Nonlinear surface elastic modes in crystals
Gorentsveig, V. I.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Kosevich, A. M.; Syrkin, E. S.
1990-03-01
The influence of nonlinearity on shear horizontal surface elastic waves in crystals is described on the basis of the effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the corresponding solutions form a set of surface modes and the simplest mode coincides with the solution proposed by Mozhaev. The higher order modes have internal frequencies caused by the nonlinearity. All these modes decay in the crystal as uoexp(- z/ zo) atz≫ zo- u o-1 ( z is the distance from the crystal surface, uo the wave amplitude at the surface). The creation of the modes from a localized surface excitation has a threshold. The stability of the modes is discussed.
Phononic Crystal Waveguide Transducers for Nonlinear Elastic Wave Sensing.
Ciampa, Francesco; Mankar, Akash; Marini, Andrea
2017-11-07
Second harmonic generation is one of the most sensitive and reliable nonlinear elastic signatures for micro-damage assessment. However, its detection requires powerful amplification systems generating fictitious harmonics that are difficult to discern from pure nonlinear elastic effects. Current state-of-the-art nonlinear ultrasonic methods still involve impractical solutions such as cumbersome signal calibration processes and substantial modifications of the test component in order to create material-based tunable harmonic filters. Here we propose and demonstrate a valid and sensible alternative strategy involving the development of an ultrasonic phononic crystal waveguide transducer that exhibits both single and multiple frequency stop-bands filtering out fictitious second harmonic frequencies. Remarkably, such a sensing device can be easily fabricated and integrated on the surface of the test structure without altering its mechanical and geometrical properties. The design of the phononic crystal structure is supported by a perturbative theoretical model predicting the frequency band-gaps of periodic plates with sinusoidal corrugation. We find our theoretical findings in excellent agreement with experimental testing revealing that the proposed phononic crystal waveguide transducer successfully attenuates second harmonics caused by the ultrasonic equipment, thus demonstrating its wide range of potential applications for acousto/ultrasonic material damage inspection.
Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.
2001-05-01
This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.
Nonlinear elastic waves in materials
Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J
2014-01-01
The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...
Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors
2017-02-01
AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF
Modeling Nonlinear Elastic-plastic Behavior of RDX Single Crystals During Indentation
2012-01-01
single crystals has also been probed using shock experiments (6, 12) and molecular dynamics simulations (12–14). RDX undergoes a polymorphic phase...Patterson, J.; Dreger, Z.; Gupta, Y. Shock-wave Induced Phase Transition in RDX Single Crystals. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 10897–10904. 17. Bedrov, D...and Volume Compression of β - HMX and RDX . In Proc. Int. Symp. High Dynamic Pressures; Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique: Paris, 1978; pp 3–8. 24
Nonlinear theory of elastic shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa Junior, J.A.
1979-08-01
Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt
Elastic anisotropy of crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher M. Kube
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.
Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F
2011-01-01
We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.
Elastic properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn single crystals with bcc crystal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.W.; Li, S.J.; Obbard, E.G.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.C.; Hao, Y.L.; Yang, R.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The single crystals of Ti2448 alloy with the bcc crystal structure were prepared. → The elastic moduli and constants were measured by several resonant methods. → The crystal shows significant elastic asymmetry in tension and compression. → The crystal exhibits weak nonlinear elasticity with large elastic strain ∼2.5%. → The crystal has weak atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low symmetry. - Abstract: Single crystals of Ti2448 alloy (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) were grown successfully using an optical floating-zone furnace. Several kinds of resonant methods gave consistent Young's moduli of 27.1, 56.3 and 88.1 GPa and shear moduli of 34.8, 11.0 and 14.6 GPa for the , and oriented single crystals, and C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of 57.2, 36.1 and 35.9 GPa respectively. Uniaxial testing revealed asymmetrical elastic behaviors of the crystals: tension caused elastic softening with a large reversible strain of ∼4% and a stress plateau of ∼250 MPa, whereas compression resulted in gradual elastic stiffening with much smaller reversible strain. The crystals exhibited weak nonlinear elasticity with a large elastic strain of ∼2.5% and a high strength, approaching ∼20% and ∼30% of its ideal shear and ideal tensile strength respectively. The crystals showed linear elasticity with a small elastic strain of ∼1%. These elastic deformation characteristics have been interpreted in terms of weakened atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low crystal symmetry under external applied stresses. These results are consistent with the properties of polycrystalline Ti2448, including high strength, low elastic modulus, large recoverable strain and weak strengthening effect due to grain refinement.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Non-linear elastic deformations
Ogden, R W
1997-01-01
Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.
Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kim Per
2004-01-01
Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....
Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.
1984-01-01
Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction betwe...... nonlinearity. The balance between dispersion and nonlinearity in the equation is investigated.......Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...... the solitary waves numerically. It is demonstrated that the waves behave almost like solitons in agreement with the fact that the improved Boussinesq equations are nearly integrable. Thus three conservation theorems can be derived from the equations. A new subsonic quasibreather is found in the case of a cubic...
Dynamic nonlinear elasticity in geo materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ostrovsky, L.A.; Johnson, P.A.
2001-01-01
The nonlinear elastic behaviour of earth materials is an extremely rich topic, one that has broad implications to earth and materials sciences, including strong ground motion, rock physics, nondestructive evaluation and materials science. The mechanical properties of rock appear to place it in a broader class of materials, it can be named the Structural nonlinear elasticity class (also Mesoscopic/nano scale elasticity, or MS/NSE class). These terms are in contrast to materials that display classical, Atomic Elasticity, such as most fluids and monocrystalline solids. The difference between these two categories of materials is both in intensity and origin of their nonlinear response. The nonlinearity of atomic elastic materials is due to the atomic/molecular lattice anharmonicity. The latter is relatively small because the intermolecular forces are extremely strong. In contrast, the materials considered below contain small soft features that it is called the bond system (cracks, grain contacts, dislocations, etc.) within a hard matrix and relaxation (slow dynamical effects) are characteristic, non of which appear in atomic elastic materials. The research begins with a brief historical background from nonlinear acoustics to the recent developments in rock nonlinearity. This is followed by an overview of some representative laboratory measurements which serve as primary indicators of nonlinear behaviour, followed by theoretical development, and finally, mention a variety of observations of nonlinearity under field conditions and applications to nondestructive testing of materials. The goal is not to survey all papers published in the are but to demonstrate some experimental and theoretical results and ideas that will the reader to become oriented in this broad and rapidly growing area bridging macro-, meso- and microscale (nano scale) phenomena in physics, materials science, and geophysics
Sapphire: A kinking nonlinear elastic solid
Basu, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; Kalidindi, S. R.
2006-03-01
Kinking nonlinear elastic (KNE) solids are a recently identified large class of solids that deform fully reversibly by the formation of dislocation-based kink bands [Barsoum et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255508 (2004)]. We further conjectured that a high c/a ratio-that ensures that only basal slip is operative-is a sufficient condition for a solid to be KNE. The c/a ratio of sapphire is 2.73 and thus, if our conjecture is correct, it should be a KNE solid. Herein by repeatedly loading-up to 30 times-the same location of sapphire single crystals of two orientations-A and C-with a 1 μm radius spherical nanoindenter, followed by atomic force microscopy, we showed that sapphire is indeed a KNE solid. After pop-ins of the order of 100 nm, the repeated loadings give rise to fully reversible, reproducible hysteresis loops wherein the energy dissipated per unit volume per cycle Wd is of the order of 0.5 GJ/m3. Wd is due to the back and fro motion of the dislocations making up the incipient kink bands that are fully reversible. The results presented here strongly suggest that-like in graphite and mica-kink bands play a more critical role in the room temperature constrained deformation of sapphire than had hitherto been appreciated. Our interpretation is also in agreement with, and can explain most, recent nanoindentation results on sapphire.
Nonlinear elasticity in resonance experiments
Li, Xun; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Snieder, Roel
2018-04-01
Resonant bar experiments have revealed that dynamic deformation induces nonlinearity in rocks. These experiments produce resonance curves that represent the response amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. We propose a model to reproduce the resonance curves with observed features that include (a) the log-time recovery of the resonant frequency after the deformation ends (slow dynamics), (b) the asymmetry in the direction of the driving frequency, (c) the difference between resonance curves with the driving frequency that is swept upward and downward, and (d) the presence of a "cliff" segment to the left of the resonant peak under the condition of strong nonlinearity. The model is based on a feedback cycle where the effect of softening (nonlinearity) feeds back to the deformation. This model provides a unified interpretation of both the nonlinearity and slow dynamics in resonance experiments. We further show that the asymmetry of the resonance curve is caused by the softening, which is documented by the decrease of the resonant frequency during the deformation; the cliff segment of the resonance curve is linked to a bifurcation that involves a steep change of the response amplitude when the driving frequency is changed. With weak nonlinearity, the difference between the upward- and downward-sweeping curves depends on slow dynamics; a sufficiently slow frequency sweep eliminates this up-down difference. With strong nonlinearity, the up-down difference results from both the slow dynamics and bifurcation; however, the presence of the bifurcation maintains the respective part of the up-down difference, regardless of the sweep rate.
Nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals
Chong, C.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Daraio, C.
2017-10-01
The study of granular crystals, which are nonlinear metamaterials that consist of closely packed arrays of particles that interact elastically, is a vibrant area of research that combines ideas from disciplines such as materials science, nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. Granular crystals exploit geometrical nonlinearities in their constitutive microstructure to produce properties (such as tunability and energy localization) that are not conventional to engineering materials and linear devices. In this topical review, we focus on recent experimental, computational, and theoretical results on nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals. Such structures—which include traveling solitary waves, dispersive shock waves, and discrete breathers—have fascinating dynamics, including a diversity of both transient features and robust, long-lived patterns that emerge from broad classes of initial data. In our review, we primarily discuss phenomena in one-dimensional crystals, as most research to date has focused on such scenarios, but we also present some extensions to two-dimensional settings. Throughout the review, we highlight open problems and discuss a variety of potential engineering applications that arise from the rich dynamic response of granular crystals.
Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.
1987-01-01
In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results ar...... are compared with predictions of conservation theorems for energy and momentum....
Beams on nonlinear elastic foundation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette
2014-01-01
In order to determination vertical deflections and rail bending moments the Winkler model (1867) is often used. This linear model neglects several conditions. For example, by using experimental results, it has been observed that there is a substantial increase in the maximum rail deflection and rail bending moment when considering the nonlinearity of the track support system. A deeper mathematical analysis of the models is necessary in order to obtain better methods for more accurate numerical solutions in the determination of deflections and rail bending moments. This paper is intended to be a small step in this direction
Spatial solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole
2000-01-01
We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero.......We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero....
Non-linear elastic thermal stress analysis with phase changes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amada, S.; Yang, W.H.
1978-01-01
The non-linear elastic, thermal stress analysis with temperature induced phase changes in the materials is presented. An infinite plate (or body) with a circular hole (or tunnel) is subjected to a thermal loading on its inner surface. The peak temperature around the hole reaches beyond the melting point of the material. The non-linear diffusion equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The material properties change rapidly at temperatures where the change of crystal structures and solid-liquid transition occur. The elastic stresses induced by the transient non-homogeneous temperature distribution are calculated. The stresses change remarkably when the phase changes occur and there are residual stresses remaining in the plate after one cycle of thermal loading. (Auth.)
Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials
Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii
2018-03-01
A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topchyan, I.I.; Dokhner, R.D.
1977-01-01
The effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects in uniform fields of elastic stresses on the relaxation of the elastic coefficients of a crystal was investigated in the nonlinear elasticity theory approximation. In calculating the interaction of point defects with elastic-stress fields was taken into consideration. The expression for the relaxations of the elasticity coefficients are obtained in an analytical form. The relaxation of the second-order elasticity coefficients is due to the dimentional interaction of a point defect with an applied-stress field, whereas the relaxation of the higher-order elasticity coefficients is determined both by dimentional and module effects
Special discontinuities in nonlinearly elastic media
Chugainova, A. P.
2017-06-01
Solutions of a nonlinear hyperbolic system of equations describing weakly nonlinear quasitransverse waves in a weakly anisotropic elastic medium are studied. The influence of small-scale processes of dissipation and dispersion is investigated. The small-scale processes determine the structure of discontinuities (shocks) and a set of discontinuities with a stationary structure. Among the discontinuities with a stationary structure, there are special ones that, in addition to relations following from conservation laws, satisfy additional relations required for the existence of their structure. In the phase plane, the structure of such discontinuities is represented by an integral curve joining two saddles. Special discontinuities lead to nonunique self-similar solutions of the Riemann problem. Asymptotics of non-self-similar problems for equations with dissipation and dispersion are found numerically. These asymptotics correspond to self-similar solutions of the problems.
Nonlinear transverse vibrations of elastic beams under tension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Y.H.; Konno, Kimiaki; Wadati, Miki.
1980-02-01
Nonlinear transverse vibrations of elastic beams under end-thrust have been examined with full account of the rigorous nonlinear relation of curvature and deformation of elastic beams. When the beams are subject to tension, the derived equation is shown to be reduced to one of the new integrable evolution equations discovered by us. (author)
Manipulating acoustic wave reflection by a nonlinear elastic metasurface
Guo, Xinxin; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Bertoldi, Katia; Tournat, Vincent
2018-03-01
The acoustic wave reflection properties of a nonlinear elastic metasurface, derived from resonant nonlinear elastic elements, are theoretically and numerically studied. The metasurface is composed of a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with quadratic elastic nonlinearity. The possibility of converting, during the reflection process, most of the fundamental incoming wave energy into the second harmonic wave is shown, both theoretically and numerically, by means of a proper design of the nonlinear metasurface. The theoretical results from the harmonic balance method for a monochromatic source are compared with time domain simulations for a wave packet source. This protocol allows analyzing the dynamics of the nonlinear reflection process in the metasurface as well as exploring the limits of the operating frequency bandwidth. The reported methodology can be applied to a wide variety of nonlinear metasurfaces, thus possibly extending the family of exotic nonlinear reflection processes.
Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions
Peng, Pai
2014-05-01
We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.
Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids
Yavari, A.
2013-10-16
We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.
Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1994-01-01
Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in the gravitational field are written in the form convenient for numerical calculations. The energy-stress tensor is expressed through scalar and tensor products of three vectors frozen in the continuum. Examples of expansion of the energy-stress tensor into scalar and tensor invariants corresponding to some crystal classes are given. 47 refs
Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions
Peng, Pai; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou; Wu, Ying
2014-01-01
waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic
Nonlinear optical crystals a complete survey
Nikogosyan, David N
2005-01-01
Nonlinear optical crystals are widely used in modern optical science and technology for frequency conversion of laser light, i.e. to generate laser radiation at any specific wavelength in visible, UV or IR spectral regions. This unrivalled reference book contains the most complete and up-to-date information on properties of nonlinear optical crystals. It includes: * Database of 63 common and novel nonlinear optical crystals * Periodically-poled and self-frequency-doubling materials * Full description of linear and nonlinear optical properties * Significant amount of crystallophysical, thermophysical, spectroscopic, electro-optic and magneto-optic information * 7 mini-reviews on novel applications, such as deep-UV light generation, terahertz-wave generation, ultrashort laser pulse compression, photonic band-gap crystals, x3 nonlinearity, etc. * More than 1500 different references with full titles It is a vital source of information for scientists and engineers dealing with modern applications of nonlinear opti...
On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity
Knowles, James K.
2010-01-01
Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...
Functional possibilities of nonlinear crystals for frequency conversion: uniaxial crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, Yu M [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Arapov, Yu D; Kasyanov, I V [E.I. Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Centre, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region (Russian Federation); Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-01-31
The method and results of the analysis of phase-matching and nonlinear properties for all point groups of symmetry of uniaxial crystals that determine their functional possibilities for solving various problems of nonlinear frequency conversion of laser radiation are presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks
Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.
2018-01-01
Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.
Solitons in quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole
2001-01-01
We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with modulation of both the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We derive averaged equations that include induced cubic nonlinearities, which can be defocusing, and we numerically find previously unknown soliton families....... Because of these induced cubic terms, solitons still exist even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity vanishes and conventional theory predicts that there can be no soliton. We demonstrate that both bright and dark forms of these solitons can propagate stably....
Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design
Ratner, LW
2003-01-01
In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it
Filtering of elastic waves by opal-based hypersonic crystal.
Salasyuk, Alexey S; Scherbakov, Alexey V; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Akimov, Andrey V; Kaplyanskii, Alexander A; Kaplan, Saveliy F; Grudinkin, Sergey A; Nashchekin, Alexey V; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Golubev, Valery G; Berstermann, Thorsten; Brüggemann, Christian; Bombeck, Michael; Bayer, Manfred
2010-04-14
We report experiments in which high quality silica opal films are used as three-dimensional hypersonic crystals in the 10 GHz range. Controlled sintering of these structures leads to well-defined elastic bonding between the submicrometer-sized silica spheres, due to which a band structure for elastic waves is formed. The sonic crystal properties are studied by injection of a broadband elastic wave packet with a femtosecond laser. Depending on the elastic bonding strength, the band structure separates long-living surface acoustic waves with frequencies in the complete band gap from bulk waves with band frequencies that propagate into the crystal leading to a fast decay.
Non-linear theory of elasticity
Lurie, AI
2012-01-01
This book examines in detail the Theory of Elasticity which is a branch of the mechanics of a deformable solid. Special emphasis is placed on the investigation of the process of deformation within the framework of the generally accepted model of a medium which, in this case, is an elastic body. A comprehensive list of Appendices is included providing a wealth of references for more in depth coverage. The work will provide both a stimulus for future research in this field as well as useful reference material for many years to come.
Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.
NONLINEAR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN RABBIT EARS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JING CHEN
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Elastic cartilage in the rabbit external ear is an important animal model with attractive potential value for researching the physiological and pathological states of cartilages especially during wound healing. In this work, nonlinear optical microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation were employed for imaging and quantifying the intact elastic cartilage. The morphology and distribution of main components in elastic cartilage including cartilage cells, collagen and elastic fibers were clearly observed from the high-resolution two-dimensional nonlinear optical images. The areas of cell nuclei, a parameter related to the pathological changes of normal or abnormal elastic cartilage, can be easily quantified. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of chondrocytes and matrix were displayed by constructing three-dimensional image of cartilage tissue. At last, the emission spectra from cartilage were obtained and analyzed. We found that the different ratio of collagen over elastic fibers can be used to locate the observed position in the elastic cartilage. The redox ratio based on the ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH over flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD fluorescence can also be calculated to analyze the metabolic state of chondrocytes in different regions. Our results demonstrated that this technique has the potential to provide more accurate and comprehensive information for the physiological states of elastic cartilage.
Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids
Yavari, A.; Goriely, A.
2013-01-01
We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can
Wave propagation in elastic medium with heterogeneous quadratic nonlinearity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Guangxin; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu Jianmin
2011-01-01
This paper studies the one-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic medium with spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. Two problems are solved analytically. One is for a time-harmonic wave propagating in a half-space where the displacement is prescribed on the surface of the half-space. It is found that spatial non-uniformity of the material nonlinearity causes backscattering of the second order harmonic, which when combined with the forward propagating waves generates a standing wave in steady-state wave motion. The second problem solved is the reflection from and transmission through a layer of finite thickness embedded in an otherwise linearly elastic medium of infinite extent, where it is assumed that the layer has a spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. The results show that the transmission coefficient for the second order harmonic is proportional to the spatial average of the nonlinearity across the thickness of the layer, independent of the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. On the other hand, the coefficient of reflection is proportional to a weighted average of the nonlinearity across the layer thickness. The weight function in this weighted average is related to the propagating phase, thus making the coefficient of reflection dependent on the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. Finally, the paper concludes with some discussions on how to use the reflected and transmitted second harmonic waves to evaluate the variance and autocorrelation length of nonlinear parameter β when the nonlinearity distribution in the layer is a stochastic process.
Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trushin Sergey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.
Dynamic nonlinear interaction of elastic plates on discrete supports
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutinho, A.L.G.A.; Landau, L.; Lima, E.C.P. de; Ebecken, N.F.F.
1984-01-01
A study on the dynamic nonlinear interaction of elastic plates using the finite element method is presented. The elastic plate is discretized by 4-node isoparametric Mindlin elements. The constitutive relation of the discrete supports can be any nonlinear curve given by pairs of force-displacement points. The nonlinear behaviour is represented by the overlay approach. This model also allows the simulation of a progressive decrease on the supports stiffnesses during load cycles. The dynamic nonlinear incremental movement equations are integrated by the Newmark implicit operator. Two alternatives for the incremental-iterative formulation are compared. The paper ends with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the presented numerical models. (Author) [pt
Power laws and elastic nonlinearity in materials with complex microstructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scalerandi, M., E-mail: marco.scalerandi@infm.polito.it
2016-01-28
Nonlinear ultrasonic methods have been widely used to characterize the microstructure of damaged solids and consolidated granular media. Besides distinguishing between materials exhibiting classical nonlinear behaviors from those exhibiting hysteresis, it could be of importance the discrimination between ultrasonic indications from different physical sources (scatterers). Elastic hysteresis could indeed be due to dislocations, grain boundaries, stick-slip at interfaces, etc. Analyzing data obtained on various concrete samples, we show that the power law behavior of the nonlinear indicator vs. the energy of excitation could be used to classify different microscopic features. In particular, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 3, depending on the nature of nonlinearity. We also provide a theoretical interpretation of the collected data using models for clapping and hysteretic nonlinearities. - Highlights: • Several materials exhibit a nontrivial nonlinear elastic behavior which can be ascribed to different physical sources. • The quantitative nonlinear response is dependent on the type of microstructure present in the material. • A nonlinear indicator could be defined which depends on the excitation energy of the sample. • Assuming a power law dependence, the exponent depends on the microstructure of the material and could evolve in time. • Experimental results on concrete are discussed and a theoretical description is proposed.
Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaochong Yang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.
On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we determine the dynamic buckling load of a strictly nonlinear but weakly damped elastic oscillatory model structure subjected to small perturbations The loading history is explicitly time dependent and varies slowly with time over a natural period of oscillation of the structure. A multiple timing regular ...
Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach
Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.
Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach
Guo, Qiang
2017-08-16
Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.
In Silico Measurement of Elastic Moduli of Nematic Liquid Crystals
Sidky, Hythem; de Pablo, Juan J.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.
2018-03-01
Experiments on confined droplets of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB have questioned long-established bounds imposed on the elastic free energy of nematic systems. This elasticity, which derives from molecular alignment within nematic systems, is quantified through a set of moduli which can be difficult to measure experimentally and, in some cases, can only be probed indirectly. This is particularly true of the surfacelike saddle-splay elastic term, for which the available experimental data indicate values on the cusp of stability, often with large uncertainties. Here, we demonstrate that all nematic elastic moduli, including the saddle-splay elastic constant k24, may be calculated directly from atomistic molecular simulations. Importantly, results obtained through in silico measurements of the 5CB elastic properties demonstrate unambiguously that saddle-splay elasticity alone is unable to describe the observed confined morphologies.
Unraveling complex nonlinear elastic behaviors in rocks using dynamic acousto-elasticity
Riviere, J.; Guyer, R.; Renaud, G.; TenCate, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.
2012-12-01
In comparison with standard nonlinear ultrasonic methods like frequency mixing or resonance based measurements that allow one to extract average, bulk variations of modulus and attenuation versus strain level, dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows to obtain the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. This method consists of exciting a sample in Bulk-mode resonance at strains of 10-7 to 10-5 and simultaneously probing with a sequence of high frequency, low amplitude pulses. Time of flight and amplitudes of these pulses, respectively related to nonlinear elastic and dissipative parameters, can be plotted versus vibration strain level. Despite complex nonlinear signatures obtained for most rocks, it can be shown that for low strain amplitude (Pasqualini et al., JGR 2007), but not with the extreme detail of elasticity provided by DAE. Previous quasi-static measurements made in Berea sandstone (Claytor et al, GRL 2009), show that the hysteretic behavior disappears when the protocol is performed at a very low strain-rate (static limit). Therefore, future work will aim at linking quasi-static and dynamic observations, i.e. the frequency or strain-rate dependence, in order to understand underlying physical phenomena.
A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion
Guo, Qiang
2016-09-06
Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.
A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion
Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.
Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.Y.; Sun, Z.M.
1988-09-01
Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs
Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G
2017-01-01
We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions. (paper)
Nonlinear and quantum optics with liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukishova, Svetlana G
2014-01-01
Thermotropic liquid crystals' usual application is display technology. This paper describes experiments on light interaction with pure and doped liquid crystals under for these materials unconventional incident light powers: (1) under high-power laser irradiation, and (2) at the single-photon level. In (1), I will outline several nonlinear optical effects under high-power, nanosecond laser irradiation which should be taken into account in the design of lasers with liquid crystal components and in fabrication of optical power limiters based on liquid crystals: (1.1) athermal helical pitch dilation and unwinding of cholesteric mirrors (both in free space and inside laser resonators); (1.2) some pitfalls in measurements of refractive nonlinearity using z-scan technique under two-photon or linear absorption of liquids; (1.3) the first observation of thermal lens effects in liquid crystals under several-nanosecond, low-pulse-repetition rate (2-10 Hz) laser irradiation in the presence of two-photon absorption; (1.4) feedback-free kaleidoscope of patterns (hexagons, stripes, etc.) in dye-doped liquid crystals. In (2), at the single-photon level, it will be shown that with a proper selection of liquid crystals and a single-emitter dopant spectral range, liquid crystal structures can be used to control emitted single photons (both polarization and count rate). The application of the latter research is absolutely secure quantum communication with polarization coding of information. In particular, in (2.1), definite handedness, circular polarized cholesteric microcavity resonance in quantum dot fluorescence is reported. In (2.2), definite linear polarization of single (antibunched) photons from single-dye-molecules in planar-aligned nematic host is discussed. In (2.3), some results on photon antibunching from NV-color center in nanodiamond in liquid crystal host and circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness from nanocrystals doped with trivalent ions of
Elastic wave excitation in centrosymmetric strontium titanate crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yushin, N.K.; Sotnikov, A.V.
1980-01-01
The main experimental dependencies are measured and the excitation mechanism of elastic waves in centrosymmetric crystals is established. The surface generation of three-dimensional elastic waves of the 30 MHz frequency in strontium titanate crystals is observed and studied. Elastic wave excitation is observed in the 4 350 K temperature range. The efficiency of hysteresis excitation depends on the external electric field. The effect of light irradiation on the amplitude of excited elastic waves is observed. It is shown that escitation is connected with linearization of electrostriction by the constant electric field appearing in a near-surface crystal layer due to phenomena in the Schottky barrier and appearance of electretic near-electrode layers
A REMARK ON FORMAL MODELS FOR NONLINEARLY ELASTIC MEMBRANE SHELLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper gives all the two-dimensional membrane models obtained from formal asymptotic analysis of the three-dimensional geometrically exact nonlinear model of a thin elastic shell made with a Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material. Therefore, the other models can be quoted as flexural nonlinear ones. The author also gives the formal equations solved by the associated stress tensor and points out that only one of those models leads, by linearization, to the “classical” linear limiting membrane model, whose juetification has already been established by a convergence theorem.
Chong Li; Xiaoyong Hu; Hong Yang; Qihuang Gong
2017-01-01
We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, brin...
DYNAMICS OF VIBRATION FEEDERS WITH A NONLINEAR ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Dyrda
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Subject to the smooth and efficient operation of each production line, is the use of vehicles transporting high specification. It worked well in practice for transporting construction machines, which are used during the vibration. The use of vibration machines requires optimization of their operation modes. In the form of elastic link in them are increasingly using rubber-metallic elements, which are characterized by nonlinear damping properties. So it is necessary to search for new, more modern, methods of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the vibration machines on the properties of rubber as a cushioning material. Methodology. The dynamics of vibration machine that is as elastic rubber block units and buffer shock absorbers limiting the amplitude of the vibrations of the working body. The method of determining amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vibrating feeder is based on the principle of Voltaire, who in the calculations of the damping properties of the dampers will allow for elastic-hereditary properties of rubber. When adjusting the basic dynamic stiffness of the elastic ties and vibratory buffers, using the principle of heredity rubber properties, determine the dependence of the amplitude of the working body of the machine vibrations. This method is called integro-operator using the fractional-exponential kernels of relaxation. Findings. Using the derived formula for determining the amplitude of the resonance curve is constructed one-mass nonlinear system. It is established that the use of the proposed method of calculation will provide a sufficiently complete description of the damping parameters of rubber-metallic elements and at the same time be an effective means of calculating the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear vibration systems. Originality. The authors improved method of determining damping characteristics of rubber-metallic elements and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear
Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity
2015-08-13
sufficient conditions for the compatibility of displacement gradient and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies. The main...conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS geometric theory for nonlinear elasticity, discrete exterior calculus 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...complex allows one to readily derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the compatibility of displacement gradient and the existence of stress
A Lagrangian meshfree method applied to linear and nonlinear elasticity.
Walker, Wade A
2017-01-01
The repeated replacement method (RRM) is a Lagrangian meshfree method which we have previously applied to the Euler equations for compressible fluid flow. In this paper we present new enhancements to RRM, and we apply the enhanced method to both linear and nonlinear elasticity. We compare the results of ten test problems to those of analytic solvers, to demonstrate that RRM can successfully simulate these elastic systems without many of the requirements of traditional numerical methods such as numerical derivatives, equation system solvers, or Riemann solvers. We also show the relationship between error and computational effort for RRM on these systems, and compare RRM to other methods to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. And to further explain the two elastic equations used in the paper, we demonstrate the mathematical procedure used to create Riemann and Sedov-Taylor solvers for them, and detail the numerical techniques needed to embody those solvers in code.
Nonlinear reflection of shock shear waves in soft elastic media.
Pinton, Gianmarco; Coulouvrat, François; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël
2010-02-01
For fluids, the theoretical investigation of shock wave reflection has a good agreement with experiments when the incident shock Mach number is large. But when it is small, theory predicts that Mach reflections are physically unrealistic, which contradicts experimental evidence. This von Neumann paradox is investigated for shear shock waves in soft elastic solids with theory and simulations. The nonlinear elastic wave equation is approximated by a paraxial wave equation with a cubic nonlinear term. This equation is solved numerically with finite differences and the Godunov scheme. Three reflection regimes are observed. Theory is developed for shock propagation by applying the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and entropic constraints. A characteristic parameter relating diffraction and non-linearity is introduced and its theoretical values are shown to match numerical observations. The numerical solution is then applied to von Neumann reflection, where curved reflected and Mach shocks are observed. Finally, the case of weak von Neumann reflection, where there is no reflected shock, is examined. The smooth but non-monotonic transition between these three reflection regimes, from linear Snell-Descartes to perfect grazing case, provides a solution to the acoustical von Neumann paradox for the shear wave equation. This transition is similar to the quadratic non-linearity in fluids.
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar
Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito
2011-02-01
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.
Nonlinear modulation of torsional waves in elastic rod. [Instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirao, M; Sugimoto, N [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science
1977-06-01
Nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which describes the nonlinear modulation of dispersive torsional waves in an elastic rod of circular cross-section, is derived by the derivative expansion method. It is found, for the lowest dispersive mode, that the modulational instability occurs except in the range of the carrier wavenumber, 2.799
Elastic Nonlinear Response in Granular Media Under Resonance Conditions
Jia, X.; Johnson, P. A.
2004-12-01
We are studying the elastic linear and nonlinear behavior of granular media using dynamic wave methods. In the work presented here, our goal is to quantify the elastic nonlinear response by applying wave resonance. Resonance studies are desirable because they provide the means to easily study amplitude dependencies of elastic nonlinear behavior and thus to characterize the physical nature of the elastic nonlinearity. This work has implications for a variety of topics, in particular, the in situ nonlinear response of surface sediments. For this work we constructed an experimental cell in which high sensitivity dynamic resonance studies were conducted using granular media under controlled effective pressure. We limit our studies here to bulk modes but have the capability to employ shear waves as well. The granular media are composed of glass beads held under pressure by a piston, while applying resonance waves from transducers as both the excitation and the material probe. The container is closed with two fitted pistons and a normal load is applied to the granular sample across the top piston. Force and displacement are measured directly. Resonant frequency sweeps with frequencies corresponding to the fundamental bulk mode are applied to the longitudinal source transducer. The pore pressure in the system is 1 atm. The glass beads used in our experiments are of diameter 0.5 mm, randomly deposited in a duralumin cylinder of diameter 30 mm and height of 15 mm. This corresponds to a granular skeleton acoustic wave velocity of v ª 750m/s under 50 N of force [0.07 Mpa]. The loaded system gives fundamental mode resonances in the audio frequency band at half a wavelength where resonance frequency is effective-pressure dependent. The volume fraction of glass beads thus obtained is found to be 0.63 ± 0.01. Plane-wave generating and detecting transducers of diameter 30 mm are placed on axis at the top and bottom of the cylindrical container in direct contact with the glass
Piezoelectric excitation of elastic waves in centrosymmetrical potassium tantalate crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolenskij, G.A.; Lemanov, V.V.; Sotnikov, A.V.; Syrnikov, P.P.; Yushin, N.K.
1981-01-01
Experiment results on excitation of elastic oscillations in potassium tantalate crystals are considered. The experiment has been conducted by usual for supersonic measurements technique: an impulse of the variable electric field has been applied to one of plane-parallel sample end-faces, at the same end-face signals corresponding to elastic pulses propagating in the crystal have been detected. Basic radiopulses parameters: basic frequency 30 MHz, duration 1-2 μs, pulse recurrence frequency 500 Hz, power 10 W. The investigation carried out has shown that the application to the sample at T=80 K temperature of constant external electrical field parallel to direction of elastic wave propagation leads to hysteresis dependence of elastic waves amplitude on the external voltage value. With temperature increase the hysteresis loop is deformed. It has been found when investigating temperature dependence of elastic wave amplitude that in the absence of external constant electrical field in short-circuited by constant current samples the oxillation excitation effect disappears at T approximately equal to 200 K. An essential influence on the elastic wave amplitude value is exerted by illumination of the crystal surface by light with 360-630 nm wave length. At T 130 K bacaee of photovoltaic effect in illuminated samples [ru
Damping of elastic waves in crystals with impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemanov, V.V.; Petrov, A.V.; Akhmedzhanov, F.R.; Nasyrov, A.N.
1979-01-01
Elastic wave damping and thermal conductivity of NaCl-NaBr and Y 3 AL 5 O 12 crystals with Er impurity has been examined. The experimental results on a decrease in elastic wave damping in such crystals are analyzed in the framework of the Ahiezer damping theory. The measurements were made in the frequency range of 300-1500 MHz in propagation of longitudinal and transverse elastic waves along the [100] and [110] directions. At 10 % concentration of erbium impurity the transverse wave damping decreases by a factor of three, and for longitudinal waves by a factor of two in NaBr:Cl crystals, and by approximately 10 and 30 % for NaBr:Cl and Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Er crystals, respectively. In Y 3 Al 5 O 12 crystals, unlike NaCl-NaBr crystals, no noticeable anisotropy of damping is observed. The transVerse wave damping in impurity crystals has been shown to increase significantly with decreasing temperature and increasing the impurity concentration
Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-12-01
Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to k_{p}R = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.
Wave propagation in a strongly nonlinear locally resonant granular crystal
Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2018-02-01
In this work, we study the wave propagation in a recently proposed acoustic structure, the locally resonant granular crystal. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional granular crystal of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing linear resonators. The relevant model is presented and examined through a combination of analytical approximations (based on ODE and nonlinear map analysis) and of numerical results. The generic dynamics of the system involves a degradation of the well-known traveling pulse of the standard Hertzian chain of elastic beads. Nevertheless, the present system is richer, in that as the primary pulse decays, secondary ones emerge and eventually interfere with it creating modulated wavetrains. Remarkably, upon suitable choices of parameters, this interference "distills" a weakly nonlocal solitary wave (a "nanopteron"). This motivates the consideration of such nonlinear structures through a separate Fourier space technique, whose results suggest the existence of such entities not only with a single-side tail, but also with periodic tails on both ends. These tails are found to oscillate with the intrinsic oscillation frequency of the out-of-phase motion between the outer hollow bead and its internal linear attachment.
Linear and nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals as ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
crystal series, with an accuracy acceptable for materials development/design, and answer the questions often ... Optical property; nonlinear optical crystals; first principles calculation. 1. ..... system, and is not in concept suitable to excitation pro-.
Soft Elasticity in Main Chain Liquid Crystal Elastomers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anselm C. Griffin
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Main chain liquid crystal elastomers exhibit several interesting phenomena, such as three different regimes of elastic response, unconventional stress-strain relationship in one of these regimes, and the shape memory effect. Investigations are beginning to reveal relationships between their macroscopic behavior and the nature of domain structure, microscopic smectic phase structure, relaxation mechanism, and sample history. These aspects of liquid crystal elastomers are briefly reviewed followed by a summary of the results of recent elastic and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the shape memory effect and the dynamics of the formation of the smectic-C chevron-like layer structure. A possible route to realizing auxetic effect at molecular level is also discussed.
Single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite
Speziale, Sergio
2008-07-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The six non-zero elastic constants of this trigonal mineral are: C11 = 35.1 ± 0.1 GPa, C12 = 21.9 ±0.1 GPa, C13 = 20.0 ± 0.5 GPa, C14 = 0.6 ± 0.2 GPa, C33 = 55 ± 1 GPa, C44 = 11.0 ± 0.2 GPa. The Hill average of the aggregate bulk, shear modulus and the polycrystal Young\\'s modulus and Poisson\\'s ratio are 27.3 ± 0.9 GPa, 9.5 ± 0.8 GPa, 25 ± 2 GPa and 0.34 ± 0.02 respectively. The longitudinal and shear elastic anisotropy are C33/C11 = 0.64 ± 0.01 and C66/C44 =0.60 ± 0.01. The elastic anisotropy in ettringite is connected to its crystallographic structure. Stiff chains of [Al(OH)6]3- octahedra alternating with triplets of Ca2+ in eight-fold coordination run parallel to the c-axis leading to higher stiffness along this direction. The determination of the elastic stiffness tensor can help in the prediction of the early age properties of cement paste when ettringite crystals precipitate and in the modeling of both internal and external sulfate attack when secondary ettringite formation leads to expansion of concrete. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite
Speziale, Sergio; Jiang, Fuming; Mao, Zhu; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Duffy, Thomas S.; Schilling, Frank R.
2008-01-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The six non-zero elastic constants of this trigonal mineral are: C11 = 35.1 ± 0.1 GPa, C12 = 21.9 ±0.1 GPa, C13 = 20.0 ± 0.5 GPa, C14 = 0.6 ± 0.2 GPa, C33 = 55 ± 1 GPa, C44 = 11.0 ± 0.2 GPa. The Hill average of the aggregate bulk, shear modulus and the polycrystal Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are 27.3 ± 0.9 GPa, 9.5 ± 0.8 GPa, 25 ± 2 GPa and 0.34 ± 0.02 respectively. The longitudinal and shear elastic anisotropy are C33/C11 = 0.64 ± 0.01 and C66/C44 =0.60 ± 0.01. The elastic anisotropy in ettringite is connected to its crystallographic structure. Stiff chains of [Al(OH)6]3- octahedra alternating with triplets of Ca2+ in eight-fold coordination run parallel to the c-axis leading to higher stiffness along this direction. The determination of the elastic stiffness tensor can help in the prediction of the early age properties of cement paste when ettringite crystals precipitate and in the modeling of both internal and external sulfate attack when secondary ettringite formation leads to expansion of concrete. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A new type of surface acoustic waves in solids due to nonlinear elasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mozhaev, V.G.
1988-12-01
It is shown that in nonlinear elastic semi-infinite medium possessing a property of self focusing of shear waves, besides bulk non-linear shear waves, new surface acoustic waves exist, localization of which near the boundary is entirely due to nonlinear effects. (author). 8 refs
Advances in nonlinear polymers and inorganic crystals, liquid crystals, and laser media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musikant, S.
1987-01-01
These proceedings collect papers on laser materials. Topics include: solid state lasers, fracture mechanics in laser materials, optical second harmonic generation, nonlinear optics, molecular crystals, crystal-phase transformation, and materials for laser fusion reactors
Nonlinear Subincremental Method for Determination of Elastic-Plastic-Creep Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottosen, N. Saabye; Gunneskov, O.
1985-01-01
to general elastic-plastic-creep behaviour including problems with a highly nonlinear total strain path caused by the occurrence of creep hardening. This nonlinear method degenerates to the linear approach for elastic-plastic behaviour and when secondary creep is present. It is also linear during step......The frequently used subincremental method has so far been used on a linear interpolation of the total strain path within each main step. This method has proven successful when elastic-plastic behaviour and secondary creep is involved. The authors propose a nonlinear subincremental method applicable...
Pepi, John W.
2017-08-01
Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.
Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.
1987-12-01
We are searching for a new second- and third-harmonic generators among the salts of chiral organic acids and bases. We discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, we summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs
Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.
1987-01-01
The authors are searching for new second and third harmonic generators among the salts of organic acids and bases. They discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, they summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauk, V.; Kockelmann, H.
1979-01-01
Methods of calculation are developed for determination of single crystal elastic compliance or stiffness constants of cubic and hexagonal materials from mechanical and X-ray elastic constants of polycrystals. The calculations are applied to pure, cubic iron and hexagonal WC. There are no single crystal constants in the literature for WC, because no single crystals suitable for measurement are available. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Li
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, bringing a topological phase reversal and results the topological edge mode arising at the interface which could transmit photons through the bandgaps both of the photonic crystal L and R. When the signal power intensity larger than a moderate low threshold value of 10.0 MW/cm2, the transmission contrast ratio could remain at 30 steadily.
Nonlinear Dispersive Elastic Waves in Solids: Exact, Approximate, and Numerical Solutions
Khajehtourian, Romik
Wave motion lies at the heart of many disciplines in the physical sciences and engineering. For example, problems and applications involving light, sound, heat, or fluid flow are all likely to involve wave dynamics at some level. A particular class of problems is concerned with the propagation of elastic waves in a solid medium, such as a fiber-reinforced composite material responding to vibratory excitations, or soil and rock admitting seismic waves moments after the onset of an earthquake, or phonon transport in a semiconducting crystal like silicon. Regardless of the type of wave, the dispersion relation provides a fundamental characterization of the elastodynamic properties of the medium. The first part of the dissertation examines the propagation of a large-amplitude elastic wave in a one-dimensional homogeneous medium with a focus on the effects of inherent nonlinearities on the dispersion relation. Considering a thin rod, where the thickness is small compared to the wavelength, an exact, closed-form formulation is presented for the treatment of two types of nonlinearity in the strain-displacement gradient relation: Green-Lagrange and Hencky. The derived relation is then verified by direct time-domain simulations, examining both instantaneous dispersion (by direct observation) and short-term, pre-breaking dispersion (by Fourier transformation). A high-order perturbation analysis is also conducted yielding an explicit analytical space-time solution, which is shown to be spectrally accurate. The results establish a perfect match between theory and simulation and reveal that regardless of the strength of the nonlinearity, the dispersion relation fully embodies all information pertaining to the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism that unfolds as an arbitrary-profiled wave evolves in the medium. In the second part of the dissertation, the analysis is extended to a continuous periodic thin rod exhibiting multiple phases or embedded local resonators. The
Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)
2016-07-25
We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.
Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadovnikov, A. V.; Nikitov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.
2016-01-01
We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.
The Kerr nonlinearity of the beta-barium borate crystal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin
2013-01-01
A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond experime......A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond...
Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper
2013-01-01
We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....
Integral criterion for selecting nonlinear crystals for frequency conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grechin, Sergei G
2009-01-01
An integral criterion, which takes into account all parameters determining the conversion efficiency, is offered for selecting nonlinear crystals for frequency conversion. The angular phase-matching width is shown to be related to the beam walk-off angle. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Nonlinear normal vibration modes in the dynamics of nonlinear elastic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhlin, Yu V; Perepelkin, N V; Klimenko, A A; Harutyunyan, E
2012-01-01
Nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) are a generalization of the linear normal vibrations. By the Kauderer-Rosenberg concept in the regime of the NNM all position coordinates are single-values functions of some selected position coordinate. By the Shaw-Pierre concept, the NNM is such a regime when all generalized coordinates and velocities are univalent functions of a couple of dominant (active) phase variables. The NNMs approach is used in some applied problems. In particular, the Kauderer-Rosenberg NNMs are analyzed in the dynamics of some pendulum systems. The NNMs of forced vibrations are investigated in a rotor system with an isotropic-elastic shaft. A combination of the Shaw-Pierre NNMs and the Rauscher method is used to construct the forced NNMs and the frequency responses in the rotor dynamics.
Deymier, P. A.; Runge, K.
2018-03-01
A Green's function-based numerical method is developed to calculate the phase of scattered elastic waves in a harmonic model of diatomic molecules adsorbed on the (001) surface of a simple cubic crystal. The phase properties of scattered waves depend on the configuration of the molecules. The configurations of adsorbed molecules on the crystal surface such as parallel chain-like arrays coupled via kinks are used to demonstrate not only linear but also non-linear dependency of the phase on the number of kinks along the chains. Non-linear behavior arises for scattered waves with frequencies in the vicinity of a diatomic molecule resonance. In the non-linear regime, the variation in phase with the number of kinks is formulated mathematically as unitary matrix operations leading to an analogy between phase-based elastic unitary operations and quantum gates. The advantage of elastic based unitary operations is that they are easily realizable physically and measurable.
Nonlinear Phononic Periodic Structures and Granular Crystals
2012-02-10
and boron-nitride nanotubes, and attributed the rectification to nonlinear processes [21]. Based on these studies, several following works have...nonlinear mass-spring lattices by E. Fermi, J. Pasta , and S. Ulam in 1955 [27], there has been a wealth of interest in the dynamics of nonlinear...lattices. Using one of the first modern computers, Fermi, Pasta , and Ulam (FPU) studied a system where the restoring (spring) force between two adjacent
Bulk nonlinear elastic strain waves in a bar with nanosize inclusions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gula, Igor A.; Samsonov (†), Alexander M.
2018-01-01
We propose a mathematical model for propagation of the long nonlinearly elastic longitudinal strain waves in a bar, which contains nanoscale structural inclusions. The model is governed by a nonlinear doubly dispersive equation (DDE) with respect to the one unknown longitudinal strain function. We...
On the vibrations of a simply supported square plate on a weakly nonlinear elastic foundation
Zarubinskaya, M.A.; Van Horssen, W.T.
2003-01-01
In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for a weakly nonlinear plate equation with a quadratic nonlinearity will be studied. This initial-boundary value problem can be regarded as a simple model describing free oscillations of a simply supported square plate on an elastic foundation. It is
Variational problems arising in classical mechanics and nonlinear elasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spencer, P.
1999-01-01
In this thesis we consider two different classes of variational problems. First, one-dimensional problems arising from classical mechanics where the problem is to determine whether there is a unique function η 0 (x) which minimises the energy functional of the form I(η) = ∫ a b L(x,η(x), η'(x)) dx. We will investigate uniqueness by making a change of dependent and independent variables and showing that for a class of integrands L with a particular kind of scaling invariance the resulting integrand is completely convex. The change of variables arises by applying results from Lie group theory as applied in the study of differential equations and this work is motivated by [60] and [68]. Second, the problem of minimising energy functionals of the form E(u) = ∫ A W(∇u(x)) dx in the case of a nonlinear elastic body occupying an annular region A contains R 2 with u : A-bar → A-bar. This work is motivated by [57] (in particular the example of paragraph 4). We will consider rotationally symmetric deformations satisfying prescribed boundary conditions. We will show the existence of minimisers for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-tilde(vertical bar-F-vertical bar, det(F)) in a class of general rotationally symmetric deformations of a compressible annulus and for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-bar(vertical bar-F-vertical bar) in a class of rotationally symmetric deformations of an incompressible annulus. We will also show that in each case the minimisers are solutions of the full equilibrium equations. A model problem will be considered where the energy functional is the Dirichlet integral and it will be shown that the rotationally symmetric solution obtained is a minimiser among admissible non-rotationally symmetric deformations. In the case of an incompressible annulus, we will consider the Dirichlet integral as the energy functional and show that the rotationally symmetric equilibrium solutions in this case are weak local minimisers in
Optical switching in nonlinear photonic crystals lightly doped with nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lipson, R H [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)
2008-01-14
A possible switching mechanism has been investigated for nonlinear photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of non-interacting three-level nanoparticles. In this scheme, an intense pump laser field is used to change the refractive index of the nonlinear photonic crystal while a weaker probe field monitors an absorption transition in the nanoparticles. In the absence of the strong laser field the system transmits the probe field when the resonance energy of the nanoparticles lies near the edge of the photonic band gap due to strong coupling between the photonic crystal and the nanoparticles. However, upon application of an intense pump laser field the system becomes absorbing due to a band edge frequency shift that arises due to a nonlinear Kerr effect which changes the refractive index of the crystal. It is anticipated that the optical switching mechanism described in this work can be used to make new types of photonic devices.
Elastic energy of liquid crystals in convex polyhedra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, A; Robbins, J M; Zyskin, M
2004-01-01
We consider nematic liquid crystals in a bounded, convex polyhedron described by a director field n(r) subject to tangent boundary conditions. We derive lower bounds for the one-constant elastic energy in terms of topological invariants. For a right rectangular prism and a large class of topologies, we derive upper bounds by introducing test configurations constructed from local conformal solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equation. The ratio of the upper and lower bounds depends only on the aspect ratios of the prism. As the aspect ratios are varied, the minimum-energy conformal state undergoes a sharp transition from being smooth to having singularities on the edges. (letter to the editor)
An Enhanced Asymptotic Expansion for the Stability of Nonlinear Elastic Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Claus Dencker; Byskov, Esben
2010-01-01
A new, enhanced asymptotic expansion applicable to stability of structures made of nonlinear elastic materials is established. The method utilizes “hyperbolic” terms instead of the conventional polynomial terms, covers full kinematic nonlinearity and is applied to nonlinear elastic Euler columns...... with two different types of cross-section. Comparison with numerical results show that our expansion provides more accurate predictions of the behavior than usual expansions. The method is based on an extended version of the principle of virtual displacements that covers cases with auxiliary conditions...
Scalerandi, Marco; Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Johnson, Paul A
2003-06-01
Recent studies show that a broad category of materials share "nonclassical" nonlinear elastic behavior much different from "classical" (Landau-type) nonlinearity. Manifestations of "nonclassical" nonlinearity include stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasistatic experiments, and specific dependencies of the harmonic amplitudes with respect to the drive amplitude in dynamic wave experiments, which are remarkably different from those predicted by the classical theory. These materials have in common soft "bond" elements, where the elastic nonlinearity originates, contained in hard matter (e.g., a rock sample). The bond system normally comprises a small fraction of the total material volume, and can be localized (e.g., a crack in a solid) or distributed, as in a rock. In this paper a model is presented in which the soft elements are treated as hysteretic or reversible elastic units connected in a one-dimensional lattice to elastic elements (grains), which make up the hard matrix. Calculations are performed in the framework of the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Experimental observations are well predicted by the model, which is now ready both for basic investigations about the physical origins of nonlinear elasticity and for applications to material damage diagnostics.
Nonlinear elasticity in wurtzite GaN/AlN planar superlattices and quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepkowski, S.P.; Majewski, J.A.; Jurczak, G.
2005-01-01
The elastic stiffness tensor for wurtzite GaN and AlN show a significant hydrostatic pressure dependence, which id the evidence of nonlinear elasticity of these compounds. We have examined how the pressure dependence of elastic constants for wurtzite nitrides influences elastic and piezoelectric properties of GaN/AlN planar superlattices and quantum dots. Particularly we show that built-in hydrostatic pressure, present in both quantum wells of the GaN/AlN superlattices and GaN/AlN quantum dots, increases significantly by 0.3-0.7 GPa when nonlinear elasticity is used. Consequently, the compressive volumetric strain in quantum wells and quantum dots decreases in comparison to the case of the linear elastic theory, However, the-component of the built-in electric field in the quantum wells and quantum dots increases considerably when nonlinear elasticity is taken into account. Both effects, i.e., a decrease in the compressive volumetric strain as well as an increase in the built-in electric field, decrease the band-to-band transition energies in the quantum wells and quantum dots. (author)
Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anis Mohd
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The present study is focused to explore the photonic device applications of L-arginine doped ZTC (LA-ZTC crystals using nonlinear optical (NLO and dielectric studies. The LA-ZTC crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. The chemical composition and surface of LA-ZTC crystal have been analyzed by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The Vicker’s microhardness study has been carried out to determine the hardness, work hardening index, yield strength and elastic stiffness of LA-ZTC crystal. The enhanced SHG efficiency of LA-ZTC crystal has been ascertained using the Kurtz-Perry powder SHG test. The closed-and-open aperture Z-scan technique has been employed to confirm the third order nonlinear optical nature of LA-ZTC crystal. The Z-scan transmittance data has been utilized to calculate the superior cubic susceptibility, nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and figure of merit of LA-ZTC crystal. The behavior of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of LA-ZTC crystal at different temperatures has been investigated using the dielectric analysis.
Applications of Random Nonlinear Photonic Crystals Based on Strontium Tetraborate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre I. Zaitsev
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Properties of strontium tetraborate (SBO and features of as-grown anti-parallel domains are summarized. From the point of view of nonlinear optics, these domains form nonlinear photonic crystals (NPC. Applications of NPC to the deep ultraviolet generation and fs pulse diagnostics are described. NPC and SBO are prospective media for the creation of a widely tunable source of fs pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet and for autocorrelation diagnostics of broadly tunable sources.
Korman, M. S.; Duong, D. V.; Kalsbeck, A. E.
2015-10-01
An apparatus (SPO), designed to study flexural vibrations of a soil loaded plate, consists of a thin circular elastic clamped plate (and cylindrical wall) supporting a vertical soil column. A small magnet attached to the center of the plate is driven by a rigid AC coil (located coaxially below the plate) to complete the electrodynamic soil plate oscillator SPO design. The frequency dependent mechanical impedance Zmech (force / particle velocity, at the plate's center) is inversely proportional to the electrical motional impedance Zmot. Measurements of Zmot are made using the complex output to input response of a Wheatstone bridge that has an identical coil element in one of its legs. Near resonance, measurements of Zmot (with no soil) before and after a slight point mass loading at the center help determine effective mass, spring, damping and coupling constant parameters of the system. "Tuning curve" behavior of real{ Zmot } and imaginary{ Zmot } at successively higher vibration amplitudes of dry sifted masonry sand are measured. They exhibit a decrease "softening" in resonance frequency along with a decrease in the quality Q factor. In soil surface vibration measurements a bilinear hysteresis model predicts the tuning curve shape for this nonlinear mesoscopic elastic SPO behavior - which also models the soil vibration over an actual plastic "inert" VS 1.6 buried landmine. Experiments are performed where a buried 1m cube concrete block supports a 12 inch deep by 30 inch by 30 inch concrete soil box for burying a VS 1.6 in dry sifted masonry sand for on-the-mine and off-the-mine soil vibration experiments. The backbone curve (a plot of the peak amplitude vs. corresponding resonant frequency from a family of tuning curves) exhibits mostly linear behavior for "on target" soil surface vibration measurements of the buried VS 1.6 or drum-like mine simulants for relatively low particle velocities of the soil. Backbone curves for "on target" measurements exhibit
The relationship between elastic constants and structure of shock waves in a zinc single crystal
Krivosheina, M. N.; Kobenko, S. V.; Tuch, E. V.
2017-12-01
The paper provides a 3D finite element simulation of shock-loaded anisotropic single crystals on the example of a Zn plate under impact using a mathematical model, which allows for anisotropy in hydrostatic stress and wave velocities in elastic and plastic ranges. The simulation results agree with experimental data, showing the absence of shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a plastic wave in Zn single crystals impacted in the [0001] direction. It is assumed that the absence of an elastic precursor under impact loading of a zinc single crystal along the [0001] direction is determined by the anomalously large ratio of the c/a-axes and close values of the propagation velocities of longitudinal and bulk elastic waves. It is shown that an increase in only one elastic constant along the [0001] direction results in shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a shock wave of "plastic" compression.
Lamb Wave Technique for Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characterization in Elastic Plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young
2010-01-01
Since the acoustic nonlinearity is sensitive to the minute variation of material properties, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique(NUT) has been considered as a promising method to evaluate the material degradation or fatigue. However, there are certain limitations to apply the conventional NUT using the bulk wave to thin plates. In case of plates, the use of Lamb wave can be considered, however, the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave are completely different with the bulk wave, and thus the separate study for the nonlinearity of Lamb wave is required. For this work, this paper analyzed first the conditions of mode pair suitable for the practical application as well as for the cumulative propagation of quadratic harmonic frequency and summarized the result in for conditions: phase matching, non-zero power flux, group velocity matching, and non-zero out-of-plane displacement. Experimental results in aluminum plates showed that the amplitude of the secondary Lamb wave and nonlinear parameter grew up with increasing propagation distance at the mode pair satisfying the above all conditions and that the ration of nonlinear parameters measured in Al6061-T6 and Al1100-H15 was closed to the ratio of the absolute nonlinear parameters
Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2012-03-01
We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso
2017-07-10
Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced birefringence, we can readily extract the twist elastic coefficient K 22 of thermotropic and lyotropic chiral nematics (N*). The value of K 22 we obtain for chiral doped 5CB thermotropic N* well matches those reported in the literature. With this same strategy, we could determine for the first time K 22 of the N* phase of concentrated aqueous solutions of DNA oligomers, bypassing the limitations that so far prevented measuring the elastic constants of this class of liquid crystalline materials. The present study also enlightens the significant nonlinear optical response of DNA liquid crystals.
Conical refraction of elastic waves in absorbing crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alshits, V. I.; Lyubimov, V. N.
2011-01-01
The absorption-induced acoustic-axis splitting in a viscoelastic crystal with an arbitrary anisotropy is considered. It is shown that after “switching on” absorption, the linear vector polarization field in the vicinity of the initial degeneracy point having an orientation singularity with the Poincaré index n = ±1/2, transforms to a planar distribution of ellipses with two singularities n = ±1/4 corresponding to new axes. The local geometry of the slowness surface of elastic waves is studied in the vicinity of new degeneracy points and a self-intersection line connecting them. The absorption-induced transformation of the classical picture of conical refraction is studied. The ellipticity of waves at the edge of the self-intersection wedge in a narrow interval of propagation directions drastically changes from circular at the wedge ends to linear in the middle of the wedge. For the wave normal directed to an arbitrary point of this wedge, during movement of the displacement vector over the corresponding polarization ellipse, the wave ray velocity s runs over the same cone describing refraction in a crystal without absorption. In this case, the end of the vector moves along a universal ellipse whose plane is orthogonal to the acoustic axis for zero absorption. The areal velocity of this movement differs from the angular velocity of the displacement vector on the polarization ellipse only by a constant factor, being delayed by π/2 in phase. When the wave normal is localized at the edge of the wedge in its central region, the movement of vector s along the universal ellipse becomes drastically nonuniform and the refraction transforms from conical to wedge-like.
Nonlinear switching dynamics in a photonic-crystal nanocavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel; Vukovic, Dragana; Peucheret, Christophe; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper
2014-01-01
We report the experimental observation of nonlinear switching dynamics in an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. Usually, the regime of relatively small cavity perturbations is explored, where the signal transmitted through the cavity follows the temporal variation of the cavity resonance. When the cavity is perturbed by strong pulses, we observe several nonlinear effects, i.e., saturation of the switching contrast, broadening of the switching window, and even initial reduction of the transmission. The effects are analyzed by comparison with nonlinear coupled mode theory and explained in terms of large dynamical variations of the cavity resonance in combination with nonlinear losses. The results provide insight into the nonlinear optical processes that govern the dynamics of nanocavities and are important for applications in optical signal processing, where one wants to optimize the switching contrast.
Nonlinear switching dynamics in a photonic-crystal nanocavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel
2014-01-01
We report the experimental observation of nonlinear switching dynamics in an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. Usually, the regime of relatively small cavity perturbations is explored, where the signal transmitted through the cavity follows the temporal variation of the cavity resonance. When...... of large dynamical variations of the cavity resonance in combination with nonlinear losses. The results provide insight into the nonlinear optical processes that govern the dynamics of nanocavities and are important for applications in optical signal processing, where one wants to optimize the switching...... the cavity is perturbed by strong pulses, we observe several nonlinear effects, i.e., saturation of the switching contrast, broadening of the switching window, and even initial reduction of the transmission. The effects are analyzed by comparison with nonlinear coupled mode theory and explained in terms...
The propagation of nonlinear rayleigh waves in layered elastic half-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmetolan, S.
2004-01-01
In this work, the propagation of small but finite amplitude generalized Rayleigh waves in an elastic half-space covered by a different elastic layer of uniform and finite thickness is considered. The constituent materials are assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, compressible hyperelastic. Excluding the harmonic resonance phenomena, it is shown that the nonlinear self modulation of generalized Rayleigh waves is governed asymptotically by a nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. The stability of the solutions and the existence of solitary wave-type solutions a NLS are strongly depend on the sign of the product of the coefficients of the nonlinear and dipersion terms of the equation.Therefore the analysis continues with the examination of dependence of these coefficients on the nonlinear material parameters. Three different models have been considered which are nonlinear layer-nonlinear half space, linear layer-nonlinear half space and nonlinear layer-linear half space. The behavior of the coefficients of the NLS equation was also analyzed the limit as h(thickness of the layer) goes to zero and k(the wave number) is constant. Then conclusions are drawn about the effect of nonlinear material parameters on the wave modulation. In the numerical investigations both hypothetical and real material models are used
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao
2015-01-01
For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications
Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles
Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.
2013-01-01
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.
Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hocking, Erica G; Wereley, Norman M
2013-01-01
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30–80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible. (paper)
Effect of elastic anisotropy of crystal grain on stress intensity factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamaya, Masayuki
2002-01-01
The stress intensity factor (SIF) is used widely for evaluating integrity of cracked components. Usually, the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions is used for the evaluations. Although, macroscopic elastic behaviors of polycrystal materials can be considered isotropic, each crystal has anisotropic elastic properties. This implies that if the crack size is small and the influence of anisotropic elastic properties on the stress around cracks is significant, the SIF evaluated under anisotropic elastic conditions may differ from the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions. In the present study, the effect of anisotropic elasticity on the SIF was evaluated by using the finite element analysis (FEA). First, the SIF of semi-circular cracks located in a single crystal was evaluated. It was found that the SIF is affected crystal orientation. Secondly, FEA using a polycrystal model was performed. It was found that the change in the SIF was caused by crack tip crystal orientation as well as the deformation constraint from neighboring crystals. Finally, the statistical tendency of change in the SIF caused by the anisotropic elastic properties and the relationship with crack size were examined. The influence of the local SIF on crack growth behavior is also discussed. (author)
Effect of elastic anisotropy of crystal grain on stress intensity factor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamaya, Masayuki [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)
2002-09-01
The stress intensity factor (SIF) is used widely for evaluating integrity of cracked components. Usually, the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions is used for the evaluations. Although, macroscopic elastic behaviors of polycrystal materials can be considered isotropic, each crystal has anisotropic elastic properties. This implies that if the crack size is small and the influence of anisotropic elastic properties on the stress around cracks is significant, the SIF evaluated under anisotropic elastic conditions may differ from the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions. In the present study, the effect of anisotropic elasticity on the SIF was evaluated by using the finite element analysis (FEA). First, the SIF of semi-circular cracks located in a single crystal was evaluated. It was found that the SIF is affected crystal orientation. Secondly, FEA using a polycrystal model was performed. It was found that the change in the SIF was caused by crack tip crystal orientation as well as the deformation constraint from neighboring crystals. Finally, the statistical tendency of change in the SIF caused by the anisotropic elastic properties and the relationship with crack size were examined. The influence of the local SIF on crack growth behavior is also discussed. (author)
Extra phase noise from thermal fluctuations in nonlinear optical crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
César, J. E. S.; Coelho, A.S.; Cassemiro, K.N.
2009-01-01
We show theoretically and experimentally that scattered light by thermal phonons inside a second-order nonlinear crystal is the source of additional phase noise observed in optical parametric oscillators. This additional phase noise reduces the quantum correlations and has hitherto hindered the d...
A novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: Creatininium succinate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K., E-mail: singlecerystalxrd@gmail.ciom [School of Physics, Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)
2015-06-24
A novel organic material complex of creatininium succinate (CS) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by the reaction of creatinine and succinic acid from aqueous solution by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the structure was refined by least-squares method to R = 0.027 for 1840 reflections. FT-IR spectral investigation has been carried out to identify the various functional groups in the title compound. UV–Vis transmission was carried out which shows the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the visible region with lower cutoff wavelength around 220 nm. Nonlinear optical property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.
Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.
Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio...... the evolution of the fiber output beam in the few micro or milliseconds after the beam is turned on. The characterization of the temporal behavior of the thermal nonlinear response provides important information about the nonlocality associated with heat diffusion inside the fiber, thus enabling studies of long...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...
Engineering quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals for frequency conversion of lasers
Chen, Baoqin; Hong, Lihong; Hu, Chenyang; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Rongjuan; Li, Zhiyuan
2018-03-01
Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to extend the laser wavelength range. Quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) are artificial materials composed of domain-inversion structures whose sign of nonlinear coefficients are modulated with desire to implement quasi-phase matching (QPM) required for nonlinear frequency conversion. These structures can offer various reciprocal lattice vectors (RLVs) to compensate the phase-mismatching during the quadratic nonlinear optical processes, including second-harmonic generation (SHG), sum-frequency generation and the cascaded third-harmonic generation (THG). The modulation pattern of the nonlinear coefficients is flexible, which can be one-dimensional or two-dimensional (2D), be periodic, quasi-periodic, aperiodic, chirped, or super-periodic. As a result, these NPCs offer very flexible QPM scheme to satisfy various nonlinear optics and laser frequency conversion problems via design of the modulation patterns and RLV spectra. In particular, we introduce the electric poling technique for fabricating QPM structures, a simple effective nonlinear coefficient model for efficiently and precisely evaluating the performance of QPM structures, the concept of super-QPM and super-periodically poled lithium niobate for finely tuning nonlinear optical interactions, the design of 2D ellipse QPM NPC structures enabling continuous tunability of SHG in a broad bandwidth by simply changing the transport direction of pump light, and chirped QPM structures that exhibit broadband RLVs and allow for simultaneous radiation of broadband SHG, THG, HHG and thus coherent white laser from a single crystal. All these technical, theoretical, and physical studies on QPM NPCs can help to gain a deeper insight on the mechanisms, approaches, and routes for flexibly controlling the interaction of lasers with various QPM NPCs for high-efficiency frequency conversion and creation of novel lasers.
Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices for Nonlinear Signal Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Yi
, membranization of InP/InGaAs structure and wet etching. Experimental investigation of the switching dynamics of InP photonic crystal nanocavity structures are carried out using short-pulse homodyne pump-probe techniques, both in the linear and nonlinear region where the cavity is perturbed by a relatively small......This thesis deals with the investigation of InP material based photonic crystal cavity membrane structures, both experimentally and theoretically. The work emphasizes on the understanding of the physics underlying the structures’ nonlinear properties and their applications for all-optical signal...... processing. Based on the previous fabrication recipe developed in our III-V platform, several processing techniques are developed and optimized for the fabrication of InP photonic crystal membrane structures. Several key issues are identified to ensure a good device quality such as air hole size control...
Pan, Shoukui; Okano, Y.; Tsunekawa, S.; Fukuda, T.
1993-03-01
The Kyropoulus method was used to grow nonlinear optical organic crystals ABP (4-aminobenzophenone). The crystals were characterized by nonlinear optical measurements and had a large effect of frequency doubling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1993-11-01
Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.
1993-01-01
Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alain Mignot
2005-09-01
Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri
2008-01-01
The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...
A nonlinear theory for elastic plates with application to characterizing paper properties
M. W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik
1984-03-01
A theory of thin plates which is physically as well as kinematically nonlinear is, developed and used to characterize elastic material behavior for arbitrary stretching and bending deformations. It is developed from a few clearly defined assumptions and uses a unique treatment of strain energy. An effective strain concept is introduced to simplify the theory to a...
Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 Ontario (Canada)
2008-07-14
A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration.
Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Mahi R
2008-01-01
A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration
Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dae Woo Park
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.
A non-linear elastic constitutive framework for replicating plastic deformation in solids.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, Scott Alan; Schunk, Peter Randall
2014-02-01
Ductile metals and other materials typically deform plastically under large applied loads; a behavior most often modeled using plastic deformation constitutive models. However, it is possible to capture some of the key behaviors of plastic deformation using only the framework for nonlinear elastic mechanics. In this paper, we develop a phenomenological, hysteretic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model that captures many of the features expected of a plastic deformation model. This model is based on calculating a secant modulus directly from a materials stress-strain curve. Scalar stress and strain values are obtained in three dimensions by using the von Mises invariants. Hysteresis is incorporated by tracking an additional history variable and assuming an elastic unloading response. This model is demonstrated in both single- and multi-element simulations under varying strain conditions.
Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.
Park, Dae Woo
2015-01-01
Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.
Finsler Geometry of Nonlinear Elastic Solids with Internal Structure
2017-01-01
the locally relaxed intermediate state of the crystal, following earlier classical differential–geometric treatments by the Japanese school [24]. Kondo...Remark 8. Components of F and f are defined in an identical fashion by Bejancu [12]. Tensor definitions (2.39) and (2.40) potentially differ in two ways...transformations (i.e., push-forwards and pull-backs) of vectors and tensors to be calculated in a completely analogous fashion to transformations between
Nonlinear to Linear Elastic Code Coupling in 2-D Axisymmetric Media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Preston, Leiph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-08-01
Explosions within the earth nonlinearly deform the local media, but at typical seismological observation distances, the seismic waves can be considered linear. Although nonlinear algorithms can simulate explosions in the very near field well, these codes are computationally expensive and inaccurate at propagating these signals to great distances. A linearized wave propagation code, coupled to a nonlinear code, provides an efficient mechanism to both accurately simulate the explosion itself and to propagate these signals to distant receivers. To this end we have coupled Sandia's nonlinear simulation algorithm CTH to a linearized elastic wave propagation code for 2-D axisymmetric media (axiElasti) by passing information from the nonlinear to the linear code via time-varying boundary conditions. In this report, we first develop the 2-D axisymmetric elastic wave equations in cylindrical coordinates. Next we show how we design the time-varying boundary conditions passing information from CTH to axiElasti, and finally we demonstrate the coupling code via a simple study of the elastic radius.
Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole
2010-01-01
realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio......Transformation optics is a powerful concept for designing novel optical components such as high transmission waveguides and cloaking devices. The selection of specific transformations is a non-unique problem. Here we reveal that transformations which allow for all dielectric and broadband optical...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...
Control of a nonlinear ice cream crystallization process
Casenave, Céline; Dochain, Denis; Alvarez, Graciela; Arellano, Marcela; Benkhelifa, Hayat; Leducq, Denis
2013-01-01
International audience; In the ice cream industry, the type of final desired product (large cartons (sqrounds) or ice creams on a stick) determine the viscosity at which the ice cream has to be produced. One of the objectives of the ice cream crystallization processes is therefore to produce an ice cream of specified viscosity. In this paper, a nonlinear control strategy is proposed for the control of the viscosity of the ice cream in a continuous crystallizer. It has been designed on the bas...
Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A
2015-03-12
Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.
Nonlinear spatial mode imaging of hybrid photonic crystal fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko
2013-01-01
Degenerate spontaneous four wave mixing is studied for the rst time in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal ber, where light con nement is achieved by combined index- and bandgap guiding. Four wave mixing products are generated on the edges of the bandgaps, which is veri ed by numerical and ...... and experimental results. Since the core mode is in resonance with cladding modes near the bandedges an unconventional measurement technique is used, in this work named nonlinear spatial mode imaging....
Lefèvre, Victor; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar
2017-02-01
This paper presents an analytical framework to construct approximate homogenization solutions for the macroscopic elastic dielectric response - under finite deformations and finite electric fields - of dielectric elastomer composites with two-phase isotropic particulate microstructures. The central idea consists in employing the homogenization solution derived in Part I of this work for ideal elastic dielectric composites within the context of a nonlinear comparison medium method - this is derived as an extension of the comparison medium method of Lopez-Pamies et al. (2013) in nonlinear elastostatics to the coupled realm of nonlinear electroelastostatics - to generate in turn a corresponding solution for composite materials with non-ideal elastic dielectric constituents. Complementary to this analytical framework, a hybrid finite-element formulation to construct homogenization solutions numerically (in three dimensions) is also presented. The proposed analytical framework is utilized to work out a general approximate homogenization solution for non-Gaussian dielectric elastomers filled with nonlinear elastic dielectric particles that may exhibit polarization saturation. The solution applies to arbitrary (non-percolative) isotropic distributions of filler particles. By construction, it is exact in the limit of small deformations and moderate electric fields. For finite deformations and finite electric fields, its accuracy is demonstrated by means of direct comparisons with finite-element solutions. Aimed at gaining physical insight into the extreme enhancement in electrostriction properties displayed by emerging dielectric elastomer composites, various cases wherein the filler particles are of poly- and mono-disperse sizes and exhibit different types of elastic dielectric behavior are discussed in detail. Contrary to an initial conjecture in the literature, it is found (inter alia) that the isotropic addition of a small volume fraction of stiff (semi
Equivalent Representation Form of Oscillators with Elastic and Damping Nonlinear Terms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Elías-Zúñiga
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we consider the nonlinear equivalent representation form of oscillators that exhibit nonlinearities in both the elastic and the damping terms. The nonlinear damping effects are considered to be described by fractional power velocity terms which provide better predictions of the dissipative effects observed in some physical systems. It is shown that their effects on the system dynamics response are equivalent to a shift in the coefficient of the linear damping term of a Duffing oscillator. Then, its numerical integration predictions, based on its equivalent representation form given by the well-known forced, damped Duffing equation, are compared to the numerical integration values of its original equations of motion. The applicability of the proposed procedure is evaluated by studying the dynamics response of four nonlinear oscillators that arise in some engineering applications such as nanoresonators, microresonators, human wrist movements, structural engineering design, and chain dynamics of polymeric materials at high extensibility, among others.
Nonlinear MIMO Control of a Continuous Cooling Crystallizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Alberto Quintana-Hernández
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, a feedback control algorithm was developed based on geometric control theory. A nonisothermal seeded continuous crystallizer model was used to test the algorithm. The control objectives were the stabilization of the third moment of the crystal size distribution (μ3 and the crystallizer temperature (T; the manipulated variables were the stirring rate and the coolant flow rate. The nonlinear control (NLC was tested at operating conditions established within the metastable zone. Step changes of magnitudes ±0.0015 and ±0.5°C were introduced into the set point values of the third moment and crystallizer temperature, respectively. In addition, a step change of ±1°C was introduced as a disturbance in the feeding temperature. Closed-loop stability was analyzed by calculating the eigenvalues of the internal dynamics. The system presented a stable dynamic behavior when the operation conditions maintain the crystallizer concentration within the metastable zone. Closed-loop simulations with the NLC were compared with simulations that used a classic PID controller. The PID controllers were tuned by minimizing the integral of the absolute value of the error (IAE criterion. The results showed that the NLC provided a suitable option for continuous crystallization control. For all analyzed cases, the IAEs obtained with NLC were smaller than those obtained with the PID controller.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph; Kumararaman, S.
2008-01-01
Gamma glycine has been successfully synthesized by taking glycine and potassium chloride and single crystals have been grown by solvent evaporation method for the first time. The grown single crystals have been analyzed with XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA) measurements. Its mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness measurements. Its nonlinear optical property has been tested by Kurtz powder technique. Its optical behavior was examined by UV-vis., and found that the crystal is transparent in the region between 240 and 1200 nm. Hence, it may be very much useful for the second harmonic generation (SHG) applications
Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroon Rungamornrat
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.
Whiteley, J. P.
2017-10-01
Large, incompressible elastic deformations are governed by a system of nonlinear partial differential equations. The finite element discretisation of these partial differential equations yields a system of nonlinear algebraic equations that are usually solved using Newton's method. On each iteration of Newton's method, a linear system must be solved. We exploit the structure of the Jacobian matrix to propose a preconditioner, comprising two steps. The first step is the solution of a relatively small, symmetric, positive definite linear system using the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. This is followed by a small number of multigrid V-cycles for a larger linear system. Through the use of exemplar elastic deformations, the preconditioner is demonstrated to facilitate the iterative solution of the linear systems arising. The number of GMRES iterations required has only a very weak dependence on the number of degrees of freedom of the linear systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.
2011-01-01
This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.
All-optical image processing with nonlinear liquid crystals
Hong, Kuan-Lun
Liquid crystals are fascinating materials because of several advantages such as large optical birefringence, dielectric anisotropic, and easily compatible to most kinds of materials. Compared to the electro-optical properties of liquid crystals widely applied in displays and switching application, transparency through most parts of wavelengths also makes liquid crystals a better candidate for all-optical processing. The fast response time of liquid crystals resulting from multiple nonlinear effects, such as thermal and density effect can even make real-time processing realized. In addition, blue phase liquid crystals with spontaneously self-assembled three dimensional cubic structures attracted academic attention. In my dissertation, I will divide the whole contents into six parts. In Chapter 1, a brief introduction of liquid crystals is presented, including the current progress and the classification of liquid crystals. Anisotropy and laser induced director axis reorientation is presented in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, I will solve the electrostrictive coupled equation and analyze the laser induced thermal and density effect in both static and dynamic ways. Furthermore, a dynamic simulation of laser induced density fluctuation is proposed by applying finite element method. In Chapter 4, two image processing setups are presented. One is the intensity inversion experiment in which intensity dependent phase modulation is the mechanism. The other is the wavelength conversion experiment in which I can read the invisible image with a visible probe beam. Both experiments are accompanied with simulations to realize the matching between the theories and practical experiment results. In Chapter 5, optical properties of blue phase liquid crystals will be introduced and discussed. The results of grating diffractions and thermal refractive index gradient are presented in this chapter. In addition, fiber arrays imaging and switching with BPLCs will be included in this chapter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruas, V.
1982-09-01
A class of simplicial finite elements for solving incompressible elasticity problems in n-dimensional space, n=2 or 3, is presented. An asymmetric structure of the shape functions with respect to the centroid of the simplex, renders them particularly stable in the large strain case, in which the incompressibility condition is nonlinear. It is proved that under certain assembling conditions of the elements, there exists a solution to the corresponding discrete problems. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the method. (Author) [pt
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk
2009-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 14-14 ISSN 1213-3825. [NDT in PROGRESS. 12.11.2009-14.11.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * ESAM * time reversal (TR) * TR-NEWS imaging * tomography * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
A nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupled hysteretic constitutive model for magnetostrictive alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Ke; Kou Yong; Zheng Xiaojing
2012-01-01
This paper presents a general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive alloys. The model considered here is thermodynamically motivated and based on the Gibbs free energy function. A nonlinear part of the elastic strain arising from magnetic domain rotation induced by the pre-stress is taken into account. Furthermore, the movement of the domain walls is incorporated to describe hysteresis based on Jiles–Atherton's model. Then a set of closed and analytical expressions of the constitutive law for the magnetostrictive rods and films are obtained, and the parameters appearing in the model can be determined by those measurable experiments in mechanics and physics. Comparing this model with other existing models in this field, the quantitative results show that the relationships obtained here are more effective to describe the effects of the pre-stress or in-plane residual stress and ambient temperature on the magnetization or the magnetostriction hysteresis loops. - Highlights: ► A general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive materials is proposed. ► Model is thermodynamically motivated and the reversible magnetic domain rotation and irreversible domain wall motion are taken. ► The predictions are in good accordance with the experimental data including both rods and films. ► Magnetostrictive alloys are sensitive to environment temperature and pre-stress or residual stress.
REDUCED ISOTROPIC CRYSTAL MODEL WITH RESPECT TO THE FOURTH-ORDER ELASTIC MODULI
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O. Burlayenko
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Using a reduced isotropic crystal model the relationship between the fourth-order elastic moduli of an isotropic medium and the independent components of the fourth-order elastic moduli tensor of real crystals of various crystal systems is found. To calculate the coefficients of these relations, computer algebra systems Redberry and Mathematica for working with high order tensors in the symbolic and explicit form were used, in light of the overly complex computation. In an isotropic medium, there are four independent fourth order elastic moduli. This is due to the presence of four invariants for an eighth-rank tensor in the three-dimensional space, that has symmetries over the pairs of indices. As an example, the moduli of elasticity of an isotropic medium corresponding to certain crystals of cubic system are given (LiF, NaCl, MgO, CaF2. From the obtained results it can be seen that the reduced isotropic crystal model can be most effectively applied to high-symmetry crystal systems.
Coulomb-like elastic interaction induced by symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystal colloids.
Lee, Beom-Kyu; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lev, Bohdan
2017-11-21
It is generally thought that colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal do not generate the first multipole term called deformation elastic charge as it violates the mechanical equilibrium. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that this is not the case, and deformation elastic charges, as well as dipoles and quadrupoles, can be induced through anisotropic boundary conditions. We report the first direct observation of Coulomb-like elastic interactions between colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal. The behaviour of two spherical colloidal particles with asymmetric anchoring conditions induced by asymmetric alignment is investigated experimentally; the interaction of two particles located at the boundary of twist and parallel aligned regions is observed. We demonstrate that such particles produce deformation elastic charges and interact by Coulomb-like interactions.
Nonlinear phonons in high-Tc superconductors mixed crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadzhiev, B.R.; Dzhavadov, N.A.
1998-01-01
The integrodifferential kinetic equation which is a generalization of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism is introduced. The peculiarities of nonlinear kinetics are investigated by entering the nonlocal function, which is a quantitative measure of time dispersion. The classification nonlocal function is made by its Hausdorff dimensionality d c . It is shown that in the case d c c =1, the relaxation equation is the equation of damping harmonic oscillator. In the case d c >1, the relaxation equation contains the time derivation arbitrary high order. After linearization of the corresponding dynamic equations near the corresponding nonlinear static equations the dispersion and then after spatial averaging, temperature and frequency dependency of corresponding dynamic susceptibility have been determined. It is shown that in the cases d c c >1 the temperature evolution system alongside with the soft mode is accompanied by the modes which depend nonlinearly on the temperature. The physical nature of quasiscattering in the incommensurate phases of layered crystals is studied. The obtained theoretical results are applied to the layered HTSC crystals. (author)
Quasi-elastic neutron line broadening in nematic liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvikl, B.; Dimic, V.; Dusic, M.; Kristof, E.; Srebotnjak, E.
1979-01-01
On the basis of a new random walk torsional oscillations model of the amplitude φ 0 of rigid flat molecules a quasi-elastic neutron line broadening has been calculated and the results compared to the measurements obtained on the sample of cholesteryl propionate. A good agreement was obtained. (author)
Elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials in the phase-field crystal model
Wang, Zi-Le; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Zhirong
2018-04-01
A general procedure is developed to investigate the elastic response and calculate the elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials through continuum field modeling, particularly the phase-field crystal (PFC) models. It is found that for a complete description of system response to elastic deformation, the variations of all the quantities of lattice wave vectors, their density amplitudes (including the corresponding anisotropic variation and degeneracy breaking), the average atomic density, and system volume should be incorporated. The quantitative and qualitative results of elastic constant calculations highly depend on the physical interpretation of the density field used in the model, and also importantly, on the intrinsic pressure that usually pre-exists in the model system. A formulation based on thermodynamics is constructed to account for the effects caused by constant pre-existing stress during the homogeneous elastic deformation, through the introducing of a generalized Gibbs free energy and an effective finite strain tensor used for determining the elastic constants. The elastic properties of both solid and liquid states can be well produced by this unified approach, as demonstrated by an analysis for the liquid state and numerical evaluations for the bcc solid phase. The numerical calculations of bcc elastic constants and Poisson's ratio through this method generate results that are consistent with experimental conditions, and better match the data of bcc Fe given by molecular dynamics simulations as compared to previous work. The general theory developed here is applicable to the study of different types of stressed or unstressed material systems under elastic deformation.
Oscillations of a Beam on a Non-Linear Elastic Foundation under Periodic Loads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald Mark Santee
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The complexity of the response of a beam resting on a nonlinear elastic foundation makes the design of this structural element rather challenging. Particularly because, apparently, there is no algebraic relation for its load bearing capacity as a function of the problem parameters. Such an algebraic relation would be desirable for design purposes. Our aim is to obtain this relation explicitly. Initially, a mathematical model of a flexible beam resting on a non-linear elastic foundation is presented, and its non-linear vibrations and instabilities are investigated using several numerical methods. At a second stage, a parametric study is carried out, using analytical and semi-analytical perturbation methods. So, the influence of the various physical and geometrical parameters of the mathematical model on the non-linear response of the beam is evaluated, in particular, the relation between the natural frequency and the vibration amplitude and the first period doubling and saddle-node bifurcations. These two instability phenomena are the two basic mechanisms associated with the loss of stability of the beam. Finally Melnikov's method is used to determine an algebraic expression for the boundary that separates a safe from an unsafe region in the force parameters space. It is shown that this can be used as a basis for a reliable engineering design criterion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wang Gang; Zhao Honggang; Liu Yaozong; Wen Xisen
2007-01-01
The directional propagation characteristics of elastic wave during pass bands in two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals are analyzed by using the lumped-mass method to yield the phase constant surface. The directions and regions of wave propagation in phononic crystals for certain frequencies during pass bands are predicted with the iso-frequency contour lines of the phase constant surface, which are then validated with the harmonic responses of a finite two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals with 16x16 unit cells. These results are useful for controlling the wave propagation in the pass bands of phononic crystals
Highly Nonlinear and Birefringent Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Revathi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We propose and design a spiral photonic crystal fiber with elliptical air holes for achieving high birefringence, large nonlinearity, and negative dispersion. The structure is designed using chalcogenide glass (As2S3 for different ellipticity ratios of air holes in the cladding and the effect on various properties is observed. The proposed structure has birefringence of the order 10−2, nonlinearity of 26739.42 W−1 m−1, and dispersion of −1136.69 at 0.85 μm. An accurate numerical approach based on finite element method is used for the design and simulation of the structure. Due to high birefringence and negative dispersion, the proposed structure can be used for polarization control and dispersion compensation, respectively.
Nonlinear ultrafast optical response in organic molecular crystals
Rahman, Talat S.; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Leuenberger, Michael N.
2012-02-01
We analyze possible nonlinear excitonic effects in the organic molecule crystals by using a combined time-dependent DFT and many-body approach. In particular, we analyze possible effects of the time-dependent (retarded)interaction between different types of excitations, Frenkel excitons, charge transfer excitons and excimers, on the electric and the optical response of the system. We pay special attention to the case of constant electric field and ultrafast pulses, including that of four-wave mixing experiments. As a specific application we examine the optical excitations of pentacene nanocrystals and compare the results with available experimental data.[1] Our results demostrate that the nonlinear effects can play an important role in the optical response of these systems. [1] A. Kabakchiev, ``Scanning Tunneling Luminescence of Pentacene Nanocrystals'', PhD Thesis (EPFL, Lausanne, 2010).
Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R; Grabar, A
2009-01-01
We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn 2 P 2 S 6 crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.
Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.
Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R
2009-07-01
We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.
Cox, B. S.; Groh, R. M. J.; Avitabile, D.; Pirrera, A.
2018-07-01
The buckling and post-buckling behaviour of slender structures is increasingly being harnessed for smart functionalities. Equally, the post-buckling regime of many traditional engineering structures is not being used for design and may therefore harbour latent load-bearing capacity for further structural efficiency. Both applications can benefit from a robust means of modifying and controlling the post-buckling behaviour for a specific purpose. To this end, we introduce a structural design paradigm termed modal nudging, which can be used to tailor the post-buckling response of slender engineering structures without any significant increase in mass. Modal nudging uses deformation modes of stable post-buckled equilibria to perturb the undeformed baseline geometry of the structure imperceptibly, thereby favouring the seeded post-buckling response over potential alternatives. The benefits of this technique are enhanced control over the post-buckling behaviour, such as modal differentiation for smart structures that use snap-buckling for shape adaptation, or alternatively, increased load-carrying capacity, increased compliance or a shift from imperfection sensitivity to imperfection insensitivity. Although these concepts are, in theory, of general applicability, we concentrate here on planar frame structures analysed using the nonlinear finite element method and numerical continuation procedures. Using these computational techniques, we show that planar frame structures may exhibit isolated regions of stable equilibria in otherwise unstable post-buckling regimes, or indeed stable equilibria entirely disconnected from the natural structural response. In both cases, the load-carrying capacity of these isolated stable equilibria is greater than the natural structural response of the frames. Using the concept of modal nudging it is possible to "nudge" the frames onto these equilibrium paths of greater load-carrying capacity. Due to the scale invariance of modal nudging
Geometric methods in the elastic theory of membranes in liquid crystal phases
Ji Xing Liu; Yu Zhang Xie
1999-01-01
This book contains a comprehensive description of the mechanical equilibrium and deformation of membranes as a surface problem in differential geometry. Following the pioneering work by W Helfrich, the fluid membrane is seen as a nematic or smectic - A liquid crystal film and its elastic energy form is deduced exactly from the curvature elastic theory of the liquid crystals. With surface variation the minimization of the energy at fixed osmotical pressure and surface tension gives a completely new surface equation in geometry that involves potential interest in mathematics. The investigations
Third-order elastic moduli for alkali-halide crystals possessing the sodium chloride structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, U.
2010-01-01
The values of third-order elastic moduli for alkali halides, having NaCl-type crystal structure are calculated according to the Born-Mayer potential model, considering the repulsive interactions up to the second nearest neighbours and calculating the values of the potential parameters for each crystal, independently, from the compressibility data. This work presents the first published account of the calculation of the third-order elastic moduli taking the actual value of the potential parameter unlike the earlier works. Third-order elastic constants have been computed for alkali halides at 0 and 300 K. The results of the third-order elastic constants are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. Very good agreement between experimental and theoretical third-order elastic constant data (except C 123 ) is found. We have also computed the values of the pressure derivatives of second-order elastic constants and Anderson-Grueneisen parameter for alkali halides, which agree reasonably well with the experimental values, indicating the satisfactory nature of our computed data for third-order elastic constants.
Extreme control of impulse transmission by cylinder-based nonlinear phononic crystals
Chaunsali, Rajesh; Toles, Matthew; Yang, Jinkyu; Kim, Eunho
2017-10-01
We present a novel device that can offer two extremes of elastic wave propagation - nearly complete transmission and strong attenuation under impulse excitation. The mechanism of this highly tunable device relies on intermixing effects of dispersion and nonlinearity. The device consists of identical cylinders arranged in a chain, which interact with each other as per nonlinear Hertz contact law. For a 'dimer' configuration, i.e., two different contact angles alternating in the chain, we analytically, numerically, and experimentally show that impulse excitation can either propagate as a localized wave, or it can travel as a highly dispersive wave. Remarkably, these extremes can be achieved in this periodic arrangement simply by in-situ control of contact angles between cylinders. We close the discussion by highlighting the key characteristics of the mechanisms that facilitate strong attenuation of incident impulse. These include low-to-high frequency scattering, and turbulence-like cascading in a periodic system. We thus envision that these adaptive, cylinder-based nonlinear phononic crystals, in conjunction with conventional impact mitigation mechanisms, could be used to design highly tunable and efficient impact manipulation devices.
On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms
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Ida Mascolo
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.
A 2D nonlinear multiring model for blood flow in large elastic arteries
Ghigo, Arthur R.; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves
2017-12-01
In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional nonlinear ;multiring; model to compute blood flow in axisymmetric elastic arteries. This model is designed to overcome the numerical difficulties of three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction simulations of blood flow without using the over-simplifications necessary to obtain one-dimensional blood flow models. This multiring model is derived by integrating over concentric rings of fluid the simplified long-wave Navier-Stokes equations coupled to an elastic model of the arterial wall. The resulting system of balance laws provides a unified framework in which both the motion of the fluid and the displacement of the wall are dealt with simultaneously. The mathematical structure of the multiring model allows us to use a finite volume method that guarantees the conservation of mass and the positivity of the numerical solution and can deal with nonlinear flows and large deformations of the arterial wall. We show that the finite volume numerical solution of the multiring model provides at a reasonable computational cost an asymptotically valid description of blood flow velocity profiles and other averaged quantities (wall shear stress, flow rate, ...) in large elastic and quasi-rigid arteries. In particular, we validate the multiring model against well-known solutions such as the Womersley or the Poiseuille solutions as well as against steady boundary layer solutions in quasi-rigid constricted and expanded tubes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jessamine P Winer
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Most tissue cells grown in sparse cultures on linearly elastic substrates typically display a small, round phenotype on soft substrates and become increasingly spread as the modulus of the substrate increases until their spread area reaches a maximum value. As cell density increases, individual cells retain the same stiffness-dependent differences unless they are very close or in molecular contact. On nonlinear strain-stiffening fibrin gels, the same cell types become maximally spread even when the low strain elastic modulus would predict a round morphology, and cells are influenced by the presence of neighbors hundreds of microns away. Time lapse microscopy reveals that fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells on fibrin deform the substrate by several microns up to five cell lengths away from their plasma membrane through a force limited mechanism. Atomic force microscopy and rheology confirm that these strains locally and globally stiffen the gel, depending on cell density, and this effect leads to long distance cell-cell communication and alignment. Thus cells are acutely responsive to the nonlinear elasticity of their substrates and can manipulate this rheological property to induce patterning.
On the geometrically nonlinear elastic response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms
Mascolo, Ida; Amendola, Ada; Zuccaro, Giulio; Feo, Luciano; Fraternali, Fernando
2018-03-01
The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class ϑ=1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables) or compression (bars), under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either 'standard' or 'expanded' configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a 'thick' and a 'slender' model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.
Third-order nonlinear optical properties of ADP crystal
Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Chai, Xiangxu; Sun, Yuxiang; Sui, Tingting; Sun, Xun; Xu, Xinguang
2018-05-01
By using the Z-scan method, we investigated the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of ADP crystal at different wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) and different orientations ([001], [100], [110], I and II). The experimental data were fitted by NLO theory, to give out the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β 2 and the nonlinear refractive index n 2. When the light source changed from a 40 ps, 1064 nm fundamental laser to a 30 ps, 355 nm third-harmonic-generation (THG) laser, the β 2 value increased about 5 times (0.2 × 10‑2 → 1 × 10‑2 cm GW‑1), and the n 2 value increased about 1.5 times (1.5 × 10‑16 → 2.2 × 10‑16 cm2 W‑1). Among all of the orientations, the [110] sample exhibits the smallest β 2, and the second smallest n 2. It indicates that this orientation and its surroundings will be the preferred directions for high-power laser applications of ADP crystal.
Structural, Linear, and Nonlinear Optical and Mechanical Properties of New Organic L-Serine Crystal
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K. Rajesh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear optical single crystal of organic amino acid L-Serine (LS was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility study of the compound was measured and metastable zone width was found. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for the grown crystal. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the crystal were confirmed by UV-Vis analysis and powder SHG tester. FT-IR spectrum was recorded and functional groups were analyzed. Vickers’ microhardness studies showed the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold value of the crystal was calculated. Photoconductivity studies reveal the conductivity of the crystal.
Hydrostatic pressure dependence of elastic constants for lead fluoride crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, R.K.; Rao, C.N.
1988-10-01
The variations of the second order elastic constants (SOEC) and longitudinal and shear moduli with hydrostatic pressure for the lead fluoride have been investigated theoretically, for the first time, by means of a three-body force potential (TBP) model. The significance of three-body interactions (TBI) has been clearly demonstrated in these investigations. The present TBP model has reproduced the pressure derivatives of the SOEC of PbF more satisfactorily than the shell model and other model calculations. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Corelli: Efficient single crystal diffraction with elastic discrimination
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Here, we discuss the potential of the cross-correlation technique for efficient measurement of single crystal diffuse scattering with energy discrimination, as will be implemented in a novel instrument, Corelli. Utilizing full experiment simulations, we show that this technique readily leads up to a fifty-fold gain in efficiency, ...
Nonlinear optical and electroabsorption spectra of polydiacetylene crystals and films
Mukhopadhyay, D.; Soos, Z. G.
1996-01-01
Vibronic structure of nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficients is developed within the Condon approximation, displaced harmonic oscillators, and crude adiabatic states. The displacements of backbone modes of conjugated polymers are taken from vibrational data on the ground and 1B excited state. NLO resonances are modeled by three excitations and transition moments taken from Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) theory and optimized to polydiacetylene (PDA) spectra in crystals and films, with blue-shifted 1B exciton. The joint analysis of third-harmonic-generation, two-photon absorption, and nondegenerate four-wave-mixing spectra of PDA crystals and films shows weak two-photon absorption to 2A below 1B, leading to overlapping resonances in the THG spectrum, strong two-photon absorption to an nA state some 35% above 1B, and weak Raman resonances in nondegenerate FWM spectra. The full π-π* spectrum contributes to Stark shifts and field-induced transitions, as shown by PPP results for PDA oligomers. The Stark shift dominates high-resolution electroabsorption (EA) spectra of PDA crystals below 10 K. The close correspondence between EA and the first-derivative I'(ω) of the linear absorption above the 1B exciton in PDA crystals provides an experimental separation of vibrational and electronic contributions that limits any even-parity state in this 0.5 eV interval. An oscillator-strength sum rule is applied to the convergence of PDA oligomers with increasing length, N, and the crystal oscillator strengths are obtained without adjustable parameters. The sum rule for the 1B exciton implies large transition moments to higher-energy Ag states, whose locations in recent models are contrasted to PPP results. Joint analysis of NLO and EA spectra clarifies when a few electronic excitations are sufficient, distinguishes between vibrational and electronic contributions, and supports similar π-electron interactions in conjugated molecules and polymers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haldipur, P.; Margetan, F. J.; Thompson, R. B.
2006-01-01
Single-crystal elastic stiffness constants are important input parameters for many calculations in material science. There are well established methods to measure these constants using single-crystal specimens, but such specimens are not always readily available. The ultrasonic properties of metal polycrystals, such as velocity, attenuation, and backscattered grain noise characteristics, depend in part on the single-crystal elastic constants. In this work we consider the estimation of elastic constants from UT measurements and grain-sizing data. We confine ourselves to a class of particularly simple polycrystalline microstructures, found in some jet-engine Nickel alloys, which are single-phase, cubic, equiaxed, and untextured. In past work we described a method to estimate the single-crystal elastic constants from measured ultrasonic velocity and attenuation data accompanied by metallographic analysis of grain size. However, that methodology assumes that all attenuation is due to grain scattering, and thus is not valid if appreciable absorption is present. In this work we describe an alternative approach which uses backscattered grain noise data in place of attenuation data. Efforts to validate the method using a pure copper specimen are discussed, and new results for two jet-engine Nickel alloys are presented
Optimized Wavelength-Tuned Nonlinear Frequency Conversion Using a Liquid Crystal Clad Waveguide
Stephen, Mark A. (Inventor)
2018-01-01
An optimized wavelength-tuned nonlinear frequency conversion process using a liquid crystal clad waveguide. The process includes implanting ions on a top surface of a lithium niobate crystal to form an ion implanted lithium niobate layer. The process also includes utilizing a tunable refractive index of a liquid crystal to rapidly change an effective index of the lithium niobate crystal.
Nonlinear mechanics of surface growth for cylindrical and spherical elastic bodies
Sozio, Fabio; Yavari, Arash
2017-01-01
In this paper we formulate the initial-boundary value problems of accreting cylindrical and spherical nonlinear elastic solids in a geometric framework. It is assumed that the body grows as a result of addition of new (stress-free or pre-stressed) material on part of its boundary. We construct Riemannian material manifolds for a growing body with metrics explicitly depending on the history of applied external loads and deformation during accretion and the growth velocity. We numerically solve the governing equilibrium equations in the case of neo-Hookean solids and compare the accretion and residual stresses with those calculated using the linear mechanics of surface growth.
Kamali, M.; Shamsi, M.; Saidi, A. R.
2018-03-01
As a first endeavor, the effect of nonlinear elastic foundation on the postbuckling behavior of smart magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) composite nanotubes is investigated. The composite nanotube is affected by a non-uniform thermal environment. A typical MEE composite nanotube consists of microtubules (MTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a MEE cylindrical nanoshell for smart control. It is assumed that the nanoscale layers of the system are coupled by a polymer matrix or filament network depending on the application. In addition to thermal loads, magneto-electro-mechanical loads are applied to the composite nanostructure. Length scale effects are taken into account using the nonlocal elasticity theory. The principle of virtual work and von Karman's relations are used to derive the nonlinear governing differential equations of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes. Using Galerkin's method, nonlinear critical buckling loads are determined. Various types of non-uniform temperature distribution in the radial direction are considered. Finally, the effects of various parameters such as the nonlinear constant of elastic medium, thermal loading factor and small scale coefficient on the postbuckling of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes are studied.
The study of the elasticity of spider dragline silk with liquid crystal model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui Linying; Liu Fei; Ouyang Zhongcan
2009-01-01
Spider dragline silk is an optimal biomaterial with a combination of high tensile strength and high elasticity, and it has long been suggested to belong to liquid crystalline materials. However, a satisfactory liquid crystal description for the mechanical properties of the dragline is still missing. To solve the long existing problem, we generalized the Maier-Saupe theory of nematics to construct a liquid crystal model of the deformation mechanism of the dragline silk. We show that the remarkable elasticity of the dragline can be understood as the isotropic-nematic phase transition of the chain network with the beginning of the transition corresponding to the yield point. The calculated curve fits well with the measurements and the yield point is obtained self-consistently within our framework. The present theory can also qualitatively account for the drop of stress in supercontracted spider silk. All these comprehensive agreements between theory and experiments strongly indicate the dragline to belong to liquid crystal materials.
Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pugno, Nicola M. [Laboratory of Bio-Inspired and Graphene Nanomechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2015-10-19
In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations.
Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco; Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.
2015-01-01
In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations
A New Theory of Non-Linear Thermo-Elastic Constitutive Equation of Isotropic Hyperelastic Materials
Li, Chen; Liao, Yufei
2018-03-01
Considering the influence of temperature and strain variables on materials. According to the relationship of conjugate stress-strain, a complete and irreducible non-linear constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is derived and the constitutive equations of 16 types of isotropic hyperelastic materials are given we study the transformation methods and routes of 16 kinds of constitutive equations and the study proves that transformation of two forms of constitutive equation. As an example of application, the non-linear thermo-elastic constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is combined with the natural vulcanized rubber experimental data in the existing literature base on MATLAB, The results show that the fitting accuracy is satisfactory.
Detecting Damage in Composite Material Using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy Methods
Meo, Michele; Polimeno, Umberto; Zumpano, Giuseppe
2008-05-01
Modern aerospace structures make increasing use of fibre reinforced plastic composites, due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, due to their brittleness, low velocity impact can cause delaminations beneath the surface, while the surface may appear to be undamaged upon visual inspection. Such damage is called barely visible impact damage (BVID). Such internal damages lead to significant reduction in local strengths and ultimately could lead to catastrophic failures. It is therefore important to detect and monitor damages in high loaded composite components to receive an early warning for a well timed maintenance of the aircraft. Non-linear ultrasonic spectroscopy methods are promising damage detection and material characterization tools. In this paper, two different non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) methods are presented: single mode nonlinear resonance ultrasound (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation technique (NWMS). The NEWS methods were applied to detect delamination damage due to low velocity impact (<12 J) on various composite plates. The results showed that the proposed methodology appear to be highly sensitive to the presence of damage with very promising future NDT and structural health monitoring applications.
Karuppasamy, P.; Senthil Pandian, Muthu; Ramasamy, P.; Verma, Sunil
2018-05-01
The optically good quality single crystals of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) with maximum dimension of 15 × 10 × 5 mm3 were grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) at room temperature. The cell dimensions of the grown TP4N crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and the crystalline purity was confirmed and planes were indexed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis. Functional groups of TP4N crystal were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. The optical transmittance of the grown crystal was determined by the UV-Vis NIR spectral analysis and it has good optical transparency in the entire visible region. The band tail (Urbach) energy of the grown crystal was analyzed and it appears to be minimum, which indicates that the TP4N has good crystallinity. The position of valence band (Ev) and conduction band (Ec) of the TP4N have been determined from the electron affinity energy (EA) and the ionization energy (EI) of its elements and using the optical band gap. The thermal behaviour of the grown crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Vickers microhardness analysis was carried out to identify the mechanical stability of the grown crystal and their indentation size effect (ISE) was explained by the Meyer's law (ML), Hays-Kendall's (HK) approach, proportional specimen resistance (PSR) model, modified PSR model (MPSR), elastic/plastic deformation (EPD) model and indentation induced cracking (IIC) model. Chemical etching study was carried out to find the etch pit density (EPD) of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold (LDT) value was measured by using Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). The dielectric permittivity (ε՛) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as a function of frequency was measured. The electronic polarizability (α) of the TP4N crystal was calculated. It is well matched to the value which was calculated from Clausius-Mossotti relation
A Scanning Hologram Recorded by Phase Conjugate Property of Nonlinear Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zi-Liang, Ping; Dalsgaard, Erik
1996-01-01
A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given.......A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given....
Third order nonlinear optical properties of a paratellurite single crystal
Duclère, J.-R.; Hayakawa, T.; Roginskii, E. M.; Smirnov, M. B.; Mirgorodsky, A.; Couderc, V.; Masson, O.; Colas, M.; Noguera, O.; Rodriguez, V.; Thomas, P.
2018-05-01
The (a,b) plane angular dependence of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) , of a c-cut paratellurite (α-TeO2) single crystal was quantitatively evaluated here by the Z-scan technique, using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser operated at 800 nm. In particular, the mean value Re( ⟨χ(3)⟩a,b )(α-TeO2) of the optical tensor has been extracted from such experiments via a direct comparison with the data collected for a fused silica reference glass plate. A R e (⟨χ(3)⟩(a,b )(α-TeO2)):R e (χ(3))(SiO2 glass) ratio roughly equal to 49.1 is found, and our result compares thus very favourably with the unique experimental value (a ratio of ˜50) reported by Kim et al. [J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993)] for a pure TeO2 glass. In addition, it is shown that the angular dependence of the phase modulation within the (a,b) plane can be fully understood in the light of the strong dextro-rotatory power known for TeO2 materials. Taking into account the optical activity, some analytical model serving to estimate the diagonal and non-diagonal components of the third order nonlinear susceptibility tensor has been thus developed. Finally, Re( χxxxx(3) ) and Re( χxxyy(3) ) values of 95.1 ×10-22 m 2/V2 and 42.0 ×10-22 m2/V2 , respectively, are then deduced for a paratellurite single crystal, considering fused silica as a reference.
Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V
2014-08-01
We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.
Interfacial elastic fingering in Hele-Shaw cells: A weakly nonlinear study
Carvalho, Gabriel D.
2013-11-11
We study a variant of the classic viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells where the interface separating the fluids is elastic, and presents a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. By employing a second-order mode-coupling approach we investigate how the elastic nature of the interface influences the morphology of emerging interfacial patterns. This is done by focusing our attention on a conventionally stable situation in which the fluids involved have the same viscosity. In this framework, we show that the inclusion of nonlinear effects plays a crucial role in inducing sizable interfacial instabilities, as well as in determining the ultimate shape of the pattern-forming structures. Particularly, we have found that the emergence of either narrow or wide fingers can be regulated by tuning a rigidity fraction parameter. Our weakly nonlinear findings reinforce the importance of the so-called curvature weakening effect, which favors the development of fingers in regions of lower rigidity. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Interfacial elastic fingering in Hele-Shaw cells: A weakly nonlinear study
Carvalho, Gabriel D.; Miranda, José A.; Gadê lha, Hermes
2013-01-01
We study a variant of the classic viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells where the interface separating the fluids is elastic, and presents a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. By employing a second-order mode-coupling approach we investigate how the elastic nature of the interface influences the morphology of emerging interfacial patterns. This is done by focusing our attention on a conventionally stable situation in which the fluids involved have the same viscosity. In this framework, we show that the inclusion of nonlinear effects plays a crucial role in inducing sizable interfacial instabilities, as well as in determining the ultimate shape of the pattern-forming structures. Particularly, we have found that the emergence of either narrow or wide fingers can be regulated by tuning a rigidity fraction parameter. Our weakly nonlinear findings reinforce the importance of the so-called curvature weakening effect, which favors the development of fingers in regions of lower rigidity. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Spannenberg Jescica
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Fractional differentiation has adequate use for investigating real world scenarios related to geological formations associated with elasticity, heterogeneity, viscoelasticity, and the memory effect. Since groundwater systems exist in these geological formations, modelling groundwater recharge as a real world scenario is a challenging task to do because existing recharge estimation methods are governed by linear equations which make use of constant field parameters. This is inadequate because in reality these parameters are a function of both space and time. This study therefore concentrates on modifying the recharge equation governing the EARTH model, by application of the Eton approach. Accordingly, this paper presents a modified equation which is non-linear, and accounts for parameters in a way that it is a function of both space and time. To be more specific, herein, recharge and drainage resistance which are parameters within the equation, became a function of both space and time. Additionally, the study entailed solving the non-linear equation using an iterative method as well as numerical solutions by means of the Crank-Nicolson scheme. The numerical solutions were used alongside the Riemann-Liouville, Caputo-Fabrizio, and Atangana-Baleanu derivatives, so that account was taken for elasticity, heterogeneity, viscoelasticity, and the memory effect. In essence, this paper presents a more adequate model for recharge estimation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhuqing; Stoica, Alexandru D.; Ma, Dong; Beese, Allison M.
2016-01-01
In this work, diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 have been determined by means of in situ loading at room and elevated temperatures using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Theoretical models proposed by Voigt, Reuss, and Kroner were used to determine single-crystal elastic constants from measured diffraction elastic constants, with the Kroner model having the best ability to capture experimental data. The magnitude of single-crystal elastic moduli, computed from single-crystal elastic constants, decreases and the single crystal anisotropy increases as temperature increases, indicating the importance of texture in affecting macroscopic stress at elevated temperatures. The experimental data reported here are of great importance in understanding additive manufacturing of metallic components as: diffraction elastic constants are required for computing residual stresses from residual lattice strains measured using neutron diffraction, which can be used to validate thermomechanical models of additive manufacturing, while single-crystal elastic constants can be used in crystal plasticity modeling, for example, to understand mechanical deformation behavior of additively manufactured components.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zhuqing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stoica, Alexandru D. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ma, Dong, E-mail: dongma@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beese, Allison M., E-mail: amb961@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2016-09-30
In this work, diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 have been determined by means of in situ loading at room and elevated temperatures using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Theoretical models proposed by Voigt, Reuss, and Kroner were used to determine single-crystal elastic constants from measured diffraction elastic constants, with the Kroner model having the best ability to capture experimental data. The magnitude of single-crystal elastic moduli, computed from single-crystal elastic constants, decreases and the single crystal anisotropy increases as temperature increases, indicating the importance of texture in affecting macroscopic stress at elevated temperatures. The experimental data reported here are of great importance in understanding additive manufacturing of metallic components as: diffraction elastic constants are required for computing residual stresses from residual lattice strains measured using neutron diffraction, which can be used to validate thermomechanical models of additive manufacturing, while single-crystal elastic constants can be used in crystal plasticity modeling, for example, to understand mechanical deformation behavior of additively manufactured components.
Stress field of a near-surface basal screw dislocation in elastically anisotropic hexagonal crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeri S. Harutyunyan
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this study, we derive and analyze the analytical expressions for stress components of the dislocation elastic field induced by a near-surface basal screw dislocation in a semi-infinite elastically anisotropic material with hexagonal crystal lattice. The variation of above stress components depending on “free surface–dislocation” distance (i.e., free surface effect is studied by means of plotting the stress distribution maps for elastically anisotropic crystals of GaN and TiB2 that exhibit different degrees of elastic anisotropy. The dependence both of the image force on a screw dislocation and the force of interaction between two neighboring basal screw dislocations on the “free surface–dislocation” distance is analyzed as well. The influence of elastic anisotropy on the latter force is numerically analyzed for GaN and TiB2 and also for crystals of such highly elastically-anisotropic materials as Ti, Zn, Cd, and graphite. The comparatively stronger effect of the elastic anisotropy on dislocation-induced stress distribution quantified for TiB2 is attributed to the higher degree of elastic anisotropy of this compound in comparison to that of the GaN. For GaN and TiB2, the dislocation stress distribution maps are highly influenced by the free surface effect at “free surface–dislocation” distances roughly smaller than ≈15 and ≈50 nm, respectively. It is found that, for above indicated materials, the relative decrease of the force of interaction between near-surface screw dislocations due to free surface effect is in the order Ti > GaN > TiB2 > Zn > Cd > Graphite that results from increase of the specific shear anisotropy parameter in the reverse order Ti < GaN < TiB2 < Zn < Cd < Graphite. The results obtained in this study are also applicable to the case when a screw dislocation is situated in the “thin film–substrate” system at a (0001 basal interface between the film and substrate provided that the elastic constants
Lesiak, Piotr; Budaszewski, Daniel; Bednarska, Karolina; Wójcik, Michał; Sobotka, Piotr; Chychłowski, Miłosz; Woliński, Tomasz R.
2017-05-01
In this work we studied a newly reported class of nonlinear effects observed in 5CB liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The size of the GNP was determined by direct TEM imaging and by X-ray scattering of the diluted NP solution. GNPs was coated by thiols with the ratio of mesogenic to n-alkyl thiols varying from 1:2 to 1:1. The research involved comparing properties of both undoped and doped 5CB (nematic LC) by infiltrating LC cell and microholes of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) separately. In our experiment the PCF fiber type LMA-10 made by NKT Photonics as host material has been used.
Response statistics of rotating shaft with non-linear elastic restoring forces by path integration
Gaidai, Oleg; Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael
2017-07-01
Extreme statistics of random vibrations is studied for a Jeffcott rotor under uniaxial white noise excitation. Restoring force is modelled as elastic non-linear; comparison is done with linearized restoring force to see the force non-linearity effect on the response statistics. While for the linear model analytical solutions and stability conditions are available, it is not generally the case for non-linear system except for some special cases. The statistics of non-linear case is studied by applying path integration (PI) method, which is based on the Markov property of the coupled dynamic system. The Jeffcott rotor response statistics can be obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of the 4D dynamic system. An efficient implementation of PI algorithm is applied, namely fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to simulate dynamic system additive noise. The latter allows significantly reduce computational time, compared to the classical PI. Excitation is modelled as Gaussian white noise, however any kind distributed white noise can be implemented with the same PI technique. Also multidirectional Markov noise can be modelled with PI in the same way as unidirectional. PI is accelerated by using Monte Carlo (MC) estimated joint probability density function (PDF) as initial input. Symmetry of dynamic system was utilized to afford higher mesh resolution. Both internal (rotating) and external damping are included in mechanical model of the rotor. The main advantage of using PI rather than MC is that PI offers high accuracy in the probability distribution tail. The latter is of critical importance for e.g. extreme value statistics, system reliability, and first passage probability.
Fu, Suyu; Yang, Jing; Lin, Jung-Fu
2017-01-01
Brillouin light scattering and impulsive stimulated light scattering have been used to determine the full elastic constants of magnesiosiderite [(Mg0.35Fe0.65)CO3 ] up to 70 GPa at room temperature in a diamond-anvil cell. Drastic softening in C11 , C33 , C12 , and C13 elastic moduli associated with the compressive stress component and stiffening in C44 and C14 moduli associated with the shear stress component are observed to occur within the spin transition between ˜42.4 and ˜46.5 GPa . Negative values of C12 and C13 are also observed within the spin transition region. The Born criteria constants for the crystal remain positive within the spin transition, indicating that the mixed-spin state remains mechanically stable. Significant auxeticity can be related to the electronic spin transition-induced elastic anomalies based on the analysis of Poisson's ratio. These elastic anomalies are explained using a thermoelastic model for the rhombohedral system. Finally, we conclude that mixed-spin state ferromagnesite, which is potentially a major deep-carbon carrier, is expected to exhibit abnormal elasticity, including a negative Poisson's ratio of -0.6 and drastically reduced VP by 10%, in Earth's midlower mantle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stelzer, J.; Trebin, H.R.; Longa, L.
1994-08-01
We report NVT and NPT molecular dynamics simulations of a Gay-Berne nematic liquid crystal using generalization of recently proposed algorithm by Toxvaerd [Phys. Rev. E47, 343, 1993]. On the basis of these simulations the Oseen-Zoher-Frank elastic constants K 11 , K 22 and K 33 as well as the surface constants K 13 and K 24 have been calculated within the framework of the direct correlation function approach of Lipkin et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 82, 472 (1985)]. The angular coefficients of the direct pair correlation function, which enter the final formulas, have been determined from the computer simulation data for the pair correlation function of the nematic by combining the Ornstein-Zernike relation and the Wienier-Hopf factorization scheme. The unoriented nematic approximation has been assumed when constructing the reference, isotropic state of Lipkin et al. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of temperatures, densities and pressures a very detailed information has been provided about elastic behaviour of the Gay-Berne nematic. Interestingly, it is found that the results for the surface elastic constants are qualitatively different than those obtained with the help of analytical approximations for the isotropic, direct pair correlation function. For example, the values of the surface elastic constants are negative and an order of magnitude smaller than the bulk elasticity. (author). 30 refs, 9 figs
Gaik*, Tay Kim; Demiray, Hilmi; Tiong, Ong Chee
In the present work, treating the artery as a prestressed thin-walled and long circularly cylindrical elastic tube with a mild symmetrical stenosis and the blood as an incompressible Newtonian fluid, we have studied the pro pagation of weakly nonlinear waves in such a composite medium, in the long wave approximation, by use of the reductive perturbation method. By intro ducing a set of stretched coordinates suitable for the boundary value type of problems and expanding the field variables into asymptotic series of the small-ness parameter of nonlinearity and dispersion, we obtained a set of nonlinear differential equations governing the terms at various order. By solving these nonlinear differential equations, we obtained the forced perturbed Korteweg-de Vries equation with variable coefficient as the nonlinear evolution equation. By use of the coordinate transformation, it is shown that this type of nonlinear evolution equation admits a progressive wave solution with variable wave speed.
Compatible-strain mixed finite element methods for incompressible nonlinear elasticity
Faghih Shojaei, Mostafa; Yavari, Arash
2018-05-01
We introduce a new family of mixed finite elements for incompressible nonlinear elasticity - compatible-strain mixed finite element methods (CSFEMs). Based on a Hu-Washizu-type functional, we write a four-field mixed formulation with the displacement, the displacement gradient, the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and a pressure-like field as the four independent unknowns. Using the Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity, which describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion, we identify the solution spaces of the independent unknown fields. In particular, we define the displacement in H1, the displacement gradient in H (curl), the stress in H (div), and the pressure field in L2. The test spaces of the mixed formulations are chosen to be the same as the corresponding solution spaces. Next, in a conforming setting, we approximate the solution and the test spaces with some piecewise polynomial subspaces of them. Among these approximation spaces are the tensorial analogues of the Nédélec and Raviart-Thomas finite element spaces of vector fields. This approach results in compatible-strain mixed finite element methods that satisfy both the Hadamard compatibility condition and the continuity of traction at the discrete level independently of the refinement level of the mesh. By considering several numerical examples, we demonstrate that CSFEMs have a good performance for bending problems and for bodies with complex geometries. CSFEMs are capable of capturing very large strains and accurately approximating stress and pressure fields. Using CSFEMs, we do not observe any numerical artifacts, e.g., checkerboarding of pressure, hourglass instability, or locking in our numerical examples. Moreover, CSFEMs provide an efficient framework for modeling heterogeneous solids.
Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping
2015-10-01
We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.
Experimental determination of third-order elastic constants of diamond.
Lang, J M; Gupta, Y M
2011-03-25
To determine the nonlinear elastic response of diamond, single crystals were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to 120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and elastic wave velocities were measured by using laser interferometry. The measured elastic wave profiles were used, in combination with published acoustic measurements, to determine the complete set of third-order elastic constants. These constants represent the first experimental determination, and several differ significantly from those calculated by using theoretical models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynden-Bell, R.M.; Michel, K.H.
1994-01-01
Many of the properties of orientationally disordered crystals are profoundly affected by the coupling (known as translation-rotation coupling) between translation displacements and molecular orientation. The consequences of translation-rotation coupling depend on molecular and crystal symmetry, and vary throughout the Brillouin zone. One result is an indirect coupling between the orientations of different molecules, which plays an important role in the order/disorder phase transition, especially in ionic orientationally disordered crystals. Translation-rotation coupling also leads to softening of elastic constants and affects phonon spectra. This article describes the theory of the coupling from the point of view of the microscopic Hamiltonian and the resulting Landau free energy. Considerable emphasis is placed on the restrictions due to symmetry as these are universal and can be used to help one's qualitative understanding of experimental observations. The application of the theory to phase transitions is described. The softening of elastic constants is discussed and shown to be universal. However, anomalies associated with the order/disorder phase transition are shown to be restricted to cases in which the symmetry of the order parameter satisfies certain conditions. Dynamic effects on phonon spectra are described and finally the recently observed dielectric behavior of ammonium compounds is discussed. Throughout the article examples from published experiments are used to illustrate the application of the theory including well known examples such as the alkali metal cyanides and more recently discovered orientationally disordered crystals such as the fullerite, C 60
Concept for power scaling second harmonic generation using a cascade of nonlinear crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Kragh; Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin
2015-01-01
for efficient power scaling of single-pass SHG beyond such limits using a cascade of nonlinear crystals, in which the first crystal is chosen for high nonlinear efficiency and the subsequent crystal(s) are chosen for power handling ability. Using this highly efficient singlepass concept, we generate 3.7 W...... successfully combines the high efficiency of the first stage with the good power handling properties of the subsequent stages. The concept is generally applicable and can be expanded with more stages to obtain even higher efficiency, and extends also to other combinations of nonlinear media suitable for other......Within the field of high-power second harmonic generation (SHG), power scaling is often hindered by adverse crystal effects such as thermal dephasing arising from the second harmonic (SH) light, which imposes limits on the power that can be generated in many crystals. Here we demonstrate a concept...
Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle in the theory of nonlinear elasticity with the combined approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sporykhin, A.N.
1995-01-01
The assignment of a portion of the edge conditions in the deformed state and a portion of them in the initial state so that the initial and deformed states of the body are unknowns is a characteristic feature of the statement of a number of technological problems. Haber and Haber and Abel have performed studies in this direction, where constitutive relationships have been constructed within the framework of a linearly elastic material. Use of the displacements of individual particles as variable parameters in these relationships has required additional conditions that do not follow from the formulated problem. Use of familiar variational principles described in Euler coordinates is rendered difficult by the complexity of edge-condition formulation in the special case when the initial state is unknown. The latter is governed by the fact that variational principles are derived from the initial formulations open-quotes in Lagrangian coordinates,close quotes by recalculating the operation functional. Using Lagrange's principle, Novikov and Sporykhin constructed constitutive equations in the general case of a nonlinearly elastic body with edge conditions assigned in different configurations. An analogous problem is solved in this paper using the Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle
Geometric method for stability of non-linear elastic thin shells
Ivanova, Jordanka
2002-01-01
PREFACE This book deals with the new developments and applications of the geometric method to the nonlinear stability problem for thin non-elastic shells. There are no other published books on this subject except the basic ones of A. V. Pogorelov (1966,1967,1986), where variational principles defined over isometric surfaces, are postulated, and applied mainly to static and dynamic problems of elastic isotropic thin shells. A. V. Pogorelov (Harkov, Ukraine) was the first to provide in his monographs the geometric construction of the deformed shell surface in a post-critical stage and deriving explicitely the asymptotic formulas for the upper and lower critical loads. In most cases, these formulas were presented in a closed analytical form, and confirmed by experimental data. The geometric method by Pogorelov is one of the most important analytical methods developed during the last century. Its power consists in its ability to provide a clear geometric picture of the postcritical form of a deformed shell surfac...
Karthigha, S.; Krishnamoorthi, C.
2018-03-01
An organic quinolinium derivative nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, 1-ethyl-2-[2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-vinyl]-quinolinium iodide (PNQI) was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Formation of a crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The quinolinium compound PNQI crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system with a centrosymmetric space group of P-1 symmetry. The molecular structure of PNQI was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The thermal properties of the crystal have been investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The optical characteristics obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectral data were described and the cut-off wavelength observed at 506 nm. The etching study was performed to analyse the growth features of PNQI single crystal. The third order NLO properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ (3)) of the crystal were investigated using Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm of Hesbnd Ne laser.
Single-crystal elastic constants of a plutonium-gallium alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moment, R.L.
1976-01-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of a plutonium-1 wt % gallium alloy were determined at room temperature by measuring ultrasonic sound-wave velocities. The three independent elastic constants of this face-centered cubic delta-phase alloy were determined from the longitudinal and the two shear-wave velocities, all along a direction. Their values are C 11 =3.628, C 12 =2.673 and C 44 =3.359 in units of 10 10 N/m 2 ; the respective errors are estimated to be 1%, 1%, and 0.3 %. The Zener anisotropy ratio is 7.03, almost twice that known for any other fcc metal, and falls among the ratios for the body centered cubic alkali metals, which are noted for their high elastic anisotropy. Polycrystalline elastic constants calculated from the single-crystal data are Young's modulus E=4.064, the shear modulus G=1.596 and the bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility) B=2.991, all in units of 10 10 N/m 2 , and Poisson's ratio γ=0.27. These values of E and G are both lower than those obtained by Taylor, Linford and Dean from measurements on polycrystalline specimens. Within a single crystal, the longitudinal sound velocity varies with direction by a factor of 1.4 and the transverse velocity by a factor of 2.6. The maximum Young's modulus (along ) was 5.4 times larger than the minimum (along ). The Debye temperature was calculated to be 105.7 K at 293 K and estimated to be 114 K at 0.K. (Auth.)
Nonlinear Hydroelastic Waves Generated due to a Floating Elastic Plate in a Current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Effects of underlying uniform current on the nonlinear hydroelastic waves generated due to an infinite floating plate are studied analytically, under the hypotheses that the fluid is homogeneous, incompressible, and inviscid. For the case of irrotational motion, the Laplace equation is the governing equation, with the boundary conditions expressing a balance among the hydrodynamics, the uniform current, and elastic force. It is found that the convergent series solutions, obtained by the homotopy analysis method (HAM, consist of the nonlinear hydroelastic wave profile and the velocity potential. The impacts of important physical parameters are discussed in detail. With the increment of the following current intensity, we find that the amplitudes of the hydroelastic waves decrease very slightly, while the opposing current produces the opposite effect on the hydroelastic waves. Furthermore, the amplitudes of waves increase very obviously for higher opposing current speed but reduce very slightly for higher following current speed. A larger amplitude of the incident wave increases the hydroelastic wave deflections for both opposing and following current, while for Young’s modulus of the plate there is the opposite effect.
Hérisson, Benjamin; Challamel, Noël; Picandet, Vincent; Perrot, Arnaud
2016-09-01
The static behavior of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) axial chain under distributed loading is examined. The FPU system examined in the paper is a nonlinear elastic lattice with linear and quadratic spring interaction. A dimensionless parameter controls the possible loss of convexity of the associated quadratic and cubic energy. Exact analytical solutions based on Hurwitz zeta functions are developed in presence of linear static loading. It is shown that this nonlinear lattice possesses scale effects and possible localization properties in the absence of energy convexity. A continuous approach is then developed to capture the main phenomena observed regarding the discrete axial problem. The associated continuum is built from a continualization procedure that is mainly based on the asymptotic expansion of the difference operators involved in the lattice problem. This associated continuum is an enriched gradient-based or nonlocal axial medium. A Taylor-based and a rational differential method are both considered in the continualization procedures to approximate the FPU lattice response. The Padé approximant used in the continualization procedure fits the response of the discrete system efficiently, even in the vicinity of the limit load when the non-convex FPU energy is examined. It is concluded that the FPU lattice system behaves as a nonlocal axial system in dynamic but also static loading.
Mixing of two co-directional Rayleigh surface waves in a nonlinear elastic material.
Morlock, Merlin B; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J; Qu, Jianmin
2015-01-01
The mixing of two co-directional, initially monochromatic Rayleigh surface waves in an isotropic, homogeneous, and nonlinear elastic solid is investigated using analytical, finite element method, and experimental approaches. The analytical investigations show that while the horizontal velocity component can form a shock wave, the vertical velocity component can form a pulse independent of the specific ratios of the fundamental frequencies and amplitudes that are mixed. This analytical model is then used to simulate the development of the fundamentals, second harmonics, and the sum and difference frequency components over the propagation distance. The analytical model is further extended to include diffraction effects in the parabolic approximation. Finally, the frequency and amplitude ratios of the fundamentals are identified which provide maximum amplitudes of the second harmonics as well as of the sum and difference frequency components, to help guide effective material characterization; this approach should make it possible to measure the acoustic nonlinearity of a solid not only with the second harmonics, but also with the sum and difference frequency components. Results of the analytical investigations are then confirmed using the finite element method and the experimental feasibility of the proposed technique is validated for an aluminum specimen.
On the hyperporous non-linear elasticity model for fusion-relevant pebble beds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Maio, P.A.; Giammusso, R.; Vella, G.
2010-01-01
Packed pebble beds are particular granular systems composed of a large amount of small particles, arranged in irregular lattices and surrounded by a gas filling interstitial spaces. Due to their heterogeneous structure, pebble beds have non-linear and strongly coupled thermal and mechanical behaviours whose constitutive models seem limited, being not suitable for fusion-relevant design-oriented applications. Within the framework of the modelling activities promoted for the lithiated ceramics and beryllium pebble beds foreseen in the Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed breeding blanket concept of DEMO, at the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo (DIN) a thermo-mechanical constitutive model has been set-up assuming that pebble beds can be considered as continuous, homogeneous and isotropic media. The present paper deals with the DIN non-linear elasticity constitutive model, based on the assumption that during the reversible straining of a pebble bed its effective logarithmic bulk modulus depends on the equivalent pressure according to a modified power law and its effective Poisson modulus remains constant. In these hypotheses the functional dependence of the effective tangential and secant bed deformation moduli on either the equivalent pressure or the volumetric strain have been derived in a closed analytical form. A procedure has been, then, defined to assess the model parameters for a given pebble bed from its oedometric test results and it has been applied to both polydisperse lithium orthosilicate and single size beryllium pebble beds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravindran, P.; Fast, L.; Korzhavyi, P.A.; Johansson, B.; Wills, J.; Eriksson, O.
1998-01-01
A theoretical formalism to calculate the single crystal elastic constants for orthorhombic crystals from first principle calculations is described. This is applied for TiSi 2 and we calculate the elastic constants using a full potential linear muffin-tin orbital method using the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated values compare favorably with recent experimental results. An expression to calculate the bulk modulus along crystallographic axes of single crystals, using elastic constants, has been derived. From this the calculated linear bulk moduli are found to be in good agreement with the experiments. The shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio for ideal polycrystalline TiSi 2 are also calculated and compared with corresponding experimental values. The directional bulk modulus and the Young's modulus for single crystal TiSi 2 are estimated from the elastic constants obtained from LDA as well as GGA calculations and are compared with the experimental results. The shear anisotropic factors and anisotropy in the linear bulk modulus are obtained from the single crystal elastic constants. From the site and angular momentum decomposed density of states combined with a charge density analysis and the elastic anisotropies, the chemical bonding nature between the constituents in TiSi 2 is analyzed. The Debye temperature is calculated from the average elastic wave velocity obtained from shear and bulk modulus as well as the integration of elastic wave velocities in different directions of the single crystal. The calculated elastic properties are found to be in good agreement with experimental values when the generalized gradient approximation is used for the exchange and correlation potential. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Lunt, A. J. G.; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.; Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J.; Neo, T. K.; Korsunsky, A. M.
2014-08-01
Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lunt, A. J. G., E-mail: alexander.lunt@eng.ox.ac.uk; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.; Korsunsky, A. M. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J. [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Neo, T. K. [Specialist Dental Group, Mount Elizabeth Orchard, 3 Mount Elizabeth, #08-03/08-08/08-10, Singapore 228510 (Singapore)
2014-08-07
Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.
Liu, Lili
2014-05-22
We present theoretical studies for the third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of superconducting antiperovskites MNNi 3 (M = Zn, Cd, Mg, Al, Ga, and In) using the density functional theory (DFT) and homogeneous deformation method. From the nonlinear least-square fitting, the elastic constants are extracted from a polynomial fit to the calculated strain-energy data. Calculated second-order elastic constants (SOECs) are compared with the previous theoretical calculations, and a very good agreement was found. The nonlinear effects often play an important role when the finite strains are larger than approximately 2.5 %. Besides, we have computed the pressure derivatives of SOECs and provided rough estimations for the Grüneisen constants of long-wavelength acoustic modes by using the calculated TOECs. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Liu, Lili; Wu, Xiaozhi; Wang, Rui; Gan, Liyong; Wei, Qunyi
2014-01-01
We present theoretical studies for the third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of superconducting antiperovskites MNNi 3 (M = Zn, Cd, Mg, Al, Ga, and In) using the density functional theory (DFT) and homogeneous deformation method. From the nonlinear least-square fitting, the elastic constants are extracted from a polynomial fit to the calculated strain-energy data. Calculated second-order elastic constants (SOECs) are compared with the previous theoretical calculations, and a very good agreement was found. The nonlinear effects often play an important role when the finite strains are larger than approximately 2.5 %. Besides, we have computed the pressure derivatives of SOECs and provided rough estimations for the Grüneisen constants of long-wavelength acoustic modes by using the calculated TOECs. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Marudhu, G.; Krishnan, S.; Palanichamy, M.
2016-03-01
A novel nonlinear optical crystal of 4-Aminopyridinium monophthalate (4-APMP) was grown by slow evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system. The presence of functional groups was qualitatively determined by FTIR analysis. The optical absorption studies reveal very low absorption in the entire visible region. The fluorescence emission spectrum shows the emission is in blue region. The thermal stability of the grown crystal is found to be around 197.2 °C. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal is found to be 1.1 times than that of KDP crystals.
Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystal: Nicotinic L-tartaric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheelarani, V.; Shanthi, J., E-mail: shanthinelson@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore-641043 (India)
2015-06-24
Nonlinear optical single crystals were grown from Nicotinic and L-Tartaric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Structure of the grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, The crystallinity of the Nicotinic L-Tartaric (NLT) crystals was confirmed from the powder XRD pattern. The transparent range and cut off wavelength of the grown crystal was studied by the UV–Vis spectroscopic analysis.The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by TG-DTA. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of NLT was confirmed by Kurtz Perry technique.
A statistical analysis of the elastic distortion and dislocation density fields in deformed crystals
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.
2015-05-18
The statistical properties of the elastic distortion fields of dislocations in deforming crystals are investigated using the method of discrete dislocation dynamics to simulate dislocation structures and dislocation density evolution under tensile loading. Probability distribution functions (PDF) and pair correlation functions (PCF) of the simulated internal elastic strains and lattice rotations are generated for tensile strain levels up to 0.85%. The PDFs of simulated lattice rotation are compared with sub-micrometer resolution three-dimensional X-ray microscopy measurements of rotation magnitudes and deformation length scales in 1.0% and 2.3% compression strained Cu single crystals to explore the linkage between experiment and the theoretical analysis. The statistical properties of the deformation simulations are analyzed through determinations of the Nye and Kröner dislocation density tensors. The significance of the magnitudes and the length scales of the elastic strain and the rotation parts of dislocation density tensors are demonstrated, and their relevance to understanding the fundamental aspects of deformation is discussed.
A statistical analysis of the elastic distortion and dislocation density fields in deformed crystals
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Larson, Ben C.; Tischler, Jon Z.; El-Azab, Anter
2015-01-01
The statistical properties of the elastic distortion fields of dislocations in deforming crystals are investigated using the method of discrete dislocation dynamics to simulate dislocation structures and dislocation density evolution under tensile loading. Probability distribution functions (PDF) and pair correlation functions (PCF) of the simulated internal elastic strains and lattice rotations are generated for tensile strain levels up to 0.85%. The PDFs of simulated lattice rotation are compared with sub-micrometer resolution three-dimensional X-ray microscopy measurements of rotation magnitudes and deformation length scales in 1.0% and 2.3% compression strained Cu single crystals to explore the linkage between experiment and the theoretical analysis. The statistical properties of the deformation simulations are analyzed through determinations of the Nye and Kröner dislocation density tensors. The significance of the magnitudes and the length scales of the elastic strain and the rotation parts of dislocation density tensors are demonstrated, and their relevance to understanding the fundamental aspects of deformation is discussed.
Tailoring nonlinearity and dispersion of photonic crystal fibers using hybrid cladding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao-lun, Liu; Lan-tian, Hou; Wei, Wang
2009-01-01
We present a hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber for shaping high nonlinear and flattened dispersion in a wide range of wavelengths. The new structure adopts hybrid cladding with different pitches, air-holes diameters and air-holes arrayed fashions. The full-vector finite element method with perfectly matched layer is used to investigate the characteristics of the hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber such as nonlinearity and dispersion properties. The influence of the cladding structure parameters on the nonlinear coefficient and geometric dispersion is analyzed. High nonlinear coefficient and the dispersion properties of fibers are tailored by adjusting the cladding structure parameters. A novel hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion flattened which is suited for super continuum generation is designed. (author)
Elastic and hydrodynamic torques on a colloidal disk within a nematic liquid crystal.
Rovner, Joel B; Borgnia, Dan S; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L
2012-10-01
The orientationally dependent elastic energy and hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal disks with homeotropic surface anchoring suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) have been investigated. In the absence of external torques, the disks align with the normal of the disk face â parallel to the nematic director n[over ^]. When a magnetic field is applied, the disks rotate â by an angle θ so that the magnetic torque and the elastic torque caused by distortion of the nematic director field are balanced. Over a broad range of angles, the elastic torque increases linearly with θ in quantitative agreement with a theoretical prediction based on an electrostatic analogy. When the disks are rotated to angles θ>π/2, the resulting large elastic distortion makes the disk orientation unstable, and the director undergoes a topological transition in which θ→π-θ. In the transition, a defect loop is shed from the disk surface, and the disks spin so that â sweeps through π radians as the loop collapses back onto the disk. Additional measurements of the angular relaxation of disks to θ=0 following removal of the external torque show a quasi-exponential time dependence from which an effective drag viscosity for the nematic can be extracted. The scaling of the angular time dependence with disk radius and observations of disks rotating about â indicate that the disk motion affects the director field at surprisingly modest Ericksen numbers.
Lee, Sin-Doo
2015-10-01
Soft matters such as liquid crystals and biological molecules exhibit a variety of interesting physical phenomena as well as new applications. Recently, in mimicking biological systems that have the ability to sense, regulate, grow, react, and regenerate in a highly responsive and self-adaptive manner, the significance of the liquid crystal order in living organisms, for example, a biological membrane possessing the lamellar order, is widely recognized from the viewpoints of physics and chemistry of interfaces and membrane biophysics. Lipid bilayers, resembling cell membranes, provide primary functions for the transport of biological components of ions and molecules in various cellular activities, including vesicle budding and membrane fusion, through lateral organization of the membrane components such as proteins. In this lecture, I will describe how the liquid crystal-analog curvature elasticity of a lipid bilayer plays a critical role in developing a new platform for understanding diverse biological functions at a cellular level. The key concept is to manipulate the local curvature at an interface between a solid substrate and a model membrane. Two representative examples will be demonstrated: one of them is the topographic control of lipid rafts in a combinatorial array where the ligand-receptor binding event occurs and the other concerns the reconstitution of a ring-type lipid raft in bud-mimicking architecture within the framework of the curvature elasticity.
Priyadharshini, A.; Kalainathan, S.
2018-04-01
2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM), an organic third order nonlinear (TONLO) single crystal with the dimensions of 32 × 7 × 11 mm3, has been successfully grown in acetone solution by slow evaporation technique at 35 °C. The crystal system (triclinic), space group (P-1) and crystalline purity of the titular crystal were measured by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molecular weight and the multiple functional groups of the FBM material were confirmed through the mass and FT-IR spectral analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study enroles that the FBM crystal exhibits excellent transparency (83%) in the entire visible and near infra-red region with a wide bandgap 2.90 eV. The low dielectric constant (εr) value of FBM crystal is appreciable for microelectronics industry applications. Thermal stability and melting point (130.09 °C) were ascertained by TGA-DSC analysis. The laser-induced surface damage threshold (LDT) value of FBM specimen is found to be 2.14 GW/cm2, it is fairly good compared to other reported NLO crystals. The third - order nonlinear optical character of the FBM crystal was confirmed through the typical single beam Z-scan technique. All these finding authorized that the organic crystal of FBM is favorably suitable for NLO applications.
Mapping residual stresses in PbWO4 crystals using photo-elastic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebeau, M.; Gobbi, L.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Pietroni, P.; Rinaldi, D.
2005-01-01
Large scintillating crystals are affected by internal stresses induced by the crystal growth temperature gradient remanence. Cutting boules (ingots) into finished crystal shapes allows for a partial tension relaxation but residual stresses remain the main cause of breaking. Quality control of residual stresses is essential in the application of Scintillating Crystals to high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. CMS ECAL at CERN LHC). In this context the industrial process optimisation towards stress reduction is mandatory. We propose a fast technique for testing samples during the production process in order to evaluate the residual stress distribution after the first phases of mechanical processing. We mapped the stress distribution in PbWO 4 slabs cut from the same production boule. The analysis technique is based on the stress intensity determination using the photo-elastic properties of the samples. The stress distribution is mapped in each sample. The analysis shows that there are regions of high residual tension close to the seed position and at the boule periphery. These results should allow for adapting the industrial process to producing crystals with lower residual stresses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander L. Ivanovskii
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Atomic models of cubic crystals (CC of carbon and graphene-like Si nanotubes are offered and their structural, cohesive, elastic and electronic properties are predicted by means of the DFTB method. Our main findings are that the isotropic crystals of carbon nanotubes adopt a very high elastic modulus B and low compressibility β, namely B = 650 GPa, β = 0.0015 1/GPa. In addition, these crystals preserve the initial conductivity type of their “building blocks”, i.e. isolated carbon and Si nanotubes. This feature may be important for design of materials with the selected conductivity type.
Crystal structure and elasticity of Al-bearing phase H under high pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guiping Liu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Al has significant effect on properties of minerals. We reported crystal structure and elasticity of phase H, an important potential water reservoir in the mantle, which contains different Al using first principles simulations for understanding the effect of Al on the phase H. The crystal and elastic properties of Al end-member phase H (Al2O4H2 are very different from Mg end-member (MgSiO4H2 phase H and two aluminous phase H (Mg0.875Si0.875Al0.25O4H2 (12.5at%Al and Mg0.75Si0.75Al0.5O4H2 (25at% Al. However differences between Mg end-member phase H and aluminous phase H are slight except for the O-H bond length and octahedron volume. Al located at different crystal positions (original Mg or Si position of aluminous phase H has different AlO6 octahedral volumes. For three Al-bearing phase H, bulk modulus (K, shear modulus (G, compressional wave velocity (Vp and shear wave velocity (Vs increase with increasing Al content. Under high pressure, density of phase H increases with increasing Al content. The Al content affects the symmetry of the phase H and then affects the density and elastic constants of phase H. The total ground energy of phase H also increases with increasing Al content. So an energy barrier for the formation of solid solution of phase H with δ-phase AlOOH is expected. However, if the phase H with δ-phase AlOOH solid solution does exit in the mantle, it may become an important component of the mantle or leads to a low velocity layer at the mantle.
Nazarov, Vladimir U.; Silkin, Vyacheslav M.; Krasovskii, Eugene E.
2017-12-01
Inelastic scattering of the medium-energy (˜10 -100 eV) electrons underlies the method of the high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS), which has been successfully used for decades to characterize pure and adsorbate-covered surfaces of solids. With the emergence of graphene and other quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) crystals, HREELS could be expected to become the major experimental tool to study this class of materials. We, however, identify a critical flaw in the theoretical picture of the HREELS of Q2D crystals in the context of the inelastic scattering only ("energy-loss functions" formalism), in contrast to its justifiable use for bulk solids and surfaces. The shortcoming is the neglect of the elastic scattering, which we show is inseparable from the inelastic one, and which, affecting the spectra dramatically, must be taken into account for the meaningful interpretation of the experiment. With this motivation, using the time-dependent density functional theory for excitations, we build a theory of the simultaneous inelastic and elastic electron scattering at Q2D crystals. We apply this theory to HREELS of graphene, revealing an effect of the strongly coupled excitation of the π +σ plasmon and elastic diffraction resonances. Our results open a path to the theoretically interpretable study of the excitation processes in crystalline mesoscopic materials by means of HREELS, with its supreme resolution on the meV energy scale, which is far beyond the capacity of the now overwhelmingly used EELS in transmission electron microscopy.
Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
molecules have received great attention for NLO applica- tions. However ... Figure 3. Single crystals of bis(cyclohexylammonium) terephthalate (crystal a) and cyclohexylammo- .... from ground state to higher energy states.17 Optical window ...
Magnetic and magneto-elastic properties of a single crystal of TbB{sub 6}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granovsky, S.A.; Amara, M.; Galera, R.M. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Kunii, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)
2001-07-23
The magnetic and magneto-elastic properties of a single crystal of TbB{sub 6} are studied. In the ordered range metamagnetic behaviours are observed and complex phase diagrams are determined for magnetic fields along fourfold and threefold directions. In the paramagnetic phase the third-order magnetic susceptibilities and the parastriction curves show anisotropic behaviour which could be accounted for by crystalline electric field (CEF) effects. A set of CEF parameters is proposed on the basis of the analysis of the experimental magnetic and quadrupolar susceptibilities. Though non-negligible, the deduced quadrupolar couplings are weak in comparison with those previously determined in PrB{sub 6}. (author)
NONLINEAR OPTICAL MOLECULAR CRYSTAL BASED ON 2,6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. M. Pavlovetc
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of a new nonlinear optical material based on nonlinear optical chromophore (4-Nitrophenol and aminopyridine (2,6-Diaminopyridine. Calculation results are presented for molecular packing in the crystalline compound, based on the given components. According to these results the finite material must have a noncentrosymmetric lattice, which determines the presence of the second order nonlinear optical response. Investigations carried out in this work confirm these calculations. Results of experiments are given describing the co-crystallization of these components and the following re-crystallization of the obtained material. In order to get a monocrystal form, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of molecular crystals based on these components are determined. Sufficiently large homogeneous crystals are obtained, that gave the possibility to record their spectra in the visible and near infrared parts of the spectrum, to determine their nonlinear optical properties and the level of homogeneity. Their optical (optical transmission and optical laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties are presented. For observation and measurement of the nonlinear optical properties an installation was built which implements the comparative method for measurements of nonlinear optical properties. A potassium titanyl oxide phosphate crystal was used as a sample for comparison. Results are given for the conversion efficiency of the primary laser radiation in the second optical harmonic relative to the signal obtained on the potassium titanyl oxide phosphate crystal. Obtained results show that the molecular co-crystal based on 2,6-Diaminopyridine is a promising nonlinear optical material for generating the second optical harmonic on the Nd: YAG laser (532 nm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Wei; Chen, Jiwei; Liu, Yongquan; Su, Xianyue
2012-01-01
In the present Letter, the multiple scattering theory (MST) for calculating the elastic wave band structure of two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) is extended to include the interface/surface stress effect at the nanoscale. The interface/surface elasticity theory is employed to describe the nonclassical boundary conditions at the interface/surface and the elastic Mie scattering matrix embodying the interface/surface stress effect is derived. Using this extended MST, the authors investigate the interface/surface stress effect on the elastic wave band structure of two-dimensional PCs, which is demonstrated to be significant when the characteristic size reduces to nanometers. -- Highlights: ► Multiple scattering theory including the interface/surface stress effect. ► Interface/surface elasticity theory to describe the nonclassical boundary conditions. ► Elastic Mie scattering matrix embodying the interface/surface stress effect. ► Interface/surface stress effect would be significant at the nanoscale.
Measuring of nonlinearity of dye doped liquid crystals using of self phase modulation effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abedi, M.; Jafari, A.; Tajalli, H.
2007-01-01
Self phase modulation in dye doped liquid crystals has investigated and the nonlinearity of dye doped liquid crystals is measured by this effect. The Self phase modulation effect can be used for producing optical micro rings that have many applications in photonics and laser industries.
Vijayalakshmi, A.; Vidyavathy, B.; Vinitha, G.
2016-08-01
Isonicotinamide p-nitrophenol (ICPNP), a new organic material, was synthesized using methanol solvent. Single crystals of ICPNP were grown using a slow evaporation solution growth technique. Crystal structure of ICPNP is elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. It forms two dimensional networks by O-H…O, N-H…O and C-H…O hydrogen bonds. The molecular structure of ICPNP was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. The optical transmittance range and the lower cut-off wavelength (421 nm) with the optical band gap (2.90 eV) of the ICPNP crystal were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectral study. Thermal behavior of ICPNP was studied by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA). The relative dielectric permittivity was calculated for various temperature ranges. Laser damage threshold of ICPNP crystal was found to be 1.9 GW/cm2 using an Nd:YAG laser. A Z-scan technique was employed to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility. Optical limiting behavior of ICPNP was observed at 35 mW input power.
Laser damage metrology in biaxial nonlinear crystals using different test beams
Hildenbrand, Anne; Wagner, Frank R.; Akhouayri, Hassan; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille
2008-01-01
Laser damage measurements in nonlinear optical crystals, in particular in biaxial crystals, may be influenced by several effects proper to these materials or greatly enhanced in these materials. Before discussion of these effects, we address the topic of error bar determination for probability measurements. Error bars for the damage probabilities are important because nonlinear crystals are often small and expensive, thus only few sites are used for a single damage probability measurement. We present the mathematical basics and a flow diagram for the numerical calculation of error bars for probability measurements that correspond to a chosen confidence level. Effects that possibly modify the maximum intensity in a biaxial nonlinear crystal are: focusing aberration, walk-off and self-focusing. Depending on focusing conditions, propagation direction, polarization of the light and the position of the focus point in the crystal, strong aberrations may change the beam profile and drastically decrease the maximum intensity in the crystal. A correction factor for this effect is proposed, but quantitative corrections are not possible without taking into account the experimental beam profile after the focusing lens. The characteristics of walk-off and self-focusing have quickly been reviewed for the sake of completeness of this article. Finally, parasitic second harmonic generation may influence the laser damage behavior of crystals. The important point for laser damage measurements is that the amount of externally observed SHG after the crystal does not correspond to the maximum amount of second harmonic light inside the crystal.
Highly efficient single-pass sum frequency generation by cascaded nonlinear crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin
2015-01-01
, despite differences in the phase relations of the involved fields. An unprecedented 5.5 W of continuous-wave diffraction-limited green light is generated from the single-pass sum frequency mixing of two diode lasers in two periodically poled nonlinear crystals (conversion efficiency 50%). The technique......The cascading of nonlinear crystals has been established as a simple method to greatly increase the conversion efficiency of single-pass second-harmonic generation compared to a single-crystal scheme. Here, we show for the first time that the technique can be extended to sum frequency generation...... is generally applicable and can be applied to any combination of fundamental wavelengths and nonlinear crystals....
Determination of mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal.
Soluch, Waldemar; Brzozowski, Ernest; Lysakowska, Magdalena; Sadura, Jolanta
2011-11-01
Mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal were determined. Mass density was obtained from the measured ratio of mass to volume of a cuboid. The dielectric constants were determined from the measured capacitances of an interdigital transducer (IDT) deposited on a Z-cut plate and from a parallel plate capacitor fabricated from this plate. The elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined by comparing the measured and calculated SAW velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients on the Z- and X-cut plates. The following new constants were obtained: mass density p = 5986 kg/m(3); relative dielectric constants (at constant strain S) ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 8.6 and ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 10.5, where ε(0) is a dielectric constant of free space; elastic constants (at constant electric field E) C(E)(11) = 349.7, C(E)(12) = 128.1, C(E)(13) = 129.4, C(E)(33) = 430.3, and C(E)(44) = 96.5 GPa; and piezoelectric constants e(33) = 0.84, e(31) = -0.47, and e(15) = -0.41 C/m(2).
Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.
2018-04-01
Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.
Time evolution of absorption process in nonlinear metallic photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahi R.; Hatef, Ali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)
2009-05-15
The time evolution of the absorption coefficient in metallic photonic crystals has been studied numerically. These crystals are made from metallic spheres which are arranged periodically in air. The refractive index of the metallic spheres depends on the plasma frequency. Probe and pump fields are applied to monitor the absorption process. Ensembles of three-level particles are embedded in the crystal. Nanoparticles are interacting with the metallic crystals via the electron-photon interaction. It is found that when the resonance states lie away from the band edges system goes to transparent state. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
MECHANISM OF OPTICAL NONLINEARITY IN “LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTAL — VIOLOGEN” SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanna Bordyuh
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In the present work we analyze the characteristics of holographic grating recording and consider a mechanism of optical nonlinearity in the lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC — viologen samples. Taking into account structural and electrooptical properties of the admixture molecules it is possible to suggest that the recording is realized due to the change of polarizability of π-electron system of coloured viologen derivatives under the action of laser radiation. The main nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refraction coefficient n2, cubic nonlinear susceptibility χ(3, and hyperpolarizability γ were calculated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yurii M. Streliaiev
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional quasistatic contact problem of two linearly elastic bodies' interaction with Coulomb friction taken into account is considered. The boundary conditions of the problem have been simplified by the modification of the Coulomb's law of friction. This modification is based on the introducing of a delay in normal contact tractions that bound tangent contact tractions in the Coulomb's law of friction expressions. At this statement the problem is reduced to a sequence of similar systems of nonlinear integral equations describing bodies' interaction at each step of loading. A method for an approximate solution of the integral equations system corresponded to each step of loading is applied. This method consists of system regularization, discretization of regularized system and iterative process application for solving the discretized system. A numerical solution of a contact problem of an elastic sphere with an elastic half-space interaction under increasing and subsequently decreasing normal compressive force has been obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzade, Fikret Kh.
2005-01-01
The propagation of longitudinal strain wave in a plate with quadratic nonlinearity of elastic continuum was studied in the context of a model that takes into account the joint dynamics of elastic displacements in the medium and the concentration of the nonequilibrium laser-induced point defects. The input equations of the problem are reformulated in terms of only the total displacements of the medium points. In this case, the presence of structural defects manifests itself in the emergence of a delayed response of the system to the propagation of the strain-related perturbations, which is characteristic of media with relaxation or memory. The model equations describing the nonlinear displacement wave were derived with allowance made for the values of the relaxation parameter. The influence of the generation and relaxation of lattice defects on the propagation of this wave was analyzed. It is shown that, for short relaxation times of defects, the strain can propagate in the form of shock fronts. In the case of longer relaxation times, shock waves do not form and the strain wave propagates only in the form of solitary waves or a train of solitons. The contributions of the finiteness of the defect-recombination rate to linear and nonlinear elastic modulus, and spatial dispersion are determined
Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn{sub 2}P{sub 2}S{sub 6} crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R [Institute of Physical Optics of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 23 Dragomanov Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Grabar, A [Istitute for Solid State Physics and Chemistry, Uzhgorod National University, 54 Voloshyn Street, 88000 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)], E-mail: vlokh@ifo.lviv.ua
2009-07-01
We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn{sub 2}P{sub 2}S{sub 6} crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.
Microhardness studies on nonlinear optical L-alanine single crystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... ... increasing load. Meyer's index number () calculated from v shows that the material belongs to the soft material category. Using Wooster's empirical relation, the elastic stiffness constant (11) was calculated from Vickers hardness values. Young's modulus was calculated using Knoop hardness values.
Elastic properties of Cs2HgBr4 and Cs2CdBr4 crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kityk, A.V.; Zadorozhna, A.V.; Shchur, Y.I.; Martynyuk-Lototska, Y.I.; Burak, Y.; Vlokh, O.G.
1998-01-01
Using ultrasonic velocity measurements, all components of the elastic constant matrix C ij , elastic compliances matrix S ij , and linear compressibility constants matrix K ij of orthorhombic Cs 2 HgBr 4 and Cs 2 CdBr 4 crystals have been determined over a wide temperature range, including the region of the phase transition from the normal to the incommensurate phase. Results obtained are considered within the framework of the phenomenological theory. Preliminary analysis of the acoustical properties at room temperature clearly indicates that both crystals are relatively important materials for acousto-optical applications. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia
Effect of elastic constants of liquid crystals in their electro-optical properties
Parang, Z.; Ghaffary, T.; Gharahbeigi, M. M.
Recently following the success of the density functional theory (DFT) in obtaining the structure and thermodynamics of homogeneous and inhomogeneous classical systems such as simple fluids, dipolar fluid and binary hard spheres, this theory was also applied to obtain the density profile of a molecular fluid in between hard planar walls by Kalpaxis and Rickayzen. In the theory of molecular fluids, the direct correlation function (DCF) can be used to calculate the equation of state, free energy, phase transition, elastic constants, etc. It is well known that the hard core molecular models play an important role in understanding complex liquids such as liquid crystals. In this paper, a classical fluid of nonspherical molecules is studied. The required homogeneous (DCF) is obtained by solving Orenstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation numerically. Some of the molecules in the liquid crystals have a sphere shape and this kind of molecular fluid is considered here. The DCF sphere of the molecular fluid is calculated and it will be shown that the results are in good agreement with the pervious works and the results of computer simulation. Finally the electro-optical properties of ellipsoid liquid crystal using DCF of these molecules are calculated.
Full elastic tensor of a crystal of the superhard compound ReB{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levine, J.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); Betts, J.B. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Garrett, J.D. [Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Guo, S.Q. [Composites Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 3050047 (Japan); Eng, J.T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); Migliori, A., E-mail: migliori@cybermesa.com [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kaner, R.B., E-mail: kaner@chem.ucla.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595 (United States)
2010-03-15
The search for superhard materials, driven by their widespread use in industrial applications, highlights one of the most difficult problems in the field of materials science: the accurate characterization of a material's intrinsic physical properties. This paper reports on the full elastic tensor of two polycrystalline isotropic specimens and one specimen of ReB{sub 2} consisting of highly oriented grains. The high-monocrystal bulk modulus value extracted from the grain-oriented specimen, measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, validates the ultra-incompressibility of ReB{sub 2}. An observed hardness of 40 GPa and a Debye temperature of 731 K were calculated for the ReB{sub 2} crystal, confirming its superhard and super-stiff properties. All the measured moduli of the ReB{sub 2} grain-oriented crystal exceed the comparable ones for the polycrystal by amounts that cannot be explained by averaging over direction, which may reveal why recent measurements reported on ReB{sub 2} containing excess boron yield values that are not as hard or incompressible as the crystal.
Meerson, Baruch; Fouxon, Itzhak; Vilenkin, Arkady
2008-02-01
We employ hydrodynamic equations to investigate nonstationary channel flows of freely cooling dilute gases of hard and smooth spheres with nearly elastic particle collisions. This work focuses on the regime where the sound travel time through the channel is much shorter than the characteristic cooling time of the gas. As a result, the gas pressure rapidly becomes almost homogeneous, while the typical Mach number of the flow drops well below unity. Eliminating the acoustic modes and employing Lagrangian coordinates, we reduce the hydrodynamic equations to a single nonlinear and nonlocal equation of a reaction-diffusion type. This equation describes a broad class of channel flows and, in particular, can follow the development of the clustering instability from a weakly perturbed homogeneous cooling state to strongly nonlinear states. If the heat diffusion is neglected, the reduced equation becomes exactly soluble, and the solution develops a finite-time density blowup. The blowup has the same local features at singularity as those exhibited by the recently found family of exact solutions of the full set of ideal hydrodynamic equations [I. Fouxon, Phys. Rev. E 75, 050301(R) (2007); I. Fouxon,Phys. Fluids 19, 093303 (2007)]. The heat diffusion, however, always becomes important near the attempted singularity. It arrests the density blowup and brings about previously unknown inhomogeneous cooling states (ICSs) of the gas, where the pressure continues to decay with time, while the density profile becomes time-independent. The ICSs represent exact solutions of the full set of granular hydrodynamic equations. Both the density profile of an ICS and the characteristic relaxation time toward it are determined by a single dimensionless parameter L that describes the relative role of the inelastic energy loss and heat diffusion. At L>1 the intermediate cooling dynamics proceeds as a competition between "holes": low-density regions of the gas. This competition resembles Ostwald
Gorb, Yuliya; Walton, Jay R.
2010-01-01
We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging
Angela Mihai, L.; Goriely, Alain
2013-01-01
Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects
Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Kalaivani, D.; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.
2015-10-01
L-threonine phthalate (LTP) single crystal has been grown using a solution growth technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that LTP crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with a cut-off wavelength 309 nm. The optical band gap is found to be 4.05 eV. The functional groups of the synthesized compound have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The functional groups present in the material were also confirmed by FT-RAMAN spectroscopy. Surface morphology and the presence of various elements were studied by SEM-EDAX analysis. The thermal stability of LTP single crystal has been analyzed by TGA/DTA studies. The thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy were determined for the grown material using TG data and Coats-Redfern relation. Since the grown crystal is centrosymmetric, Z-Scan studies were carried out for analyzing the third order nonlinear optical property. The nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and susceptibility have been measured using Z-Scan technique.
Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P.; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso
2017-01-01
Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced bi...
Laser-based linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves at surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D).
Hess, Peter; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Mayer, Andreas P
2014-01-01
The characteristic features and applications of linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves propagating along surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D) are discussed. Laser-based excitation, detection, or contact-free analysis of these guided waves with pump-probe methods are reviewed. Determination of material parameters by broadband surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other applications in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are considered. The realization of nonlinear SAWs in the form of solitary waves and as shock waves, used for the determination of the fracture strength, is described. The unique properties of dispersion-free wedge waves (WWs) propagating along homogeneous wedges and of dispersive wedge waves observed in the presence of wedge modifications such as tip truncation or coatings are outlined. Theoretical and experimental results on nonlinear wedge waves in isotropic and anisotropic solids are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Civalek, Ö.
2014-01-01
In the present study nonlinear static and dynamic responses of shallow spherical shells resting on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations are carried out. The formulation of the shells is based on the Donnell theory. The nonlinear governing equations of motion of shallow shells are discretized in space and time domains using the discrete singular convolution and the differential quadrature methods, respectively. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the open literature. The effects of the Winkler and Pasternak foundation parameters on nonlinear static and dynamic response of shells are investigated. Some results are also presented for circular plate as special case. Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is studied. It is important to state that the increase in damping parameter causes decrease in the dynamic response of the shells. It is shown that the shear parameter of the foundation has a significant influence on the dynamic and static response of the shells. Also, the response of the shell is decreased with the increasing value of the shear parameter of the foundation. Parametric studies considering different geometric variables have also been investigated. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear responses of shallow spherical shells are presented. • The effects of foundation parameters are investigated. • Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is also studied
Mitsak, Anna G; Dunn, Andrew M; Hollister, Scott J
2012-07-01
Scaffold tissue engineering strategies for repairing and replacing soft tissue aim to improve reconstructive and corrective surgical techniques whose limitations include suboptimal mechanical properties, fibrous capsule formation and volume loss due to graft resorption. An effective tissue engineering strategy requires a scaffolding material with low elastic modulus that behaves similarly to soft tissue, which has been characterized as a nonlinear elastic material. The material must also have the ability to be manufactured into specifically designed architectures. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a thermoset elastomer that meets these criteria. We hypothesize that the mechanical properties of PGS can be modulated through curing condition and architecture to produce materials with a range of stiffnesses. To evaluate this hypothesis, we manufactured PGS constructs cured under various conditions and having one of two architectures (solid or porous). Specimens were then tensile tested according to ASTM standards and the data were modeled using a nonlinear elastic Neo-Hookean model. Architecture and testing conditions, including elongation rate and wet versus dry conditions, affected the mechanical properties. Increasing curing time and temperature led to increased tangent modulus and decreased maximum strain for solid constructs. Porous constructs had lower nonlinear elastic properties, as did constructs of both architectures tested under simulated physiological conditions (wetted at 37 °C). Both solid and porous PGS specimens could be modeled well with the Neo-Hookean model. Future studies include comparing PGS properties to other biological tissue types and designing and characterizing PGS scaffolds for regenerating these tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guryev, I. V., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Sukhoivanov, I. A., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Andrade Lucio, J. A., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Manzano, O. Ibarra, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Rodriguez, E. Vargaz, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Gonzales, D. Claudio, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Chavez, R. I. Mata, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Gurieva, N. S., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org [University of Guanajuato, Engineering division (Mexico)
2014-05-15
In our work, we investigated the wideband optical filter on the basis of nonlinear photonic crystal. The all-optical flip-flop using ultra-short pulses with duration lower than 200 fs is obtained in such filters. Here we pay special attention to the stability problem of the nonlinear element. To investigate this problem, the temporal response demonstrating the flip-flop have been computed within the certain range of the wavelengths as well as at different input power.
Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya
2011-10-10
We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.
Properties of entangled proton pairs generated in periodically poled nonlinear crystals
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Svozilík, Jiří; Peřina ml., Jan
2009-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 2 (2009), 023819/1-023819/9 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC09026; GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : photon pairs * nonlinear crystals * nonlinear optics * quantum optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.866, year: 2009
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.
1997-01-01
White-beam synchrotron section topography was applied to a silicon crystal implanted with 4.8 MeV α-particles elastically bent with the radius of curvature close to 100 m. A number of section patterns corresponding to different reflections was analysed. It was found that the section pattern in the bent sample was drastically different from those observed in a flat sample. The difference consists in the occurrence of the sets of additional interference fringes covering a long distance up to several millimetres behind the main diffraction maximum. It was possible to reproduce some characteristic features of the fringes both in the implanted and non-implanted region by numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equation
Propagation of Elastic Waves in a One-Dimensional High Aspect Ratio Nanoridge Phononic Crystal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdellatif Gueddida
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate the propagation of elastic waves in a one-dimensional (1D phononic crystal constituted by high aspect ratio epoxy nanoridges that have been deposited at the surface of a glass substrate. With the help of the finite element method (FEM, we calculate the dispersion curves of the modes localized at the surface for propagation both parallel and perpendicular to the nanoridges. When the direction of the wave is parallel to the nanoridges, we find that the vibrational states coincide with the Lamb modes of an infinite plate that correspond to one nanoridge. When the direction of wave propagation is perpendicular to the 1D nanoridges, the localized modes inside the nanoridges give rise to flat branches in the band structure that interact with the surface Rayleigh mode, and possibly open narrow band gaps. Filling the nanoridge structure with a viscous liquid produces new modes that propagate along the 1D finite height multilayer array.
Gradient-index phononic crystal lens-based enhancement of elastic wave energy harvesting
Tol, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Erturk, A.
2016-08-01
We explore the enhancement of structure-borne elastic wave energy harvesting, both numerically and experimentally, by exploiting a Gradient-Index Phononic Crystal Lens (GRIN-PCL) structure. The proposed GRIN-PCL is formed by an array of blind holes with different diameters on an aluminum plate, where the blind hole distribution is tailored to obtain a hyperbolic secant gradient profile of refractive index guided by finite-element simulations of the lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave band diagrams. Under plane wave excitation from a line source, experimentally measured wave field validates the numerical simulation of wave focusing within the GRIN-PCL domain. A piezoelectric energy harvester disk located at the first focus of the GRIN-PCL yields an order of magnitude larger power output as compared to the baseline case of energy harvesting without the GRIN-PCL on the uniform plate counterpart.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua Manyu; Li Yimin; Long Chunguang; Li Xia
2012-01-01
The structural, electronic and elastic properties of potassium hexatitanate (K 2 Ti 6 O 13 ) whisker were investigated using first-principles calculations. The calculated cell parameters of K 2 Ti 6 O 13 including lattice constants and atomic positions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The obtained formation enthalpy (-61.1535 eV/atom) and cohesive energy (-137.4502 eV/atom) are both negative, showing its high structural stability. Further analysis of the electronic structures shows that the potassium hexatitanate is a wide-band semiconductor. Within K 2 Ti 6 O 13 crystal, the Ti---O bonding interactions are stronger than that of K---O, while no apparent K---Ti bonding interactions can be observed. The structural stability of K 2 Ti 6 O 13 was closely associated with the covalent bond interactions between Ti (d) and O (p) orbits. Further calculations on elastic properties show that K 2 Ti 6 O 13 is a high stiffness and brittle material with small anisotropy in shear and compression.
Group-velocity matched nonlinear photonic crystal fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole
2006-01-01
A quadratic nonlinear index-guiding silica PCF is optimized for efficient second-harmonic generation through dispersion calculations. Zero group-velocity mismatch is possible for any pump wavelength above 780 nm. Very high conversion efficiencies and bandwidths are found....
Progress in linear optics, non-linear optics and surface alignment of liquid crystals
Ong, H. L.; Meyer, R. B.; Hurd, A. J.; Karn, A. J.; Arakelian, S. M.; Shen, Y. R.; Sanda, P. N.; Dove, D. B.; Jansen, S. A.; Hoffmann, R.
We first discuss the progress in linear optics, in particular, the formulation and application of geometrical-optics approximation and its generalization. We then discuss the progress in non-linear optics, in particular, the enhancement of a first-order Freedericksz transition and intrinsic optical bistability in homeotropic and parallel oriented nematic liquid crystal cells. Finally, we discuss the liquid crystal alignment and surface effects on field-induced Freedericksz transition.
Zhu, L-F; Friák, M; Lymperakis, L; Titrian, H; Aydin, U; Janus, A M; Fabritius, H-O; Ziegler, A; Nikolov, S; Hemzalová, P; Raabe, D; Neugebauer, J
2013-04-01
We employ ab initio calculations and investigate the single-crystalline elastic properties of (Ca,Mg)CO3 crystals covering the whole range of concentrations from pure calcite CaCO3 to pure magnesite MgCO3. Studying different distributions of Ca and Mg atoms within 30-atom supercells, our theoretical results show that the energetically most favorable configurations are characterized by elastic constants that nearly monotonously increase with the Mg content. Based on the first principles-derived single-crystalline elastic anisotropy, the integral elastic response of (Ca,Mg)CO3 polycrystals is determined employing a mean-field self-consistent homogenization method. As in case of single-crystalline elastic properties, the computed polycrystalline elastic parameters sensitively depend on the chemical composition and show a significant stiffening impact of Mg atoms on calcite crystals in agreement with the experimental findings. Our analysis also shows that it is not advantageous to use a higher-scale two-phase mix of stoichiometric calcite and magnesite instead of substituting Ca atoms by Mg ones on the atomic scale. Such two-phase composites are not significantly thermodynamically favorable and do not provide any strong additional stiffening effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linear and nonlinear modeling of light propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roberts, John; Lægsgaard, Jesper
2009-01-01
Hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) find applications which include quantum and non-linear optics, gas detection and short high-intensity laser pulse delivery. Central to most applications is an understanding of the linear and nonlinear optical properties. These require careful modeling....... The intricacies of modeling various forms of HC-PCF are reviewed. An example of linear dispersion engineering, aimed at reducing and flattening the group velocity dispersion, is then presented. Finally, a study of short high intensity pulse delivery using HC-PCF in both dispersive and nonlinear (solitonic...
Crystal growth and properties of novel organic nonlinear optical crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohan, M. Krishna, E-mail: krishnamohan.m@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.
2017-07-01
Single crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea have been grown from water using slow evaporation technique at constant temperature, with the vision to improve the properties of the crystals. The unit cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal and powder X-Ray diffraction. FTIR studies reveals the presence of different vibrational bands. The Optical studies confirmed that the crystal is transparent up to 360 nm .TGA and DSC studies were carried out to understand the thermal behavior of crystals. The SHG studies show the suitability of the crystals for NLO applications. The etching studies were carried out to study the behavior of the crystals under different conditions.These studies reveal that the crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea are suitable for device applications. - Highlights: • 4-Nitrophenol urea crystals of dimensions 14 mm × 1 mm were grown. • UV–Visible studies indicate the crystal is transparent in the region of 370–800 nm. • Thermal studies show the crystal starts decomposing at 170 °C. • SHG studies indicate that the crystals have NLO efficiency 3.5 times that of KDP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Larson, Ben C [ORNL; Yang, Wenge [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Kassner, Michael E. [University of Southern California; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary [ORNL; Delos-Reyes, Michael A. [University of Southern California; Fields, Richard J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
2006-01-01
The distribution of elastic strains (and thus stresses) at the sub-micrometer length scale within deformed metal single crystals has surprisingly broad implications for our understanding of important physical phenomena. These include the evolution of the complex dislocation structures that govern mechanical behavior within individual grains [1-4], the transport of dislocations through such structures [5-7], changes in mechanical properties that occur during reverse loading [8-10] (e.g. sheet metal forming), and the analyses of diffraction line profiles for microstructural studies of these phenomena [11-17]. We present the first direct, spatially-resolved measurements of the elastic strains within individual dislocation cells in copper single crystals deformed in tension and compression along <100> axes. Broad distributions of elastic strains are found, with profound implications for theories of dislocation structure evolution [4,18], dislocation transport [5-7], and the extraction of dislocation parameters from X-ray line profiles [11-17,19].
Development of Chalcopyrite Crystals for Nonlinear Optical Applications
1974-12-01
write the expansion ol the homopolar and the heteropolar part of the mean energy gap in the following way. £.(«) - £. + (a«», + (a.)’*, + (Ha) C...a nearly linear relation over a wide 7 —12-um spectral range. We therefore used a 1 stepping motor and synchronously rotated the AgGaSe, crystal
Jayaprakash, P.; Sangeetha, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Caroline, M. Lydia
2017-08-01
A nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid (LMDMA) has been grown by slow solvent evaporation technique using water as solvent at ambient temperature. The crystallized LMDMA single crystal subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed monoclinic system with the acentric space group P21. The FTIR analysis gives information about the modes of vibration in the various functional groups present in LMDMA. The UV-visible spectral analysis assessed the optical quality and linear optical properties such as extinction coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and from which optical conductivity and electric susceptibility were also evaluated. The frequency doubling efficiency was observed using Kurtz Perry powder technique. A multiple shot laser was utilized to evaluate the laser damage threshold energy of the crystal. Discrete thermodynamic properties were carried out by TG-DTA studies. The hardness, Meyer's index, yield strength, elastic stiffness constant, Knoop hardness, fracture toughness and brittleness index were analyzed using Vickers microhardness tester. Layer growth pattern and the surface defect were examined by chemical etching studies using optical microscope. Fluorescence emission spectrum was recorded and lifetime was also studied. The electric field response of crystal was investigated from the dielectric studies at various temperatures at different frequencies. The third-order nonlinear optical response in LMDMA has been investigated using Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm and nonlinear parameters such as refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ3) investigated extensively for they are in optical phase conjucation, high-speed optical switches and optical dielectric devices.
Nonlinear Elasticity of Borocarbide Superconductor YNi2B2C: A First-Principles Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lili Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available First-principles calculations combined with homogeneous deformation methods are used to investigate the second- and third-order elastic constants of YNi2B2C with tetragonal structure. The predicted lattice constants and second-order elastic constants of YNi2B2C agree well with the available data. The effective second-order elastic constants are obtained from the second- and third-order elastic constants for YNi2B2C. Based on the effective second-order elastic constants, Pugh’s modulus ratio, Poisson’s ratio, and Vickers hardness of YNi2B2C under high pressure are further investigated. It is shown that the ductility of YNi2B2C increases with increasing pressure.
Efficient frequency conversion through absorptive bands of the nonlinear crystal
Porat, Gil; Arie, Ady
2012-01-01
Two simultaneous three wave mixing processes are analyzed, where an input frequency is converted to an output frequency via an intermediate stage. By employing simultaneous phase-matching and an adiabatic modulation of the nonlinear coupling strengths, the intermediate frequency is kept dark throughout the interaction, while obtaining high conversion efficiency. This feat is accomplished in a manner analogous to population transfer in atomic stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). Applic...
Wallen, Samuel P.
Granular media are one of the most common, yet least understood forms of matter on earth. The difficulties in understanding the physics of granular media stem from the fact that they are typically heterogeneous and highly disordered, and the grains interact via nonlinear contact forces. Historically, one approach to reducing these complexities and gaining new insight has been the study of granular crystals, which are ordered arrays of similarly-shaped particles (typically spheres) in Hertzian contact. Using this setting, past works explored the rich nonlinear dynamics stemming from contact forces, and proposed avenues where such granular crystals could form designer, dynamically responsive materials, which yield beneficial functionality in dynamic regimes. In recent years, the combination of self-assembly fabrication methods and laser ultrasonic experimental characterization have enabled the study of granular crystals at microscale. While our intuition may suggest that these microscale granular crystals are simply scaled-down versions of their macroscale counterparts, in fact, the relevant physics change drastically; for example, short-range adhesive forces between particles, which are negligible at macroscale, are several orders of magnitude stronger than gravity at microscale. In this thesis, we present recent advances in analytical and computational modeling of microscale granular crystals, in particular concerning the interplay of nonlinearity, shear interactions, and particle rotations, which have previously been either absent, or included separately at macroscale. Drawing inspiration from past works on phononic crystals and nonlinear lattices, we explore problems involving locally-resonant metamaterials, nonlinear localized modes, amplitude-dependent energy partition, and other rich dynamical phenomena. This work enhances our understanding of microscale granular media, which may find applicability in fields such as ultrasonic wave tailoring, signal processing
Yu, Chao; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua
2015-09-01
Based on the experimental observations on the anisotropic cyclic deformation of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy single crystals done by Gall and Maier (2002), a crystal plasticity based micromechanical constitutive model is constructed to describe such anisotropic cyclic deformation. To model the internal stress caused by the unmatched inelastic deformation between the austenite and martensite phases on the plastic deformation of austenite phase, 24 induced martensite variants are assumed to be ellipsoidal inclusions with anisotropic elasticity and embedded in the austenite matrix. The homogeneous stress fields in the austenite matrix and each induced martensite variant are obtained by using the Mori-Tanaka homogenization method. Two different inelastic mechanisms, i.e., martensite transformation and transformation-induced plasticity, and their interactions are considered in the proposed model. Following the assumption of instantaneous domain growth (Cherkaoui et al., 1998), the Helmholtz free energy of a representative volume element of a NiTi shape memory single crystal is established and the thermodynamic driving forces of the internal variables are obtained from the dissipative inequalities. The capability of the proposed model to describe the anisotropic cyclic deformation of super-elastic NiTi single crystals is first verified by comparing the predicted results with the experimental ones. It is concluded that the proposed model can capture the main quantitative features observed in the experiments. And then, the proposed model is further used to predict the uniaxial and multiaxial transformation ratchetting of a NiTi single crystal.
Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.
2012-01-01
Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.
Flat super-continuum generation based on normal dispersion nonlinear photonic crystal fibre
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chow, K.K.; Takushima, Y.; Lin, C.
2006-01-01
Flat super-continuum generation spanning over the whole telecommunication band using a passively modelocked fibre laser source at 1550 nm together with a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photoinc crystal fibre is demonstrated. Since the pulses propagate in the normal dispersion regime of the fibre...
Nonlinear absorption of fullerene- and nanotubes-doped liquid crystal systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kamanina, N.; Reshak, Ali H; Vasiliev, P.Y.; Vangonen, A. I.; Studeonov, V. I.; Usanov, Y. E.; Ebothe, J.; Gondek, E.; Wojcik, W.; Danel, A.
2009-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 3 (2009), s. 391-394 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nonlinear absorption properties * organic electrooptical systems * liquid crystal * fullerene s * nanotubes * PVK-derivatives Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.177, year: 2009
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Yi; Chen, Yaohui; Hu, Hao
2015-01-01
We suggest and experimentally demonstrate a photonic-crystal structure with more than 30 dB difference between forward and backward transmission levels. The non-reciprocity relies on the combination of ultrafast carrier nonlinearities and spatial symmetry breaking in a Fano structure employing...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tahara, Masaki [Division of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kim, Hee Young, E-mail: heeykim@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Division of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Inamura, Tomonari; Hosoda, Hideki [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Miyazaki, Shuichi, E-mail: miyazaki@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Division of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); School of Materials Science and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-11-15
Highlights: ► {110}{sub β}〈11{sup ¯}0〉{sub β} transverse type lattice modulation is confirmed in β phase. ► Nanosized modulated region (nanodomain) distributes homogeneously and randomly. ► Nanodomains act as obstacles against the long-ranged martensitic transformation. ► The origin of non-linear elastic deformation behavior is the continuous increase in lattice distortion strain of the favorable nanodomain variant during tensile deformation. -- Abstract: In order to clarify the effect of interstitial atoms on the non-linear elastic deformation behavior of the Ti–Nb alloy, the microstructure of (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy was closely investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The 〈1 1 0〉{sub β}* rel rods and {1 1 1}{sub β}* rel planes were observed in a reciprocal space for the (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy. Their origin was {110}{sub β}〈11{sup ¯}0〉{sub β} transverse type lattice modulation generated by oxygen atoms. Nanosized modulated domain structure (nanodomain) distributed homogeneously and randomly in the β phase and acted as obstacles for the long-ranged martensitic transformation in the (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy. The non-linear elastic strain of the (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy was generated by the continuous increase in lattice distortion strain of the favorable nanodomain variant during tensile deformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahara, Masaki; Kim, Hee Young; Inamura, Tomonari; Hosoda, Hideki; Miyazaki, Shuichi
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► {110} β 〈11 ¯ 0〉 β transverse type lattice modulation is confirmed in β phase. ► Nanosized modulated region (nanodomain) distributes homogeneously and randomly. ► Nanodomains act as obstacles against the long-ranged martensitic transformation. ► The origin of non-linear elastic deformation behavior is the continuous increase in lattice distortion strain of the favorable nanodomain variant during tensile deformation. -- Abstract: In order to clarify the effect of interstitial atoms on the non-linear elastic deformation behavior of the Ti–Nb alloy, the microstructure of (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy was closely investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The 〈1 1 0〉 β * rel rods and {1 1 1} β * rel planes were observed in a reciprocal space for the (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy. Their origin was {110} β 〈11 ¯ 0〉 β transverse type lattice modulation generated by oxygen atoms. Nanosized modulated domain structure (nanodomain) distributed homogeneously and randomly in the β phase and acted as obstacles for the long-ranged martensitic transformation in the (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy. The non-linear elastic strain of the (Ti–26Nb)–1.0O alloy was generated by the continuous increase in lattice distortion strain of the favorable nanodomain variant during tensile deformation
Crystal growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulshrestha, Shobha, E-mail: shobha011986@gmail.com; Shrivastava, A. K., E-mail: ashwaniaks@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University Gwalior (M.P.) – 474 011 (India)
2016-05-06
An organic material of a L-histidine monohydrochloride single crystal was grown in a distilled water solution using the slow evaporation method at 40–45°C. The grown crystal was transparent and colourless, with a size of about 20 × 9 × 5 mm{sup 3}, obtained within a period of 21 days. The solubility of grown crystals have found out at various temperatures. The UV-visible transmittance studies show that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region It is observed that the crystal has transparency window from 255nm to 700nm and its energy gap (Eg) found to be is 3.1eV. The grown crystal was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis, confirming that the orthorhombic crystalline nature of the crystal. To identify the surface morphology, the as grown crystal was subjected to FE-SEM technique. The chemical composition of the grown crystal was estimated by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The optical behaviour of the grown crystal was analyzed by PL study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byers, Loren W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-28
Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kosík, Adam; Feistauer, M.; Hadrava, Martin; Horáček, Jaromír
2015-01-01
Roč. 267, September (2015), s. 382-396 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : discontinuous Galerkin method * nonlinear elasticity * compressible viscous flow * fluid–structure interaction Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300315002453/pdfft?md5=02d46bc730e3a7fb8a5008aaab1da786&pid=1-s2.0-S0096300315002453-main.pdf
The band structures of three-dimensional nonlinear plasma photonic crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hai-Feng Zhang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the properties of the photonic band gaps (PBGs for three-dimensional (3D nonlinear plasma photonic crystals (PPCs are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, whose equations for calculations also are deduced. The configuration of 3D nonlinear PPCs is the Kerr nonlinear dielectric spheres (Kerr effect is considered inserted in the plasma background with simple-cubic lattices. The inserted dielectric spheres are Kerr nonlinear dielectrics whose relative permittivities are the functions of the external light intensity. Three different Kerr nonlinear dielectrics are considered, which can be expressed as the functions of space coordinates. The influences of the parameters for the Kerr nonlinear dielectrics on the PBGs also are discussed. The calculated results demonstrate that the locations, bandwidths and number of PBGs can be manipulated with the different Kerr nonlinear dielectrics. Compared with the conventional 3D dielectric PCs and PPCs with simple-cubic lattices, the more PBGs or larger PBG can be achieved in the 3D nonlinear PPCs. Those results provide a new way to design the novel devices based on the PPCs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masalov, Anatolii V; Chudnovsky, Aleksandr V
2004-01-01
It is shown that the finite thickness of the second-harmonic crystal distorts the results of measurements in nonlinear autocorrelators intended for measuring the durations and fields of femtosecond light pulses mainly due to dispersive broadening (or compression) of the pulses being measured, as well as due to the group velocity mismatch between the fundamental and sum-frequency pulses. The refractive index dispersion of the crystal, scaled by half its thickness, distorts the pulse duration to a certain extent depending on its initial chirp and thus determines the width of the energy distribution recorded in the autocorrelator. As the crystal thickness increases, the group velocity mismatch leads to a transformation of the recorded distribution from the correlation function of intensity to the squared modulus of the field correlation function. In the case of Gaussian pulses, such a transformation does not affect significantly the recorded distribution. Errors of pulse duration measurements are estimated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Li, Wei-bing; Li, Kang; Fan, Kan-qi; Zhang, Da-xing; Wang, Wei-dong
2018-04-01
Atomistic simulations are capable of providing insights into physical mechanisms responsible for mechanical properties of the transition metal of Tantalum (Ta). By using molecular dynamics (MD) method, temperature and pressure dependences of the elastic properties of Ta single crystals are investigated through tensile loading. First of all, a comparative study between two types of embedded-atom method (EAM) potentials is made in term of the elastic properties of Ta single crystals. The results show that Ravelo-EAM (Physical Review B, 2013, 88: 134101) potential behaves well at different hydrostatic pressures. Then, the MD simulation results based on the Ravelo-EAM potential show that Ta will experience a body-centered-cubic (BCC) to face-centered-cubic (FCC) phase transition before fracture under tensile loading at 1 K temperature, and model size and strain rate have no obvious effects on tensile behaviors of Ta. Next, from the simulation results at the system temperature from 1 to 1500 K, it can be derived that the elastic modulus of E 100 linearly decrease with the increasing temperature, while the yielding stress decrease with conforming a quadratic polynomial formula. Finally, the pressure dependence of the elastic properties is performed from 0 to 140 GPa and the observations show that the elastic modulus increases with the increasing pressure overall.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Divya Bharathi, M.; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005 (India); Chakkaravarthi, G. [Department of Physics, CPCL Polytechnic College, Chennai 600068 (India); Anbalagan, G., E-mail: anbu24663@yahoo.co.in [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Chennai 600025 (India)
2017-05-01
A neoteric organic third order nonlinear optical material 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate dihydrate (8HQ2C5N) was grown by slow cooling technique using ethanol: water (1:1) mixed solvent. The calculated low value of average etch pit solidity (4.12 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup −2}) indicated that the title crystal contain less defects. From the single crystal X-ray diffraction data, it was endowed that 8HQ2C5N crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}/c and the cell parameters values, a = 9.6546 (4) Ǻ, b = 7.1637(3) Ǻ, c = 24.3606 (12) Ǻ, α = γ = 90°, β = 92.458(2)° and volume = 1683.29(13) Ǻ{sup 3}. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum were used to affirm the functional group of the title compound. The chemical structure of 8HQ2C5N was scrutinized by {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectral analysis and thermal stability through the differential scanning calorimetry study. Using optical studies the lower cut-off wavelength and optical band gap of 8HQ2C5N were found to be 364 nm and 3.17 eV respectively. Using the single oscillator model suggested by Wemple – Didomenico, the oscillator energy (E{sub o}), the dispersion energy (E{sub d}) and static dielectric constant (ε{sub o}) were estimated. The third-order susceptibility were determined as Im χ{sup (3)} = 2.51 × 10{sup −5} esu and Re χ{sup (3)} = 4.46 × 10{sup −7} esu. The theoretical third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} was calculated and the results were compared with experimental value. Photoluminescence spectrum of 8HQ2C5N crystal showed the yellow emission. The crystal had the single shot laser damage threshold of 5.562 GW/cm{sup 2}. Microhardness measurement showed that 8HQ2C5N belongs to a soft material category. - Highlights: • A new organic single crystals were grown and the crystal structure was reported. • Crystal possess, good transmittance, thermal and mechanical stability. • Single shot LDT value is found to be
The effect of pressure on open-framework silicates: elastic behaviour and crystal-fluid interaction
Gatta, G. D.; Lotti, P.; Tabacchi, G.
2018-02-01
The elastic behaviour and the structural evolution of microporous materials compressed hydrostatically in a pressure-transmitting fluid are drastically affected by the potential crystal-fluid interaction, with a penetration of new molecules through the zeolitic cavities in response to applied pressure. In this manuscript, the principal mechanisms that govern the P-behaviour of zeolites with and without crystal-fluid interaction are described, on the basis of previous experimental findings and computational modelling studies. When no crystal-fluid interaction occurs, the effects of pressure are mainly accommodated by tilting of (quasi-rigid) tetrahedra around O atoms that behave as hinges. Tilting of tetrahedra is the dominant mechanism at low-mid P-regime, whereas distortion and compression of tetrahedra represent the mechanisms which usually dominate the mid-high P regime. One of the most common deformation mechanisms in zeolitic framework is the increase of channels ellipticity. The deformation mechanisms are dictated by the topological configuration of the tetrahedral framework; however, the compressibility of the cavities is controlled by the nature and bonding configuration of the ionic and molecular content, resulting in different unit-cell volume compressibility in isotypic structures. The experimental results pertaining to compression in "penetrating" fluids, and thus with crystal-fluid interaction, showed that not all the zeolites experience a P-induced intrusion of new monoatomic species or molecules from the P-transmitting fluids. For example, zeolites with well-stuffed channels at room conditions (e.g. natural zeolites) tend to hinder the penetration of new species through the zeolitic cavities. Several variables govern the sorption phenomena at high pressure, among those: the "free diameters" of the framework cavities, the chemical nature and the configuration of the extra-framework population, the partial pressure of the penetrating molecule in the
Huang, Yonghui; Yang, Zhicheng; Liu, Airong; Fu, Jiyang
2018-05-28
The buckling behavior of functionally graded graphene platelet-reinforced composite (FG-GPLRC) shallow arches with elastic rotational constraints under uniform radial load is investigated in this paper. The nonlinear equilibrium equation of the FG-GPLRC shallow arch with elastic rotational constraints under uniform radial load is established using the Halpin-Tsai micromechanics model and the principle of virtual work, from which the critical buckling load of FG-GPLRC shallow arches with elastic rotational constraints can be obtained. This paper gives special attention to the effect of the GPL distribution pattern, weight fraction, geometric parameters, and the constraint stiffness on the buckling load. The numerical results show that all of the FG-GPLRC shallow arches with elastic rotational constraints have a higher buckling load-carrying capacity compared to the pure epoxy arch, and arches of the distribution pattern X have the highest buckling load among four distribution patterns. When the GPL weight fraction is constant, the thinner and larger GPL can provide the better reinforcing effect to the FG-GPLRC shallow arch. However, when the value of the aspect ratio is greater than 4, the flakiness ratio is greater than 103, and the effect of GPL's dimensions on the buckling load of the FG-GPLRC shallow arch is less significant. In addition, the buckling model of FG-GPLRC shallow arch with elastic rotational constraints is changed as the GPL distribution patterns or the constraint stiffness changes. It is expected that the method and the results that are presented in this paper will be useful as a reference for the stability design of this type of arch in the future.
Thermodynamics of heterogeneous and anisotropic nonlinear ferroelastic crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Restuccia, Liliana
2008-02-01
Full Text Available In a previous paper, in a geometrized framework for the description of simple materials with internal variables, the specific example of ferroelastic crystals with anisotropy grain-tensors à la Maruszewski was considered and the relevant structure of the entropy 1-form was derived. In this contribution the linear morphism defined on the fibre bundle of the process and the transformation induced by the process are obtained as new results within the geometrical model. Furthermore, Clausius-Duhem inequality for these media is exploited, and, using a Maugin technique (see also Colemann-Noll procedure, the laws of state, the extra entropy flux and the residual dissipation inequality are worked out. Finally, following Maugin, the heat equation in the first and the second form are derived.
Chen, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Xinle; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Zhao, Xian
2017-11-01
The self-frequency-doubling crystal is an important kind of multi-functional crystal materials. In this work, Nd3+ doped Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (Nd:STGS) single crystals were successfully grown by using Czochralski pulling method, in addition, the nonlinear and laser-frequency-doubling properties of Nd:STGS crystals were studied. The continuous-wave laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated along different physical axes, where the maximum output power was obtained to be 295 mW for the Z-cut samples, much higher than the Y-cut (242 mW) and X-cut (217 mW) samples. Based on the measured refractive indexes, the phase matching directions were discussed and determined for type I (42.5°, 30°) and type II (69.5°, 0°) crystal cuts. As expected, self-frequency-doubling green laser at 529 nm was achieved with output powers being around 16 mW and 12 mW for type I and type II configurations, respectively.
Johnson, J.; Srineevasan, R.; Sivavishnu, D.
2018-06-01
Centrosymmetric semiorganic crystal 4-dimethylaminopyridine potassium chloride (4-DMAPKC) has been grown successfully by using slow evaporation solution growth technique. Powder x-ray diffraction shows the 4-DMAPKC crystal has good crystalline nature. Single crystal XRD shows that the grown 4-DMAPKC is cubic crystal system with cell parameters a = 3.09 Å, b = 3.09 Å, c = 3.09 Å. Investigation has been carried out to assign the Vibrational frequencies of the grown crystal by FTIR spectral studies. UVsbnd Visible NIR optical absorption spectral studies in the range of 200-1100 nm shows low absorption in UVsbnd Visible region with lower cutoff wave length at 261 nm and optical band gap energy was found as Eg = 5.52 eV. Optically transmittance spectral shows 4-DMAPKC crystal is very good transparency in UV-Visible NIR region. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal (TG-DTA) analysis were carried out. Dielectric studies of as grown crystal sample exhibit low dielectric constant and loss at higher frequencies and attests the nonlinear optical activity. Micro hardness studies of as grown crystal were discussed. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the 4-DMAPKC is 0.69 times as that of KDP.
Claessens, T E; Georgakopoulos, D; Afanasyeva, M; Vermeersch, S J; Millar, H D; Stergiopulos, N; Westerhof, N; Verdonck, P R; Segers, P
2006-04-01
The linear time-varying elastance theory is frequently used to describe the change in ventricular stiffness during the cardiac cycle. The concept assumes that all isochrones (i.e., curves that connect pressure-volume data occurring at the same time) are linear and have a common volume intercept. Of specific interest is the steepest isochrone, the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR), of which the slope serves as an index for cardiac contractile function. Pressure-volume measurements, achieved with a combined pressure-conductance catheter in the left ventricle of 13 open-chest anesthetized mice, showed a marked curvilinearity of the isochrones. We therefore analyzed the shape of the isochrones by using six regression algorithms (two linear, two quadratic, and two logarithmic, each with a fixed or time-varying intercept) and discussed the consequences for the elastance concept. Our main observations were 1) the volume intercept varies considerably with time; 2) isochrones are equally well described by using quadratic or logarithmic regression; 3) linear regression with a fixed intercept shows poor correlation (R(2) volume intercept of the ESPVR. In conclusion, the linear time-varying elastance fails to provide a sufficiently robust model to account for changes in pressure and volume during the cardiac cycle in the mouse ventricle. A new framework accounting for the nonlinear shape of the isochrones needs to be developed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruffino, E.; Scalerandi, M.
2000-01-01
As discovered by recent quasi-static and dynamic resonance experiments, the classical nonlinear theory fails in describing the hysteretic behaviour of nonlinear mesoscopic materials like rocks, concrete, etc. The paper applies the local interaction simulation approach (LISA) for studying such kind of nonclassical nonlinearity. To this purpose, in the LISA treatment of ultrasonic wave propagation has been included a phenomenological model, based on the PM space approach, of the local mesoscopic features of rocks and other materials with localized damages. A quantitative comparison of simulation and experimental results in quasi-static experiments is also presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, P.D.; Li, X.Y.; Zheng, R.F.
2013-01-01
This Letter is concerned with thermo-elastic fundamental solutions of an infinite space, which is composed of two half-infinite bodies of different one-dimensional hexagonal quasi-crystals. A point thermal source is embedded in a half-space. The interface can be either perfectly bonded or smoothly contacted. On the basis of the newly developed general solution, the temperature-induced elastic field in full space is explicitly presented in terms of elementary functions. The interactions among the temperature, phonon and phason fields are revealed. The present work can play an important role in constructing farther analytical solutions for crack, inclusion and dislocation problems. -- Highlights: ► Green's functions are constructed in terms of 10 quasi-harmonic functions. ► Thermo-elastic field of a 1D hexagonal QC bi-material body is expressed explicitly. ► Both perfectly bonded and smoothly contacted interfaces are considered
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin; Ganjavi, B.; Jeloudar, M. Ghanbari
2010-01-01
and fluid mechanics. Design/methodology/approach – Two new but powerful analytical methods, namely, He's VIM and HPM, are introduced to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. Findings – Analytical solutions often fit under classical perturbation methods. However......, as with other analytical techniques, certain limitations restrict the wide application of perturbation methods, most important of which is the dependence of these methods on the existence of a small parameter in the equation. Disappointingly, the majority of nonlinear problems have no small parameter at all......Purpose – In the last two decades with the rapid development of nonlinear science, there has appeared ever-increasing interest of scientists and engineers in the analytical techniques for nonlinear problems. This paper considers linear and nonlinear systems that are not only regarded as general...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Min, Young Jae; Yun, Gyeong Won; Kim, Kyung Min; Roh, Yuji; Kim, Young H. [Applied Acoustics Lab, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
Single crystalline silicon wafers having (100), (110), and (111) directions are employed as specimens for obtaining slowness profiles. Leaky Lamb waves (LLW) from immersed wafers were detected by varying the incident angles of the specimens and rotating the specimens. From an analysis of LLW signals for different propagation directions and phase velocities of each specimen, slowness profiles were obtained, which showed a unique symmetry with different symmetric axes. Slowness profiles were compared with elastic moduli of each wafer. They showed the same symmetries as crystal structures. In addition, slowness profiles showed expected patterns and values that can be inferred from elastic moduli. This implies that slowness profiles can be used to examine crystal structures of anisotropic solids.
Orientation dependence of shape memory and super elastic effects in Ti-30% Ni-20% Cu single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chumlyakov, Yu.I.; Kireeva, I.V.
1999-01-01
Single crystals of Ti-30% Ni-20% Cu (at.%) alloy experiencing B2-B19 martensitic transformation are used to study the dependence of deforming stress σ cr , shape memory effect and super elasticity on test temperature, crystal orientation and the sign of tension/compression stresses. It is shown that experimental values of shape memory effect and super elasticity as well as their dependences on orientation and loading regime are described within the frameworks of the model taking into account lattice distortions only. The orientation dependence and axial stress asymmetry in the temperature range of stress-induced martensite formation are determined by the dependence of lattice distortion during B2-B19 martensitic transformations on the orientation and the sign of applied stresses [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arjunan, S.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Mohan, R.; Jayavel, R.
2008-01-01
L-arginine trifluoroacetate, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been synthesized from aqueous solution. Bulk single crystal of dimension 57 mm x 5 mm x 3 mm has been grown by temperature lowering technique. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the monoclinic structure of the grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Linear optical property of the grown crystal has been studied by UV-vis spectrum. Dielectric response of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal was analysed for different frequencies and temperatures in detail. Microhardness study on the sample reveals that the crystal possesses relatively higher hardness compared to many organic crystals. Thermal analyses confirmed that the L-arginine trifluoroacetate material is thermally stable upto 212 deg. C. The etching studies have been performed to assess the perfection of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test confirms the nonlinear optical properties of the as-grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal
First principles crystal engineering of nonlinear optical materials. I. Prototypical case of urea
Masunov, Artëm E.; Tannu, Arman; Dyakov, Alexander A.; Matveeva, Anastasia D.; Freidzon, Alexandra Ya.; Odinokov, Alexey V.; Bagaturyants, Alexander A.
2017-06-01
The crystalline materials with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are critically important for several technological applications, including nanophotonic and second harmonic generation devices. Urea is often considered to be a standard NLO material, due to the combination of non-centrosymmetric crystal packing and capacity for intramolecular charge transfer. Various approaches to crystal engineering of non-centrosymmetric molecular materials were reported in the literature. Here we propose using global lattice energy minimization to predict the crystal packing from the first principles. We developed a methodology that includes the following: (1) parameter derivation for polarizable force field AMOEBA; (2) local minimizations of crystal structures with these parameters, combined with the evolutionary algorithm for a global minimum search, implemented in program USPEX; (3) filtering out duplicate polymorphs produced; (4) reoptimization and final ranking based on density functional theory (DFT) with many-body dispersion (MBD) correction; and (5) prediction of the second-order susceptibility tensor by finite field approach. This methodology was applied to predict virtual urea polymorphs. After filtering based on packing similarity, only two distinct packing modes were predicted: one experimental and one hypothetical. DFT + MBD ranking established non-centrosymmetric crystal packing as the global minimum, in agreement with the experiment. Finite field approach was used to predict nonlinear susceptibility, and H-bonding was found to account for a 2.5-fold increase in molecular hyperpolarizability to the bulk value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Larson, Ben C [ORNL; Yang, Wenge [ORNL; Kassner, Michael E. [University of Southern California; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary [ORNL; Delos-Reyes, Michael A. [University of Southern California; Fields, Richard J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Liu, Wenjun [ORNL
2006-01-01
The distribution of elastic strains at the submicrometre length scale within deformed metal single crystals has remarkably broad implications for our understanding of important physical phenomena. These include the evolution of the complex dislocation structures that govern mechanical behaviour within individual grains, the transport of dislocations through such structures, changes in mechanical properties that occur during reverse loading (for example, sheet-metal forming and fatigue), and the analyses of diffraction line profiles for microstructural studies of these phenomena.
The study of nonlinear two-photon phenomenon in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 (Canada)
2007-02-28
A theory of the nonlinear two-photon absorption has been developed in a photonic crystal doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. We have considered that the nanoparticles are interacting with the photonic crystal. An expression of two-photon absorption has been obtained by using the density matrix method. The effect of the dipole-dipole interaction has also been included in the formulation. Interesting new phenomena have been predicted. For example, it is found that the inhibition of two-photon absorption can be turned on and off when the decay resonance energies of the four-level nanoparticles are moved within the energy band.
Pulse carving using nanocavity-enhanced nonlinear effects in photonic crystal Fano structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Yu, Yi; Hu, Hao
2018-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the use of a photonic crystal Fano resonance for carving-out short pulses from long-duration input pulses. This is achieved by exploiting an asymmetric Fano resonance combined with carrier-induced nonlinear effects in a photonic crystal membrane structure. The use...... of a nanocavity concentrates the input field to a very small volume leading to an efficient nonlinear resonance shift that carves a short pulse out of the input pulse. Here, we demonstrate shortening of ∼500 ps and ∼100 ps long pulses to ∼30 ps and ∼20 ps pulses, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate...
Spectral transformations in the regime of pulse self-trapping in a nonlinear photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novitsky, Denis V.
2011-01-01
We consider the interaction of a femtosecond light pulse with a one-dimensional photonic crystal with relaxing cubic nonlinearity in the regime of self-trapping. By use of numerical simulations, it is shown that, under certain conditions, the spectra of reflected and transmitted light possess the properties of narrowband (quasimonochromatic) or wideband (continuumlike) radiation. It is remarkable that these spectral features appear due to a significant frequency shift and occur inside a photonic band gap of the structure under investigation.
Nonlinear Optical Imaging for Sensitive Detection of Crystals in Bulk Amorphous Powders
KESTUR, UMESH S.; WANAPUN, DUANGPORN; TOTH, SCOTT J.; WEGIEL, LINDSAY A.; SIMPSON, GARTH J.; TAYLOR, LYNNE S.
2012-01-01
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of second-order nonlinear imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC) to quantify crystallinity in drug–polymer blends, including solid dispersions. Second harmonic generation (SHG) can potentially exhibit scaling with crystallinity between linear and quadratic depending on the nature of the source, and thus, it is important to determine the response of pharmaceutical powders. Physical mixtures containing different proportions of crystalline n...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balakrishnan, T., E-mail: balacrystalgrowth@gmail.com [Crystal Growth Laboratory, PG & Research Department of Physics, Periyar EVR College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, 620 023, Tamil Nadu (India); Sathiskumar, S. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, PG & Research Department of Physics, Periyar EVR College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, 620 023, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603 203, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu (India); Thamotharan, S. [Department of Bioinformatics, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 613 401 (India)
2017-01-15
Single crystal of a novel metal organic nonlinear optical (NLO) cadmium (II) dibromide L - proline monohydrate (CBLPM) of size 7 × 7 × 5 mm{sup 3} was grown from slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X – ray diffraction analysis reveals that the crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with lattice parameters a = 10.1891 (8) Å, b = 13.4961 (11) Å, c = 7.4491 (5) Å and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The powder X – ray diffraction pattern of CBLPM was recorded and the X – ray diffraction peaks were indexed. The various functional groups of CBLPM were identified by the FT – IR and FT – Raman spectral analyses. The optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength of CBLPM were identified from UV – Vis – NIR studies. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was estimated using Vickers microhardness test. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range of 50 Hz - 2 MHz. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range 200–400 nm and the estimated optical band gap was ∼4.1 eV. Etching studies were carried out for different etching time. Thermal stability of CBLPM was determined using thermogravimetric analysis. Laser induced damage threshold study was carried out for the grown crystal using Nd:YAG laser. Size dependent second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by Kurtz and Perry powder technique with different particle size using Nd:YAG laser with wavelength 1064 nm. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the powdered CBLPM crystal was ∼2.3 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. - Highlights: • CBLPM crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1.} • Transmittance of CBLPM is ∼80% in the 650–1100 nm range. • Powder SHG efficiency of CBLPM increases with increase in particle size. • SHG efficiency of 0.57 μm size powdered CBLPM is ∼2
Nonlinear Dynamics of a Bubble Contrast Agent Oscillating near an Elastic Wall
Garashchuk, Ivan R.; Sinelshchikov, Dmitry I.; Kudryashov, Nikolay A.
2018-05-01
Contrast agent microbubbles, which are encapsulated gas bubbles, are widely used to enhance ultrasound imaging. There are also several new promising applications of the contrast agents such as targeted drug delivery and noninvasive therapy. Here we study three models of the microbubble dynamics: a nonencapsulated bubble oscillating close to an elastic wall, a simple coated bubble and a coated bubble near an elastic wall.We demonstrate that complex dynamics can occur in these models. We are particularly interested in the multistability phenomenon of bubble dynamics. We show that coexisting attractors appear in all of these models, but for higher acoustic pressures for the models of an encapsulated bubble.We demonstrate how several tools can be used to localize the coexisting attractors. We provide some considerations why the multistability can be undesirable for applications.
Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Chaudhuri, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)
2012-06-15
An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.
On-chip steering of entangled photons in nonlinear photonic crystals.
Leng, H Y; Yu, X Q; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Xie, Z D; Jin, H; Zhang, C; Zhu, S N
2011-08-16
One promising technique for working toward practical photonic quantum technologies is to implement multiple operations on a monolithic chip, thereby improving stability, scalability and miniaturization. The on-chip spatial control of entangled photons will certainly benefit numerous applications, including quantum imaging, quantum lithography, quantum metrology and quantum computation. However, external optical elements are usually required to spatially control the entangled photons. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of on-chip spatial control of entangled photons, based on a domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystal. We manipulate the entangled photons using the inherent properties of the crystal during the parametric downconversion, demonstrating two-photon focusing and beam-splitting from a periodically poled lithium tantalate crystal with a parabolic phase profile. These experimental results indicate that versatile and precise spatial control of entangled photons is achievable. Because they may be operated independent of any bulk optical elements, domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystals may prove to be a valuable ingredient in on-chip integrated quantum optics.
A new promising nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal for visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions
Gheorghe, L.; Achim, A.; Voicu, F.
2012-08-01
Different La1-xGdxSc3(BO3)4 compounds with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the compounds containing more than 30 at.% Gd3+ ions have non-centrosymmetric trigonal structure (space group R32) and, consequently they are optically nonlinear. A crystal of LaxGdyScz(BO3)4 (x+y+z = 4) - LGSB with La0.75Gd0.5Sc2.75(BO3)4 starting melt composition and relatively small dimensions (about 10 mm in diameter and 25 mm in length) was grown by the Czochralski method. In order to confirm the NLO property, the as-grown crystal was subjected to second-harmonic generation (SHG) test. The nonlinear coefficient d11 of LGSB crystal has been preliminary estimated to be about 1.9 pm/V, which is larger than that of YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB) crystal. This article has been formally retracted, please refer to the article PDF for the full retraction notice.
Analysis of elastic nonlinearity for impact damage detection in composite laminates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frau, A; Porcu, M C; Aymerich, F; Pieczonka, L; Staszewski, W J
2015-01-01
This paper concerns the experimental analysis of nonlinear response features of a composite laminate plate for impact damage detection. The measurement procedure is based on the Scaling Subtraction Method (SSM) and consists in exciting the damaged specimen with two sinusoidal signals at different amplitude. The linearly rescaled response signal at low amplitude excitation is subtracted from the response at large amplitude excitation to extract the nonlinear signatures. The latter are analysed in the time domain to infer the presence of damage. Results are compared with frequency domain analyses using the nonlinear vibro-acoustic modulation technique (NWMS). Changes in amplitude and phase as well as modulation effects of the acquired responses are also monitored. Surface-bonded, low profile piezoceramic transducers are used for excitation and sensing. Both measurements techniques are applied to detect barely visible impact damage in laminate composite plate. Non-destructive penetrant-enhanced X-ray inspections are carried out to characterize the extent of internal damage. The behavior of the nonlinear features and the sensitivity of each technique are also investigated in the paper. (paper)
Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie
2016-08-01
A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.
Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bingnan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-01-01
Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based
Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.
2012-01-01
Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.
BOERTJENS, G. J.; VAN HORSSEN, W. T.
2000-08-01
In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for the vertical displacement of a weakly non-linear elastic beam with an harmonic excitation in the horizontal direction at the ends of the beam is studied. The initial-boundary value problem can be regarded as a simple model describing oscillations of flexible structures like suspension bridges or iced overhead transmission lines. Using a two-time-scales perturbation method an approximation of the solution of the initial-boundary value problem is constructed. Interactions between different oscillation modes of the beam are studied. It is shown that for certain external excitations, depending on the phase of an oscillation mode, the amplitude of specific oscillation modes changes.
Connolly, Joe; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kopasakis, George; Woolwine, Kyle
2015-01-01
This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic model for a variable cycle turbofan engine, supersonic inlet, and convergent-divergent nozzle that can be integrated with an aeroelastic vehicle model to create an overall Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) modeling tool. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to capture relevant thrust dynamics of a full supersonic propulsion system by using relatively simple quasi-one dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods that will allow for accurate control algorithm development and capture the key aspects of the thrust to feed into an APSE model. Previously, propulsion system component models have been developed and are used for this study of the fully integrated propulsion system. An overview of the methodology is presented for the modeling of each propulsion component, with a focus on its associated coupling for the overall model. To conduct APSE studies the described dynamic propulsion system model is integrated into a high fidelity CFD model of the full vehicle capable of conducting aero-elastic studies. Dynamic thrust analysis for the quasi-one dimensional dynamic propulsion system model is presented along with an initial three dimensional flow field model of the engine integrated into a supersonic commercial transport.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten
2016-01-01
Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband...
DESTRUCTION CRITERION IN MODEL OF NON-LINEAR ELASTIC PLASTIC MEDIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. L. Shved
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers a destruction criterion in a specific phenomenological model of elastic plastic medium which significantly differs from the known criteria. In case of vector interpretation of rank-2 symmetric tensors yield surface in the Cauchy stress space is formed by closed piecewise concave surfaces of its deviator sections with due account of experimental data. Section surface is determined by normal vector which is selected from two private vectors of criterial “deviator” operator. Such selection is not always possible in the case of anisotropy growth. It is expected that destruction can only start when a process point in the stress space is located in the current deviator section of the yield surface. It occurs when a critical point appears in the section, and a private value of an operator becomes N-fold in the point that determines the private vector corresponding to the normal vector. Unique and reasonable selection of the normal vector becomes impossible in the critical point and an yield criteria loses its significance in the point.When the destruction initiation is determined there is a possibility of a special case due to the proposed conic form of the yield surface. The deviator section degenerates into the point at the yield surface peak. Criterion formulation at the surface peak lies in the fact that there is no physically correct solution while using a state equation in regard to elastic distortion measures with a fixed tensor of elastic turn. Such usage of the equation is always possible for the rest points of the yield surface and it is considered as an obligatory condition for determination of the deviator section. A critical point is generally absent at any deviator section of the yield surface for isotropic material. A limiting value of the mean stress has been calculated at uniform tension.
Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun
2016-03-01
The dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal formed by periodically repeating of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are studied in this paper. The influences of initial stress on the dispersive relation are considered based on the incremental stress theory. First, the incremental stress theory of elastic solid is extended to the magneto-electro-elasto solid. The governing equations, constitutive equations, and boundary conditions of the incremental stresses in a magneto-electro-elasto solid are derived with consideration of the existence of initial stresses. Then, the transfer matrices of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are formulated, respectively. The total transfer matrix of a single cell in the phononic crystal is obtained by the multiplication of two transfer matrixes related with two adjacent slabs. Furthermore, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the dispersive equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersive equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. The oblique propagation and the normal propagation situations are both considered. In the case of normal propagation of elastic waves, the analytical expressions of the dispersion equation are derived and compared with other literatures. The influences of initial stresses, including the normal initial stresses and shear initial stresses, on the dispersive relations are both discussed based on the numerical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael
2015-05-01
Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.
Jayaprakash, P.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Caroline, M. Lydia
2017-04-01
An organic nonlinear optical single crystal, D-alanine DL-mandelic acid was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature using solvent of aqueous solution. The unit cell parameters were assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of diverse functional groups and vibrational modes were identified using Fourier Transform Infra Red and Fourier Transform Raman spectral analyses. The chemical structure of grown crystal has been identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic study. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis reveal that the crystal has lower cut-off wavelength down to 259 nm, is a key factor to exhibit second harmonic generation signal. The electronic optical band gap and Urbach energy is calculated as 5.31 eV and 0.2425 eV respectively from the UV absorption profile. The diverse optical properties such as, extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, optical conductivity was calculated using UV-visible data. The relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 0.81 times greater than that of KH2PO4 (KDP). The thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. The luminescence spectrum exhibited two peaks (520 nm, 564 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out employing one of the as-grown hard crystal and there by hardness number (Hv), Meyer's index (n), yield strength (σy), elastic stiffness constant (C11) and Knoop hardness number (HK) were assessed. The dielectric behaviour of the as-grown crystal was analyzed for different temperatures (313 K, 333 K, 353 K, and 373 K) at different frequencies.
2017-04-02
layered GaSe semiconductor crystals,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, vol.98, no.1, pp.77-81, 2010. [10] V. Petrov, G. Marchev, P. G...the possibility of determining the nonlinear properties of Si, GaAs and GaSex-1Sx and other nonlinear optical crystals in the FIR and THz regimes using...absorption in the FIR is no more an impediment to pumping, GaSe based, nonlinear frequency conversion devices that in the near-IR. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high
Change of elastic constants induced by point defects in hop crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tome, C.
1979-10-01
An approximate model is developed to calculate the change of elastic constants induced by point defects in hcp metals, supposed the defect configuration is known. General expressions relating the change of elastic moduli to the final atomic coordinates and to the defect force field are derived using the specific symmetry of the defect. Explicit calculations are done for Mg. The predicted change of elastic moduli turns out to be negative for vacancies and trigonal interstitials while for hexagonal interstitials a positive change is predicted. Compatibility with experimental data would suggest that the trigonal configuration is the stable one. (author)
Hydrogen bonded nonlinear optical γ-glycine: Crystal growth and characterization
Narayana Moolya, B.; Jayarama, A.; Sureshkumar, M. R.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.
2005-07-01
Single crystals of γ-glycine(GG) were grown by solvent evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solutions of glycine and ammonium nitrate at ambient temperature. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectral techniques were employed to characterize the crystal. The lattice parameters were calculated and they agree well with the reported values. GG exists as dipolar ions in which the carboxyl group is present as a carboxylate ion and the amino group as an ammonium ion. Due to this dipolar nature, glycine has a high decomposition temperature. The UV cutoff of GG is below 300 nm and has a wide transparency window, which is suitable for second harmonic generation of laser in the blue region. Nonlinear optical characteristics of GG were studied using Q switched Nd:YAG laser ( λ=1064 nm). The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of GG is 1.5 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate . The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies show the presence of strong hydrogen bonds which create and stabilize the crystal structure in GG. The main contributions to the nonlinear optical properties in GG results from the presence of the hydrogen bond and from the vibrational part due to very intense infrared bands of the hydrogen bond vibrations. GG is thermally stable up to 441 K.
Nonlinear analysis of the inflation of an initially flat, circular, elastic disk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, R.M.; Feng, W.W.
1986-01-01
An approximate analysis is given for the inflation of a thin, flat circular disk of elastomeric material. The analysis results in a closed-form analytical solution for the maximum displacement as a function of pressure. The method is illustrated through the use of a Mooney-Rivlin material model. The results are compared with the exact solution, obtained by numerical means, and they are satisfactory, up into the range of several hundred percent strain. The method greatly simplifies the procedure for reducing test data, from this type of test, to nonlinear range mechanical properties
High-pressure single-crystal elasticity study of CO{sub 2} across phase I-III transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jin S., E-mail: zhang72@illinois.edu; Bass, Jay D. [Department of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shieh, Sean R. [Departments of Earth Sciences and Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Dera, Przemyslaw [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Prakapenka, Vitali [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2014-04-07
Sound velocities and elastic moduli of solid single-crystal CO{sub 2} were measured at pressures up to 11.7(3) GPa by Brillouin spectroscopy. The aggregate adiabatic bulk modulus (K{sub S}), shear modulus (G), and their pressure derivatives for CO{sub 2} Phase I are K{sub S0} = 3.4(6) GPa, G{sub 0} = 1.8(2) GPa, (dK{sub S}/dP){sub 0} = 7.8(3), (dG/dP){sub 0} = 2.5(1), (d{sup 2}K{sub S}/dP{sup 2}){sub 0} = −0.23(3) GPa{sup −1}, and (d{sup 2}G/dP{sup 2}){sub 0} = −0.10(1) GPa{sup −1}. A small increase of elastic properties was observed between 9.8(1) and 10.5(3) GPa, in agreement with the CO{sub 2} I-III transition pressure determined from previous x-ray diffraction experiments. Above the transition pressure P{sub T}, we observed a mixture dominated by CO{sub 2}-I, with minor CO{sub 2}-III. The CO{sub 2}-I + III mixture shows slightly increased sound velocities compared to pure CO{sub 2}-I. Elastic anisotropy calculated from the single-crystal elasticity tensor exhibits a decrease with pressure beginning at 7.9(1) GPa, which is lower than P{sub T}. Our results coincide with recent X-ray Raman observations, suggesting that a pressure-induced electronic transition is related to local structural and optical changes.
Shokouhi, Parisa; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T J
2017-11-01
The use of nonlinear acoustic techniques in solids consists in measuring wave distortion arising from compliant features such as cracks, soft intergrain bonds and dislocations. As such, they provide very powerful nondestructive tools to monitor the onset of damage within materials. In particular, a recent technique called dynamic acousto-elasticity testing (DAET) gives unprecedented details on the nonlinear elastic response of materials (classical and non-classical nonlinear features including hysteresis, transient elastic softening and slow relaxation). Here, we provide a comprehensive set of linear and nonlinear acoustic responses on two prismatic concrete specimens; one intact and one pre-compressed to about 70% of its ultimate strength. The two linear techniques used are Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), while the nonlinear ones include DAET (fast and slow dynamics) as well as Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS). In addition, the DAET results correspond to a configuration where the (incoherent) coda portion of the ultrasonic record is used to probe the samples, as opposed to a (coherent) first arrival wave in standard DAET tests. We find that the two visually identical specimens are indistinguishable based on parameters measured by linear techniques (UPV and RUS). On the contrary, the extracted nonlinear parameters from NRUS and DAET are consistent and orders of magnitude greater for the damaged specimen than those for the intact one. This compiled set of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic testing data including the most advanced technique (DAET) provides a benchmark comparison for their use in the field of material characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Multifunctional Bi2ZnOB2O6 single crystals for second and third order nonlinear optical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliopoulos, K.; Kasprowicz, D.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.; Gindre, D.; Sahraoui, B.
2013-01-01
Bi 2 ZnOB 2 O 6 nonlinear optical single crystals were grown by means of the Kyropoulos method from stoichiometric melt. The second and third harmonic generation (SHG/THG) of Bi 2 ZnOB 2 O 6 crystals were investigated by the SHG/THG Maker fringes technique. Moreover, SHG microscopy studies were carried out providing two-dimensional SHG images as a function of the incident laser polarization. The high nonlinear optical efficiency combined with the possibility to grow high quality crystals make Bi 2 ZnOB 2 O 6 an excellent candidate for photonic applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Civalek, Oemer
2005-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic response of doubly curved shallow shells resting on Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation has been studied for step and sinusoidal loadings. Dynamic analogues of Von Karman-Donnel type shell equations are used. Clamped immovable and simply supported immovable boundary conditions are considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of the shell are discretized in space and time domains using the harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) and finite differences (FD) methods, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed HDQ-FD coupled methodology is demonstrated by numerical examples. The shear parameter G of the Pasternak foundation and the stiffness parameter K of the Winkler foundation have been found to have a significant influence on the dynamic response of the shell. It is concluded from the present study that the HDQ-FD methodolgy is a simple, efficient, and accurate method for the nonlinear analysis of doubly curved shallow shells resting on two-parameter elastic foundation
Real-time simulation of the nonlinear visco-elastic deformations of soft tissues.
Basafa, Ehsan; Farahmand, Farzam
2011-05-01
Mass-spring-damper (MSD) models are often used for real-time surgery simulation due to their fast response and fairly realistic deformation replication. An improved real time simulation model of soft tissue deformation due to a laparoscopic surgical indenter was developed and tested. The mechanical realization of conventional MSD models was improved using nonlinear springs and nodal dampers, while their high computational efficiency was maintained using an adapted implicit integration algorithm. New practical algorithms for model parameter tuning, collision detection, and simulation were incorporated. The model was able to replicate complex biological soft tissue mechanical properties under large deformations, i.e., the nonlinear and viscoelastic behaviors. The simulated response of the model after tuning of its parameters to the experimental data of a deer liver sample, closely tracked the reference data with high correlation and maximum relative differences of less than 5 and 10%, for the tuning and testing data sets respectively. Finally, implementation of the proposed model and algorithms in a graphical environment resulted in a real-time simulation with update rates of 150 Hz for interactive deformation and haptic manipulation, and 30 Hz for visual rendering. The proposed real time simulation model of soft tissue deformation due to a laparoscopic surgical indenter was efficient, realistic, and accurate in ex vivo testing. This model is a suitable candidate for testing in vivo during laparoscopic surgery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabari Girisun, T.C.; Dhanuskodi, S.
2010-01-01
Materials with low dielectric constant have attracted a great deal of interest in the field of nonlinear applications and microelectronic industry. Metal complexes of thiourea with group II transition metals (Zn, Cd) as central atom and period III elements (S, Cl) were synthesized by chemical reaction method and single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. By parallel plate capacitor technique, the dielectric response, dissipation factor, ac conductivity and impedance of virgin and metal complexes have been studied in the frequency (100 Hz to 5 MHz) and temperature (303-423 K) ranges. Metal complexes of thiourea with cadmium substitute have a low dielectric constant less than 10. Also the presence of chlorine in the metal complex induces noncentro symmetric structure. Hence the role of group II transition metals and period III elements in tuning the dielectric properties for efficient nonlinear applications has been studied.
The effect of athermal and isothermal omega phase particles on elasticity of beta-Ti single crystals
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nejezchlebová, J.; Janovská, Michaela; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Landa, Michal; Šmilauerová, J.; Stráský, J.; Harcuba, P.; Janeček, M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 110, May (2016), s. 185-191 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : titanium alloys * omega phase * elastic constants * single crystals * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1359645416301860/1-s2.0-S1359645416301860-main.pdf?_tid=dca8c8e6-017d-11e6-8121-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1460555256_4439abe9d4826c07f29d02804351d7be
Elastic flux creep in the mixed state of superconducting L2-xCexCuO4 single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crusellas, M.A.; Fabrega, L.; Fontcuberta, J.; Martinez, B.; Obradors, X.; Pinol, S.
1994-01-01
We have performed measurements of the I-V characteristics and magnetic relaxation on L 2-x Ce x CuO 4 (L = Pr, Sm) superconducting single crystals (H//c), well below the critical temperature (T c ∼ 20 K). From both sets of data we have determined the current dependence of the effective flux creep energy barriers. An U(J) ∼-1nJ has been clearly identified in a region of the (H,T) plane. The relevance of the elastic properties of the vortex system on the flux creep energies is discussed. (orig.)
Soliton-based ultrafast multi-wavelength nonlinear switching in dual-core photonic crystal fibre
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stajanca, P; Pysz, D; Michalka, M; Bugar, I; Andriukaitis, G; Balciunas, T; Fan, G; Baltuska, A
2014-01-01
Systematic experimental study of ultrafast multi-wavelength all-optical switching performance in a dual-core photonic crystal fibre is presented. The focus is on nonlinearly induced switching between the two output ports at non-excitation wavelengths, which are generated during nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of a dual-core photonic crystal fibre made of multicomponent glass. Spatial and spectral characteristics of the fibre output radiation were measured separately for both fibre cores under various polarization and intensity conditions upon selective, individual excitation of each fibre core. Polarization-controlled nonlinear switching performance at multiple non-excitation wavelengths was demonstrated in the long-wavelength optical communication bands and beyond. Depending on the input pulse polarization, narrowband switching operation at 1560 nm and 1730 nm takes place with double core extinction ratio contrasts of 9 dB and 14.5 dB, respectively. Moreover, our approach allows switching with simultaneous wavelength shift from 1650 to 1775 nm with extinction ratio contrast larger than 18 dB. In addition, non-reciprocal behaviour of the soliton fission process under different fibre core excitations was observed and its effect on the multi-wavelength nonlinear switching performance was explained, taking into account the slight dual-core structure asymmetry. The obtained results represent ultrafast all-optical switching with an extended dimension of wavelength shift, controllable with both the input radiation intensity and the polarization by simple propagation along a 14 mm long fibre. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baruah, D; Choudhury, S; Singh, K M; Ghatak, K P
2007-01-01
In this paper we study the carrier contribution to elastic constants in quantum confined heavily doped non-linear optical compounds on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law taking into account the anisotropies of the effective electron masses and spin orbit splitting constants together with the proper inclusion of the crystal field splitting in the Hamiltonian within the framework of k.p formalism. All the results of heavily doped three, and two models of Kane for heavily doped III-V materials form special cases of our generalized analysis. It has been found, taking different heavily doped quantum confined materials that, the carrier contribution to the elastic constants increases with increase in electron statistics and decrease in film thickness in ladder like manners for all types of quantum confinements with different numerical values which are totally dependent on the energy band constants. The said contribution is greatest in quantum dots and least in quantum wells together with the fact the heavy doping enhances the said contributions for all types of quantum confined materials. We have suggested an experimental method of determining the carrier contribution to the elastic constants in nanostructured materials having arbitrary band structures
Properties of Energy Spectra of Molecular Crystals Investigated by Nonlinear Theory
Pang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Huai-Wu
We calculate the quantum energy spectra of molecular crystals, such as acetanilide, by using discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing various interactions, appropriate to the systems. The energy spectra consist of many energy bands, in each energy band there are a lot of energy levels including some higher excited states. The result of energy spectrum is basically consistent with experimental values obtained by infrared absorption and Raman scattering in acetanilide and can also explain some experimental results obtained by Careri et al. Finally, we further discuss the influences of variously characteristic parameters on the energy spectra of the systems.
Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muenster, R.; Jarasch, M.; Zhuang, X.; Shen, Y.
1997-01-01
Optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals (LC) in the isotropic phase can be enhanced by 1 order of magnitude by dissolving 0.1% of anthraquinone dye in the LC. The enhancement decreases by ∼30% when the LC transforms into the nematic phase. The same guest-host effect also exists in non-LC liquids. It can be explained by a model based on the change of guest-host interaction induced by optical excitations of the dye. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahasin F. Hadi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical properties (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for crystal violet doped polystyrene films as a function of doping ratio in chloroform solvent. Samples exhibits in closed aperture Z-scan positive nonlinear refraction (self-focusing. While in the open aperture Z-scan gives reverse saturation absorption (RSA (positive absorption for all film with different doping ratio making samples candidates for optical limiting devices for protection of sensors and eyes from energetic laser light pulses under the experimental conditions.
Suresh, A.; Manikandan, N.; Jauhar, RO. MU.; Murugakoothan, P.; Vinitha, G.
2018-06-01
Urea p-nitrophenol, an organic nonlinear optical crystal was synthesized and grown adopting slow evaporation and seed rotation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of the desired crystal. High resolution X-ray diffraction study showed the defect nature of the crystal. The presence of functional groups in the material was confirmed by FTIR analysis. UV-Vis-NIR study indicates that the grown crystal has a wider transparency region with the lower cutoff wavelength at 423 nm. The grown crystal is thermally stable up to 120 °C as assessed by TG-DTA analysis. The optical homogeneity of the grown crystal was confirmed by birefringence study. The 1064 nm Nd-YAG laser was used to obtain laser induced surface damage threshold which was found to be 0.38, 0.25 and 0.33 GW/cm2 for (0 1 0), (1 1 - 1) and (0 1 1) planes, respectively. The dielectric study was performed to find the charge distribution inside the crystal. The hardness property of the titular material has been found using Vicker's microhardness study. The optical nonlinearity obtained from third order nonlinear optical measurements carried out using Z-scan technique showed that these samples could be exploited for optical limiting studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Packiya raj
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A new inorganic nonlinear optical single crystal of sodium manganese tetrachloride (SMTC has been successfully grown from aqueous solution using the slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The crystals obtained using the aforementioned method were characterized using different techniques. The crystalline nature of the as-grown crystal of SMTC was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal belongs to an orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group Pbam. The optical transmission study of the SMTC crystal revealed high transmittance in the entire UV–vis region, and the lower cut-off wavelength was determined to be 240 nm. The mechanical strength of the as-grown crystal was estimated using the Vickers microhardness test. The second harmonic generation (SHG efficiency of the crystal was measured using Kurtz's powder technique, which indicated that the crystal has a nonlinear optical (NLO efficiency that is 1.32 times greater than that of KDP. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the compound were measured at different temperatures with varying frequencies. The photoconductivity study confirmed that the title compound possesses a negative photoconducting nature. The growth mechanism and surface features of the as-grown crystals were investigated using chemical etching analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)
2017-04-15
An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.
Dhavamurthy, M.; Peramaiyan, G.; Babu, K. Syed Suresh; Mohan, R.
2015-04-01
Organosulfur nonlinear optical single crystals of orthorhombic bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (2CH6N3 +·C7H4O6S2-·H2O) with dimension 14 mm × 4 mm × 5 mm have been grown from methanol and water solvents in 1:1 ratio by the slow evaporation growth technique. The crystal structure and morphology of the crystals have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopic studies were carried out to identify the functional groups and vibrational modes present in the grown crystals. The UV-Vis spectrum was studied to analyze the linear optical properties of the grown crystals. The thermal gravimetric analysis was conducted on the grown crystals, and the result revealed that the grown crystal is thermally stable up to 65 °C. The dielectric tensor components ɛ 11, ɛ 22 and ɛ 33 of BG5SS crystal were evaluated as a function of frequency at 40 °C. The surface laser damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Further, Vickers micro-hardness study was carried out to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown crystals for various loads.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tylczyński, Zbigniew, E-mail: zbigtyl@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Busz, Piotr [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)
2016-11-01
Temperature changes in the pyroelectric, piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric properties of γ-glycine crystals were studied in the range 100 ÷ 385 K. The pyroelectric coefficient increases monotonically in this temperature range and its value at RT was compared with that of other crystals having glycine molecules. A big maximum in the d14 component of piezoelectric tensor compared by maximum in attenuation of the resonant face-shear mode were observed at 189 K. The components of the elastic stiffness tensor and other components of the piezoelectric tensor show anomalies at this temperature. The components of electromechanical coupling coefficient determined indicate that γ-glycine is a weak piezoelectric. The real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant measured in the direction perpendicular to the trigonal axis show the relaxation anomalies much before 198 K and the activation energies were calculated. These anomalies were interpreted as a result of changes in the NH{sub 3}{sup +} vibrations through electron-phonon coupling of the so called “dynamical transition”. The anomalies of dielectric constant ε*{sub 11} and piezoelectric tensor component d{sub 14} taking place at 335 K are associated with an increase in ac conductivity caused by charge transfer of protons. - Graphical abstract: Imaginary part of dielectric constant in [100] direction. - Highlights: • Piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric constants anomalies were discovered at 189 K. • These anomalies were interpreted as a result of so called “dynamical transition”. • Relaxational dielectric anomaly was explained by the dynamics of glycine molecules. • Pyroelectric coefficient of γ-glycine was determined in a wide temperature range. • Complex dielectric & piezoelectric anomalies at 335 K were caused by protons hopping.
Elastic neutron diffraction study of transforming and non-transforming single crystal ZrV2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostock, J.; Wong, M.; MacVicar, M.L.A.; Levinson, M.
1980-01-01
The mosaic spread of single crystal ZrV 2 is unusually narrow, approx. 1' from room temperature to 130K. For non-transforming perfect single crystal the mosaic gradually increases to approx. 1.86' at 4.2K; for transforming, twinned single crystal the room temperature mosaic is maintained to 110K, then increases to 2.76' at 94K when the crystal transforms to a mixed cubic (30%) and rhombohedral state (70%). The onset of the electronic instability (approx. 100K) is accompanied by an increase in diffuse scattering background which, for the twinned crystal, peaks at the structural transformation. The electronic instability coupled to the localized lattice stress appears to be the driving mechanism for the transformation
Chen, Chun-Wei; Khoo, Iam Choon; Zhao, Shuo; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Ho, Tsung-Jui
2015-10-01
We have investigated the mechanisms responsible for nonlinear optical processes occurring in azobenzene-doped blue phase liquid crystals (BPLC), which exhibit two thermodynamically stable BPs: BPI and BPII. In coherent two wave-mixing experiments, a slow (minutes) and a fast (few milliseconds) side diffractions are observed. The underlying mechanisms were disclosed by monitoring the dynamics of grating formation and relaxation as well as by some supplementary experiments. We found the photothermal indexing and dye/LC intermolecular torque leading to lattice distortion to be the dominant mechanisms for the observed nonlinear response in BPLC. Moreover, the response time of the nonlinear optical process varied with operating phase. The rise time of the thermal indexing process was in good agreement with our findings on the temperature dependence of BP refractive index: τ(ISO) > τ(BPI) > τ(BPII). The relaxation time of the torque-induced lattice distortion was analogue to its electrostriction counterpart: τ'(BPI) > τ'(BPII). In a separate experiment, lattice swelling with selective reflection of direction changed from green to red was also observed. This was attributable to the isomerization-induced change in cholesteric pitch, which directly affects the lattice spacing. The phenomenon was confirmed by measuring the optical rotatory power of the BPLC.
Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G
2016-05-01
An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Mechanism of linear and nonlinear optical properties of bis-thiourea cadmium chloride single crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, J.T.; Luo, S.J.; Yi, L.; Laref, A.
2013-01-01
Within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), a calculation of the electronic structure of a semiorganic crystal named bis-thiourea cadmium chloride (BTCC) was performed, then the linear and nonlinear optical responses were obtained over a wide energy range, using a scissor energy of 1.30 eV, and our results are in good agreement with the experiments. The accurate full-potential projected augmented wave (FP-PAW) method was used. The prominent spectrum of the second harmonic generation (SHG) was successfully correlated with the dielectric function in terms of single- and double-photon resonances. Both the virtual electron (VE) and virtual hole (VH) processes make contributions to the SHG of BTCC crystal, and the VH process is enhanced by the Cd-centered tetrahedron. The SHG effect of the semiorganic material is attributed to the charge transfer (CT). The CT model for the semiorganic crystal is named as “M-Π O ⋯X”. “M” is a metal atom providing electrons, “Π O ” is a π-conjugated covalent of an organic molecule, and “X” is a high electronegativity atom. The CT across the BTCC molecule is along a π-electron conjugation covalence bond, and the delocalized electrons of sulfur provide an excellent bridge. The strong “pull” effect for the CT is due to the intramolecular hydrogen bonds provided by the chlorine with the high electron affinity.
Effect of elastic deformation and the magnetic field on the electrical conductivity of p-Si crystals
Lys, R.; Pavlyk, B.; Didyk, R.; Shykorjak, J.; Karbovnyk, I.
2018-03-01
It is shown that at a deformation rate of 0.41 kg/min, the characteristic feature of the dependence of the surface resistance of the p-Si sample on the magnitude of its elastic deformation (R(σ)) is the reduction of the resistance during compression and unclamping. With the increase in the number of "compression-unclamping" cycles, the difference between the positions of the compression and unclamping curves decreases. The transformation of two types of magnetically sensitive defects occurs under the impact of a magnetic field on p-Si crystals. The defects are interrelated with two factors that cause the mutually opposite influence on the conductivity of the crystal. The first factor is that the action of the magnetic field decreases the activation energy of the dislocation holders, which leads to an increase in the electrical conductivity of the sample. The second factor is that due to the decay of molecules of oxygen-containing impurities in the magnetic field, the stable chemisorption bonds appear in the crystal that leads to a decrease in its conductivity. If the sample stays in the magnetic field for a long time, the one or the other mechanism predominates, causing a slow growth or decrease in resistance around a certain (averaged) value. Moreover, the frequency of such changes is greater in the deformed sample. The value of the surface resistance of p-Si samples does not change for a long time without the influence of the magnetic field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin
2013-01-01
We study the anisotropic nature of the Kerr nonlinear response in a beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO) nonlinear crystal. The focus is on determining the relevant χ(3) cubic tensor components that affect interaction of type I cascaded second-harmonic generation. Various experiments in the literat...... a complete list that we propose as reference of the four major cubic tensor components in BBO. We finally discuss the impact of using the cubic anisotropic response in ultrafast cascading experiments in BBO.......We study the anisotropic nature of the Kerr nonlinear response in a beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO) nonlinear crystal. The focus is on determining the relevant χ(3) cubic tensor components that affect interaction of type I cascaded second-harmonic generation. Various experiments...... in the literature are analyzed and we correct the data from some of the experiments for contributions from cascading as well as for updated material parameters. We also perform an additional experimental measurement of the Kerr nonlinear tensor component responsible for self-phase modulation in cascading, and we...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Redrothu Hanumantharao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal bis (L-glutamine potassium nitrate (BGPN grown by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The grown crystal surface has been analyzed by chemical etching and atomic force microscopy (AFM studies. Amplitude parameters like area roughness, roughness average, valley height, valley depth, peak height, and peak valley height were measured successfully from AFM studies. Etching studies were carried out by various solvents like water, methanol and ethanol. The etching study indicates the occurrence of different types of etch pit patterns like striations and steplike pattern. The laser damage threshold energy has been measured by irradiating laser beam using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm. Second harmonic generation (SHG studies have been performed by famous Kurtz powder technique with reference to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals (KDP. It is found from this technique that SHG efficiency of BGPN is in comparison to that of standard KDP crystals.
Hu, Ming-Lie; Wang, Ching-Yue; Song, You-Jian; Li, Yan-Feng; Chai, Lu; Serebryannikov, Evgenii; Zheltikov, Aleksei
2006-02-06
We demonstrate an experimental technique that allows a mapping of vectorial nonlinear-optical processes in multimode photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs). Spatial and polarization modes of PCFs are selectively excited in this technique by varying the tilt angle of the input beam and rotating the polarization of the input field. Intensity spectra of the PCF output plotted as a function of the input field power and polarization then yield mode-resolved maps of nonlinear-optical interactions in multimode PCFs, facilitating the analysis and control of nonlinear-optical transformations of ultrashort laser pulses in such fibers.
Saravanan, M.; Abraham Rajasekar, S.
2016-04-01
The crystals (benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH)) appropriate for NLO appliance were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of BPH specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of Cc. The optical precision in the whole visible region was found to be excellent for non-linear optical claim. Excellence of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of BPH sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The dielectric studies were executed at varied temperatures and frequencies to investigate the electrical properties. Photoconductivity measurement enumerates consummate of inducing dipoles due to strong incident radiation and also divulge the nonlinear behaviour of the material. The third order nonlinear optical properties of BPH crystals were deliberate by Z-scan method.
Influence of temperature upon dislocation mobility and elastic limit of single crystal HgI2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milstein, F.; Farber, B.; Kim, K.; van den Berg, L.; Schnepple, W.
1982-01-01
The practical importance of studying mechanical properties and dislocation structure of HgI 2 is reviewed briefly. Specifically, the performance of single crystal HgI 2 radiation detectors is evidently sensitive to crystalline imperfections; the dislocation structure, in turn, can be altered during detector fabrication, depending upon the mechanical properties of the crystal and the stresses to which the crystal is subjected. The influence of temperature upon dislocation mobility and plasticity in vapor-grown crystals of mercuric iodide is examined. Dislocation mobiity is determined by measuring the lengths of the longest arms of dislocation etch pit rosettes on (001) surfaces following microhardness indentation and chemical etch. Measurements were made in the range from room temperature to the phase transition temperature of 127 0 C. Dislocation mobility was found to be an increasing function of temperature, with the effect accelerating as the phase transition is approached. Increasing temperature was also found to lower the critical resolved shear stress for plastic deformation on slip on (001) planes. In these contexts, the vapor-grown crystals are clearly softer at their elevated growth temperatures. The results are discussed in terms of a dislocation model involving soft and hard glide dislocations
16-channel DWDM based on 1D defect mode nonlinear photonic crystal
Kalhan, Abhishek; Sharma, Sanjeev; Kumar, Arun
2018-05-01
We propose a sixteen-channel Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (DWDM), using the 1-D defect mode nonlinear photonic crystal which is a function of intensity as well as wavelength. Here, we consider an alternate layer of two semiconductor materials in which we found the bandgap of materials when defect layer is introduced then 16-channel dense wavelength division multiplexer is obtained within bandgap. From the theoretical analysis, we can achieve average quality factor of 7800.4, the uniform spectral line-width of 0.2 nm, crosstalk of -31.4 dB, central wavelength changes 0.07 nm/(1GW/cm2) and 100% transmission efficiency. Thus, Sixteen-channel DWDM has very high quality factor, low crosstalk, near 100% power transmission efficiency and small channel spacing (1.44 nm).
Deflection of high energy channeled charged particles by elastically bent silicon single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Pisharodoy, M.; Salman, S.M.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, G.H.; Wijayawardana, R.; Forster, J.S.; Mitchell, I.V.; Baker, S.I.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Ellison, J.A.; Siffert, P.
1984-01-01
An experiment has been carried out to observe the deflection of charged particles by planar channeling in bent single crystals of silicon for protons with energy up to 180 GeV. Anomolous loss of particles from the center point of a three point bending apparatus was observed at high incident particle energy. This effect has been exploited to fashion a 'dechanneling spectrometer' to study dechanneling effects due to centripital displacement of channeled particle trajectories in a bent crystal. The bending losses generally conform to the predictions of calculations based on a classical model. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedesseau, L., E-mail: laurent.pedesseau@insa-rennes.fr, E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Even, J., E-mail: laurent.pedesseau@insa-rennes.fr, E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l’Information, FOTON UMR 6082, CNRS, INSA de Rennes, 35708 Rennes (France); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Chaussende, D.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Chaix-Pluchery, O. [LMGP, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France)
2015-12-01
New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of a re-entrant side-chain liquid-crystal polyacrylate
Benguigui, L.; Noirez, L.; Kahn, R.; Keller, P.; Lambert, M.; Cohen de Lara, E.
1991-04-01
We present a first investigation of the dynamics of a side chain liquid crystal polyacrylate in the isotropic (I), nematic (N), smectic A (SA), and re-entrant nematic (NRe) phases by means of quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The motion or/and the mobility of the mesogen protons decreases as soon as the temperature decreases after the isotropic-nematic transition. The I-N and SA-NRe transitions corrspond to a jump in the curve of the Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor (ratio: elastic scattering/ total scattering) versus temperature, on the other hand the transition N-SA occurs without any change of slope. We conclude that the local order is very similar in the nematic and the smectic A phases. Nous présentons une première étude dynamique par diffusion quasi-élastique des neutrons, d'un échantillon de polyacrylate mésomorphe en peigne dans chacune des phases : isotrope, nématique, smectique et nématique rentrante. On montre que le mouvement et/ou la mobilité des protons du mésogène se restreint à mesure que la température diminue après la transition isotrope-nématique. Contrairement à la transition N-SA, les transitions I-N et SA-NRe correspondent à une discontinuité dans la courbe du Facteur de Structure Incohérent Elastique (rapport : intensité élastique/intensité totale) en fonction de la température ; l'ordre local semble donc très proche pour les phases nématique et smectique.
Berryman, James G
2011-04-01
Methods for computing Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and related self-consistent estimates of elastic constants for polycrystals composed of crystals having orthorhombic symmetry have been known for about three decades. However, these methods are underutilized, perhaps because of some perceived difficulties with implementing the necessary computational procedures. Several simplifications of these techniques are introduced, thereby reducing the overall computational burden, as well as the complications inherent in mapping out the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding curves. The self-consistent estimates of the effective elastic constants are very robust, involving a quickly converging iteration procedure. Once these self-consistent values are known, they may then be used to speed up the computations of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds themselves. It is shown furthermore that the resulting orthorhombic polycrystal code can be used as well to compute both bounds and self-consistent estimates for polycrystals of higher-symmetry tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic (but not trigonal) materials. The self-consistent results found this way are shown to be the same as those obtained using the earlier methods, specifically those methods designed specially for each individual symmetry type. But the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds found using the orthorhombic code are either the same or (more typically) tighter than those found previously for these special cases (i.e., tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic). The improvement in the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds is presumably due to the additional degrees of freedom introduced into the available search space.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berryman, J. G.
2011-02-01
Methods for computing Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and related self-consistent estimates of elastic constants for polycrystals composed of crystals having orthorhombic symmetry have been known for about three decades. However, these methods are underutilized, perhaps because of some perceived difficulties with implementing the necessary computational procedures. Several simplifications of these techniques are introduced, thereby reducing the overall computational burden, as well as the complications inherent in mapping out the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding curves. The self-consistent estimates of the effective elastic constants are very robust, involving a quickly converging iteration procedure. Once these self-consistent values are known, they may then be used to speed up the computations of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds themselves. It is shown furthermore that the resulting orthorhombic polycrystal code can be used as well to compute both bounds and self-consistent estimates for polycrystals of higher-symmetry tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic (but not trigonal) materials. The self-consistent results found this way are shown to be the same as those obtained using the earlier methods, specifically those methods designed specially for each individual symmetry type. But the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds found using the orthorhombic code are either the same or (more typically) tighter than those found previously for these special cases (i.e., tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic). The improvement in the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds is presumably due to the additional degrees of freedom introduced into the available search space.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yildiz, Nihat, E-mail: nyildiz@cumhuriyet.edu.t [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Physics, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); San, Sait Eren; Okutan, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 141, Gebze 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kaya, Hueseyin [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Physics, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)
2010-04-15
Among other significant obstacles, inherent nonlinearity in experimental physical response data poses severe difficulty in empirical physical formula (EPF) construction. In this paper, we applied a novel method (namely layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach) to produce explicit nonlinear EPFs for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). Our motivation was that, as we showed in a previous theoretical work, an appropriate LFNN, due to its exceptional nonlinear function approximation capabilities, is highly relevant to EPF construction. Therefore, in this paper, we obtained excellently produced LFNN approximation functions as our desired EPFs for above-mentioned highly nonlinear response data of NLCs. In other words, by using suitable LFNNs, we successfully fitted the experimentally measured response and predicted the new (yet-to-be measured) response data. The experimental data (response versus input) were diffraction and dielectric properties versus bias voltage; and they were all taken from our previous experimental work. We conclude that in general, LFNN can be applied to construct various types of EPFs for the corresponding various nonlinear physical perturbation (thermal, electronic, molecular, electric, optical, etc.) data of doped NLCs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Okutan, Mustafa; Kaya, Hueseyin
2010-01-01
Among other significant obstacles, inherent nonlinearity in experimental physical response data poses severe difficulty in empirical physical formula (EPF) construction. In this paper, we applied a novel method (namely layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach) to produce explicit nonlinear EPFs for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). Our motivation was that, as we showed in a previous theoretical work, an appropriate LFNN, due to its exceptional nonlinear function approximation capabilities, is highly relevant to EPF construction. Therefore, in this paper, we obtained excellently produced LFNN approximation functions as our desired EPFs for above-mentioned highly nonlinear response data of NLCs. In other words, by using suitable LFNNs, we successfully fitted the experimentally measured response and predicted the new (yet-to-be measured) response data. The experimental data (response versus input) were diffraction and dielectric properties versus bias voltage; and they were all taken from our previous experimental work. We conclude that in general, LFNN can be applied to construct various types of EPFs for the corresponding various nonlinear physical perturbation (thermal, electronic, molecular, electric, optical, etc.) data of doped NLCs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenji Wei
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Gas transport in shale gas reservoirs is largely affected by rock properties such as permeability. These properties are often sensitive to the in-situ stress state changes. Accurate modeling of shale gas transport in shale reservoir rocks considering the stress sensitive effects on rock petrophysical properties is important for successful shale gas extraction. Nonlinear elasticity in stress sensitive reservoir rocks depicts the nonlinear stress-strain relationship, yet it is not thoroughly studied in previous reservoir modeling works. In this study, an improved coupled flow and geomechanics model that considers nonlinear elasticity is proposed. The model is based on finite element methods, and the nonlinear elasticity in the model is validated with experimental data on shale samples selected from the Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin China. Numerical results indicate that, in stress sensitive shale rocks, nonlinear elasticity affects shale permeability, shale porosity, and distributions of effective stress and pore pressure. Elastic modulus change is dependent on not only in-situ stress state but also stress history path. Without considering nonlinear elasticity, the modeling of shale rock permeability in Longmaxi Formation can overestimate permeability values by 1.6 to 53 times.
Studies of Second Order Optical Nonlinearities of 4-Aminobenzophenone (ABP) Single Crystal Films
Bhowmik, Achintya; Thakur, Mrinal
1998-03-01
Specific organic materials exhibit very high second order optical susceptibilities. Growth of single crystal films of these materials and characterization of nonlinear optical properties are necessary for implementation of device applications. We have grown large-area films ( 1 cm^2 area, 4 μm thick) of ABP by a modification of the shear method. Single crystal nature of the films was confirmed by polarized optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a [100] surface orientation. The absorption spectra revealed transparency from 390 nm to 1940 nm. Significant elements of the second order optical susceptibility tensor were measured by detailed SHG experiments using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 100 ps, 82 MHz). Second-harmonic power was measured using lock-in detection with carefully selected polarization conditions while the film was rotated about the propagation direction. Using LiNbØas the reference, d-coefficients of ABP were found to be d_23=7.2 pm/V and d_22=0.7 pm/V. Type-I and type-II phase-matching directions were identified on the film by analyzing the optical indicatrix surfaces at fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies.
Photoinduced nonlinear optical effects in Nd-doped δ-BiB3O6 crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majchrowski, A.; Wojciechowski, A.; Kityk, I.V.; Chrunik, M.; Jaroszewicz, L.R.; Michalski, E.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • New type of optically operated rare earth doped borates is proposed. • Principal role of the phonon subsystem in photoinduced electrooptics, SHG and piezooptics is shown. • The possibility to create the laser operated materials is shown for the such kind of sold state alloys. - Abstract: The studies of the second harmonic generation, Pockels effect and piezoelectricity were performed for the new synthesized δ-BiB 3 O 6 single crystals. The incorporation of Nd 3+ ions into these crystals plays an important role for the increasing of the photoinduced nonlinear optical properties. Temperature dependences of the optical and piezoelectric features showed existence of some anomalies in the vicinity of 160 K and 220 K. This may confirm a principal role of the photopolarization and of the localized impurity states which give additional contribution into the observed effect. It is crucial that the effect is dependent on the number of the photoinducing pulses. The effect is completely reversible after switching off of the photoinducing laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrushchak, A. S.; Laba, H. P.; Yurkevych, O. V.; Mytsyk, B. G.; Solskii, I. M.; Kityk, A. V.; Sahraoui, B.
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results of ultrasonic measurements of LiNbO 3 and LiNbO 3 :MgO crystals. The tensors of piezoelectric coefficients, elastic stiffness constants, and elastic compliances are determined for both crystals at room temperature. Combining these data with the results of piezo-optical measurements, a complete set of photoelastic tensor coefficients is also calculated. Doping of LiNbO 3 crystals by MgO does not lead to a considerable modification of their elastic and photoelastic properties. However, LiNbO 3 :MgO is characterized by a considerably higher resistance with respect to powerful light radiation, making it promising for future application in acousto-optic devices that deal with superpowerful laser radiation. Presented here are the complete tensor sets of elastic constants and photoelastic coefficients of LiNbO 3 and LiNbO 3 :MgO crystals that may be used for a geometry optimization of acousto-optical interaction providing the best diffraction efficiency of acousto-optical cells made of these materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Zhizhong; Zhang Chuanzeng; Wang Yuesheng
2011-01-01
The band structures of in-plane elastic waves propagating in two-dimensional phononic crystals with one-dimensional random disorder and aperiodicity are analyzed in this paper. The localization of wave propagation is discussed by introducing the concept of the localization factor, which is calculated by the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method. By treating the random disorder and aperiodicity as the deviation from the periodicity in a special way, three kinds of aperiodic phononic crystals that have normally distributed random disorder, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequence in one direction and translational symmetry in the other direction are considered and the band structures are characterized using localization factors. Besides, as a special case, we analyze the band gap properties of a periodic planar layered composite containing a periodic array of square inclusions. The transmission coefficients based on eigen-mode matching theory are also calculated and the results show the same behaviors as the localization factor does. In the case of random disorders, the localization degree of the normally distributed random disorder is larger than that of the uniformly distributed random disorder although the eigenstates are both localized no matter what types of random disorders, whereas, for the case of Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro structures, the band structures of Thue-Morse sequence exhibit similarities with the quasi-periodic (Fibonacci) sequence not present in the results of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivera, A; Garcia, G; Olivares, J; Crespillo, M L; Agulló-López, F
2011-01-01
The elastic strain/stress fields (halo) around a compressed amorphous nano-track (core) caused by a single high-energy ion impact on LiNbO 3 are calculated. A method is developed to approximately account for the effects of crystal anisotropy of LiNbO 3 (symmetry 3m) on the stress fields for tracks oriented along the crystal axes (X, Y or Z). It only considers the zero-order (axial) harmonic contribution to the displacement field in the perpendicular plane and uses effective Poisson moduli for each particular orientation. The anisotropy is relatively small; however, it accounts for some differential features obtained for irradiations along the crystallographic axes X, Y and Z. In particular, the irradiation-induced disorder (including halo) and the associated surface swelling appear to be higher for irradiations along the X- or Y-axis in comparison with those along the Z-axis. Other irradiation effects can be explained by the model, e.g. fracture patterns or the morphology of pores after chemical etching of tracks. Moreover, it offers interesting predictions on the effect of irradiation on lattice parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.V.; Armstrong, D.J.; Alford, W.J.
1998-01-01
We show by experiment and mathematical model that angular and frequency acceptance bandwidths for frequency mixing in a nonlinear crystal can often be improved by segmenting the crystal and reversing the spatial or temporal walk-off in alternating segments. We analyze nonlinear mixing primarily in real space, (x,t), rather than Fourier space, (k,ω), and show that acceptance bands for sum- and difference-frequency mixing can be increased by up to a factor equal to the number of crystal segments. We consider both high- and low-efficiency mixing as well as parametric gain, and show that in many cases of practical interest the increased bandwidth substantially improves conversion efficiency. We also attempt to clarify the role of acceptance bandwidths in frequency mixing. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America
Structure in a confined smectic liquid crystal with competing surface and sample elasticities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idziak, S.H.; Koltover, I.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Safinya, C.R.
1996-01-01
We report on studies using the x-ray surface forces apparatus (XSFA) to compare the structure of a liquid crystal confined between hard surfaces and, for the first time, between soft surfaces that can deform due to the stresses imposed by the confined fluid. We find that the alignment of smectic domains in confined films depends critically on both the shape and compliance of the confining walls or surfaces: open-quote open-quote Soft surfaces close-quote close-quote exhibit a critical gap thickness of 3.4 μm for the liquid crystal studied at which maximum alignment occurs, while open-quote open-quote hard surfaces close-quote close-quote do not exhibit gap-dependent alignment. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Refractive indices of CaF2 single crystals under elastic shock loading
Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.
2017-07-01
Refractive indices and Hugoniots of CaF2 single crystals are investigated by laser displacement interferometry under shock loading below 5 GPa. Birefringence is observed for the [110] loading. We obtain the Hugoniot equation of states for [100], [110] and [111], and refractive indices for these orientations with consideration of their polarization. The measured refractive indices are in reasonable agreement with predictions based on the piezo-optic theory, and are used to refine the elasto-optic coefficients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhanaraj, P.V. [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Rajesh, N.P., E-mail: rajeshnp@ssn.edu.i [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India)
2011-01-01
A systematic characterization of a novel nonlinear optical material tris (glycine) calcium({Iota}{Iota}) dichloride (TGCC) is performed. The solubility and metastable zone width of TGCC were studied. TGCC single crystal of dimensions 34x23x5 mm{sup 3} was grown by the slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the crystal belongs to orthorhombic system. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirms the presence of elements in the crystal. Structural perfection of the as-grown single crystal was studied through multicrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal characteristics of TGCC were analyzed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The transmittance of TGCC crystal has been used to calculate the optical band gap of the crystal. Chemical etching studies of TGCC crystal was carried out. The dielectric and mechanical behavior of the crystals were analyzed. The second harmonic conversion property of TGCC was identified by the Kurtz and Perry powder technique and was observed to be higher than that of KDP.
Menezes, Anthoni Praveen; Jayarama, A.; Ng, Seik Weng
2015-05-01
An efficient nonlinear optical material 2E-3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(pyridin-3-yl) prop-2-en-1-one (BPP) was synthesized and single crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Grown crystal had prismatic morphology and its structure was confirmed by various spectroscopic studies, elemental analysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The single crystal XRD of the crystal showed that BPP crystallizes in monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21 and the cell parameters are a = 5.6428(7) Å, b = 3.8637(6) Å, c = 26.411(2) Å, β = 97.568(11) deg and v = 575.82(12) Å3. The UV-Visible spectrum reveals that the crystal is optically transparent and has high optical energy band gap of 3.1 eV. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) of BPP is 6.8 times that of KDP. From thermal analysis it is found that the crystal melts at 139 °C and decomposes at 264 °C. High optical transparency down to blue region, higher powder SHG efficiency and better thermal stability than that of urea makes this chalcone derivative a promising candidate for SHG applications. Furthermore, effect of molecular planarity on SHG efficiency and role of pyridine ring adjacent to carbonyl group in forming noncentrosymmetric crystal systems of chalcone family is also discussed.
Li, Qian; Matula, Thomas J; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong
2013-02-21
It has been accepted that the dynamic responses of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles will be significantly affected by the encapsulating shell properties (e.g., shell elasticity and viscosity). In this work, a new model is proposed to describe the complicated rheological behaviors in an encapsulating shell of UCA microbubbles by applying the nonlinear 'Cross law' to the shell viscous term in the Marmottant model. The proposed new model was verified by fitting the dynamic responses of UCAs measured with either a high-speed optical imaging system or a light scattering system. The comparison results between the measured radius-time curves and the numerical simulations demonstrate that the 'compression-only' behavior of UCAs can be successfully simulated with the new model. Then, the shell elastic and viscous coefficients of SonoVue microbubbles were evaluated based on the new model simulations, and compared to the results obtained from some existing UCA models. The results confirm the capability of the current model for reducing the dependence of bubble shell parameters on the initial bubble radius, which indicates that the current model might be more comprehensive to describe the complex rheological nature (e.g., 'shear-thinning' and 'strain-softening') in encapsulating shells of UCA microbubbles by taking into account the nonlinear changes of both shell elasticity and shell viscosity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Qian; Tu Juan; Guo Xiasheng; Zhang Dong; Matula, Thomas J
2013-01-01
It has been accepted that the dynamic responses of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles will be significantly affected by the encapsulating shell properties (e.g., shell elasticity and viscosity). In this work, a new model is proposed to describe the complicated rheological behaviors in an encapsulating shell of UCA microbubbles by applying the nonlinear ‘Cross law’ to the shell viscous term in the Marmottant model. The proposed new model was verified by fitting the dynamic responses of UCAs measured with either a high-speed optical imaging system or a light scattering system. The comparison results between the measured radius–time curves and the numerical simulations demonstrate that the ‘compression-only’ behavior of UCAs can be successfully simulated with the new model. Then, the shell elastic and viscous coefficients of SonoVue microbubbles were evaluated based on the new model simulations, and compared to the results obtained from some existing UCA models. The results confirm the capability of the current model for reducing the dependence of bubble shell parameters on the initial bubble radius, which indicates that the current model might be more comprehensive to describe the complex rheological nature (e.g., ‘shear-thinning’ and ‘strain-softening’) in encapsulating shells of UCA microbubbles by taking into account the nonlinear changes of both shell elasticity and shell viscosity. (paper)
Contoyannis, Paul; Hurley, Jeremiah; Grootendorst, Paul; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Tamblyn, Robyn
2005-09-01
The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price endogenous (a function of drug consumption). In this paper we exploit an exogenous change in cost-sharing within the Quebec (Canada) public Pharmacare program to estimate the price elasticity of expenditure for drugs using IV methods. This approach corrects for the endogeneity of price and incorporates the concept of a 'rational' consumer who factors into consumption decisions the price they expect to face at the margin given their expected needs. The IV method is adapted from an approach developed in the public finance literature used to estimate income responses to changes in tax schedules. The instrument is based on the price an individual would face under the new cost-sharing policy if their consumption remained at the pre-policy level. Our preferred specification leads to expenditure elasticities that are in the low range of previous estimates (between -0.12 and -0.16). Naïve OLS estimates are between 1 and 4 times these magnitudes. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Xu, Jingping; Tripathy, Sakya; Rubin, Jonathan M; Stidham, Ryan W; Johnson, Laura A; Higgins, Peter D R; Kim, Kang
2012-03-01
Strain developed under quasi-static deformation has been mostly used in ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to determine the stiffness change of tissues. However, the strain measure in UEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of stiffness. This is particularly true for Crohn's disease where we have applied strain imaging to the differentiation of acutely inflamed bowel from chronically fibrotic bowel. In this study, a new nonlinear elastic parameter of the soft tissues is proposed to overcome this limit. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the newly proposed method and demonstrate its feasibility in the UEI. A nonlinear characteristic of soft tissues over a relatively large dynamic range of strain was investigated. A simplified tissue model based on a finite element (FE) analysis was integrated with a laboratory developed ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signal synthesis program. Two-dimensional speckle tracking was applied to this model to simulate the nonlinear behavior of the strain developed in a target inclusion over the applied average strain to the surrounding tissues. A nonlinear empirical equation was formulated and optimized to best match the developed strain-to-applied strain relation obtained from the FE simulation. The proposed nonlinear equation was applied to in vivo measurements and nonlinear parameters were further empirically optimized. For an animal model, acute and chronic inflammatory bowel disease was induced in Lewis rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol treatments. After UEI, histopathology and direct mechanical measurements were performed on the excised tissues. The extracted nonlinear parameter from the developed strain-to-applied strain relation differentiated the three different tissue types with 1.96 ± 0.12 for normal, 1.50 ± 0.09 for the acutely inflamed and 1.03 ± 0.08 for the chronically fibrotic tissue. T-tests determined that the nonlinear parameters between normal, acutely inflamed and fibrotic tissue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sivakumar, B.; Mohan, R. [Preidency College, Bangalore (India); Raj, S. Gokul [RR and Dr. SR Technical Univ., Avadi (India); Kumar, G. Ramesh [Anna Univ., Arni (India)
2012-11-15
Single crystals of lithium potassium phthalate (LiKP) were successfully grown from aqueous solution by solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The lithium potassium phthalate C{sub 16} H{sub 12} K Li{sub 3} O{sub 11} belongs to triclinic system with the following unit-cell dimensions at 298(2) K; a = 7.405(5) A; b = 9.878(5) A; c = 13.396(5) A; α = 71.778(5) .deg.; β = 87.300(5) .deg.; γ = 85.405(5) .deg.; having a space group P1. Mass spectrometric analysis provides the molecular weight of the compound and possible ways of fragmentations occurs in the compound. Thermal stability of the crystal was also studied by both simultaneous TGA/DTA analyses. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows a good transparency in the whole of Visible and as well as in the near IR range. Third order nonlinear optical studies have also been studied by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refractive index were found out and the third order bulk susceptibility of compound was also estimated.
Nonlinear optical imaging for sensitive detection of crystals in bulk amorphous powders.
Kestur, Umesh S; Wanapun, Duangporn; Toth, Scott J; Wegiel, Lindsay A; Simpson, Garth J; Taylor, Lynne S
2012-11-01
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of second-order nonlinear imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC) to quantify crystallinity in drug-polymer blends, including solid dispersions. Second harmonic generation (SHG) can potentially exhibit scaling with crystallinity between linear and quadratic depending on the nature of the source, and thus, it is important to determine the response of pharmaceutical powders. Physical mixtures containing different proportions of crystalline naproxen and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared by blending and a dispersion was produced by solvent evaporation. A custom-built SONICC instrument was used to characterize the SHG intensity as a function of the crystalline drug fraction in the various samples. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used as complementary methods known to exhibit linear scaling. SONICC was able to detect crystalline drug even in the presence of 99.9 wt % HPMCAS in the binary mixtures. The calibration curve revealed a linear dynamic range with a R(2) value of 0.99 spanning the range from 0.1 to 100 wt % naproxen with a root mean square error of prediction of 2.7%. Using the calibration curve, the errors in the validation samples were in the range of 5%-10%. Analysis of a 75 wt % HPMCAS-naproxen solid dispersion with SONICC revealed the presence of crystallites at an earlier time point than could be detected with PXRD and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, results from the crystallization kinetics experiment using SONICC were in good agreement with Raman spectroscopy and PXRD. In conclusion, SONICC has been found to be a sensitive technique for detecting low levels (0.1% or lower) of crystallinity, even in the presence of large quantities of a polymer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Elastic Properties of Ho0.5Er0.5 Single Crystal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spichkin, Yu.I.; Bohr, Jakob; Tishin, A.M.
1996-01-01
The results of an investigation of the Young's modulus E and the interval friction Q-1 of a Ho0.5Er0.5 single crystal in the basal plane in the temperature range 4.2-400 K are reported. The measurements were carried out by the method of flexural autovibrations of a thin sample with sound frequency...... (3 kHz). The Young's modulus at 4.2 K was measured to be 154 GPa. From the obtained data the magnetic part of the Young's modulus and the Debye temperature theta-D=375 K were calculated. The anomalies on the Young's modulus and the interval friction temperature dependencies corresponding to magnetic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, B.N.; Lal, Achchhe
2010-01-01
This study deals with the stochastic post-buckling and nonlinear free vibration analysis of a laminated composite plate resting on a two parameters Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity having uncertain system properties. The system properties are modeled as basic random variables. A C 0 nonlinear finite element formulation of the random problem based on higher-order shear deformation theory in the von Karman sense is presented. A direct iterative method in conjunction with a stochastic nonlinear finite element method proposed earlier by the authors is extended to analyze the effect of uncertainty in system properties on the post-buckling and nonlinear free vibration of the composite plates having Winler type of geometric nonlinearity. Mean as well as standard deviation of the responses have been obtained for various combinations of geometric parameters, foundation parameters, stacking sequences and boundary conditions and compared with those available in the literature and Monte Carlo simulation.
The influence of crystal defects on the elastic properties of tungsten metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Hongyan [School of Physical Science Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Huang, Zheng, E-mail: zhhuang@home.swjtu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wen, Shulong [Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Materials (Ministry of Education),Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Chen, Ji ming; Liu, Xiang [Fusion Science of Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Pan, Min, E-mail: mpan@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Materials (Ministry of Education),Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Western Superconducting Technologies Co., Ltd., Xi’an, Shanxi 710018 (China); Zhao, Yong [Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Materials (Ministry of Education),Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • The energy of FCC structure generated during the plastic deformation was higher than that of the BCC structure, thus the system energy was consumed. • The energy of HCP lattice was higher than that of FCC lattices. The two kinds of lattices form the twin belt with a long range periodic order, and so the system stress changed periodically with the strain. • The growth of the disordered structure not only destroyed the long range periodic structure of the twin belt, but also produced a cavity, which absorbed a large amount of energy and finally made the system fractured. • The effect of temperature on the fracture was equivalent to the effect of the vacancy, and the correlation between temperature and vacancy was quadratic. - Abstract: The four stretching process stages of the elastic, plastic, stalemate, and fracture were represented for the metal tungsten by using molecular dynamics method. The young's modulus, yield strain and yield stress were calculated. The microscopic mechanics of the stretching process is analyzed. The energy of FCC and HCP generated was higher than that of BCC, so that the energy of the system increased, and the stress level was lower in the plastic deformation stage. In the late stage of plastic deformation, the growth of the twin belt was of long range ordered periodic structure, which made the system stress change periodically. In the Stalemate Stage of deformation, the other disordered structure, setting in the HCP structure of the twin belt, growed to absorb energy and generate cavity under stress and makes the lattice fracture. The yield stress of metal tungsten decreases monotonically with temperature and vacancy. The effects of temperature and vacancy on the lattice fracture were discussed.
Experimental and theoretical investigation of the elastic moduli of silicate glasses and crystals
Philipps, Katharina; Stoffel, Ralf Peter; Dronskowski, Richard; Conradt, Reinhard
2017-02-01
A combined quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic approach to the mechanical properties of multicomponent silicate glasses is presented. Quantum chemical calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) on various silicate systems were performed to explore the crystalline polymorphs existing for a given chemical composition. These calculations reproduced the properties of known polymorphs even in systems with extensive polymorphism, like MgSiO3. Properties resting on the atomic and electronic structure, i.e., molar volumes (densities) and bulk moduli were predicted correctly. The theoretical data (molar equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli) were then used to complement the available experimental data. In a phenomenological evaluation, experimental data of bulk moduli, a macroscopic property resting on phononic structure, were found to linearly scale with the ratios of atomic space demand to actual molar volume in a universal way. Silicates ranging from high-pressure polymorphs to glasses were represented by a single master line. This suggests that above the Debye limit (in practice: above room temperature), the elastic waves probe the short range order coordination polyhedra and their next-neighbor linkage only, while the presence or absence of an extended translational symmetry is irrelevant. As a result, glasses can be treated - with respect to the properties investigated - as commensurable members of polymorphic series. Binary glasses fit the very same line as their one-component end-members, again both in the crystalline and glassy state. Finally, it is shown that the macroscopic properties of multicomponent glasses also are linear superpositions of the properties of their constitutional phases (as determined from phase diagrams or by thermochemical calculations) taken in their respective glassy states. This is verified experimentally for heat capacities and Young’s moduli of industrial glass compositions. It can be concluded, that the combined quantum
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate nonlinear, parameter-varying (PV),...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Binbin Zhou
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR, and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal is pumped in the mid-IR. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed. The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS2 pumped in the 3-4 μm range with 85 fs 50 μJ pulse energy, with the broadest supercontinuum covering 1.6-7.0 μm. We measured up 30 μJ energy in the supercontinuum, and the energy promises to scale favorably with an increased pump energy. Other mid-IR crystals can readily be used as well to cover other pump wavelengths and target other supercontinuum wavelength ranges.
Parallel Solution of Robust Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Problems in Batch Crystallization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yankai Cao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Representing the uncertainties with a set of scenarios, the optimization problem resulting from a robust nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC strategy at each sampling instance can be viewed as a large-scale stochastic program. This paper solves these optimization problems using the parallel Schur complement method developed to solve stochastic programs on distributed and shared memory machines. The control strategy is illustrated with a case study of a multidimensional unseeded batch crystallization process. For this application, a robust NMPC based on min–max optimization guarantees satisfaction of all state and input constraints for a set of uncertainty realizations, and also provides better robust performance compared with open-loop optimal control, nominal NMPC, and robust NMPC minimizing the expected performance at each sampling instance. The performance of robust NMPC can be improved by generating optimization scenarios using Bayesian inference. With the efficient parallel solver, the solution time of one optimization problem is reduced from 6.7 min to 0.5 min, allowing for real-time application.
Sun, F. Z.; Zhang, P.; Liang, Y. C.; Lu, L. H.
2014-09-01
In the non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) along the Θ =90° direction, ADP and DKDP crystals which have many advantages, including a large effective nonlinear optical coefficient, a small PM angular sensitivity and non beam walk-off, at the non-critical phase-matching become the competitive candidates in the inertial confinement fusion(ICF) facility, so the reasonable temperature control of crystals has become more and more important .In this paper, the fluid-solid coupling models of ADP crystal and DKDP crystal which both have anisotropic thermal conductivity in the states of vacuum and non-vacuum were established firstly, and then simulated using the fluid analysis software Fluent. The results through the analysis show that the crystal surface temperature distribution is a ring shape, the temperature gradients in the direction of the optical axis both the crystals are 0.02°C and 0.01°C due to the air, the lowest temperature points of the crystals are both at the center of surface, and the temperatures are lower than 0.09°C and 0.05°C compared in the vacuum and non-vacuum environment, then propose two designs for heating apparatus.
Renugadevi, R.; Kesavasamy, R.
2015-09-01
The growth of organic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium trichloroacetate (2A5CPTCA) has been synthesized and single crystals have been grown from methanol solvent by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization analyses in order to find out the suitability for device fabrication. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that 2A5CPTCA crystallizes in monoclinic system with the space group Cc. The grown crystal was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis to find out the functional groups. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. The optical transparency window in the visible and near-IR (200--1100 nm) regions was found to be good for NLO applications. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were used to study its thermal properties. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency measurement with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) radiation shows that the highest value when compared with the standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal.
Arivuselvi, R.; Babu, P. Ramesh
2018-03-01
Borates family crystals were plays vital role in the field of non linear optics (NLO) due to needs of wide range of applications. In this report, NLO crystals (potassium penta borate tetra hydrate (KB5H8O12) are grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature (28° C) and studied their physical properties. The harvested single crystals are transparent with the dimension of 12 × 10 × 6 mm3 and colourless. X-ray diffraction of single crystals reveals that the grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group Pba2. All the absorbed functional groups are present in the order of inorganic compounds expect 1688 cm-1 because of water (Osbnd H sbnd O blending) molecule present in the pristine. Crystals show transparent in the entire visible region with 5.9 eV optical band gap and also it shows excellence in both second and third order nonlinear optical properties. Crystals can withstand upto 154 °C without any phase changes which is observed using thermal (TGA/DTA) analysis.
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Shahriar Dastjerdi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear bending analysis of orthotropic annular/circular graphene sheets has been studied based on the non-local elasticity theory. The first order shear deformation theory (FSDT is applied in combination with the nonlinear Von-Karman strain field. The obtained differential equations are solved by using two methods, first the differential quadrature method (DQM and a new semi-analytical polynomial method (SAPM which is innovated by the authors. Applying the DQM or SAPM, the differential equations are transformed to nonlinear algebraic equations system. Then the Newton–Raphson iterative scheme is used. First, the obtained results from DQM and SAPM are compared and it is concluded that although the SAPM’s formulation is considerably simpler than DQM, however, the SAPM’s results are so close to DQM. The results are validated with available papers. Finally, the effects of small scale parameter on the results, the comparison between local and non-local theories, and linear to nonlinear analyses are investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaudhari Virendra Kumar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of nonlinear free vibration behavior of elastically supported carbon nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC beam subjected to thermal loading with random system properties. Material properties of each constituent’s material, volume fraction exponent and foundation parameters are considered as uncorrelated Gaussian random input variables. The beam is supported by a Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity. The higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT with von-Karman non-linearity is used to formulate the governing equation using Hamilton principle. Convergence and validation study is carried out through the comparison with the available results in the literature for authenticity and accuracy of the present approach used in the analysis. First order perturbation technique (FOPT,Second order perturbation technique (SOPT and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS methods are employed to investigate the effect of geometric configuration, volume fraction exponent, foundation parameters, distribution of reinforcement and thermal loading on nonlinear vibration characteristics CNTRC beam.The present work signifies the accurate analysis of vibrational behaviour influences by different random variables. Results are presented in terms of mean, variance (COV and probability density function (PDF for various aforementioned parameters.
Kang, Bong Joo; Baek, In Hyung; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Young Uk; Kwon, O-Pil; Rotermund, Fabian
2016-05-16
We report on efficient generation of ultra-broadband terahertz (THz) waves via optical rectification in a novel nonlinear organic crystal with acentric core structure, i.e. 2-(4-hydroxystyryl)-1-methylquinolinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (OHQ-T), which possesses an ideal molecular structure leading to a maximized nonlinear optical response for near-infrared-pumped THz wave generation. By systematic studies on wavelength-dependent phase-matching conditions in OHQ-T crystals of different thicknesses we are able to generate coherent THz waves with a high peak-to-peak electric field amplitude of up to 650 kV/cm and an upper cut-off frequency beyond 10 THz. High optical-to-THz conversion efficiency of 0.31% is achieved by efficient index matching with a selective pumping at 1300 nm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.
2016-01-01
The response of an offshore wind turbine tower and its monopile foundation has been investigated when exposed to linear and fully nonlinear irregular waves on four different water depths. The investigation focuses on the consequences of including full nonlinearity in the wave kinematics. The line...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.Y.; Ding, Z.H.; Ma, Y.M.; Wang, X.D.; Cao, Q.P.; Jiang, J.Z.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Changes from NaCl-, WC- to anti-NiAs-type structures are for 4d and 5d metal monoborides. ► Vickers hardnesses of monoborides are relatively low. ► B-vacancies cause the difference in lattice parameters for IrB and PtB. ► Nonstoichiometric IrB and PtB phases synthesized. - Abstract: The crystal structures, stability, electronic and elastic properties of 4d and 5d transition metal monoborides have been studied by first principles calculations. It is found that NaCl-type ZrB, NbB, MoB, HfB, TaB and WB, WC-type TcB, RuB, ReB, OsB and IrB, and anti-NiAs-type RhB and PdB are thermodynamically stable at zero pressure. They all are metallic. The Vickers hardnesses of these monoborides are relatively low as compared with monocarbides and mononitrides. It is clarified that the presence of B-vacancies is the origin for the difference of lattice parameters between theoretical and experimental results for WC-type IrB and anti-NiAs-type PtB while IrB and PtB with stoichiometry from calculations are revealed to be mechanically unstable and dynamically unstable, respectively.
A novel model for smectic liquid crystals: Elastic anisotropy and response to a steady-state flow.
Püschel-Schlotthauer, Sergej; Meiwes Turrión, Victor; Stieger, Tillmann; Grotjahn, Robin; Hall, Carol K; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin
2016-10-28
By means of a combination of equilibrium Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics we investigate the ordered, uniaxial phases (i.e., nematic and smectic A) of a model liquid crystal. We characterize equilibrium behavior through their diffusive behavior and elastic properties. As one approaches the equilibrium isotropic-nematic phase transition, diffusion becomes anisotropic in that self-diffusion D ⊥ in the direction orthogonal to a molecule's long axis is more hindered than self-diffusion D ∥ in the direction parallel to that axis. Close to nematic-smectic A phase transition the opposite is true, D ∥ flow depending on whether the convective velocity is parallel or orthogonal to the plane of smectic layers. We find that in Poiseuille-like flow the viscosity of the smectic A phase is higher than in plug flow. This can be rationalized via the velocity-field component in the direction of the flow. In a sufficiently strong flow these smectic layers are not destroyed but significantly bent.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.; Chen, W. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Zhejiang University, and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, X.; Liu, H.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding, Z.H.; Ma, Y.M. [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, X.D.; Cao, Q.P. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Zhejiang University, and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang, J.Z., E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Zhejiang University, and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2012-10-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes from NaCl-, WC- to anti-NiAs-type structures are for 4d and 5d metal monoborides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vickers hardnesses of monoborides are relatively low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-vacancies cause the difference in lattice parameters for IrB and PtB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nonstoichiometric IrB and PtB phases synthesized. - Abstract: The crystal structures, stability, electronic and elastic properties of 4d and 5d transition metal monoborides have been studied by first principles calculations. It is found that NaCl-type ZrB, NbB, MoB, HfB, TaB and WB, WC-type TcB, RuB, ReB, OsB and IrB, and anti-NiAs-type RhB and PdB are thermodynamically stable at zero pressure. They all are metallic. The Vickers hardnesses of these monoborides are relatively low as compared with monocarbides and mononitrides. It is clarified that the presence of B-vacancies is the origin for the difference of lattice parameters between theoretical and experimental results for WC-type IrB and anti-NiAs-type PtB while IrB and PtB with stoichiometry from calculations are revealed to be mechanically unstable and dynamically unstable, respectively.
Non-Linear Optical Studies On Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals Using Z-Scan Technique
Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Toms, Roseleena; Nampoori, VP N; Radhakrishnan, P
2014-01-01
In this paper we report the preparation, optical characterization and non linear optical behavior of pure lead chloride crystals. Lead chloride samples subjected to UV and IR irradiation and electric and magnetic fields have also been investigated Optical nonlinearity in these lead chloride samples were determined using single beam and high sensitive Z-scan technique. Non linear optical studies of these materials in single distilled water show reverse saturable absorption which makes th...
Studying effect of MoO{sub 3} on elastic and crystallization behavior of lithium diborate glasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaaban, KH.S.; Abd Elnaeim, A.M. [El-Azhar University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt); Abo-naf, S.M. [National Research Centre, Glass Research Department, Cairo (Egypt); Hassouna, M.E.M. [Beni-Suef University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni Suef (Egypt)
2017-06-15
The effect of MoO{sub 3} addition on the crystallization characteristics of 2Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-23Li{sub 2}O-(75 - x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass (where x MoO{sub 3} = 0, 10, 20, and 40 mol %) has been investigated. The compositional dependence of the glass transition (T{sub g}), and crystallization (T{sub c}) temperatures was determined by the differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that both the T{sub g} and T{sub c} decrease with increasing MoO{sub 3} content. The amorphous nature of the as-quenched glass and crystallinity of the produced glass-ceramics were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Glass-ceramics embedded with diomignite (lithium diborate, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) were produced from all investigated glasses by heat-treating the as-quenched glasses at the appropriate temperatures obtained from the DTA traces. Addition of MoO{sub 3} to the glass composition at 10% MoO{sub 3}, causes the formation of lithium molybdenum oxide (Li{sub 4}MoO{sub 5}) crystalline phase in addition to the diomignite phase. Increasing MoO{sub 3} content to 20% causes a phase transformation of lithium molybdenum oxide from the (Li{sub 4}MoO{sub 5}) to the (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) phase and the formation of another lithium borate (Li{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phase in addition to the diomignite. Further increase of MoO{sub 3} content to 40% results in another phase transformation to the lithium aluminum molybdenum oxide [LiAl(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}], and, in this case, the molybdenum content was excess enough to crystallize the molybdate (MoO{sub 3}) itself. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the formed solid solution phases. The values of the T{sub g} decrease with increasing the MoO{sub 3} content. The ultrasonic wave velocities and elastic moduli were determined using the pulse-echo method. Both velocities (v{sub L} and v{sub T}) were increased as the MoO{sub 3} content, this increase can be
Elastic properties of Cs{sub 2}HgBr{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}CdBr{sub 4} crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kityk, A.V.; Zadorozhna, A.V.; Shchur, Y.I.; Martynyuk-Lototska, Y.I.; Burak, Y.; Vlokh, O.G. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lvov (Ukraine)
1998-12-31
Using ultrasonic velocity measurements, all components of the elastic constant matrix C{sub ij} , elastic compliances matrix S{sub ij}, and linear compressibility constants matrix K{sub ij} of orthorhombic Cs{sub 2}HgBr{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}CdBr{sub 4} crystals have been determined over a wide temperature range, including the region of the phase transition from the normal to the incommensurate phase. Results obtained are considered within the framework of the phenomenological theory. Preliminary analysis of the acoustical properties at room temperature clearly indicates that both crystals are relatively important materials for acousto-optical applications. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia 16 refs., 1 tab. 8 figs. The URL for the electronic version of this article is http://www.publish.csiro.au/journals/ajp/electronic.html
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vujic, Dragan; John, Sajeev
2005-01-01
We delineate critical issues for 'controlling light with light' in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides coupled to Kerr-nonlinear microresonators. These arise from (a) fundamental trade-off between switching speed and switching intensity threshold inherent in high-quality Q-factor cavities and (b) the dynamical nonlinear oscillation of such cavities in response to incident light pulses. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations of electromagnetic pulse propagation, we consider both (i) a nonlinear Fabry-Perot microresonator (embedded within a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow transmission resonance and (ii) a nonlinear point defect (side-coupled to a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow reflection spectrum. We describe self-induced switching from transmission to reflection induced by pulse intensity tuning as well as control of pulse transmission induced by the secondary, continuous (cw) laser field propagating through the same PC waveguide. For the Fabry-Perot microresonator, a well-defined self-switching threshold is obtained. However, this is accompanied by considerable temporal and spectral distortion of the pulse caused by the oscillatory nonlinear response of the microresonator. When the quality factor of the microresonator is increased, the switching intensity threshold can be lowered but the pulse transit (switching) time and the pulse distortion are increased. For the side-coupled microresonator, a gradual (not sharp) self-switching behavior as a function of incident intensity is obtained. For both the Fabry-Perot and side-coupled nonlinear microresonators, control of pulse transmission can be achieved by means of a secondary cw laser field. The cw power required for switching with realistic Kerr nonlinearities is in excess of 1 W/μm 2 and may cause optical damage to the semiconducting PC backbone. Both instantaneous and noninstantaneous Kerr-response models are considered. Our results underscore the limitations and trade-offs inherent in the possible
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2018-05-18
May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.
Frequency-doubled green picosecond laser based on K3B6O10Br nonlinear optical crystal
Meng, Luping; Zhang, Ling; Hou, Zhanyu; Wang, Lirong; Xu, Hui; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lingwu; Yang, Yingying; Qi, Yaoyao; He, Chaojian; Yu, Haijuan; Lin, Xuechun; Su, Fufang; Xia, Mingjun; Li, Rukang
2018-05-01
We report a frequency-doubled green picosecond (ps) laser based on K3B6O10Br (KBB) nonlinear optical crystal with cutting angle of θ = 34.7° and φ = 30°. Through intracavity frequency doubling using a type I phase-matched KBB crystal with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 13.2 mm, the average output power of 185.00 mW green ps laser was obtained with a repetition rate of 80 MHz and pulse width of 25.0 ps. In addition, we present external frequency doubling using KBB crystal. The average output power of 3.00 W green ps laser was generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz and pulse width of 38.1 ps, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 0.30 mJ and a peak power 7.89 MW, respectively. The experimental results show that KBB crystal is a promising nonlinear optical material.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Kragh; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter Eskil
2015-01-01
Diode-based high power visible lasers are perfect pump sources for, e.g., titaniumsapphire lasers. The combination of favorable scaling laws in both SFG and cascading of nonlinear crystals allows access to unprecedented powers in diode-based systems.......Diode-based high power visible lasers are perfect pump sources for, e.g., titaniumsapphire lasers. The combination of favorable scaling laws in both SFG and cascading of nonlinear crystals allows access to unprecedented powers in diode-based systems....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chai, Zhen; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang
2013-01-01
A low-power all-optical switching is presented based on the all-optical tunable Fano-like resonance in a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of polycrystalline lithium niobate. An asymmetric Fano-like line shape is achieved in the transmission spectrum by using two cascaded and uncoupled photonic crystal microcavities. The physical mechanism underlying the all-optical switching is attributed to the dynamic shift of the Fano-like resonance peak caused by variations in the dispersion relations of the photonic crystal structure induced by pump light. A large switching efficiency of 61% is reached under excitation of a weak pump light with an intensity as low as 1 MW cm −2 . (paper)
Kumar, S. M. Ravi; Selvakumar, S.; Sagayaraj, P.; Anbarasi, A.
2015-02-01
SCN- ligand based organometallic non-linear optical mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate (MCCTC) crystals are grown from water plus methanol mixed solvent by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which reveals that the MCCTC belongs to rhombohedral system with R3c space group. MCCTC exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 17 times more than that of KDP. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss measurements of the sample have been carried out for different frequencies (100 Hz to 5 MHz) and, temperatures (308 to 388 K) and the results are discussed. Photoconductivity study confirms that the title compound possesses negative photoconducting nature. The surface morphology of MCCTC was also investigated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathika, A. [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Prasad, L. Guru [Departemnt of Science & Humanities, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur (India); Raman, R. Ganapathi, E-mail: ganapathiraman83@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India)
2016-03-15
Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate–p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rathika, A.; Prasad, L. Guru; Raman, R. Ganapathi
2016-01-01
Single crystals of Dimethylammonium p-nitrophenolate–p-nitrophenol have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Unit cell parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the synthesized compound is crystallized in monoclinic system. Various functional groups and their vibrational frequencies were recognized from the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Thermal stability of the crystal was examined by recording the TGA/DTA curve. The grown crystal has wider transparency nature in the visible region and the lower cut-off wavelength is found at 465 nm. Mechanical property of the crystal was studied by analyzing the Vicker's microhardness measurements. The fluorescence emission from the crystal is observed at 350 nm which arise due to the presence of aromatic ring. Relative SHG conversion efficiency of the grown crystal is about 0.59 times that of KDP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamer, Ömer, E-mail: omertamer@sakarya.edu.tr; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf
2015-11-15
A cobalt(II) complex of picolinate was synthesized, and its structure was fully characterized by the applying of X-ray diffraction method as well as FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV–vis spectroscopies. In order to both support the experimental results and convert study to more advanced level, density functional theory calculations were performed by using B3LYP level. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis shows that cobalt(II) ion was located to the center of distorted octahedral geometry. The C=O, C=C and C=N stretching vibrations were found as highly active and strong peaks, inducing the molecular charge transfer within Co(II) complex. The small energy gap between frontier molecular orbital energies was another indicator of molecular charge transfer interactions within Co(II) complex. The nonlinear optical properties of Co(II) complex were investigated at DFT/B3LYP level, and the hypepolarizability parameter was found to be decreased due to the presence of inversion symmetry. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to investigate molecular stability, hyperconjugative interactions, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and bond strength for Co(II) complex. Finally, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and spin density distributions for Co(II) complex were evaluated. - Highlights: • Co(II) complex of picolinate was prepared. • Its FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV–vis spectra were measured. • DFT calculations were performed to support experimental results. • Small HOMO-LUMO energy gap is an indicator of molecular charge transfer. • Spin density localized on Co(II) as well as O and N atoms.
Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lai, C.-M. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-H. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, N. E. [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Boudrioua, A. [LPL, CNRS - UMR 7538, Université Paris 13, Sorbone Paris Cité (France); Kung, A. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)
2014-12-01
Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510–555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020–1040 nm) and the idler (1090–1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510–520 nm and the 545–555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530–535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ∼10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batou, A.; Soize, C.; Brie, N.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)
2013-09-15
Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.
Optimal Operation of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : A Nonlinear Model-based Control Approach
Mesbah, A.
2010-01-01
Batch crystallization is extensively employed in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to separate and purify high value-added chemical substances. Despite their widespread application, optimal operation of batch crystallizers is particularly challenging. The difficulties primarily
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustapha Lahmar
2015-04-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness by means of the implicit Euler method. The nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Euler’s scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized by higher length molecular chains.
Umarani, P.; Jagannathan, K.
2018-02-01
The Potassium hexachloro cadmate (IV) (PHC) single crystal was grown from the aqueous of the solution by a controlled evaporation method. Single crystal XRD solved the structure. FTIR is used to identify the functional groups of grown crystal. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer was used to find out the UV cut off region and to calculate the optical band gap of the Potassium hexachloro cadmate (IV) single crystal. The EDAX spectrum has been used to identify the compounds present in title compound. The TG-DTA profile shows the thermal stability of the grown crystal of Potassium hexachloro cadmate (IV). The Vicker's hardness measurement was used to calculate the material hardness of the title compound. The dielectric loss and constant varied with frequencies and activation energy is also calculated. The solid state parameters like plasma energy, Penn gap, Fermi energy, electronic polarizability using Penn analysis and Clausius-Mossotti equation were also calculated for the title compound. The Z-scan technique is used to calculate the third order nonlinear susceptibility of a real and imaginary part.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Khoo, I. C
2008-01-01
.... Significant breakthroughs have been achieved in developing supra-nonlinear liquid crystalline films that possess extraordinarily large photorefractive responses, low switching thresholds and useful...
Tanak, H.; Pawlus, K.; Marchewka, M. K.; Pietraszko, A.
2014-01-01
In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of the potential nonlinear optical (NLO) material anilinium trichloroacetate. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the compound have been recorded together between 4000-80 cm-1 and 3600-80 cm-1 regions, respectively. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group of monoclinic system. The optimized molecular structure, vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities and Raman activities have been calculated by using density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) as higher basis set. The obtained vibrational wavenumbers and optimized geometric parameters were seen to be in good agreement with the experimental data. DSC measurements on powder samples do not indicate clearly on the occurrence of phase transitions in the temperature 113-293 K. The Kurtz and Perry powder reflection technique appeared to be very effective in studies of second-order nonlinear optical properties of the molecule. The non-linear optical properties are also addressed theoretically. The predicted NLO properties of the title compound are much greater than ones of urea. In addition, DFT calculations of the title compound, molecular electrostatic potential, frontier orbitals and thermodynamic properties were also performed at 6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. For title crystal the SHG efficiency was estimated by Kurtz-Perry method to be deff = 0.70 deff (KDP).
Effect of Metal Dopant on Ninhydrin—Organic Nonlinear Optical Single Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. S. Sreenivasan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, metal (Cu2+-substituted ninhydrin single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal XRD, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, dielectric and SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21 with lattice parameters a=11.28 Å, b=5.98 Å, c=5.71 Å, α=90∘, β=98.57, γ=90∘, and V=381 (Å3, which agrees very well with the reported value. The sharp and strong peaks in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the good crystallinity of the grown crystals. The presence of dopants marginally altered the lattice parameters without affecting the basic structure of the crystal. The UV-Vis transmittance spectrum shows that the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the entire visible region with lower cutoff wavelength 314 nm. The vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been derived from FT-IR analysis. Based on the shifts in the vibrations, the presence of copper in the lattice of the grown crystal is clearly established from the pure ninhydrin crystals. Both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with the increase in frequency. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by employing powder Kurtz method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erba, A., E-mail: alessandro.erba@unito.it; Dovesi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy); Maul, J. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy); Laboratório de Combustíveis e Materiais, INCTMN-UFPB, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CEP 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); De La Pierre, M. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin Institute for Computation, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)
2015-05-28
We report accurate ab initio theoretical predictions of the elastic, seismic, and structural anisotropy of the orthorhombic Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} forsterite crystal at high pressures (up to 20 GPa) and temperatures (up to its melting point, 2163 K), which constitute earth’s upper mantle conditions. Single-crystal elastic stiffness constants are evaluated up to 20 GPa and their first- and second-order pressure derivatives reported. Christoffel’s equation is solved at several pressures: directional seismic wave velocities and related properties (azimuthal and polarization seismic anisotropies) discussed. Thermal structural and average elastic properties, as computed within the quasi-harmonic approximation of the lattice potential, are predicted at high pressures and temperatures: directional thermal expansion coefficients, first- and second-order pressure derivatives of the isothermal bulk modulus, and P-V-T equation-of-state. The effect on computed properties of five different functionals, belonging to three different classes of approximations, of the density functional theory is explicitly investigated.
Gorb, Yuliya
2010-11-01
We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pulse height non-linearity in LaBr3:Ce crystal for gamma ray spectrometry and imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pani, R.; Cinti, M.N.; Pellegrini, R.; Bennati, P.; Ridolfi, S.; Scafe, R.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; De Notaristefani, F.; Fabbri, A.; Navarria, F.L.; Lanconelli, N.; Moschini, G.; Boccaccio, P.
2011-01-01
In this paper the response in term of pulse height linearity of two Hamamatsu photomultipliers is investigated, when coupled to a LaBr 3 :Ce scintillation crystal. The two photodetectors have high quantum efficiency and in particular 30% for R6231-01 and 42% for R7600-200 tube. The substantial difference is in the dynode structure, linear focused and metal channel for R6231 and R7600 respectively. In this work in order to verify the non-linearity effects on the pulse height distribution, due principally to the high and fast light production of LaBr 3 :Ce scintillator, we propose a 'peak by peak' procedure to calibrate the pulse height distribution. Utilizing a specific fragmentation of the calibration curve in subsets, the calculated energy values are very similar for both PMTs. This result confirmed the potentiality of the procedure to highlight the non-linearity effects on pulse height distribution.
Liao, Jianfei; Xie, Yingmao; Wang, Xinghua; Li, Dongbo; Huang, Tianye
2017-07-01
A slot silicon photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed to simultaneously achieve ultrahigh birefringence, large nonlinearity and ultra-flattened nearly-zero dispersion over a wide wavelength range. By taking advantage on the slot effect, ultrahigh birefringence up to 0.0736 and ultrahigh nonlinear coefficient up to 211.48 W-1 m-1 for quasi-TE mode can be obtained at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Moreover, ultra-flattened dispersion of 0.49 ps/(nm km) for quasi-TE mode can be achieved over a 180 nm wavelength range with low dispersion slope of 1.85 × 10-3 ps/(nm2 km) at 1.55 μm. Leveraging on these advantages, the proposed slot PCF has great potential for efficient all-optical signal processing applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Sabry Mohamed
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG and third harmonic generation (THG in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4 × 104, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving a normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4 × 10−3 W−1, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.
Linear, non-linear and thermal properties of single crystal of LHMHCl
Kulshrestha, Shobha; Shrivastava, A. K.
2018-05-01
The single crystal of amino acid of L-histidine monohydrochloride was grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. High optical quality and appropriate size of crystals were grown under optimized growth conditions. The grown crystals were transparent. Crystals are characterized with different characterizations such as Solubility test, UV-Visible, optical band gap (Eg). With the help of optical data to be calculate absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (k), refractive index (n), dielectric constant (ɛ). These optical constants are shows favorable conditions for photonics devices. Second harmonic generation (NLO) test show the green light emission which is confirm that crystal have properties for laser application. Thermal stability of grown crystal is confirmed by TG/DTA.
Angela Mihai, L.
2013-03-01
Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun
2015-01-01
in a quadratic nonlinear crystal (beta-barium borate) in the normal dispersion regime due to cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, and the mid-IR converted wave is formed in the anomalous dispersion regime between. lambda = 2.2-2.4 mu m as a resonant dispersive wave. This process relies...... on nondegenerate four-wave mixing mediated by an effective negative cross-phase modulation term caused by cascaded soliton-probe sum-frequency generation. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...
Bakunov, M I; Maslov, A V; Bodrov, S B
2007-11-16
We show that the usual Fresnel formulas for a free-propagating pulse are not applicable for a forced terahertz electromagnetic pulse supported by an optical pulse at the end of a nonlinear crystal. The correct linear reflection and transmission coefficients that we derive show that such pulses can experience a gain or loss at the boundary. This energy change depends on linear dielectric constants only. We also predict a regime where a complete disappearance of the forced pulse under oblique incidence occurs, an effect that has no counterpart for free-propagating pulses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allam M. N. M.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations.Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G [Materials Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Botha, J R, E-mail: Lesias.Kotane@wits.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)
2011-01-01
Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}. The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.
Surface Brillouin scattering measurement of the elastic constants of single crystal InAs0.91Sb0.09
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G; Botha, J R
2011-01-01
Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs 0.91 Sb 0.09 . The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.
Hou, Z. Y.; Xia, M. J.; Wang, L. R.; Xu, B.; Yan, D. X.; Meng, L. P.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.
2017-09-01
Two perovskite-structure K3B6O10Br1-x Cl x (x = 0 and 0.5) series nonlinear optical crystals were thoroughly investigated for their picosecond 532 nm laser pulses abilities and high power outputs were achieved via second harmonic generation (SHG) technique for the first time. SHG conversion efficiency of 57.3% with a 13.2 mm length K3B6O10Br (KBB) crystal was achieved using a laser source of pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 25 ps, which is the highest conversion efficiency of ps visible laser based on KBB crystal. And by employing an 80 MHz, 10 ps fundamental laser beam, maximum power outputs of 12 W with K3B6O10Br0.5Cl0.5 (KBBC) and 11.86 W with KBB crystals were successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the standard deviation jitters of the average power outputs are less than 0.6% and 1.17% by KBB and KBBC, respectively, showing ultrastable power stabilities favorable for practical applications. In addition, the other optical parameters including acceptance angle and temperature bandwidth were also investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belendez, A.; Belendez, T.; Neipp, C.; Hernandez, A.; Alvarez, M.L.
2009-01-01
The homotopy perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation that governs the nonlinear oscillations of a system typified as a mass attached to a stretched elastic wire. The restoring force for this oscillator has an irrational term with a parameter λ that characterizes the system (0 ≤ λ ≤ 1). For λ = 1 and small values of x, the restoring force does not have a dominant term proportional to x. We find this perturbation method works very well for the whole range of parameters involved, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. Only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions and the maximal relative error for the approximate frequency is less than 2.2% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude. This error corresponds to λ = 1, while for λ < 1 the relative error is much lower. For example, its value is as low as 0.062% for λ = 0.5.
Devi, S. Reena; Kalaiyarasi, S.; Zahid, I. MD.; Kumar, R. Mohan
2016-11-01
An ionic organic optical crystal of 4-methylpyridinium p-nitrophenolate was grown from methanol by slow evaporation method at ambient temperature. Powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed the crystal system and its crystalline perfection. The rocking curve recorded from HRXRD study confirmed the crystal quality. FTIR spectral analysis confirmed the functional groups present in the title compound. UV-visible spectral study revealed the optical window and band gap of grown crystal. The thermal, electrical and surface laser damage threshold properties of harvested crystal were examined by using TGA/DTA, LCR/Impedance Analyzer and Nd:YAG laser system respectively. The third order nonlinear optical property of grown crystal was elucidated by Z-scan technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne-Christine Hladky-Hennion
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Negative refraction properties of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC, made of a triangular lattice of steel rods embedded in epoxy are investigated both experimentally and numerically. First, experiments have been carried out on a prism shaped PC immersed in water. Then, for focusing purposes, a flat lens is considered and the construction of the image of a point source is analyzed in details, when indices are matched between the PC and the surrounding fluid medium, whereas acoustic impedances are mismatched. Optimal conditions for focusing longitudinal elastic waves by such PC flat lens are then discussed.
Zhao, Tongtong; Lian, Zhenggang; Benson, Trevor; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Wan; Lou, Shuqin
2017-11-01
We propose an As2Se3-based photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) with high nonlinearity and birefringence. By optimizing the structure parameters, a nonlinear coefficient up to 2079 W-1km-1 can be achieved at the wavelength of 2 μm; the birefringence reaches up to the order of 10-2 due to the introduction of large circular air holes in the cladding. Using an optical pulse with a peak power of 6 kW, a pulse width of 150 fs, and a central wavelength of 2.94 μm as the pump pulse, a mid-infrared polarized supercontinuum is obtained by using a 15 mm long PQF. The spectral width for x- and y-polarizations covers 1 μm-10.2 μm and 1 μm-12.5 μm, respectively. The polarization state can be well maintained when the incident angle of the input pulse changes within ±2°. The proposed PQF, with high nonlinear coefficient and birefringence, has potential applications in mid-infrared polarization-maintaining supercontinuum generation.
Debrus, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Ratajczak, H.
2007-04-01
The efficiency of second harmonic generation for melaminium bis(trichloroacetate) was estimated relatively to KDP: deff = 3.09 deff (KDP). Room temperature FT IR and FT Raman spectra were recorded. Some spectral features of this new crystal are referred to corresponding one for melamine crystal as well as for other trichloroacetates. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements performed on powder sample indicate the phase transition point at approximately 276 and 239 K for heating and cooling, respectively.
Grofcsik, Andras
Picosecond inverse Raman spectroscopy has been employed to probe the alignment behaviour and switching characteristics of a 6 mum thick ferroelectric liquid crystal based on a host mixture of fluorinated phenyl biphenylcarboxylates and a chiral dopant. Optical bistability is observed in the Raman signal on application of dc electric fields of opposite polarity. For particular polarities of the applied field, the Raman signals display a cos4theta dependence on the angle of rotation around the beam direction. Reorientational rate constants of 300 mus and 590 mus are observed for the aromatic core at the high-voltage limit for the rise and decay of the 1600 cm-1 Raman signal on application of a switching ac electric field.
Bispectral analysis of nonlinear compressional waves in a two-dimensional dusty plasma crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nosenko, V.; Goree, J.; Skiff, F.
2006-01-01
Bispectral analysis was used to study the nonlinear interaction of compressional waves in a two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma. A monolayer of highly charged polymer microspheres was suspended in a plasma sheath. The microspheres interacted with a Yukawa potential and formed a triangular lattice. Two sinusoidal pump waves with different frequencies were excited in the lattice by pushing the particles with modulated Ar + laser beams. Coherent nonlinear interaction of the pump waves was shown to be the mechanism of generating waves at the sum, difference, and other combination frequencies. However, coherent nonlinear interaction was ruled out for certain combination frequencies, in particular, for the difference frequency below an excitation-power threshold, as predicted by theory
Lydia Caroline, M.; Kandasamy, A.; Mohan, R.; Vasudevan, S.
2009-02-01
A semiorganic nonlinear optical material dichlorobis L-proline Zn (II) (DBLPZ), with molecular formula [ZnCl 2(C 5H 9NO 2) 2], has been synthesized from mixed solvents of deionised water and methanol. Single crystals of DBLPZ were successfully grown by the slow evaporation method at an ambient temperature. Single-crystal X-ray diffractometer was utilized to measure unit cell parameters and to confirm the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the grown DBLPZ has been indexed. The modes of vibration of different molecular groups present in the sample were identified by the FTIR spectral analysis. The optical transmittance window and the lower cutoff wavelength of the DBLPZ have been identified by UV-vis-NIR studies. Thermal stability of the DBLPZ was determined from TG/DTA/DSC curves, which indicate that the material is stable up to 242.3 °C. The existence of second harmonic generation signals was observed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm possessing SHG efficiency of 0.5 times of KDP and hence it can be a potential material for the frequency-doubling process.
Xie, Zhiqing; Su, Xin; Ding, Hanqin; Li, Hongyi
2018-06-01
Nonlinear optical materials have attracted worldwide attention owing to their wide range of applications, specially in the laser field. Phosphates with noncentrosymmetric structures are potential candidates for novel ultraviolet (UV)-NLO materials, because they usually display short UV cut-off edges. In this work, a polyphosphate, the LiZnP3O9 polyphosphate crystals were grown through spontaneous crystallization from high-temperature melts. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit cell parameters a = 8.330(3) Å, b = 8.520(3) Å, c = 8.635(3) Å, and Z = 4. In the structure, all the P atoms are coordinated by four oxygen atoms forming the [PO4] tetrahedra and further connected to generate a zig-zag [PO3]∞ anionic framework. Thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum and powder second harmonic generation measurements are performed. In addition, the first-principles calculation was employed for better understanding the structure-property relationships of LiZnP3O9.
Mann, Nishan Singh
Photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) are nano-scale devices offering an exciting platform for exploring and exploiting enhanced linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions, aided in-part by slowing down the group velocity (vg) of on-chip photons. However, with potential applications in telecommunications, bio-sensing and quantum computing, the road to commercialization and practical devices is hindered by our limited understanding of the influence of structural disorder on linear and nonlinear light propagation. This thesis refines and develops state-of-the-art mathematical and numerical models for understanding the important role of disorder-related optical phenomena for PCWs in the linear and optical nonlinear regime. The importance of Bloch modes is demonstrated by computing the power loss caused by disorder-induced scattering for various dispersion engineered PCWs. The theoretical results are found to be in very good agreement with related experiments and it is shown how dispersion engineered designs can minimize the Bloch fields around spatial imperfections resulting in a radical departure from the usual assumed scaling vg. -2 of backscatteringlosses. We also conduct a systematic investigation of the influence of intra-hole correlation length, a parameter characterizing disorder on backscattering losses and find the loss behaviour to be qualitatively dependent on waveguide design and frequency. We then model disorder-induced resonance shifts to compute the ensemble averaged disordered density of states, accounting for important local field effects which are crucial in achieving good qualitative agreement with experiments. Lastly, motivated by emerging experiments examining enhanced nonlinear interactions, we develop an intuitive time dependent coupled mode formalism to derive propagation equations describing nonlinear pulse propagation in the presence of disorder-induced multiple scattering. The framework establishes a natural length scale for each physical
Deniset-Besseau, A.; De Sa Peixoto, P.; Duboisset, J.; Loison, C.; Hache, F.; Benichou, E.; Brevet, P.-F.; Mosser, G.; Schanne-Klein, M.-C.
2010-02-01
Collagen is characterized by triple helical domains and plays a central role in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks, basement membranes, as well as other structures of the connective tissue. Remarkably, fibrillar collagen exhibits efficient Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and SHG microscopy proved to be a sensitive tool to score fibrotic pathologies. However, the nonlinear optical response of fibrillar collagen is not fully characterized yet and quantitative data are required to further process SHG images. We therefore performed Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) experiments and measured a second order hyperpolarisability of 1.25 10-27 esu for rat-tail type I collagen. This value is surprisingly large considering that collagen presents no strong harmonophore in its amino-acid sequence. In order to get insight into the physical origin of this nonlinear process, we performed HRS measurements after denaturation of the collagen triple helix and for a collagen-like short model peptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)10]3. It showed that the collagen large nonlinear response originates in the tight alignment of a large number of weakly efficient harmonophores, presumably the peptide bonds, resulting in a coherent amplification of the nonlinear signal along the triple helix. To illustrate this mechanism, we successfully recorded SHG images in collagen liquid solutions by achieving liquid crystalline ordering of the collagen triple helices.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hüter, C.; Friák, Martin; Weikamp, M.; Neugebauer, J.; Goldenfeld, N.; Svendsen, B.; Spatschek, R.
2016-01-01
Roč. 93, č. 21 (2016), 214105-1-214105-14 ISSN 2469-9950 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL THEORY Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Zhao, Jing; Ross, Nancy L; Wang, Di; Angel, Ross J
2011-11-16
The structural evolution of orthorhombic CaTiO3 perovskite has been studied using high-pressure single-crystal x-ray diffraction under hydrostatic conditions up to 8.1 GPa and under a non-hydrostatic stress field formed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 4.7 GPa. Under hydrostatic conditions, the TiO6 octahedra become more tilted and distorted with increasing pressure, similar to other 2:4 perovskites. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, the experiments do not show any apparent difference in the internal structural variation from hydrostatic conditions and no additional tilts and distortions in the TiO6 octahedra are observed, even though the lattice itself becomes distorted due to the non-hydrostatic stress. The similarity between the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic cases can be ascribed to the fact that CaTiO3 perovskite is nearly elastically isotropic and, as a consequence, its deviatoric unit-cell volume strain produced by the non-hydrostatic stress is very small; in other words, the additional octahedral tilts relevant to the extra unit-cell volume associated with the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain may be totally neglected. This study further addresses the role that three factors--the elastic properties, the crystal orientation and the pressure medium--have on the structural evolution of an orthorhombic perovskite loaded in a DAC under non-hydrostatic conditions. The influence of these factors can be clearly visualized by plotting the three-dimensional distribution of the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain in relation to the cylindrical axis of the DAC and indicates that, if the elasticity of a perovskite is nearly isotropic as it is for CaTiO3, the other two factors become relatively insignificant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Jing; Ross, Nancy L; Wang, Di; Angel, Ross J
2011-01-01
The structural evolution of orthorhombic CaTiO 3 perovskite has been studied using high-pressure single-crystal x-ray diffraction under hydrostatic conditions up to 8.1 GPa and under a non-hydrostatic stress field formed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 4.7 GPa. Under hydrostatic conditions, the TiO 6 octahedra become more tilted and distorted with increasing pressure, similar to other 2:4 perovskites. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, the experiments do not show any apparent difference in the internal structural variation from hydrostatic conditions and no additional tilts and distortions in the TiO 6 octahedra are observed, even though the lattice itself becomes distorted due to the non-hydrostatic stress. The similarity between the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic cases can be ascribed to the fact that CaTiO 3 perovskite is nearly elastically isotropic and, as a consequence, its deviatoric unit-cell volume strain produced by the non-hydrostatic stress is very small; in other words, the additional octahedral tilts relevant to the extra unit-cell volume associated with the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain may be totally neglected. This study further addresses the role that three factors-the elastic properties, the crystal orientation and the pressure medium-have on the structural evolution of an orthorhombic perovskite loaded in a DAC under non-hydrostatic conditions. The influence of these factors can be clearly visualized by plotting the three-dimensional distribution of the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain in relation to the cylindrical axis of the DAC and indicates that, if the elasticity of a perovskite is nearly isotropic as it is for CaTiO 3 , the other two factors become relatively insignificant. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroszewicz Jerzy
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to methods of analysis of vibrations and stability of discrete-continuous, multi-parameter models of beams, shafts, rotors, vanes, converting to homogeneous and one-dimensional. The properties of Cauchy's influence function and the characteristic series method were used to solve the boundary problem. It has been shown that the methods are an effective tool for solving boundary problems described by ordinary fourth-and second-order differential equations with variable parameters. Particular attention should be paid to the solution of the border problem of two-parameter elastic systems with variable distribution of parameters. Universal beam-specific equations with typical support conditions including vertical support, which do not depend on beam shape and axial load type, are recorded. The shape and type of load are considered in the form of an impact function that corresponds to any change in cross-section of the support and continuous axial load, so that the functions describing the stiffness, the mass and the continuous load are complete. As a result of the solution of the boundary vibration problem of freely bent support and any change in its cross-section, loaded with any longitudinal load, arranged on the resilient substrate, strict relations between the own frequency parameters and the load parameters were derived. Using the methods, simple calculations were made, easy to use in engineering practice and conditions of use were given. Experimental studies have confirmed the high accuracy of theoretical calculations using the proposed methods and formulas.
Self-similar photonic crystal cavity with ultrasmall mode volume for single-photon nonlinearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk
2017-01-01
We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3.......We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3....
IR-to-visible image upconverter under nonlinear crystal thermal gradient operation.
Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Capmany, J
2018-01-22
In this work we study the enhancement of the field-of-view of an infrared image up-converter by means of a thermal gradient in a PPLN crystal. Our work focuses on compact upconverters, in which both a short PPLN crystal length and high numerical aperture lenses are employed. We found a qualitative increase in both wavelength and angular tolerances, compared to a constant temperature upconverter, which makes it necessary a correct IR wavelength allocation in order to effectively increase the up-converted area.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philipp Kahl
Full Text Available The present work reveals that at the sub-millimeter length-scale, molecules in the liquid state are not dynamically free but elastically correlated. It is possible to "visualize" these hidden elastic correlations by using the birefringent properties of pretransitional swarms persistent in liquids presenting a weak first order transition. The strategy consists in observing the optical response of the isotropic phase of mesogenic fluids to a weak (low energy mechanical excitation. We show that a synchronized optical response is observable at frequencies as low as 0.01Hz and at temperatures far away from any phase transition (up to at least 15°C above the transition. The observation of a synchronized optical signal at very low frequencies points out a collective response and supports the existence of long-range elastic (solid-like correlations existing at the sub-millimeter length-scale in agreement to weak solid-like responses already identified in various liquids including liquid water. This concept of elastically linked molecules differs deeply with the academic view of molecules moving freely in the liquid state and has profound consequences on the mechanisms governing collective effects as glass formation, gelation and transport, or synchronized processes in physiological media.
Ravindraswami, K.; Janardhana, K.; Gowda, Jayaprakash; Moolya, B. Narayana
2018-04-01
Non linear optical 1-phenyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (PDAC) was synthesized using Claisen - Schmidt condensation method and studied for optical nonlinearity with an emphasis on structure-property relationship. The structural confirmation studies were carried out using 1H-NMR, FT-IR and single crystal XRD techniques. The nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction parameters in z-scan with nano second laser pulses were obtained by measuring the profile of propagated beam through the samples. The real and imaginary parts of third-order bulk susceptibility χ(3) were evaluated. Thermo gravimetric analysis is carried out to investigate the thermal stability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Raghavendra
Full Text Available A new organic potential nonlinear optical (NLO material 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-3-(3-fluorophenylprop-2-en-1-one (DMP3FP is crystallized in acetone. The single crystal X-ray diffraction data shows that material crystallizes into centro-symmetric orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 15.6552(6 Å, b = 8.5571(3 Å, c = 20.7697(7 Å. The functional groups in DMP3FP molecule are identified by Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR spectra. The thermal stability and melting point are determined using thermo gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA. Using UV Visible spectral studies direct band gap energy of the crystal is determined to be 3.19 eV. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and optical power limiting of the crystal was studied using Z-scan technique. The crystal exhibits a self-focusing effect at a wavelength of 532 nm showing optical limiting and reverse saturable absorption by having excited state absorption coefficient greater than ground state absorption coefficient. Keywords: Nonlinear, Optical power limiting, Z-scan, Self-focusing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sagdeev, R Z
1984-01-01
The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of nonlinear and turbulent phenomena from a wide range of fields in physics are presented in reviews and reports. Topics examined include localized vortex formations in an ideal fluid, phase transitions in crystals, spatially nonuniform structures in condensed matter, solitons in molecular systems, the migration of quasi-particles in easily deformed crystals, bifurcations and dissipative structures in distributed kinetic systems, and structures in a nonlinear burning medium. Consideration is given to macroscopic motion generation in nonequilibrium media, the interaction of bulk and surface wave trains, near-threshold instabilities in hydrodynamics, solitons in nonlinear elastic rods with variable characteristics, the generation of solitons and vortices from chaos, and nonlinear electromagnetic-wave dissipation in an electron system.
Nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in paraelectric state of Co4Nb2O9 single crystal
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cao, Ym.; Deng, Gc.; Beran, Přemysl; Feng, Zj.; Kang, Bj.; Zhang, Jc.; Guiblin, N.; Dkhil, B.; Ren, W.; Cao, Sx.
2017-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 14079. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetoelectric * single crystal * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Sum-frequency nonlinear Cherenkov radiation generated on the boundary of bulk medium crystal.
Wang, Xiaojing; Cao, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; Deng, Xuewei; Chen, Xianfeng
2015-12-14
We demonstrated experimentally a method to generate the sum-frequency Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation (NCR) on the boundary of bulk medium by using two synchronized laser beam with wavelength of 1300 nm and 800 nm. It is also an evidence that the polarization wave is always confined to the boundary. Critical conditions of surface sum-frequency NCR under normal and anomalous dispersion condition is discussed.
le Graverend, J.-B.
2018-05-01
A lattice-misfit-dependent damage density function is developed to predict the non-linear accumulation of damage when a thermal jump from 1050 °C to 1200 °C is introduced somewhere in the creep life. Furthermore, a phenomenological model aimed at describing the evolution of the constrained lattice misfit during monotonous creep load is also formulated. The response of the lattice-misfit-dependent plasticity-coupled damage model is compared with the experimental results obtained at 140 and 160 MPa on the first generation Ni-based single crystal superalloy MC2. The comparison reveals that the damage model is well suited at 160 MPa and less at 140 MPa because the transfer of stress to the γ' phase occurs for stresses above 150 MPa which leads to larger variations and, therefore, larger effects of the constrained lattice misfit on the lifetime during thermo-mechanical loading.
Paghousi, Roohollah; Fasihi, Kiazand
2018-05-01
We present a new high-contrast controllable switch, which is based on a polystyrene nonlinear cavity, and is implemented in a two dimensional (2D) hole-type photonic crystal (PC). We show that by applying a control signal, the input power can be transmitted to the output waveguide with a high contrast ratio. The operation of the proposed device is investigated through the use of coupled-mode theory (CMT) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The contrast ratio of the proposed device varies between 18 and 23, which is higher than the corresponding value in the previous investigations. Based on the simulation results, with increasing the control power the range of operating power will be increased, while the contrast ratio will be decreased. It has been shown that in a modified structure, at the expense of the range of operating power and the contrast ratio, the control power can be decreased, considerably.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.ramos@csic.es; Frank, Ian W.; Deotare, Parag B.; Bulu, Irfan; Lončar, Marko [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
2014-11-03
We investigate the coupling between mechanical and optical modes supported by coupled, freestanding, photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. We show that localized cavity modes for a given gap between the nanobeams provide weak optomechanical coupling with out-of-plane mechanical modes. However, we show that the coupling can be significantly increased, more than an order of magnitude for the symmetric mechanical mode, due to optical resonances that arise from the interaction of the localized cavity modes with standing waves formed by the reflection from thesubstrate. Finally, amplification of motion for the symmetric mode has been observed and attributed to the strong optomechanical interaction of our hybrid system. The amplitude of these self-sustained oscillations is large enough to put the system into a non-linear oscillation regime where a mixing between the mechanical modes is experimentally observed and theoretically explained.
Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Smetanin, Sergei N.; Fedin, Aleksandr V.; Shurygin, Anton S.
2010-10-01
Lasing of a miniature all-solid-state SRS laser based on a Nd3+:SrMoO4 crystal with a LiF:F2--passive Q-switch is studied. The dependences of the laser and SRS self-conversion parameters on the initial transmission of the passive Q-switch are studied experimentally and theoretically. Simulation of the lasing kinetics has shown the possibility of nonlinear cavity dumping upon highly efficient SRS self-conversion of laser radiation. An increase in the active medium length from 1 to 3mm resulted in an increase in the energy of the output 1.17-μm SRS radiation from 20 μJ to record-high 60 μJ at the absorbed multimode diode pump energy of 3.7 mJ.
Akiyama, T.; Yoshimura, S.; Tomita, K.; Shirai, N.; Murakami, T.; Urabe, K.
2017-12-01
When the electron density of a plasma generated in high pressure environment is measured by a conventional interferometer, the phase shifts due to changes of the neutral gas density cause significant measurement errors. A dispersion interferometer, which measures the phase shift that arises from dispersion of medium between the fundamental and the second harmonic wavelengths of laser light, can suppress the measured phase shift due to the variations of neutral gas density. In recent years, the CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been applied to the atmospheric pressure plasmas and its feasibility has been demonstrated. By combining a low power laser and a high efficiency nonlinear crystal for the second harmonic component generation, a compact dispersion interferometer can be designed. The optical design and preliminary experiments are conducted.
Bazan, Carlos; Hawkins, Trevor; Torres-Barba, David; Blomgren, Peter; Paolini, Paul
2011-08-22
We are exploring the viability of a novel approach to cardiocyte contractility assessment based on biomechanical properties of the cardiac cells, energy conservation principles, and information content measures. We define our measure of cell contraction as being the distance between the shapes of the contracting cell, assessed by the minimum total energy of the domain deformation (warping) of one cell shape into another. To guarantee a meaningful vis-à-vis correspondence between the two shapes, we employ both a data fidelity term and a regularization term. The data fidelity term is based on nonlinear features of the shapes while the regularization term enforces the compatibility between the shape deformations and that of a hyper-elastic material. We tested the proposed approach by assessing the contractile responses in isolated adult rat cardiocytes and contrasted these measurements against two different methods for contractility assessment in the literature. Our results show good qualitative and quantitative agreements with these methods as far as frequency, pacing, and overall behavior of the contractions are concerned. We hypothesize that the proposed methodology, once appropriately developed and customized, can provide a framework for computational cardiac cell biomechanics that can be used to integrate both theory and experiment. For example, besides giving a good assessment of contractile response of the cardiocyte, since the excitation process of the cell is a closed system, this methodology can be employed in an attempt to infer statistically significant model parameters for the constitutive equations of the cardiocytes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Y. Zaitsev
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Results of examination of experimental data on non-linear elasticity of rocks using experimentally determined pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities from various literature sources are presented. Overall, over 90 rock samples are considered. Interpretation of the data is performed using an effective-medium description in which cracks are considered as compliant defects with explicitly introduced shear and normal compliances without specifying a particular crack model with an a priori given ratio of the compliances. Comparison with the experimental data indicated abundance (∼ 80 % of cracks with the normal-to-shear compliance ratios that significantly exceed the values typical of conventionally used crack models (such as penny-shaped cuts or thin ellipsoidal cracks. Correspondingly, rocks with such cracks demonstrate a strongly decreased Poisson ratio including a significant (∼ 45 % portion of rocks exhibiting negative Poisson ratios at lower pressures, for which the concentration of not yet closed cracks is maximal. The obtained results indicate the necessity for further development of crack models to account for the revealed numerous examples of cracks with strong domination of normal compliance. Discovering such a significant number of naturally auxetic rocks is in contrast to the conventional viewpoint that occurrence of a negative Poisson ratio is an exotic fact that is mostly discussed for artificial structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Chennakrishnan
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to synthesize and investigate the growth and physiochemical properties of the nonlinear optical semi-organic crystal l-glutamic acid zinc chloride (LGAZC. An optically transparent and defect-free crystal was grown with the slow evaporation solution growth technique under optimized conditions. The induction periods were measured at various supersaturations, and the interfacial energies were evaluated. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal has an orthorhombic structure with space group P212121, and the calculated lattice parameters are aÂ =Â 5.20Â Ã , bÂ =Â 6.99Â Ã , cÂ =Â 17.58Â Ã , Î±Â =Â Î²Â =Â Î³Â =Â 90Â° and volumeÂ =Â 623.411 Ã 3. Spectroscopic properties were investigated by recording the Fourier transform infrared and optical transmission spectra. The thermal decomposition of the grown crystal was investigated by Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA. The LGAZC crystal exhibits second harmonic generation (SHG efficiency 1.5 times that of inorganic KDP crystal. The presence of the metal ion (Zn+ in a grown crystal was identified by EDAX spectrum analysis. The photoconductivity study demonstrates that LGAZC crystal has a positive photo conducting nature. The dielectric response of the LGAZC crystal was investigated and reported. Keywords: Semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal, X-ray Diffraction, UV-vis-NIR, Thermal study
Boopathi, K.; Babu, S. Moorthy; Jagan, R.; Ramasamy, P.
2017-12-01
The new inorganic-organic hybrid material aquadiiodo (3-aminopropanoic acid) cadmium (II) [ADI (3-AP) Cd] has been successfully synthesized and good quality crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with centro symmetric space group P21/c and four molecules in the unit cell. The structure of the title compound was further confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the compound. The transmittance and optical parameters of the crystal were studied by UV- Visible-NIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was evaluated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Mechanical hardness has been identified by Vickers micro hardness study and work hardening coefficient was calculated. Dielectric measurement was carried out as a function of frequency and results are discussed. The growth mechanism of the crystal was assessed by chemical etching studies. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of [ADI (3-AP) Cd] was derived using the Z-scan technique, and it was 3.24955 × 10-8 esu. The positive nonlinear refractive index 2.48505 × 10-11 m2/W, is an indication of self-defocusing optical nonlinearity of the sample. It is believed that the [ADI (3-AP) Cd] is a promising new candidate for developing efficient nonlinear optical and optical power limiting devices.
Generation and propagation of high-order Bessel vortices in linear and non-linear crystals
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Belyi, VN
2009-08-01
Full Text Available E⊥ of the electric field for these beams are given by the following expressions: ( ))2exp()()( )( )exp( 20 1 10 ϕρρ iqJqJ qw zikA i zoo −+⊥ += eeE , (1) с Uniaxial crystal θs Bs2ω(ρ) Bsω(ρ) Figure 1: Geometry of SHG when wave vectors cone of Bessel... beam at fundamental )(ρωBs and second harmonic frequencies )(2 ρωBs coincides with phase-matching cone of uniaxial crystal. Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7430 74300F-2 ( ))2exp()()()cos( )( )exp( 20 1 1 ϕρργ iqJqJ qw zikA i e zee e −+⊥ −= ee...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heuck, Mikkel; Combrié, S.; Lehoucq, G.
2013-01-01
Using a sensitive two-color heterodyne pump-probe technique, we investigate the carrier dynamics of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. The heterodyne technique provides unambiguous results for all wavelength configurations, including the degenerate case, which cannot be investigated with the wid......Using a sensitive two-color heterodyne pump-probe technique, we investigate the carrier dynamics of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. The heterodyne technique provides unambiguous results for all wavelength configurations, including the degenerate case, which cannot be investigated...... with the widely used homodyne technique. A model based on coupled mode theory including two carrier distributions is introduced to account for the relaxation dynamics, which is assumed to be governed by both diffusion and recombination....
Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical bimetallic thiocyanate complex of MCCTC crystal
Ravi Kumar, S. M.; Melikechi, N.; Selvakumar, S.; Sagayaraj, P.
2009-04-01
An organometallic material of mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate (MCCTC) was synthesized in water-methanol mixed solvent. Optically good grade crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique under optimized conditions. MCCTC belongs to rhombohedral system with R3c space group. The metal coordinations with (S with Hg and N with Cd) SCN - ion were confirmed in the sample by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic investigations. The transmission spectrum recorded from 200 to 2500 nm showed the UV transparency cutoff at 300 nm. MCCTC crystal exhibits a second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency which is nearly 17 times more than that of KDP. The microhardness study indicates the hard nature of the grown sample with a work hardening coefficient of 1.73. The thermal decomposition process was investigated by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Andreas; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan
2005-01-01
Wavelength conversion of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying signal is demonstrated in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF) for the first time. A conversion efficiency of -20 dB for a pump power of 23 dBm and a conversion bandwidth of 31 nm, essentially limited...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poursamad, J.B. [Physics & Optic Engineering Group, University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A. [Department of Physics, Azerbaijan ShahidMadani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M. [Research Institue for Applied Physics and Astronomy, Univerity of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-11-01
Possibility of observing third thermomechanical (TM) effect in uniform nematic liquid crystals (NLC) with proper selection of boundary conditions on the cell walls is theoretically studied. Absorption of a light wave induces the needed temperature gradient for the TM effect. The molecular director reorientation due to third TM effect and the induced phase shift on the probe beam are calculated. The forth TM coefficient can be measured directly by the method proposed in this work.
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy.
Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-20
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to [Formula: see text] facets on the surface.
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy
Krishna Dixit, Gopal; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-01
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the Ge0.25 Si0.75 on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to facets on the surface.
Designing quadratic nonlinear photonic crystal fibers for soliton compression to few-cycle pulses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Lægsgaard, Jesper
2007-01-01
phase shifts accessible. This self-defocusing nonlinearity can be used to compress a pulse when combined with normal dispersion, and problems normally encountered due to self-focusing in cubic media are avoided. Thus, having no power limit, in bulk media a self-defocusing soliton compressor can create...... high-energy near single-cycle fs pulses (Liu et al., 2006). However, the group-velocity mismatch (GVM) between the FW and second harmonic (SH), given by the inverse group velocity difference d12=1/Vg,1 - 1/Vg,2, limits the pulse quality and compression ratio. Especially very short input pulses (...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang Lei; Luo Siyang; Huang Hongwei; Lin, Z S; Chen, C T; Zheng Tao
2012-01-01
Electronic structures of the deep ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystals of the KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) family, including KBBF, RbBe 2 BO 3 F 2 and CsBe 2 BO 3 F 2 , have been investigated based on a plane-wave pseudopotential method. Their linear and nonlinear optical coefficients are also calculated, and are in good agreement with the experimental results. A real-space atom-cutting method is adopted to analyze the respective contributions of the alkali metal cations and anionic groups to optical response. The results show that the contributions of anionic groups to the nonlinear optical anisotropic responses are dominant, but the influence of the A-site alkali metal cations becomes slightly more pronounced with the increase of their radius. Moreover, the birefringence difference among these crystals strongly depends on the volume effect, i.e., the spatial density of the (BO 3 ) 3- anionic groups. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kucytowski, J.; Wokulska, K.; Kazmierczak-Balata, A.; Bodzenta, J.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Hofman, B.; Pyka, M.
2008-01-01
The influence of neodymium doping on YVO 4 single crystals has been studied. The crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. One of them was pure YVO 4 and the others were doped with neodymium (YVO 4 :Nd) at various concentrations of Nd = 0.3-3.0 at.%. The changes of the lattice parameters were determined by the Bond's method [W.L. Bond, Acta Cryst. 13 (1960) 814]. The thermal diffusivity and the velocity of ultrasound using the photothermal method with mirage effect and the pulse echo method [J. Bodzenta, M. Pyka, J. Phys. IV France 137 (2006) 259] were measured. In the examined crystals, it was found that the lattice parameters increase while the thermal diffusivity decreases with increasing concentration of Nd atoms
Sifi, A.; Klein, R. S.; Maillard, A.; Kugel, G. E.; Péter, A.; Polgár, K.
2003-10-01
We present absolute measurements of the effective non-linear optical coefficients deff of cesium lithium borate crystals (CsLiB 6O 10, CLBO) by second harmonic generation using a continuous Nd-YAG laser source. The experiments were carried out at room temperature, on crystals cut perpendicular to type I or type II phase matching directions, with two different crystal lengths along the propagation direction. The d36 and d14 non-linear coefficients involved in deff developments are deduced and are shown to be equal as it is predicted by the Kleinman symmetry. Two different compositions prepared by the Czochralski technique from melt with compositions of 1:1:6 and 1:1:5.5 molar ratios of Cs 2O, Li 2O and B 2O 3 are comparatively studied.
Jayanalina, T.; Rajarajan, G.; Boopathi, K.; Sreevani, K.
2015-09-01
A new organic nonlinear optical crystal 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium-L-tartarate [2A5CPLTA] has been synthesized and the crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution technique at room temperature using methanol as solvent. The crystal structure of the title compound has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to the monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The presence of functional groups was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The transmittance and lower cut off of the grown crystal was ascertained by the UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Thermal studies reveled that 2A5CPLTA crystal is thermally stable up to 144 °C. The dielectric measurements of the grown crystal were carried out with different frequencies and temperatures. Vickers micro hardness measurement was carried out to study the mechanical behavior of the grown crystal. The second harmonic generation of the title crystal was confirmed by the Kurtz-Perry powder test employing the Nd: YAG laser as the source.
YBCO single crystals I-V characteristics nonlinearity and Nelson-Kosterlitz jump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzmichev, N.D.; Vasyutin, M.A.; Golovashkin, A.I.
2007-01-01
Temperature dependences of I-V characteristics and voltage harmonics V n (T) (n = 2, 3, ...) have been investigated in magnetic fields up to 200 Oe for single crystals YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . It was shown that V n (T) had asymmetric peak form with maximum at T* = 92.0 K. Amplitudes of V n (T) were decreased in magnetic fields. The results were explained on the base of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition model. It was shown that T* coincided with the BKT transition temperature T BKT . The asymmetric peaks of V n (T) are a consequence of the Nelson-Kosterlitz jump
Nonlinear spectroscopy of the bound exciton states in CdSe single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisitsa, M.P.; Onishchenko, N.A.; Stolyarenko, A.V.; Ananchenko, V.V.; Polishchuk, S.V.
1989-01-01
The study is devoted to the pulsed laser radiation effect on the time-resolved variations of free and bound exciton bands region at the helium temperature. A gradual disappearance of the bound I 2 exciton state is observed with increase of the excitation intensity I in CdSe transmission spectra. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that despite of the shorter life of I 2 excitons as compared to the free ones, the concentration of the centres on which they localize is rather low (≤10 16 cm -3 ) while the evolution of the light-generated electron-hole pairs is such as the most probable recombination through the bound excitons. The transmission spectrum kinetics is studied. The intensity limitation of the laser pulse transmitted through the crystal in the region of the exciton ground state region is shown to be related with two-photon absorption (TPA) in which the exciton state is an intermediate level. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experiment. The estimations show the giant TPA coefficient of ∼10 3 cm/MW. The evolution of photoexcited nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs is studied. The possibility of using CdSe single crystals as spectrum-selective limiters of the laser pulses is shown. (author)
Voloshinov, Vitaly; Polikarpova, Nataliya; Ivanova, Polina; Khorkin, Vladimir
2018-04-01
Peculiar cases of acoustic wave propagation and reflection may be observed in strongly anisotropic acousto-optical crystals. A tellurium dioxide crystal serves as a prime example of such media, since it possesses record indexes of acoustic anisotropy. We studied one of the unusual scenarios of acoustic incidence and reflection from a free crystal-vacuum boundary in paratellurite. The directions of the acoustic waves in the (001) plane of the crystal were determined, and their basic characteristics were calculated. The carried-out acousto-optic experiment at the wavelength of light 532 nm and the acoustic frequency 73 MHz confirmed the theoretical predictions. The effects examined in the paper include the acoustic wave propagation with the record walkoff angle 74°. We also observed the incidence of the wave on the boundary at the angle exceeding 90°. Finally, we registered the close-to-back reflection of acoustic energy following the incidence. One of the stunning aspects is the distribution of energy between the incident and the back-reflected wave. The unusual features of the acoustic wave reflections pointed out in the paper are valuable for their possible applications in acousto-optic devices.
Anbarasi, A.; Ravi Kumar, S. M.; Sundar, G. J. Shanmuga; Mosses, M. Allen; Raj, M. Packiya; Prabhakaran, M.; Ravisankar, R.; Gunaseelan, R.
2017-10-01
Bis(thiourea) ammonium nitrate (BTAN), a new nonlinear optical crystal was grown successfully by slow evaporation technique using water as solvent at room temperature. The grown crystals were optically good quality with dimensions upto 10 × 6 × 3 mm3. Single crystal X-Ray diffraction analysis reveals that the crystal lattice is orthorhombic. From Powder X-ray diffraction analysis the diffraction planes have been indexed. The presence of the various functional groups of BTAN was identified through FTIR spectroscopic analysis. UV cut-off wavelength was observed from optical absorbance spectrum and it was found to be 240 nm. Second harmonic efficiency was determined using Kurtz powder method in comparison with KDP to confirm the nonlinearity of the material. Thermal analysis confirmed that grown crystal is thermally stable upto 184 °C. Microhardness studies show that hardness number (Hv) increases with load. Conductivity measurements such as dielectric, ac and photoconductivity were studied. Growth mechanism and surface features of the as grown single crystal was analysed by chemical etching analysis.
Hsieh, Chih-Chen; Jain, Semant; Larson, Ronald G
2006-01-28
A very stiff finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE)-Fraenkel spring is proposed to replace the rigid rod in the bead-rod model. This allows the adoption of a fast predictor-corrector method so that large time steps can be taken in Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations without over- or understretching the stiff springs. In contrast to the simple bead-rod model, BD simulations with beads and FENE-Fraenkel (FF) springs yield a random-walk configuration at equilibrium. We compare the simulation results of the free-draining bead-FF-spring model with those for the bead-rod model in relaxation, start-up of uniaxial extensional, and simple shear flows, and find that both methods generate nearly identical results. The computational cost per time step for a free-draining BD simulation with the proposed bead-FF-spring model is about twice as high as the traditional bead-rod model with the midpoint algorithm of Liu [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 5826 (1989)]. Nevertheless, computations with the bead-FF-spring model are as efficient as those with the bead-rod model in extensional flow because the former allows larger time steps. Moreover, the Brownian contribution to the stress for the bead-FF-spring model is isotropic and therefore simplifies the calculation of the polymer stresses. In addition, hydrodynamic interaction can more easily be incorporated into the bead-FF-spring model than into the bead-rod model since the metric force arising from the non-Cartesian coordinates used in bead-rod simulations is absent from bead-spring simulations. Finally, with our newly developed bead-FF-spring model, existing computer codes for the bead-spring models can trivially be converted to ones for effective bead-rod simulations merely by replacing the usual FENE or Cohen spring law with a FENE-Fraenkel law, and this convertibility provides a very convenient way to perform multiscale BD simulations.
Kondo, Yuuki; Urayama, Kenji; Kidowaki, Masatoshi; Mayumi, Koichi; Takigawa, Toshikazu; Ito, Kohzo
2014-10-07
The strain energy density function (F) of the polyrotaxane-based slide-ring (SR) gels with movable cross-links along the network strands is characterized by unequal biaxial stretching which can achieve various types of deformation. The SR gels as prepared without any post-preparation complication exhibit considerably smaller values of the ratio of the stresses (σy/σx) in the stretched (x) and constrained (y) directions in planar extension than classical chemical gels with heterogeneous and nearly homogeneous network structures do. This feature of the SR gels leads to the peculiar characteristic that the strain energy density function (F) has no explicit cross term of strains in different directions, which is in contrast to F with explicit strain cross terms for most chemical gels and elastomers. The biaxial stress-strain data of the SR gels are successfully described by F of the Gent model with only two parameters (small-strain shear modulus and a parameter representing ultimate elongation), which introduces the finite extensibility effect into the neo-Hookean model with no explicit cross term of strain. The biaxial data of the deswollen SR gels examined in previous study, which underwent a considerable reduction in volume from the preparation state, are also well described by the Gent model, which is in contrast to the case of the classical chemical gels that the stress-strain relations before and after large deswelling are not described by a common type of F due to a significant degree of collapse of the network strands in the deswollen state. These intriguing features of nonlinear elasticity of the SR gels originate from a novel function of the slidable cross-links that can maximize the arrangement entropy of cross-linked and non-cross-linked cyclic molecules in the deformed networks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deb Nath, S.K.; Deb Nath, S.K.; Wong, C.H.; Deb Nath, S.K.
2014-01-01
Perfluoro polyethers (PFPEs) are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds) are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenon affects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multi dented functional lubricants such as Ar-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Deb Nath
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenonaffects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multidented functional lubricants such as ARJ-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.
Elastic properties of Gum Metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi
2006-01-01
In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation
Effects of material non-linearity on the residual stresses in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon
Ray, Sujit K.; Utku, Senol
1990-01-01
Thermal stresses developed in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon have been shown to cause plastic deformation and residual stresses in the ribbon. This paper presents an implementation of a numerical model proposed for thermoelastoplastic behavior of a material. The model has been used to study the effects of plasticity of silicon on the residual stresses. The material properties required to implement this model are all assumed, and the response of the material to the variations in these assumed parameters of the constitutive law and in the finite element mesh is investigated. The steady state growth process is observed to be periodic with nonzero residual stresses. Numerical difficulties are also encountered in the computer solution process, resulting in sharp jumps and large oscillations in the stress responses.
Thirumurugan, R.; Babu, B.; Anitha, K.; Chandrasekaran, J.
2017-12-01
A novel organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, creatininium L-tartrate monohydrate (CTM) was synthesized and it was grown as single crystals with optical quality. 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies were performed and molecular structure of synthesized CTM compound was confirmed. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis confirmed that CTM was crystallized in orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric (NCS), P212121, space group. The grown crystal exhibited admirable properties such as second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) (1.9 times KDP), and high laser damage threshold (LDT) value of 3.7 GW cm-2. CTM crystal displayed high transparency (∼60%) in the visible and near-IR region with low cut-off wavelength at 249 nm. Photoluminescence study confirmed blue wavelength emission (∼463 nm) of grown crystal. Thermal and mechanical behaviours have been successfully analysed for grown crystals. The dielectric studies were carried out for grown crystal as a function of frequencies at different temperatures. Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plots provided the percentage of individual interactions contributed by each atom. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to probe the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first hyperpolarizability (β) analysis of the optimized CTM structure. These results validated CTM as a suitable NLO candidate and were discussed in this work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jecl, R.; Cvikl, B.
1998-01-01
The quasi-elastic cold neutron incoherent scattering law, QNS, for the assumed case of transversal standing wave type of motion of the linear chain a spacer-of the polyacrylate polymer liquid crystal, based upon the random walk of the particle between two perfectly potential barriers, is derived. The spacer protons are taken to vibrate (within the stationary plane) transversely to the line joining the oxygen atoms in a way where they are all simultaneously displaced in the same direction with amplitudes of the standing wave fundamental mode of the vibration excited. The calculated relevant incoherent scattering law is found to be a non-distinct function of the scattering vector Q, in the sense that the postulated dynamical effect of the spacer protons causes the peak value of the calculated incoherent scattering law, S(Q,ω), to remain constant throughout the experimentally accessible range of the scattering vector Q. It appears that, when the experimental resolution broadening effects is taken into account, the contribution of the postulated dynamical behavior to the measured QNS spectra might be small, particularly so, if dome additional motion of the scatters is present, and consequently the standing wave like spacer dynamics in polymer liquid crystals will be very difficult to be identified uniquely in the quasielastic neutron scattering experiments.(author)
Ultrafast Mid-IR Nonlinear Optics in Gas-filled Hollow-core Photonic Crystal Fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Habib, Selim
Invention of hollow-core fiber has been proven an ideal medium to study light-gas interaction. Tight confinement of light inside hollowcore fiber allows unremitting and tailored interaction between light and gas over long distances. In this work, we used a special kind of hollowcore fiber − hollow......-core anti-resonant (HC-AR) fiber to study the various nonlinear effects filled with Raman free noble gas. One of the main striking features of HC-AR fiber is that ∼99.99% light can be guided inside the central hollow-core region, which significantly enhances damage threshold level. HC-AR fiber can sustain...... be tuned by simply changing the pressure of the gas while at the same time providing extremely wide transparency ranges. In this thesis, we propose several low-loss broadband guidance HC-AR fibers and investigate soliton-plasma dynamics using HC-AR fiber filled with noble gas in the mid-IR. The combined...
Qiaoling Chen; Min Luo
2016-01-01
A new nonlinear optical (NLO) material, RbNa5Ca5(CO3)8, has been synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The crystal structure is established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. RbNa5Ca5(CO3)8 crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with space group P63mc (No. 186). The structure of RbNa5Ca5(CO3)8 can be described as the adjacent infinite [CaCO3]∞ layers lying in the a-b plane bridged through standing-on-edge [CO3] groups by sharing O atoms (two-fold coordinated) to build a framework wi...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaque, D.; Capmany, J.; Garcia Sole, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Luo, Z.D. [Fujian Institute of Research on The Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)
1997-11-03
In this paper the polarized optical spectra (absorption and fluorescence) of the Nd{sup 3+} ion in the YAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} nonlinear crystal have been systematically investigated at low (10 K) and room temperature. Most energy levels of Nd{sup 3+} in this crystal (103) have been identified and conveniently labelled with their crystal field quantum numbers, {mu}=1/2 and {mu}=3/2. The radiative emitting states have been identified. Analysing the optical absorption spectra with the anisotropic Judd-Ofelt theory, the radiative lifetimes and branching ratios from the metastable state {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} have been calculated. Then, relevant spectroscopic parameters (quantum efficiency and emission cross sections) for laser applications have been estimated. Infrared to visible up-conversion is reported for the first time in this host crystal. (author)
Temperature dependence of elastic properties of paratellurite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestrova, I.M.; Pisarevskii, Y.V.; Senyushenkov, P.A.; Krupny, A.I.
1987-01-01
New data are presented on the temperature dependence of the elastic wave velocities, elastic stiffness constants, and thermal expansion of paratellurite. It is shown that the external pressure appreciably influences the elastic properties of TeO 2 , especially the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus connected with the crystal soft mode. (author)
Synthesis, crystal structure, and nonlinear optical properties of Bi2Cu5B4O14
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Shilie; Smit, Jared P.; Marvel, Michael R.; Stampler, Evan S.; Haag, Jacob M.; Baek, Jaewook; Halasyamani, P. Shiv; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.
2008-01-01
Bi 2 Cu 5 B 4 O 14 crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric triclinic space group P1 (No. 1) with cell parameters a=10.1381(11) A, b=9.3917(11) A, c=3.4566(4) A, α=105.570(2) o , β=92.275(2) o , γ=107.783(2) o , Z=1 and R 1 =0.0401 and wR 2 =0.0980. It is a layered structure that is built up from sheets of rectangular CuO 4 and trigonal BO 3 groups. The sheets are connected by infinite chains of edge shared BiO 6 polyhedra that intersect the bc plane at an angle slightly greater than 90 o . The second-harmonic generation efficiency of Bi 2 Cu 5 B 4 O 14 , using 1064 nm radiation, is about one half times that of KH 2 PO 4 . - Graphical abstract: The figure shows a layered structure that is built up from sheets of distorted rectangular CuO 4 and trigonal BO 3 groups. The sheets are connected by infinite chains of edge shared BiO 6 polyhedra that intersect the bc plane. These distortions lead to the second-harmonic generation efficiency of Bi 2 Cu 5 B 4 O 14 about one half times that of KH 2 PO 4 Display Omitted
Chakraborty, Mitesh; Rai, Vineet Kumar
2017-12-01
The aim of the present paper is to employ theoretical methods to investigate the zero field splitting (ZFS) parameter and to investigate the position of the dopant in the host. These theoretical calculations have been compared with the empirical results. The superposition model (SPM) with the microscopic spin-Hamiltonian (MSH) theory and the coefficient of fractional parentage have been employed to investigate the dopant manganese(II) ion substitution in the diaquamalonatozinc(II) (DAMZ) single crystal. The magnetic parameters, viz. g-tensor and D-tensor, has been determined by using the ORCA program package developed by F Neese et al. The unrestricted Kohn-Sham orbitals-based Pederson-Khanna (PK) as the unperturbed wave function is observed to be the most suitable for the computational calculation of spin-orbit tensor (D^{SO}) of the axial ZFS parameter D. The effects of spin-spin dipolar couplings are taken into account. The unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) is used for the calculation of spin-spin dipolar contributions to the ZFS tensor. A comparative study of the quantum mechanical treatment of Pederson-Khanna (PK) with coupled perturbation (CP) is reported in the present study. The unrestricted Kohn-Sham-based natural orbital with Pederson-Khanna-type of perturbation approach validates the experimental results in the evaluation of ZFS parameters. The theoretical results are appropriate with the experimental ones and indicate the interstitial occupancy of Mn^{2+} ion in the host matrix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemieux, M.A.; Breton, P.; Tremblay, A.M.S.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the Negative Eigenvalue Theorem and transfer matrix methods may be considered within a unified framework and generalized to compute projected densities of states or, more generally, any linear combination of matrix elements of the inverse of large symmetric random matrices. As examples of applications, extensive simulations for one- and two-mode behaviour in the Raman spectrum of one-dimensional mixed crystals and a finite-size analysis of critical exponents for the central force percolation universality class are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, D.S.; Nguyen Minh, D.; Chanchole, S.; Gharbi, H.; Valli, P.; Bornert, M.
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. The construction of underground nuclear waste repositories will strongly disturb the initial thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical equilibrium of the site. In addition to direct mechanical perturbations during excavation, which induce redistribution of the stresses and possible damage of the surrounding rock mass, the ventilation of the galleries will also modify the moisture content of the rock, resulting in shrinking or swelling, and more generally modifying the physical-chemical properties of the material. Safety concerns about preservation of confining properties of rock mass at short and long time scales require a deep understanding of the hydro-mechanical behavior of the host rock. In particular the dependence of elastic, possibly anisotropic, moduli and nonlinear properties (plasticity, damage, creep...) as a function of the moisture level, need to be quantified. In addition, in order to construct physically based micromechanical models of these dependencies, the various micro-mechanisms at their origin and their characteristic scales need to be identified. Various independent studies agree on the decrease of overall rigidity and failure stress of argillite with increasing humidity. A recent study making use of optical full-field strain measurement techniques on centi-metric samples under uniaxial compression suggests that this apparent decrease of elastic properties on wet samples can be essentially explained by the presence of a millimetric network of 'meso-cracks', induced by the preliminary unconfined hydration process. Indeed, thanks to the full-field measurement technique, it was possible to show that the mechanical response of undamaged areas, in-between cracks, was very similar at all moisture contents, both in terms of average strains and strain fluctuations at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of the rock (matrix clay + other mineral inclusions). The preliminary hydro
Curilla, L.; Astrauskas, I.; Pugzlys, A.; Stajanca, P.; Pysz, D.; Uherek, F.; Baltuska, A.; Bugar, I.
2018-05-01
We demonstrate ultrafast soliton-based nonlinear balancing of dual-core asymmetry in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber at sub-nanojoule pulse energy level. The effect of fiber asymmetry was studied experimentally by selective excitation and monitoring of individual fiber cores at different wavelengths between 1500 nm and 1800 nm. Higher energy transfer rate to non-excited core was observed in the case of fast core excitation due to nonlinear asymmetry balancing of temporal solitons, which was confirmed by the dedicated numerical simulations based on the coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Moreover, the simulation results correspond qualitatively with the experimentally acquired dependences of the output dual-core extinction ratio on excitation energy and wavelength. In the case of 1800 nm fast core excitation, narrow band spectral intensity switching between the output channels was registered with contrast of 23 dB. The switching was achieved by the change of the excitation pulse energy in sub-nanojoule region. The performed detailed analysis of the nonlinear balancing of dual-core asymmetry in solitonic propagation regime opens new perspectives for the development of ultrafast nonlinear all-optical switching devices.
Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu
2014-07-01
A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.
Mehdizadeh, Farhad; Soroosh, Mohammad; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed; Farshidi, Ebrahim
2017-03-01
In this paper, we propose what we believe is a novel all-optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on photonic crystals. The proposed structure is composed of a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder. The nonlinear triplexer is for creating discrete levels in the continuous optical input signal, and the optical coder is for generating a 2-bit standard binary code out of the discrete levels coming from the nonlinear triplexer. Controlling the resonant mode of the resonant rings through optical intensity is the main objective and working mechanism of the proposed structure. The maximum delay time obtained for the proposed structure was about 5 ps and the total footprint is about 1520 μm2.
Shimada, Kazuhiro
2018-03-01
We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the crystal structure, elastic and piezoelectric properties, and spontaneous polarization of orthorhombic M2O3 (M = Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y) with Pna21 space group based on density functional theory. The lattice parameters, full elastic stiffness constants, piezoelectric stress and strain constants, and spontaneous polarization are successfully predicted. Comparison with available experimental and computational results indicates the validity of our computational results. Detailed analysis of the results clarifies the difference in the bonding character and the origin of the strong piezoelectric response and large spontaneous polarization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yasuo.
1990-01-01
This paper describes the method and the experiment for the determination of the x-ray elastic constants of Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate. For this material, the sin 2 ψ method is not adequate to use because this material shows severely curved sin 2 ψ diagrams. Therefore, a new method developed by the authors was explained first. This new method is effective for materials showing nonlinear sin 2 ψ diagrams. Secondly, the experiment was made on the application of this method to the Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate. And it was found out that the experimental data agreed well to the theory of this method. As a result, the following values were obtained as the x-ray elastic constants of the sample measured: (1+ν)/E=8.44 TPa -1 ν/E=2.02 TPa -1 (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhanasekaran, P.; Srinivasan, K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046, Tamil Nadu (India)
2012-12-15
One of the halide derivatives of L-glutamic acid which was identified as a semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-glutamic acid hydrochloride [HOOC(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH.HCl], was grown as bulk single crystal and its significant properties were characterized. The stoichiometric title compound was synthesized and the solubility of its recrystallized form in DD water was determined in the temperature range 30-80 C by gravimetric method. Structural confirmation was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction study through lattice parameter verification. Optical quality smaller dimension single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by self nucleation through slow evaporation of solvent method and a large dimension single crystal was grown by slow cooling method with reversible seed rotation technique. Morphological importances of different growth facets of the as grown crystals were studied through optical goniometry. Unit cell structure of the grown crystal was refined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, functional groups present in the crystal responsible for various modes of vibrations were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy analysis, thermal stability of the grown crystal was analysed by TG/DTA and DSC and second harmonic generation (SHG) of a fundamental Nd:YAG laser beam by Kurtz technique. Results indicate that the grown crystal is in stoichiometric composition and has significant improvement in its thermal and SHG properties when compared to pure L-glutamic acid polymorphs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Nageshwari, M.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Vinitha, G.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Sudha, S.; Caroline, M. Lydia
2018-03-01
L-Methionine-Succinic acid (2/1) (LMSA), 2C5H11NO2S·C4H6O4, a novel nonlinear optical material which belongs to the class of organic category was grown-up for the first time by the technique of slow evaporation. Purity of LMSA was improved using repetitive recrystallization. LMSA was analyzed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction investigation to affirm the crystal structure and crystalline character. The single crystal XRD revealed that LMSA corresponds to the crystal system of triclinic with P1 as space group showing the asymmetric unit consists of a neutral succinic acid molecule and two methionine residues which are crystallographically independent existing in zwitterionic form. The functional groups existing in LMSA was accomplished using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical transparency and the band gap energy were identified utilizing UV-Visible spectrum. The optical constants specifically reflectance and extinction coefficient clearly indicate the elevated transparency of LMSA. The thermal analyses affirmed its thermal stability. The luminescence behavior of LMSA has been analyzed by Photoluminescence (PL) spectral study. The mechanical, laser damage threshold and dielectric investigation of LMSA was done to suggest the material for practical applications. The second and third harmonic generation efficacy was confirmed by means of Kurtz-Perry and Z-scan procedure which attest its potentiality in the domain of nonlinear optics.