniformly along the width of the beam was performed, where an actual fatigue crack was introduced instead - as usual - of a narrow slot. The nonlinear aspects of the dynamic response of the beam under harmonic excitation were considered and the relevant quantitative parameters were evaluated, in order to relate the nonlinear resonances to the presence and size of the crack. To this end, the existence of sub- and super-harmonic components in the Fourier spectra of the acceleration signals was evidenced, and their amplitudes were quantified. In particular, the acceleration signals were measured in different positions along the beam axis and under different forcing levels at the beam tip. The remarkable relevance of the above mentioned nonlinear characteristics, and their substantial independence on force magnitude and measurement point were worthily noted in comparison with the behavior of the intact beam. Thus, a reliable method of damage detection was proposed which was based on simple tests requiring only harmonically forcing and acceleration measuring in any point non-necessarily near the crack. Then, the time-history of the acceleration recorded at the beam tip was numerically processed in order to obtain the time-histories of velocity and displacement. The nonlinear features of the forced response were described and given a physical interpretation in order to define parameters suitable for damage detection. The efficiency of such parameters was discussed with respect to the their capability of detecting damage and a procedure for damage detection was proposed which was able to detect even small cracks by using simple instruments. A finite element model of the cantilever beam was finally assembled and tuned in order to numerically simulate the results of the experimental tests.
Application of the Characteristic Time Expansion Method for Estimating Nonlinear Restoring Forces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yung-Wei Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a characteristic time expansion method (CTEM for estimating nonlinear restoring forces. Because noisy data and numerical instability are the main causes of numerical developing problems in an inverse field, a polynomial to identify restoring forces is usually adopted to eliminate these problems. However, results of the way doing are undesirable for a high order of polynomial. To overcome this difficulty, the characteristic length (CL is introduced into the power series, and a natural regularization technique is applied to ensure numerical stability and determine the existence of a solution. As compared to previous solutions presented in other researches, the proposed method is a desirable and accurate solver for the problem of restoring the force in the inverse vibration problems.
Non-linear characteristics and long-range correlations in Asian stock markets
Jiang, J.; Ma, K.; Cai, X.
2007-05-01
We test several non-linear characteristics of Asian stock markets, which indicates the failure of efficient market hypothesis and shows the essence of fractal of the financial markets. In addition, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to investigate the long range correlation of the volatility in the stock markets, we find that the crossover phenomena exist in the results of DFA. Further, in the region of small volatility, the scaling behavior is more complicated; in the region of large volatility, the scaling exponent is close to 0.5, which suggests the market is more efficient. All these results may indicate the possibility of characteristic multifractal scaling behaviors of the financial markets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yohannes S.M. Simamora
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A simple approach of active surge control of compression systems is presented. Specifically, nonlinear components of the pressure ratio and rotating speed states of the Moore-Greitzer model are transferred into the input vectors. Subsequently, the compressor characteristic is linearized into two modes, which describe the stable region and the unstable region respectively. As a result, the system’s state and input matrices both appear linear, to which linear realization and analysis are applicable. A linear quadratic regulator plus integrator is then chosen as closed-loop controller. By simulation it was shown that the modified model and characteristics can describe surge behavior, while the closed-loop controller can stabilize the system in the unstable operating region. The last-mentioned was achieved when massflow was 5.38 per cent less than the surge point.
Gan, Deying; Hu, Weiping; Zhao, Bingxin
2014-10-01
By analyzing the mechanism of pronunciation, traditional acoustic parameters, including fundamental frequency, Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), linear prediction cepstrum coefficient (LPCC), frequency perturbation, amplitude perturbation, and nonlinear characteristic parameters, including entropy (sample entropy, fuzzy entropy, multi-scale entropy), box-counting dimension, intercept and Hurst, are extracted as feature vectors for identification of pathological voice. Seventy-eight normal voice samples and 73 pathological voice samples for /a/, and 78 normal samples and 80 pathological samples for /i/ are recognized based on support vector machine (SVM). The results showed that compared with traditional acoustic parameters, nonlinear characteristic parameters could be well used to distinguish between healthy and pathological voices, and the recognition rates for /a/ were all higher than those for /i/ except for multi-scale entropy. That is why the /a/ sound data is used widely in related research at home and abroad for obtaining better identification of pathological voices. Adopting multi-scale entropy for /i/ could obtain higher recognition rate than /a/ between healthy and pathological samples, which may provide some useful inspiration for evaluating vocal compensatory function.
Nonlinear Vibration Characteristics of a Flexible Blade with Friction Damping due to Tip-Rub
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dengqing Cao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An approximate approach is proposed in this paper for analyzing the two-dimensional friction contact problem so as to compute the dynamic response of a structure constrained by friction interfaces due to tip-rub. The dynamical equation of motion for a rotational cantilever blade in a centrifugal force field is established. Flow-induced distributed periodic forces and the internal material damping in the blade are accounted for in the governing equation of motion. The Galerkin method is employed to obtain a three-degree-of-freedom oscillator with friction damping due to tip-rub. The combined motion of impact and friction due to tip-rub produced a piecewise linear vibration which is actually nonlinear. Thus, a complete vibration cycle is divided into successive intervals. The system possesses linear vibration characteristic during each of these intervals, which can be determined using analytical solution forms. Numerical simulation shows that the parameters such as gap of the tip and the rotational speed of the blades have significant effects on the dynamical responses of the system. Finally, the nonlinear vibration characteristics of the blade are investigated in terms of the Poincare graph, and the frequency spectrum of the responses and the amplitude-frequency curves.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIN Xin-qiang; MA Yi-chen; ZHANG Yin
2005-01-01
For two-dimension nonlinear convection diffusion equation, a two-grid method of characteristics finite-element solution was constructed. In this method the nonlinear iterations is only to execute on the coarse grid and the fine-grid solution can be obtained in a single linear step. For the nonlinear convection-dominated diffusion equation, this method can not only stabilize the numerical oscillation but also accelerate the convergence and improve the computational efficiency. The error analysis demonstrates if the mesh sizes between coarse-grid and fine-grid satisfy the certain relationship, the two-grid solution and the characteristics finite-element solution have the same order of accuracy. The numerical example confirms that the two-grid method is more efficient than that of characteristics finite-element method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Jing
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Quantitative measurement on instantaneous concentration field not only can provide scientific methods for people measuring environment wind tunnel, but also can provide important data for solving convection--diffusion problem in practical project. The established large environment and wind engineering wind tunnel needs to develop the measurement system of instantaneous concentration field in order to study concentration field of environmental pollution diffusion. Based on collecting, analyzing and selecting a large number of literatures, the paper comprehensively studies the image measurement of instantaneous concentration field, and develops the complete software and hardware system. And the developed measurement system is used to measure the results, and the nonlinear characteristics of instable concentration field are studied. Combined with experimental fluid mechanics, information technology, optical scattering and imaging theory, the paper makes quantitative calculation on instability of concentration field from an experimental point of view, which provides an important experimental result for using numerical method to explore the instability of concentration field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Wen Zhu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A kind of high-aspect-ratio shape memory alloy (SMA composite wing is proposed to reduce the wing’s fluttering. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of the SMA composite wings subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation are investigated where the great bending under the flight loads is considered. The stochastic stability of the system is analyzed, and the system’s response is obtained. The conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation are determined, and the probability density of the first-passage time is obtained. Finally, the optimal control strategy is proposed. Numerical simulation shows that the stability of the system varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process; the reliability of the system is improved through optimal control, and the first-passage time is delayed. Finally, the effects of the control strategy are proved by experiments. The results of this paper are helpful for engineering applications of SMA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Simić
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the realization of a three-phase transformer model based on a non-linear open-circuit characteristic. The proposed model is based on the fact that in case of a star connection with a neutral wire on the primary windings for all three phases, the applied voltage presents phase voltage and line (phase currents are magnetization currents. These variables are available for measuring and it is easy to obtain three non-linear open circuit characteristics. The results of simulations and a comparison with references and experimental results verified this approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenhua Yan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Low-frequency vibrations (0.5–5 Hz that harm drivers occur in off-road vehicles. Thus, researchers have focused on finding methods to effectively isolate or control low-frequency vibrations. A novel nonlinear seat suspension structure for off-road vehicles is designed, whose static characteristics and seat-human system dynamic response are modeled and analyzed, and experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical solutions. Results show that the stiffness of this nonlinear seat suspension could achieve real zero stiffness through well-matched parameters, and precompression of the main spring could change the nonlinear seat suspension performance when a driver’s weight changes. The displacement transmissibility curve corresponds with the static characteristic curve of nonlinear suspension, where the middle part of the static characteristic curve is gentler and the resonance frequency of the displacement transmissibility curve and the isolation minimum frequency are lower. Damping should correspond with static characteristics, in which the corresponding suspension damping value should be smaller given a flatter static characteristic curve to prevent vibration isolation performance reduction.
Jumps and bi-stability in the phase-gain characteristics of a nonlinear parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neumeyer, Stefan; van de Looij, Ruud; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2014-01-01
This work experimentally investigates the impact of nonlinearity on macromechanical parametric amplification. For a strong cubic stiffness nonlinearity we observe jumps in gain (ratio of steady-state vibration amplitude of the externally and parametrically excited system, to vibration amplitude...
Breakpoint region in the IV-characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions
Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.
2008-02-01
We study theoretically the IV-characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in HTSC. We solve numerically a set of differential equations for N intrinsic Josephson junctions and investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the system. The charging effect is taken into account. We demonstrate that the breakpoint region in the current-voltage characteristics naturally follows from the solution of the system of the dynamical equations for the phase difference. In the breakpoint region the plasma mode is a stationary solution of the system and this fact might be used in some applications, particularly, in high frequency devices such as THz oscillators and mixers.
HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)
2010-06-01
One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.
HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature
Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul
2010-06-01
One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Zhi-Wen [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Control 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Qing-Xin [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Jia, E-mail: xujia_ld@163.com [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2014-11-03
A kind of shape memory alloy (SMA) hysteretic nonlinear model was developed, and the nonlinear dynamics and bifurcation characteristics of the SMA thin film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were investigated. Van der Pol difference item was introduced to describe the hysteretic phenomena of the SMA strain–stress curves, and the nonlinear dynamic model of the SMA thin film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The conditions of global stochastic stability of the system were determined in singular boundary theory, and the probability density function of the system response was obtained. Finally, the conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation were analyzed. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation indicate that self-excited vibration is induced by the hysteretic nonlinear characteristics of SMA, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears when the bifurcation parameter was changed; there are two limit cycles in the stationary probability density of the dynamic response of the system in some cases, which means that there are two vibration amplitudes whose probabilities are both very high, and jumping phenomena between the two vibration amplitudes appear with the change in conditions. The results obtained in this current paper are helpful for the application of the SMA thin film in stochastic vibration fields. - Highlights: • Hysteretic nonlinear model of shape memory alloy was developed. • Van der Pol item was introduced to interpret hysteretic strain–stress curves. • Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the shape memory alloy film were analyzed. • Jumping phenomena were observed in the change of the parameters.
Nonlinear Resistor with Polynomial AV Characteristics and Its Application in Chaotic Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Pospisil
2004-06-01
Full Text Available This paper shows the realization of two terminal devices with anarbitrary polynomial nonlinearity up to the fifth order. The proposeddesign procedure is completely systematic using minimum of components.The very heart of our conception is four-channel four-quadrant analogmultiplier MLT04. The implementation of synthesized nonlinear resistoras a general nonlinearity in chaotic oscillator is also presented andexperimentally verified.
Zhou, Feifei; Fang, Keyan; Li, Yingjun; Chen, Qiuyan; Chen, Dan
2016-10-01
Hydroclimate variations in the mid-latitude Asia have received considerable attention due to its significance for the regional ecosystem and livelihood, while its nonlinear characteristics over the past centuries are not fully understood yet. Hydroclimate patterns for the mid-latitude Asia are classified into eastern and western modes based on a network of the reconstructed Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of 197 grids spanning since 1300. The hydroclimate variations of western mode are more complex than that of eastern mode based on the Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD) analysis, which may be related to the complex atmospheric circulation patterns that dominate them. The relationships of the hydroclimate variations between western and eastern modes at different time scales extracted by ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD) are detected. The anti-phase relationship of the hydroclimatic variations between western and eastern modes at the interdecadal variations occurs during the periods with the enhanced El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variance. Similarly, the multidecadal hydroclimate variations are anti-phase when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is in its warm phases. The inverse relationship between western and eastern modes is stable for the centennial scale.
Probability characteristics of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by δ -pulse noise
Dubkov, Alexander A.; Rudenko, Oleg V.; Gurbatov, Sergey N.
2016-06-01
For a nonlinear dynamical system described by the first-order differential equation with Poisson white noise having exponentially distributed amplitudes of δ pulses, some exact results for the stationary probability density function are derived from the Kolmogorov-Feller equation using the inverse differential operator. Specifically, we examine the "effect of normalization" of non-Gaussian noise by a linear system and the steady-state probability density function of particle velocity in the medium with Coulomb friction. Next, the general formulas for the probability distribution of the system perturbed by a non-Poisson δ -pulse train are derived using an analysis of system trajectories between stimuli. As an example, overdamped particle motion in the bistable quadratic-cubic potential under the action of the periodic δ -pulse train is analyzed in detail. The probability density function and the mean value of the particle position together with average characteristics of the first switching time from one stable state to another are found in the framework of the fast relaxation approximation.
Nonlinear friction characteristics between silica surfaces in high pH solution.
Taran, Elena; Kanda, Yoichi; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Higashitani, Ko
2007-03-15
Molecular-scale characteristics of friction forces between silica particles and silica wafers in aqueous solutions of the normal (pH 5.6) and high pH (pH 10.6) are investigated, using the lateral force measuring procedure of the atomic force microscope (AFM). Various significant differences of friction characteristics between solutions of normal and high pH's are found. In the case of solutions of normal pH, the friction force increases linearly with increasing loading force, as the Amonton's law for solid bodies indicates. However, in the case of high pH solutions, the increasing rate with the loading force is considerably reduced in the low loading region, but the value increases abruptly above a critical loading force to overcome the magnitude of friction force of normal pH above the region of very high loading. It is very interesting to know that this nonlinear force curve at high pH is independent of the atomic-scale roughness of surfaces, although the magnitude of friction is greatly influenced by the roughness in the case of normal pH. The reason why the friction at high pH is independent of the surface roughness is postulated to be due to the hairy-like layer formed on the silica surface. The existence of hairy-like layers at high pH is proven directly by the dynamic method of normal force measurements with AFM and the thickness is estimated to be at least ca. 1.3 nm.
He, Yandong; Zhang, Ganggang; Zhang, Xing
2014-01-01
With the process compatibility with the mainstream standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), shallow trench isolation (STI) based laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices have become popular for its better tradeoff between breakdown voltage and performance, especially for smart power applications. A multi-region direct current current-voltage (MR-DCIV) technique with spectroscopic features was demonstrated to map the interface state generation in the channel, accumulation and STI drift regions. High temperature behavior of MR-DCIV spectroscopy was analyzed and a physical model was verified. Degradation of STI-based LDMOS transistors under high temperature reverse bias (HTRB) stress is experimentally studied by MR-DCIV spectroscopy. The impact of interface state location on device electrical characteristics was investigated. Our results show that the major contribution to HTRB degradation, in term of the on-resistance degradation, was attributed to interface state generation under STI drift region.
Nonlinear analysis of gravity signals based on estimating attractor topological characteristics
Minervina, H.
2003-04-01
The nonlinear dynamical systems (NDSs) and processes with self-organization named as complex systems[1] are investi- gated with great activity in last decades.The gravity phe- nomenon can be also interpreted from the point of view of the self-organization theory first of all as primary irre- versible process [1].The NDS behavior are described on the basis of reconstruction of its attractor in m-dimensional Euclidean state-space and estimation of attractor topolo- gical characteristics(including minimal embedding dimension, scaling factors etc). With this aim it is necessary to select the state-space with the minimal dimension m* as the value m* is an upper limit of the degrees of freedom for a system. The determing m* on the basis of various correlative topological methods requires large computer expenditures [2]. Such methods have essential computational complexity and demand long time series (N is approximatly equal to 10000 - 100000 points) for their implementation. The method proposed in [3]-[5] allows to reduce the compu- tational complexity. However,the proposed locally topolo- gical method has especially heuristic character.This paper gives the theoretical ground of a local-topological method for defining minimal attractor embedding dimension on the basis of proposed matrix series into the state-space [6]. This method requires much less experimental data and is stable to changing m* [3],[5].The investigation of digital gravity signals using local-topological analysis of chaotic attractor trajectories is carried out. For this case we use the geodynamic ground of monotoring for observing variations of gravity field of the Earth on the base of quartz gravi- meters as GNU-KS. The computer confirmation of the theore- tical results is presented. References [1] G.Nicolis and I.Prigogine. Exploring Complexity. W.H.Freeman and Co., New York, 1989. [2] P.Grassberger and I. Procaccia,Characterization of strange attractors, Phys. Rev.Lett. vol.50, 346-349,1983. [3] V
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)
2017-04-15
An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Janhunen
Full Text Available We derive the current-voltage relationship in the auroral region taking into account magnetospheric electrons for the bi-Maxwellian and kappa source plasma distribution functions. The current-voltage formulas have in principle been well known for a long time, but the kappa energy flux formulas have not appeared in the literature before. We give a unified treatment of the bi-Maxwellian and kappa distributions, correcting some errors in previous work. We give both exact results and two kinds of approximate formulas for the current density and the energy flux. The first approximation is almost generally valid and is practical to compute. The first approximation formulas are therefore suitable for use in simulations. In the second approximation we assume in addition that the thermal energy is small compared to the potential drop. This yields even simpler linear formulas which are suitable for many types of event studies and which have a more transparent physical interpretation than the first approximation formulas. We also show how it is possible to derive the first approximation formulas even for those distributions for which the exact results can not be computed analytically. The kappa field-aligned conductance value turns out always to be smaller than the corresponding Maxwellian conductance. We also verify that the obtained kappa current density and energy flux formulas go to Maxwellian results when κ→∞.
Key words. Current-voltage relationship · Bi-Maxwellian distributions · Kappa distribution
Foster, J. M.
2013-01-01
In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified version of the standard drift-diffusion equations is employed in which minority carrier densities are neglected. This is justified by the large disparities in electron affinity and ionisation potential between the two materials. The resulting equations are solved (via both asymptotic and numerical techniques) in conjunction with (i) Ohmic boundary conditions on the contacts and (ii) an internal boundary condition, imposed on the interface between the two materials, that accounts for charge pair generation (resulting from the dissociation of excitons) and charge pair recombination. Current-voltage curves are calculated from the solution to this model as a function of the strength of the solar charge generation. In the physically relevant power generating regime, it is shown that these current-voltage curves are well-approximated by a Shockley equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, since our drift-diffusion model is predictive, it can be used to directly calculate equivalent circuit parameters from the material parameters of the device. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Characteristic analysis of liquid forced nonlinear sloshing under low-gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Under low gravity, the Lagrange equations in the form of volume integration of pressure of nonlinear liquid sloshing were built by variational principle. Based on this, the analytical solution of nonlinear liquid sloshing in pitching tank could be investigated. Then the velocity potential function was expanded in series by wave height function at the free surface so that the nonlinear equations with kinematics and dynamics free surface boundary conditions were derived. Finally, these nonlinear equations were investigated analytically by the multiple scales method. The result indicates that the system's amplitude-frequency response changes from 'softsping' to 'hard-spring' in the planar motion with the decresing of the Bond number, while in changes from 'hard-sping' to 'soft-spring' in the rotary motion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈化; 罗壮初
2002-01-01
In this paper the authors study a class of non-linear singular partial differential equation in complex domain Ct × Cnx. Under certain assumptions, they prove the existence and uniqueness of holomorphic solution near origin of Ct × Cnx.
Shih, C. C.
1973-01-01
In order to establish a foundation of scaling laws for the highly nonlinear waves associated with the launch vehicle, the basic knowledge of the relationships among the paramaters pertinent to the energy dissipation process associated with the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves in thermoviscous media is required. The problem of interest is to experimentally investigate the temporal and spacial velocity profiles of fluid flow in a 3-inch open-end pipe of various lengths, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves for various diaphragm burst pressures of a pressure wave generator. As a result, temporal and spacial characteristics of wave propagation for a parametric set of nonlinear pressure waves in the pipe containing air under atmospheric conditions were determined. Velocity measurements at five sections along the pipes of up to 210 ft. in length were made with hot-film anemometers for five pressure waves produced by a piston. The piston was derived with diaphragm burst pressures at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 psi in the driver chamber of the pressure wave generator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available When predicting the nonlinear stability of high-speed spindle system, it is necessary to create an accurate model that reflects the dynamic characteristics of the whole system, including the spindle-bearing joint and spindle-holder-tool joints. In this paper, the distribution spring model of spindle-holder-tool joints was built with the consideration of its dynamic characteristics; the five-DOF dynamic model of the angle contact ball bearing was also established to study the influence of speed and preload on the spindle-bearing joint, both of which were used in the general whole complete spindle system FEM model. The rationality of the model was verified by comparison with the FRF of traditional rigid model and experiments. At last, the influences of speed and cutting force on the nonlinear stability were analyzed by amplitude spectrum, bifurcation, and Poincaré mapping. The results provided a theoretical basis and an evaluating criterion for nonlinear stability prediction and product surface quality improvement.
A Symmetric Characteristic Finite Volume Element Scheme for Nonlinear Convection-Diffusion Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Min Yang; Yi-rang Yuan
2008-01-01
In this paper, we implement alternating direction strategy and construct a symmetric FVE scheme for nonlinear convection-diffusion problems. Comparing to general FVE methods, our method has two advantages. First, the coefficient matrices of the discrete schemes will be symmetric even for nonlinear problems.Second, since the solution of the algebraic equations at each time step can be inverted into the solution of several one-dimensional problems, the amount of computation work is smaller. We prove the optimal H1-norm error estimates of order O(△t2 + h) and present some numerical examples at the end of the paper.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medford, Andrew James; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad
2010-01-01
Inflection point behaviour is often observed in the current-voltage (IV) curve of polymer and organic solar cells. This phenomenon is examined in the context of flexible roll-to-roll (R2R) processed polymer solar cells in a large series of devices with a layer structure of: PET-ITO-ZnO-P3HT......:PCBM-PEDOT:PSS-Ag. The devices were manufactured using a combination of slot-die coating and screen printing; they were then encapsulated by lamination using a polymer based barrier material. All manufacturing steps were carried out in ambient air. The freshly prepared devices showed a consistent inflection point in the IV...
Peri-implantitis: a complex condition with non-linear characteristics
Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Gogos, C.; Housos, E.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.
2015-01-01
Aim To cluster peri-implantitis patients and explore non-linear patterns in peri-implant bone levels. Materials and Methods Clinical and radiographic variables were retrieved from 94 implant-treated patients (340 implants, mean 7.1 ± 4.1 years in function). Kernel probability density estimations on
Some examples of non-linear systems and characteristics of their solutions
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Greben, JM
2006-07-01
Full Text Available . In contrast to certain other applications in complexity theory, these non-linear solutions are characterized by great stability. To go beyond the dominant non-perturbative solution one has to consider the source term as well. The parameter freedom...
Peri-implantitis: a complex condition with non-linear characteristics
Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Gogos, C.; Housos, E.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.
2015-01-01
Aim To cluster peri-implantitis patients and explore non-linear patterns in peri-implant bone levels. Materials and Methods Clinical and radiographic variables were retrieved from 94 implant-treated patients (340 implants, mean 7.1 ± 4.1 years in function). Kernel probability density estimations on
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongwei Li⁎; Junpeng Liu; Yunlong Zhou; Bin Sun
2016-01-01
Gas–liquid two-phase flow is complex and has uncertainty in phase interfaces, which make the two-phase flow look very complicated. Even though the flow behavior (e.g. coalescence, crushing and separation) of single bubble or bubble groups in the liquid phase looks random, combining some established character-istics and methodologies can find regularities among the randomness. In order to excavate the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow, the authors developed an improved matrix pencil (IMP) method to analyze the pressure difference signals of the two-phase flow. This paper elucidates the influence of signal length on MP calculation results and the anti-noise-interference ability of the MP method. An IMP algorithm was applied to the fluctuation signals of gas–liquid two-phase flow to extract the mode frequency and damping ratio, which were combined with the component energy index (CEI) en-tropy to identify the different flow patterns. It is also found that frequency, damping ratio, CEI entropy and stability diagram together not only identify flow patterns, but also provide a new way to examine and un-derstand the evolution mechanism of physical dynamics embedded in flow patterns. Combining these characteristics and methods, the evolution of the nonlinear dynamic physical behavior of gas bubbles is revealed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raicharan Denra
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, characteristics of small amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave have been investigated in a unmagnetized, collisionless, Lorentzian dusty plasma where electrons and ions are inertialess and modeled by generalized Lorentzian Kappa distribution. Dust grains are inertial and equilibrium dust charge is negative. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuation of charges on dust grains have been taken under consideration. For adiabatic dust charge variation reductive perturbation analysis gives rise to a KdV equation that governs the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves having soliton solutions. For nonadiabatic dust charge variation nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic wave obeys KdV-Burger equation and gives rise to dust acoustic shock waves. Numerical estimation for adiabatic grain charge variation shows the existence of rarefied soliton whose amplitude and width varies with grain charges. Amplitude and width of the soliton have been plotted for different electron Kappa indices keeping ion velocity distribution Maxwellian. For non adiabatic dust charge variation, ratio of the coefficients of Burger term and dispersion term have been plotted against charge fluctuation for different kappa indices. All these results approach to the results of Maxwellian plasma if both electron and ion kappa tends to infinity.
Kim, G.; Singh, R.
1995-01-01
Passive hydraulic mounts exhibit excitation frequency variant and deflection amplitude sensitive stiffness and damping properties. Such non-linear dynamic characteristics are examined by using analytical and experimental methods, both at the device level and within the context of a simplified vehicle model. A new lumped parameter non-linear mathematical model of the hydraulic mount is developed by simulating its decoupler switching mechanism and inertia track dynamics. The low frequency performance features and limitations of several passive mounts are made clear through the non-linear vehicle model simulation and comparable laboratory vibration tests. The high frequency performance problems of the passive hydraulic mount are identified by applying the quasi-linear analysis method. Based on these results, a new adaptive mount system is developed which exhibits broad bandwidth performance features up to 250 Hz. It implements an on-off damping control mode by using engine intake manifold vacuum and a microprocessor based solenoid valve controller. A laboratory bench set-up has already demonstrated its operational feasibility. Through analytical methods, it is observed that our adaptive mount provides superior dynamic performance to passive engine mounts and comparable performance to a small scale active mount over a wide frequency range, given the engine mounting resonance control, shock absorption and vibration isolation performance requirements. Although technical prospects of the proposed adaptive system appear promising, the in situperformance needs to be evaluated.
Denra, Raicharan; Paul, Samit; Sarkar, Susmita
2016-12-01
In this paper, characteristics of small amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave have been investigated in a unmagnetized, collisionless, Lorentzian dusty plasma where electrons and ions are inertialess and modeled by generalized Lorentzian Kappa distribution. Dust grains are inertial and equilibrium dust charge is negative. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuation of charges on dust grains have been taken under consideration. For adiabatic dust charge variation reductive perturbation analysis gives rise to a KdV equation that governs the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves having soliton solutions. For nonadiabatic dust charge variation nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic wave obeys KdV-Burger equation and gives rise to dust acoustic shock waves. Numerical estimation for adiabatic grain charge variation shows the existence of rarefied soliton whose amplitude and width varies with grain charges. Amplitude and width of the soliton have been plotted for different electron Kappa indices keeping ion velocity distribution Maxwellian. For non adiabatic dust charge variation, ratio of the coefficients of Burger term and dispersion term have been plotted against charge fluctuation for different kappa indices. All these results approach to the results of Maxwellian plasma if both electron and ion kappa tends to infinity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Z. W., E-mail: zhuzhiwen@tju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 300072, Tianjin (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Non-linear Dynamics and Chaos Control, 300072, Tianjin (China); Zhang, W. D., E-mail: zhangwenditju@126.com; Xu, J., E-mail: xujia-ld@163.com [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 300072, Tianjin (China)
2014-03-15
The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF) subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.
Nonlinear and Dissipation Characteristics of Ocean Surface Waves in Estuarine Environments
2010-01-01
determines the time scale over which the interactions occur, in the manner of Hill and Foda (1998) and Jamali et al. (2003). RESULTS Contrary to...the intermediate-depth work of Hill and Foda (1998) and Jamali et al. (2003), the interactions in this wealky-dispersive, weakly-nonlinear model...The stability of oscillatory internal waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 723-736. Hill, D.F., and Foda , M.A., 1998. Subharmonic resonance of
NONLINEAR DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNAL BEARING-FLEXIBLE ROTOR SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Yanjun; Yu Lie; Liu Heng
2005-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of flexible rotor system with hydrodynamic bearing supports are analyzed. The shaft is modeled by using the finite element method that takes the effect of inertia and shear into consideration. According to the nonlinearity of the hydrodynamic journal bearing-flexible rotor system, a modified modal synthesis technique with free-interface is represented to reduce degrees-of-freedom of model of the flexible rotor system. According to physical character of oil film, variational constrain approach is introduced to continuously revise the variational form of Reynolds equation at every step of dynamic integration and iteration. Fluid lubrication problem with Reynolds boundary is solved by the isoparametric finite element method without the increasing of computing efforts. Nonlinear oil film forces and their Jacobians are simultaneously calculated and -Newton-Floquet (PNF) method. A method, combining the predictor-corrector mechanism to the PNF method, is presented to calculate the bifurcation point of periodic motions to be subject to change of system parameters. The local stability and bifurcation behaviors of periodic motions are obtained by Floquet theory. The chaotic motions of the beating-rotor system are investigated by power spectrum.The numerical examples show that the scheme of this study saves computing efforts but also is of good precision.
Ridenti, M. A.; Pascholati, P. R.; Gonçalves, J. A. C.; Bueno, C. C.
2015-09-01
The I - ΔV characteristic curve of a well type ionization chamber irradiated with 192Ir sources (0.75 Ci-120 Ci) was fitted using the exact solution of the Thomson problem. The recombination coefficient and saturation current were estimated using this new approach. The saturation current was compared with the results of the conventional method based on Boag-Wilson formula. It was verified that differences larger than 1% between both methods only occurred at activities higher than 55 Ci. We concluded that this new approach is recommended for a more accurate estimate of the saturation current when it is not possible to measure currents satisfying the condition I /Isat > 0.95. From the calibration curve the average value of pairs of carriers created per unit volume was estimated to be equal to η = 8.1 ×10-3cm-3s-1 Bq-1 and from that value it was estimated that ~ 17 pairs were created on average per second for each decay of the source.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalyani Pole
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The lightning current waveform has a major inﬂuence on the dynamic performance of ground electrodes. While high lightning current intensity improves the dynamic grounding performance due to ionization of the soil, very fast fronted pulses might worsen the performance in case of inductive behaviour. The previous analysis has often been based on quasistatic approximation that is not applicable to very fast fronted pulses. Previous Research focused on analyzing the impulse current dispersal regularity of different branches when injecting at one point. Comparing with the leakage current distribution of a single ground electrode, it is found that the leakage currents along the branches increase with the distance to the current feed point, and the more conductors near the injection point, the more uneven the leakage current distribution is. In this paper by simulation result we indicate that shielding effect should be taken into account when analyzing the impulse characteristics of grounding electrodes. Based on the simulation results, new empirical formulas applicable for slow and very fast fronted lightning current pulses are proposed. The effects of the ionization of the soil are disregarded; therefore, the new formulas are applicable for a conservative estimate of the upper bound of the impulse impedance of ground electrodes. In this paper we also analyze and compare by the MATLAB. We also provide dynamic behavior of ground electrodes.
Effects of nonlinear sound propagation on the characteristic timbres of brass instruments.
Myers, Arnold; Pyle, Robert W; Gilbert, Joël; Campbell, D Murray; Chick, John P; Logie, Shona
2012-01-01
The capacity of a brass instrument to generate sounds with strong high-frequency components is dependent on the extent to which its bore profile supports nonlinear sound propagation. At high dynamic levels some instruments are readily sounded in a "cuivré" (brassy) manner: this phenomenon is due to the nonlinear propagation of sound in ducts of the proportions typical of labrosones (lip-reed aerophones). The effect is also evident at lower dynamic levels and contributes to the overall tonal character of the various kinds of brass instrument. This paper defines a brassiness potential parameter derived from the bore geometries of brass instruments. The correlation of the brassiness potential parameter with spectral enrichment as measured by the spectral centroid of the radiated sound is examined in playing tests using musicians, experiments using sine-wave excitation of instruments, and simulations using a computational tool. The complementary effects of absolute bore size on spectral enrichment are investigated using sine-wave excitation of cylindrical tubes and of instruments, establishing the existence of a trade-off between bore size and brassiness potential. The utility of the brassiness potential parameter in characterizing labrosones is established, and the graphical presentation of results in a 2D space defined by bore size and brassiness potential demonstrated.
Linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of Te nanoparticles-doped germanate glasses
Xu, Zhousu; Guo, Qiangbing; Liu, Chang; Ma, Zhijun; Liu, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianrong
2016-10-01
Te nanoparticles (NPs)-doped GeO2-MgO-B2O3-Al2O3-TeO2 glasses were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching method. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope observation, the coloration of the glass at high TeO2 concentration is ascribed to the precipitation of elemental Te NPs with a size of 5-10 nm in the germanate glass. Optical absorption spectra and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the glass samples were analyzed by UV-3600 spectrophotometry and Z-scan technique, respectively. The nonlinear absorption coefficient ( β) and the imaginary part of the third-order NLO susceptibility (Im χ (3)) were estimated to be 1.74 cm/GW and 1.142 × 10-12 esu for laser power of 95 μW, respectively. Due to the excellent NLO properties, the Te NPs-doped germanate glasses may have potential applications for ultrafast optical switch and photonics.
Chen, Zuhui; Jie, Bin B.; Sah, Chih-Tang
2008-11-01
Steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics is employed to explore the high concentration effect of neutral-potential-well interface traps on the electron-hole recombination direct-current current-voltage (R-DCIV) properties in metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors. Extensive calculations include device parameter variations in neutral-trapping-potential-well electron interface-trap density NET (charge states 0 and -1), dopant impurity concentration PIM, oxide thickness Xox, forward source/drain junction bias VPN, and transistor temperature T. It shows significant distortion of the R-DCIV lineshape by the high concentrations of the interface traps. The result suggests that the lineshape distortion observed in past experiments, previously attributed to spatial variation in surface impurity concentration and energy distribution of interface traps in the silicon energy gap, can also arise from interface-trap concentration along surface channel region.
Rogov, A. B.; Shayapov, V. R.
2017-02-01
In this paper, the influence of cationic electrolytes composition on electrical and optical responses of plasma electrolytic oxidation process of A1050 aluminum alloy under alternating polarization is considered. The electrolytes consist of 0.1 M boric acid with addition of one of the following hydroxides: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, tetraethylammonium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 up to pH value 9.2. Coatings microstructure, elemental and phase compositions were studied by SEM, EDS and XRD. It was shown that the hysteresis of anodic current-voltage curve (specific feature of "Soft sparking" PEO) was clear observed in the presence of sodium and potassium cations. It was found that composition of microdischarges plasma is also affected by the nature of the cations. It was shown that there are a number of reciprocal processes, which take place under anodic and cathodic polarization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medford, Andrew James; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad
2010-01-01
Inflection point behaviour is often observed in the current-voltage (IV) curve of polymer and organic solar cells. This phenomenon is examined in the context of flexible roll-to-roll (R2R) processed polymer solar cells in a large series of devices with a layer structure of: PET-ITO-ZnO-P3HT...... that the findings are applicable to various other device structures based on semiconducting oxides. The findings may have influences on the possibilities and scale-up of polymer solar technologies.......:PCBM-PEDOT:PSS-Ag. The devices were manufactured using a combination of slot-die coating and screen printing; they were then encapsulated by lamination using a polymer based barrier material. All manufacturing steps were carried out in ambient air. The freshly prepared devices showed a consistent inflection point in the IV...
A non-Linear transport model for determining shale rock characteristics
Ali, Iftikhar; Malik, Nadeem
2016-04-01
Unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs consist of tight porous rocks which are characterised by nano-scale size porous networks with ultra-low permeability [1,2]. Transport of gas through them is not well understood at the present time, and realistic transport models are needed in order to determine rock properties and for estimating future gas pressure distribution in the reservoirs. Here, we consider a recently developed non-linear gas transport equation [3], ∂p-+ U ∂p- = D ∂2p-, t > 0, (1) ∂t ∂x ∂x2 complimented with suitable initial and boundary conditions, in order to determine shale rock properties such as the permeability K, the porosity φ and the tortuosity, τ. In our new model, the apparent convection velocity, U = U(p,px), and the apparent diffusivity D = D(p), are both highly non-linear functions of the pressure. The model incorporate various flow regimes (slip, surface diffusion, transition, continuum) based upon the Knudsen number Kn, and also includes Forchchiemers turbulence correction terms. In application, the model parameters and associated compressibility factors are fully pressure dependent, giving the model more realism than previous models. See [4]. Rock properties are determined by solving an inverse problem, with model parameters adjustment to minimise the error between the model simulation and available data. It is has been found that the proposed model performs better than previous models. Results and details of the model will be presented at the conference. Corresponding author: namalik@kfupm.edu.sa and nadeem_malik@cantab.net References [1] Cui, X., Bustin, A.M. and Bustin, R., "Measurements of gas permeability and diffusivity of tight reservoir rocks: different approaches and their applications", Geofluids 9, 208-223 (2009). [2] Chiba R., Fomin S., Chugunov V., Niibori Y. and Hashida T., "Numerical Simulation of Non Fickian Diffusion and Advection in a Fractured Porous Aquifer", AIP Conference Proceedings 898, 75 (2007
Johnson, J. M.; Reale, D. V.; Krile, J. T.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.
2016-05-01
In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.
The non-linear characteristics in environmental system.%环境规划中的非线性特征
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾光明; B.Statzner; 等
2001-01-01
在实际环境规划中,很少考虑到非线性特征对环境投入的效益影响.以国内外目前主要3类水环境规划为例,研究了环境投入与环境改善之间的关系.对每一类环境规划,环境改善均随投入的增加而迅速减少.由于传统的环境管理或规划在选择下一种措施之前总是将大部分费用投入到前一种措施中,因此传统的环境管理或规划忽略了环境系统有关的非线性特征.应将有关费用投入以保证下一步措施获得最大的环境改善.与传统的环境管理或规划相比,这种考虑环境系统有关非线性特征影响的投入策略可以达到用较少的经费获得迅速的环境改善.%In practical environmental program, very little consideration has been given to the influence of non-linear characteristics on the benefit of environmental input. Using 3 main kinds of recently domestic or oversea program of water environment as examples, the relation of environmental input and environmental benefit was studied. For each of these programs, environmental improvement rapidly decreased with the increase of the input. In traditional environmental management or program, it was inevitable to invest important part of budget into a particular measure before choosing the next other measure. Thus, the non-linear characteristics related to environment system was ignored traditionally; and the related part of budget should be invested to ensure the achievement of the greatest environmental improvement in the measure of next step. Compared to traditional management, this alternating decision strategy considering the influence of non-linear characteristics related to environmental system will achieve rapid environmental improvements with less available budgets.
Ricardo Vera; Juan Carlos Salcedo-Reyes; Juan Pablo Cuéllar-Alvarado; Diana Rocío Pardo-Pardo; Henry Alberto Méndez-Pinzón; Beynor Antonio Páez-Sierra
2010-01-01
Polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the structure ITO / PEDOT:PSS / MDMO-PPV / Metal were prepared by spincoating. It is known that electroluminescence of these devices is strongly dependent on the material used as cathode and on the depositionparameters of the polymer electroluminescent layer MDMO-PPV. Objective. In this work the effect of i) the frequency of the spin coater(1000-8000 rpm), ii) the concentration of the MDMO-PPV: Toluene solution, and iii) the material us...
Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Vinitha, G.; Caroline, M. Lydia
2017-04-01
An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P21. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm2. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yonghan CHOI; Joowan KIM; Dong-Kyou LEE
2012-01-01
In this study,singular vectors related to a heavy rainfall case over the Korean Peninsula were calculated using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) adjoint modeling system.Tangent linear and adjoint models include moist physical processes,and a moist basic state and a moist total energy norm were used for the singular-vector calculations.The characteristics and nonlinear growth of the first singular vector were analyzed,focusing on the relationship between the basic state and the singular vector.The horizontal distribution of the initial singular vector was closely related to the baroclinicity index and the moisture availability of the basic state.The temperature-component energy at a lower level was dominant at the initial time,and the kinetic energy at upper levels became dominant at the final time in the energy profile of the singular vector.The nonlinear growth of the singular vector appropriately reflects the temporal variations in the basic state.The moisture-component energy at lower levels was dominant at earlier times,indicating continuous moisture transport in the basic state.There were a large amount of precipitation and corresponding latent heat release after that period because the continuous moisture transport created favorable conditions for both convective and nonconvective precipitation.The vertical propagation of the singular-vector energy was caused by precipitation and the corresponding latent heating in the basic state.
Yashkir, O. V.; Yashkir, Yu N.
1987-06-01
A theoretical investigation is made of nonlinear excitation of planar waveguide modes at frequencies ω when external plane optical waves of frequency ω1 are incident on the waveguide surface. The general formulas for the efficiency of the excitation of modes by a monochromatic wave are obtained and analyzed for the case of self-interaction of the ω = ω1 + ω1 - ω1 type and by a biharmonic wave in the case of generation of the difference frequency ω = ω1 - ω1'. The efficiency of parametric conversion of waveguide modes ω accompanied by an increase of the frequency to the range ω' is considered for the case when the sum frequency ω + ω1 = ω1' is generated. The numerical method developed by the authors is used to analyze the characteristic features of these processes in some specific cases.
The characteristics of nonlinear chaotic dynamics in quantum cellular neural networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Sen; Cai Li; Kang Qiang; Wu Gang; Li Qin
2008-01-01
With the polarization of quantum-dot cell and quantum phase serving as state variables, this paper does both theoretical analysis and simulation for the complex nonlinear dynamical behaviour of a three-cell-coupled Quantum Cel- lular Neural Network (QCNN), including equilibrium points, bifurcation and chaotic behaviour. Different phenomena, such as quasi-periodic, chaotic and hyper-chaotic states as well as bifurcations are revealed. The system's bifurcation and chaotic behaviour under the influence of the different coupling parameters are analysed. And it finds that the unbalanced ceils coupled QCNN is easy to cause chaotic oscillation and the system response enters into chaotic state from quasi-periodic state by quasi-period bifurcation; however, the balanced cells coupled QCNN also can be chaotic when coupling parameters is in some region. Additionally, both the unbalanced and balanced cells coupled QCNNs can possess hyper-chaotic behaviour. It provides valuable information about QCNNs for future application in high-parallel signal processing and novel ultra-small chaotic generators.
Characteristic Extraction of Mental Disease Patients by Nonlinear Analysis of Plethysmograms
Hu, Yuyu; Wang, Wenbiao; Suzuki, Takashi; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi
2011-06-01
We measured the pulse waves of 196 mentally ill patients and 113 healthy students. Using heartbeat changes, we calculated the values of their sympathetic nerves, parasympathetic nerves, and autonomic nerve balance. In addition, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) by non-linear analysis of plethysmograms. Values were analyzed by group. The results revealed a significant relationship between LLE and the autonomic nerve balance. The sympathetic nerve values in the patient group were significantly higher than those in the student group, whereas the LLE values were significantly lower. Furthermore, we illustrated the dynamic change in the results for single participants over several testing times. The measurement of pulse waves is easy and economical and does not put a strain on the subject. Additionally, these values can provide information that is more accurate than medical examination obtained from an interview. Our study contributed to the existing methodology in this field, and future data collection and measurement will be carried out. We hope that our study will be useful for neurologists and psychotherapists in their detection and treatment of mental illness.
Towards a Carbon Nanotube Intermodulation Product Sensor for Nonlinear Energy Harvesting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitchell B. Lerner
2015-01-01
Full Text Available It is critically important in designing RF receiver front ends to handle high power jammers and other strong interferers. Instead of blocking incoming energy or dissipating it as heat, we investigate the possibility of redirecting that energy for harvesting and storage. The approach is based on channelizing a high power signal into a previously unknown circuit element which serves as a passive intermodulation device. This intermodulation component must produce a hysteretic current-voltage curve to be useful as an energy harvester. Here we demonstrate a method by which carbon nanotube transistors produce the necessary hysteretic I-V curves. Such devices can be tailored to the desired frequency by introducing functional groups to the nanotubes. These effects controllably enhance the desired behavior, namely, hysteretic nonlinearity in the transistors’ I-V characteristic. Combining these components with an RF energy harvester may one day enable the reuse of inbound jamming energy for standard back end radio components.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Lakshmi; Swapan K Pati
2003-10-01
We consider an interacting one-dimensional molecular wire attached to two metal electrodes on either side of it. The electrostatic potential profile across the wire-electrode interface has been deduced solving the Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Since the Poisson distribution crucially depends on charge densities, we have considered different Hamiltonian parameters to model the nanoscale wire. We find that for very weak electron correlations, the potential gradient is almost zero in the middle of the wire but are large near the chain ends. However, for strong correlations, the potential is essentially a ramp function. The nonlinear current, obtained from the scattering formalism, is found to be less with the ramp potential than for weak correlations. Some of the interesting features in current-voltage characteristics have been explained using one-electron formalism and instabilities in the system.
Nonlinear response and two stable electroconducting states in transparent plasticized PVC films
Vlasov, D. V.; Apresyan, L. A.; Vlasova, T. V.; Kryshtob, V. I.
2010-10-01
The electric conductivity of transparent plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films with thicknesses about 30-50 μm has been studied in electric fields with strengths significantly below the breakdown level. It is established that the PVC films exhibit spontaneous reversible transitions between two stable states—with high and relatively low conductivities, in which the bulk resistivity amounts to ˜103 and 106 Ω m, respectively. Relaxation current-voltage characteristics have been measured in a continuous regime, which allowed the Debye relaxation processes to be taken into consideration and effects related to the nonlinearity and transitions between indicated states to be separated. A regime with deterministic switching between the two conducting states has been observed. A simple qualitative model that describes the anomalous character of conductivity in polymer films is proposed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deguchi, H., E-mail: deguchi@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Hashimoto, Y.; Shoho, T.; Mito, M.; Takagi, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Koyama, K. [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Hagiwara, M. [Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)
2010-12-15
Ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} composed of sub-micron size grains has shown successive phase transitions under zero field. The first transition occurs inside each grain at T{sub c1} and the second transition occurs among the grains at T{sub c2} (
Hansen, U P; Gradmann, D; Sanders, D; Slayman, C L
1981-01-01
This paper develops a simple reaction-kinetic model to describe electrogenic pumping and co- (or counter-) transport of ions. It uses the standard steady-state approach for cyclic enzyme- or carrier-mediated transport, but does not assume rate-limitation by any particular reaction step. Voltage-dependence is introduced, after the suggestion of Läuger and Stark (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 211:458-466, 1970), via a symmetric Eyring barrier, in which the charge-transit reaction constants are written as k12 = ko12 exp(zF delta psi/2RT) and k21 = ko21 exp(-zF delta psi/2RT). For interpretation of current-voltage relationships, all voltage-independent reaction steps are lumped together, so the model in its simplest form can be described as a pseudo-2-state model. It is characterized by the two voltage-dependent reaction constants, two lumped voltage-independent reaction constants (k12, k21), and two reserve factors (ri, ro) which formally take account of carrier states that are indistinguishable in the current-voltage (I-V) analysis. The model generates a wide range of I-V relationships, depending on the relative magnitudes of the four reaction constants, sufficient to describe essentially all I-V datas now available on "active" ion-transport systems. Algebraic and numerical analysis of the reserve factors, by means of expanded pseudo-3-, 4-, and 5-state models, shows them to be bounded and not large for most combinations of reaction constants in the lumped pathway. The most important exception to this rule occurs when carrier decharging immediately follows charge transit of the membrane and is very fast relative to other constituent voltage-independent reactions. Such a circumstance generates kinetic equivalence of chemical and electrical gradients, thus providing a consistent definition of ion-motive forces (e.g., proton-motive force, PMF). With appropriate restrictions, it also yields both linear and log-linear relationships between net transport velocity and either
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakaros Bogning Dongue
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling of electrical I-V response of illuminated photovoltaic crystalline modules. As an alternative method to the linear five-parameter model, our strategy uses advantages of a nonlinear analytical five-point model to take into account the effects of nonlinear variations of current with respect to solar irradiance and of voltage with respect to cells temperature. We succeeded in this work to predict with great accuracy the I-V characteristics of monocrystalline shell SP75 and polycrystalline GESOLAR GE-P70 photovoltaic modules. The good comparison of our calculated results to experimental data provided by the modules manufacturers makes it possible to appreciate the contribution of taking into account the nonlinear effect of operating conditions data on I-V characteristics of photovoltaic modules.
Giorgi, Giacomo; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-11-06
Starting from a brief description of the main architectures characterizing the novel solar technology of perovskite-based solar cells, we focus our attention on the anomalous hysteresis experimentally found to affect the measurement of the current-voltage curve of such devices. This detrimental effect, associated with slow dynamic reorganization processes, depends on several parameters; among them, the scan rate of the measurements, the architecture of the cell, and the perovskite deposition rate are crucial. Even if a conclusive explanation of the origin of the hysteresis has not been provided so far, several experimental findings ascribe its origin to ionic migration at an applied bias and dielectric polarization that occurs in the perovskite layer. Consistently, a dipole-moment-reduced cation such as formamidinium ion is experimentally reported to quantitatively reduce the hysteresis from perovskite-based devices. By means of a density-functional theory-based set of calculations, we have predicted and characterized guanidinium ion (GA = (+)[C(NH2)3], a zero-dipole moment cation by symmetry)-based organic-inorganic halide perovskite's structural and electronic properties, speculating that such a cation and the alloys it may form with other organic cations can represent a possible chemical solution for the puzzling issue of the hysteresis.
Yarmoghaddam, Elahe; Rakheja, Shaloo
2017-08-01
We theoretically model the dispersion characteristics of surface plasmons in a graphene-based parallel-plate waveguide geometry using nonlinear Kerr-type core (inter-plate) dielectric. The optical nonlinearity of graphene in the terahertz band under high light intensity is specifically included in the analysis. By solving Maxwell's equations and applying appropriate boundary conditions, we show that the waveguide supports four guided plasmon modes, each of which can be categorized as either symmetric or anti-symmetric based on the electric field distribution in the structure. Of the four guided modes, two modes are similar in characteristics to the modes obtained in the structure with linear graphene coating, while the two new modes have distinct characteristics as a result of the nonlinearity of graphene. We note that the group velocity of one of the plasmon modes acquires a negative value under high light intensity. Additionally, the optical nonlinearity of the core dielectric leads to a significant enhancement in the localization length of various plasmon modes. The description of the intra-band optical conductivity of graphene incorporates effects of carrier scatterings due to charged impurities, resonant scatterers, and acoustic phonons at 300 K. The proposed structure offers flexibility to tune the waveguide characteristics and the mode index by changing light intensity and electrochemical potential in graphene for reconfigurable plasmonic devices.
Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Xiao; Guan, Bochen
2015-12-01
Materials exhibiting negative differential resistance have important applications in technologies involving microwave generation, which range from motion sensing to radio astronomy. Despite their usefulness, there has been few physical mechanisms giving rise to materials with such properties, i.e. GaAs employed in the Gunn diode. In this work, we show that negative differential resistance also generically arise in Dirac ring systems, an example of which has been experimentally observed in the surface states of Topological Insulators. This novel realization of negative differential resistance is based on a completely different physical mechanism from that of the Gunn effect, relying on the characteristic non-monotonicity of the response curve that remains robust in the presence of nonzero temperature, chemical potential, mass gap and impurity scattering. As such, it opens up new possibilities for engineering applications, such as frequency upconversion devices which are highly sought for terahertz signal generation. Our results may be tested with thin films of Bi2Se3 Topological Insulators, and are expected to hold qualitatively even in the absence of a strictly linear Dirac dispersion, as will be the case in more generic samples of Bi2Se3 and other materials with topologically nontrivial Fermi sea regions.
Nishimichi, Takahiro; Nakamichi, Masashi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro; Shirata, Akihito; Saito, Shun; Nomura, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Suto, Yasushi
2007-01-01
An acoustic oscillation of the primeval photon-baryon fluid around the decoupling time imprints a characteristic scale in the galaxy distribution today, known as the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale. Several on-going and/or future galaxy surveys aim at detecting and precisely determining the BAO scale so as to trace the expansion history of the universe. We consider nonlinear and redshift-space distortion effects on the shifts of the BAO scale in $k$-space using perturbation theory. The resulting shifts are indeed sensitive to different choices of the definition of the BAO scale, which needs to be kept in mind in the data analysis. We present a toy model to explain the physical behavior of the shifts. We find that the BAO scale defined as in Percival et al. (2007) indeed shows very small shifts ($\\lesssim$ 1%) relative to the prediction in {\\it linear theory} in real space. The shifts can be predicted accurately for scales where the perturbation theory is reliable.
Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei
2015-01-01
The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.
Nonlinear Transport In Gases, Traps And Surfaces
Šuvakov, M.; Marjanovic, S.
2010-07-01
We will present our numerical study of three different charge transport processes and we will compare properties, specially the nonlinearity, of these processes. First process is electron transport in gases in swarm regime. We used well tested Monte Carlo techique to investigate kinetic phenomena such as negative diferencial conductivity (NDC) or negative apsolute mobility (NAM). We explain these phenomena analysing the spatial profiles of the swarm and collision events. In the second part we will apply the same technique on positron transport to obtain the same level of understanding of positron transport as has been achieved for electrons. The influence of positronium formation, non-conservative process, is much larger than any comparable effects in electron transport due to attachment and/or ionisation. As a result several new phenomena have been observed, such as NDC for the bulk drift velocity. Additionaly, the same Monte Carlo technique is used for modeling and optimisation of Surko like positron traps in different geometries and field configurations. Third process we studied is the charge transport under voltage bias via single-electron tunnelings through the junctions between metallic particles on nanoparticle films. We show how the regular nanoparticle array and topologically inhomogeneous nanonetworks affect the charge transport. We find long-range correlations in the time series of charge fluctuation at individual nanoparticles and of flow along the junctions within the network. These correlations explain the occurrence of a large non-linearity in the simulated and experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics and non-Gaussian fluctuations of the current at the electrode.
Sun, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Jinquan; Gu, Bingfu
2014-01-01
We have explored the ion-modulated electronic transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) composite nanostructures made of superionic conductor RbAg4I5 films and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle spiderwebs. Our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) leads to strong ion-electron interference effect and interesting electronic transport of CNT, such as nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and novel temperature dependence of the current. With increasing temperature, the hybrid nanostructures show rich phases with different dependence of current on temperature, which is related to the structural phase transition of RbAg4I5 and the transition of dissociation of IEBSs. The ion-modulation of the electric conductivity in such MIEC composite nanostructures with great tunability has been used to design new ionic-electronic composite nano-devices with function like field effect transistor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, Dinkar, E-mail: dinkar@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Kalra, Manjeet Singh, E-mail: drmanjeet.singh@dituniversity.edu.in [DIT University, Dehradun 248 009 (India); Wahi, Pankaj, E-mail: wahi@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)
2017-04-15
Highlights: • A simplified model with nonlinear void reactivity feedback is studied. • Method of multiple scales for nonlinear analysis and oscillation characteristics. • Second order void reactivity dominates in determining system dynamics. • Opposing signs of linear and quadratic void reactivity enhances global safety. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of nonlinear void reactivity on the dynamics of a simplified lumped-parameter model for a boiling water reactor (BWR) is investigated. A mathematical model of five differential equations comprising of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics encompassing the nonlinearities associated with both the reactivity feedbacks and the heat transfer process has been used. To this end, we have considered parameters relevant to RBMK for which the void reactivity is known to be nonlinear. A nonlinear analysis of the model exploiting the method of multiple time scales (MMTS) predicts the occurrence of the two types of Hopf bifurcation, namely subcritical and supercritical, leading to the evolution of limit cycles for a range of parameters. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the analytical results obtained by MMTS. The study shows that the nonlinear reactivity has a significant influence on the system dynamics. A parametric study with varying nominal reactor power and operating conditions in coolant channel has also been performed which shows the effect of change in concerned parameter on the boundary between regions of sub- and super-critical Hopf bifurcations in the space constituted by the two coefficients of reactivities viz. the void and the Doppler coefficient of reactivities. In particular, we find that introduction of a negative quadratic term in the void reactivity feedback significantly increases the supercritical region and dominates in determining the system dynamics.
In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio
2012-12-01
The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darga, A. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, CNRS UMR8507, SUPELEC, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: arouna.darga@lgep.supelec.fr; Mencaraglia, D.; Djebbour, Z.; Dubois, A. Migan; Chouffot, R.; Serhan, J. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, CNRS UMR8507, SUPELEC, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Couzinie-Devy, F.; Barreau, N.; Kessler, J. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)
2009-02-02
Co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) based solar cells with Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) Indium Sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) as buffer layer have been studied by admittance spectroscopy and current-voltage characteristics measurements. The results have been compared to those obtained with a reference CBD-CdS/CIGSe device. In darkness, the PVD-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layer devices exhibit higher densities of trapping defects and low values of shunt resistance. However, under illumination we have observed an important improvement of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CIGSe electronic transport properties. This behavior seems to be linked to the presence of a metastable defect with activation energy of 0.3 eV.
Dale, N. V.; Mann, M. D.; Salehfar, H.
The performance of a 6 kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer was modeled using a semiempirical equation. Total cell voltage was represented as a sum of the Nernst voltage, activation overpotential and ohmic overpotential. A temperature and pressure dependent Nernst potential, derived from thermodynamic principles, was used to model the 20 cell PEM electrolyzer stack. The importance of including the temperature dependence of various model components is clearly demonstrated. The reversible potential without the pressure effect decreases with increasing temperature in a linear fashion. The exchange current densities at both the electrodes and the membrane conductivity were the coefficients of the semiempirical equation. An experimental system designed around a 6 kW PEM electrolyzer was used to obtain the current-voltage characteristics at different stack temperatures. A nonlinear curve fitting method was employed to determine the equation coefficients from the experimental current-voltage characteristics. The modeling results showed an increase in the anode and cathode exchange current densities with increasing electrolyzer stack temperature. The membrane conductivity was also increased with increasing temperature and was modeled as a function of temperature. The electrolyzer energy efficiencies at different temperatures were evaluated using temperature dependent higher heating value voltages instead of a fixed value of 1.48 V.
I-V characteristics simulation of silicon carbide Ti/4H-SiC Schottky diode
Panchenko, P.; Rybalka, S.; Malakhanov, A.; Krayushkina, E.; Radkov, A.
2016-12-01
The simulation of current-voltage characteristics for 4H-SiC Schottky diode with Ti Schottky contact has been carried out with used of TCAD program. Obtained current-voltage characteristics has been analyzed and compared with theoretical and experimental results. It is established that the Schottky diode parameters (forward current, ideality coefficient, Schottky barrier height, breakdown voltage) obtained in proposed model are good agreement with data for such type diodes.
Ferroelectric polarization induces electronic nonlinearity in ion-doped conducting polymers
Fabiano, Simone; Sani, Negar; Kawahara, Jun; Kergoat, Loïg; Nissa, Josefin; Engquist, Isak; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus
2017-01-01
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is an organic mixed ion-electron conducting polymer. The PEDOT phase transports holes and is redox-active, whereas the PSS phase transports ions. When PEDOT is redox-switched between its semiconducting and conducting state, the electronic and optical properties of its bulk are controlled. Therefore, it is appealing to use this transition in electrochemical devices and to integrate those into large-scale circuits, such as display or memory matrices. Addressability and memory functionality of individual devices, within these matrices, are typically achieved by nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and bistability—functions that can potentially be offered by the semiconductor-conductor transition of redox polymers. However, low conductivity of the semiconducting state and poor bistability, due to self-discharge, make fast operation and memory retention impossible. We report that a ferroelectric polymer layer, coated along the counter electrode, can control the redox state of PEDOT. The polarization switching characteristics of the ferroelectric polymer, which take place as the coercive field is overcome, introduce desired nonlinearity and bistability in devices that maintain PEDOT in its highly conducting and fast-operating regime. Memory functionality and addressability are demonstrated in ferro-electrochromic display pixels and ferro-electrochemical transistors. PMID:28695197
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hideki Gotoh
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Chun-Ming; Wang Jin-Feng; Wang Chun-Lei; Chen Hong-Cun; Su Wen-Bin; Zang Guo-Zhong; Qi Peng; Zhao Ming-Lei; Ming Bao-Quan
2004-01-01
The effects of barium on electrical and dielectric properties of the SnO2·Co2Oa.Ta2O5 varistor system sintered at 1250℃ for 60min were investigated. It is found that barium significantly improves the nonlinear properties. The breakdown electrical field increases from 378.0 to 2834.5V/mm, relative dielectric constant (at 1kHz) falls from 1206 to 161 and the resistivity (at 1kHz) rises from 60.3 to 1146.5kΩ·cm with an increase of BaCO3 concentration from 0mol%to 1.00mol%. The sample with 1.00mol% barium has the best nonlinear electrical property and the highest nonlinear coefficient (α=29.2). A modified defect barrier model is introduced to illustrate the grain-boundary barrier formation of barium-doped SnO2-based varistors.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xueqiong; Chen; Xiaoyan; Li; Ziyang; Chen; Jixiong; Pu; Guowen; Zhang; Jianqiang; Zhu
2013-01-01
The intensity distributions of a high-power broadband laser beam passing through a nonlinear optical medium with defects and then propagating in free space are investigated based on the general nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation and the split-step Fourier numerical method. The influences of the bandwidth of the laser beam, the thickness of the medium,and the defects on the light intensity distribution are revealed. We find that the nonlinear optical effect can be suppressed and that the uniformity of the beam can be improved for a high-power broadband laser beam with appropriate wide bandwidth. It is also found that, under the same incident light intensity, a thicker medium will lead to a stronger self-focusing intensity, and that the influence of defects in the optical elements on the intensity is stronger for a narrowband beam than for a broadband beam.
Shi, Ping; Yu, Hongliu
2014-04-01
Calculation of linear parameters, such as time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is a conventional method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity. Nonlinear phenomena are certainly involved in the genesis of HRV. In a seemingly random signal the Poincaré plot can easily demonstrate whether there is an underlying determinism in the signal. Linear and nonlinear analysis methods were applied in the computer words inputting experiments in this study for physiological measurement. This study therefore demonstrated that Poincaré plot was a simple but powerful graphical tool to describe the dynamics of a system.
NONLINEAR VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SHROUDED BLADE FOR CYLINDRICAL PANEL%壳板凸肩叶片的非线性振动特性
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李红影; 谢里阳; 郭星辉
2013-01-01
A shrouded blade is investigated in this paper. Using Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory, the nonlinear equation of vibration is obtained, in which the geometric nonlinearity, damping, shroud contact normal load and friction between shrouds are taken into account. Discretized by a Galerkin method, the nonlinear mode equations are studied by using numerical and analytical methods, then nonlinear frequency-response curves are obtained. The stability of periodic solutions of the system is also analyzed. The results show that the periodic changes in the direction of the friction force between shrouds cause the discontinuity of vibration characteristics of the system. In order to describe the inherent vibration characteristic of the system, two frequency-response curves are drawn, which respectively adopts the positive and negative directions of the friction force. With the changes of the direction of a friction force in a period of 774, the vibration of the system also jumps between these two curves with a period 774, this effectively suppress the response amplitude of a shrouded blade, and improves its safety.%以凸肩叶片为研究对象,应用Donnell's简化壳理论建立模型的非线性振动方程,考虑了几何非线性、阻尼、凸肩接触面正压力、摩擦力等因素.采用Galerkin法将振动微分方程离散到模态坐标上,分别应用数值法和近似解析法对方程组求解,得到系统的频率响应曲线,并讨论了系统周期解的稳定性.结果表明,由于凸肩接触面之间摩擦力方向周期性改变,导致系统的振动特性产生不连续性,以摩擦力为正、负方向分别绘制一条频率响应曲线.则随着摩擦力方向T/4周期变换一次,系统的振动也以T/4为周期在两条频率响应曲线上来回跳跃,从而有效抑制叶片的振动响应,提高叶片使用的安全性.
Unexpected Nonlinear Effects in Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors
Sadleir, John
2016-01-01
When a normal metal transitions into the superconducting state the DC resistance drops from a finite value to zero over some finite transition width in temperature, current, and magnetic field. Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) operate within this transition region and uses resistive changes to measure deposited thermal energy. This resistive transition is not perfectly smooth and a wide range of TES designs and materials show sub-structure in the resistive transition (as seen in smooth nonmonotonic behavior, jump discontinuities, and hysteresis in the devices current-voltage relation and derivatives of the resistance with respect to temperature, bias current, and magnetic field). TES technology has advanced to the point where for many applications this structure is the limiting factor in performance and optimization consists of finding operating points away from these structures. For example, operating at or near this structure can lead to nonlinearity in the detectors response and gain scale, limit the spectral range of the detector by limiting the usable resistive range, and degrade energy resolution. The origin of much of this substructure is unknown. This presentation investigates a number of possible sources in turn. First we model the TES as a superconducting weak-link and solve for the characteristic differential equations current and voltage time dependence. We find:(1) measured DC biased current-voltage relationship is the time-average of a much higher frequency limit cycle solution.(2) We calculate the fundamental frequency and estimate the power radiated from the TES treating the bias leads as an antennae.(3) The solution for a set of circuit parameters becomes multivalued leading to current transitions between levels.(4)The circuit parameters can change the measure resistance and mask the true critical current. As a consequence the TES resistance surface is not just a function of temperature, current, and magnetic field but is also a
Memristor-based cellular nonlinear/neural network: design, analysis, and applications.
Duan, Shukai; Hu, Xiaofang; Dong, Zhekang; Wang, Lidan; Mazumder, Pinaki
2015-06-01
Cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) has been recognized as a powerful massively parallel architecture capable of solving complex engineering problems by performing trillions of analog operations per second. The memristor was theoretically predicted in the late seventies, but it garnered nascent research interest due to the recent much-acclaimed discovery of nanocrossbar memories by engineers at the Hewlett-Packard Laboratory. The memristor is expected to be co-integrated with nanoscale CMOS technology to revolutionize conventional von Neumann as well as neuromorphic computing. In this paper, a compact CNN model based on memristors is presented along with its performance analysis and applications. In the new CNN design, the memristor bridge circuit acts as the synaptic circuit element and substitutes the complex multiplication circuit used in traditional CNN architectures. In addition, the negative differential resistance and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of the memristor have been leveraged to replace the linear resistor in conventional CNNs. The proposed CNN design has several merits, for example, high density, nonvolatility, and programmability of synaptic weights. The proposed memristor-based CNN design operations for implementing several image processing functions are illustrated through simulation and contrasted with conventional CNNs. Monte-Carlo simulation has been used to demonstrate the behavior of the proposed CNN due to the variations in memristor synaptic weights.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)
2013-09-15
We demonstrate that the output radiation characteristics of the European XFEL sources at nominal operation point can be easily made significantly better than what is currently reported in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics. In fact, the output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators at a nominal operating point of 5 kA peak current, without considering the potential of undulator tapering in the SASE regime. In order to illustrate this point, we analyze the case of an electron bunch with nominal parameters. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that nonlinear undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime, without modification to the baseline design. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. In order to increase our confidence in simulation results, we cross-checked outcomes by reproducing simulations in the deep nonlinear SASE regime with tapered undulator using the code ALICE.
Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi
2015-01-01
In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nichterwitz, Melanie
2012-01-10
This work contributes to the understanding of generation dependent charge-carrier transport properties in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe)/ CdS/ ZnO solar cells and a consistent model for the electronic band diagram of the heterojunction region of the device is developed. Cross section electron-beam induced current (EBIC) and temperature and illumination dependent current voltage (IV) measurements are performed on CIGSe solar cells with varying absorber layer compositions and CdS thickness. For a better understanding of possibilities and limitations of EBIC measurements applied on CIGSe solar cells, detailed numerical simulations of cross section EBIC profiles for varying electron beam and solar cell parameters are performed and compared to profiles obtained from an analytical description. Especially the effects of high injection conditions are considered. Even though the collection function of the solar cell is not independent of the generation function of the electron beam, the local electron diffusion length in CIGSe can still be extracted. Grain specific values ranging from (480±70) nm to (2.3±0.2) μm are determined for a CuInSe{sub 2} absorber layer and a value of (2.8±0.3) μm for CIGSe with a Ga-content of 0.3. There are several models discussed in literature to explain generation dependent charge carrier transport, all assuming a high acceptor density either located in the CIGSe layer close to the CIGSe/CdS interface (p{sup +} layer), within the CdS layer or at the CdS/ZnO interface. In all models, a change in charge carrier collection properties is caused by a generation dependent occupation probability of the acceptor type defect state and the resulting potential distribution throughout the device. Numerical simulations of EBIC and IV data are performed with parameters according to these models. The model that explains the experimental data best is that of a p{sup +} layer at the CIGSe/CdS interface and acceptor type defect states at the CdS/ZnO interface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shinobu; Tamaoki; Tetsufumi; Tsuzaki; Motoki; Kakui; Masayuki; Shigematsu
2003-01-01
We have investigated the transient characteristics of discrete Raman Amplifiers and found that the response time caused by gain saturation is dependent upon the wavelength, which corresponds to the effective length of the pump light.
Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Han, Jong Chul; Kam, Soohwa; Youn, Hanbean; Cunningham, Ian A.
2017-03-01
The imaging properties of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel photodiode array coupled to a thin gadolinium-based granular phosphor screen with a fiber-optic faceplate are investigated. It is shown that this system has a nonlinear response at low detector exposure levels (<10 mR), resulting in an over-estimation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by a factor of two in some cases. Errors in performance metrics on this scale make it difficult to compare new technologies with established systems and predict performance benchmarks that can be achieved in practice and help understand performance bottlenecks. It is shown the CMOS response is described by a power-law model that can be used to linearize image data. Linearization removed an unexpected dependence of the DQE on detector exposure level.
Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; González, T.; Pardo, D.; Gardès, C.; Roelens, Y.; Bollaert, S.; Mateos, J.
2009-05-01
In this work, the influence of the geometry of the different branches on the output characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs three-branch junctions is analyzed. At room temperature experimental measurements show that when increasing the width of the horizontal branches, the nonlinear behavior persists, even if less pronounced. This implies a reduction in the (typically high) impedance of these nanodevices, which is quite interesting in order to minimize the influence of parasitic capacitances on their cutoff frequency and to decrease the reflected power due to the mismatch with the 50 Ω standard equipment. The width of the vertical branch is also a relevant parameter, nonlinear effects being more important for narrow branches. In both cases surface charges at the etched boundaries of the branches play a key role. Monte Carlo simulations (performed with a self-consistent surface charge model recently proposed by the authors) are used to explain the physical origin of the observed behavior and to improve the device performance. We focus on the enhancement of their efficiency as a way to develop their promising functionalities in various analog and digital circuits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱雷; 金宁德; 高忠科; 杜萌; 王振亚
2012-01-01
Based on the conductance fluctuation signals measured from vertical upward oil-gas-water three-phase flow experiment, time frequency representation and surrogate data method were used to investigate dynamical characteristics of oil-in-water type bubble and slug flows. The results indicate that oil-in-water type bubble flow will turn to deterministic motion with the increase of oil phase fraction f o and superficial gas velocity U sg under fixed flowrate of oil-water mixture Q mix . The dynamics of oil-in-water type slug flow becomes more complex with the increase of U sg under fixed flowrate of oil-water mixture. The change of f o leads to irregular influence on the dynamics of slug flow. These interesting findings suggest that the surrogate data method can be a faithful tool for characterizing dynamic characteristics of oil-in-water type bubble and slug flows.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHANG Hong; ZHAO Yong-Gang
2011-01-01
By adding La and Ti, we improve the magnetic and ferroelectric properties of BiQ.sLa0.2Feo.g2Ti0.08O3 and Bio.sLa0.2FeO3 Rims on 0.7%Nb-SrTiO3. In Bio.8La0.2Feo.92Ti0.08O3 and Bio.sLa0.2FeOa, the saturation magnetization and the coercivity are several times higher than those in BiFeO3. The La and Ti additions reduce the leakage current, and increase the remnant electric polarization. A resistance switching is observed in Bio.8Lao.2Feo.92Tio.o803/0.7%Nb-SrTi03 and Bi0.8La0.2FeO3/0.7%Nb-SrTiO3 interfaces. Also, it is observed that Bio.sLao.2Feo.92 Ti0.08O3/0.7%Nb-SrTiO3 has a wider current-voltage hysteresis and a larger resistance difference than Bi0.sLao.2Fe03/0.7%Nb-SrTi03. In the interface of Bi0.8Lao.2Fe0.92Ti0.08 O3/0.7%JVb-SrTiO3, the ratio of high to low resistance is 103 and 105 times, at 300K and 10 K, respectively. The voltage pulses can switch the resistance to vary in the 2 states. The transport mechanisms show that a trap-controlled space-charge-limited current induces current-voltage hysteresis and resistance switching. The current of Bio.8Lao.2Feo.g2 Tio.os O3/0.7%Nb-SrTiO3 decays with the Curie-Von Schweidler law.%@@ By adding La and Ti, we improve the magnetic and ferroelectric properties of BiLaFeTiO and BiLaFeO films on 0.7%Nb-SrTiO.In BiLaFeTiO and BiLaFeO, the saturation mag- netization and the coercivity are several times higher than those in BiFeO.The La and Ti additions re- duce the leakage current, and increase the remnant electric polarization.A resistance switching is observed in BiLaFe TiO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO and BiLaFeO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO interfaces.Also, it is observed that BiLaFe TiO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO has a wider current-voltage hysteresis and a larger resistance differ- ence than BiLaFeO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO.In the interface of BiLaFeTiO/0.7%Nb-SrTiO, the ratio of high to low resistance is 10 and 10 times, at 300 K and 10K, respectively.The voltage pulses can switch the resistance to vary in the 2 states.The transport mechanisms show that a trap
Mekap, Anita; Das, Piyush R.; Choudhary, R. N. P.
2016-08-01
The non-linear behavior of polycrystalline-ZnO-based voltage-dependent resistors is considered in the present study. A high-temperature solid-state reaction route was used to synthesize polycrystalline samples of ZnO modified by small amounts of the trioxides Sb2O3, Bi2O3, Fe2O3, etc. in various proportions. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to study the structural and microstructural characteristics of modified ZnO. Detailed studies of non-linear phenomena of the I-V characteristics, dielectric permittivity ( ɛ r), impedance ( Z), etc. of the samples have provided many interesting results. All the samples exhibited dielectric anomaly. Non-linear variation in polarization with electric field for all the samples was observed. Moreover, significant non-linearity in the I-V characteristics was observed in the breakdown region of all the samples at room temperature. The non-linear coefficient ( α) in different cases, i.e. for I- V, ɛ r- f, ɛ r- T, and ɛ r- Z, was calculated and found to be appreciable. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity suggests that the material obeys Jonscher's universal power law.
Serkez, Svitozar; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that the output radiation characteristics of the European XFEL sources at nominal operation point can be easily made significantly better than what is currently reported in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics. In fact, the output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators at a nominal operating point of 5 kA peak current, without considering the potential of udulator tapering in the SASE regime. In order to illustrate this point, we analyze the case of an electron bunch with nominal parameters. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that nonlinear undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime, without modification to the baseline design. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. In order to increase our confidence in simulation results, we cross-checked outcomes by reproducing simulatio...
剪式齿轮传动机构非线性动力学特性研究%Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a scissor gear transmission system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何文运; 张俊红; 马梁
2015-01-01
考虑齿侧间隙、时变啮合刚度和摩擦力等因素，建立7自由度剪式齿轮传动系统非线性动力学模型，采用Runge-Kutta 法对转速、啮合齿隙、扭簧刚度、预紧力矩等对系统振动特性的影响进行了研究。结果表明，随着转速的升高系统逐渐进入混沌状态，中等转速区间系统的非线性动力学行为对转速的变化更为敏感；随着齿侧间隙的增大，混沌区间增大，混沌特性加强；扭簧刚度影响系统的非线性运动状态，但对冲击现象的影响较小，较小的扭簧刚度更有利于消除冲击现象；扭簧的预紧力矩影响系统啮合状态，最小预紧力矩的大小受负载力矩的影响且近似呈正比例关系。%Considering backlash of gear pairs,time-varying mesh stiffness and friction,a nonlinear dynamic model of a scissor gear transmission system with 7-DOF was established with the analytical mechanics theory.An example of such a system was used to investigate the effects of rotational speed,backlash,stiffness and preload of torsional spring on the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system with Runge-Kutta method.The results showed that the system enters a chaotic state with increase in rotating speed,the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system in the medium rotating speed range is more sensitive to the change of rotating speed;the larger the backlash,the bigger the rotating speed interval of chaos,the stronger the chaotic characteristics;the torsional stiffness of spring has an effect on the non-linear dynamic behavior of the system,but it has a smaller effect on the impact phenomenon,the smaller torsional stiffness is more helpful to avoiding separating and impacting states of the gear pair;preload of torsional spring affects meshing states of the system,the minimum preload torque is almost proportional to the effect of the load torque.
Shagoshtasbi, Hooman; Deng, Peigang; Lee, Yi-Kuen
2015-08-01
Electroporation (EP) is a process of applying a pulsed intense electric field on the cell membrane to temporarily induce nanoscale electropores on the plasma membrane of biological cells. A nonlinear size-dependent equivalent circuit model of a single-cell electroporation system is proposed to investigate dynamic electromechanical behavior of cells on microfluidic chips during EP. This model consists of size-dependent electromechanical components of a cell, electrical components of poration media, and a microfluidic chip. A single-cell microfluidic EP chip with 3D microelectrode arrays along a microchannel is designed and fabricated to experimentally analyze the permeabilization of a cell. Predicted electrical current responses of the model are in good agreement (average error of 6%) with that of single-cell EP. The proposed model can successfully predict the time responses of transmembrane voltage, pore diameter, and pore density at four different stages of permeabilization. These stages are categorized based on electromechanical changes of the lipid membrane. The current-voltage characteristic curve of the cell membrane during EP is also investigated at different EP stages in detail. The model can precisely predict the electric breakdown of different cell lines at a specific critical cell membrane voltage of the target cell lines.
Negative-Resistance Characteristics Analysis of Poly-Silicon Resistors Formed on the Flow Sensor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dianzhong Wen
2006-01-01
In this paper we put forward a new concept about effective trapping center concentration NeT which is decreasing with the trapped charge Q corresponding to index movement, based on that, we discuss the I-V and temperature characteristics of polysilicon resistors. The new concept presents ideal theoretical interpretion for the originally observed current-voltage negative-resistance characteristics of polysilicon resistors formed on the flow sensor, and also for poly-silicon film resistors.The final results agree well with the theoretical current-voltage characteristics.
Chaos and related nonlinear noise phenomena in Josephson tunnel junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miracky, R.F.
1984-07-01
The nonlinear dynamics of Josephson tunnel junctions shunted by a resistance with substantial self-inductance have been thoroughly investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of these devices exhibit stable regions of negative differential resistance. Very large increases in the low-frequency voltage noise with equivalent noise temperatures of 10/sup 6/ K or more, observed in the vicinity of these regions, arise from switching, or hopping, between subharmonic modes. Moderate increases in the noise, with temperatures of about 10/sup 3/ K, arise from chaotic behavior. Analog and digital simulations indicate that under somewhat rarer circumstances the same junction system can sustain a purely deterministic hopping between two unstable subharmonic modes, accompanied by excess low-frequency noise. Unlike the noise-induced case, this chaotic process occurs over a much narrower range in bias current and is destroyed by the addition of thermal noise. The differential equation describing the junction system can be reduced to a one-dimensional mapping in the vicinity of one of the unstable modes. A general analytical calculation of switching processes for a class of mappings yields the frequency dependence of the noise spectrum in terms of the parameters of the mapping. Finally, the concepts of noise-induced hopping near bifurcation thresholds are applied to the problem of the three-photon Josephson parametric amplifier. Analog simulations indicate that the noise rise observed in experimental devices arises from occasional hopping between a mode at the pump frequency ..omega../sub p/ and a mode at the half harmonic ..omega../sub p//2. The hopping is induced by thermal noise associated with the shunt resistance. 71 references.
Ho, Kwok M
2017-08-31
Area under a receiver-operating-characteristic (AUROC) curve is widely used in medicine to summarize the ability of a continuous predictive marker to predict a binary outcome. This study illustrated how a U-shaped or inverted U-shaped continuous predictor would affect the shape and magnitude of its AUROC curve in predicting a binary outcome by comparing the ROC curves of the worst first 24-hour arterial pH values of 9549 consecutive critically ill patients in predicting hospital mortality before and after centering the predictor by its mean or median. A simulation dataset with an inverted U-shaped predictor was used to assess how this would affect the shape and magnitude of the AUROC curve. An asymmetrical U-shaped relationship between pH and hospital mortality, resulting in an inverse-sigmoidal ROC curve, was observed. The AUROC substantially increased after centering the predictor by its mean (0.611 vs 0.722, difference = 0.111, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.087-0.135), and was further improved after centering by its median (0.611 vs 0.745, difference = 0.133, 95%CI 0.110-0.157). A sigmoidal-shaped ROC curve was observed for an inverted U-shaped predictor. In summary, a non-linear predictor can result in a biphasic-shaped ROC curve; and centering the predictor can reduce its bias towards null predictive ability.
Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar
2016-01-01
Alkalides possess enhanced nonlinear optical (NLO) responses due to localization of excess electrons on alkali metals. We have proposed a new class of alkalides by sandwiching alkali atoms (M) between two Li3O superalkali clusters at MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. We notice a competition between alkalide characteristics and NLO properties in OLi3-M-Li3O (M=Li, Na and K) isomers. For instance, the atomic charge on M (qM) in D2h structure is -0.58e for M=Li and its first static mean hyperpolarizablity (\\b{eta}o) is 1 a.u., but in C2v structure, qM=-0.12e and \\b{eta}o= 3.4*103 a.u. More interestingly, the \\b{eta}o value for M=K (C2v) increases to 1.9*104 a.u. in which qM=0.24e. These findings may provide new insights into the design of alkalides, an unusual class of salts and consequently, lead to further researches in this direction.
Nercessian, Shahan C; Panetta, Karen A; Agaian, Sos S
2013-09-01
Image enhancement is a crucial pre-processing step for various image processing applications and vision systems. Many enhancement algorithms have been proposed based on different sets of criteria. However, a direct multi-scale image enhancement algorithm capable of independently and/or simultaneously providing adequate contrast enhancement, tonal rendition, dynamic range compression, and accurate edge preservation in a controlled manner has yet to be produced. In this paper, a multi-scale image enhancement algorithm based on a new parametric contrast measure is presented. The parametric contrast measure incorporates not only the luminance masking characteristic, but also the contrast masking characteristic of the human visual system. The formulation of the contrast measure can be adapted for any multi-resolution decomposition scheme in order to yield new human visual system-inspired multi-scale transforms. In this article, it is exemplified using the Laplacian pyramid, discrete wavelet transform, stationary wavelet transform, and dual-tree complex wavelet transform. Consequently, the proposed enhancement procedure is developed. The advantages of the proposed method include: 1) the integration of both the luminance and contrast masking phenomena; 2) the extension of non-linear mapping schemes to human visual system inspired multi-scale contrast coefficients; 3) the extension of human visual system-based image enhancement approaches to the stationary and dual-tree complex wavelet transforms, and a direct means of; 4) adjusting overall brightness; and 5) achieving dynamic range compression for image enhancement within a direct multi-scale enhancement framework. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of the proposed algorithm to achieve simultaneous local and global enhancements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huber, Martin, E-mail: martin.huberVIH@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, A-9500 Villach, Austria and Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Daumiller, Ingo; Andreev, Andrei; Silvestri, Marco; Knuuttila, Lauri; Lundskog, Anders [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, A-9500 Villach (Austria); Wahl, Michael; Kopnarski, Michael [IFOS Institut fuer Oberflaechen- und Schichtanalytik GmbH, Trippstadter Strasse 120, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Bonanni, Alberta [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)
2016-03-28
Complementary studies of atom probe tomography, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and vertical current-voltage measurements are carried out in order to unravel the influence of C-doping of GaN on the vertical leakage current of AlN/AlGaN/GaN:C heterostructures. A systematic increment of the vertical blocking voltage at a given current density is observed in the structures, when moving from the nominally undoped conditions—corresponding to a residual C-background of ∼10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}—to a C-content of ∼10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} in the GaN layer. The value of the vertical blocking voltage saturates for C concentrations higher than ∼10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. Atom probe tomography confirms the homogeneity of the GaN:C layers, demonstrating that there is no clustering at C-concentrations as high as 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. It is inferred that the vertical blocking voltage saturation is not likely to be related to C-clustering.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo, E-mail: park@physics.auburn.edu [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)
2014-10-27
We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deguchi, H; Shoho, T; Kato, Y; Ashida, T; Mito, M; Takagi, S [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Hagiwara, M [Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Koyama, K, E-mail: deguchi@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.jp [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Science, The University of Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)
2011-07-20
The d-wave ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} superconductor composed of sub-micron size grains is considered as random Josephson-coupled network of 0 and {pi} junctions and shows successive phase transitions. The upper transition occurs inside each grain at T{sub c1} = 82 K and the lower transition occurs among the grains at T{sub c2} = 66 K. We measured the temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics of the ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and derived the linear and nonlinear resistivity. The nonlinear resistivity {rho}{sub 2} and {rho}{sub 4} have finite values between T{sub c1} and T{sub c2} and have the peak at the same temperature T{sub p} = 70 K above T{sub c2}. The result agrees with the theoretical one obtained by Li and DomInguez. They interpreted T{sub p} as the crossover temperature from the normal state phase to a chiral paramagnetic one.
Bloembergen, Nicolaas
1996-01-01
Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)
2003-05-07
A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钟艳春; 杨庆俊; 包钢
2011-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics characteristic of pneumatic vibration isolation system with a multi-frequency excitation was studied with the method of nonlinear dynamics. First, relative load curve of an air spring under a certain initial pressure was obtained by test, and based on the test data, a cube polynomial equation was obtained by means of nonlinear polynomial curve fitting according to the equilibrium heights of the air spring. Then, the nonlinear model of pneumatic vibration isolation system with a multi-frequency excitation was built and nonlinear dynamics equation was obtained according to nonlinear restoring force of the air spring. Next, the method of multiple scales was used to solve the nonlinear dynamics equation. Finally, combination resonance of pneumatic vibration isolation system with a multi-frequency excitation was analyzed and influences of the nonlinear parameter to the system were discussed. The results show that when combination frequencies are near the linearized natural frequency, combination resonance becomes strong. Cube nonlinear parameter directly influences nonlinear characteristic of the system, the greater the excitation amplitude, the more obvious of the nonlinear characteristic.%运用非线性动力学的方法研究气动隔振系统在多个频率激励下的非线性动力学特性.通过试验的方法得到空气弹簧在一定初始压力下的相对载荷曲线,以空气弹簧工作高度为自变量,用三次多项式对该曲线进行非线性拟合,得到弹簧非线性恢复力与工作高度的三次多项式表达式.建立气动隔振系统在3个激励频率下的非线性模型,根据弹簧的非线性恢复力,得到系统的非线性动力学方程.运用多尺度法对该非线性动力学方程进行求解,分析3个频率共同作用下的组合共振,讨论各非线性参数对系统的影响.研究结果表明:当组合频率接近系统线性化固有频率时,系统具有很强的组合共振;三次非线性
Mtangi, W.; Auret, F. D.; Meyer, W. E.; Legodi, M. J.; Janse van Rensburg, P. J.; Coelho, S. M. M.; Diale, M.; Nel, J. M.
2012-05-01
Effects of annealing ZnO in hydrogen, oxygen, and argon have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (LDLTS) measurements. Current-voltage (IV) measurements indicate a decrease in zero-bias barrier height for all the annealed samples. Conventional DLTS measurements reveal the presence of three prominent peaks in the un-annealed and annealed samples. A new peak with an activation enthalpy of 0.60 eV has been observed in the H2 annealed samples, while an estimated energy level of 0.67 eV has been observed in Ar annealed samples. O2 annealing does not introduce new peaks but causes a decrease in the concentration of the E3 peak and an increase in concentration of the E1 peak. The concentrations of all the intrinsic defects have decreased after H2 and Ar annealing; with Ar annealing giving peaks with the lowest concentrations. The E2 peak anneals out after annealing ZnO in Ar and H2 at 300 °C. From the annealing behaviour of E3, we have attributed to transition metal ion related defects, while E4 has been explained as a defect, whose formation favours oxygen deficient conditions. Laplace DLTS has successfully been employed to resolve the closely spaced energy levels in the E4 peak, splitting it into three peaks with energy levels, 0.68 eV, 0.58 eV, and 0.50 eV below the minimum of the conduction band for the Ar annealed sample.
2016-07-01
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9
Nayfeh, Ali Hasan
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim
Yoshida, Zensho
2010-01-01
This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl
Nanda, Sudarsan
2013-01-01
"Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ataei, Nader
2006-05-09
Different types of exciter are used for voltage supply to the synchronous generators of power stations depending on the required power and design. The exciter system of the generator, which as a rule consists syncronous motors and commutators, is commonly modeled in conventional models by control units with nonlinear characteristics which do not give an accurate picture of the dynamic processes inside the exciter motor. It was not possible to assess the component loads of the exciter components and the physical characteristics within the exciter system. In this study, a brushless exciter for the grid-connected synchronous generator was investigated which consists of two synchronous motors as primary and secondary exciter and two commutator bridges. A dynamic simulation model was developed for calculating the interactions between the grid, generator and exciter unit in consideration of electromagnetic and galvanic coupling. For this, the normal control units were replaced by physical components of the exciter system, i.e. electric exciter motors and commutators. The study was carried out using an enhanced version of the Siemens NETOMAC software, which provided information on the loads on the exciter components in case of internal and external failures. In particular, loads in coils and commutators were calculated that could not be measured before. The findings enable more accurate dimensioning of the exciter unit making it more fail-safe, and the protective systems can be adjusted more accurately. One important result of the investigation was the identification of all dynamic processes going on between the exciter motors, commutators, generator and grid induced by external and internal failures. (orig.) [German] Zur Spannungsversorgung der Synchrongeneratoren in Kraftwerken werden je nach Leistungsanforderung und Baukonzept unterschiedliche Erregereinrichtungen verwendet. Das Erregersystem des Generators, das in der Regel aus Erregersynchronmaschinen und
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王平; 孙久勋; 杨凯
2011-01-01
An analytical current-voltage relationship is proposed for single-carrier organic light emitting diodes. The model is based on the mobility model of Pasveer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005), 206601] that accounts for the most important physical quantities that influence the current transport in organic disordered semiconductors: temperature, carrier concentration, and electric field. The full-analytical formulation is obtained through replacing the constant mobility in Mott-Gurney relationship by the mobility model of Pasveer et al. With carrier concentration and electric field being replaced by their average values evaluated using the strict solutions at constant mobility, and leads to a simple analytical expression. It was validated with experimental data collected from different materials in a wide range of operating conditions.%提出一种有机半导体二极管电流电压关系的解析表达式.该表达式是基于Pasveer等人[Phys.Rev.Lett.94,206601 (2005)]的迁移率模型建立的,其中考虑了影响有机半导体载流子输运最重要的因素,包括温度、载流子浓度和电场强度.将Pasveer等人迁移率公式中的载流子浓度和电场强度用常数迁移率下严格解计算的平均值代入,然后将得到的迁移率取代Mott-Gurney电流电压关系中的常数迁移率从而得到解析电流电压表达式.将新解析表达式应用于三种材料制作的有机二极管,计算结果与实验数据符合很好,表明解析表达式是合理的.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, G.M. [China Center of Advanced Science and Technology (CCAST), Beijing, BJ (China)]|[Suzhou Univ. (China). Dept. of Physics
1996-04-01
In this note we consider the geometrical effects of a percolating system on the nonlinear transport properties in a superconductor-normal conductor nonlinear resistor network. For realistic composites, the nonlinearity may play an important role in the electrical transport phenomena. A typical example consists of studying a nonlinear composite medium in which an inclusion with nonlinear current-field (J-E) characteristics is randomly embedded in a host with either linear or nonlinear J-E response. For such a system, substantial progress in studies of the effective nonlinear response has been made in the past few years. 24 refs.
Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran
2016-01-01
We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.
Boyd, Robert W
2013-01-01
Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q
Ruszczynski, Andrzej
2011-01-01
Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t
Non-linear – characteristics of doped Sn1–TiO2 (0.0 < < 0.25) system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Ravi; S K Date
2001-10-01
The solid solutions of Sn1–TiO2 (0.0 < < 0.25) were prepared by the usual high temperature ceramic processing techniques with small amounts of dopants such as Nb, Co, Al. The electrical measurements (log –log ) on the ohmically metal electroded sintered pellets showed the non-linear behaviour. The nonlinear coefficient was found to decrease from 12 to 3 with increase in . On the other hand, the breakdown voltage (b) showed the increase with the increase in . This complex electrical behaviour is explained on the effects of the three dopants (as varistor former, performance enhancer and highlighter) on the microstructural features of the dense pellet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turchetti, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)
1989-01-01
Research in nonlinear dynamics is rapidly expanding and its range of applications is extending beyond the traditional areas of science where it was first developed. Indeed while linear analysis and modelling, which has been very successful in mathematical physics and engineering, has become a mature science, many elementary phenomena of intrinsic nonlinear nature were recently experimentally detected and investigated, suggesting new theoretical work. Complex systems, as turbulent fluids, were known to be governed by intrinsically nonlinear laws since a long time ago, but received purely phenomenological descriptions. The pioneering works of Boltzmann and Poincare, probably because of their intrinsic difficulty, did not have a revolutionary impact at their time; it is only very recently that their message is reaching a significant number of mathematicians and physicists. Certainly the development of computers and computer graphics played an important role in developing geometric intuition of complex phenomena through simple numerical experiments, while a new mathematical framework to understand them was being developed.
Sasikala, V.; Sajan, D.; Joseph, Lynnette; Balaji, J.; Prabu, S.; Srinivasan, P.
2017-04-01
Single crystals of (E)-N‧-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-4-methylbenzenesulfonohydrazide (CBMBSH) have been grown by slow evaporation crystal growth method. The structure stabilizing intramolecular donor-acceptor interactions and the presence of the Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯C(π) hydrogen bonds in the crystal were confirmed by vibrational spectroscopic and DFT methods. The linear optical absorption characteristics of the solvent phase of CBMBSH were investigated using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic and TD-DFT approaches. The 2PA assisted RSA nonlinear absorption and the optical limiting properties of CBMBSH were studied using the open-aperture Z-scan method. The topological characteristics of the electron density have been determined using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules method.
Teodorescu-Soare, C. T.; Dimitriu, D. G.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. W.
2016-03-01
By negatively biasing a metallic grid with a small hole, down to a critical value of the applied potential a complex space-charge structure appears inside and around the grid cathode. The static current-voltage characteristic of the discharge shows one or two current jumps (the number of current jumps depending on the working gas pressure), one of them being of hysteretic type. Electrical probe measurements show a positive potential inside the grid cathode with respect to the potential applied on it. This is interpreted as being due to the hollow cathode effect. Thus, the inner fireball appears around the virtual anode inside the grid cathode. For more negative potentials, the electrons inside the cathode reach sufficient energy to penetrate the inner sheath near the cathode, passing through the hole and giving rise to a second fireball-like structure located outside the cathode. This second structure interacts with the negative glow of the discharge. The recorded time series of the discharge current oscillations reveal strongly nonlinear dynamics of the complex space-charge structure: by changing the negative potential applied on the grid cathode, the structure passes through different dynamic states involving chaos, quasi-periodicity, intermittency and period-doubling bifurcations, appearing like a competition of different routes to chaos.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨金福; 陈策; 刘玉晗; 韩东江
2011-01-01
Based on gas-dynamic bearings and frequency coupled modulation of rotor-bearing system,the characteristics of rotor bearing system＇s nonlinear vibration experimental investigations were applied to high-speed air cycle refrigerator.Furthermore,some nonlinear characteristics,for example,the motion of rotor,bearings instability and rub-impact which always happen on the flexible shaft,were analyzed.The results show that,if the design margin of safe speed is guaranteed,the steady running speed of the rotor-bearings system can be effectively increased from 40 000 r/min to 60 000 r/min above.%基于气动轴承与轴系耦合调频技术,对高速压气机涡轮转子结构的空气循环制冷机轴系进行非线性振动性能的试验研究,进一步分析了柔性轴系存在转子运动、轴承失稳及碰摩故障的一些非线性特征.研究结果表明：在保证转速设计裕度的前提下,工作转速由40 000r/m提高到了60 000r/m.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, J.S.; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.;
2000-01-01
This paper describes the influence of design characteristics on the statistical inference for an ecotoxicological hazard-based model using simulated survival data. The design characteristics of interest are the number and spacing of observations (counts) in time, the number and spacing of exposure...
Goshi, Noah; Narenji, Alaleh; Bui, Chris; Mokili, John L; Kassegne, Sam
2016-09-01
In this study, we investigate the effect of nucleotide content on the conductivity of plasmid length DNA molecular wires covalently bound to high aspect-ratio gold electrodes. The DNA wires were all between [Formula: see text] in length (>6000bp), and contained either 39%, 53%, or 64% GC base-pairs. We compared the current-voltage (I-V) and frequency-impedance characteristics of the DNA wires with varying GC content, and observed statistically significantly higher conductivity in DNA wires containing higher GC content in both AC and DC measurement methods. Additionally, we noted that the conductivity decreased as a function of time for all DNA wires, with the impedance at 100 Hz nearly doubling over a period of seven days. All readings were taken in humidity and temperature controlled environments on DNA wires suspended above an insulative substrate, thus minimizing the effect of experimental and environmental factors as well as potential for nonlinear alternate DNA confirmations. While other groups have studied the effect of GC content on the conductivity of nanoscale DNA molecules (DNA wires at scales that may be required during the fabrication of DNA-based electronics. Furthermore, our results provide further evidence that many of the charge transfer theories developed from experiments using nanoscale DNA molecules may still be applicable for DNA wires at the micro scale.
Goshi, Noah; Narenji, Alaleh; Bui, Chris; Mokili, John L; Kassegne, Sam
2016-07-28
In this study, we investigate the effect of nucleotide content on the conductivity of plasmid length DNA molecular wires covalently bound to high aspect-ratio gold electrodes. The DNA wires were all between 2.20-2.35μm in length (>6000bp), and contained either 39%, 53%, or 64% GC base-pairs. We compared the current-voltage (I-V) and frequency-impedance characteristics of the DNA wires with varying GC content, and observed statistically significantly higher conductivity in DNA wires containing higher GC content in both AC and DC measurement methods. Additionally, we noted that the conductivity decreased as a function of time for all DNA wires, with the impedance at 100Hz nearly doubling over a period of seven days. All readings were taken in humidity and temperature controlled environments on DNA wires suspended above an insulative substrate, thus minimizing the effect of experimental and environmental factors as well as potential for nonlinear alternate DNA confirmations. While other groups have studied the effect of GC content on the conductivity of nano-scale DNA molecules (DNA wires at scales that may be required during the fabrication of DNA-based electronics. Furthermore, our results provide further evidence that many of the charge transfer theories developed from experiments using nano-scale DNA molecules may still be applicable for DNA wires at the micro-scale.
Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.
1987-01-01
Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘志峰; 蒋凤麒; 杨文通; 蔡力钢
2012-01-01
The transmission error is an important factor causing nonlinear vibration of cycloid bevel gear, and the vibration characteristics of gear system can be improved by prediction and calculation of the dynamic transmission error of cycloid bevel gear. The dynamic response characteristics of cycloid bevel gear were discussed under a range of operation speeds and acting torques. A new approach of surface integration and local FEM was proposed to solve the dynamic transmission error. And then, the strong nonlinear vibration characteristics of gear system were analysed. In the approach, it is no longer necessary to consider the nonlinear factors, such as the lime-varied stiffness and meshing frequency variation, as external excitations. However, in every lime step of gear meshing the dynamic mesh force and dynamic transmission error were calculated, and finally the nonlinear vibration characteristics of cycloid bevel gear were achieved. The approach can precisely present the key factors of the gear teeth, including the tooth geometry and tooth contact stress, which influence the dynamic characteristics of cycloid bevel gear significantly and provides an effective method for the analysis of complex vibration characteristics of cycloid bevel gear transmission system.%齿轮重载啮合中发生的轮齿接触损失会引起齿轮传动中的动态传递误差,动态传递误差的存在是等高齿锥齿轮非线性振动的重要原因,准确预测和计算等高齿锥齿轮传动中的动态传递误差是进一步改善这类齿轮系统振动特性的有效手段.针对某重载等高齿锥齿轮,研究其在一定运行速度和扭矩范围内的频率响应特性,运用一种新的曲面积分与局部有限元联合求解方法求解了等高齿锥齿轮传动中的动态传递误差,揭示出此类传动系统振动的强非线性特性.这种方法无需将时变拟合刚度和啮合频率变量等非线性因素作为外部的激励进行求解,而是从齿轮啮
Riedel, [No Value; Parisi, J; Dyakonov, [No Value; Lutsen, L; Vanderzande, D; Hummelen, JC; Riedel, Ingo; Dyakonov, Vladimir
2004-01-01
The current-voltage characteristics of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/OC1C10-PPV:PCBM/Al solar cells were measured in the temperature range 125-320 K under variable illumination, between 0.03 and 100 mW cm(-2) (white light), with the aim of determining the efficiency-limiting mechanism(s) in these devices, and the t
2015-01-01
From the Back Cover: The emphasis throughout the present volume is on the practical application of theoretical mathematical models helping to unravel the underlying mechanisms involved in processes from mathematical physics and biosciences. It has been conceived as a unique collection of abstract methods dealing especially with nonlinear partial differential equations (either stationary or evolutionary) that are applied to understand concrete processes involving some important applications re...
Programmable Nonlinear ADC Using Optimal-Sized ROM
K Dinesh; Anvekar, *; Sonde, BE
1991-01-01
A new programmable successive approximation ADC useful for realizing nonlinear transfer characteristics often required in instrumentation and communications is presented. This nonlinear ADC (NADC) requires a much smaller sized ROM than an NADC reported earlier
Controller Design of Complex System Based on Nonlinear Strength
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rongjun Mu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new idea of controller design for complex systems. The nonlinearity index method was first developed for error propagation of nonlinear system. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of the system model. The algorithm of nonlinearity index according to engineering application is first proposed in this paper. Applying this method on nonlinear systems is an effective way to measure the nonlinear strength of dynamics model over the full flight envelope. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of system model. According to the different nonlinear strength of dynamical model, the control system is designed. The simulation time of dynamical complex system is selected by the maximum value of dynamic nonlinearity indices. Take a missile as example; dynamical system and control characteristic of missile are simulated. The simulation results show that the method is correct and appropriate.
Blank, V.; Thomson, M. D.; Roskos, H. G.
2013-07-01
We present a characterization of the combined spatial and spectral properties of the terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared emission from gas plasmas generated and driven by two-colour femtosecond optical pulses. For its use in nonlinear spectroscopy, the impact of the relatively complex spatial profile for both broadband (∼ 10 THz) and ultra-broadband (> 100 THz) emission needs to be considered, in particular for experiments based on z-scan techniques. Here we apply spatially resolved measurements based on both field autocorrelation and sum-frequency (up-conversion) detection. Based on these results, we present simulations of the ultra-broadband profile during its passage through a focal region. In addition to the inherent features of the emission profile due to the generation mechanism in the plasma filament, we also analyse the role of the semconductor (silicon) wafer typically placed after the plasma to discard the optical pump beams, whose photoexcitation also can play a role in the resultant THz profile.
Simulation Research on Hydraulic Mount Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics%液压悬置非线性动态特性仿真研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
时培成; 陈无畏; 姜武华
2009-01-01
针对液压悬置复杂的动态特性,运用流体动力学理论及液压原理,建立了某轿车动力总成液压悬置的非线性数学模型,提出了模拟液压悬置动态特性的一种数值分析方法,并对目标液压悬置的动态特性进行了多工况仿真实验对比.研究结果表明所建模型是正确的、实用的,而且其通用性较强,能为下一步更精确的汽车动力总成悬置系统匹配选型、优化分析、隔振特性研究提供基础.%Aimed at the complicated dynamic characteristics of hydraulic mount, an automobile powertrain hydraulic mount's non - linear mathematics model was created with the hydrodynamics theory and hydraulic principle. A numerical analysis method for simulating the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic mount was put out, and the characteristics was studied by contrasting simulations and experiments under a few working conditions. The results show the model is correct, practical and universal, which can provide a foundation for more precise automobile powertrain mount system matching, optimizing analysis and vibration isolating research.
Saturation at low x and nonlinear evolution
Stasto, A. M.
2002-01-01
In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale. We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution.
Quantum well nonlinear microcavities
Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.
We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.
Luo Sheng; Huang Sai Jun; He Yu Sheng; Li Chun Guang; Zhang Xue Qiang
2003-01-01
A modified Ambegaokar-Halperin thermal-fluctuation model has been developed to describe the c-axis V-I characteristics and low-current ohmic resistance of highly anisotropic superconductors in a magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. The model assumes loss of phase coherence across the CuO-planes associated with the correlated motion of pancake vortices in the liquid state. The predicted V-I characteristics in the current-induced transition from the superconducting to the resistive state are in good agreement with measurements on a 2212-BSCCO single crystal as a function of temperature and field, provided the effect of the interlayer capacitance is taken into account. The measurements are consistent with a flux pancake correlation length within the CuO-planes varying as xi sub 0 /(T/T sub 0 - 1) supnu, where xi sub 0 = 1.57 +- 0.08 mu m and nu = 0.50 +- 0.01. Our measurements imply a current-dependent interlayer resistance above and below T sub c.
SONOS Nonvolatile Memory Cell Programming Characteristics
MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.
2010-01-01
Silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memory is gaining favor over conventional EEPROM FLASH memory technology. This paper characterizes the SONOS write operation using a nonquasi-static MOSFET model. This includes floating gate charge and voltage characteristics as well as tunneling current, voltage threshold and drain current characterization. The characterization of the SONOS memory cell predicted by the model closely agrees with experimental data obtained from actual SONOS memory cells. The tunnel current, drain current, threshold voltage and read drain current all closely agreed with empirical data.
Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan
2016-01-01
This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1996-01-01
3.1 A Unified Nonlinear Feedback Functional Method for Study Both Control and Synchronization of Spatiotemporal Chaos Fang Jinqing Ali M. K. (Department of Physics, The University of Lethbridge,Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4,Canada) Two fundamental questions dominate future chaos control theories.The first is the problem of controlling hyperchaos in higher dimensional systems.The second question has yet to be addressed:the problem of controlling spatiotemporal chaos in a spatiotemporal system.In recent years, control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos and hyperchaos have became a much more important and challenging subject. The reason for this is the control and synchronism of such behaviours have extensive and great potential of interdisciplinary applications, such as security communication, information processing, medicine and so on. However, this subject is not much known and remains an outstanding open.
Karatay, Ahmet; Aksoy, Çagla; Gul Yaglioglu, H.; Elmali, Ayhan; Kürüm, Ulaş; Ateş, Aytunç; Gasanly, Nizami
2011-07-01
We investigated the nonlinear and saturable absorption characteristics of Ga0.90In0.10Se and Ga0.85In0.15Se semiconductor crystals and their very thin amorphous films by open aperture (OA) Z-scan and pump-probe techniques. The linear absorption spectra indicated a blue shift in energy with increasing film thickness. This can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. For both 4 ns and 65 ps pulse durations the two photon absorption coefficients of Ga0.90In0.10Se and Ga0.85In0.15Se crystals increased with increasing input intensities. The life time of the localized defect states was measured as 3 ns for both Ga0.90In0.10Se and Ga0.85In0.15Se films while it was around 10 ns for GaSe and InSe films. Open aperture Z-scan experiments with a 4 ns pulse duration did not exhibit any saturable absorption behavior for thin films since the life time of localized defect states was not long enough to saturate these films. Thinner films exhibited saturable absorption and thicker films exhibited nonlinear absorption for a 65 ps pulse duration. This behavior was attributed to increasing localized defect states with increasing film thickness. The experimental curves were fitted to the theory of the open aperture Gaussian-beam Z-scan based on the Adomian decomposition method incorporating one photon, two photon, and free carrier absorptions and their saturations. The lowest saturation intensity threshold for the Ga0.90In0.10Se film was found to be 1.38 × 102 MW cm - 2 for 43 nm film thickness.
Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N R B Krishnam Raju; J Nagabhushanam
2000-08-01
Though the use of the integrated force method for linear investigations is well-recognised, no efforts were made to extend this method to nonlinear structural analysis. This paper presents the attempts to use this method for analysing nonlinear structures. General formulation of nonlinear structural analysis is given. Typically highly nonlinear bench-mark problems are considered. The characteristic matrices of the elements used in these problems are developed and later these structures are analysed. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of the displacement method. It has been demonstrated that the integrated force method is equally viable and efficient as compared to the displacement method.
Predictive simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2012-04-01
Most of the nonlinear ultrasonic studies to date have been experimental, but few theoretical predictive studies exist, especially for Lamb wave ultrasonic. Compared with nonlinear bulk waves and Rayleigh waves, nonlinear Lamb waves for structural health monitoring become more challenging due to their multi-mode dispersive features. In this paper, predictive study of nonlinear Lamb waves is done with finite element simulation. A pitch-catch method is used to interrogate a plate with a "breathing crack" which opens and closes under tension and compression. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) used as transmitter and receiver are modeled with coupled field elements. The "breathing crack" is simulated via "element birth and death" technique. The ultrasonic waves generated by the transmitter PWAS propagate into the structure, interact with the "breathing crack", acquire nonlinear features, and are picked up by the receiver PWAS. The features of the wave packets at the receiver PWAS are studied and discussed. The received signal is processed with Fast Fourier Transform to show the higher harmonics nonlinear characteristics. A baseline free damage index is introduced to assess the presence and the severity of the crack. The paper finishes with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛明富; 胡爱群
2011-01-01
虽然非线性助听器选配算法相继被提出,但对各选配算法的研究并不充分.对常用的NAL-NL1和DSL[i/o]5.0等选配算法进行了研究与仿真.首先研究了各选配算法的设计原则,并仿真分析了在各种典型听力图下,各算法所给出的声学响应特性(增益、拐点、压缩比、各频段的强调程度等),计算了客观的评价指标(响度、语音清晰度等).实验证实,NAL-NL1的原则是对语言的所有频率带整体进行响度均衡化,并且最大化语言清晰度,NAL系列算法均与此类似,而DSL[i/o]5.0的原则是响度正常化.对同样的听力图,由于设计原则与理念的不同,各算法给出了不同的响应特性,在响度和语音清晰度上也有所差异,讨论了设计原则对响应特性的影响及其对应关系.还对非线性助听器选配算法的研究现状和未来发展方向进行了一定的探讨.%Various fitting methods for non-linear hearing aids have been proposed. But the study of these fitting methods is not sufficient, and no such work has been done in China. This paper gives the study and the simulation of common fitting methods for non-linear hearing aids, such as NAL-NL1 and DSL[I/o]5.0. First, it studies the design principles of these fitting methods. Then, it simulates and analysis the acoustic response characteristics of fitting methods under various typical audiograms, such as gain, knee points, compression ratio and the degree of emphasis in different frequency bands. It calculates the objective assessment indexes like loudness and speech intelligibility. Experiments have confirmed that the principle of NAL-NL1 is to get loudness equalization among all frequency bands, and maximize the speech intelligibility. NAL series of fitting methods are similar to this while the DSL[I/o]5.0 focuses on loudness normalization. Under the same audiogram, they give different acoustic response characteristics due to the differences of design principles and
Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘松山; 王庆年; 王伟华
2014-01-01
A nonlinear damping characteristic for regenerative suspension based on the torque-speed char-acteristic of regenerative motor and traditional linear damping characteristic is proposed and the influences of opening speed and the initial speed of inadequate damping interval on vibration attenuation performance are analyzed. By an-alyzing the sprung mass acceleration response of single DOF linear suspension model, the effect of initial opening speed on vibration attenuation performance is obtained. For suppressing the peak acceleration response caused by entering constant damping interval, the relative speed transfer characteristic of linear suspension model is investiga-ted, with the adjustment coefficient for initial opening speed obtained. The results of simulation show that reasonable opening speed can greatly improve the transfer characteristic of regenerative damper, while the initial speed of inad-equate damping interval has no much effect on peak response for harmonic excitation.%提出了一种基于馈能电机转矩转速特性和传统线性阻尼特性的馈能悬架非线性阻尼特性，分析开启速度和阻尼不足区初始速度对减振性能的影响。通过对传统的单自由度线性悬架模型的簧载质量加速度响应分析，得出初始开启速度对其减振性能的影响。为了抑制进入恒阻尼区后导致的加速度响应峰值，对线性模型中的相对速度传递特性的研究，得出初始开启速度的调整系数。仿真结果表明，合理的开启速度能极大地改善馈能减振器的传递特性，阻尼不足区初始速度对谐波激励时的响应峰值影响并不大。
Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang
2006-01-01
On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.
Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王文祝; 金丰; 周海波
2013-01-01
During the controlling of the ultra-precision maglev movement ,the hysteresis existed in the iron core and the armature guide is an important reason of making it hard to control precisely . It is significant to study the law of the hysteresis characteristics'nonlinear influence on the elec-tromagnetic force and build its nonlinear model .Through studying the hysteresis characteristics'influence on the air-gap magnetic flux density in the maglev precision movement and analyzing the hysteresis modeling theory of the magnetic circuit with an air gap ,the nonlinear electromagnetic force model including the Jiles-Atherton model was established and then its parameters were test-ed by the particle swarm optimization .Results show that the electromagnet hysteresis in the ma-glev precision movement should not be neglected .The air-gap magnetic flux density calculated by the identified new model is more precise and closer to the measured value than that calculated by the traditional model .These results provide an important reference for improving control preci-sion of the maglev precision movement .% 超精密磁悬浮运动控制中，电磁铁铁心及衔铁导轨中存在的磁滞特性是导致电磁力难以实现精确控制的重要原因之一。研究磁滞特性对电磁力的非线性影响规律并建立其非线性模型具有重要意义。通过研究磁悬浮精密运动中电磁铁磁滞特性对气隙处磁感应强度的影响，分析了带气隙磁路磁滞特性建模原理，建立了包含Jiles-Atherton模型的电磁铁磁浮力非线性模型，并采用粒子群优化算法对该模型参数进行实验验证。结果表明，磁悬浮精密运动中电磁铁磁滞特性不容忽视，采用经参数辨识得到的新模型比采用传统模型计算得到的气隙磁感应强度值更精确、更接近实测值。研究结果为提高磁悬浮精密运动中电磁力的精确控制提供了重要参考价值。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barus, R. P. P., E-mail: rismawan.ppb@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung and Centre for Material and Technical Product, Jalan Sangkuriang No. 14 Bandung (Indonesia); Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E. [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Ismunandar [Chemistry Study, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)
2014-09-25
Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.
Nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging of magnetic nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ficko, Bradley W., E-mail: Bradley.W.Ficko@Dartmouth.edu; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.
2015-03-15
This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R{sup 2}=0.99, CNR=84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R{sup 2}>0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI. - Highlights: • Development of a nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging model • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and harmonic frequencies • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and intermodulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许金; 马伟明; 鲁军勇; 孙兆龙; 张育兴
2012-01-01
A novel slot-less double-sided long-stator linear induction motor is proposed for the application of Electromagnetic Launch. In this motor, the conventional gullet structure is cancelled, and conductive area of the motor stator windings is enlarged, and then the loss and temperature rise is decreased. Based on the finite element simulation and calculation of electromagnetic field, the saturation characteristics of stator leakage inductance and excitation inductance are obtained, and the calculation methods in nonlinear conditions of the motor are displayed. The comparison of experimental and calculation results verifies the validity and superiority of the proposed calculation methods.%提出了一种应用于电磁发射场合的新型无槽双边长定子直线感应电机，该电机取消了传统电机的齿槽结构，增大了电机定子绕组的导电面积，降低了电机损耗和温升。基于电磁场有限元仿真计算得到了电机定子漏感和励磁电感的饱和特性，给出了电机非线性工况的计算方法。实验结果和计算结果的比较验证了计算方法的正确性。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrer, F.J., E-mail: fjferrer@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - U. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frutos, F. [E.T.S. de Ingenieria Informatica, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - U. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jimenez, C. [Laboratoire de Materiaux et de Genie Physique, BP 257 - INPGrenoble Minatec - 3 parvis Louis Neel - 38016 Grenoble (France); Yubero, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC - U. Sevilla), c/ Americo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)
2009-07-31
Mixed Zr-Si oxide thin films have been prepared at room temperature by ion beam decomposition of organometallic volatile precursors. The films were flat and amorphous. They did not present phase segregation of the pure single oxides. A significant amount of impurities (-C-, -CH{sub x}, -OH, and other radicals coming from partially decomposed precursors) remained incorporated in the films after the deposition process. This effect is minimized if the Ar content in the O{sub 2}/Ar bombarding gas is maximized. Static permittivity and breakdown electrical field of the films were determined by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage electrical measurements. It is found that the static permittivity increases non-linearly from {approx} 4 for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 15 for pure ZrO{sub 2}. Most of the dielectric failures in the films were due to extrinsic breakdown failures. The maximum breakdown electrical field decreases from {approx} 10.5 MV/cm for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 45 MV/cm for pure ZrO{sub 2}. These characteristics are justified by high impurity content of the thin films. In addition, the analysis of the conduction mechanisms in the formed dielectrics is consistent to Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emission for low and high electric fields applied, respectively.
Characteristics of InAs/AlGaAs self-organized quantum dot modulation doped field effect transistors
Phillips, J.; Kamath, K.; Brock, T.; Bhattacharya, P.
1998-06-01
We have investigated the dc characteristics of InGaAs/AlGaAs modulation doped field effect transistors in which a layer of self-organized InAs quantum dots is inserted adjacent to the pseudomorphic quantum well channel. Distinct steps and a negative differential resistance are observed in the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature and lower temperatures. These are attributed to conduction through the bound states in the quantum dots.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵年顺; 孙剑
2014-01-01
采用时域有限差分技术分析了非线性光子晶体点缺陷的双稳态特性，选择一定频率失谐的连续波入射并观察透射现象。分析发现，当连续波功率增加到阈值点时透射率达到最大值。采用大功率脉冲辅助连续波的方式发现点缺陷的透射率一直处于高透射状态，直至连续波功率下降到很低时，透射率才迅速下降。双稳态特性由频率失谐δ、缺陷谐振频率ω0及非线性系数 n2等3个参数决定。采用空间电磁场的摄动理论验证所得结果与数值模拟结果一致。%This paper conducts a research on the bistable characteristics of point defect in two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals with finite-difference time-domain technique. It analyzes the transmission be-havior of input continuous wave with frequency detuning,and the results show that the maximum transmis-sion is detected when the continuous wave reaches the threshold power. What’s more,the defect can be boosted into high transmission state by superposing continuous wave with a high peak-power pulse,and it won’t decrease rapidly until the continuous wave power is brought down to a very low degree. The fre-quency detuning,the resonant frequency,the nonlinear coefficient n2 are needed to characterize a bistable switch. In addition,the dynamic shift of the cavity modes is derived by using the perturbation theory. The conclusion provides some reference for the design of all optical devices based on PC defect.
Resonant tunneling and nonlinear current in heterobarrier with complex dispersion of carriers
Kim, C S; Shtenberg, V B
2002-01-01
The study of novel effects in resonant tunneling of electrons in GaAs/Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As/GaAs single-barrier structures under an applied electric bias is carried out. GAMMA-X mixing of electron states at the interfaces is responsible for Fano resonance in the barrier transmittance. A motion of Fano resonances and the interaction between Fano and Breit-Wigner resonances in electric field have been investigated. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterobarrier is calculated. It is shown that the differential conductivity presents a way to get the Fano resonance profile and its parameters
NONLINEAR EXPECTATIONS AND NONLINEAR MARKOV CHAINS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG SHIGE
2005-01-01
This paper deals with nonlinear expectations. The author obtains a nonlinear generalization of the well-known Kolmogorov's consistent theorem and then use it to construct filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations via nonlinear Markov chains. Compared to the author's previous results, i.e., the theory of g-expectations introduced via BSDE on a probability space, the present framework is not based on a given probability measure. Many fully nonlinear and singular situations are covered. The induced topology is a natural generalization of Lp-norms and L∞-norm in linear situations.The author also obtains the existence and uniqueness result of BSDE under this new framework and develops a nonlinear type of von Neumann-Morgenstern representation theorem to utilities and present dynamic risk measures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张健; 向锦武
2011-01-01
High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aircraft features slender and flexible structures, which under nominal operation conditions may result in large structural deformation, aerodynamic stall, and coupling between the low-frequency structural vibration and the rigid body motion of the aircraft. These nonlinearities and interactions affect dramatically the static and dynamic behaviors of a HALE flexible aircraft. This paper developed a coupled model of aeroelasticity and flight dynamics for high-aspect-ratio flexible aircraft based on the geometrically exact, fully intrinsic beam theory, ONERA aerodynamic stall model, and a six degree of freedom model of the rigid body motion. This model takes into consideration the geometrical non-linearities, dynamic stall and material anisotropy, etc. Two case models of the conventional configuration and the flying-wing configuration are used to investigate the characteristics of the trim, dynamic stability and time-domain response of the high-aspect-ratio flexible aircraft with nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics coupled. The results obtained indicate that when the wing deformation is relatively small, the angle of attack required for the trim of the flexible aircraft is smaller than that for a rigid aircraft, and stall may occur along the whole wing span, which may cause altitude decrease quickly due to the dramatic reduction in the total lift of the complete aircraft. When the wing deformation is relatively large, the angle of attack required for the trim of the flexible aircraft is larger than that for a rigid aircraft, and stall occurs in a limited region near the wing tip. In addition, the motion of a flexible aircraft may become unstable due to large deformation of its wings, which can be improved by applying aeroelastic tailoring.%高空长航时(HALE)飞机结构细长、具有柔性,在常规飞行条件下可发生结构大变形、气动失速以及结构低频振动与刚体运动耦合,这些现象显著影
Yashkir, O. V.; Yashkir, Yu N.
1987-11-01
An investigation is made of nonlinear optical interaction of light propagating in a planar waveguide with surface polaritons. Reduced wave equations for the amplitudes of the waveguide modes and surface polaritons are used to study the characteristics of generation of surface polaritons of difference frequency, parametric frequency up-conversion of the polaritons, and stimulated Raman scattering by the polaritons. An analysis is made of the characteristic properties of the investigated nonlinear optical processes.
Numerical investigation of bubble nonlinear dynamics characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Jie, E-mail: shijie@hrbeu.edu.cn; Yang, Desen; Shi, Shengguo; Hu, Bo [Acoustic Science and Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Haoyang; Jiang, Wei [College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)
2015-10-28
The complicated dynamical behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave can provide favorable conditions for many engineering applications. On the basis of Keller-Miksis model, the influences of control parameters, including acoustic frequency, acoustic pressure and radius of gas bubble, are discussed by utilizing various numerical analysis methods, Furthermore, the law of power spectral variation is studied. It is shown that the complicated dynamic behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave, such as bifurcation and chaos, further the stimulated scattering processes are revealed.
Nonlinear plasmonic amplification via dissipative soliplasmons
Ferrando, Albert
2016-01-01
In this contribution we introduce a new strategy for the compensation of plasmonic losses based on a recently proposed nonlinear mechanism: the resonant interaction between surface plasmon polaritons and spatial solitons propagating in parallel along a metal/dielectric/Kerr structure. This mechanism naturally leads to the generation of a quasi-particle excitation, the so-called soliplasmon resonance. We analyze the role played by the effective nonlinear coupling inherent to this system and how this can be used to provide a new mechanism of quasi-resonant nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. We will pay particular attention to the introduction of asymmetric linear gain in the Kerr medium. The unique combination of nonlinear propagation, nonlinear coupling and gain give rise to a new scenario for the excitation of long- range surface plasmon polaritons with distinguishing characteristics. The connection between plasmonic losses and soliplasmon resonances in the presence of gain will be discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李同杰; 靳广虎; 鲍和云; 朱如鹏
2016-01-01
As the motion state of a planetary gear reducer is easy to bifurcate when the transmitted power changes,a study on the bifurcation characteristics of a planetary gear train changing with the transmitted power is explored in this paper.The local bifurcation characteristics were studied with CPNF(continuous Poincaré-Newton-Floquet) method on the basis of the nonlinear torsional vibration model of 2K-H planetary gear train.As a comparison,the global bifurcation diagram changing with power was calculated by using the method of numerical integration.The comparison results reveal that a nonlinear planetary gear train with certain parameters may have several coexisting periodic trajectories,some of them may be stable and some may be unstable.As the power gradually increases in the range of 196~220 kW,the stable asymptotic stable periodic traj ectory may change into chaos in the way of inverse period doubling bifurcation.And chaos is easy to appear when the planetary gear train is under light load condition.%针对行星齿轮减速器工作过程中传递功率的频繁变化容易导致其运动状态发生突变的问题，探讨行星齿轮传动系统随传递功率的分岔特性。基于2K-H 型行星齿轮传动系统纯扭转非线性动力学模型，采用CPNF（continuous Poincaré-Newton-Floquet）方法研究了传递功率对行星齿轮传动系统周期运动稳定性的局部精细分岔规律，运用直接数值积分的方法绘制了系统随功率的全局分岔图，并对两种仿真结果进行了对比。结果发现，在某些参数组合下，行星齿轮传动系统会共存几个稳定或不稳定的周期轨道；当功率在196～220 kW范围内，随着功率值的逐渐增大，行星齿轮传动系统的各种形态的周期轨道均是通过倍周期倒分岔的途径在相应功率分岔点处发生稳定性突变的；在轻载工况下（传递小功率），行星齿轮非线性系统容易呈现混沌运动状态。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏程
2012-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic model for a spur gear pair with single degree of freedom was established where in the tooth backlash, time-varying stiffness and comprehensive gearing error were comprehensively considered. The differential equations of motion with single degree of freedom were solved by employing variable step Runge-Kutta integration method. The dynamic characteristics of the system was analyzed for different tooth side clearance and varying mesh stiffness based on bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits, Poincare mapping and Fourier spectra. The result showed that the value of the tooth side clearance would have an influence on the critical value of system doubling bifurcation but no effect on system pitchfork bifurcation and its value..%建立综合考虑齿侧间隙、时变啮合刚度、综合啮合误差等因素下的直齿轮副的单自由度非线性动力学模型,利用变步长Runge-Kutta法对单自由度运动微分方程进行数值求解.结合系统的分岔图、相图、Poincaré映射图以及FFT频谱图,分析系统在不同侧隙值下,啮合刚度变化时的动力学特性,得到系统的混沌运动形成过程.结果表明侧隙值影响到系统倍化分岔的临界值,而对系统的叉式分岔及其分岔值没有影响.
Analysis of nonlinear behavior of loudspeakers using the instantaneous frequency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Hai; Jacobsen, Finn
2003-01-01
It is well know that the weakest link in a sound reproduction chain is the loudspeaker. The most significant effect on the sound quality is nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Many methods are applied to analyze the nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Almost all of the methods are based...... on the Fourier transform. In this work, a new method using the instantaneous frequency is introduced for describing and characterizing loudspeaker nonlinearities. First, numerical integration is applied to simulate the nonlinearities of loudspeakers caused by two nonlinear parameters, force factor and stiffness......, separately. Then, a practical loudspeaker is used in an experiment and its nonlinear characteristics are analyzed with the instantaneous frequency. The results provide a clear physical interpretation of the nonlinearities of loudspeakers and will be useful for understanding the nonlinear behavior...
FORCED OSCILLATIONS IN NONLINEAR FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM
Since a nonlinear feedback control system may possess more than one type of forced oscillations, it is highly desirable to investigate the type of...method for finding the existence of forced oscillations and response curve characteristics of a nonlinear feedback control system by means of finding the...second order feedback control system are investigated; the fundamental frequency forced oscillation for a higher order system and the jump resonance
Nonlinear modeling of an aerospace object dynamics
Davydov, I. E.; Davydov, E. I.
2017-01-01
Here are presented the scientific results, obtained by motion modeling of complicated technical systems of aerospace equipment with consideration of nonlinearities. Computerized panel that allows to measure mutual influence of the system's motion and stabilization device with consideration of its real characteristics has been developed. Analysis of motion stability of a system in general has been carried out and time relationships of the system's motion taking in account nonlinearities are presented.
Nonlinear dynamics of cell orientation
Safran, S. A.; de, Rumi
2009-12-01
The nonlinear dependence of cellular orientation on an external, time-varying stress field determines the distribution of orientations in the presence of noise and the characteristic time, τc , for the cell to reach its steady-state orientation. The short, local cytoskeletal relaxation time distinguishes between high-frequency (nearly perpendicular) and low-frequency (random or parallel) orientations. However, τc is determined by the much longer, orientational relaxation time. This behavior is related to experiments for which we predict the angle and characteristic time as a function of frequency.
Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F, E-mail: rchacon@unex.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Apartado Postal 382, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)
2011-01-15
We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.
Nonlinear dynamic vibration absorbers with a saturation
Febbo, M.; Machado, S. P.
2013-03-01
The behavior of a new type of nonlinear dynamic vibration absorber is studied. A distinctive characteristic of the proposed absorber is the impossibility to extend the system to infinity. The mathematical formulation is based on a finite extensibility nonlinear elastic potential to model the saturable nonlinearity. The absorber is attached to a single degree-of-freedom linear/nonlinear oscillator subjected to a periodic external excitation. In order to solve the equations of motion and to analyze the frequency-response curves, the method of averaging is used. The performance of the FENE absorber is evaluated considering a variation of the nonlinearity of the primary system, the damping and the linearized frequency of the absorber and the mass ratio. The numerical results show that the proposed absorber has a very good efficiency when the nonlinearity of the primary system increases. When compared with a cubic nonlinear absorber, for a large nonlinearity of the primary system, the FENE absorber shows a better effectiveness for the whole studied frequency range. A complete absence of quasi-periodic oscillations is also found for an appropriate selection of the parameters of the absorber. Finally, direct integrations of the equations of motion are performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed method.
Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong
2015-01-01
This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.
Distributed nonlinear optical response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov
2005-01-01
The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...
Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry
Nishino, H; Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash
2002-01-01
We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4 and 6 (mod 8).
Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Govind P. Agrawal
2003-01-01
Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..
Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Govind; P.; Agrawal
2003-01-01
Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..
PBH tests for nonlinear systems
Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki
2017-01-01
Recently, concepts of nonlinear eigenvalues and eigenvectors are introduced. In this paper, we establish connections between the nonlinear eigenvalues and nonlinear accessibility/observability. In particular, we provide a generalization of Popov- Belevitch-Hautus (PBH) test to nonlinear accessibilit
Switching behaviour of a nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arpita Srivastava; Punya Prasanna Paltani; S Medhekar
2010-04-01
In the present paper, a detailed investigation on the switching behaviour of a nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer (NMZI) has been carried out using beam propagation method (BPM). A thorough investigation on input vs. output characteristic has been carried out by varying different parameters like length of the arms, refractive index of the linear/nonlinear arm, wavelength of the input beams and nonlinear coefficient of the material of the nonlinear arm. The input vs. output characteristic has also been investigated by shifting the balance point of the NMZI. The present paper provides a physically intuitive understanding of the effect of change in different parameters of the NMZI on its switching behaviour.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋志浩; 张鹏; 秘金钟; 李志才
2012-01-01
Non-linear movement of Chinese CORS network based on the CGCS2000 (Chinese geocentric 3D coordinate system) frame is mainly affected by the combined factors composed of non-tectonic crustal deformation signals, Common Mode Error (CME) in coordinate frame and error factor in observation. We can promote the accuracy and reliability of CORS network based on the analysis and modeling of the non-linear movement information in the CORS position time series. In this paper, we firstly use the international Earth satellite data and geophysical models to calculate non-tectonic crustal deformation in coordinate time series of CORS network based on the CGCS2000 caused by mass loading effects. Based on the quantitative analyses, we corrected the quantity of mass loading effects in the position time series of CORS stations. Secondly, after removing these surface mass loading effects, a spatial filtering algorithm based on principal component analysis is employed to remove the common mode errors of CGCS2000 from the daily position time series. Finally, the noise characteristic after mass loading correction and filtering is estimated quantitatively with the criterion of maximum likelihood estimation, and the annual speed and the actual accuracy of national CORS network are evaluated with the weighted least squares method.%CGCS2000(中国地心坐标系统2000)下CORS(全球导航卫星系统连续运行参考站)站的非线性运动主要受到地壳非构造形变信息、框架点公共误差信息和观测误差信息的组合影响,分析我国CORS站坐标时间序列中包含的非线性运动信息是维护CGCS2000坐标框架精确性、可靠性的基础.本文研究方法首先采用国际卫星对地观测数据及相关地球物理模型,计算了由质量负荷效应造成的地壳非构造形变,并以此修正了这些非构造形变对国家CORS站坐标时间序列的影响.其次采用主成分空间滤波算法(PCA)提取质量负荷改正后的CGCS2000
Electrical nonlinear response of a photomixer for applications in ultrafast measurements
Constantin, Florin L.
2014-05-01
Electrical nonlinear response of a low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixer is exploited for THz-wave modulation, detection and waveform sampling. Current-voltage response at low bias field is modelled by electron drift velocity saturation. THz-wave rectification is discussed in a small-signal approximation and experimentally addressed in connection with the curvature of IV plot. The optical heterodyne signal from two lasers down-converted with the photomixer is modulated by applying an alternative bias field. Conversely, heterodyne detection of a continuous-wave THz source is demonstrated with the photomixer using the optical beat between the lasers as local oscillator. Alternatively, THz-waves with tunable carrier and pulse repetition rate are generated with a THz frequency multiplier driven by a pulsed microwave synthesizer. Asynchronous optical sampling with a pulsed optical beat is demonstrated with the heterodyne detection scheme.
Electrical Characteristics and Microstructures of Sm2O3-Doped Bi4Ti3O12 Ceramics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈敏; 王豫; 刘祖黎; 董亮; 羊新胜; 姚凯伦
2004-01-01
We investigate the electrical properties of Sm-doped Bi4-xSmx Ti3O12 (BST) ceramics prepared by a conventional electroceramic technique. The x-ray diffraction analysis reveals the Bi-layered perovskite structure in all samples.The SEM micrographs show randomly oriented and plate-like morphology. For the samples with x = 0.4 and 1.0,the current-voltage characteristics exhibit negative differential resistance behaviour and the P-V hysteresis loops are characterized by large leakage current, whereas for the samples with x = 0.6 and 0.8, the current-voltage characteristics show simple ohmic behaviour and the P-V hysteresis loops are of the saturated and undistorted hysteresis. The remanent polarization and coercive field of the BST ceramic with x = 0.8 are above 32μC/cm2and 70kV/cm, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mousa, Marwan S., E-mail: mmousa@mutah.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak (Jordan)
2011-05-15
We report on the characterization of a high brightness gaseous field ion source using an emitter made of a NiAl needle containing tiny spherical tungsten-carbon precipitates. By field evaporation of such a multiphase alloy, a surface protrusion is formed out of a precipitate, which can act as a small source size field ion emitter. The emission current-voltage characteristics of this emitter were recorded for a variety of parameters. The results obtained suggest that its application as a stable ion source is possible even on long term operation. -- Research highlights: {yields} High brightness gaseous field ion source of precipitation hardened NiAl+W+C emitter. {yields} Emission current-voltage characteristics are recorded for a variety of parameters. {yields} Very small virtual source sizes and energy spreads can be attained. {yields} Results suggest that application as long term stable ion source is possible.
Nonlinear dynamics and complexity
Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin
2014-01-01
This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.
Switching Characteristics and Analysis of Resonant Tunneling Diodes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Resonant tunneling diode (RTD) of AlAs/InGaAs/AlAs double barrier-single well structure was designed and fabricated. The devices showed current-voltage characteristics with peak-valley current ratio of 4: 1 at room temperature. The scattering parameter of RTD was measured by using an HP8510(C) network analyzer. Equivalent circuit parameters were obtained by curve fitting and optimized. The RTD switching time was estimated using the measured capacitance and average negative differential resistance. The minimum rise time of the sample was estimated to be 21 ps.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘湘陵
2015-01-01
开关磁阻电机调速系统具有直流和交流调速系统的优点，在航空航天、机械电子、家电等领域获得了广泛的应用。由于开关磁阻电机的磁路饱和、涡流、磁滞效应等产生的非线性，使其精确的数学模型非常复杂，且难以解析计算。本文采用理论推导和曲线拟合的方法，根据开关磁阻电机定子的相电感表达函数，计算得到其电磁特性和拟合曲线，并与实测的磁链数据对比研究，从而推导出开关磁阻电机运动电势和增量电感的解析表达式，为其在线控制系统的设计和研究提供了指导。%Switched reluctance motor(SRM)has the advantages of DC and AC speed regulation system,which is widely used in aviation, aerospace,machinery,electronics,and household electrical appliances etc.On account of magnetic circuit saturation, eddy current and hysteresis effect of nonlinear of the SRM,whose precise mathematical model is very complex, and hard to analyze.In the paper,the method of theoretical derivation and curve fitting were adopted to calculate the electromagnetic characteristics according to the SRM stator phase inductance expression function.Compared with the measured data of flux linkage,we deduced the analytical expression of the SRM movement potential and incremental inductance,which provides a design and research guide for its online control system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李同杰; 朱如鹏; 鲍和云; 项昌乐; 刘辉
2011-01-01
建立行星齿轮系扭转非线性振动模型,模型中考虑了行星齿轮系各齿轮副间的时变啮合刚度、齿侧间隙以及综合传递误差等非线性因素；推导出系统的量纲一振动微分方程,采用数值积分方法研究行星齿轮的运动特性随转速以及齿侧间隙等参数的分岔特性,结合Poincaré图形分析,研究转速、啮合阻尼以及齿侧间隙等参数对系统分岔特性的影响.结果发现,随着转速的逐渐增大,系统会通过激变途径进入到混沌运动,而随着齿侧间隙的逐渐增大,系统会通过倍周期分岔途径进入到混沌.阻尼过小将会导致行星齿轮系统的稳态运动由短周期运动向复杂运动转变.齿侧间隙是影响系统运动分岔特性的重要因素,但是影响范围主要限于量纲一齿侧间隙大于3.5的大间隙区段.%A nonlinear torsional vibration model of a planetary gear train with errors of transmission, time varying meshing stiffness and gear backlashes is established and dimensionless equations of the system are derived. The solution of the equations is carried out by using the method of numerical integration. By comparing with Poincare maps and bifurcation diagrams, the bifurcation properties of the system are studied. The influences of some bifurcation parameters such as rotational speed, damping coefficient and gear backlashes on the bifurcation properties of the system are assessed. The study results reveal that the system's motion state will change into chaos in the way of crisis as speed increase and period doubling bifurcation is the way to chaos as backlashes increase. A smaller damping coefficient will make the system's periodic motion state change into complex state. Gear backlashes have a strong impact on the system's bifurcation characteristic when dimensionless the backlashes is bigger than 3.5.
Effects of SILAR cycle on the electrical characteristics of Cd/CdSe/n-Si/Au-Sb structure
2011-01-01
Cd/CdSe/n-Si/Au-Sb structures have been fabricated by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method under various SILAR cycles. The characteristics parameters of these structures such as barrier height, ideality factor, series resistance are calculated from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements and the barrier height, carrier concentration are calculated from reverse bias capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at 300 kHz frequency and room temperature. Furthermore, t...
Effects of Unintended Dopants on I-V Characteristics of the Double-Gate MOSFETs,a Simulation Study
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李佩成; 梅光辉; 胡光喜; 王伶俐; 刘冉; 汤庭鳌
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study the effects of an unintended dopant in the channel on the current-voltage char-acteristics of a Double-Gate （DG） Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor （MOSFET）. Non-Equilibrium Green＇s Function （NEGF） approach is used. A quantum transport model to calculate the drain current is presented and subthreshold swing and drain induced barrier lowering （DIBL） effect are studied.
A new switching characteristics of highly doped multi-quantum well
Song, C K
1999-01-01
A new type of hysteretic current-voltage characteristics, which switched from a low conductance off-state into a high conductance on-state at a threshold voltage and the high conductance state was sustained even when the bias voltage reduced below the threshold voltage, was experimentally observed for the highly doped multi-quantum well structure. The characteristics were attributed to confinement of electrons and impact ionization of the confined electrons out of the quantum wells. The test devices employing 10 periods of quantum wells were fabricated by using AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor heterostructure and I-V characteristics were examined.
Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Antonella Fiacca; Nikolaos Matzakos; Nikolaos S Papageorgiou; Raffaella Servadei
2001-11-01
In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all $\\mathbb{R}$. Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower solution, we prove the existence of a solution between them. Also for a special version of the problem, we prove the existence of extremal solutions in the order interval formed by the upper and lower solutions. Then we drop the requirement that the monotone nonlinearity is defined on all of $\\mathbb{R}$. This case is important because it covers variational inequalities. Using the theory of operators of monotone type we show that the problem has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth locally Lipschitz functionals we prove the existence of at least two nontrivial solutions (multiplicity theorem).
Nonlinear acoustic techniques for landmine detection.
Korman, Murray S; Sabatier, James M
2004-12-01
Measurements of the top surface vibration of a buried (inert) VS 2.2 anti-tank plastic landmine reveal significant resonances in the frequency range between 80 and 650 Hz. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity (due to sufficient acoustic-to-seismic coupling) have been used in detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds nonlinearly to pressure fluctuations, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for a method of buried landmine detection not previously exploited. Tuning curve experiments (revealing "softening" and a back-bone curve linear in particle velocity amplitude versus frequency) help characterize the nonlinear resonant behavior of the soil-landmine oscillator. The results appear to exhibit the characteristics of nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior, which is explored. When two primary waves f1 and f2 drive the soil over the mine near resonance, a rich spectrum of nonlinearly generated tones is measured with a geophone on the surface over the buried landmine in agreement with Donskoy [SPIE Proc. 3392, 221-217 (1998); 3710, 239-246 (1999)]. In profiling, particular nonlinear tonals can improve the contrast ratio compared to using either primary tone in the spectrum.
Nonlinear Forced Vibration Analysis for Thin Rectangular Plate on Nonlinear Elastic Foundation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong Zhengqiang
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear forced vibration is analyzed for thin rectangular plate with four free edges on nonlinear elastic foundation. Based on Hamilton variation principle, equations of nonlinear vibration motion for thin rectangular plate under harmonic loads on nonlinear elastic foundation are established. In the case of four free edges, viable expressions of trial functions for this specification are proposed, satisfying all boundary conditions. Then, equations are transformed to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations by using Galerkin method and are solved by using harmonic balance method. In the analysis of numerical computations, the effect on the amplitude-frequency characteristic curve due to change of the structural parameters of plate, parameters of foundation and parameters of excitation force are discussed.
A nonlinear RDF model for waves propagating in shallow water
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王厚杰; 杨作升; 李瑞杰; 张军
2001-01-01
In this paper, a composite explicit nonlinear dispersion relation is presented with reference to Stokes 2nd order dispersion relation and the empirical relation of Hedges. The explicit dispersion relation has such advantages that it can smoothly match the Stokes relation in deep and intermediate water and Hedgs’s relation in shallow water. As an explicit formula, it separates the nonlinear term from the linear dispersion relation. Therefore it is convenient to obtain the numerical solution of nonlinear dispersion relation. The present formula is combined with the modified mild-slope equation including nonlinear effect to make a Refraction-Diffraction (RDF) model for wave propagating in shallow water. This nonlinear model is verified over a complicated topography with two submerged elliptical shoals resting on a slope beach. The computation results compared with those obtained from linear model show that at present the nonlinear RDF model can predict the nonlinear characteristics and the combined refracti
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郜浩冬; 张以都; 吴琼; 高相胜
2013-01-01
考虑齿侧间隙、传动误差和时变啮合刚度等非线性因素,并同时考虑滑动轴承非线性油膜力和齿轮啮合力的耦合影响,建立了汇流传动齿轮-转子-轴承系统的动力学模型.从转速方面出发,研究了齿轮系统的非线性动态响应,分析了齿轮啮合力和非线性油膜力之间的耦合作用,判断了转速变化下的油膜稳定性.结果表明:随着转速变化,系统表现出周期一运动、周期二运动、拟周期运动,混沌等丰富的动力学特性,并发现了拟周期分岔通向混沌的道路；随着转速升高,非线性啮合力和菲线性油膜力先后对系统振动起到主要作用；油膜振动通过半频涡动失去了稳定性.%Considering nonlinear facters of backlash, transmission error,and time-varying mesh stiffness in a gear system, nonlinear mesh force of gear pairs and nonlinear oil film force of a journal bearing were considered synchronously, the dynamic model of a confluence transmission geared rotor bearing system was proposed. Starting from the variation of rotating speed, the nonlinear dynamic response of the gear system was studied, the coupling between the nonlinear gear mesh force and the nonlinear oil film force was discussed, the oil film's stability with the change of rotating speed was judged. The results indicated that with increase in rotating speed, the system reveals period one motion, period two motion,quasi- periodic motion and chaos motion, the way from quasi- periodic bifurcation to chaos was found; with increase in rotating speed, the nonlinear gear mesh force and the nonlinear oil film force affect the system vibration significantly; the oil film vibration loses stability through half frequency whirling motion.
Chaotic Dynamics and Application of LCR Oscillators Sharing Common Nonlinearity
Jeevarekha, A.; Paul Asir, M.; Philominathan, P.
2016-06-01
This paper addresses the problem of sharing common nonlinearity among nonautonomous and autonomous oscillators. By choosing a suitable common nonlinear element with the driving point characteristics capable of bringing out chaotic motion in a combined system, we obtain identical chaotic states. The dynamics of the coupled system is explored through numerical and experimental studies. Employing the concept of common nonlinearity, a simple chaotic communication system is modeled and its performance is verified through Multisim simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Khim Ng
2009-02-01
Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.
Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.
We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Hankel operator are studied and yield promising results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. L. Fouché
1983-03-01
Full Text Available In this article we discuss some aspects of nonlinear functional analysis. It included reviews of Banach’s contraction theorem, Schauder’s fixed point theorem, globalising techniques and applications of homotopy theory to nonlinear functional analysis. The author emphasises that fundamentally new ideas are required in order to achieve a better understanding of phenomena which contain both nonlinear and definite infinite dimensional features.
Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED
2003-01-01
The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...
Kono, Mitsuo
2010-01-01
A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.
Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.
Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-12-08
We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America
Organic nonlinear optical materials
Umegaki, S.
1987-01-01
Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.
Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer
Wu, Chien-ming
2007-12-01
Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.
Nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging of magnetic nanoparticles
Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.
2015-03-01
This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R2=0.99, CNR=84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R2>0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI.
Electric characterization of a nonlinear dispersive transmission line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, E.S.; Ricotta, R.M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: ferreira@fatecsp.br, regina@fatecsp.br
2009-07-01
A preliminary study of electrical soliton propagation in a nonlinear dispersion electrical line is presented. This is probably the simplest system that allows the observation of such waves whose main characteristic is the perfect balance of nonlinear and dispersive aspects. (author)
Combined forecasts from linear and nonlinear time series models
N. Terui (Nobuhiko); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)
1999-01-01
textabstractCombined forecasts from a linear and a nonlinear model are investigated for time series with possibly nonlinear characteristics. The forecasts are combined by a constant coefficient regression method as well as a time varying method. The time varying method allows for a locally (non)line
Nonlinear Control Structure of Grid Connected Modular Multilevel Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hajizadeh, Amin; Norum, Lars; Ahadpour Shal, Alireza
2017-01-01
in the prediction step in order to preserve the stochastic characteristics of a nonlinear system. In order to design adaptive robust control strategy and nonlinear observer, mathematical model of MMC using rotating d-q theory has been used. Digital time-domain simulation studies are carried out in the Matlab/Simulink...
Nonlinear Control Structure of Grid Connected Modular Multilevel Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hajizadeh, Amin; Norum, Lars; Ahadpour Shal, Alireza
2017-01-01
in the prediction step in order to preserve the stochastic characteristics of a nonlinear system. In order to design adaptive robust control strategy and nonlinear observer, mathematical model of MMC using rotating d-q theory has been used. Digital time-domain simulation studies are carried out in the Matlab...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭苏; 刘德有; 张耀明; 许昌; 王沛
2014-01-01
直接蒸汽发电(direct steam generation，DSG)槽式太阳能热发电系统的集热器长度一般很长，且具有明显的分布参数特征。因此，建立DSG槽式太阳能集热器的非线性分布参数模型，以DSG集热器入口工质温度、质量流量和出口压力为边界条件，采用迎风格式的有限差分法对模型进行离散求解。仿真研究了DSG集热器主要参数在太阳辐射强度、给水温度和给水流量变化等扰动工况下的响应特性，结果与文献实验结果基本一致，验证了模型的正确性。结果表明：太阳辐射强度降低时，出口工质温度下降得很快；给水流量或给水温度小幅下降时，出口工质温度和流量都会滞后响应且变化显著；DSG 集热器出口工质流量在某些情况下会发生脉动，实际应用中应避免脉动状态的发生或降低其影响。%Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough solar power system has long solar collector and obvious distributed parameter characteristics. Therefore, a nonlinear distributed parameter model for parabolic trough DSG solar collectors was built in this paper. As a boundary condition, fluid temperature and mass flow had to be provided at the inlet as well as the pressure at the outlet, and the finite differential approach with an upwind scheme was adopted to discrete and solve the model. Compared with experimental results from the literature, the correctness of the model was validated by simulation results during the main conditions such as solar radiation intensity, inlet fluid temperature and inlet mass flow change. Simulation results show that fluid temperature at the outlet decreases quickly when solar radiation intensity is declined; Furthermore, the responses of fluid temperature and mass flow at the outlet delay largely and stabilize slowly when mass flow or temperature at the inlet declined slightly; Most significantly, a pulsation phenomenon of outlet mass flow may happen
Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research
Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki
2011-01-01
Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…
Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning
2011-01-01
The objective of this paper is to present a numerical approach for analyzing parameter excited vibrations on a gas compressor, induced by the nonlinear characteristic of the arc spring feature of certain designs of squeeze film dampers, SFDs. The behavior of the journal is studied in preparation ...
Gallium Nitride Electrical Characteristics Extraction and Uniformity Sorting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shyr-Long Jeng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study examined the output electrical characteristics—current-voltage (I-V output, threshold voltage, and parasitic capacitance—of novel gallium nitride (GaN power transistors. Experimental measurements revealed that both enhanced- and depletion-mode GaN field-effect transistors (FETs containing different components of identical specifications yielded varied turn-off impedance; hence, the FET quality was inconsistent. Establishing standardized electrical measurements can provide necessary information for designers, and measuring transistor electrical characteristics establishes its equivalent-circuit model for circuit simulations. Moreover, high power output requires multiple parallel power transistors, and sorting the difference between similar electrical characteristics is critical in a power system. An isolated gate driver detection method is proposed for sorting the uniformity from the option of the turn-off characteristic. In addition, an equivalent-circuit model for GaN FETs is established on the basis of the measured electrical characteristics and verified experimentally.
Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.
Wise, Frank
2013-03-01
Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.
Eaton, D F
1991-07-19
The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.
Billings, S. A.
1988-03-01
Time and frequency domain identification methods for nonlinear systems are reviewed. Parametric methods, prediction error methods, structure detection, model validation, and experiment design are discussed. Identification of a liquid level system, a heat exchanger, and a turbocharge automotive diesel engine are illustrated. Rational models are introduced. Spectral analysis for nonlinear systems is treated. Recursive estimation is mentioned.
Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Korytowski, A; Malanowski, K; Mitkowski, W; Szymkat, M
2009-01-01
We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.
1999-01-01
We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...
Controllability in nonlinear systems
Hirschorn, R. M.
1975-01-01
An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.
Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.
1992-01-01
Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.
Global satisfactory control for nonlinear integrator processes with long delay
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yiqun YANG; Guobo XIANG
2007-01-01
Integrator processes with long delay are difficult to control. Nonlinear characteristics of actuators make the control problem more challenging. A technique is proposed in this paper for global satisfactory control (GSC) of such processes with relay-type nonlinearity. An oscillatory control signal is injected into the nonlinear process; the amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory signal are designed to linearise the nonlinear process in the sense of harmonic analysis; and a state feedback controller is configured to implement GSC over the linearised process. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Alternative Forms of Enhanced Boussinesq Equations with Improved Nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kezhao Fang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose alternative forms of the Boussinesq equations which extend the equations of Madsen and Schäffer by introducing extra nonlinear terms during enhancement. Theoretical analysis shows that nonlinear characteristics are considerably improved. A numerical implementation of one-dimensional equations is described. Three tests involving strongly nonlinear evolution, namely, regular waves propagating over an elevated bar feature in a tank with an otherwise constant depth, wave group transformation over constant water depth, and nonlinear shoaling of unsteady waves over a sloping beach, are simulated by the model. The model is found to be effective.
Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Rotor-bearing-seal System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Mei; MENG Guang; JING Jian-ping
2008-01-01
The system state trajectory, Poincaré maps, largest Lyapunov exponents, frequency spectra and bifurcation diagrams were used to investigate the non-linear dynamic behaviors of a rotor-bearing-seal coupled system and to analyze the influence of the seal and bearing on the nonlinear characteristics of the rotor system. Various nonlinear phenomena in the rotor-bearing-seal system, such as periodic motion, double-periodicmotion, multi-periodic motion and quasi-periodic motion were investigated. The results may contribute to a further understanding of the non-linear dynamics of the rotor-bearing-seal coupled system.
Practical design of a nonlinear tuned vibration absorber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grappasonni, C.; Habib, G.; Detroux, T.
2014-01-01
The aim of the paper is to develop a new nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) capable of mitigating the vibrations of nonlinear systems which are known to exhibit frequency-energy-dependent oscillations. A nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method is proposed to ensure equal...... peaks in the nonlinear frequency response for a large range of forcing amplitudes. An analytical tuning procedure is developed and provides the load-deflection characteristic of the NLTVA. Based on this prescribed relation, the NLTVA design is performed by two different approaches, namely thanks to (i...
Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics Model and Design of Complex Systems
In, Visarath; Palacios, Antonio
2009-01-01
This edited book is aimed at interdisciplinary, device-oriented, applications of nonlinear science theory and methods in complex systems. In particular, applications directed to nonlinear phenomena with space and time characteristics. Examples include: complex networks of magnetic sensor systems, coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, nano-detectors, microscale devices, stochastic resonance in multi-dimensional chaotic systems, biosensors, and stochastic signal quantization. "applications of nonlinear dynamics: model and design of complex systems" brings together the work of scientists and engineers that are applying ideas and methods from nonlinear dynamics to design and fabricate complex systems.
Nonlinear optics and photonics
He, Guang S
2015-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...
Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo
2015-01-01
Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.
Effect of growth temperature on photoluminescence and piezoelectric characteristics of ZnO nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Water, Walter [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Fang, T.-H. [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fang.tehua@msa.hinet.net; Ji, L.-W.; Lee, C.-C. [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)
2009-02-25
ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized on Au-coated silicon (1 0 0) substrates by using vapour-liquid-solid process in this work. The effect of growth temperatures on the crystal structure and the surface morphology of ZnO nanowires were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The absorption and optical characteristics of the nanowires were examined by Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, respectively. The photoluminescence results exhibited ZnO nanowires had an ultraviolet and blue emission at 383 and 492 nm. Then a nanogenerator with ZnO nanowire arrays was fabricated and demonstrated Schottky-like current-voltage characteristics.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Choon-W Nahm
2008-12-01
The electrical properties and stability of the varistors, which composed of (NiO, MgO, Cr2O3)- doped Zn–Pr–Co–R (Y, Er) oxide-based ceramics, were investigated for different additives. The breakdown voltage of the varistors increased in order of NiO$\\rightarrow$undoped$\\rightarrow$MgO$\\rightarrow$Cr2O3: 1200$\\rightarrow$1551$\\rightarrow$1691$\\rightarrow$1959 V/cm for ZPCY system and undoped$\\rightarrow$NiO$\\rightarrow$MgO$\\rightarrow$Cr2O3: 1024$\\rightarrow$1041$\\rightarrow$1500$\\rightarrow$1668 V/cm for ZPCE system, respectively. The nonlinear coefficient value increased in order of undoped$\\rightarrow$NiO$\\rightarrow$MgO$\\rightarrow$Cr2O3: 21$\\rightarrow$25$\\rightarrow$38$\\rightarrow$50 in ZPCY system and NiO$\\rightarrow$undoped$\\rightarrow$MgO$\\rightarrow$Cr2O3: 27$\\rightarrow$32$\\rightarrow$35$\\rightarrow$38 in ZPCE system, respectively. In ZPCY and ZPCE systems, the Cr2O3-additives most greatly improved the nonlinear properties. In Cr2O3-doped system, ZPCY system exhibited higher nonlinear properties than that of ZPCE system. The stability against d.c. accelerated aging stress was higher in Cr2O3-additives than in NiO- and MgO-additives for ZPCY system and was higher in NiO-additives than in MgO- and Cr2O3-additives for ZPCE system.
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of the Whole Vehicle on Bumpy Road
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王威; 李瑰贤; 宋玉玲
2010-01-01
Through the research into the characteristics of 7-DoF high dimensional nonlinear dynamics of a vehicle on bumpy road, the periodic movement and chaotic behavior of the vehicle were found.The methods of nonlinear frequency response analysis, global bifurcation, frequency chart and Poincaré maps were used simultaneously to derive strange super chaotic attractor.According to Lyapunov exponents calculated by Gram-Schmidt method, the unstable region was compartmentalized and the super chaotic characteristic of ...
Nonlinear Behaviour of Coflexip Risers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kamal Zare; T. K. Datta
2001-01-01
A modified Newton-Raphson iterative technique is formulated for obtaining the static configuration of the Lazy "S" flexible marine riser between the floater and mid-arch buoy under its submerged self weight and the applied top tension. The geometrically non-linear problem is solved by finite difference with the above technique. The problem is formulated as a regular boundary value problem with specified moments and deflections at both ends. Usually the bending stiffness of the flexible riser made of Coflexip pipe is very low. By use of the above analysis, several flexible riser configurations are analyzed and their characteristic behaviors are investigated. Also, changes in the riser characteristics due to quasi-static motion of the floater end are estimated for the safety of the riser layout.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马松山; 朱佳; 徐慧; 郭锐
2010-01-01
在紧束缚近似下,利用传输矩阵方法,计算研究了碱基对组分、金属电极位能及DNA分子与电极耦合强度对DNA分子I-V特征的影响.计算结果表明:由单一碱基对构成的DNA分子的饱和电流强度远大于由两种碱基对按一定组分随机分布的DNA分子的饱和电流强度,且当DNA分子中两种碱基对的含量相等时,其饱和电流强度最小.同时,富含C-G碱基对的DNA分子比富含A-T碱基对的DNA分子的电子输运能力大.金属电极位能对DNA分子电子输运的影响体现在两方面,当偏压较小时,电极位能具有阻碍电荷注入的效果,当偏压较大时,电极位能有增强电荷注入的效果.当耦合强度与DNA分子碱基对间交互作用相等时,发生共振电子注入,体系饱和电流强度最大.当耦合强度大于DNA分子碱基对间交互作用时,随着耦合强度的增大,电荷注入能力减小,其饱和电流强度亦相应减小.
Nonlinear identification of MDOF systems using Volterra series approximation
Prawin, J.; Rao, A. Rama Mohan
2017-02-01
Most of the practical engineering structures exhibit nonlinearity due to nonlinear dynamic characteristics of structural joints, nonlinear boundary conditions and nonlinear material properties. Meanwhile, the presence of non-linearity in the system can lead to a wide range of structural behavior, for example, jumps, limit cycles, internal resonances, modal coupling, super and sub-harmonic resonances, etc. In this paper, we present a Volterra series approximation approach based on the adaptive filter concept for nonlinear identification of multi-degree of freedom systems, without sacrificing the benefits associated with the traditional Volterra series approach. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using two classical single degrees of freedom systems (breathing crack problem and Duffing Holmes oscillator) and later we extend to multi-degree of freedom systems.
Nonlinear dynamical model of an automotive dual mass flywheel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Chen
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The hysteresis, stick–slip, and rotational speed-dependent characteristics in a basic dual mass flywheel are obtained from a static and a dynamic experiments. Based on the experimental results, a nonlinear model of the transferred torque in this dual mass flywheel is developed, with the overlying form of nonlinear elastic torque and frictional torque. The nonlinearities of stiffness are investigated, deriving a nonlinear model to describe the rotational speed-dependent stiffness. In addition, Bouc–Wen model is used to model the hysteretic frictional torque. Thus, the nonlinear 2-degree-of-freedom system of this dual mass flywheel is set up. Then, the Levenberg–Marquardt method is adopted for the parameter estimation of the frictional torque. Finally, taking the nonlinear stiffness in this model into account, the parameters of Bouc–Wen model are estimated based on the dynamic test data.
Zweig, George
2016-05-01
An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis.
Nonlinear analysis of nano-cluster doped fiber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Gang; ZHANG Ru
2007-01-01
There are prominent nonlinear characteristics that we hope for the semiconductor nano-clusters doped fiber. Refractive index of fiber core can be effectively changed by adulteration. This technology can provide a new method for developing photons components. Because the semiconductor nano-cluster has quantum characteristics,Based on first-order perturbation theory and classical theory of fiber,we deduced refractive index expressions of fiber core,which was semiconductor nano-cluster doped fiber. Finally,third-order nonlinear coefficient equation was gained. Using this equation,we calculated SMF-28 fiber nonlinear coefficient. The equation shows that new third-order coefficient was greater.
Webb, Alexander J; Szablewski, Marek; Bloor, David; Atkinson, Del; Graham, Adam; Laughlin, Paul; Lussey, David
2013-04-26
Printable electronics is an innovative area of technology with great commercial potential. Here, a screen-printed functional ink, comprising a combination of semiconducting acicular particles, electrically insulating nanoparticles and a base polymer ink, is described that exhibits pronounced pressure sensitive electrical properties for applications in sensing and touch sensitive surfaces. The combination of these components in the as-printed ink yield a complex structure and a large and reproducible touch pressure sensitive resistance range. In contrast to the case for some composite systems, the resistance changes occur down to applied pressures of 13 Pa. Current-voltage measurements at fixed pressures show monotonic non-linear behaviour, which becomes more Ohmic at higher pressures and in all cases shows some hysteresis. The physical basis for conduction, particularly in the low pressure regime, can be described in terms of field assisted quantum mechanical tunnelling.
Nonlinearity of colloid systems oxyhydrate systems
Sucharev, Yuri I
2008-01-01
The present monograph is the first systematic study of the non-linear characteristic of gel oxy-hydrate systems involving d- and f- elements. These are the oxyhydrates of rare-earth elements and oxides - hydroxides of d- elements (zirconium, niobium, titanium, etc.) The non-linearity of these gel systems introduces fundamental peculiarities into their structure and, consequently, their properties. The polymer-conformational diversity of energetically congenial gel fragments, which continu-ously transform under the effect of, for instance, system dissipation heat, is central to the au-thor's hy
SUBOPTIMAL NONLINEAR CONTROL OF PACKAGING MACHINERY DRIVE
Kudin, V. F.; Toropov, A.V.
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the procedure of synthesis of a nonlinear position controller for the «feeder» of packaging mechanism. The mathematical model of «feeder» drive with regard to the restriction on the control output of external PLC. Linearization of nonlinear characteristic by the «secants» method is implemented and selected functional quality that defines the minimal time of transients is selected. Quality functional in the form of a quadratic functional with a variable weighting factor i...
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch
2011-05-27
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Dimensional reduction of nonlinear time delay systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Fofana
2005-01-01
infinite-dimensional problem without the assumption of small time delay. This dimensional reduction is illustrated in this paper with the delay versions of the Duffing and van der Pol equations. For both nonlinear delay equations, transcendental characteristic equations of linearized stability are examined through Hopf bifurcation. The infinite-dimensional nonlinear solutions of the delay equations are decomposed into stable and centre subspaces, whose respective dimensions are determined by the linearized stability of the transcendental equations. Linear semigroups, infinitesimal generators, and their adjoint forms with bilinear pairings are the additional candidates for the infinite-dimensional reduction.
Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulanov, Sergei V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2013-08-15
Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.
Singular asymptotic expansions in nonlinear rotordynamics
Day, W. B.
1985-01-01
During hot firing ground testing of the Space shuttle's Main Engine, vibrations of the liquid oxygen pump occur at frequencies which cannot be explained by the linear Jeffcott model of the rotor. The model becomes nonlinear after accounting for deadband, side forces, and rubbing. Two phenomena present in the numerical solutions of the differential equations are unexpected periodic orbits of the rotor and tracking of the nonlinear frequency. A multiple scale asymptotic expansion of the differential equations is used to give an analytic explanation of these characteristics.
Agrawal, Govind P
2001-01-01
The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical
Will Nonlinear Backcalculation Help?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ullidtz, Per
2000-01-01
demonstrates, that treating the subgrade as a nonlinear elastic material, can result in more realistic moduli and a much better agreement between measured and calculated stresses and strains.The response of nonlinear elastic materials can be calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM). A much simpler...... approach is to use the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (MET), modified for a nonlinear subgrade. The paper includes an example where moduli backcalculated using FEM, linear elastic theory and MET are compared. Stresses and strains predicted by the three methods are also compared to measured values...
Nonlinear graphene metamaterial
Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Luo, Zhiqiang; Shen, Ze Xiang; De Angelis, Francesco; Boden, Stuart A; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I
2012-01-01
We demonstrate that the broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene can be resonantly enhanced by more than an order of magnitude through hybridization with a plasmonic metamaterial,while retaining an ultrafast nonlinear response time of ~1 ps. Transmission modulation close to ~1% is seen at a pump uence of ~0.03 mJ/cm^2 at the wavelength of ~1600 nm. This approach allows to engineer and enhance graphene's nonlinearity within a broad wavelength range enabling applications in optical switching, mode-locking and pulse shaping.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘浩然; 侯东晓; 时培明; 刘飞
2011-01-01
考虑轧件弹塑性变形的滞后非线性作用,建立一种轧机辊系滞后非线性垂直振动动力学模型.运用奇点稳定性理论分析该滞后非线性系统的稳定性,得到了系统出现各种不同奇点的条件.同时采用渐进法求解系统在主共振情况下的解析近似解,得到了系统的主共振幅频特性方程.最后以实际轧机参数为例,分析轧件的非线性刚度、阻尼等参数对轧机主共振幅频响应的影响,并研究轧机在不同外部扰动下的分岔行为,发现在不同的外部扰动下,轧机表现出周期、倍周期以及混沌等多种动力学行为,这为研究和抑制轧机振动问题提供了理论参考.%A kind of hysteretic nonlinear vertical vibration dynamic model is established which considers hysteresis of strip's plastic deformation. The stability of the hysteretic nonlinear system is analyzed by using stability theory of singularity, and the conditions for the emergence of various singular points are obtained. Then the analytical approximate solution of the system under periodic excitation is accounted, and the primary resonance amplitude-frequency equation of the system is obtained. Finally, according to the actual parameters of rolling mill, the influence of nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damp of rolled piece on the primary resonance amplitude-frequency response of rolling mill is analyzed, and the bifurcation behaviors of rolling mill under different external disturbances are studied. It is found that the rolling mill exhibits many dynamic behaviors such as periodic, period-doubling motion and chaos. The results provide theoretical reference for researching and suppressing rolling mill vibration.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
栗蕾; 郝际平; 李广慧; 黄义
2011-01-01
Based on the theory of Lematire's equivalent strain of damage and in consideration of the damage of bars in a shallow reticulated spherical shell, nonlinear dynamical equations of the deteriorated shallow reticulated spherical shell were put forward by using the quasi-shell method. The method of perturbation-variation was presented, in which the maximal amplitude at the center of the shell was taken as the perturbation parameter. Then the nonlinear vibration equation of the system under fixed and clamped boundary conditions was solved by perturbation-variation method and the corresponding eigen-relation was obtained. Further, Galerkin method was utilized to derive a differential vibration equation, including the 2nd and 3rd order nonlinear terms and an accurate free vibration solution of the deteriorated shell was achieved. Then, the theoretical critical condition of chaos motion was given by using Melnikov function method and the chaos motions of the shell under nonlinear forced vibration were simulated numerically. It is found that the damage bars make the system occur more easily chaos motion.%基于Lematire等效应变损伤理论,计及扁球面网壳各个杆件的损伤影响,应用拟壳法导出了具有损伤的扁球面网壳的动力学非线性控制方程.提出了以中心最大振幅为摄动参数的摄动-变分法的求解方法,对动力非线性控制方程进行了求解,得出了相应的物理量的解析式.据此进行数值分析,得出了相应的特征关系.并用Galerkin方法导出了一个含二次和三次非线性振动微分方程并求解了具有损伤扁球面网壳的的非线性动力学的自由振动方程,给出了准确解.而后利用Melnikov函数法,从理论上给出了考虑损伤的系统发生混沌运动的临界条件,并通过计算机数字仿真证实了考虑损伤的扁球面网壳在非线性强迫振动时存在混沌运动,同时发现损伤使得系统更易发生混沌运动.
Multipolar nonlinear nanophotonics
Smirnova, Daria
2016-01-01
Nonlinear nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field with many useful applications for a design of nonlinear nanoantennas, light sources, nanolasers, sensors, and ultrafast miniature metadevices. A tight confinement of the local electromagnetic fields in resonant photonic nanostructures can boost nonlinear optical effects, thus offering versatile opportunities for subwavelength control of light. To achieve the desired functionalities, it is essential to gain flexible control over the near- and far-field properties of nanostructures. Thus, both modal and multipolar analyses are widely exploited for engineering nonlinear scattering from resonant nanoscale elements, in particular for enhancing the near-field interaction, tailoring the far-field multipolar interference, and optimization of the radiation directionality. Here, we review the recent advances in this recently emerged research field ranging from metallic structures exhibiting localized plasmonic resonances to hybrid metal-dielectric and all-dielectric...
Solitons in nonlinear lattices
Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis
2010-01-01
This article offers a comprehensive survey of results obtained for solitons and complex nonlinear wave patterns supported by purely nonlinear lattices (NLs), which represent a spatially periodic modulation of the local strength and sign of the nonlinearity, and their combinations with linear lattices. A majority of the results obtained, thus far, in this field and reviewed in this article are theoretical. Nevertheless, relevant experimental settings are surveyed too, with emphasis on perspectives for implementation of the theoretical predictions in the experiment. Physical systems discussed in the review belong to the realms of nonlinear optics (including artificial optical media, such as photonic crystals, and plasmonics) and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). The solitons are considered in one, two, and three dimensions (1D, 2D, and 3D). Basic properties of the solitons presented in the review are their existence, stability, and mobility. Although the field is still far from completion, general conclusions c...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shakeeb Bin Hasan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Contrary to traditional optical elements, plasmonic antennas made from nanostructured metals permit the localization of electromagnetic fields on length scales much smaller than the wavelength of light. This results in huge amplitudes for the electromagnetic field close to the antenna being conducive for the observation of nonlinear effects already at moderate pump powers. Thus, these antennas exhibit a promising potential to achieve optical frequency conversion and all-optical control of light at the nano-scale. This opens unprecedented opportunities for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, sensing devices, on-chip optical frequency conversion, nonlinear optical metamaterials, and novel photon sources. Here, we review some of the recent advances in exploiting the potential of plasmonic antennas to realize robust nonlinear applications.
Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck
2013-01-01
The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nguyen-Duy, Khiem
and remains the prime source of energy in non-terrestrial applications such as those in sky-explorers. However, a renewable energy source is expensive, bulky, and its performance is weather dependent, which make testing of downstream converters very difficult. As a result, a nonlinear source emulator (NSE......) is a good solution to solve the problems associated with the use of real nonlinear sources in testing phases. However, a recent technical survey conducted during this work shows that most existing NSEs have only been concerned with simulating nonlinear systems in terrestrial applications. Furthermore......, their dynamic performance were not fast enough in order to imitate how a real nonlinear energy source would react under extreme conditions and operation modes. Particularly, a system in the sky can experience a step change of sunlight irradiation. Moreover, operation modes may include load step between nominal...
Introduction to nonlinear science
Nicolis, G
1995-01-01
One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...
Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines
Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P
2011-01-01
Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...
Optimization under Nonlinear Constraints
1982-01-01
In this paper a timesaving method is proposed for maximizing likelihood functions when the parameter space is subject to nonlinear constraints, expressible as second order polynomials. The suggested approach is especially attractive when dealing with systems with many parameters.
Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.
2013-01-01
Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro-and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems development....... These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024304....... In this article, we report the first highly controlled measurements of the nonlinear response of nanomechanical cantilevers using an ultralinear detection system. This is performed for an extensive range of devices to probe the validity of Euler-Bernoulli theory in the nonlinear regime. We find that its...
Nonlinear Stokes Mueller Polarimetry
Samim, Masood; Barzda, Virginijus
2015-01-01
The Stokes Mueller polarimetry is generalized to include nonlinear optical processes such as second- and third-harmonic generation, sum- and difference-frequency generations. The overall algebraic form of the polarimetry is preserved, where the incoming and outgoing radiations are represented by column vectors and the intervening medium is represented by a matrix. Expressions for the generalized nonlinear Stokes vector and the Mueller matrix are provided in terms of coherency and correlation matrices, expanded by higher-dimensional analogues of Pauli matrices. In all cases, the outgoing radiation is represented by the conventional $4\\times 1$ Stokes vector, while dimensions of the incoming radiation Stokes vector and Mueller matrix depend on the order of the process being examined. In addition, relation between nonlinear susceptibilities and the measured Mueller matrices are explicitly provided. Finally, the approach of combining linear and nonlinear optical elements is discussed within the context of polarim...
Kyung-Tae Nam; Seung-Joon Lee; Tae-Yong Kuc; Hyungjong Kim
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a) an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b) the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz co...
Adaptive and Nonlinear Control
1992-02-29
in [22], we also applied the concept of zero dynamics to the problem of exact linearization of a nonlinear control system by dynamic feedback. Exact ...nonlinear systems, although it was well-known that the conditions for exact linearization are very stringent and consequently do not apply to a broad...29th IEEE Conference n Decision and Control, Invited Paper delivered by Dr. Gilliam. Exact Linearization of Zero Dynamics, 29th IEEE Conference on
Nonlinear Optics and Turbulence
1992-10-01
currently at Queen Mary College, London Patrick Dunne, (Ph.D., 1987, M.I.T., Hydrodynamic Stability, Nonlinear Waves), 1987-1988. Alecsander Dyachenko...U I I I U I I 3 9 3 V. BIOGRAPHIES A. FACULTY BRUCE BAYLY, 31, Ph.D. 1986, Princeton University. Postdoctoral visiting member 1986-88 at Courant...Caputo, A. C. Newell, and M. Shelley , "Nonlinear Wave Propagation Through a Random Medium and Soliton Tunneling", Integrable Systems and
Experimental Evidence of Directivity-Enhancing Mechanisms in Nonlinear Lattices
Ganesh, R
2016-01-01
In this letter, we experimentally investigate the directional characteristics of propagating, finite-amplitude wave packets in lattice materials, with an emphasis on the functionality enhancement due to the nonlinearly-generated higher harmonics. To this end, we subject a thin, periodically perforated sheet to out-of-plane harmonic excitations, and we design a systematic measurement and data processing routine that leverages the full-wavefield reconstruction capabilities of a laser vibrometer to precisely delineate the effects of nonlinearity. We demonstrate experimentally that the interplay of dispersion, nonlinearity, and modal complexity which is involved in the generation and propagation of higher harmonics gives rise to secondary wave packets with characteristics that conform to the dispersion relation of the corresponding linear structure. Furthermore, these nonlinearly generated wave features display modal and directional characteristics that are complementary to those exhibited by the fundamental harm...
Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq
2015-03-01
Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.
Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Sheng
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.
Nonlinear systems in medicine.
Higgins, John P
2002-01-01
Many achievements in medicine have come from applying linear theory to problems. Most current methods of data analysis use linear models, which are based on proportionality between two variables and/or relationships described by linear differential equations. However, nonlinear behavior commonly occurs within human systems due to their complex dynamic nature; this cannot be described adequately by linear models. Nonlinear thinking has grown among physiologists and physicians over the past century, and non-linear system theories are beginning to be applied to assist in interpreting, explaining, and predicting biological phenomena. Chaos theory describes elements manifesting behavior that is extremely sensitive to initial conditions, does not repeat itself and yet is deterministic. Complexity theory goes one step beyond chaos and is attempting to explain complex behavior that emerges within dynamic nonlinear systems. Nonlinear modeling still has not been able to explain all of the complexity present in human systems, and further models still need to be refined and developed. However, nonlinear modeling is helping to explain some system behaviors that linear systems cannot and thus will augment our understanding of the nature of complex dynamic systems within the human body in health and in disease states.
Handbook of nonlinear optical crystals
Dmitriev, Valentin G; Nikogosyan, David N
1991-01-01
This Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals provides a complete description of the properties and applications of nonlinear crystals In addition, it presents the most important equations for calculating the main parameters of nonlinear frequency converters This comprehensive reference work will be of great value to all scientists and engineers working in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser physics
Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications
Jazar, Reza
2012-01-01
Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...
ACCELERATION METHODS OF NONLINEAR ITERATION FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guang-wei Yuan; Xu-deng Hang
2006-01-01
This paper discusses the accelerating iterative methods for solving the implicit scheme of nonlinear parabolic equations. Two new nonlinear iterative methods named by the implicit-explicit quasi-Newton (IEQN) method and the derivative free implicit-explicit quasi-Newton (DFIEQN) method are introduced, in which the resulting linear equations from the linearization can preserve the parabolic characteristics of the original partial differential equations. It is proved that the iterative sequence of the iteration method can converge to the solution of the implicit scheme quadratically. Moreover, compared with the Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method, the DFIEQN method has some advantages, e.g., its implementation is easy, and it gives a linear algebraic system with an explicit coefficient matrix, so that the linear (inner) iteration is not restricted to the Krylov method. Computational results by the IEQN, DFIEQN, JFNK and Picard iteration meth-ods are presented in confirmation of the theory and comparison of the performance of these methods.
Photoelectric characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction
Yamei, Wu; Ruixia, Yang; Hanmin, Tian; Shuai, Chen
2016-05-01
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film is prepared on p-type silicon substrate using the one-step solution method to form a CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction. The film morphology and structure are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photoelectric properties of the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction are studied by testing the current-voltage (I-V) with and without illumination and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. It turns out from the I-V curve without illumination that the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction has a rectifier feature with the rectification ratio over 70 at the bias of ±5 V. Also, there appears a photoelectric conversion phenomenon on this heterojunction with a short circuit current (Isc) of 0.16 μA and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of about 10 mV The high frequency C-V characteristic of the Ag/CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction turns out to be similar to that of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, and a parallel translation of the C-V curve along the forward voltage axis is found. This parallel translation means the existence of defects at the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si interface and positive fixed charges in the CH3NH3PbI3 layer. The defects at the interface of the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction result in the dramatic decline of the Voc. Besides, the C-V test of CH3NH3PbI3 film shows a non-linear dielectric property and the dielectric value is about 4.64 as calculated. Project supported by the Hebei Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. F2014202184) and the Tianjin Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 15JCZDJC37800).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
岳东旭; 于虹; 袁卫民
2011-01-01
理论分析了亚微米尺寸的悬臂梁结构的非线性力学模型,研究了非线性产生的物理机制.采用外部静电激励机制,使悬臂梁谐振器产生谐振,借助Polytec激光多普勒测振系统检测了悬臂梁的频率响应曲线.测试结果表明,悬臂梁具有显著的非线性效应(即"弹簧变软"效应).实验证实了这种非线性效应几乎和交流电压无关,却随着直流电压的增大而显著增大,最大峰值偏移达到0.5 MHz.提取出3组-阶机械弹性系数分别为79.62,31.75和14.92 N/m,实验结果符合理论规律.对实验中的偏差做了进-步的分析和讨论,利用软件ANSYS对过腐蚀对结构刚度和频率响应的影响做了相应的模拟,结果和实验测量数据相吻合.%A nonlinear mechanical model for sub-micron cantilevers was analyzed in detail and its physical mechanism was researched to provide a theoretical basis for experiments. The electrostatical force was used to achieve the resonance state cantilever beams and a Polytec laser Doppler vibration measurement system was taken to observe the frequency response curve. Experimental results show that the beams have significant nonlinear effects (the spring softening effect) and the nonlinearity is relatively independent on the AC voltage, but it is markedly enhanced with increasing the DC voltage.The obtained maximum peak shift is 0. 5 MHz and extracted first-order mechanical elasticity coefficients are 79.62, 31.75, and 14.92 N/m, respectively. Furthermore,the deviation of the experiment was also disccussed and analyzed. The effects of overetching by wet chemical etching on the stiffness and frequency response were stimulated by ANSYS software. In conclusion, the corresponding simulation results are well coincident with the experimental data.
Identification of Nonlinearities in Joints of a Wing Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sani M.S.M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear structural identification is essential in engineering. As new materials are being used andstructures become slender and lighter, nonlinear behaviour of structures becomes more important. There have been many studies into the development and application of system identification methods for structural nonlinearity based on changes in natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. A great challenge is to identify nonlinearity in large structural systems. Much work has been undertaken in the development of nonlinear system identification methods (e.g. Hilbert Transform, NARMAX, and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, however, it is arguable that most of these methods are cumbersome when applied to realistic large structures that contain mostly linear modes with some local nonlinearity (e.g. aircraft engine pylon attachment to a wing. In this paper, a multi-shaker force appropriation method is developed to determine the underlying linear and nonlinear structural properties through the use of the measurement and generation of restoring force surfaces. One undamped mode is excited in each multi-shaker test. Essentially, this technique is a derivative of the restoring surface method and involves a non-linear curve fitting performed in modal space. A reduced finite element model is established and its effectiveness in revealing the nonlinear characteristics of the system is discussed. The method is demonstrated through both numerical simulations and experiments on a simple jointed laboratory structure with seeded faults, which represents an engine pylon structure that consists of a rectangular wing with two stores suspended underneath.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, C.G.
1990-01-01
The advent of nonlinear pulsation theory really coincides with the development of the large computers after the second world war. Christy and Stobbie were the first to make use of finite difference techniques on computers to model the bumps'' observed in the classical Cepheid light and velocity curves, the so-called Hertzsprung'' sequence. Following this work a more sophisticated analysis of the light and velocity curves from the models was made by Simon and Davis using Fourier techniques. Recently a simpler amplitude equation formalism has been developed that helps explain this resonance mechanism. The determination of Population I Cepheid masses by nonlinear methods will be discussed. For the lower mass objects, such as RR Lyrae and BL Her. stars, we find general agreement using evolutionary masses and nonlinear pulsation theory. An apparent difficulty of nonlinear pulsation theory occurs in the understanding of double'' mode pulsation, which will also be discussed. Recent studies in nonlinear pulsation theory have dealt with the question of mode selection, period doubling and the trends towards chaotic behavior such as is observed in the transition from W Virginis to RV Tauri-like stars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Nonextensivity, Complexity and Nonlinearity in Space Plasmas
Pavlos, G. P.
2017-01-01
Experimental time series, extracted from many and different space plasma systems corresponding to, solar wind, magnetospheric and other space plasma systems reveal common dynamical, geometrical, or statistical characteristics. Such characteristics are the low dimensionality, the typical intermittent turbulence multifractality, the temporal or spatial multiscale correlations and power laws scale invariance, non Gaoussianity and others. This universal aspect of experimental time series profiles was understood in the past as the chaos or SOC universality. However, after two or three decades of theoretical development in understanding of the nonlinearity and complexity, we can give a more compact theoretical description of the underline universal physical processes that produce the experimental time series complexity. Finally, in this study, we present and explain the modern complex set of theoretical concepts from the point of view of physics as the unification theory of nonlinear theory of non-equilibrium plasma systems as well as the presupposed theoretical framework of time series analysis of space plasma charachteristics.
Nonlinear elastic waves in materials
Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J
2014-01-01
The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...
Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy
Björnham, Oscar
2016-01-01
Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...
Nonlinear optomechanical paddle nanocavities
Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Barclay, Paul E
2014-01-01
A photonic crystal optomechanical system combining strong nonlinear optomechanical coupling, low effective mass and large optical mode spacing is introduced. This nanoscale "paddle nanocavity" device supports mechanical resonances with effective mass of 300--600 fg which couple nonlinearly to co-localized optical modes with a quadratic optomechanical coupling coefficient $g^{(2)} > 2\\pi\\times400$ MHz/nm$^2$, and a two phonon to single photon optomechanical coupling rate $\\Delta \\omega_0 > 2\\pi\\times 16$ Hz. This coupling relies on strong phonon-photon interactions in a structure whose optical mode spectrum is highly non--degenerate. Simulations indicate that nonlinear optomechanical readout of thermally driven motion in these devices should be observable for T $> 50 $ mK, and that measurement of phonon shot noise is achievable.
Nonlinear dynamics of structures
Oller, Sergio
2014-01-01
This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics. This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects. Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.
Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kim Per
2004-01-01
, leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...
Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois
2016-01-01
In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...
Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene
Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.
Nonlinear Analysis of Buckling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Psotný Martin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The stability analysis of slender web loaded in compression was presented. To solve this problem, a specialized computer program based on FEM was created. The nonlinear finite element method equations were derived from the variational principle of minimum of potential energy. To obtain the nonlinear equilibrium paths, the Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm was used. Corresponding levels of the total potential energy were defined. The peculiarities of the effects of the initial imperfections were investigated. Special attention was focused on the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode. The stable and unstable paths of the nonlinear solution were separated. Obtained results were compared with those gained using ANSYS system.
Nonlinear Metamaterials for Holography
Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam
2015-01-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multi-layer metamaterial holograms where by the nonlinear process of Third Harmonic Generation, a background free image is formed at a new frequency which is the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analyzed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.
Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis
Nishisato, Shizuhiko
2006-01-01
Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Recently, molecular electronics has become increasingly important. By applying the hybrid density functional theory coupled with the Green's function method, the current-voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions composed of gold-porphyrin-gold and gold-copper porphyrin-gold were investigated. The role of the metal coordination effect in organic molecular electron transport was highlighted. Although the thresholds of the bias voltage for both molecules were almost the same, approximately 0.9 V, the metal compound showed a larger increase in current because of the metal-coordination-enhanced molecule-electrode coupling in the frontier molecular orbitals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, S., E-mail: shussain@uos.edu.pk, E-mail: shussainuos@yahoo.com; Qazi, H. I. A.; Badar, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, 40100 Sargodha (Pakistan)
2014-03-15
An experimental investigation to characterize the properties and highlight the benefits of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency dielectric-barrier discharge (rf DBD) with dielectric electrodes fabricated by anodizing aluminium substrate is presented. The current-voltage characteristics and millisecond images are used to distinguish the α and γ modes. This atmospheric rf DBD is observed to retain the discharge volume without constriction in γ mode. Optical emission spectroscopy demonstrates that the large discharge current leads to more abundant reactive species in this plasma source.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Cheng; CHEN Bomy; LIU Bo; CHEN Yi-Feng; LIANG Shuang; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; WAN Xu-Dong; YANG Zuo-Ya; XIE Joseph
2008-01-01
A Ge2Sb2Te5 based phase change memory device cell integrated with metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is fabricated using standard 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process technology.It shows steady switching characteristics in the dc current-voltage measurement.The phase changing phenomenon from crystalline state to amorphous state with a voltage pulse altitude of 2.0 V and pulse width of 50 ns is also obtained.These results show the feasibility of integrating phase change memory cell with MOSFET.
pH-Sensing Characteristics of Hydrothermal Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures
Jyh-Liang Wang; Po-Yu Yang; Tsang-Yen Hsieh; Chuan-Chou Hwang; Miin-Horng Juang
2013-01-01
Highly sensitive and stable pH-sensing properties of an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) based on the aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures have been demonstrated. The AZO nanostructures with different Al concentrations were synthesized on AZO/glass substrate via a simple hydrothermal growth method at 85°C. The AZO sensing nanostructures were connected with the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Afterwards, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and ...
Charge storage characteristics and tunneling mechanism of amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films
Qiu, X. Y.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Li, L. T.; Zhang, Y.; Dai, J. Y.
2016-09-01
Amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films have been deposited on p-Si(100) substrates by means of RF magnetron sputtering. Microstructural investigations reveal the partial oxidation of doped Ge atoms in the amorphous HfOx matrix and the existence of HfSiOx interfacial layer. Capacitance-voltage hysteresis of the Ag-/Ge-doped HfOx/Si/Ag memory capacitor exhibits a memory window of 3.15 V which can maintain for >5 × 104 cycles. Current-voltage characteristics reveal that Poole-Frenkel tunneling is responsible for electron transport in the Ge-doped HfOx film.
Nonlinear airship aeroelasticity
Bessert, N.; Frederich, O.
2005-12-01
The aeroelastic derivatives for today's aircraft are calculated in the concept phase using a standard procedure. This scheme has to be extended for large airships, due to various nonlinearities in structural and aerodynamic behaviour. In general, the structural model of an airship is physically as well as geometrically nonlinear. The main sources of nonlinearity are large deformations and the nonlinear material behaviour of membranes. The aerodynamic solution is also included in the nonlinear problem, because the deformed airship influences the surrounding flow. Due to these nonlinearities, the aeroelastic problem for airships can only be solved by an iterative procedure. As one possibility, the coupled aerodynamic and structural dynamic problem was handled using linked standard solvers. On the structural side, the Finite-Element program package ABAQUS was extended with an interface to the aerodynamic solver VSAERO. VSAERO is based on the aerodynamic panel method using potential flow theory. The equilibrium of the internal structural and the external aerodynamic forces leads to the structural response and a trimmed flight state for the specified flight conditions (e.g. speed, altitude). The application of small perturbations around a trimmed state produces reaction forces and moments. These constraint forces are then transferred into translational and rotational acceleration fields by performing an inertia relief analysis of the disturbed structural model. The change between the trimmed flight state and the disturbed one yields the respective aeroelastic derivatives. By including the calculated derivatives in the linearised equation of motion system, it is possible to judge the stability and controllability of the investigated airship.
Nonlinear plasmonic amplification via dissipative soliton-plasmon resonances
Ferrando, Albert
2017-01-01
In this contribution we introduce a strategy for the compensation of plasmonic losses based on a recently proposed nonlinear mechanism: the resonant interaction between surface plasmon polaritons and spatial solitons propagating in parallel along a metal/dielectric/Kerr structure. This mechanism naturally leads to the generation of a quasiparticle excitation, the so-called soliplasmon resonance. We analyze the role played by the effective nonlinear coupling inherent to this system and how this can be used to provide a mechanism of quasiresonant nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. We will pay particular attention to the introduction of asymmetric linear gain in the Kerr medium. The unique combination of nonlinear propagation, nonlinear coupling, and gain give rise to a scenario for the excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons with distinguishing characteristics. The connection between plasmonic losses and soliplasmon resonances in the presence of gain will be discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钟加峰
2012-01-01
利用有限元分析软件建立了混合梁独塔斜拉桥的空间模型，分析了混合梁独塔斜拉桥在有、无辅助墩情况下的非线性静动力特性的异同，讨论了在有、无辅助墩情况下对混合梁独塔斜拉桥非线性静动力特性的影响，得出了有指导意义的结论。%The paper establishes spatial model of single stayed-cable bridge with composite beam by using finite element analysis software, ana- lyzes similarities and differences of non-linear static and dynamic characteristics of single stayed-cable bridge with composite beam under the con- dition of with and without auxiliary pier, and discusses the impacts of within and without auxiliary pier upon non-linear dynamic and static char- acteristics of single stayed-cable bridge with composite beam, and finally draws some guiding conclusions.
Agrawal, Govind
2012-01-01
Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosegaard, Klaus
2012-01-01
For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...
Fundamentals of nonlinear optics
Powers, Peter E
2011-01-01
Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop