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Sample records for nonlinear conjugate gradients

  1. A Hybrid of DL and WYL Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conjugate gradient method is an efficient method for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear conjugate gradient method which can be considered as a hybrid of DL and WYL conjugate gradient methods. The given method possesses the sufficient descent condition under the Wolfe-Powell line search and is globally convergent for general functions. Our numerical results show that the proposed method is very robust and efficient for the test problems.

  2. A NOTE ON THE NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hong Dai; Ya-xiang Yuan

    2002-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems varies with a scalar. In this note, a general condition concerning the scalar is given, which ensures the global convergence of the method in the case of strong Wolfe line searches. It is also discussed how to use the result to obtain the convergence of the famous Fletcher-Reeves, and Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient methods. That the condition cannot be relaxed in some sense is mentioned.

  3. A SELF-ADAPTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR A KIND OF NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽平

    2004-01-01

    Conjugate gradient methods. are a class of important methods for unconstrained optimization, especially when the dimension is large. In 2001, Dai and Liao have proposed a new conjugate condition, based on it two nonlinear conjugate gradient methods are constructed. With trust region idea, this paper gives a self-adaptive technique for the two methods. The numerical results show that this technique works well for the given nonlinear optimization test problems.

  4. A Non-smooth Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Method for Interactive Contact Force Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    of a nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP), which can be solved using an iterative splitting method, such as the projected Gauss–Seidel (PGS) method. We present a novel method for solving the NCP problem by applying a Fletcher–Reeves type nonlinear nonsmooth conjugate gradient (NNCG) type method. We analyze...

  5. Three-dimensional nonlinear conjugate gradient parallel inversion with full information of marine magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yan, Jiayong; Lü, Qingtian; Zhao, Jinhua; Hu, Hao

    2017-04-01

    A new inversion method using marine magnetotellurics is proposed based on previous studies using the nonlinear conjugate gradient method. A numerical example is used to verify the inversion algorithm and program. The inversion model and response resemble the synthetic model. Some technologies have been added to the inversion algorithm: parallel structure, terrain inversion and static shift correction.

  6. AN AFFINE SCALING INTERIOR ALGORITHM VIA CONJUGATE GRADIENT PATH FOR SOLVING BOUND-CONSTRAINED NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxia Jia; Detong Zhu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose an affine scaling interior algorithm via conjugate gradient path for solving nonlinear equality systems subject to bounds on variables.By employing the affine scaling conjugate gradient path search strategy,we obtain an iterative direction by solving the linearize model.By using the line search technique,we will find an acceptable trial step length along this direction which is strictly feasible and makes the objective function nonmonotonically decreasing.The global convergence and fast local convergence rate of the proposed algorithm are established under some reasonable conditions.Furthermore,the numerical results of the proposed algorithm indicate to be effective.

  7. A new Liu-Storey type nonlinear conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-03-01

    Although the Liu-Storey (LS) nonlinear conjugate gradient method has a similar structure as the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) and Hestenes-Stiefel (HS) methods, research about this method is very rare. In this paper, based on the memoryless BFGS quasi-Newton method, we propose a new LS type method, which converges globally for general functions with the Grippo-Lucidi line search. Moreover, we modify this new LS method such that the modified scheme is globally convergent for nonconvex minimization if the strong Wolfe line search is used. Numerical results are also reported.

  8. A Projected Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Method for Interactive Inverse Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    Inverse kinematics is the problem of posing an articulated figure to obtain a wanted goal, without regarding inertia and forces. Joint limits are modeled as bounds on individual degrees of freedom, leading to a box-constrained optimization problem. We present A projected Non-linear Conjugate...... Gradient optimization method suitable for box-constrained optimization problems for inverse kinematics. We show application on inverse kinematics positioning of a human figure. Performance is measured and compared to a traditional Jacobian Transpose method. Visual quality of the developed method...

  9. A family of derivative-free conjugate gradient methods for large-scale nonlinear systems of equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wanyou; Xiao, Yunhai; Hu, Qing-Jie

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a family of derivative-free conjugate gradient methods for large-scale nonlinear systems of equations. They come from two modified conjugate gradient methods [W.Y. Cheng, A two term PRP based descent Method, Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 28 (2007) 1217-1230; L. Zhang, W.J. Zhou, D.H. Li, A descent modified Polak-Ribiére-Polyak conjugate gradient method and its global convergence, IMA J. Numer. Anal. 26 (2006) 629-640] recently proposed for unconstrained optimization problems. Under appropriate conditions, the global convergence of the proposed method is established. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is promising.

  10. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient under strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear conjugate gradient method (CG) plays an important role in solving a large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. This method is widely used due to its simplicity. The method is known to possess sufficient descend condition and global convergence properties. In this paper, a new nonlinear of CG coefficient βk is presented by employing the Strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search. The new βk performance is tested based on number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time by using MATLAB software with Intel Core i7-3470 CPU processor. Numerical experimental results show that the new βk converge rapidly compared to other classical CG method.

  11. Three-Dimensional Induced Polarization Parallel Inversion Using Nonlinear Conjugate Gradients Method

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    Huan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four kinds of array of induced polarization (IP methods (surface, borehole-surface, surface-borehole, and borehole-borehole are widely used in resource exploration. However, due to the presence of large amounts of the sources, it will take much time to complete the inversion. In the paper, a new parallel algorithm is described which uses message passing interface (MPI and graphics processing unit (GPU to accelerate 3D inversion of these four methods. The forward finite differential equation is solved by ILU0 preconditioner and the conjugate gradient (CG solver. The inverse problem is solved by nonlinear conjugate gradients (NLCG iteration which is used to calculate one forward and two “pseudo-forward” modelings and update the direction, space, and model in turn. Because each source is independent in forward and “pseudo-forward” modelings, multiprocess modes are opened by calling MPI library. The iterative matrix solver within CULA is called in each process. Some tables and synthetic data examples illustrate that this parallel inversion algorithm is effective. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the joint inversion of surface and borehole data produces resistivity and chargeability results are superior to those obtained from inversions of individual surface data.

  12. Modified nonlinear conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent condition for unconstrained optimization

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    Liu Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an efficient modified nonlinear conjugate gradient method for solving unconstrained optimization problems is proposed. An attractive property of the modified method is that the generated direction in each step is always descending without any line search. The global convergence result of the modified method is established under the general Wolfe line search condition. Numerical results show that the modified method is efficient and stationary by comparing with the well-known Polak-Ribiére-Polyak method, CG-DESCENT method and DSP-CG method using the unconstrained optimization problems from More and Garbow (ACM Trans Math Softw 7, 17-41, 1981, so it can be widely used in scientific computation. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010 90C26 · 65H10

  13. Preconditioning strategies for nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, based on quasi-Newton updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Caliciotti; Giovanni, Fasano; Massimo, Roma

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports two proposals of possible preconditioners for the Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient (NCG) method, in large scale unconstrained optimization. On one hand, the common idea of our preconditioners is inspired to L-BFGS quasi-Newton updates, on the other hand we aim at explicitly approximating in some sense the inverse of the Hessian matrix. Since we deal with large scale optimization problems, we propose matrix-free approaches where the preconditioners are built using symmetric low-rank updating formulae. Our distinctive new contributions rely on using information on the objective function collected as by-product of the NCG, at previous iterations. Broadly speaking, our first approach exploits the secant equation, in order to impose interpolation conditions on the objective function. In the second proposal we adopt and ad hoc modified-secant approach, in order to possibly guarantee some additional theoretical properties.

  14. Global Convergence of a New restarting Conjugate Gradient Method for Nonlinear Optimizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNQing-ying

    2003-01-01

    Conjugate gradient optimization algorithms depend on the search directions.with different choices for the parameters in the search directions.In this note,by combining the nice numerical performance of PR and HS methods with the global convergence property of the class of conjugate gradient methods presented by HU and STOREY(1991),a class of new restarting conjugate gradient methods is presented.Global convergences of the new method with two kinds of common line searches,are proved .Firstly,it is shown that,using reverse modulus of continuity funciton and forcing function,the new method for solving unconstrained optimization can work for a continously differentiable function with Curry-Altman's step size rule and a bounded level set .Secondly,by using comparing technique,some general convergence propecties of the new method with other kind of step size rule are established,Numerical experiments show that the new method is efficient by comparing with FR conjugate gradient method.

  15. Optimization of non-linear gradient in hydrophobic interaction chromatography for the analytical characterization of antibody-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobály, Balázs; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Rudaz, Serge; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2017-01-20

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the potential of non-linear gradients in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), to improve the separation between the different homologous species (drug-to-antibody, DAR) of commercial antibody-drug conjugates (ADC). The selectivities between Brentuximab Vedotin species were measured using three different gradient profiles, namely linear, power function based and logarithmic ones. The logarithmic gradient provides the most equidistant retention distribution for the DAR species and offers the best overall separation of cysteine linked ADC in HIC. Another important advantage of the logarithmic gradient, is its peak focusing effect for the DAR0 species, which is particularly useful to improve the quantitation limit of DAR0. Finally, the logarithmic behavior of DAR species of ADC in HIC was modelled using two different approaches, based on i) the linear solvent strength theory (LSS) and two scouting linear gradients and ii) a new derived equation and two logarithmic scouting gradients. In both cases, the retention predictions were excellent and systematically below 3% compared to the experimental values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conjugate Gradient Methods with Armijo-type Line Searches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hong DAI

    2002-01-01

    Two Armijo-type line searches are proposed in this paper for nonlinear conjugate gradient methods.Under these line searches, global convergence results are established for several famous conjugate gradient method.

  17. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  18. Conjugate Gradient with Subspace Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a variant of the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in which we invoke a subspace minimization subproblem on each iteration. We call this algorithm CGSO for "conjugate gradient with subspace optimization". It is related to earlier work by Nemirovsky and Yudin. We apply the algorithm to solve unconstrained strictly convex problems. As with other CG algorithms, the update step on each iteration is a linear combination of the last gradient and last update. Unlike some other conjugate gradient methods, our algorithm attains a theoretical complexity bound of $O(\\sqrt{L/l} \\log(1/\\epsilon))$, where the ratio $L/l$ characterizes the strong convexity of the objective function. In practice, CGSO competes with other CG-type algorithms by incorporating some second order information in each iteration.

  19. A class of globally convergent conjugate gradient methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Yuhong(戴彧虹); YUAN; Yaxiang(袁亚湘)

    2003-01-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are very important ones for solving nonlinear optimization problems,especially for large scale problems. However, unlike quasi-Newton methods, conjugate gradient methods wereusually analyzed individually. In this paper, we propose a class of conjugate gradient methods, which can beregarded as some kind of convex combination of the Fletcher-Reeves method and the method proposed byDai et al. To analyze this class of methods, we introduce some unified tools that concern a general methodwith the scalarβk having the form of φk/φk-1. Consequently, the class of conjugate gradient methods canuniformly be analyzed.

  20. A new family of conjugate gradient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhen-Jun; Guo, Jinhua

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we develop a new class of conjugate gradient methods for unconstrained optimization problems. A new nonmonotone line search technique is proposed to guarantee the global convergence of these conjugate gradient methods under some mild conditions. In particular, Polak-Ribiére-Polyak and Liu-Storey conjugate gradient methods are special cases of the new class of conjugate gradient methods. By estimating the local Lipschitz constant of the derivative of objective functions, we can find an adequate step size and substantially decrease the function evaluations at each iteration. Numerical results show that these new conjugate gradient methods are effective in minimizing large-scale non-convex non-quadratic functions.

  1. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

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    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1996-12-31

    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  2. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonglin Yuan

    Full Text Available Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1 βk ≥ 0 2 the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3 the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  3. Application of Conjugate Gradient methods to tidal simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragy, E.; Carey, G.F.; Walters, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A harmonic decomposition technique is applied to the shallow water equations to yield a complex, nonsymmetric, nonlinear, Helmholtz type problem for the sea surface and an accompanying complex, nonlinear diagonal problem for the velocities. The equation for the sea surface is linearized using successive approximation and then discretized with linear, triangular finite elements. The study focuses on applying iterative methods to solve the resulting complex linear systems. The comparative evaluation includes both standard iterative methods for the real subsystems and complex versions of the well known Bi-Conjugate Gradient and Bi-Conjugate Gradient Squared methods. Several Incomplete LU type preconditioners are discussed, and the effects of node ordering, rejection strategy, domain geometry and Coriolis parameter (affecting asymmetry) are investigated. Implementation details for the complex case are discussed. Performance studies are presented and comparisons made with a frontal solver. ?? 1993.

  4. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  5. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  6. Nonlinear cross Gramians and gradient systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain

  7. Nonlinear cross Gramians and gradient systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that precisely correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Han...

  8. CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF THE DEPENDENT PRP CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujun LIAN; Changyu WANG; Lixia CAO

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new region of βκ with respect to βPRPκ is given. With two Armijo-type line searches, the authors investigate the global convergence properties of the dependent PRP conjugate gradient methods, which extend the global convergence results of PRP conjugate gradient method proved by Grippo and Lucidi (1997) and Dai and Yuan (2002).

  9. A NONMONOTONE CONJUGATE GRADIENT ALGORITHM FOR UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yuhong

    2002-01-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are very important methods for unconstrained optimization, especially for large scale problems. In this paper, we propose a new conjugate gradient method, in which the technique of nonmonotone line search is used. Under mild assumptions, we prove the global convergence of the method. Some numerical results are also presented.

  10. A Restarted Conjugate Gradient Method for Ill-posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-fei Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a restarted conjugate gradient iterative algorithm for solving ill-posed problems.The damped Morozov's discrepancy principle is used as a stopping rule. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  11. Method of Conjugate Radii for Solving Linear and Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a method to solve a system of N linear equations in N steps. A quadratic form is developed involving the sum of the squares of the residuals of the equations. Equating the quadratic form to a constant yields a surface which is an ellipsoid. For different constants, a family of similar ellipsoids can be generated. Starting at an arbitrary point an orthogonal basis is constructed and the center of the family of similar ellipsoids is found in this basis by a sequence of projections. The coordinates of the center in this basis are the solution of linear system of equations. A quadratic form in N variables requires N projections. That is, the current method is an exact method. It is shown that the sequence of projections is equivalent to a special case of the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process. The current method enjoys an advantage not shared by the classic Method of Conjugate Gradients. The current method can be extended to nonlinear systems without modification. For nonlinear equations the Method of Conjugate Gradients has to be augmented with a line-search procedure. Results for linear and nonlinear problems are presented.

  12. A constrained conjugate gradient algorithm for computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Goodman, D.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Image reconstruction from projections of x-ray, gamma-ray, protons and other penetrating radiation is a well-known problem in a variety of fields, and is commonly referred to as computed tomography (CT). Various analytical and series expansion methods of reconstruction and been used in the past to provide three-dimensional (3D) views of some interior quantity. The difficulties of these approaches lie in the cases where (a) the number of views attainable is limited, (b) the Poisson (or other) uncertainties are significant, (c) quantifiable knowledge of the object is available, but not implementable, or (d) other limitations of the data exist. We have adapted a novel nonlinear optimization procedure developed at LLNL to address limited-data image reconstruction problems. The technique, known as nonlinear least squares with general constraints or constrained conjugate gradients (CCG), has been successfully applied to a number of signal and image processing problems, and is now of great interest to the image reconstruction community. Previous applications of this algorithm to deconvolution problems and x-ray diffraction images for crystallography have shown the great promise.

  13. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Networks Using Conjugate Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Andersen et al. (1997) and Larsen et al. (1996, 1997) suggested a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts regularization parameters by minimizing validation error using simple gradient descent. In this contribution we present an improved algorithm based on the conjugate gradient technique........ Numerical experiments with feedforward neural networks successfully demonstrate improved generalization ability and lower computational cost...

  14. A DIRECT SEARCH FRAME-BASED CONJUGATE GRADIENTS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.D. Coope; C.J. Price

    2004-01-01

    A derivative-free frame-based conjugate gradients algorithm is presented. Convergence is shown for C1 functions, and this is verified in numerical trials. The algorithm is tested on a variety of low dimensional problems, some of which are ill-conditioned, and is also tested on problems of high dimension. Numerical results show that the algorithm is effective on both classes of problems. The results are compared with those from a discrete quasiNewton method, showing that the conjugate gradients algorithm is competitive. The algorithm exhibits the conjugate gradients speed-up on problems for which the Hessian at the solution has repeated or clustered eigenvalues. The algorithm is easily parallelizable.

  15. Gradient realization of nonlinear control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortes monforte, J.; Cortés, J.; Crouch, P.E.; Astolfi, A.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Gordillo, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate necessary and su?cient conditions under which a nonlinear afine control system with outputs can be written as a gradient control system corresponding to some pseudo-Riemannian metric defined on the state space. The results rely on a suitable notion of compatibility of the system with

  16. CONVERGENCE OF NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hong Dai

    2001-01-01

    This paper proves that a simplified Armijo-type line search can ensure the global con vergences of the Fletcher-Reeves method and the Polak-Ribiére-Polyak method for un constrained optimization. Although it seems not possible to verify that the PRP method using the generalized Armijo line search converges globally for generally problems, it can be shown that in this case the PRP method always solves uniformly convex problems.

  17. Reduced projection augmented Lagrange bi-conjugate gradient method for contact and impact problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the numerical governing formulation and non-linear complementary conditions of contact and impact problems, a reduced projection augmented Lagrange biconjugate gradient method is proposed for contact and impact problems by translating non-linear complementary conditions into equivalent formulation of non-linear programming. For contact-impact problems, a larger time-step can be adopted arriving at numerical convergence compared with penalty method. By establishment of the impact-contact formulations which are equivalent with original non-linear complementary conditions, a reduced projection augmented Lagrange bi-conjugate gradient method is deduced to improve precision and efficiency of numerical solutions. A numerical example shows that the algorithm we suggested is valid and exact.

  18. The DY Conjugate Gradient Method with Armijo-type Line Searches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShujunLian; ChangyuWang

    2004-01-01

    Two Armijo-type line searches are proposed in this paper for nonlinear conjugate gradient methods. The two Armijo-type line searches are shown to guarantee the global convergence of the DY method for the unconstrained minimization of nonconvex differentiable functions. Further, if the function is strictly convex, the two Armijo-type line searches and another Armijo-type line search are also shown to guarantee the convergence of the DY method.

  19. A CLASS OF NONMONOTONE CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS FOR NONCONVEX FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYun; WeiZengxin

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the global convergence of a class of nonmonotone conjugate gradient methods (NM methods) for nonconvex object functions. This class of methods includes the nonmonotone counterpart of modified Polak-Ribiere method and modified Hestenes-Stiefel method as special cases.

  20. Implementation of Modified Conjugate Gradient Algorithm and Analysis of Convergence in Electromagnetic Tomography Lab System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic tomography technology is a new process tomography technology. The aim of this study is to develop a new image reconstruction algorithm suitable to electromagnetic tomography and verify its convergence. The advantages and development of electromagnetic tomography technology and image reconstruction algorithms are introduced briefly. Based on conjugate gradient algorithm, modified conjugate gradient algorithm for Electromagnetic Tomography (EMT is proposed. Convergence of the modified conjugate gradient algorithm is analyzed. In the light of the lab electromagnetic tomography system, modified conjugate gradient algorithm for reconstructing images is verified. By evaluation of image error and the relevance, regularization algorithm, Landweber algorithm, conjugate gradient algorithm and modified conjugate gradient algorithm are compared. It can draw the conclusion that for different flow patterns, modified conjugate gradient algorithm is superior to other algorithms in the 8 coils electromagnetic tomography lab system.

  1. Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo-Petravic, G.; Petravic, M.

    1978-04-01

    The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program.

  2. Weighted graph based ordering techniques for preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Simon S.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1994-01-01

    We describe the basis of a matrix ordering heuristic for improving the incomplete factorization used in preconditioned conjugate gradient techniques applied to anisotropic PDE's. Several new matrix ordering techniques, derived from well-known algorithms in combinatorial graph theory, which attempt to implement this heuristic, are described. These ordering techniques are tested against a number of matrices arising from linear anisotropic PDE's, and compared with other matrix ordering techniques. A variation of RCM is shown to generally improve the quality of incomplete factorization preconditioners.

  3. Conjugate gradient solvers on Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczmarek, O; Steinbrecher, P; Wagner, M

    2014-01-01

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics simulations typically spend most of the runtime in inversions of the Fermion Matrix. This part is therefore frequently optimized for various HPC architectures. Here we compare the performance of the Intel Xeon Phi to current Kepler-based NVIDIA Tesla GPUs running a conjugate gradient solver. By exposing more parallelism to the accelerator through inverting multiple vectors at the same time, we obtain a performance greater than 300 GFlop/s on both architectures. This more than doubles the performance of the inversions. We also give a short overview of the Knights Corner architecture, discuss some details of the implementation and the effort required to obtain the achieved performance.

  4. Relationship between the BFGS and conjugate gradient algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazareth, L.

    1977-01-01

    Based upon analysis and numerical experience, the BFGS algorithm is currently considered to be one of the most effective algorithms for finding a minimum of an unconstrained function, f(x), x an element of IR/sup n/. However, when computer storage is at a premium, the usual alternative is to use a conjugate gradient (CG) method. This paper shows that the two algorithms are related to one another in a particularly close way. Based upon these observations, a new family of algorithms is proposed.

  5. Least-Squares Seismic Inversion with Stochastic Conjugate Gradient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Huang; Hua-Wei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computational power, there has been an increased focus on data-fitting related seismic inversion techniques for high fidelity seismic velocity model and image, such as full-waveform inversion and least squares migration. However, though more advanced than conventional methods, these data fitting methods can be very expensive in terms of computational cost. Recently, various techniques to optimize these data-fitting seismic inversion problems have been implemented to cater for the industrial need for much improved efficiency. In this study, we propose a general stochastic conjugate gradient method for these data-fitting related inverse problems. We first prescribe the basic theory of our method and then give synthetic examples. Our numerical experiments illustrate the potential of this method for large-size seismic inversion application.

  6. A conjugate gradient method with descent direction for unconstrained optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Lu, Xiwen; Wei, Zengxin

    2009-11-01

    A modified conjugate gradient method is presented for solving unconstrained optimization problems, which possesses the following properties: (i) The sufficient descent property is satisfied without any line search; (ii) The search direction will be in a trust region automatically; (iii) The Zoutendijk condition holds for the Wolfe-Powell line search technique; (iv) This method inherits an important property of the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) method: the tendency to turn towards the steepest descent direction if a small step is generated away from the solution, preventing a sequence of tiny steps from happening. The global convergence and the linearly convergent rate of the given method are established. Numerical results show that this method is interesting.

  7. MILC staggered conjugate gradient performance on Intel KNL

    CERN Document Server

    DeTar, Carleton; Gottlieb, Steven; Jha, Ashish; Kalamkar, Dhiraj; Li, Ruizi; Toussaint, Doug

    2016-01-01

    We review our work done to optimize the staggered conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in the MILC code for use with the Intel Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. KNL is the second gener- ation Intel Xeon Phi processor. It is capable of massive thread parallelism, data parallelism, and high on-board memory bandwidth and is being adopted in supercomputing centers for scientific research. The CG solver consumes the majority of time in production running, so we have spent most of our effort on it. We compare performance of an MPI+OpenMP baseline version of the MILC code with a version incorporating the QPhiX staggered CG solver, for both one-node and multi-node runs.

  8. Improved Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment of Dunhuang Wall Painting Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K.; Huang, X.; You, H.

    2017-09-01

    Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA) method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  9. IMPROVED CONJUGATE GRADIENT BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF DUNHUANG WALL PAINTING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  10. Optimization of the Oktay-Kronfeld Action Conjugate Gradient Inverter

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Yong-Chull; Lee, Weonjong; DeTar, Carleton; Oktay, Mehmet B; Kronfeld, Andreas S

    2013-01-01

    Improving the Fermilab action to third order in heavy quark effective theory yields the Oktay-Kronfeld action, a promising candidate for precise calculations of the spectra of heavy quark systems and weak matrix elements relevant to searches for new physics. We have optimized the bi-stabilized conjugate gradient inverter in the SciDAC QOPQDP library and are developing a GPU code. The action is rewritten and the needed gauge-link combinations are precalculated. In tests with a MILC coarse lattice, this procedure accelerates the inverter by a factor of four. The remaining floating-point operations are mostly simple matrix multiplications between gauge links and fermion vectors, which we accelerate by more than an order of magnitude by using CUDA. Further gains could be achieved by using QUDA.

  11. Nonlinear optical response in doped conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Harigaya, K

    1995-01-01

    Exciton effects on conjugated polymers are investigated in soliton lattice states. We use the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with long-range Coulomb interactions. The Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation and the single-excitation configuration- interaction (single-CI) method are used to obtain optical absorption spectra. The third-harmonic generation (THG) at off-resonant frequencies is calculated as functions of the soliton concentration and the chain length of the polymer. The magnitude of the THG at the 10 percent doping increases by the factor about 10^2 from that of the neutral system. This is owing to the accumulation of the oscillator strengths at the lowest exciton with increasing the soliton concentration. The increase by the order two is common for several choices of Coulomb interaction strengths.

  12. Third Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Craig Steven

    Third order nonlinear optical effects in conjugated materials were studied using two different spectroscopic methods, third harmonic generation and two photon absorption. The third harmonic generation spectra of cis-polyacetylene, trans-polyacetylene, oriented trans-polyacetylene, three isomers of polyaniline, cis and trans-polyacetylene in polyvinyl butyral, polyheptdadiester, polyheptadiketone, and MEH-PPV/polyethylene blends were measured. The nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with structural order, and is enhanced by the presence of a degenerate ground state. The magnitude of the susceptibility reaches as high as 10^{-7} esu, which is sufficient for the creation of all-optical nonlinear devices. The two photon absorption spectrum of oriented transpolyacetylene was measured using nonlinear photothermal deflection. The spectrum reveals directly the Ag state at 1.1 eV in trans-polyacetylene, and reveals another Ag state at higher energy. The magnitude of the two photon absorption is large enough to rule out using trans-polyacetylene in serial all-optical nonlinear devices; all-optical devices made from conjugated polymers must be parallel, not serial. A new figure of merit for nonlinear devices was proposed.

  13. New Scaled Sufficient Descent Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Solving Unconstraint Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas v Y.A. Bayati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The scaled hybrid Conjugate Gradient (CG algorithm which usually used for solving non-linear functions was presented and was compared with two standard well-Known NAG routines, yielding a new fast comparable algorithm. Approach: We proposed, a new hybrid technique based on the combination of two well-known scaled (CG formulas for the quadratic model in unconstrained optimization using exact line searches. A global convergence result for the new technique was proved, when the Wolfe line search conditions were used. Results: Computational results, for a set consisting of 1915 combinations of (unconstrained optimization test problems/dimensions were implemented in this research making a comparison between the new proposed algorithm and the other two similar algorithms in this field. Conclusion: Our numerical results showed that this new scaled hybrid CG-algorithm substantially outperforms Andrei-sufficient descent condition (CGSD algorithm and the well-known Andrei standard sufficient descent condition from (ACGA algorithm.

  14. Nonlinear Optical Response of Conjugated Polymer to Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-fang; ZHUANG De-xin; CUI Bin

    2005-01-01

    The organic π-conjugated polymers are of major interest materials for the use in electro-optical and nonlinear optical devices. In this work, for a selected polyacetylene chain, the optical absorption spectra in UV/Vis regime as well as the linear polarizabilitiy and nonlinear hyperpolarizability are calculated by using quantum chemical ab initio and semiempirical methods. The relationship of its optical property to electric field is obtained. Some physical mechanism of electric field effect on molecular optical property is discussed by means of electron distribution and intramolecular charge transfer.

  15. Blockwise conjugate gradient methods for image reconstruction in volumetric CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W; Titley-Peloquin, D; Soleimani, M

    2012-11-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables volumetric image reconstruction from 2D projection data and plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Filtered back projection is still the most frequently used algorithm in applications. The algorithm discretizes the scanning process (forward projection) into a system of linear equations, which must then be solved to recover images from measured projection data. The conjugate gradients (CG) algorithm and its variants can be used to solve (possibly regularized) linear systems of equations Ax=b and linear least squares problems minx∥b-Ax∥2, especially when the matrix A is very large and sparse. Their applications can be found in a general CT context, but in tomography problems (e.g. CBCT reconstruction) they have not widely been used. Hence, CBCT reconstruction using the CG-type algorithm LSQR was implemented and studied in this paper. In CBCT reconstruction, the main computational challenge is that the matrix A usually is very large, and storing it in full requires an amount of memory well beyond the reach of commodity computers. Because of these memory capacity constraints, only a small fraction of the weighting matrix A is typically used, leading to a poor reconstruction. In this paper, to overcome this difficulty, the matrix A is partitioned and stored blockwise, and blockwise matrix-vector multiplications are implemented within LSQR. This implementation allows us to use the full weighting matrix A for CBCT reconstruction without further enhancing computer standards. Tikhonov regularization can also be implemented in this fashion, and can produce significant improvement in the reconstructed images.

  16. A decouple conjugate gradient-Gauss-Newton iterative scheme for altimetry assimilation data problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振东; 朱江; 武祎洁

    2003-01-01

    A decouple conjugate gradient-Gauss-Newton's iterative approximate formulation for altimetry data assimilation (ADA) problems are presented and the convergence of the iterative formulations is proved. Some numerical examples are given to check the validity of the iterative formulation.

  17. Global Convergence of a New Restarting Conjugate Gradient Method for Nonlinear Optimizations%求解无约束非线性规划问题的一个新的重开始共轭梯度算法的收敛性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清滢

    2003-01-01

    Conjugate gradient optimization algorithms depend on the search directions with differentchoices for the parameters in the search directions. In this note, by combining the nice numerical per-formance of PR and HS methods with the global convergence property of the class of conjugate gradientmethods presented by HU and STOREY(1991), a class of new restarting conjugate gradient methodsis presented. Global convergences of the new method with two kinds of common line searches, areproved. Firstly, it is shown that, using reverse modulus of continuity function and forcing function,the new method for solving unconstrained optimization can work for a continously differentiable functionwith Curry-Altman's step size rule and a bounded level set. Secondly, by using comparing technique,some general convergence propecties of the new method with other kind of step size rule are established.Numerical experiments show that the new method is efficient by comparing with FR conjugate gradientmethod.

  18. A three-term conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Recently, numerous studies have been concerned in conjugate gradient methods for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization method. In this paper, a three-term conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization which always satisfies sufficient descent direction and namely as Three-Term Rivaie-Mustafa-Ismail-Leong (TTRMIL). Under standard conditions, TTRMIL method is proved to be globally convergent under strong-Wolfe line search. Finally, numerical results are provided for the purpose of comparison.

  19. Variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宇; 黄杰卿; 王文军; 李金柱

    2014-01-01

    In the research field of ground water, hydraulic gradient is studied for decades. In the consolidation field, hydraulic gradient is yet to be investigated as an important hydraulic variable. So, the variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation was focused on in this work. Based on lab tests, the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of Ningbo soft clay were obtained. Then, a strongly nonlinear governing equation was derived and it was solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the numerical analysis was performed and it was verified with the existing experiment for Hong Kong marine clay. It can be found that the variation of hydraulic gradient is closely related to the magnitude of external load and the depth in soils. It is interesting that the absolute value of hydraulic gradient (AVHG) increases rapidly first and then decreases gradually after reaching the maximum at different depths of soils. Furthermore, the changing curves of AVHG can be roughly divided into five phases. This five-phase model can be employed to study the migration of pore water during consolidation.

  20. Conjugate gradient type algorithms for frictional multi-contact problems: applications to granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Renouf, Mathieu; Alart, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents gradient type algorithms to solve frictional multi contact problems written as quasi optimization problems. A single loop scheme formally close to the classical conjugate gradient method is proposed with some adap tations of the iterate corrections and gradient projections. Since the convergence is difficult to prove, various tests in the field of granular media are performed with comparison with the non linear Gauss Seidel scheme.

  1. A Scanning Hologram Recorded by Phase Conjugate Property of Nonlinear Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zi-Liang, Ping; Dalsgaard, Erik

    1996-01-01

    A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given.......A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given....

  2. A REGULARIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD FOR SYMMETRIC POSITIVE DEFINITE SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-zhi Bai; Shao-liang Zhang

    2002-01-01

    A class of regularized conjugate gradient methods is presented for solving the large sparse system of linear equations of which the coefficient matrix is an ill-conditioned symmetric positive definite matrix. The convergence properties of these methods are discussed in depth, and the best possible choices of the parameters involved in the new methods are investigated in detail. Numerical computations show that the new methods are more efficient and robust than both classical relaxation methods and classical conjugate direction methods.

  3. Reducing communication costs in the conjugate gradient algorithm on distributed memory multiprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1992-09-01

    The standard formulation of the conjugate gradient algorithm involves two inner product computations. The results of these two inner products are needed to update the search direction and the computed solution. In a distributed memory parallel environment, the computation and subsequent distribution of these two values requires two separate communication and synchronization phases. In this paper, we present a mathematically equivalent rearrangement of the standard algorithm that reduces the number of communication phases. We give a second derivation of the modified conjugate gradient algorithm in terms of the natural relationship with the underlying Lanczos process. We also present empirical evidence of the stability of this modified algorithm.

  4. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPCA-based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boorman, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connor, Carolyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-03-10

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, Non-Preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{trademark} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{trademark} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  5. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPGA based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boorman, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connor, Carolyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, non-preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{sup TM} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{sup TM} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  6. On the solution of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations by the conjugate gradient method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egido, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Lessing, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Martin, V. [Analisis Numerico, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain); Robledo, L.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1995-11-06

    The conjugate gradient method is formulated in the Hilbert space for density and non-density dependent Hamiltonians. We apply it to the solution of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations with constraints. As a numerical application we show calculations with the finite range density dependent Gogny force. The number of iterations required to reach convergence is reduced by a factor of three to four as compared with the standard gradient method. (orig.).

  7. Solving large test-day models by iteration on data and preconditioned conjugate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidauer, M; Strandén, I; Mäntysaari, E A; Pösö, J; Kettunen, A

    1999-12-01

    A preconditioned conjugate gradient method was implemented into an iteration on a program for data estimation of breeding values, and its convergence characteristics were studied. An algorithm was used as a reference in which one fixed effect was solved by Gauss-Seidel method, and other effects were solved by a second-order Jacobi method. Implementation of the preconditioned conjugate gradient required storing four vectors (size equal to number of unknowns in the mixed model equations) in random access memory and reading the data at each round of iteration. The preconditioner comprised diagonal blocks of the coefficient matrix. Comparison of algorithms was based on solutions of mixed model equations obtained by a single-trait animal model and a single-trait, random regression test-day model. Data sets for both models used milk yield records of primiparous Finnish dairy cows. Animal model data comprised 665,629 lactation milk yields and random regression test-day model data of 6,732,765 test-day milk yields. Both models included pedigree information of 1,099,622 animals. The animal model ¿random regression test-day model¿ required 122 ¿305¿ rounds of iteration to converge with the reference algorithm, but only 88 ¿149¿ were required with the preconditioned conjugate gradient. To solve the random regression test-day model with the preconditioned conjugate gradient required 237 megabytes of random access memory and took 14% of the computation time needed by the reference algorithm.

  8. A Projected Conjugate Gradient Method for Sparse Minimax Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Jonasson, Kristjan

    1993-01-01

    A new method for nonlinear minimax problems is presented. The method is of the trust region type and based on sequential linear programming. It is a first order method that only uses first derivatives and does not approximate Hessians. The new method is well suited for large sparse problems...... as it only requires that software for sparse linear programming and a sparse symmetric positive definite equation solver are available. On each iteration a special linear/quadratic model of the function is minimized, but contrary to the usual practice in trust region methods the quadratic model is only...

  9. Coordinate-Space Solver for Superfluid Many-Fermion Systems with Shifted Conjugate Orthogonal Conjugate Gradient Method

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shi; Roche, Kenneth; Wlazłowski, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Self-consistent approaches to superfluid many-fermion systems in 3-dimensions (and subsequent time-dependent approaches) require a large number of diagonalizations of very large dimension hermitian matrices, which results in enormous computational costs. We present an approach based on the shifted conjugate-orthogonal conjugate-gradient (COCG) method for the evaluation of the Green's function, from which we subsequently extract various densities (particle number, spin, current, kinetic energy, etc.) of a nuclear system needed in self-consistent approaches. The approach eschews the construction of the quasiparticle wavefunctions and their corresponding quasiparticle energies, which are never explicitly needed in any density functional approaches. As benchmarks we present calculations for nuclei with axial symmetry, including the ground state of spherical (magic or semi-magic) and axially deformed nuclei, the saddle-point in the $^{240}$Pu constrained fission path, and a vortex in the neutron star crust.

  10. Extended Mixture of MLP Experts by Hybrid of Conjugate Gradient Method and Modified Cuckoo Search

    CERN Document Server

    Salimi, Hamid; Soltanshahi, Mohammad Ali; Hatami, Javad

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates a new method for improving the learning algorithm of Mixture of Experts (ME) model using a hybrid of Modified Cuckoo Search (MCS) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) as a second order optimization technique. The CG technique is combined with Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm to yield a much more efficient learning algorithm for ME structure. In addition, the experts and gating networks in enhanced model are replaced by CG based Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs) to provide faster and more accurate learning. The CG is considerably depends on initial weights of connections of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), so, a metaheuristic algorithm, the so-called Modified Cuckoo Search is applied in order to select the optimal weights. The performance of proposed method is compared with Gradient Decent Based ME (GDME) and Conjugate Gradient Based ME (CGME) in classification and regression problems. The experimental results show that hybrid MSC and CG based ME (MCS-CGME) has faster convergence and better performa...

  11. Gradient nonlinearity calibration and correction for a compact, asymmetric magnetic resonance imaging gradient system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S.; Trzasko, J. D.; Gunter, J. L.; Weavers, P. T.; Shu, Y.; Huston, J., III; Lee, S. K.; Tan, E. T.; Bernstein, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to engineering limitations, the spatial encoding gradient fields in conventional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be perfectly linear and always contain higher-order, nonlinear components. If ignored during image reconstruction, gradient nonlinearity (GNL) manifests as image geometric distortion. Given an estimate of the GNL field, this distortion can be corrected to a degree proportional to the accuracy of the field estimate. The GNL of a gradient system is typically characterized using a spherical harmonic polynomial model with model coefficients obtained from electromagnetic simulation. Conventional whole-body gradient systems are symmetric in design; typically, only odd-order terms up to the 5th-order are required for GNL modeling. Recently, a high-performance, asymmetric gradient system was developed, which exhibits more complex GNL that requires higher-order terms including both odd- and even-orders for accurate modeling. This work characterizes the GNL of this system using an iterative calibration method and a fiducial phantom used in ADNI (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative). The phantom was scanned at different locations inside the 26 cm diameter-spherical-volume of this gradient, and the positions of fiducials in the phantom were estimated. An iterative calibration procedure was utilized to identify the model coefficients that minimize the mean-squared-error between the true fiducial positions and the positions estimated from images corrected using these coefficients. To examine the effect of higher-order and even-order terms, this calibration was performed using spherical harmonic polynomial of different orders up to the 10th-order including even- and odd-order terms, or odd-order only. The results showed that the model coefficients of this gradient can be successfully estimated. The residual root-mean-squared-error after correction using up to the 10th-order coefficients was reduced to 0.36 mm, yielding spatial accuracy comparable to

  12. Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Dinu, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate compensation of fiber nonlinearities using optical phase conjugation of an 8-chamiel WDM 32-Gbaud PDM QPSK signal. Conjugating phase every 600 km in a fiber loop enabled a 6000 km transmission over True Wave fiber. © 2013 Optical Society of America....

  13. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Au-Nanoparticles Conjugated with Lipoic Acid in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Cornejo-Monroy, D.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Olivares-Vargas, A.; Castano, V. M.

    2014-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles were chemically conjugated with lipoic acid to control their optical properties. Z-scan and other optical techniques were used to characterize the non-linear behavior of the resulting nanostructured materials. The results show that the nonlinearity is of thermal origin, which can be controlled by the use of lipoic acid as well as other organic molecules conjugated onto metal nanoparticles. In particular, the presence of lipoic acid increases n_2 and dn/dT.

  14. GENERALIZED CONJUGATE-GRADIENT ALGORITHM AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO SEISMIC TRACE INVERSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A novel generalized conjugate-gradient algorithm for complicated equations of seismic trace inverse problems, which is based on classical conjugate-gradient algorithm, has been put forward so as to improve the stability of seismic trace inversion, and to reduce inversion computation and memory resources needed. The algorithm brings high accuracy, fast operation speed and good ability of resisting ill-condition. In addition, by analysing sensitivity matrix according to the specific problem of seismic trace inversion, a new recursive algorithm which needs no sensitivity matrix is developed to save memory greatly. Furthermore, in the new algorithm, sensitivity matrix operation can be converted into convolution and correlation operations to make the whole recursion to be implemented completely by vector operation, which thus speeds recursion operation greatly.

  15. A Conjugate Gradient Type Method for the Nonnegative Constraints Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the nonnegative constraints optimization problems. It is well known that the conjugate gradient methods are efficient methods for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization problems due to their simplicity and low storage. Combining the modified Polak-Ribière-Polyak method proposed by Zhang, Zhou, and Li with the Zoutendijk feasible direction method, we proposed a conjugate gradient type method for solving the nonnegative constraints optimization problems. If the current iteration is a feasible point, the direction generated by the proposed method is always a feasible descent direction at the current iteration. Under appropriate conditions, we show that the proposed method is globally convergent. We also present some numerical results to show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Realization of preconditioned Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms on optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A

    1988-08-01

    Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are important in computational linear algebra. In this paper, a parallel pipelined realization of these algorithms on a ring of optical linear algebra processors is described. The flow of data is designed to minimize the idle times of the optical multiprocessor and the redundancy of computations. The effects of optical round-off errors on the solutions obtained by the optical Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are analyzed, and it is shown that optical preconditioning can improve the accuracy of these algorithms substantially. Algorithms for optical preconditioning and results of numerical experiments on solving linear systems of equations arising from partial differential equations are discussed. Since the Lanczos algorithm is used mostly with sparse matrices, a folded storage scheme to represent sparse matrices on spatial light modulators is also described.

  17. Conjugate Gradient Method with Ritz Method for the Solution of Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Onomza WAZIRI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we wish to determine the optimal control of a one-variable boundary value problem using the Ritz algorithm. The posed optimal control problem was inadequate to achieve our goal using the Conjugate Gradient Method version developed by (Harsdoff, 1976. It is anticipated that other operators from some given different problems may sustain the application of the algorithm if the approximate solutions terms are properly chosen quadratic functionals. The graphical solution given at the end of section five of the paper, however, shows that our problem can not have an optimal minimum value since the minimum output is not unique. The optimal value obtained using Mathcad program codes may constitute a conjugate gradient approximate numerical value. As observed from the graphical output, Ritz algorithm could give credence for wider horizon in the engineering computational methods for vibrations of mechanical components and simulates.

  18. Two grid iteration with a conjugate gradient fine grid smoother applied to a groundwater flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, M.J.; Spence, A.; Cliffe, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    This talk is concerned with the efficient solution of Ax=b, where A is a large, sparse, symmetric positive definite matrix arising from a standard finite element discretisation of the groundwater flow problem {triangledown}{sm_bullet}(k{triangledown}p)=0. Here k is the coefficient of rock permeability in applications and is highly discontinuous. The discretisation is carried out using the Harwell NAMMU finite element package, using, for 2D, 9 node biquadratic rectangular elements, and 27 node biquadratics for 3D. The aim is to develop a robust technique for iterative solutions of 3D problems based on a regional groundwater flow model of a geological area with sharply varying hydrogeological properties. Numerical experiments with polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient methods on a 2D groundwater flow model were found to yield very poor results, converging very slowly. In order to utilise the fact that A comes from the discretisation of a PDE the authors try the two grid method as is well analysed from studies of multigrid methods, see for example {open_quotes}Multi-Grid Methods and Applications{close_quotes} by W. Hackbusch. Specifically they consider two discretisations resulting in stiffness matrices A{sub N} and A{sub n}, of size N and n respectively, where N > n, for both a model problem and the geological model. They perform a number of conjugate gradient steps on the fine grid, ie using A{sub N}, followed by an exact coarse grid solve, using A{sub n}, and then update the fine grid solution, the exact coarse grid solve being done using a frontal method factorisation of A{sub n}. Note that in the context of the standard two grid method this is equivalent to using conjugate gradients as a fine grid smoothing step. Experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the two grid iteration method over the polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient method.

  19. Conjugated iminopyridine based Azo dye derivatives with efficient charge transfer for third order nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasidou, A. P.; Khammar, F.; Iliopoulos, K.; Ayadi, A.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Zouari, N.; Mhiri, T.; Sahraoui, B.

    2014-03-01

    The third order nonlinearities of two azobenzene-iminopyridine molecular systems have been investigated employing the Z-scan technique at 532 nm, 30 ps. The objective of the work has been to study and to compare the nonlinearity of two iminopyridine based ligands substituted with one (NO2AzoIminoPy, A) and two azobenzene units ((NO2Azo)2IminoPy, B). The ligand B exhibits an extended conjugated structure and higher charge transfer within the molecule. Our results show high dependence of the nonlinearity on both the conjugation length within the molecule and on the number of the electron accepting units.

  20. Stochastic Finite Element Method for Mechanical Vibration Based on Conjugate Gradient(CG)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    When material properties, geometry parameters and applied loads are assumed to be stochastic, the vibration equation of a system is transformed to static problem by using Newmark method. In order to improve the computational efficiency and to save storage, the Conjugate Gradient (CG) method is presented. The CG is an effective method for solving a large system of linear equations and belongs to the method of iteration with rapid convergence and high precision. An example is given and calculated results are compared to validate the proposed methods.

  1. Identification techniques for phenomenological models of hysteresis based on the conjugate gradient method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Petru [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Florida State Unviersity, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States) and Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Florida A and M Unviersity, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)]. E-mail: pandrei@eng.fsu.edu; Oniciuc, Liviu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Florida State Unviersity, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Stancu, Alexandru [Faculty of Physics, ' Al. I. Cuza' University, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Stoleriu, Laurentiu [Faculty of Physics, ' Al. I. Cuza' University, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

    2007-09-15

    An identification technique for the parameters of phenomenological models of hysteresis is presented. The basic idea of our technique is to set up a system of equations for the parameters of the model as a function of known quantities on the major or minor hysteresis loops (e.g. coercive force, susceptibilities at various points, remanence), or other magnetization curves. This system of equations can be either over or underspecified and is solved by using the conjugate gradient method. Numerical results related to the identification of parameters in the Energetic, Jiles-Atherton, and Preisach models are presented.

  2. A conjugate gradient method with descent properties under strong Wolfe line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zull, N.; ‘Aini, N.; Shoid, S.; Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of the optimization methods that are often used in practical applications. The continuous and numerous studies conducted on the CG method have led to vast improvements in its convergence properties and efficiency. In this paper, a new CG method possessing the sufficient descent and global convergence properties is proposed. The efficiency of the new CG algorithm relative to the existing CG methods is evaluated by testing them all on a set of test functions using MATLAB. The tests are measured in terms of iteration numbers and CPU time under strong Wolfe line search. Overall, this new method performs efficiently and comparable to the other famous methods.

  3. Frequency domain optical tomography using a conjugate gradient method without line search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: andre_charette@uqac.ca

    2007-03-15

    A conjugate gradient method without line search (CGMWLS) is presented. This method is used to retrieve the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the tissue-like test medium, with the synthetic data. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method based on the frequency domain formulation of radiative transfer equation. The inversion results demonstrate that the CGMWLS can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by reducing cross-talk between absorption and scattering coefficients.

  4. Pump induced normal mode splittings in phase conjugation in a Kerr nonlinear waveguide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dutta Gupta

    2000-03-01

    Phase conjugation in a Kerr nonlinear waveguide is studied with counter-propagating normally incident pumps and a probe beam at an arbitrary angle of incidence. Detailed numerical results for the specular and phase conjugated reflectivities are obtained with full account of pump depletion. For sufficient strengths of the pump a normal mode splitting is demonstrated in both the specular and the phase conjugated reflectivities of the probe wave. The splitting is explained in terms of a simple model under undepleted pump approximation.

  5. Role of the conjugated spacer in the optimization of second-order nonlinear chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the role of the conjugated spacer in the optimization of the first hyperpolarizability of organic chromophores. We propose a novel strategy for the optimization of the first hyperpolarizability that is based on the variation of the degree of conjugation for the bridge that separates the donor and acceptors at the end of push-pull type chromophores. The correlation between the type of conjugated spacer and the experimental nonlinear performance of the chromophores is investigated and interpreted in the context of the quantum limits.

  6. Extension of Modified Polak-Ribière-Polyak Conjugate Gradient Method to Linear Equality Constraints Minimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the Rosen gradient projection method with the two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient method, we propose a two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient projection method for solving linear equality constraints optimization problems. The proposed method possesses some attractive properties: (1 search direction generated by the proposed method is a feasible descent direction; consequently the generated iterates are feasible points; (2 the sequences of function are decreasing. Under some mild conditions, we show that it is globally convergent with Armijio-type line search. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is promising.

  7. Ionic two photon states and optical nonlinearity in. pi. -conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, S.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Guo, D.; Mazumdar, S. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-06

    A microscopic mechanism of optical nonlinearity in {pi}-conjugated polymers is presented. It is shown that the bulk of the nonlinearity is determined by only two well defined channels, even though an infinite number of channels are possible in principle. The above conclusion is true for both short and long range Coulomb interactions. The complete frequency dependence of the third harmonic generation in both trans-polyacetylene and polydiacetylene are explained within the same theoretical picture. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Improved preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm and application in 3D inversion of gravity-gradiometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai-Han; Huang, Da-Nian; Ma, Guo-Qing; Meng, Zhao-Hai; Li, Ye

    2017-06-01

    With the continuous development of full tensor gradiometer (FTG) measurement techniques, three-dimensional (3D) inversion of FTG data is becoming increasingly used in oil and gas exploration. In the fast processing and interpretation of large-scale high-precision data, the use of the graphics processing unit process unit (GPU) and preconditioning methods are very important in the data inversion. In this paper, an improved preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm is proposed by combining the symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) technique and the incomplete Choleksy decomposition conjugate gradient algorithm (ICCG). Since preparing the preconditioner requires extra time, a parallel implement based on GPU is proposed. The improved method is then applied in the inversion of noisecontaminated synthetic data to prove its adaptability in the inversion of 3D FTG data. Results show that the parallel SSOR-ICCG algorithm based on NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU achieves a speedup of approximately 25 times that of a serial program using a 2.0 GHz Central Processing Unit (CPU). Real airborne gravity-gradiometry data from Vinton salt dome (southwest Louisiana, USA) are also considered. Good results are obtained, which verifies the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed parallel method in fast inversion of 3D FTG data.

  9. Gradient-based optimization in nonlinear structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang

    The intrinsic nonlinearity of mechanical structures can give rise to rich nonlinear dynamics. Recently, nonlinear dynamics of micro-mechanical structures have contributed to developing new Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), for example, atomic force microscope, passive frequency divider, fr...

  10. Global Convergence of a New Conjugate Gradient Methods with a Modification of the Curry-Altman Step-size Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOLi-hua; SUNQing-ying

    2004-01-01

    Conjugate gradient optimization algorithms depend on the search directions with different choices for the parameter in the search directions. In this note, conditions are given on the parameter in the conjugate gradient directions to ensure the descent property of the search directions. Global convergence of such a class of methods is discussed. It is shown that, using reverse modulus of continuity function and forcing function, the new method for solving unconstrained optimization can work for a continuously differentiable function with a modification of the Curry-Altman's step-size rule and a bounded level set. Combining PR method with our new method, PR method is modified to have global convergence property.Numerical experiments show that the new methods are efficient by comparing with FR conjugate gradient method.

  11. Nonlinear System Identification Using Neural Networks Trained with Natural Gradient Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnkahla Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We use natural gradient (NG learning neural networks (NNs for modeling and identifying nonlinear systems with memory. The nonlinear system is comprised of a discrete-time linear filter followed by a zero-memory nonlinearity . The NN model is composed of a linear adaptive filter followed by a two-layer memoryless nonlinear NN. A Kalman filter-based technique and a search-and-converge method have been employed for the NG algorithm. It is shown that the NG descent learning significantly outperforms the ordinary gradient descent and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM procedure in terms of convergence speed and mean squared error (MSE performance.

  12. Back-propagation network improved by conjugate gradient based on genetic algorithm in QSAR study on endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the complexity and structural diversity of man-made compounds are considered,quantitative structure-activity relationships(QSARs)-based fast screening approaches are urgently needed for the assessment of the potential risk of endocrine disrupting chemicals(EDCs).The artificial neural networks(ANN)are capable of recognizing highly nonlinear relationships,so it will have a bright application prospect in building high-quality QSAR models.As a popular supervised training algorithm in ANN,back-propagation(BP)converges slowly and immerses in vibration frequently.In this paper,a research strategy that BP neural network was improved by conjugate gradient(CG)algorithm with a variable selection method based on genetic algorithm was applied to investigate the QSAR of EDCs.This resulted in a robust and highly predictive ANN model with R2 of 0.845 for the training set,q2 pred of 0.81 and root-mean-square error(RMSE) of 0.688 for the test set.The result shows that our method can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  13. 混合CD-DY共轭梯度法%Mixed CD-DY Conjugate Gradient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈湘赟

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mixed CD-DY conjugate gradient method is proposed to solve unconstrained optimiza-tion problems on the basis of CD method and DY method. And, the paper proved the global convergence of the mixed method without the given descent condition, under the general Wolfe line search condition. The numerical experiments show that the mixed method excelled CD method and DY method.%在CD方法和DY方法的基础上对求解无约束优化问题提出了一种混合的CD-DY共轭梯度法。在广义Wolfe线搜索下无需给定下降条件,即可证明混合方法的全局收敛性。初步试验表明新方法的数值效果优于CD方法和DY方法。

  14. A modified conjugate gradient coefficient with inexact line search for unconstrained optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aini, Nurul; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is a line search algorithm mostly known for its wide application in solving unconstrained optimization problems. Its low memory requirements and global convergence properties makes it one of the most preferred method in real life application such as in engineering and business. In this paper, we present a new CG method based on AMR* and CD method for solving unconstrained optimization functions. The resulting algorithm is proven to have both the sufficient descent and global convergence properties under inexact line search. Numerical tests are conducted to assess the effectiveness of the new method in comparison to some previous CG methods. The results obtained indicate that our method is indeed superior.

  15. Parallel Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Square Method Based on Normalized Approximate Inverses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Gravvanis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of normalized explicit approximate inverse matrix techniques, based on normalized approximate factorization procedures, for solving sparse linear systems resulting from the finite difference discretization of partial differential equations in three space variables are introduced. A new parallel normalized explicit preconditioned conjugate gradient square method in conjunction with normalized approximate inverse matrix techniques for solving efficiently sparse linear systems on distributed memory systems, using Message Passing Interface (MPI communication library, is also presented along with theoretical estimates on speedups and efficiency. The implementation and performance on a distributed memory MIMD machine, using Message Passing Interface (MPI is also investigated. Applications on characteristic initial/boundary value problems in three dimensions are discussed and numerical results are given.

  16. An Efficient Hybrid Conjugate Gradient Method with the Strong Wolfe-Powell Line Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alhawarat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate gradient (CG method is an interesting tool to solve optimization problems in many fields, such as design, economics, physics, and engineering. In this paper, we depict a new hybrid of CG method which relates to the famous Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP formula. It reveals a solution for the PRP case which is not globally convergent with the strong Wolfe-Powell (SWP line search. The new formula possesses the sufficient descent condition and the global convergent properties. In addition, we further explained about the cases where PRP method failed with SWP line search. Furthermore, we provide numerical computations for the new hybrid CG method which is almost better than other related PRP formulas in both the number of iterations and the CPU time under some standard test functions.

  17. Parallel conjugate gradient: effects of ordering strategies, programming paradigms, and architectural platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, L.; Li, X.; Heber, G.; Biswas, R.

    2000-05-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. A sparse matrix-vector multiply (SPMV) usually accounts for most of the floating-point operations with a CG iteration. In this paper, we investigate the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of parallel CG and SPMV using different programming and architectures. Results show that for this class of applications, ordering significantly improves overall performance, that cache reuse may be more important than reducing communication, and that it is possible to achieve message passing performance using shared memory constructs through careful data ordering and distribution. However, a multithreaded implementation of CG on the Tera MTA does not require special ordering or partitioning to obtain high efficiency and scalability.

  18. The conjugate gradient NAS parallel benchmark on the IBM SP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trefethen, A.E.; Zhang, T. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks are a suite of eight benchmark problems developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. They are specified in such a way that the benchmarkers are free to choose the language and method of implementation to suit the system in which they are interested. In this presentation the authors will discuss the Conjugate Gradient benchmark and its implementation on the IBM SP1. The SP1 is a parallel system which is comprised of RS/6000 nodes connected by a high performance switch. They will compare the results of the SP1 implementation with those reported for other machines. At this time, such a comparison shows the SP1 to be very competitive.

  19. Multi GPU Performance of Conjugate Gradient Solver with Staggered Fermions in Mixed Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Yong-Chull; Lee, Weonjong

    2011-01-01

    GPU has a significantly higher performance in single-precision computing than that of double precision. Hence, it is important to take a maximal advantage of the single precision in the CG inverter, using the mixed precision method. We have implemented mixed precision algorithm to our multi GPU conjugate gradient solver. The single precision calculation use half of the memory that is used by the double precision calculation, which allows twice faster data transfer in memory I/O. In addition, the speed of floating point calculations is 8 times faster in single precision than in double precision. The overall performance of our CUDA code for CG is 145 giga flops per GPU (GTX480), which does not include the infiniband network communication. If we include the infiniband communication, the overall performance is 36 giga flops per GPU (GTX480).

  20. On form factors of the conjugated field in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2011-05-15

    Izergin-Korepin's lattice discretization of the non-linear Schroedinger model along with Oota's inverse problem provides one with determinant representations for the form factors of the lattice discretized conjugated field operator. We prove that these form factors converge, in the zero lattice spacing limit, to those of the conjugated field operator in the continuous model. We also compute the large-volume asymptotic behavior of such form factors in the continuous model. These are in particular characterized by Fredholm determinants of operators acting on closed contours. We provide a way of defining these Fredholm determinants in the case of generic paramaters. (orig.)

  1. On form factors of the conjugated field in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2011-05-15

    Izergin-Korepin's lattice discretization of the non-linear Schroedinger model along with Oota's inverse problem provides one with determinant representations for the form factors of the lattice discretized conjugated field operator. We prove that these form factors converge, in the zero lattice spacing limit, to those of the conjugated field operator in the continuous model. We also compute the large-volume asymptotic behavior of such form factors in the continuous model. These are in particular characterized by Fredholm determinants of operators acting on closed contours. We provide a way of defining these Fredholm determinants in the case of generic paramaters. (orig.)

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Doxorubicin Conjugates Based on Sugar Core Nonlinear Polymethacrylates toward Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielańczyk, A; Skonieczna, M; Mielańczyk, Ł; Neugebauer, D

    2016-04-20

    V-shaped and star-shaped hydroxylamine-functionalized polymethacrylates designed as nanosized conjugates (cancer (MCF-7) treatment. Statistical analysis of MTS assay results showed that the 4-arm conjugate (n(DOX) = 16) was the most effective polymeric system against MCF-7/W (wild type) and MCF-7/R (DOX resistant) cell lines. Apoptosis assay analysis showed that MCF-7/R cells cultured with nonlinear copolymers died due to necrosis and late apoptotis, whereas MCF-7/W cells were in early and late apoptosis. Among all tested conjugates, the most promising results with induction of apoptosis without inducing necrosis in both MCF-7 cell lines were obtained for conjugate based on 4-arm stars with low content of DOX. The cell cycle assay revealed that increase of MMA units in 4-arm copolymers induced MCF-7/R cell arrest in the SubG1 phase. In the same cell line, the corresponding conjugates triggered S and G2/M arrest. Gradual internalization of the chosen conjugate by MCF-7/R cells was monitored via fluorescence microscopy showing its main localization in the cytoplasm.

  3. Entropic and gradient flow formulations for nonlinear diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirr, Nicolas, E-mail: DirrNP@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Road, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Stamatakis, Marios, E-mail: M.G.Stamatakis@bath.ac.uk; Zimmer, Johannes, E-mail: zimmer@maths.bath.ac.uk [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Nonlinear diffusion ∂{sub t}ρ = Δ(Φ(ρ)) is considered for a class of nonlinearities Φ. It is shown that for suitable choices of Φ, an associated Lyapunov functional can be interpreted as thermodynamic entropy. This information is used to derive an associated metric, here called thermodynamic metric. The analysis is confined to nonlinear diffusion obtainable as hydrodynamic limit of a zero range process. The thermodynamic setting is linked to a large deviation principle for the underlying zero range process and the corresponding equation of fluctuating hydrodynamics. For the latter connections, the thermodynamic metric plays a central role.

  4. Sufficient Descent Polak-Ribière-Polyak Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Large-Scale Box-Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyu Wang

    2014-01-01

    descent method at first finite number of steps and then by conjugate gradient method subsequently. Under some appropriate conditions, we show that the algorithm converges globally. Numerical experiments and comparisons by using some box-constrained problems from CUTEr library are reported. Numerical comparisons illustrate that the proposed method is promising and competitive with the well-known method—L-BFGS-B.

  5. Comparative Study Among Lease Square Method, Steepest Descent Method, and Conjugate Gradient Method for Atmopsheric Sounder Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study among Least Square Method: LSM, Steepest Descent Method: SDM, and Conjugate Gradient Method: CGM for atmospheric sounder data analysis (estimation of vertical profiles for water vapor is conducted. Through simulation studies, it is found that CGM shows the best estimation accuracy followed by SDM and LSM. Method dependency on atmospheric models is also clarified.

  6. Multichannel nonlinear distortion compensation using optical phase conjugation in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Schoerder, Jochen; Da Ros, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    silicon nanowire. A clear improvement in Q-factor is shown after 800-km transmission with high span input power when comparing the system with and without the optical phase conjugation module. The influence of OSNR degradation introduced by the silicon nanowire is analysed by comparing transmission......We experimentally demonstrate compensation of nonlinear distortion caused by the Kerr effect in a 3 x 32-Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission system. We use optical phase conjugation (OPC) produced by four-wave mixing (FWM) in a 7-mm long...... systems of three different lengths. This is the first demonstration of nonlinear compensation using a silicon nanowire. (C)2015 Optical Society of America...

  7. Using Elman recurrent neural networks with conjugate gradient algorithm in determining the anesthetic the amount of anesthetic medicine to be applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntürkün, Rüştü

    2010-08-01

    In this study, Elman recurrent neural networks have been defined by using conjugate gradient algorithm in order to determine the depth of anesthesia in the continuation stage of the anesthesia and to estimate the amount of medicine to be applied at that moment. The feed forward neural networks are also used for comparison. The conjugate gradient algorithm is compared with back propagation (BP) for training of the neural Networks. The applied artificial neural network is composed of three layers, namely the input layer, the hidden layer and the output layer. The nonlinear activation function sigmoid (sigmoid function) has been used in the hidden layer and the output layer. EEG data has been recorded with Nihon Kohden 9200 brand 22-channel EEG device. The international 8-channel bipolar 10-20 montage system (8 TB-b system) has been used in assembling the recording electrodes. EEG data have been recorded by being sampled once in every 2 milliseconds. The artificial neural network has been designed so as to have 60 neurons in the input layer, 30 neurons in the hidden layer and 1 neuron in the output layer. The values of the power spectral density (PSD) of 10-second EEG segments which correspond to the 1-50 Hz frequency range; the ratio of the total power of PSD values of the EEG segment at that moment in the same range to the total of PSD values of EEG segment taken prior to the anesthesia.

  8. Three-dimension Cole-Cole model inversion of induced polarization data based on regularized conjugate gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengwei

    Modeling of induced polarization (IP) phenomena is important for developing effective methods for remote sensing of subsurface geology and is widely used in mineral exploration. However, the quantitative interpretation of IP data in a complex 3D environment is still a challenging problem of applied geophysics. In this dissertation I use the regularized conjugate gradient method to determine the 3D distribution of the four parameters of the Cole-Cole model based on surface induced polarization (IP) data. This method takes into account the nonlinear nature of both electromagnetic induction (EMI) and IP phenomena. The solution of the 3D IP inverse problem is based on the regularized smooth inversion only. The method was tested on synthetic models with DC conductivity, intrinsic chargeability, time constant, and relaxation parameters, and it was also applied to the practical 3D IP survey data. I demonstrate that the four parameters of the Cole-Cole model, DC electrical resistivity, rho 0 , chargeability, eta time constant, tau and the relaxation parameter, C, can be recovered from the observed IP data simultaneously. There are four Cole-Cole parameters involved in the inversion, in other words, within each cell, there are DC conductivity (sigma0 ), chargeability (eta), time parameters (tau), and relaxation parameters (C) compared to conductivity only, used in EM only inversion. In addition to more inversion parameters used in IP survey, dipole-dipole configuration which requires more sources and receivers. One the other hand, calculating Green tensor and Frechet matrix time consuming and storing them requires a lot of memory. So, I develop parallel computation using MATLAB parallel tool to speed up the calculation.

  9. Ptychographic overlap constraint errors and the limits of their numerical recovery using conjugate gradient descent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashish; McNulty, Ian; Shpyrko, Oleg G

    2014-01-27

    Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging is a form of scanning microscopy that does not require optics to image a sample. A series of scanned coherent diffraction patterns recorded from multiple overlapping illuminated regions on the sample are inverted numerically to retrieve its image. The technique recovers the phase lost by detecting the diffraction patterns by using experimentally known constraints, in this case the measured diffraction intensities and the assumed scan positions on the sample. The spatial resolution of the recovered image of the sample is limited by the angular extent over which the diffraction patterns are recorded and how well these constraints are known. Here, we explore how reconstruction quality degrades with uncertainties in the scan positions. We show experimentally that large errors in the assumed scan positions on the sample can be numerically determined and corrected using conjugate gradient descent methods. We also explore in simulations the limits, based on the signal to noise of the diffraction patterns and amount of overlap between adjacent scan positions, of just how large these errors can be and still be rendered tractable by this method.

  10. Using Chebyshev polynomials and approximate inverse triangular factorizations for preconditioning the conjugate gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaporin, I. E.

    2012-02-01

    In order to precondition a sparse symmetric positive definite matrix, its approximate inverse is examined, which is represented as the product of two sparse mutually adjoint triangular matrices. In this way, the solution of the corresponding system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE) by applying the preconditioned conjugate gradient method (CGM) is reduced to performing only elementary vector operations and calculating sparse matrix-vector products. A method for constructing the above preconditioner is described and analyzed. The triangular factor has a fixed sparsity pattern and is optimal in the sense that the preconditioned matrix has a minimum K-condition number. The use of polynomial preconditioning based on Chebyshev polynomials makes it possible to considerably reduce the amount of scalar product operations (at the cost of an insignificant increase in the total number of arithmetic operations). The possibility of an efficient massively parallel implementation of the resulting method for solving SLAEs is discussed. For a sequential version of this method, the results obtained by solving 56 test problems from the Florida sparse matrix collection (which are large-scale and ill-conditioned) are presented. These results show that the method is highly reliable and has low computational costs.

  11. 3D DC Resistivity Inversion with Topography Based on Regularized Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ke Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, we observed a strong interest in 3D DC resistivity inversion and imaging with complex topography. In this paper, we implemented 3D DC resistivity inversion based on regularized conjugate gradient method with FEM. The Fréchet derivative is assembled with the electric potential in order to speed up the inversion process based on the reciprocity theorem. In this study, we also analyzed the sensitivity of the electric potential on the earth’s surface to the conductivity in each cell underground and introduced an optimized weighting function to produce new sensitivity matrix. The synthetic model study shows that this optimized weighting function is helpful to improve the resolution of deep anomaly. By incorporating topography into inversion, the artificial anomaly which is actually caused by topography can be eliminated. As a result, this algorithm potentially can be applied to process the DC resistivity data collected in mountain area. Our synthetic model study also shows that the convergence and computation speed are very stable and fast.

  12. A new modified conjugate gradient coefficient for solving system of linear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, N.; ‘Aini, N.; Shapiee, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Khadijah, W.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is an evolution of computational method in solving unconstrained optimization problems. This approach is easy to implement due to its simplicity and has been proven to be effective in solving real-life application. Although this field has received copious amount of attentions in recent years, some of the new approaches of CG algorithm cannot surpass the efficiency of the previous versions. Therefore, in this paper, a new CG coefficient which retains the sufficient descent and global convergence properties of the original CG methods is proposed. This new CG is tested on a set of test functions under exact line search. Its performance is then compared to that of some of the well-known previous CG methods based on number of iterations and CPU time. The results show that the new CG algorithm has the best efficiency amongst all the methods tested. This paper also includes an application of the new CG algorithm for solving large system of linear equations

  13. Efficient CUDA Polynomial Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Solver for Finite Element Computation of Elasticity Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing unit (GPU has obtained great success in scientific computations for its tremendous computational horsepower and very high memory bandwidth. This paper discusses the efficient way to implement polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient solver for the finite element computation of elasticity on NVIDIA GPUs using compute unified device architecture (CUDA. Sliced block ELLPACK (SBELL format is introduced to store sparse matrix arising from finite element discretization of elasticity with fewer padding zeros than traditional ELLPACK-based formats. Polynomial preconditioning methods have been investigated both in convergence and running time. From the overall performance, the least-squares (L-S polynomial method is chosen as a preconditioner in PCG solver to finite element equations derived from elasticity for its best results on different example meshes. In the PCG solver, mixed precision algorithm is used not only to reduce the overall computational, storage requirements and bandwidth but to make full use of the capacity of the GPU devices. With SBELL format and mixed precision algorithm, the GPU-based L-S preconditioned CG can get a speedup of about 7–9 to CPU-implementation.

  14. Embedding SAS approach into conjugate gradient algorithms for asymmetric 3D elasticity problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Chu; Warsi, N.A. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); Sameh, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present two strategies to embed the SAS (symmetric-and-antisymmetric) scheme into conjugate gradient (CG) algorithms to make solving 3D elasticity problems, with or without global reflexive symmetry, more efficient. The SAS approach is physically a domain decomposition scheme that takes advantage of reflexive symmetry of discretized physical problems, and algebraically a matrix transformation method that exploits special reflexivity properties of the matrix resulting from discretization. In addition to offering large-grain parallelism, which is valuable in a multiprocessing environment, the SAS scheme also has the potential for reducing arithmetic operations in the numerical solution of a reasonably wide class of scientific and engineering problems. This approach can be applied directly to problems that have global reflexive symmetry, yielding smaller and independent subproblems to solve, or indirectly to problems with partial symmetry, resulting in loosely coupled subproblems. The decomposition is achieved by separating the reflexive subspace from the antireflexive one, possessed by a special class of matrices A, A {element_of} C{sup n x n} that satisfy the relation A = PAP where P is a reflection matrix (symmetric signed permutation matrix).

  15. The application of projected conjugate gradient solvers on graphical processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Renaut, Rosemary [ARIZONA STATE UNIV.

    2011-01-26

    Graphical processing units introduce the capability for large scale computation at the desktop. Presented numerical results verify that efficiencies and accuracies of basic linear algebra subroutines of all levels when implemented in CUDA and Jacket are comparable. But experimental results demonstrate that the basic linear algebra subroutines of level three offer the greatest potential for improving efficiency of basic numerical algorithms. We consider the solution of the multiple right hand side set of linear equations using Krylov subspace-based solvers. Thus, for the multiple right hand side case, it is more efficient to make use of a block implementation of the conjugate gradient algorithm, rather than to solve each system independently. Jacket is used for the implementation. Furthermore, including projection from one system to another improves efficiency. A relevant example, for which simulated results are provided, is the reconstruction of a three dimensional medical image volume acquired from a positron emission tomography scanner. Efficiency of the reconstruction is improved by using projection across nearby slices.

  16. Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Venkatram; Ji Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Goh, Bee Min; Loh, Kian Ping; Xu Qinghua, E-mail: chmxqh@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: phyjiwei@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-10-15

    A water soluble conjugated thiophene polymer, sodium salt of poly[2-(3-thienyl)ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] (TPP), and graphene oxide (GO) composite film (GO-TPP) device was prepared. Transient photoconductivity measurements were carried out on the GO-TPP composite film using 150 ns laser pulses of 527 nm wavelength. Highly efficient photocurrent generation was observed from the GO-TPP film. The relationships of the film photoconductivity, photocurrent decay time and electron decay times with the incident light intensity were investigated. The photoconductive gain of the film was determined to be greater than 40% and to be independent of the light intensity. Furthermore, the femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of the GO-TPP film were measured using 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses and the composite film exhibited high nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction coefficients.

  17. 共轭梯度法解一维参数识别问题%Conjugate Gradient Methods Solving the Parameter Identification Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马衍波; 瞿丹

    2013-01-01

    考虑一维稳态扩散方程反问题,将问题归结为一个非线性不适定问题后,考虑用共轭梯度法解其对应的最小二乘泛函;数值实验显示该方法有良好的恢复效果。%In this paper ,we discuss the compution of the inverse problem of the stead-difusion equation. After reducing the problem to a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation, conjugate gradient method were consid-ered. Numerical exeriments for this method show the obvious advantages of the proposed method.

  18. A Nonlinear k-ε Turbulence Model Applicable to High Pressure Gradient and Large Curvature Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the RANS turbulence models solve the Reynolds stress by linear hypothesis with isotropic model. They can not capture all kinds of vortexes in the turbomachineries. In this paper, an improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is proposed, which is modified from the RNG k-ε turbulence model and Wilcox's k-ω turbulence model. The Reynolds stresses are solved by nonlinear methods. The nonlinear k-ε turbulence model can calculate the near wall region without the use of wall functions. The improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate the flow field in a curved rectangular duct. The results based on the improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model agree well with the experimental results. The calculation results prove that the nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is available for high pressure gradient flows and large curvature flows, and it can be used to capture complex vortexes in a turbomachinery.

  19. Gradient-driven flux-tube simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence close to the non-linear threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Strintzi, D.; Weikl, A. [Physics Department, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, Bayreuth (Germany); Camenen, Y. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, Marseille (France); Candy, J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Casson, F. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hornsby, W. A. [Max Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    It is shown that Ion Temperature Gradient turbulence close to the threshold exhibits a long time behaviour, with smaller heat fluxes at later times. This reduction is connected with the slow growth of long wave length zonal flows, and consequently, the numerical dissipation on these flows must be sufficiently small. Close to the nonlinear threshold for turbulence generation, a relatively small dissipation can maintain a turbulent state with a sizeable heat flux, through the damping of the zonal flow. Lowering the dissipation causes the turbulence, for temperature gradients close to the threshold, to be subdued. The heat flux then does not go smoothly to zero when the threshold is approached from above. Rather, a finite minimum heat flux is obtained below which no fully developed turbulent state exists. The threshold value of the temperature gradient length at which this finite heat flux is obtained is up to 30% larger compared with the threshold value obtained by extrapolating the heat flux to zero, and the cyclone base case is found to be nonlinearly stable. Transport is subdued when a fully developed staircase structure in the E × B shearing rate forms. Just above the threshold, an incomplete staircase develops, and transport is mediated by avalanche structures which propagate through the marginally stable regions.

  20. Orientation-enhanced nonlinear optical properties and phase-conjugate reflective system of a novel Azobenzene doped polymer film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ru-Sheng; Fan Wen-Bin; Lu Ming; Zhao You-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports that the nonlinear refractive index of a novel organic optical storage film doped azodiphenylamine polymer is measured by using the Z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index up to 3.7 ×10-6 cm2/W induced by thermo-optical effect is obtained. It indicates that the sample has excellent optical nonlinear properties. The physical mechanism of the great nonlinear optical effect is analysed and the optical conjugate characteristic is also discussed with degenerate four-wave-mixing. The phase conjugate wave diffracted from the formative refractive index grating in the sample is acquired and its equivalent reflectivity reaches about 22%. On this basis,the reflective wave phase-conjugated mirror system was designed, and the image aberration experienced in propagation in the storage experiment is corrected by using the system.

  1. Direct reconstruction of cardiac PET kinetic parametric images using a preconditioned conjugate gradient approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; Ouyang, Jinsong; Guerin, Bastien; Li, Quanzheng; Alpert, Nathaniel M; El Fakhri, Georges

    2013-10-01

    Our research goal is to develop an algorithm to reconstruct cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) kinetic parametric images directly from sinograms and compare its performance with the conventional indirect approach. Time activity curves of a NCAT phantom were computed according to a one-tissue compartmental kinetic model with realistic kinetic parameters. The sinograms at each time frame were simulated using the activity distribution for the time frame. The authors reconstructed the parametric images directly from the sinograms by optimizing a cost function, which included the Poisson log-likelihood and a spatial regularization terms, using the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm with the proposed preconditioner. The proposed preconditioner is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are the ratio of the parameter and the sensitivity of the radioactivity associated with parameter. The authors compared the reconstructed parametric images using the direct approach with those reconstructed using the conventional indirect approach. At the same bias, the direct approach yielded significant relative reduction in standard deviation by 12%-29% and 32%-70% for 50 × 10(6) and 10 × 10(6) detected coincidences counts, respectively. Also, the PCG method effectively reached a constant value after only 10 iterations (with numerical convergence achieved after 40-50 iterations), while more than 500 iterations were needed for CG. The authors have developed a novel approach based on the PCG algorithm to directly reconstruct cardiac PET parametric images from sinograms, and yield better estimation of kinetic parameters than the conventional indirect approach, i.e., curve fitting of reconstructed images. The PCG method increases the convergence rate of reconstruction significantly as compared to the conventional CG method.

  2. A (k, n-k) Conjugate Boundary Value Problem with Semip ositone Nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Qing-liu; Shi Shao-yun

    2015-01-01

    The existence of positive solution is proved for a (k, n−k) conjugate boundary value problem in which the nonlinearity may make negative values and may be singular with respect to the time variable. The main results of Agarwal et al. (Agarwal R P, Grace S R, O’Regan D. Semipositive higher-order differential equa-tions. Appl. Math. Letters, 2004, 14: 201–207) are extended. The basic tools are the Hammerstein integral equation and the Krasnosel’skii’s cone expansion-compression technique.

  3. EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL INCLUDING A QUADRATIC GRADIENT TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹绪龙; 同登科; 王瑞和

    2004-01-01

    The models of the nonlinear radial flow for the infinite and finite reservoirs including a quadratic gradient term were presented. The exact solution was given in real space for flow equation including quadratic gradiet term for both constant-rate and constant pressure production cases in an infinite system by using generalized Weber transform. Analytical solutions for flow equation including quadratic gradient term were also obtained by using the Hankel transform for a finite circular reservoir case. Both closed and constant pressure outer boundary conditions are considered. Moreover, both constant rate and constant pressure inner boundary conditions are considered. The difference between the nonlinear pressure solution and linear pressure solution is analyzed. The difference may be reached about 8% in the long time. The effect of the quadratic gradient term in the large time well test is considered.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging with nonlinear gradient fields signal encoding and image reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Within the past few decades magnetic resonance imaging has become one of the most important imaging modalities in medicine. For a reliable diagnosis of pathologies further technological improvements are of primary importance. This text deals with a radically new approach of image encoding: The fundamental principle of gradient linearity is challenged by investigating the possibilities of acquiring anatomical images with the help of nonlinear gradient fields. Besides a thorough theoretical analysis with a focus on signal encoding and image reconstruction, initial hardware implementations are tested using phantom as well as in-vivo measurements. Several applications are presented that give an impression about the implications that this technological advancement may have for future medical diagnostics.   Contents n  Image Reconstruction in MRI n  Nonlinear Gradient Encoding: PatLoc Imaging n  Presentation of Initial Hardware Designs n  Basics of Signal Encoding and Image Reconstruction in PatLoc Imaging n ...

  5. Semianalytical Solution of the Nonlinear Dual-Porosity Flow Model with the Quadratic Pressure Gradient Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dual-porosity flow model, specifically considering the quadratic pressure gradient term, wellbore storage coefficient, well skin factor, and interporosity flow of matrix to natural fractures, was established for well production in a naturally fractured formation and then solved using a semianalytical method, including Laplace transform and a transformation of the pressure function. Analytical solution of the model in Laplace space was converted to numerical solution in real space using Stehfest numerical inversion. Nonlinear flow process for well production in a naturally fractured formation with different external boundaries was simulated and analyzed using standard pressure curves. Influence of the quadratic pressure gradient coefficient on pressure curves was studied qualitatively and quantitatively in conditions of a group of fixed model parameters. The research results show that the semianalytical modelling method is applicable in simulating the nonlinear dual-porosity flow behavior.

  6. Robust tracking of robot manipulator with nonlinear friction using time delay control with gradient estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong Ki; Chang, Pyung Hun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We propose an enhanced controller to improve the robustness of Time Delay Control (TDC) for a robot manipulator in the presence of nonlinear friction, such as Coulomb friction. The problem of TDC is first analyzed with TDC as a trajectory control for a robot manipulator in the presence of nonlinear friction. Gradient estimation is used to solve this problem. The proposed controller is called TDC with Gradient Estimator (TDCGE). Comparing with a prior research to improve the robustness of TDC, named TDCSA, the TDCGE is much simpler to design. Through 1 DOF linear motor experiment, it is verified that the TDCGE is more robust against nonlinear friction than TDC and the TDCGE has a similar robustness to the TDCSA. In addition, it is confirmed that the TDCGE is easily implemented in the multi degree-of-freedom robot manipulator through a 3 DOF spatial robot manipulator experiment

  7. Characterization of electrosynthesized conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite: optical nonlinearity and electrical property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afarin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Shahriari, Esmaeil; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Kasim, Anuar; Behzad, Kasra

    2012-01-01

    The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite are discussed. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of monomers in the presence of different amounts of MWNTs using sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant at room temperature and normal pressure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicates that the polymer is wrapped around the nanotubes. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive indices (n(2)) and the nonlinear absorption (β) of the samples with different MWNT concentrations measurements were performed by a single Z-scan method using continuous wave (CW) laser beam excitation wavelength of λ = 532 nm. The results show that both nonlinear optical parameters increased with increasing the concentration of MWNTs. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities were also calculated and found to follow the same trend as n(2) and β. In addition, the conductivity of the composite film was found to increase rapidly with the increase in the MWNT concentration.

  8. Characterization of Electrosynthesized Conjugated Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composite: Optical Nonlinearity and Electrical Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Bahrami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite are discussed. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of monomers in the presence of different amounts of MWNTs using sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (SDBS as surfactant at room temperature and normal pressure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM indicates that the polymer is wrapped around the nanotubes. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive indices (n2 and the nonlinear absorption (β of the samples with different MWNT concentrations measurements were performed by a single Z-scan method using continuous wave (CW laser beam excitation wavelength of λ = 532 nm. The results show that both nonlinear optical parameters increased with increasing the concentration of MWNTs. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities were also calculated and found to follow the same trend as n2 and β. In addition, the conductivity of the composite film was found to increase rapidly with the increase in the MWNT concentration.

  9. Synthesis and Nonlinear Optical Property of a Series of New Chromophores Containing Furan Ring as the Only Conjugation Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the nonlinear optical property of a series of new chromophores which contain furan ring as the only conjugation bridge for the first time. They are characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. Their dipole moment and the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β) are calculated and compared with those of the analogues containing either benzene or thiophene as the conjugation bridge.

  10. Conjugation of gold nanoparticles and recombinant human endostatin modulates vascular normalization via interruption of anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Yang, Wende; Li, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shuhao; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Ding, Hui; Qin, Li; Pan, Yunlong

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have revealed the potential of normalizing tumor vessels in anti-angiogenic treatment. Recombinant human endostatin is an anti-angiogenic agent which has been applied in clinical tumor treatment. Our previous research indicated that gold nanoparticles could be a nanoparticle carrier for recombinant human endostatin delivery. The recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle conjugates normalized vessels, which improved chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle-induced vascular normalization has not been explored. Anterior gradient 2 has been reported to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors and involved in tumor angiogenesis. To date, the precise efficacy of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles on anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis or anterior gradient 2-related signaling cohort remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could normalize vessels in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts, and we further elucidated whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could interrupt anterior gradient 2-induced angiogenesis. In vivo, it was indicated that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles increased pericyte expression while inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and anterior gradient 2 expression in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts. In vitro, we uncovered that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles reduced cell migration and tube formation induced by anterior gradient 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Treatment with recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles attenuated anterior gradient 2-mediated activation of MMP2, cMyc, VE-cadherin, phosphorylation of p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrated recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles might normalize

  11. Attitude Control Synthesis for Small Satellites Using Gradient Method. Part I - Nonlinear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor-Viorel CHELARU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects for synthesis of small satellites attitude control. Thesatellite nonlinear model presented here will be with six degrees of freedom. After movement equationlinearization the stability and command matrixes will be established and the controller will beobtained using gradient and gradient method. Two attitude control cases will be analysed: thereaction wheels and the micro thrusters. The results will be used in the project European Space MoonOrbit - ESMO founded by European Space Agency in which the University POLITEHNICA ofBucharest is involved.

  12. Global convergence of the Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient method with an Armijo-type inexact line search for nonconvex unconstrained optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zeng Xin; Li, Guo Yin; Qi, Li Qun

    2008-12-01

    We propose two algorithms for nonconvex unconstrained optimization problems that employ Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient formula and new inexact line search techniques. We show that the new algorithms converge globally if the function to be minimized has Lipschitz continuous gradients. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed methods for particularly chosen line search conditions are very promising.

  13. Cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in conjugated energetic materials: A TD-DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifain, Andrew E; Tadesse, Loza F; Bjorgaard, Josiah A; Chavez, David E; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Scharff, R Jason; Tretiak, Sergei

    2017-03-21

    Conjugated energetic molecules (CEMs) are a class of explosives with high nitrogen content that posses both enhanced safety and energetic performance properties and are ideal for direct optical initiation. As isolated molecules, they absorb within the range of conventional lasers. Crystalline CEMs are used in practice, however, and their properties can differ due to intermolecular interaction. Herein, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) of monomers and dimers obtained from experimentally determined crystal structures of CEMs. OPA scales linearly with the number of chromophore units, while TPA scales nonlinearly, where a more than 3-fold enhancement in peak intensity, per chromophore unit, is calculated. Cooperative enhancement depends on electronic delocalization spanning both chromophore units. An increase in sensitivity to nonlinear laser initiation makes these materials suitable for practical use. This is the first study predicting a cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in energetic materials composed of relatively small molecules. The proposed model quantum chemistry is validated by comparison to crystal structure geometries and the optical absorption of these materials dissolved in solution.

  14. Gradient-Based Iterative Identification for Wiener Nonlinear Dynamic Systems with Moving Average Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincheng Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the parameter identification problem for Wiener nonlinear dynamic systems with moving average noises. In order to improve the convergence rate, the gradient-based iterative algorithm is presented by replacing the unmeasurable variables with their corresponding iterative estimates, and to compute iteratively the noise estimates based on the obtained parameter estimates. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively estimate the parameters of Wiener systems with moving average noises.

  15. A Conjugate Gradient Algorithm with Function Value Information and N-Step Quadratic Convergence for Unconstrained Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangrong; Zhao, Xupei; Duan, Xiabin; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG) method achieves global convergence--with at most a linear convergence rate--because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search) is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method.

  16. Recent results and open problems on parabolic equations with gradient nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Souplet

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We survey recent results and present a number of open problems concerning the large-time behavior of solutions of semilinear parabolic equations with gradient nonlinearities. We focus on the model equation with a dissipative gradient term $$u_t-Delta u=u^p-b|abla u|^q,$$ where $p$, $q>1$, $b>0$, with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Numerous papers were devoted to this equation in the last ten years, and we compare the results with those known for the case of the pure power reaction-diffusion equation ($b=0$. In presence of the dissipative gradient term a number of new phenomena appear which do not occur when $b=0$. The questions treated concern: sufficient conditions for blowup, behavior of blowing up solutions, global existence and stability, unbounded global solutions, critical exponents, and stationary states.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Self-Pumped Phase Conjugate Plane-Curve Loop Mirror Based on Photorefractive Nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehran Vahdani Moghaddam; Zeynab Chenari; Hamid Latifi; Vladimir Vladimirovich Shuvalov; Konestantin Valentinovich Rudenko

    2008-01-01

    @@ We deal with computer simulation of a transient process in a self-pumped phase conjugate plane-curve loop mirror based on BaTiO3. In optimal circumstances the nonlinear reflectivity and fidelity of such a mirror respectively achieve 0.80-0.90 and 0.95-0.98. The generation of conjugate wave-front occurs due to scattering from the dynamic hologram which is produced in the region of self-intersection of forward and backward beams. In such a model the scenario of passing to unstable generation regimes is similar to the self-pumped phase conjugate plane-plane loop mirror and substantially differs from a single-crystal double phase conjugate mirror.

  18. Modifications of Steepest Descent Method and Conjugate Gradient Method Against Noise for Ill-posed Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the numerical algorithms of the steepest descent method (SDM, and the conjugate gradient method (CGM are effective for solving well-posed linear systems. However, they are vulnerable to noisy disturbance for solving ill-posed linear systems. We propose the modifications of SDM and CGM, namely the modified steepest descent method (MSDM, and the modified conjugate gradient method (MCGM. The starting point is an invariant manifold defined in terms of a minimum functional and a fictitious time-like variable; however, in the final stage we can derive a purely iterative algorithm including an acceleration parameter. Through the Hopf bifurcation, this parameter indeed plays a major role to switch the situation of slow convergence to a new situation that the functional is stepwisely decreased very fast. Several numerical examples are examined and compared with exact solutions, revealing that the new algorithms of MSDM and MCGM have good computational efficiency and accuracy, even for the highly ill-conditioned linear equations system with a large noise being imposed on the given data.

  19. Wave-particle interaction and the nonlinear saturation of the electron temperature gradient mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, Srinath; Parker, Scott E.; Chen, Yang; Howard, James E.

    2004-11-01

    It has been proposed that the electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence is responsible for experimentally relevant electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas. Significant transport levels are possible by the creation of radially elongated vortices or ``streamers" [1,2], which are sustained by the nonlinear saturation of the instability and are not susceptible to shear flow destruction, as is the case with the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode. We present a dynamical system to explore the dependence of saturation level due to E × B and E_\\| motion, as well as the effect of radial elongation. With this model, we can predict the nonlinear saturation level of the ETG streamers. We compare our theoretical predictions with a 2D shear-less slab gyrokinetic electron code that includes the E_\\| nonlinearity. [1]F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000). [2]C. Holland, and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3857 (2002). [3]W. M. Manheimer, Phys. Fluids 14, 579 (1971). [4]R. A. Smith, John A. Krommes, and W. W. Lee, Phys. Fluids 28, 1069 (1985).

  20. Fast conjugate phase image reconstruction based on a Chebyshev approximation to correct for B0 field inhomogeneity and concomitant gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Sica, Christopher T.; Meyer, Craig H.

    2008-01-01

    Off-resonance effects can cause image blurring in spiral scanning and various forms of image degradation in other MRI methods. Off-resonance effects can be caused by both B0 inhomogeneity and concomitant gradient fields. Previously developed off-resonance correction methods focus on the correction of a single source of off-resonance. This work introduces a computationally efficient method of correcting for B0 inhomogeneity and concomitant gradients simultaneously. The method is a fast alternative to conjugate phase reconstruction, with the off-resonance phase term approximated by Chebyshev polynomials. The proposed algorithm is well suited for semiautomatic off-resonance correction, which works well even with an inaccurate or low-resolution field map. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated using phantom and in vivo data sets acquired by spiral scanning. Semiautomatic off-resonance correction alone is shown to provide a moderate amount of correction for concomitant gradient field effects, in addition to B0 imhomogeneity effects. However, better correction is provided by the proposed combined method. The best results were produced using the semiautomatic version of the proposed combined method. PMID:18956462

  1. The Application of EEMD and Neural Network Based on Polak-Ribiére Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Crude Oil Prices Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting crude oil prices is very difficult to do because it has nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics. This research proposes a crude oil prices forecasting using a combination of EEMD and neural network. EEMD was used to decompose the price of crude oil into several IMFs and one residue. Before the training and testing was processed using FNN, EEMD output is normalized to fulfill network activation function. Data pattern of neural network was determined based on the results of normalization. The Learning method of neural network was based on Polak-Ribiére Conjugate Gradient algorithm. The output of neural networks on each component IMFs and the residue was aggregated using Adaline. The last process is denormalization of the Adaline output. Output of denormalization is the end result of the crude oil price forecasting. After forecasting results has been known, it then compared with the results of several neural networks learning algorithm. The result shows that the proposed method has better forecasting ability. This is indicated by the error value which was smaller than other forecasting algorithms for crude oil price forecasting.

  2. Robust non-gradient C subroutines for non-linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a package of robust and easy-to-use C subroutines for solving unconstrained and constrained non-linear optimization problems, where gradient information is not required. The intention is that the routines should use the currently best algorithms available. All routines have...... subroutines are obtained by changing 0 to 1. The present report is a new and updated version of a previous report NI-91-04 with the title Non-gradient c Subroutines for Non- Linear Optimization, [16]. Both the previous and the present report describe a collection of subroutines, which have been translated...... from Fortran to C. The reason for writing the present report is that some of the C subroutines have been replaced by more e ective and robust versions translated from the original Fortran subroutines to C by the Bandler Group, see [1]. Also the test examples have been modified to some extent...

  3. Self-similar solutions for a superdiffusive heat equation with gradient nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the existence, stability, self-similarity and symmetries of solutions for a superdiffusive heat equation with superlinear and gradient nonlinear terms with initial data in new homogeneous Besov-Morrey type spaces. Unlike in previous works on such time-fractional partial differential equations of order $\\alpha\\in(1,2$, we take non null initial velocities into consideration, where new difficulties arise from. We overcome them by developing an appropriate decomposition of the two-parametric Mittag-Leffler function to obtain Mikhlin-type estimates and obtain our existence theorem.

  4. On the Strong Convergence of a Sufficient Descent Polak-Ribière-Polyak Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Zhang et al. proposed a sufficient descent Polak-Ribière-Polyak (SDPRP conjugate gradient method for large-scale unconstrained optimization problems and proved its global convergence in the sense that lim infk→∞∥∇f(xk∥=0 when an Armijo-type line search is used. In this paper, motivated by the line searches proposed by Shi et al. and Zhang et al., we propose two new Armijo-type line searches and show that the SDPRP method has strong convergence in the sense that limk→∞∥∇f(xk∥=0 under the two new line searches. Numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the SDPRP with the new Armijo-type line searches in practical computation.

  5. A Globally Convergent Polak-Ribière-Polyak Conjugate Gradient Method with Armijo-Type Line Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaohang Yu; Lutai Guan; Zengxin Wei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a globally convergent Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP)conjugate gradient method for nonconvex minimization of differentiable functions by employing an Armijo-type line search which is simpler and less demanding than those defined in [4,10]. A favorite property of this method is that we can choose the initial stepsize as the one-dimensional minimizer of a quadratic model Φ(t):= f(xk)+tgTkdk+1/2t2dTkQkdk, where Qk is a positive definite matrix that carries some second order information of the objective function f. So, this line search may make the stepsize tk more easily accepted. Preliminary numerical results show that this method is efficient.

  6. Reduced-Shifted Conjugate-Gradient Method for a Green's Function: Efficient Numerical Approach in a Nano-Structured Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Shinohara, Yasushi; Futamura, Yasunori; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We propose the reduced-shifted conjugate-gradient (RSCG) method, which is numerically efficient to calculate a matrix element of a Green's function defined as a resolvent of a Hamiltonian operator, by solving linear equations with a desired accuracy. This method does not calculate solution vectors of linear equations but does directly calculate a matrix element of the resolvent. The matrix elements with different frequencies are simultaneously obtained. Thus, it is easy to calculate the exception value expressed as a Matsubara summation of these elements. To illustrate a power of our method, we choose a nano-structured superconducting system with a mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) approach. This method allows us to treat with the system with the fabrication potential, where one cannot effectively use the kernel-polynomial-based method. We consider the d-wave nano-island superconductor by simultaneously solving the linear equations with a large number (˜50000) of Matsubara frequencies.

  7. Rationally Engineering Phototherapy Modules of Eosin-Conjugated Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers via Intracellular Endocytic pH Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guhuan; Hu, Jinming; Zhang, Guoying; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-07-15

    Spatiotemporal switching of respective phototherapy modes at the cellular level with minimum side effects and high therapeutic efficacy is a major challenge for cancer phototherapy. Herein we demonstrate how to address this issue by employing photosensitizer-conjugated pH-responsive block copolymers in combination with intracellular endocytic pH gradients. At neutral pH corresponding to extracellular and cytosol milieu, the copolymers self-assemble into micelles with prominently quenched fluorescence emission and low (1)O2 generation capability, favoring a highly efficient photothermal module. Under mildly acidic pH associated with endolysosomes, protonation-triggered micelle-to-unimer transition results in recovered emission and enhanced photodynamic (1)O2 efficiency, which synergistically actuates release of encapsulated drugs, endosomal escape, and photochemical internalization processes.

  8. Fiber nonlinearity compensation by repeated phase conjugation in 2.048-Tbit/s WDM transmission of PDM 16-QAM channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate compensation of fiber nonlinearities using repeated optical phase conjugation (OPC) in a WDM system with eight 32-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM channels, showing improved performance over a single mid-span OPC and no OPC....

  9. Optical phase conjugation for nonlinearity compensation in WDM PDM 16-QAM transmission over dispersion-compensated and dispersion-uncompensated links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Sackey, I.; Jazayerifar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Kerr nonlinearity compensation by optical phase conjugation is demonstrated in a WDM PDM 16-QAM system. Improved received signal quality is reported for both dispersion-compensated and dispersion-uncompensated transmission and a comparison with digital backpropagation is provided....

  10. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers’ overweight and the population education transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education

  11. pi-Conjugated Gradient Copolymers Suppress Phase Separation and Improve Stability in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO...ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry , when the gradient copolymer was added (ESI†). The origin of the J–V curve distortion is...b) S. B. Darling and F. Q. You , RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 17633–17648. 2 For a comprehensive review, see: M. T. Dang, L. Hirsch and G. Wantz, Adv. Mater

  12. 无约束优化问题的修正PRP共轭梯度法%A Modified PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌彩英

    2011-01-01

    A new conjugate gradient algorithm is presented by combining the Newton and the PRP conjugate gradient methods, which can be seen as the modification of PRP method. The new method take both available gradient and the part second-order information.Our algorithm is shown to be global convergent under some assumptions. Numerical results are also reported.%本文通过结合牛顿法与PRP共轭梯度法提出一修正PRP方法,新方法中包含了二阶导数信息,在适当的假设下算法全局收敛,数值算例表明了算法的有效性.

  13. A theoretical and computational setting for a geometrically nonlinear gradient damage modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjar, B.

    The present work deals with the extension to the geometrically nonlinear case of recently proposed ideas on elastic- and elastoplastic-damage modelling frameworks within the infinitesimal theory. The particularity of these models is that the damage part of the modelling involves the gradient of damage quantity which, together with the equations of motion, are ensuing from a new formulation of the principle of virtual power. It is shown how the thermodynamics of irreversible processes is crucial in the characterization of the dissipative phenomena and in setting the convenient forms for the constitutive relations. On the numerical side, we discuss the problem of numerically integrating these equations and the implementation within the context of the finite element method is described in detail. And finally, we present a set of representative numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  14. A primal–dual hybrid gradient method for nonlinear operators with applications to MRI

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2014-05-01

    We study the solution of minimax problems min xmax yG(x) + K(x), y - F*(y) in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The functionals G and F* we assume to be convex, but the operator K we allow to be nonlinear. We formulate a natural extension of the modified primal-dual hybrid gradient method, originally for linear K, due to Chambolle and Pock. We prove the local convergence of the method, provided various technical conditions are satisfied. These include in particular the Aubin property of the inverse of a monotone operator at the solution. Of particular interest to us is the case arising from Tikhonov type regularization of inverse problems with nonlinear forward operators. Mainly we are interested in total variation and second-order total generalized variation priors. For such problems, we show that our general local convergence result holds when the noise level of the data f is low, and the regularization parameter α is correspondingly small. We verify the numerical performance of the method by applying it to problems from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chemical engineering and medicine. The specific applications are in diffusion tensor imaging and MR velocity imaging. These numerical studies show very promising performance. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. A sensitivity function-based conjugate gradient method for optical tomography with the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: andre_charette@uqac.ca

    2007-03-15

    The Sensitivity Function-based Conjugate Gradient Method (SFCGM) is described. This method is used to solve the inverse problems of function estimation, such as the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients, as applied to optical tomography for biomedical imaging. A highly scattering, absorbing, non-reflecting, non-emitting medium is considered here and simultaneous reconstructions of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the test medium are achieved with the proposed optimization technique, by using the exit intensity measured at boundary surfaces. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method on the framework of the frequency-domain full equation of radiative transfer. The modulation frequency is set to 600 MHz and the frequency data, obtained with the source modulation, is used as the input data. The inversion results demonstrate that the SFCGM can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by significantly reducing a cross-talk between inter-parameters. It is also observed that the closer-to-detector objects are better retrieved.

  16. Optimal Allocation of Thermal-Electric Decoupling Systems Based on the National Economy by an Improved Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to relieve the large amount of wind power curtailment during the heating period in the North China region, a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach is proposed to both bring down the constraint of forced power output of combined heat and power plants and increase the electric load level during valley load times that assist the power grid in consuming more wind power. The operating principles of the thermal-electric decoupling approach is described, the mathematical model of its profits is developed, the constraint conditions of its operation are listed, also, an improved parallel conjugate gradient is utilized to bypass the saddle problem and accelerate the optimal speed. Numerical simulations are implemented and reveal an optimal allocation of TED which with a rated power of 280 MW and 185 MWh heat storage capacity are possible. This allocation of TED could bring approximately 16.9 billion Yuan of economic profit and consume more than 80% of the surplus wind energy which would be curtailed without the participation of TED. The results in this article verify the effectiveness of this method that could provide a referential guidance for thermal-electric decoupling system allocation in practice.

  17. Effects of Conjugate Gradient Methods and Step-Length Formulas on the Multiscale Full Waveform Inversion in Time Domain: Numerical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Liu, Qinya; Zhou, Bing

    2017-05-01

    We carry out full waveform inversion (FWI) in time domain based on an alternative frequency-band selection strategy that allows us to implement the method with success. This strategy aims at decomposing the seismic data within partially overlapped frequency intervals by carrying out a concatenated treatment of the wavelet to largely avoid redundant frequency information to adapt to wavelength or wavenumber coverage. A pertinent numerical test proves the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on this strategy, we comparatively analyze the effects of update parameters for the nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) method and step-length formulas on the multiscale FWI through several numerical tests. The investigations of up to eight versions of the nonlinear CG method with and without Gaussian white noise make clear that the HS (Hestenes and Stiefel in J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect 5:409-436, 1952), CD (Fletcher in Practical methods of optimization vol. 1: unconstrained optimization, Wiley, New York, 1987), and PRP (Polak and Ribière in Revue Francaise Informat Recherche Opertionelle, 3e Année 16:35-43, 1969; Polyak in USSR Comput Math Math Phys 9:94-112, 1969) versions are more efficient among the eight versions, while the DY (Dai and Yuan in SIAM J Optim 10:177-182, 1999) version always yields inaccurate result, because it overestimates the deeper parts of the model. The application of FWI algorithms using distinct step-length formulas, such as the direct method ( Direct), the parabolic search method ( Search), and the two-point quadratic interpolation method ( Interp), proves that the Interp is more efficient for noise-free data, while the Direct is more efficient for Gaussian white noise data. In contrast, the Search is less efficient because of its slow convergence. In general, the three step-length formulas are robust or partly insensitive to Gaussian white noise and the complexity of the model. When the initial velocity model deviates far from the real model or the

  18. Fast inversion of gravity data using the symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting; Xu, Xuechun; Huang, Danian; Zhang, Dailei

    2017-02-01

    The subsurface three-dimensional (3D) model of density distribution is obtained by solving an under-determined linear equation that is established by gravity data. Here, we describe a new fast gravity inversion method to recover a 3D density model from gravity data. The subsurface will be divided into a large number of rectangular blocks, each with an unknown constant density. The gravity inversion method introduces a stabiliser model norm with a depth weighting function to produce smooth models. The depth weighting function is combined with the model norm to counteract the skin effect of the gravity potential field. As the numbers of density model parameters is NZ (the number of layers in the vertical subsurface domain) times greater than the observed gravity data parameters, the inverse density parameter is larger than the observed gravity data parameters. Solving the full set of gravity inversion equations is very time-consuming, and applying a new algorithm to estimate gravity inversion can significantly reduce the number of iterations and the computational time. In this paper, a new symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) iterative conjugate gradient (CG) method is shown to be an appropriate algorithm to solve this Tikhonov cost function (gravity inversion equation). The new, faster method is applied on Gaussian noise-contaminated synthetic data to demonstrate its suitability for 3D gravity inversion. To demonstrate the performance of the new algorithm on actual gravity data, we provide a case study that includes ground-based measurement of residual Bouguer gravity anomalies over the Humble salt dome near Houston, Gulf Coast Basin, off the shore of Louisiana. A 3D distribution of salt rock concentration is used to evaluate the inversion results recovered by the new SSOR iterative method. In the test model, the density values in the constructed model coincide with the known location and depth of the salt dome.

  19. The truncated conjugate gradient (TCG), a non-iterative/fixed-cost strategy for computing polarization in molecular dynamics: Fast evaluation of analytical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviat, Félix; Lagardère, Louis; Piquemal, Jean-Philip

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper [F. Aviat et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 13, 180-190 (2017)], we proposed the Truncated Conjugate Gradient (TCG) approach to compute the polarization energy and forces in polarizable molecular simulations. The method consists in truncating the conjugate gradient algorithm at a fixed predetermined order leading to a fixed computational cost and can thus be considered "non-iterative." This gives the possibility to derive analytical forces avoiding the usual energy conservation (i.e., drifts) issues occurring with iterative approaches. A key point concerns the evaluation of the analytical gradients, which is more complex than that with a usual solver. In this paper, after reviewing the present state of the art of polarization solvers, we detail a viable strategy for the efficient implementation of the TCG calculation. The complete cost of the approach is then measured as it is tested using a multi-time step scheme and compared to timings using usual iterative approaches. We show that the TCG methods are more efficient than traditional techniques, making it a method of choice for future long molecular dynamics simulations using polarizable force fields where energy conservation matters. We detail the various steps required for the implementation of the complete method by software developers.

  20. Incorporation of a platinum center in the pi-conjugated core of push-pull chromophores for nonlinear optics (NLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Raphaël J; Gauthier, Sébastien; Achelle, Sylvain; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Barsella, Alberto; Wojcik, Laurianne; Le Poul, Nicolas; Robin-Le Guen, Françoise

    2017-02-28

    In this article, we describe the synthesis, redox characteristics, and linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of seven new unsymmetrical push-pull diacetylide platinum-based complexes. These D-π-Pt-π-A complexes incorporate pyranylidene ligands as pro-aromatic donor groups (D), diazine rings as electron-withdrawing groups (A), and various aromatic fragments (styryl or thienylvinyl) as π-linkers separating the platinum diacetylide unit from the donor and the acceptor groups. This is one of the first examples of push-pull chromophores incorporating a platinum center in the π-conjugated core. The NLO properties of these complexes were compared with those of their purely organic analogues. All compounds (organic and organometallic) exhibited positive μβ values, which dramatically increased upon methylation of the pyrimidine fragment. However, this increase was even more significant in the complexes due to the presence of platinum in the π-conjugated core. The effects of the linker on the redox and spectroscopic properties of the complexes are also discussed. In addition, DFT calculations were performed in order to gain further insight into the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) occurring through the platinum center.

  1. Solution for the power flow in vector environment using the bi-conjugated stabilized gradient method; Solucao do fluxo de potencia em ambiente vetorial usando o metodo do gradiente bi-conjugado estabilizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Carmen L.T.; Coutinho, Alvaro L.G.A.; Falcao, Djalma M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a methodology for the solution of the power flow problem using the bi-conjugated stabilized gradient method pre-conditioned to the solution of the linearized system of Newton-Raphson method. Three different pre-conditioning matrices were researched aiming the reduction in the computation costs. The algorithm was ran in parallel vector computational environment. The presented results indicate velocity gain of the proposed method when compared to the Newton-Raphson conventional algorithm with solution of the linearized system by direct methodology 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An accelerated conjugate gradient algorithm to compute low-lying eigenvalues a study for the Dirac operator in SU(2) lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kalkreuter, T; Kalkreuter, Thomas; Simma, Hubert

    1995-01-01

    The low-lying eigenvalues of a (sparse) hermitian matrix can be computed with controlled numerical errors by a conjugate gradient (CG) method. This CG algorithm is accelerated by alternating it with exact diagonalisations in the subspace spanned by the numerically computed eigenvectors. We study this combined algorithm in case of the Dirac operator with (dynamical) Wilson fermions in four-dimensional \\SUtwo gauge fields. The algorithm is numerically very stable and can be parallelized in an efficient way. On lattices of sizes 4^4-16^4 an acceleration of the pure CG method by a factor of~4-8 is found.

  3. Comparison of Conjugate Gradient Density Matrix Search and Chebyshev Expansion Methods for Avoiding Diagonalization in Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kevin R.; Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    1998-01-01

    We report a comparison of two linear-scaling methods which avoid the diagonalization bottleneck of traditional electronic structure algorithms. The Chebyshev expansion method (CEM) is implemented for carbon tight-binding calculations of large systems and its memory and timing requirements compared to those of our previously implemented conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS). Benchmark calculations are carried out on icosahedral fullerenes from C60 to C8640 and the linear scaling memory and CPU requirements of the CEM demonstrated. We show that the CPU requisites of the CEM and CG-DMS are similar for calculations with comparable accuracy.

  4. Synthesis, growth and characterization of π conjugated organic nonlinear optical chalcone derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, A.N., E-mail: ashwatha.prabhu@manipal.edu [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Upadhyaya, V. [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Jayarama, A., E-mail: jayaram@mite.ac.in [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering (MITE), Moodabidri 574225 (India); Subrahmanya Bhat, K. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2013-02-15

    A new potentially useful nonlinear optical organic material, 1-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one, has been synthesized and grown as a high-quality single crystal by the slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, thermal analysis, and UV–visible spectroscopy. The material is thermally stabile up to 111 °C. The mechanical property of the grown crystals was studied using Vickers microhardness tester and the load dependence hardness was observed. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the material such as real and imaginary part of χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were determined using nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm wavelength by employing Z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index is found to be of the order of 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2} W{sup −1}. The magnitude of third order susceptibility is of the order of 10{sup −13} esu. The observed increase in the third order nonlinearity in these molecules clearly indicates the electronic origin. The compounds exhibit good optical limiting at 532 nm. The best optical limiting behavior of this molecule is due to the substituted strong electron donor. - Highlights: ► A novel thiophene substituted NLO crystal has been grown using methanol as solvent. ► The crystals were characterized by using FTIR, TGA/DTA and UV–visible spectroscopy. ► The n{sub 2} and χ{sup (3)} values is of the order of 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2} W{sup −1} and 10{sup −13} esu respectively. ► The crystals show better optical limiting behavior.

  5. CPDES2: A preconditioned conjugate gradient solver for linear asymmetric matrix equations arising from coupled partial differential equations in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. V.; Koniges, A. E.; Shumaker, D. E.

    1988-11-01

    Many physical problems require the solution of coupled partial differential equations on two-dimensional domains. When the time scales of interest dictate an implicit discretization of the equations a rather complicated global matrix system needs solution. The exact form of the matrix depends on the choice of spatial grids and on the finite element or finite difference approximations employed. CPDES2 allows each spatial operator to have 5 or 9 point stencils and allows for general couplings between all of the component PDE's and it automatically generates the matrix structures needed to perform the algorithm. The resulting sparse matrix equation is solved by either the preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) method or by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient (BCG) algorithm. An arbitrary number of component equations are permitted only limited by available memory. In the sub-band representation used, we generate an algorithm that is written compactly in terms of indirect indices which is vectorizable on some of the newer scientific computers.

  6. Curve Evolution in Subspaces and Exploring the Metameric Class of Histogram of Gradient Orientation based Features using Nonlinear Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatu, Aditya Jayant

    defined subspace, the N-links bicycle chain space, i.e. the space of curves with equidistant neighboring landmark points. This in itself is a useful shape space for medical image analysis applications. The Histogram of Gradient orientation based features are many in number and are widely used......This thesis deals with two unrelated issues, restricting curve evolution to subspaces and computing image patches in the equivalence class of Histogram of Gradient orientation based features using nonlinear projection methods. Curve evolution is a well known method used in various applications like...... specific requirements like shape priors or a given data model, and due to limitations of the computer, the computed curve evolution forms a path in some finite dimensional subspace of the space of curves. We give methods to restrict the curve evolution to a finite dimensional linear or implicitly defined...

  7. Effects of radial electric field on suppression of electron-temperature-gradient mode through multiscale nonlinear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chanho; Kaneko, Toshiro; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ida, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Shigeru; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2016-11-01

    Turbulence in fluids and plasmas is ubiquitous in Nature and in the laboratory. Contrary to the importance of the ‘scale-free’ nature of cascade in neutral fluid turbulence, the turbulence in plasma is characterised by dynamics of distinct length scales. The cross-scale interactions can be highly non-symmetric so as to generate the plasma turbulence structures. Here we report that the system of hyper-fine electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) fluctuations and microscopic drift-wave (DW) fluctuations is strongly influenced by the sign of the gradient of the radial electric field through multiscale nonlinear interactions. The selective suppression effects by radial electric field inhomogeneity on DW mode induce a new route to modify ETG mode. This suppression mechanism shows disparity with respect to the sign of the radial electric field inhomogeneity, which can be driven by turbulence, so that it could be a new source for symmetry breaking in the turbulence structure formation in plasmas.

  8. 基于复变量求导法的共轭梯度法及其在热传导反问题边界条件辨识中的应用%Conjugate gradient method based on complex-variable-differentiation method and its application for identification of boundary conditions in inverse heat conduction problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔苗; 端维伟; 高效伟

    2015-01-01

    为了利用共轭梯度法的计算精度高和收敛速度快的优点,避免传统共轭梯度法在求解非线性热传导反问题中的微分处理、复杂的推导过程等问题,给出一种改进的共轭梯度法,即将复变量求导法引入传统的共轭梯度法,准确计算了各灵敏度系数,进而对瞬态非线性热传导反问题进行求解,并对边界条件进行辨识.算例验证了本文方法的有效性与精度.与传统共轭梯度法相比,在处理非线性问题方面,本文方法具有操作简单和精度高的优点.%The conventional conjugate gradient method is improved to utilize its advantage of high accuracy and fast convergence, and to avoid the complicated differentiating and derivation processes for solving nonlinear inverse heat conduction problems. In the present work, the complex-variable-differentiation method is introduced into the conventional conjugate gradient method, which is employed to precisely calculate the sensitivity coefficients. Transient nonlinear inverse heat conduction problems are solved, and then the boundary conditions are identified. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and high accuracy. Compared with the conventional conjugate gradient method, the present algorithm has the advantage of easier implementation and higher accuracy.

  9. Qualitative Analysis of Gradient-Type Systems with Oscillatory Nonlinearities on the Sierpi(n)ski Gasket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriele BONANNO; Giovanni MOLICA BISCI; Vicentiu R(A)DULESCU

    2013-01-01

    Under an appropriate oscillating behavior either at zero or at infinity of the nonlinear data,the existence of a sequence of weak solutions for parametric quasilinear systems of the gradient-type on the Sierpi(n)ski gasket is proved.Moreover,by adopting the same hypotheses on the potential and in presence of suitable small perturbations,the same conclusion is achieved.The approach is based on variational methods and on certain analytic and geometrical properties of the Sierpi(n)ski fractal as,for instance,a compact embedding result due to Fukushima and Shima.

  10. Linear and non-linear effects of gradient artifact filtering methods in simultaneous EEG-FMRI - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusenza, Monica; Accardo, Agostino; Monti, Fabrizio; Bramanti, Placido

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI is a powerful emerging tool in functional neuroimaging that exploits the relationship between neuronal electrophysiological activity and its hemodynamic response. It has found application in the study of both spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Combining the complementary advantages of the two techniques it provides a measurement with high temporal and spatial resolution, allowing a reliable localization of event generators. However, EEG data recorded inside MRI scanner are heavily corrupted by different types of artifacts due to the interactions between the patient, EEG electrodes wires and the magnetic fields inside the scanner. In particular, gradient switching and RF pulses, necessary to acquire fMRI data, generate large artifacts that can completely obscure EEG signals. Many methods have been proposed to eliminate or at least reduce gradient artifact. In this paper both a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of two different algorithms used for gradient artifact removal are presented. Linear and non-linear characteristics of EEG, such as power spectra, fractal dimension and beta scaling exponent, are evaluated for EEGs recorded outside and inside the scanner, in MR static and dynamic conditions. The study highlights how residual artifacts after correction and artifacts induced by correction itself could still considerably affect EEG signals. The results suggest that the quality of both these gradient artifact filtering methods is not yet sufficient to preserve EEG characteristics and thus it must be further improved. The aim of this study is to make neurophysiologists aware of the filtering effects that can compromise linear and non-linear analysis of EEG recorded during functional MRI.

  11. On the Cauchy Problem of Evolution p-Laplacian Equation with Nonlinear Gradient Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyu CHEN; Junning ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The authors study the existence of solution to p-Laplacian equation with non-linear forcing term under optimal assumptions on the initial data,which are assumed to be measures.The existence of local solution is obtained.

  12. Non-linear aspects of Görtler instability in boundary layers with pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenski, J. K.; de Souza, L. F.; Floryan, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The laminar flow over a concave surface may undergo transition to a turbulent state driven by secondary instabilities initiated by the longitudinal vortices known as Görtler vortices. These vortices distort the boundary layer structure by modifying the streamwise velocity component in both spanwise and wall-normal directions. Numerical simulations have been conducted to identify the role of the external pressure gradients in the development and saturation of the vortices. The results show that flows with adverse pressure gradients reach saturation upstream from the saturation location for neutral and favorable pressure gradients. In the transition region, the mean spanwise shear stress is about three times larger than in the flow without the vortices.

  13. Generalized conjugate gradient method for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations. [Solution of sparse, symmetric, positive-definite systems of linear equations arising from discretization of boundary-value problems for elliptic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concus, P.; Golub, G.H.; O' Leary, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    A generalized conjugate gradient method is considered for solving sparse, symmetric, positive-definite systems of linear equations, principally those arising from the discretization of boundary value problems for elliptic partial differential equations. The method is based on splitting off from the original coefficient matrix a symmetric, positive-definite one which corresponds to a more easily solvable system of equations, and then accelerating the associated iteration by using conjugate gradients. Optimality and convergence properties are presented, and the relation to other methods is discussed. Several splittings for which the method seems particularly effective are also discussed; and for some, numerical examples are given. 1 figure, 1 table. (auth)

  14. Simultaneous dispersion and non-linearity compensation with mid-span optical phase conjugation and distributed Raman amplifier for a sub-carrier multiplexed optical transmission link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Vardhanan, A. Vishnu; Gangopadhyay, R.

    2007-11-01

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) and distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) combination (OPC-DRA) is demonstrated as a potential enabling solution for simultaneous reduction of fiber non-linearities and dispersion compensation of a sub-carrier multiplexed (SCM) optical transmission link. The present work is focused on the use of OPC-DRA combination for system performance improvement in terms of composite second order distortion (CSO) and carrier to noise ratio (CNR) of the SCM link. The analysis further shows that, introduction of DRA with proper pumping scheme significantly reduce fiber non-linearity resulting in improvement of the system performance in terms of CNR, compared to the situation where only mid-way optical phase conjugation is used.

  15. Printed thin film transistors and CMOS inverters based on semiconducting carbon nanotube ink purified by a nonlinear conjugated copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenya; Dou, Junyan; Zhao, Jianwen; Tan, Hongwei; Ye, Jun; Tange, Masayoshi; Gao, Wei; Xu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiang; Guo, Wenrui; Ma, Changqi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Zhang, Kai; Cui, Zheng

    2016-02-28

    Two innovative research studies are reported in this paper. One is the sorting of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and ink formulation by a novel semiconductor copolymer and second is the development of CMOS inverters using not the p-type and n-type transistors but a printed p-type transistor and a printed ambipolar transistor. A new semiconducting copolymer (named P-DPPb5T) was designed and synthesized with a special nonlinear structure and more condensed conjugation surfaces, which can separate large diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) from arc discharge SWCNTs according to their chiralities with high selectivity. With the sorted sc-SWCNTs ink, thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated by aerosol jet printing. The TFTs displayed good uniformity, low operating voltage (±2 V) and subthreshold swing (SS) (122-161 mV dec(-1)), high effective mobility (up to 17.6-37.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and high on/off ratio (10(4)-10(7)). With the printed TFTs, a CMOS inverter was constructed, which is based on the p-type TFT and ambipolar TFT instead of the conventional p-type and n-type TFTs. Compared with other recently reported inverters fabricated by printing, the printed CMOS inverters demonstrated a better noise margin (74% 1/2 Vdd) and was hysteresis free. The inverter has a voltage gain of up to 16 at an applied voltage of only 1 V and low static power consumption.

  16. Influences of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect on nonlinear flow behavior at single fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing

    2016-07-01

    Fluid flow tests were conducted on two crossed fracture models for which the geometries of fracture segments and intersections were measured by utilizing a visualization technique using a CCD (charged coupled device) camera. Numerical simulations by solving the Navier-Stokes equations were performed to characterize the fluid flow at fracture intersections. The roles of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect in the nonlinear fluid flow behavior through single fracture intersections were investigated. The simulation results of flow rate agreed well with the experimental results for both models. The experimental and simulation results showed that with the increment of the hydraulic gradient, the ratio of the flow rate to the hydraulic gradient, Q/J, decreases and the relative difference of Q/J between the calculation results employing the Navier-Stokes equations and the cubic law, δ, increases. When taking into account the fracture surface roughness quantified by Z2 ranging 0-0.42 for J = 1, the value of δ would increase by 0-10.3%. The influences of the intersecting angle on the normalized flow rate that represents the ratio of the flow rate in a segment to the total flow rate, Ra, and the ratio of the hydraulic aperture to the mechanical aperture, e/E, are negligible when J 10-2. Based on the regression analysis on simulation results, a mathematical expression was proposed to quantify e/E, involving variables of J and Rr, where Rr is the radius of truncating circles centered at an intersection. For E/Rr > 10-2, e/E varies significantly and the scale of model has large impacts on the nonlinear flow behavior through intersections, while for E/Rr < 10-3, the scale effect is negligibly small. Finally, a necessary condition to apply the cubic law to fluid flow through fracture intersections is suggested as J < 10-3, E/Rr < 10-3, and Z2 = 0.

  17. Normalized gradient fields for nonlinear motion correction of DCE-MRI time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Rørvik, Jarle; Munthe-Kaas, Antonella Z

    2014-04-01

    Dynamic MR image recordings (DCE-MRI) of moving organs using bolus injections create two different types of dynamics in the images: (i) spatial motion artifacts due to patient movements, breathing and physiological pulsations that we want to counteract and (ii) signal intensity changes during contrast agent wash-in and wash-out that we want to preserve. Proper image registration is needed to counteract the motion artifacts and for a reliable assessment of physiological parameters. In this work we present a partial differential equation-based method for deformable multimodal image registration using normalized gradients and the Fourier transform to solve the Euler-Lagrange equations in a multilevel hierarchy. This approach is particularly well suited to handle the motion challenges in DCE-MRI time series, being validated on ten DCE-MRI datasets from the moving kidney. We found that both normalized gradients and mutual information work as high-performing cost functionals for motion correction of this type of data. Furthermore, we demonstrated that normalized gradients have improved performance compared to mutual information as assessed by several performance measures. We conclude that normalized gradients can be a viable alternative to mutual information regarding registration accuracy, and with promising clinical applications to DCE-MRI recordings from moving organs.

  18. High-effciency improved symmetric successive over-relaxation preconditioned conjugate gradient method for solving large-scale finite element linear equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根; 唐春安; 李连崇

    2013-01-01

    Fast solving large-scale linear equations in the finite element analysis is a classical subject in computational mechanics. It is a key technique in computer aided engineering (CAE) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM). This paper presents a high-effciency improved symmetric successive over-relaxation (ISSOR) preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method, which maintains the convergence and inherent paral-lelism consistent with the original form. Ideally, the computation can be reduced nearly by 50% as compared with the original algorithm. It is suitable for high-performance computing with its inherent basic high-effciency operations. By comparing with the nu-merical results, it is shown that the proposed method has the best performance.

  19. A Study on GPU Computing of Bi-conjugate Gradient Method for Finite Element Analysis of the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong Seon; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byoung Jin [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hye Dong [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    A parallel algorithm of bi-conjugate gradient method was developed based on CUDA for parallel computation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The governing equations were discretized using splitting P2P1 finite element method. Asymmetric stenotic flow problem was solved to validate the proposed algorithm, and then the parallel performance of the GPU was examined by measuring the elapsed times. Further, the GPU performance for sparse matrix-vector multiplication was also investigated with a matrix of fluid-structure interaction problem. A kernel was generated to simultaneously compute the inner product of each row of sparse matrix and a vector. In addition, the kernel was optimized to improve the performance by using both parallel reduction and memory coalescing. In the kernel construction, the effect of warp on the parallel performance of the present CUDA was also examined. The present GPU computation was more than 7 times faster than the single CPU by double precision.

  20. Gradient radial basis function networks for nonlinear and nonstationary time series prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, E S; Chen, S; Mulgrew, B

    1996-01-01

    We present a method of modifying the structure of radial basis function (RBF) network to work with nonstationary series that exhibit homogeneous nonstationary behavior. In the original RBF network, the hidden node's function is to sense the trajectory of the time series and to respond when there is a strong correlation between the input pattern and the hidden node's center. This type of response, however, is highly sensitive to changes in the level and trend of the time series. To counter these effects, the hidden node's function is modified to one which detects and reacts to the gradient of the series. We call this new network the gradient RBF (GRBF) model. Single and multistep predictive performance for the Mackey-Glass chaotic time series were evaluated using the classical RBF and GRBF models. The simulation results for the series without and with a tine-varying mean confirm the superior performance of the GRBF predictor over the RBF predictor.

  1. CPDES3: A preconditioned conjugate gradient solver for linear asymmetric matrix equations arising from coupled partial differential equations in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. V.; Koniges, A. E.; Shumaker, D. E.

    1988-11-01

    Many physical problems require the solution of coupled partial differential equations on three-dimensional domains. When the time scales of interest dictate an implicit discretization of the equations a rather complicated global matrix system needs solution. The exact form of the matrix depends on the choice of spatial grids and on the finite element or finite difference approximations employed. CPDES3 allows each spatial operator to have 7, 15, 19, or 27 point stencils and allows for general couplings between all of the component PDE's and it automatically generates the matrix structures needed to perform the algorithm. The resulting sparse matrix equation is solved by either the preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) method or by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient (BCG) algorithm. An arbitrary number of component equations are permitted only limited by available memory. In the sub-band representation used, we generate an algorithm that is written compactly in terms of indirect induces which is vectorizable on some of the newer scientific computers.

  2. 基于区域分解的共轭梯度法的有限元结构分析并行计算%Parallel computing for finite element structural analysis using conjugate gradient method based on domain decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付朝江; 张武

    2006-01-01

    Parallel finite element method using domain decomposition technique is adapted to a distributed parallel environment of workstation cluster. The algorithm is presented for parallelization of the preconditioned conjugate gradient method based on domain decomposition. Using the developed code, a dam structural analysis problem is solved on workstation cluster and results are given. The parallel performance is analyzed.

  3. Robust non-gradient C subroutines for non-linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    2004-01-01

    from Fortran to C. The reason for writing the present report is that some of the C subroutines have been replaced by more e ective and robust versions translated from the original Fortran subroutines to C by the Bandler Group, see [1]. Also the test examples have been modified to some extent...... standardized calls, and the user does not have to worry about special parameters controlling the iterations. For convenience we include an option for numerical checking of the user s implementation of the gradient. Note that another report [3] presents a collection of robust subroutines for both unconstrained...

  4. Do Quercus ilex woodlands undergo abrupt non-linear functional changes in response to human disturbance along a climatic gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio; José Molina, Maria; Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, Jose Manuel; Monleon, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that drylands are particularly prone to suffer critical transitions with abrupt non-linear changes in their structure and functions as a result of the existing complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and human disturbances. However, so far, few studies provide empirical data to validate these models. We aim at determining how holm oak (Quercus ilex) woodlands undergo changes in their functions in response to human disturbance along an aridity gradient (from semi-arid to sub-humid conditions), in eastern Spain. For that purpose, we used (a) remote-sensing estimations of precipitation-use-efficiency (PUE) from enhanced vegetation index (EVI) observations performed in 231x231 m plots of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); (b) biological and chemical soil parameter determinations (extracellular soil enzyme activity, soil respiration, nutrient cycling processes) from soil sampled in the same plots; (c) vegetation parameter determinations (ratio of functional groups) from vegetation surveys performed in the same plots. We analyzed and compared the shape of the functional change (in terms of PUE and soil and vegetation parameters) in response to human disturbance intensity for our holm oak sites along the aridity gradient. Overall, our results evidenced important differences in the shape of the functional change in response to human disturbance between climatic conditions. Semi-arid areas experienced a more accelerated non-linear decrease with an increasing disturbance intensity than sub-humid ones. The proportion of functional groups (herbaceous vs. woody cover) played a relevant role in the shape of the functional response of the holm oak sites to human disturbance.

  5. Gradient estimate for solutions of a class of nonlinear elliptic equations below the duality exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirmi, G. Rita; D'Asero, Salvatore; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2017-07-01

    We study the regularity of a solution of the Dirichlet problem associated to the singular equation -div(a (x )D u )+M |/D u | uθ =f (x )inΩ (1) where Ω is an open bounded subset of ℝN (N ≥ 3) with smooth boundary, a(x) is a L∞ -matrix satisfying the standard ellipticity condition, θ ∈]0, 1[, M is a positive constant and f is sufficiently regular i.e. it belongs to a suitable Morrey space Lq,λ (Ω), with q ≥ 1, to be specified later on. We will be concerned with the regularity of the gradient of a solution in Morrey spaces in correspondence with the regularity properties of the right-hand side of the equation (1). There is a huge literature about the problems with quadratic term in the gradient also for high-order equations whose coefficients satisfy a strengthened ellipticity condition (see [5]). The problem (1) has been studied in the paper [2] by D. Arcoya, J. Carmona, T. Leonori, P. J. Martínez-Aparicio, L. Orsina, F. Petitta and in the paper [3] by L. Boccardo where the source term f belonged to Lq(Ω) with q ≥ 1. In [4] we have extended to the gradient of a solution the Morrey property of the right-hand side f and, in some cases, we have improved some results contained in [2, 3] without increasing the summability of f. Here we will be concerned with an intermediate case, in the sense that the right hand side is not merely a measure and it doesn't belong to the right dual space (see [10, 9]). In obtaining the necessary local estimates we faced the problem of performing the Campanato's decomposition of the solution due to the presence of the degenerate lower order term. We had thus to adopt an alternative method already used in [4]. This is part of a new set of estimates, including potential estimates, as for instance in [6, 7, 8], that would be very interesting to extend in the present setting too.

  6. Mixed gradient-Tikhonov methods for solving nonlinear ill-posed problems in Banach spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margotti, Fábio

    2016-12-01

    Tikhonov regularization is a very useful and widely used method for finding stable solutions of ill-posed problems. A good choice of the penalization functional as well as a careful selection of the topologies of the involved spaces is fundamental to the quality of the reconstructions. These choices can be combined with some a priori information about the solution in order to preserve desired characteristics like sparsity constraints for example. To prove convergence and stability properties of this method, one usually has to assume that a minimizer of the Tikhonov functional is known. In practical situations however, the exact computation of a minimizer is very difficult and even finding an approximation can be a very challenging and expensive task if the involved spaces have poor convexity or smoothness properties. In this paper we propose a method to attenuate this gap between theory and practice, applying a gradient-like method to a Tikhonov functional in order to approximate a minimizer. Using only available information, we explicitly calculate a maximal step-size which ensures a monotonically decreasing error. The resulting algorithm performs only finitely many steps and terminates using the discrepancy principle. In particular the knowledge of a minimizer or even its existence does not need to be assumed. Under standard assumptions, we prove convergence and stability results in relatively general Banach spaces, and subsequently, test its performance numerically, reconstructing conductivities with sparsely located inclusions and different kinds of noise in the 2D electrical impedance tomography.

  7. Effects of predation pressure on species packing on a resource gradient: insights from nonlinear dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, John; Liere, Heidi; Lin, Brenda

    2006-06-01

    The classical case of three competitors arranged on a resource gradient such that the central competitor will be excluded due to competition from the other two is studied from the point of view of the effects of added predators. The basic formulation is motivated by a desire to understand the effects of asymmetries in multidimensional Lotka-Volterra systems. We first study the effects of perfectly specialist predators and find a rich collection of possible behaviors of the system including (1) extinction of all predators and subsequent extinction of the subordinate competitor, (2) dominant competitors and their predators coexist but the subdominant competitor goes extinct, (3) all species except the predator of the subordinate competitor coexist in coordinated phase-reversed chaos, (4) exclusion of one or more species occurs through an expanding heteroclinic cycle, and (5) all species coexist in an uncoordinated chaos. We then study the effects of five qualitatively distinct forms of polyphagy. In one case, corresponding to the well-known vulnerability to predation versus competitive ability trade-off, it is possible to have the subordinate competitor be the only survivor in the system. The other three cases of polyphagy lead to distortions in the basic pattern seen in the previously analyzed specialist case. Studying this case of ecologically motivated asymmetries in the basic Lotka-Volterra formulation is a step in the direction of fully understanding interacting populations.

  8. TV-based conjugate gradient method and discrete L-curve for few-view CT reconstruction of X-ray in vivo data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Hofmann, Ralf; Dapp, Robin; van de Kamp, Thomas; Rolo, Tomy dos Santos; Xiao, Xianghui; Moosmann, Julian; Kashef, Jubin; Stotzka, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) imaging of soft tissues requires the solution of two inverse problems: phase retrieval and the reconstruction of the 3D image from a tomographic stack of two-dimensional (2D) projections. The number of projections per stack should be small to accommodate fast tomography of rapid processes and to constrain X-ray radiation dose to optimal levels to either increase the duration of in vivo time-lapse series at a given goal for spatial resolution and/or the conservation of structure under X-ray irradiation. In pursuing the 3D reconstruction problem in the sense of compressive sampling theory, we propose to reduce the number of projections by applying an advanced algebraic technique subject to the minimisation of the total variation (TV) in the reconstructed slice. This problem is formulated in a Lagrangian multiplier fashion with the parameter value determined by appealing to a discrete L-curve in conjunction with a conjugate gradient method. The usefulness of this reconstruction modality is demonstrated for simulated and in vivo data, the latter acquired in parallel-beam imaging experiments using synchrotron radiation. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America

  9. Bundle block adjustment of large-scale remote sensing data with Block-based Sparse Matrix Compression combined with Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Maoteng; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Shunping; Zhu, Junfeng; Xiong, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, new platforms and sensors in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision areas have become available, such as Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAV), oblique camera systems, common digital cameras and even mobile phone cameras. Images collected by all these kinds of sensors could be used as remote sensing data sources. These sensors can obtain large-scale remote sensing data which consist of a great number of images. Bundle block adjustment of large-scale data with conventional algorithm is very time and space (memory) consuming due to the super large normal matrix arising from large-scale data. In this paper, an efficient Block-based Sparse Matrix Compression (BSMC) method combined with the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) algorithm is chosen to develop a stable and efficient bundle block adjustment system in order to deal with the large-scale remote sensing data. The main contribution of this work is the BSMC-based PCG algorithm which is more efficient in time and memory than the traditional algorithm without compromising the accuracy. Totally 8 datasets of real data are used to test our proposed method. Preliminary results have shown that the BSMC method can efficiently decrease the time and memory requirement of large-scale data.

  10. 一类修正PRP共轭梯度法及其全局收敛性%Global Convergence of a Modified PRP Conjugate Gradient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月芹; 郑浩; 张传林

    2011-01-01

    In our report, a modified PRP conjugate gradient method was proposed, which develops a new formula for parameter and possesses the following properties: (1) the sufficient descent property holds without any line searches; (2) the method inherits an important property of Polak Ribiere Polyak (PRP) method; (3) the method is globally convergent under some assumable conditions. Preliminary numerical results showed that this method was very efficient.%提出一类改进的PRP共轭梯度法,该算法采用一个新的公式计算参数并且具有下列性质:1)在任何线搜索下都满足充分下降性;2)继承了PRP方法的重要性质;3)在一些假设条件下具有全局收敛性.初步的数值试验表明,该算法是有效可行的.

  11. Adaptive estimation of nonlinear parameters of a nonholonomic spherical robot using a modified fuzzy-based speed gradient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozegar, Mehdi; Mahjoob, Mohammad J.; Ayati, Moosa

    2017-05-01

    This paper deals with adaptive estimation of the unknown parameters and states of a pendulum-driven spherical robot (PDSR), which is a nonlinear in parameters (NLP) chaotic system with parametric uncertainties. Firstly, the mathematical model of the robot is deduced by applying the Newton-Euler methodology for a system of rigid bodies. Then, based on the speed gradient (SG) algorithm, the states and unknown parameters of the robot are estimated online for different step length gains and initial conditions. The estimated parameters are updated adaptively according to the error between estimated and true state values. Since the errors of the estimated states and parameters as well as the convergence rates depend significantly on the value of step length gain, this gain should be chosen optimally. Hence, a heuristic fuzzy logic controller is employed to adjust the gain adaptively. Simulation results indicate that the proposed approach is highly encouraging for identification of this NLP chaotic system even if the initial conditions change and the uncertainties increase; therefore, it is reliable to be implemented on a real robot.

  12. Nonlinear concentration gradients regulated by the width of channels for observation of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuta; Kamiya, Koki; Osaki, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Hirotaka; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-08-21

    This paper describes a simple microfluidic device that can generate nonlinear concentration gradients. We changed the "width" of channels that can drastically shorten the total microfluidic channel length and simplify the microfluidic network design rather than the "length" of channels. The logarithmic concentration gradients generated by the device were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. Using this device, we evaluated a probable IC50 value of the ABC transporter proteins by the competitive transport assays at five different logarithmic concentrations. This probable IC50 value was in good agreement with an IC50 value (0.92 μM) obtained at the diluted concentrations of seven points.

  13. An investigation of the interrelationships between linear and nonlinear polarizabilities and bond-length alternation in conjugated organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, C B; Marder, S R

    1993-01-01

    A computational method was devised to explore the relationship of charge separation, geometry, molecular dipole moment (mu), polarizability (alpha), and hyperpolariz-abilities (beta, gamma) in conjugated organic molecules. We show that bond-length alternation (the average difference in length between single and double bonds in the molecule) is a key structurally observable parameter that can be correlated with hyperpolarizabilities and is thus relevant to the optimization of molecules and materials. By using this method, the relationship of bond-length alternation, mu, alpha, beta, and gamma for linear conjugated molecules is illustrated, and those molecules with maximized alpha, beta, and gamma are described. PMID:11607441

  14. An Investigation of the Interrelationships Between Linear and Nonlinear Polarizabilities and Bond-Length Alternation in Conjugated Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Christopher B.; Marder, Seth R.

    1993-12-01

    A computational method was devised to explore the relationship of charge separation, geometry, molecular dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), and hyperpolariz-abilities (β, γ) in conjugated organic molecules. We show that bond-length alternation (the average difference in length between single and double bonds in the molecule) is a key structurally observable parameter that can be correlated with hyperpolarizabilities and is thus relevant to the optimization of molecules and materials. By using this method, the relationship of bond-length alternation, μ, α, β, and γ for linear conjugated molecules is illustrated, and those molecules with maximized α, β, and γ are described.

  15. A BPTT-like Min-Max Optimal Control Algorithm for Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Vladimir; Kasać, Josip; Majetić, Dubravko; Šitum, Željko

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a conjugate gradient-based algorithm for feedback min-max optimal control of nonlinear systems. The algorithm has a backward-in-time recurrent structure similar to the back propagation through time (BPTT) algorithm. The control law is given as the output of the one-layer neural network. Main contribution of the paper includes the integration of BPTT techniques, conjugate gradient methods, Adams method for solving ODEs and automatic differentiation (AD), to provide an effective, novel algorithm for solving numerically optimally min-max control problems. The proposed algorithm is applied to the rotational/translational actuator (RTAC) nonlinear benchmark problem with control and state vector constraints.

  16. Poblano v1.0 : a Matlab toolbox for gradient-based optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Acar, Evrim (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2010-03-01

    We present Poblano v1.0, a Matlab toolbox for solving gradient-based unconstrained optimization problems. Poblano implements three optimization methods (nonlinear conjugate gradients, limited-memory BFGS, and truncated Newton) that require only first order derivative information. In this paper, we describe the Poblano methods, provide numerous examples on how to use Poblano, and present results of Poblano used in solving problems from a standard test collection of unconstrained optimization problems.

  17. Distinguishing the Effects of Bond-Length Alternation versus Bond-Order Alternation on the Nonlinear Optical Properties of π-Conjugated Chromophores

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2015-06-18

    Understanding the relationships between the molecular nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and the bond-length alternation (BLA) or π-bond-order alternation (BOA) along the molecular backbone of linear π-conjugated systems has proven widely useful in the development of NLO organic chromophores and materials. Here, we examine model polymethines to elucidate the reliability of these relationships. While BLA is solely a measure of molecular geometric structure, BOA includes information pertaining to the electronic structure. As a result, BLA is found to be a good predictor of NLO properties only when optimized geometries are considered, whereas BOA is more broadly applicable. Proper understanding of the distinction between BLA and BOA is critical when designing computational studies of NLO properties, especially for molecules in complex environments or in nonequilibrium geometries. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  18. Imaging through Turbulent Media Based on Phase Conjugation in Resonantly-Enhanced Second-Order Nonlinear Materials: A Novel Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    the nonlinear parametric processes in the AFB KTP plates, see Fig. 3. The pump beam at 539 nm is an output generated by a MOPO system (10 Hz, 5 ns...ps pulse width) is from an output of Master Oscillator/Power Oscillator ( MOPO ), with wide range wavelength tenability. The pump beam is split into

  19. Image-based gradient non-linearity characterization to determine higher-order spherical harmonic coefficients for improved spatial position accuracy in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weavers, Paul T; Tao, Shengzhen; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Tryggestad, Erik J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; McGee, Kiaran P; Litwiller, Daniel V; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Bernstein, Matt A

    2017-05-01

    Spatial position accuracy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important concern for a variety of applications, including radiation therapy planning, surgical planning, and longitudinal studies of morphologic changes to study neurodegenerative diseases. Spatial accuracy is strongly influenced by gradient linearity. This work presents a method for characterizing the gradient non-linearity fields on a per-system basis, and using this information to provide improved and higher-order (9th vs. 5th) spherical harmonic coefficients for better spatial accuracy in MRI. A large fiducial phantom containing 5229 water-filled spheres in a grid pattern is scanned with the MR system, and the positions all the fiducials are measured and compared to the corresponding ground truth fiducial positions as reported from a computed tomography (CT) scan of the object. Systematic errors from off-resonance (i.e., B0) effects are minimized with the use of increased receiver bandwidth (±125kHz) and two acquisitions with reversed readout gradient polarity. The spherical harmonic coefficients are estimated using an iterative process, and can be subsequently used to correct for gradient non-linearity. Test-retest stability was assessed with five repeated measurements on a single scanner, and cross-scanner variation on four different, identically-configured 3T wide-bore systems. A decrease in the root-mean-square error (RMSE) over a 50cm diameter spherical volume from 1.80mm to 0.77mm is reported here in the case of replacing the vendor's standard 5th order spherical harmonic coefficients with custom fitted 9th order coefficients, and from 1.5mm to 1mm by extending custom fitted 5th order correction to the 9th order. Minimum RMSE varied between scanners, but was stable with repeated measurements in the same scanner. The results suggest that the proposed methods may be used on a per-system basis to more accurately calibrate MR gradient non-linearity coefficients when compared to vendor

  20. Nonlinear attitude stability of a spacecraft on a stationary orbit around an asteroid subjected to gravity gradient torque

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    The classical problem of attitude stability in a central gravity field is generalized to that on a stationary orbit around a uniformly-rotating asteroid. This generalized problem is studied in the framework of geometric mechanics. Based on the natural symplectic structure, the non-canonical Hamiltonian structure of the problem is derived. The Poisson tensor, Casimir functions and equations of motion are obtained in a differential geometric method. The equilibrium of the equations of motion, i.e. the equilibrium attitude of the spacecraft, is determined from a global point of view. Nonlinear stability conditions of the equilibrium attitude are obtained with the energy-Casimir method. The nonlinear attitude stability is then investigated versus three parameters of the asteroid, including the ratio of the mean radius to the stationary orbital radius, the harmonic coefficients C20 and C22. It is found that when the spacecraft is located on the intermediate-moment principal axis of the asteroid, the nonlinear stab...

  1. Ab-initio and DFT methodologies for computing hyperpolarizabilities and susceptibilities of highly conjugated organic compounds for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, A.; Karakaya, M.; Ceylan, Y.; El Kouari, Y.; Taboukhat, S.; Boughaleb, Y.; Sofiani, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this talk, after a short introduction on the methodologies used for computing dipole polarizability (α), second and third-order hyperpolarizability and susceptibility; the results of theoretical studies performed on density functional theory (DFT) and ab-initio quantum mechanical calculations of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties for a few selected organic compounds and polymers will be explained. The electric dipole moments (μ) and dispersion-free first hyperpolarizabilities (β) for a family of azo-azulenes and a styrylquinolinium dye have been determined by DFT at B3LYP level. To reveal the frequency-dependent NLO behavior, the dynamic α, second hyperpolarizabilities (γ), second (χ(2)) and third-order (χ(3)) susceptibilites have been evaluated using time-dependent HartreeFock (TDHF) procedure. To provide an insight into the third-order NLO phenomena of a series of pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene-based molecules and pushpull azobenzene polymers, two-photon absorption (TPA) characterizations have been also investigated by means of TDHF. All computed results of the examined compounds are compared with their previous experimental findings and the measured data for similar structures in the literature. The one-photon absorption (OPA) characterizations of the title molecules have been theoretically obtained by configuration interaction (CI) method. The highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) and the HOMO-LUMO band gaps have been revealed by DFT at B3LYP level for azo-azulenes, styrylquinolinium dye, push-pull azobenzene polymers and by parametrization method 6 (PM6) for pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene-based molecules.

  2. GPU-based preconditioned conjugate gradient method for solving sparse linear systems%基于GPU的稀疏线性系统的预条件共轭梯度法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健飞; 沈德飞

    2013-01-01

    研究了基于GPU的稀疏线性方程组的预条件共轭梯度法加速求解问题,并基于统一计算设备架构(CUDA)平台编制了程序,在NVIDIAGT430 GPU平台上进行了程序性能测试和分析.稀疏矩阵采用压缩稀疏行(CSR)格式压缩存储,针对预条件共轭梯度法的算法特性,研究了基于GPU的稀疏矩阵与向量相乘的性能优化、数据从CPU端传到GPU端的加速传输措施.将编制的稀疏矩阵与向量相乘的kernel函数和CUSPARSE函数库中的cusparseDcsrmv函数性能进行了对比,最优得到了2.1倍的加速效果.对于整个预条件共轭梯度法,通过自编kernel函数来实现的算法较之采用CUBLAS库和CUSPARSE库实现的算法稍具优势,与CPU端的预条件共轭梯度法相比,最优可以得到7.4倍的加速效果.%A GPU-accelerated preconditoned conjugate gradient method was studied to solve sparse linear equations. And the sparse matrix was stored in the Compressed Sparse Row (CSR) format. The programmes were coded on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and tested on the device of nVidia GT430 GPU. According to the features of conjugate gradient method, strategies were investigated to optimize the sparse matrix vector multiplication and the data transfer between CPU and GPU. Compared with the implementation calling cusparseDcsrmv, the self-developed kernel code of sparse matrix vector multiplication can go to a speed-up of 2. 1 in the best case. Equipped with this kernel, the preconditioned conjugate gradient code obtains a maximum speed-up of 7.4 against the CPU code, which is a bit advantageous over that using CUBLAS library and CUSPARSE library.

  3. Global Convergence and Numerical Experiments of Some New Modification of PRP Conjugate Gradient Method%一类修正PRP共轭梯度法的全局收敛性及其数值试验结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎勇

    2011-01-01

    提出一类求解无约束优化问题的修正PRP共轭梯度法.算法采用一个新的参数公式,利用该参数公式的非负特性,在适当条件下,分别证明算法在弱Wolfe-Powell线搜索和Grippo-Lucidi线搜索下全局收敛.最后给出了数值试验结果.%In this paper,a modified Polak-Ribière-Polyak(PRP) conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization.A new formula for parameters is developed.Using the non-negative property of the formula under suitable conditions,the global convergence of the proposed formula with the Wolfe-Powell line search and the Grippo-Lucidi line search is discussed.The results of numerical experiments are presented.

  4. A Class of Modified Spectral Conjugate Gradient Method and Its Global Convergence%一种修正的谱共轭梯度法及其全局收敛性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丹戎

    2015-01-01

    In this paper , a spectral conjugate gradient method is proposed to solve unconstrained optimization problems.The method is proved to be sufficiently decent property under the Wolfe line search and the global con -vergence of the method with the standard wolfe in exact line search is proved .%提出了一种新的求解无约束优化问题的谱共轭梯度算法。该算法在标准Wolfe线性搜索条件就能满足充分下降性,在标准的Wolfe非精确线搜索下证明新算法的全局收敛性。

  5. Universality for the focusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation at the gradient catastrophe point: Rational breathers and poles of the tritronquee solution to Painleve I

    CERN Document Server

    Bertola, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The semiclassical (zero-dispersion) limit of the one-dimensional focusing Nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLS) with decaying potentials is studied in a full scaling neighborhood D of the point of gradient catastrophe (x_0,t_0). This neighborhood contains the region of modulated plane wave (with rapid phase oscillations), as well as the region of fast amplitude oscillations (spikes). In this paper we establish the following universal behaviors of the NLS solutions near the point of gradient catastrophe: i) each spike has the height 3|q_0(x_0,t_0,epsilon)| and uniform shape of the rational breather solution to the NLS, scaled to the size O(epsilon); ii) the location of the spikes are determined by the poles of the tritronquee solution of the Painleve I (P1) equation through an explicit diffeomorphism between D and a region into the Painleve plane; iii) if (x,t) belongs to D but lies away from the spikes, the asymptotics of the NLS solution q(x,t,epsilon) is given by the plane wave approximation q_0(x,t,epsilon...

  6. Dispersed Gradient Method of High Order Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equation%高阶非线性薛定谔方程的离散梯度法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆思宇; 蒋朝龙; 孙建强

    2013-01-01

    In the report,a new dispersed gradient method was proposed for solving the high order nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equation.Firstly,the dispersed gradient method was used to discrete the high order nonlinear Schrodinger Equation and the dispersed gradient scheme of the high order nonlinear Schrodinger Equation was obtained.Secondly,the discrete gradient scheme and the corresponding symplectic scheme of the high order nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with the different saturated nonlinear effects and the different amplitudes were used to simulate the soliton behaviors.The results indicated that the dispersed gradient scheme can simulate the solitons behaviors of the high order nonlinear Schrodinger equation very well and preserve the energy conservation of the Hamiltonian system better than the symplectic scheme.%提出了一种新的离散梯度法求解高阶非线性薛定谔方程.首先利用离散梯度法离散高阶非线性薛定谔方程,得到高阶非线性薛定谔方程的离散梯度格式,然后利用高阶非线性薛定谔方程的离散梯度格式和相应的辛格式,在不同饱和非线性效应和不同振辐下对孤立子进行数值模拟.数值结果表明,离散梯度格式能很好地模拟高阶非线性薛定谔方程中孤立子行为,比辛格式更好地保持Hamilton系统的能量.

  7. 结合修正Curry-Altman步长搜索一个新的共轭梯度算法的收敛性%Global Convergence of a New Conjugate Gradient Methods with a Modification of the Curry-Altman Step-size Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽华; 孙清滢

    2004-01-01

    Conjugate gradient optimization algorithms depend on the search directions with different choices for the parameter in the search directions. In this note, conditions are given on the parameter in the conjugate gradient directions to ensure the descent property of the search directions. Global convergence of such a class of methods is discussed. It is shown that, using reverse modulus of continuity function and forcing function, the new method for solving unconstrained optimization can work for a continuously differentiable function with a modification of the Curry-Altman's step-size rule and a bounded level set. Combining PR method with our new method, PR method is modified to have global convergence property.Numerical experiments show that the new methods are efficient by comparing with FRconjugate gradient method.

  8. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Korytowski, A; Malanowski, K; Mitkowski, W; Szymkat, M

    2009-01-01

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain

  9. The preparation of a new type of ferrocene-based compounds with large conjugated system containing symmetrical aromatic vinyl with Schiff base moieties and the study of their third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiguo; Jia, Jianhong; Gao, Jianrong; Han, Liang; Li, Yujin

    2016-09-01

    Herein we reported the preparation of a new type of ferrocene-based compounds with large conjugated system containing symmetrical aromatic vinyl and Schiff base moieties and the study of their third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. Their third-order NLO properties were measured using femtosecond laser and degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The obtained χ(3), n2 and γ values of these molecules were found in the range of 0.998-1.429 × 10-12 esu,1.847-2.646 × 10-11 esu and 1.026-1.449 × 10-30 esu, respectively. The response time ranged from 43.65 fs to 61.71 fs. The results indicate that these compounds have potential nonlinear optical applications.

  10. 一种新的Goldstein线搜索下的共轭梯度方法%A New Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Method with Goldstein Line Searches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志伟

    2004-01-01

    将一个修正的FR公式和Goldstein线搜索结合,得到一种新的共轭梯度方法.假设目标函数f(x)在水平集上有下界且二次连续可微,证明了这种方法具有 limk→∞ inf‖gk‖=0意义下的全局收敛性.数值结果表明这种方法是很有效的.

  11. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Hankel operator are studied and yield promising results.

  12. Generating multiplex gradients of biomolecules for controlling cellular adhesion in parallel microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didar, Tohid Fatanat; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2012-11-07

    Here we present a microfluidic platform to generate multiplex gradients of biomolecules within parallel microfluidic channels, in which a range of multiplex concentration gradients with different profile shapes are simultaneously produced. Nonlinear polynomial gradients were also generated using this device. The gradient generation principle is based on implementing parrallel channels with each providing a different hydrodynamic resistance. The generated biomolecule gradients were then covalently functionalized onto the microchannel surfaces. Surface gradients along the channel width were a result of covalent attachments of biomolecules to the surface, which remained functional under high shear stresses (50 dyn/cm(2)). An IgG antibody conjugated to three different fluorescence dyes (FITC, Cy5 and Cy3) was used to demonstrate the resulting multiplex concentration gradients of biomolecules. The device enabled generation of gradients with up to three different biomolecules in each channel with varying concentration profiles. We were also able to produce 2-dimensional gradients in which biomolecules were distributed along the length and width of the channel. To demonstrate the applicability of the developed design, three different multiplex concentration gradients of REDV and KRSR peptides were patterned along the width of three parallel channels and adhesion of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in each channel was subsequently investigated using a single chip.

  13. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G.

    2012-05-01

    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  14. A calculation method of water distribution network hydraulic based on preconditioned conjugate gradient method%一种基于预处理共轭梯度法的给水管网水力计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美香

    2014-01-01

    提出了一种新的给水管网水力计算方法.该方法对给水管网系统的节点流量连续性方程进行重新构造,用改进的Cholesky分解方法对重新构造的矩阵进行三角分解,然后使用预处理共轭梯度法求解.经用供水管网模型进行验证并与EPANET软件的计算结果进行比较,结果表明:该算法共迭代5次,用时0.102 s,与EPANET混合节点-环方法的求解精度和速度非常接近,且弥补了EPA-NET软件的应用缺陷,可用于求解大型城市的给水管网系统.%A calculation method of water distribution network hydraulic was proposed.The nodes flow conti-nuity equation of water distribution system was reconstructed,the reconstructed matrix was decomposed tri-angularly by a modified Cholesky decomposition method,and thus it was suitable for the use of precondi-tioned conjugate gradient method.It was tested by the model of water distribution network(WDN)hydrau-lic.Compared with calculation result of EPANET software,the proposed algorithm does total iteration five times in 0.1 02 s,which closed to the result of mixed node-ring method used in EPANET software in the as-pect of accuracy and speed.The proposed algorithm overcame the defects of EPANET software,which could be used to solve large-scale urban water supply network system.

  15. Optimising a parallel conjugate gradient solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, M.R. [O`Reilly Institute, Dublin (Ireland)

    1996-12-31

    This work arises from the introduction of a parallel iterative solver to a large structural analysis finite element code. The code is called FEX and it was developed at Hitachi`s Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. The FEX package can deal with a large range of structural analysis problems using a large number of finite element techniques. FEX can solve either stress or thermal analysis problems of a range of different types from plane stress to a full three-dimensional model. These problems can consist of a number of different materials which can be modelled by a range of material models. The structure being modelled can have the load applied at either a point or a surface, or by a pressure, a centrifugal force or just gravity. Alternatively a thermal load can be applied with a given initial temperature. The displacement of the structure can be constrained by having a fixed boundary or by prescribing the displacement at a boundary.

  16. Vibrational and quantum-chemical study of push-pull chromophores for second-order nonlinear optics from rigidified thiophene-based pi-conjugating spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Delgado, Mari Carmen; Hernández, Víctor; Casado, Juan; López Navarrete, Juan T; Raimundo, Jean-Manuel; Blanchard, Philippe; Roncali, Jean

    2003-08-04

    Two types of push-pull chromophores built around thiophene-based pi-conjugating spacers rigidified by either covalent bonds or noncovalent intramolecular interactions have been analysed by means of IR and Raman spectroscopical measurements in the solid state as well as in a variety of solvents. Comparison of the Raman features of NLO-phores based on a covalently rigidified dithienylene (DTE) spacer with those of their open chain DTE analogues shows that the bridging of the central double bond of DTE with the nearest beta-positions of the thienyl units through two ethylene bridges significantly improves the intramolecular charge transfer. This also occurs for NLO-phores based on a 2,2'-bi(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (BEDOT) spacer as compared with their corresponding parent compounds based on an unsubstituted bithiophene (BT) spacer. For NLO-phores based on a BEDOT spacer, noncovalent intramolecular interactions between sulfur and oxygen atoms are responsible for the rigidification of the spacer. The Raman spectra of these NLO-phores obtained in the form of solutes in dilute solutions reveal two different behaviours: i) chromophores based on covalently bridged or open chain DTE spacers display Raman spectral profiles in solution quite similar to those of the corresponding solids, with a very little dependence on the polarity of the solvent, while ii) larger spectral changes are noticed for NLO-phores built around BEDOT or BT spacers on going from solids to solutions. In the second case, spectral changes must be ascribed not solely to conformational distortions of the donor and acceptor end groups with respect to the pi-conjugated backbone mean-square-plane (as for the DTE-based NLO-phores) but also to distortions of the thienyl units of the pi-conjugating spacer from coplanarity. The insertion of vinylenic bridges between the thienyl units of the pi-conjugating spacer and between the spacer and the donor and acceptor end groups is a suitable strategy to reach a

  17. 用迭代方法和双共轭梯度法重建二维电导率剖面分布%Reconstruction of the 2-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Conductivity Profile Using Iterative and Bi-Conjugate Gradient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨峰; 聂在平

    2000-01-01

    本文着重阐述采用积分方程的迭代方法并结合双共轭梯度(BCG)法对低频近场非均匀背景介质中二维轴对称电导率剖面的反演,并仅用z向采集的数据进行目标重建。首先,基于待反演目标区内、外的电场积分方程。建立起反演积分方程,将积分方程离散化为矩阵方程,用迭代方法求解目标区电导率分布。在每次迭代过程中,格林函数不断被更新。同时用正则化方法来消除解的不适定性。文中利用不完备的测量数据对复杂的电导率剖面进行了反演。数值模拟结果表明本文方法与文献[8]相比,且有更快的收敛速度和更高的成象质量。%In this paper,the inversion and reconstruction of 2-dimensional inhomogeneous conductivity profile for low-frquency near field using iterative algorithm and bi-conjugate gradient method (BCG) is decribed. Based on the internal and external electric field integration equations, the inversion equation is derived. By using the method of moments ,the integral equation can be discretized into matrix form. The Green′s function is updated in every iteration step. Then, ill-posed problem is circumvented by imposing additional constraints on the solution using the Tikhonov regularzation method. Numerical results show that this method is of faster convergence and higher inverse quality than that which introduced in reference [8].

  18. Importance of the alignment of polar π conjugated molecules inside carbon nanotubes in determining second-order non-linear optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Wataru

    2017-09-20

    We employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations with dispersion corrections to investigate energetically preferred alignments of certain p,p'-dimethylaminonitrostilbene (DANS) molecules inside an armchair (m,m) carbon nanotube (n × DANS@(m,m)), where the number of inner molecules (n) is no greater than 3. Here, three types of alignments of DANS are considered: a linear alignment in a parallel fashion and stacking alignments in parallel and antiparallel fashions. According to DFT calculations, a threshold tube diameter for containing DANS molecules in linear or stacking alignments was found to be approximately 1.0 nm. Nanotubes with diameters smaller than 1.0 nm result in the selective formation of linearly aligned DANS molecules due to strong confinement effects within the nanotubes. By contrast, larger diameter nanotubes allow DANS molecules to align in a stacking and linear fashion. The type of alignment adopted by the DANS molecules inside a nanotube is responsible for their second-order non-linear optical properties represented by their static hyperpolarizability (β0 values). In fact, we computed β0 values of DANS assemblies taken from optimized n × DANS@(m,m) structures, and their values were compared with those of a single DANS molecule. DFT calculations showed that β0 values of DANS molecules depend on their alignment, which decrease in the following order: linear alignment > parallel stacking alignment > antiparallel stacking alignment. In particular, a linear alignment has a β0 value more significant than that of the same number of isolated molecules. Therefore, the linear alignment of DANS molecules, which is only allowed inside smaller diameter nanotubes, can strongly enhance their second-order non-linear optical properties. Since the nanotube confinement determines the alignment of DANS molecules, a restricted nanospace can be utilized to control their second-order non-linear optical properties. These DFT findings can assist in the design

  19. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient computational method for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures is proposed. The application of mixed models simplifies the analytical development and improves the accuracy of the response predictions, and operator splitting allows the reduction of the analysis model of the quasi-symmetric structure to that of the corresponding symmetric structure. The preconditoned conjugate gradient provides a stable and effective technique for generating the unsymmetric response of the structure as the sum of a symmetrized response plus correction modes. The effectiveness of the strategy is demonstrated with the example of a laminated anisotropic shallow shell of quadrilateral planform subjected to uniform normal loading.

  20. O-space imaging: Highly efficient parallel imaging using second-order nonlinear fields as encoding gradients with no phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Jason P; Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Galiana, Gigi; Tam, Leo; Constable, R Todd

    2010-08-01

    Recent improvements in parallel imaging have been driven by the use of greater numbers of independent surface coils placed so as to minimize aliasing along the phase-encode direction(s). However, gains from increasing the number of coils diminish as coil coupling problems begin to dominate and the ratio of acceleration gain to expense for multiple receiver chains becomes prohibitive. In this work, we redesign the spatial-encoding strategy in order to gain efficiency, achieving a gradient encoding scheme that is complementary to the spatial encoding provided by the receiver coils. This approach leads to "O-space" imaging, wherein the gradient shapes are tailored to an existing surface coil array, making more efficient use of the spatial information contained in the coil profiles. In its simplest form, for each acquired echo the Z2 spherical harmonic is used to project the object onto sets of concentric rings, while the X and Y gradients are used to offset this projection within the imaging plane. The theory is presented, an algorithm is introduced for image reconstruction, and simulations reveal that O-space encoding achieves high encoding efficiency compared to sensitivity encoding (SENSE) radial k-space trajectories, and parallel imaging technique with localized gradients (PatLoc), suggesting that O-space imaging holds great potential for accelerated scanning.

  1. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  2. Non-resonant z-scan characterization of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of conjugated poly(thiophene azines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccinetto, Alessandro; Mazzucato, Simone; Pedron, Danilo; Bozio, Renato; Destri, Silvia; Porzio, William

    2008-10-06

    The nonlinear optical properties of a functionalized poly(thiophene azine), namely, poly(3,4-didodecylthiophene azine), PAZ, at the optical telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm are investigated by means of the closed-aperture z-scan technique in both thin films and solutions. Values of chi((3))=(2.4+/-0.4)x10(-13) esu, n(2)=(4.0+/-0.7)x10(-15) cm(2) W(-1), and gamma=(4.5+/-0.7)x10(-34) esu are estimated for the third-order (Kerr) susceptibility, the intensity-dependent refractive index, and the molecular second hyperpolarizability of solution samples, respectively. A very small dependence on the polymer chain length is found. Markedly higher values of (4.4+/-1.1)x10(-11) esu, (6.6+/-1.0)x10(-13) cm(2) W(-1), and (5.0+/-0.8)x10(-33) esu are measured for the corresponding quantities in thick (up to 20 mum) polymer films cast on quartz plates. The enhancement of the NLO responses on going from solution to solid samples is attributed to a partially ordered structure and to the presence of interchain interactions leading to greater pi-electron delocalization in the cast polymer films. The results are compared with those previously obtained by using third-harmonic generation (THG), taking into account that those data were measured under conditions of three-photon resonance, whereas our z-scan measurements are fully off-resonance.

  3. DFT and ab initio study on non-linear optical (NLO) properties of some organic complexes with different conjugate linker and substituent groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guodong; Zhao, Jianying; Jiang, Zhengjing; Kou, Shanshan; Ju, Xuehai; Wei, Changmei

    2012-09-01

    A series of Schiff-bases chromophores containing imine or double C=C bond linkers between the donor and acceptor have been studied by first-principles calculations. The molecular structures, electronic properties and second order nonlinearities were investigated by DFT and ab initio methods. The optimized structural parameters of these Schiff-base derivates showed that these compounds are stable. The results of TD-DFT calculations indicate that the derivatives with the heterocyclic and imine linker have a red shift absorption compared to derivatives with the double C=C or N=N bonds. The analysis of the frontier molecular orbitals indicates that the CN group and the heterocycle linked by the CN or imine group has contribution to the LUMO orbital while the groups N(CH3)2 and the benzene ring linked by the double C=C or N=N bond have contribution to the HOMO orbital. The CN and the heterocyclic acceptors enable the derivatives to have a larger first static hyperpolarizability. However, the compounds 3-{4-[(4-Dimethylamino-phenylimino)-methyl]-pyridin-1-yl}-propanel-1-sulfonoperoxoic acid and 3-{4-[(4-Dimethylamino-phenylimino)-methyl]-quinolin-1-yl}propanel-1-sulfonoperoxoic acid with a substituent also have large first static hyperpolarizabilities due to the overwhelming contributions of electron density of the group to the HOMO orbital, that is, the HOMO orbital were constituted by the SO{3/-} group only. In order to understand the influence of the energy gap (Δ E) between the HOMO and the LUMO orbitals on the first static hyperpolarizability, we calculated the energy gap (Δ E) of all Schiff-base compounds. The results show that the smaller the HOMO-LUMO energy gap the larger the first static hyperpolarizability. The present study demonstrated that these compounds which have pure C=N double bond and heterocyclic substitution groups may have potential applications in the development of NLO materials.

  4. Visualization of phase conjugate ultrasound waves passed through inhomogeneous layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Pernod, P; Preobrazhensky, V

    2004-04-01

    Compensation of phase distortions of ultrasound beams by means of parametric phase conjugation is visualized. Quasi-plane and focused primary beams were distorted by a polymer aberration layer introduced between the primary wave source and the wave phase conjugator. It is demonstrated acousto-optically that, while the acoustic field is strongly irregular in the area between aberration layer and conjugator, the phase conjugate wave visibly reproduces the primary beams in the area between the layer and the primary wave source. The phenomenon is observed in supercritical mode of parametric amplification when intensity of phase conjugate wave is high enough for manifestations of acoustic nonlinearities in water.

  5. Gradiometer Based on Nonlinear Magneto-Optic Rotation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will demonstrate sensitive measurements of magnetic field gradients by nonlinear atomic spectroscopy. The gradients are determined by...

  6. 考虑起始比降的饱和土体一维复杂非线性固结研究%Study on one-dimensional nonlinear consolidation behavior for saturated soils with threshold gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄杰卿; 谢新宇; 王文军; 刘开富

    2013-01-01

    In reduced coordinates, a one-dimensional finite strain consolidation equation for saturated soils is derived with threshold gradient. The new equation shows that threshold gradient and variation of permeability coefficient with void ratio should be considered. Using the two empirical relations proposed by Mesri, a new governing equation is obtained. Then three examples are analyzed by applying the partial differential finite element software FlexPDE. The results show that excess pore water pressure slightly increases at the beginning of consolidation progress and then dissipates. This phenomenon is similar to the Mandel-Cryer effect. It will be more significant if threshold gradient is greater or location of soil is deeper. Even though the maximum excess pore water pressure increases when threshold gradient increases, the increment is very small. It is too difficult for us to observe the tiny increments in laboratory and practical engineerings. Therefore, there is no need to consider threshold gradient in vast majority of actual projects. In other words, classical Carey's law is applicable. This research shows that it is very important to consider threshold gradient, geometric nonlinearity and material nonlinearity in studying the Mandel-Cryer effect so as to further understand the consolidation properties of saturated soils.%在固相物质坐标下推导出了考虑起始比降的饱和土体一维大应变固结控制方程.从新方程可以看出,要综合考虑土体固结过程中的渗流非线性,要同时考虑起始比降和渗透系数随孔隙比的变化.采用Mesri提出的两个经验关系式进一步推导出了新的控制方程.借助偏微分有限元软件FlexPDE对3个算例进行了分析.分析结果表明,土体固结开始阶段超静孔压先略微增大,然后减小,类似于Mandel-Cryer效应.起始比降越大,土层越深,该现象越显著.虽然超静孔压最大值随起始比降的增大而增大,但增量很小.如此微小的

  7. Nonlinear Thermophoresis beyond Local Equilibrium Criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Duhr, Stefan; Braun, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Thermophoresis (thermodiffusion, Soret effect) moves molecules along thermal gradients. We measure its phenomenological linear drift relation by single particle tracking in convection-free settings. For moderate thermal gradients, drift velocity depends linearly on the gradient. However, for strong thermal gradients, we find a nonlinear dependence of the drift on the applied gradient for large Soret coefficient and particle radius. Interestingly, the onset of the nonlinearity coincides with a...

  8. Interpretation of Source Parameters from Total Gradient of Gravity and Magnetic Anomalies Caused by Thin Dyke using Nonlinear Global Optimization Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A.

    2016-12-01

    A proficient way to deal with appraisal model parameters from total gradient of gravity and magnetic data in light of Very Fast Simulated Annealing (VFSA) has been exhibited. This is the first run through of applying VFSA in deciphering total gradient of potential field information with another detailing estimation brought on because of detached causative sources installed in the subsurface. The model parameters translated here are the amplitude coefficient (k), accurate origin of causative source (x0) depth (z0) and the shape factor (q). The outcome of VFSA improvement demonstrates that it can exceptionally decide all the model parameters when shape variable is fixed. The model parameters assessed by the present strategy, for the most part the shape and depth of the covered structures was observed to be in astounding concurrence with the genuine parameters. The technique has likewise the capability of dodging very uproarious information focuses and enhances the understanding results. Investigation of Histogram and cross-plot examination likewise proposes the translation inside the assessed ambiguity. Inversion of noise-free and noisy synthetic data information for single structures and field information shows the viability of the methodology. The procedure has been carefully and adequately connected to genuine field cases (Leona Anomaly, Senegal for gravity and Pima copper deposit, USA for magnetic) with the nearness of mineral bodies. The present technique can be to a great degree material for mineral investigation or ore bodies of dyke-like structure rooted in the shallow and more deep subsurface. The calculation time for the entire procedure is short.

  9. Nonlinear electronic excitations in crystalline solids using meta-generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional in time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shunsuke A.; Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Shinohara, Yasushi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    We develop methods to calculate electron dynamics in crystalline solids in real-time time-dependent density functional theory employing exchange-correlation potentials which reproduce band gap energies of dielectrics; a meta-generalized gradient approximation was proposed by Tran and Blaha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 226401 (2009)] (TBm-BJ) and a hybrid functional was proposed by Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003)] (HSE). In time evolution calculations employing the TB-mBJ potential, we have found it necessary to adopt the predictor-corrector step for a stable time evolution. We have developed a method to evaluate electronic excitation energy without referring to the energy functional which is unknown for the TB-mBJ potential. For the HSE functional, we have developed a method for the operation of the Fock-like term in Fourier space to facilitate efficient use of massive parallel computers equipped with graphic processing units. We compare electronic excitations in silicon and germanium induced by femtosecond laser pulses using the TB-mBJ, HSE, and a simple local density approximation (LDA). At low laser intensities, electronic excitations are found to be sensitive to the band gap energy: they are close to each other using TB-mBJ and HSE and are much smaller in LDA. At high laser intensities close to the damage threshold, electronic excitation energies do not differ much among the three cases.

  10. Nonlinear electronic excitations in crystalline solids using meta-generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional in time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shunsuke A. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yasutaka [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Department of Medical and General Sciences, Nihon Institute of Medical Science, 1276 Shimogawara, Moroyama-Machi, Iruma-Gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, 06120 Halle (Germany); Yabana, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We develop methods to calculate electron dynamics in crystalline solids in real-time time-dependent density functional theory employing exchange-correlation potentials which reproduce band gap energies of dielectrics; a meta-generalized gradient approximation was proposed by Tran and Blaha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 226401 (2009)] (TBm-BJ) and a hybrid functional was proposed by Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003)] (HSE). In time evolution calculations employing the TB-mBJ potential, we have found it necessary to adopt the predictor-corrector step for a stable time evolution. We have developed a method to evaluate electronic excitation energy without referring to the energy functional which is unknown for the TB-mBJ potential. For the HSE functional, we have developed a method for the operation of the Fock-like term in Fourier space to facilitate efficient use of massive parallel computers equipped with graphic processing units. We compare electronic excitations in silicon and germanium induced by femtosecond laser pulses using the TB-mBJ, HSE, and a simple local density approximation (LDA). At low laser intensities, electronic excitations are found to be sensitive to the band gap energy: they are close to each other using TB-mBJ and HSE and are much smaller in LDA. At high laser intensities close to the damage threshold, electronic excitation energies do not differ much among the three cases.

  11. Nonlinear refraction and reflection travel time tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; ten Brink, U.S.; Toksoz, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a rapid nonlinear travel time tomography method that simultaneously inverts refraction and reflection travel times on a regular velocity grid. For travel time and ray path calculations, we apply a wave front method employing graph theory. The first-arrival refraction travel times are calculated on the basis of cell velocities, and the later refraction and reflection travel times are computed using both cell velocities and given interfaces. We solve a regularized nonlinear inverse problem. A Laplacian operator is applied to regularize the model parameters (cell slownesses and reflector geometry) so that the inverse problem is valid for a continuum. The travel times are also regularized such that we invert travel time curves rather than travel time points. A conjugate gradient method is applied to minimize the nonlinear objective function. After obtaining a solution, we perform nonlinear Monte Carlo inversions for uncertainty analysis and compute the posterior model covariance. In numerical experiments, we demonstrate that combining the first arrival refraction travel times with later reflection travel times can better reconstruct the velocity field as well as the reflector geometry. This combination is particularly important for modeling crustal structures where large velocity variations occur in the upper crust. We apply this approach to model the crustal structure of the California Borderland using ocean bottom seismometer and land data collected during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment along two marine survey lines. Details of our image include a high-velocity zone under the Catalina Ridge, but a smooth gradient zone between. Catalina Ridge and San Clemente Ridge. The Moho depth is about 22 km with lateral variations. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Resource Letter NO-1: Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on nonlinear optics. Books, journals, and websites are introduced that cover the general subject. Journal articles and websites are cited covering the following topics: second-order nonlinearities in transparent media including second-harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, third-order and higher nonlinearities, nonlinear refractive index, absorptive nonlinearities such as saturable absorption and multiphoton absorption, and scattering nonlinearities such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Steady-state and transient phenomena, fiber optics, solitons, nonlinear wave mixing, optical phase conjugation, nonlinear spectroscopy, and multiphoton microscopy are all outlined.

  13. Gradient networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kozma, Balázs; Bassler, Kevin E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Korniss, G.

    2008-04-01

    Gradient networks are defined (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716) as directed graphs formed by local gradients of a scalar field distributed on the nodes of a substrate network G. We present the derivation for some of the general properties of gradient graphs and give an exact expression for the in-degree distribution R(l) of the gradient network when the substrate is a binomial (Erd{\\;\\kern -0.10em \\raise -0.35ex \\{{^{^{\\prime\\prime}}}}\\kern -0.57em \\o} s-Rényi) random graph, G_{N,p} , and the scalars are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. We show that in the limit N \\to \\infty, p \\to 0, z = pN = \\mbox{const} \\gg 1, R(l)\\propto l^{-1} for l Bassler (2004 Nature 428 716).

  14. Gradient-based Equivalent Static Loads Method for Structure Nonlinear Dynamic Optimization Problem%针对结构动态非线性优化问题的ESLM梯度优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 陈自凯; 段利斌; 王彬; 成艾国

    2015-01-01

    针对等效静载荷法(Equivalent static loads method,ESLM)求解大变形和多变量结构动态非线性优化问题难以收敛与效率较低的不足,结合结构静态线性优化方法与最速下降法(Steepest descent method,SDM)提出一种高效的基于梯度的等效静载荷法(Equivalent static loads method based on gradient,ESLMG),根据结构动态非线性分析计算得到基于节点位移等效的静态载荷,从而将结构动态非线性优化问题转化为以等效载荷及节点位移为输入条件的结构静态线性优化问题(内层循环);利用内层循环最优解处的梯度信息,同时结合 SDM 方法更新设计变量(外层循环);将更新的设计变量值作为下一次迭代内层循环的初始值,直到满足收敛条件为止。该方法在保证算法收敛性的前提下,提高了收敛速度。算例表明,该方法对于处理大变形及多变量结构动态非线性优化问题非常有效,在收敛速度方面相比ESLM方法和数值优化算法具有很大的优势。%Combined with structure static linear optimization and the steepest descent method(SDM), an equivalent static loads method based on gradient(ESLMG)is proposed to overcome the disadvantages of difficulty to achieve convergence and low efficiency of equivalent static loads method(ESLM) when solving large deformation and multi-variable structure nonlinear dynamic optimization, equivalent static loads based on node displacement are calculated according to structure nonlinear dynamic analysis and then structural dynamic nonlinear optimization problem will be transformed into structure static linear optimization problem with the obtalned equivalent loads and node displacement as input conditions, which is called inner iteration. The design variables are updated efficiently according to the method of SDM and the gradient information of optimal solution, which is called outer iteration. The updated variables are used as the

  15. Coherent perfect absorption mediated enhancement and optical bistability in phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta

    2016-01-01

    We study phase conjugation in a nonlinear composite slab when the counter propagating pump waves are completely absorbed by means of coherent perfect absorption. Under the undepleted pump approximation the coupling constant and the phase conjugated reflectivity are shown to undergo a substantial increase and multivalued response. The effect can be used for efficient switching of the phase conjugated reflectivity in photonic circuits.

  16. Nonlinear susceptibilities of finite conjugated organic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose Nelson; Perry, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    Tight-binding calculations of the length dependence of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability for polyenes and polyynes are reported. The pi-electron wave functions were determined by exploiting the limited translational symmetry of the molecules. Perturbation theory was used to calculate the longitudinal component of the electronic nonresonant hyperpolarizability. This is the first two-'band' calculation of third-order hyperpolarizabilities on finite pi-electron systems of varying length. In contrast to the results of the one-'band' models, the hyperpolarizability densities increase rapidly and then, after about 10-15 repeating units, approach an asymptotic value.

  17. Providing an efficient intelligent transportation system through detection, tracking and recognition of the region of interest in traffic signs by using non-linear SVM classifier in line with histogram oriented gradient and Kalman filter approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A H Mazinan; M Sarikhani

    2014-02-01

    With a focus on new researches in the area of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), an efficient approach has been investigated here. Based on the present view point, analysis of traffic signs are first considered via intelligence based approach, which is carried out through three main stages including detection, tracking and recognition, respectively, in this research. The key role of detection is to identify traffic signs by classification of road sign shapes in accordance with their signatures. This classification consists of four different shapes of circle, semicircle, triangle and square, as well. The linear classification of traffic sign is also carried out via support vector machine (SVM) by using one against all (OAA), since the present SVMs classifiers realized via linear kernel. The next step is to track traffic sign. It should be noted that this technique is now developed to reduce the searching mode in case of the whole area to be optimized its computational processing, consequently. This research work is investigated by realizing Kalman filter approach, where, finally, in recognition step, a feature of the region of interest (ROI) has been extracted for SVM classification. Histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) is realized in organizing the approach, as long as Gaussian kernel is also developed for non-linear SVM classifier.

  18. Synthesis and Properties of Novel Organic Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Containing Furan Conjugating Bridges%含呋喃共轭桥有机非线性光学生色团的合成及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐翔; 唐先忠; 游英才; 任立轲; 王洋; 严立京

    2012-01-01

    通过两次羟醛缩合反应合成了一种含呋喃共轭桥的有机非线性光学生色团分子2-二氰亚甲基-3-氰基-4-[2-(4-二乙氨基-苯乙烯基-呋喃基-5)-乙烯基]-5,5-二甲基-2,5-二氢呋喃(EFFC),用IR谱、1H NMR谱以及元素分析表征确认了其结构.热失重分析表明,材料的热分解温度Td为250℃.用密度泛函理论的B3LYP方法在6-31G基组下对这种生色团分子进行了结构优化,并在相同基组下对分子的静态二阶极化率进行了计算,分子的β0=6.5×10-28esu.将分子以18%的质量比与聚砜进行主-客体掺杂,用溶胶凝胶法制备成膜后进行极化,用二次谐波法对掺杂极化聚合物薄膜的电光系数进行测量,其r33值最高达到80 pm/V.%A novel nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore 2-[{2-[(4-diethylamino-styreneyl)-furyl-5]-vinyl}-3-cyano-5,5- dimethyl-5H-furan-2-ylidene]malononitrile (EFFC) containing furan conjugating bridge was designed with tricyanofuran as electron acceptors and dialkylamine as donors. The molecular has been synthesized via two steps ofaldol condensation reac- tions. In the first step, 5-methylfurfural (1 equiv.) and drops of acetic acid in THF was added dropwise to a solution of 2-dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF) (1 equiv.) and pyridine. After the addition, the mixture was stirred for 24 h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtrated and the insoluble residue was washed several times with ethanol. Secondly, the intermediate (1 equiv.), 4-(diethylamino)benzaldehyde (1 equiv.) and ten drops of piperidine were dissolved in MeCN. The solvent was removed after heated to reflux for 24 h. The product EFFC was purified by a silica gel chromatograph column and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The thermal decomposi- tion temperature (Td) as high as 250 ℃ was determined by TGA testing. Furyl conjugating bridges lowered the Td compared with

  19. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, John William

    1997-01-01

    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional is a gradient of that functional taken relative to the underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. Equal emphasis is placed on numerical and theoretical matters. Several concrete applications are made to illustrate the method. These applications include (1) Ginzburg-Landau functionals of superconductivity, (2) problems of transonic flow in which type depends locally on nonlinearities, and (3) minimal surface problems. Sobolev gradient constructions rely on a study of orthogonal projections onto graphs of closed densely defined linear transformations from one Hilbert space to another. These developments use work of Weyl, von Neumann and Beurling.

  20. Discussion of liquid threshold pressure gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiukun Wang

    2017-06-01

    The correct interpretation is that there are two flow regimes: nonlinear flow regime (non-Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradients are low, and linear flow regime (Darcy flow regime when the pressure gradient is intermediate or high. The nonlinear flow regime starts from the origin point. As the pressure gradient is increased, the curve becomes a straight line demonstrating the linear flow regime. We have verified our views by first analyzing the causes of non-Darcy flow, and then systematically analyzed typical experimental data and correlations in the literature. We conclude that TPG does not exist. We also use several counter examples to support our conclusion.

  1. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  2. Ultrathin Gradient Nonlinear Metasurface with a Giant Nonlinear Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-08

    and MQW layers via inductively coupled plasma reactive ion plasma etching, and finally finished by the removal of the silicon nitride mask layer. The...the exposed MQW layer, followed by plasma -enhanced chemical vapor Fig. 2. (a) Simulated normalized Ez field distribution in MQW layer of proposed SRR...Vol. 3, No. 3 / March 2016 / Optica 285 deposition of a 250 nm-thick silicon nitride hard-mask layer. The nanoresonators with the dimensions depicted

  3. Gradient Descent Bit Flipping Algorithms for Decoding LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Wadayama, Tadashi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Yagita, Masayuki; Funahashi, Yuuki; Usami, Shogo; Takumi, Ichi

    2007-01-01

    A novel class of bit-flipping (BF) algorithms for decoding low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is presented. The proposed algorithms, which are called gradient descent bit flipping (GDBF) algorithms, can be regarded as simplified gradient descent algorithms. Based on gradient descent formulation, the proposed algorithms are naturally derived from a simple non-linear objective function.

  4. Phase conjugation of gap solitons: A numerical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S C Manga Rao; S Dutta Gupta

    2003-09-01

    We study the effect of a nearby phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) on the gap soliton of a Kerr non-linear periodic structure. We show that phase conjugation of the gap soliton (in the sense of replication of the amplitude profile in the reverse direction) is possible under the condition of PCM reflectivity approaching unity. This is in contrast with the results for linear structures, where the wave profiles can be conjugated for arbitrary values of the PCM reflectivity. The sensitivity of the conjugation of the gap solitons to PCM reflectivity is ascribed to the fine balance of non-linearity with dispersion, necessary for their existence.

  5. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.;

    2014-01-01

    -optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled......We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all...... reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ∼3.8 dB in signal quality factors....

  6. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S; Jopson, R M; Gnauck, A H; Dinu, M; Xie, C; Winzer, P J

    2014-03-24

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ~3.8 dB in signal quality factors.

  7. Nonlinear and active RF metamaterial applications using embedded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katko, Alexander R.; Hawkes, Allen M.; Cummer, Steven A.

    Nonlinear metamaterials have received considerable attention in recent years. The inclusion of nonlinear and active effects in metamaterials expands the possibilities for engineering media with designer properties. We detail our recent efforts to create nonlinear and active metamaterials at RF with useful properties through the inclusion of embedded nonlinear or active elements. We demonstrate some of the possible applications of such nonlinear and active metamaterials experimentally, with properties including saturable absorption, phase conjugation, and power harvesting.

  8. Photoluminescence of Conjugated Star Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. B.; Prigodin, N. V.; Epstein, A. J.; Wang, F.

    2000-10-01

    Higher dimensionality "star" polymers provide new properties beyond those found in their linear analogs. They have been used to improving electronic properties for nonlinear optics through exciton transfer and molecular antenna structures for example (M. Kawa, J. M. J. Frechet, Chem. Mater. 10, 286 (1998).). We report on photoluminescence properties of star polymers with a hyperbranched core (both hyperbranched phenlyene and hyperbranched triphenylamine) and polyhexylthiophene arms. The arm is a conjugated oligomer of polythiophene that has been investigated extensively for metallic like conductivity when doped as well as utilized in field effect transistors in its undoped form (A. Tsumara, H. Koezuka, T. Ando, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1210 (1986).). The cores are respectively, a nonconjugated polymer in the case of hyperbranched phenlyene and a conjugated polymer in the case of hyperbranched triphenylamine. The photoluminesce spectrum (λ_max at 575 nm) is identical for both star polymers with the two electronically different hyperbranched cores and for linear polythiophene alone. We conclude the wave functions of the core and arms do not strongly interact to form states different from their individual states and excitons formed on the hyperbranched cores migrate to the lower bandgap polythiophene before recombining.

  9. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Padmanaban; S Ramakrishnan

    2003-08-01

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying excitation energies. The latter feature, especially when the chromophores are fluorescent, like in MEHPPV, makes these systems particularly interesting from the photophysics point of view. Segmented MEHPPV- samples, where x represents the mole fraction of conjugated segments, were prepared by a novel approach that utilizes a suitable precursor wherein selective elimination of one of the two eliminatable groups is affected; the uneliminated units serve as conjugation truncations. Control of the composition x of the precursor therefore permits one to prepare segmented MEHPPV- samples with varying levels of conjugation (elimination). Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we have seen that even in single isolated polymer chains, energy migration from the shorter (higher energy) chromophores to longer (lower energy) ones occurs – the extent of which depends on the level of conjugation. Further, by varying the solvent composition, it is seen that the extent of energy transfer and the formation of poorly emissive inter-chromophore excitons are greatly enhanced with increasing amounts of non-solvent. A typical S-shaped curve represents the variation of emission yields as a function of composition suggestive of a cooperative collapse of the polymer coil, reminiscent of conformational transitions seen in biological macromolecules.

  10. Time- and Space-Resolved Spectroscopic Investigation on Pi-Conjugated Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    relationship for expanded porphyrins, (ii) nonlinear optical properties of fused porphyrins and π-conjugated molecule having biradical character...properties of fused porphyrins and π-conjugated molecule having biradical character based on the comparison of the two-photon absorption cross section...some π-conjugated molecules can obtain biradical character in ground state, which is unusual phenomenon, leading totally different photophysical

  11. The Deflated Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Method Applied to Composite Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsthövel, T.B.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations with composite materials often involve large jumps in the coefficients of the underlying stiffness matrix. These jumps can introduce unfavorable eigenvalues in the spectrum of the stiffness matrix. We show that the rigid body modes; the translations and rotations, of the disjunct rigid b

  12. Conjugate Gradient Parametric Detection of Multichannel Signals (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    localized ( JDL ) detector [20], a popular reduced-dimensional STAP solution in scenarios of limited training. The JDL is implemented by using 3 beams and 3...16 iterations for the CG to converge. It is also seen in Fig. 11 that the PAMF detectors outperform the JDL -AMF May 9, 2011 DRAFT23 Approved for...K=32, J=8, N=32, P f =1.000000e 002, P max =2 MF DMI PAMF(P=2) CG PAMF(P=2) OSCG PAMF(Unknown P) JDL Fig. 11. Probability of detection versus SINR

  13. Mapping the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm onto High Performance Heterogeneous Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    overlap communication and facilitates parallelism within the MAP processor. Multiple configurable single-port BRAMs are located within the FPGA fabric...The BRAMs are typically used to hold arrays that are accessed serially. A single value can be read from each BRAM array during a given clock cycle...limiting factor was the amount of BRAM in the FPGA fabric, with the number of OBM banks running a close second. Despite these limitation an 8-wide

  14. Using Conjugate Gradient Network to Classify Stress Level of Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. S. Pawar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of stress is important because it can cause many diseases e.g., heart disease, headache, migraine, sleep problems, irritability etc. Diagnosis of stress in patients often involves acquisition of biological signals for example heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyography signals (EMG etc. Stress diagnosis using biomedical signals is difficult and since the biomedical signals are too complex to generate any rule an experienced person or expert is needed to determine stress levels. Also, it is not feasible to use all the features that are available or possible to extract from the signal. So, relevant features should be chosen from the extracted features that are capable to diagnose stress. Electronics devices are increasingly being seen in the field of medicine for diagnosis, therapy, checking of stress levels etc. The research and development work of medical electronics engineers leads to the manufacturing of sophisticated diagnostic medical equipment needed to ensure good health care. Biomedical engineering combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve health care diagnosis and treatment.

  15. On large-scale nonlinear programming techniques for solving optimal control problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faco, J.L.D.

    1994-12-31

    The formulation of decision problems by Optimal Control Theory allows the consideration of their dynamic structure and parameters estimation. This paper deals with techniques for choosing directions in the iterative solution of discrete-time optimal control problems. A unified formulation incorporates nonlinear performance criteria and dynamic equations, time delays, bounded state and control variables, free planning horizon and variable initial state vector. In general they are characterized by a large number of variables, mostly when arising from discretization of continuous-time optimal control or calculus of variations problems. In a GRG context the staircase structure of the jacobian matrix of the dynamic equations is exploited in the choice of basic and super basic variables and when changes of basis occur along the process. The search directions of the bound constrained nonlinear programming problem in the reduced space of the super basic variables are computed by large-scale NLP techniques. A modified Polak-Ribiere conjugate gradient method and a limited storage quasi-Newton BFGS method are analyzed and modifications to deal with the bounds on the variables are suggested based on projected gradient devices with specific linesearches. Some practical models are presented for electric generation planning and fishery management, and the application of the code GRECO - Gradient REduit pour la Commande Optimale - is discussed.

  16. Qualidade conjugal: mapeando conceitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Mosmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da ampla utilização do conceito de qualidade conjugal, identifica-se falta de clareza conceitual acerca das variáveis que o compõem. Esse artigo apresenta revisão da literatura na área com o objetivo de mapear o conceito de qualidade conjugal. Foram analisadas sete principais teorias sobre o tema: Troca Social, Comportamental, Apego, Teoria da Crise, Interacionismo Simbólico. Pelos postulados propostos nas diferentes teorias, podem-se identificar três grupos de variáveis fundamentais na definição da qualidade conjugal: recursos pessoais dos cônjuges, contexto de inserção do casal e processos adaptativos. Neste sentido, a qualidade conjugal é resultado do processo dinâmico e interativo do casal, razão deste caráter multidimensional.

  17. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  18. ILUBCG2-11: Solution of 11-banded nonsymmetric linear equation systems by a preconditioned biconjugate gradient routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-M.; Koniges, A. E.; Anderson, D. V.

    1989-10-01

    The biconjugate gradient method (BCG) provides an attractive alternative to the usual conjugate gradient algorithms for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations with nonsymmetric and indefinite matrix operators. A preconditioned algorithm is given, whose form resembles the incomplete L-U conjugate gradient scheme (ILUCG2) previously presented. Although the BCG scheme requires the storage of two additional vectors, it converges in a significantly lesser number of iterations (often half), while the number of calculations per iteration remains essentially the same.

  19. Composite structures for the enhancement of nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeves, A E; Birnboim, M H

    1988-12-01

    Calculations of the nonlinear optical behavior are developed for model composites consisting of nanospheres with a metallic core and a nonlinear shell suspended in a nonlinear medium. The concept for the enhancement of optical phase conjugation from all these nonlinear regions is that the optical field can be concentrated both inside and in the neighborhood of the metallic core, aided by surface-mediated plasmon resonance. Calculations for gold cores and aluminum cores indicate that phase-conjugate reflectivity enhancements of 10(8) may be possible.

  20. Application of Novel Nonlinear Optical Materials to Optical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Partha P.

    1999-01-01

    We describe wave mixing and interactions in nonlinear photorefractive polymers and disodium flourescein. Higher diffracted orders yielding forward phase conjugation can be generated in a two-wave mixing geometry in photorefractive polymers, and this higher order can be used for image edge enhancement and correlation. Four-wave mixing and phase conjugation is studied using nonlinear disodium floureschein, and the nature and properties of gratings written in this material are investigated.

  1. Numerical simulation of magneto-acoustic Wave Phase Conjugation with the DG method in the CPR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarreszadeh, Seyedamirreza; Timofeev, Evgeny; Merlen, Alain; Matar, Olivier Bou; Pernod, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of magneto-acoustic Wave Phase Conjugation (WPC) phenomena. Since ultrasonic waves in the WPC applications have short wavelengths relative to the traveling distances, high-order numerical methods in both space and time domains are required. The numerical scheme chosen for the current research is the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method incorporated into the Correction Procedure via Reconstruction (CPR) framework. In order to avoid non-physical oscillations near high-gradient regions, a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) limiter is used to reconstruct the solutions in the affected cells. After being assured that the numerical scheme has appropriate accuracy and performance, the WPC process is modeled in both linear and non-linear regimes. The results in the linear regime are in acceptable agreement with the analytical solution. The only significant deviation between the linear and non-linear results is at the sensor within the passive zone, where the mean pressure starts to grow gradually in the non-linear regime due to overtaking of the low-velocity pressure waves by the high-velocity ones.

  2. Gradient Domain Mesh Deformation - A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei Xu; Kun Zhou

    2009-01-01

    This survey reviews the recent development of gradient domain mesh deformation method. Different to other deformation methods, the gradient domain deformation method is a surface-based, variational optimization method. It directly encodes the geometric details in differential coordinates, which are also called Laplacian coordinates in literature. By preserving the Laplacian coordinates, the mesh details can be well preserved during deformation. Due to the locality of the Laplacian coordinates, the variational optimization problem can be casted into a sparse linear system. Fast sparse linear solver can be adopted to generate deformation result interactively, or even in real-time. The nonlinear nature of gradient domain mesh deformation leads to the development of two categories of deformation methods: linearization methods and nonlinear optimization methods. Basically, the linearization methods only need to solve the linear least-squares system once. They are fast, easy to understand and control, while the deformation result might be suboptimal. Nonlinear optimization methods can reach optimal solution of deformation energy function by iterative updating. Since the computation of nonlinear methods is expensive, reduced deformable models should be adopted to achieve interactive performance. The nonlinear optimization methods avoid the user burden to input transformation at deformation handles, and they can be extended to incorporate various nonlinear constraints, like volume constraint, skeleton constraint, and so on. We review representative methods and related approaches of each category comparatively and hope to help the user understand the motivation behind the algorithms. Finally, we discuss the relation between physical simulation and gradient domain mesh deformation to reveal why it can achieve physically plausible deformation result.

  3. Stability of Gradient Field Corrections for Quantitative Diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Baxter P.; Blaber, Justin; Welch, E. Brian; Ding, Zhaohua; Anderson, Adam W.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    In magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, gradient nonlinearity causes significant bias in the estimation of quantitative diffusion parameters such as diffusivity, anisotropy, and diffusion direction in areas away from the magnet isocenter. This bias can be substantially reduced if the scanner- and coil-specific gradient field nonlinearities are known. Using a set of field map calibration scans on a large (29 cm diameter) phantom combined with a solid harmonic approximation of the gradient fields, we predicted the obtained b-values and applied gradient directions throughout a typical field of view for brain imaging for a typical 32-direction diffusion imaging sequence. We measured the stability of these predictions over time. At 80 mm from scanner isocenter, predicted b-value was 1-6% different than intended due to gradient nonlinearity, and predicted gradient directions were in error by up to 1 degree. Over the course of one month the change in these quantities due to calibration-related factors such as scanner drift and variation in phantom placement was <0.5% for b-values, and <0.5 degrees for angular deviation. The proposed calibration procedure allows the estimation of gradient nonlinearity to correct b-values and gradient directions ahead of advanced diffusion image processing for high angular resolution data, and requires only a five-minute phantom scan that can be included in a weekly or monthly quality assurance protocol. PMID:28736467

  4. Stability of gradient field corrections for quantitative diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Baxter P.; Blaber, Justin; Welch, E. Brian; Ding, Zhaohua; Anderson, Adam W.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    In magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, gradient nonlinearity causes significant bias in the estimation of quantitative diffusion parameters such as diffusivity, anisotropy, and diffusion direction in areas away from the magnet isocenter. This bias can be substantially reduced if the scanner- and coil-specific gradient field nonlinearities are known. Using a set of field map calibration scans on a large (29 cm diameter) phantom combined with a solid harmonic approximation of the gradient fields, we predicted the obtained b-values and applied gradient directions throughout a typical field of view for brain imaging for a typical 32-direction diffusion imaging sequence. We measured the stability of these predictions over time. At 80 mm from scanner isocenter, predicted b-value was 1-6% different than intended due to gradient nonlinearity, and predicted gradient directions were in error by up to 1 degree. Over the course of one month the change in these quantities due to calibration-related factors such as scanner drift and variation in phantom placement was <0.5% for b-values, and <0.5 degrees for angular deviation. The proposed calibration procedure allows the estimation of gradient nonlinearity to correct b-values and gradient directions ahead of advanced diffusion image processing for high angular resolution data, and requires only a five-minute phantom scan that can be included in a weekly or monthly quality assurance protocol.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of iterative methods for nonlinear, nonsymmetric systems arising in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstrom, T. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Radhakrishnan, K. [Sverdrup Technology, Brook Park, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors report on some iterative methods which they have tested for use in combustion simulations. In particular, they have developed a code to solve zero Mach number reacting flow equations with complex reaction and diffusion physics. These equations have the form of a nonlinear parabolic system coupled with constraints. In semi-discrete form, one obtains DAE`s of index two or three depending on the number of spatial dimensions. The authors have implemented a fourth order (fully implicit) BDF method in time, coupled with a suite of fourth order explicit and implicit spatial difference approximations. Most codes they know of for simulating reacting flows use a splitting strategy to march in time. This results in a sequence of nonlinear systems to solve, each of which has a simpler structure than the one they are faced with. The rapid and robust solution of the coupled system is the essential requirement for the success of their approach. They have implemented and analyzed nonlinear generalizations of conjugate gradient-like methods for nonsymmetric systems, including CGS and the quasi-Newton based method of Eirola and Nevanlinna. They develop a general framework for the nonlinearization of linear methods in terms of the acceleration of fixed-point iterations, where the latter is assumed to include the {open_quote}preconditioning{open_quote}. Their preconditioning is a single step of a split method, using lower order spatial difference approximations as well as simplified (Fickian) approximations of the diffusion physics.

  6. Interplay between transport barriers and density gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.

    2006-09-01

    The present paper addresses two critical issues of zonal flows: the evidence of control parameters of their driving term, namely the Reynolds stress, and how they back-react on turbulence and transport. Kinetic nonlinear simulations are performed with the GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., J. Comput. Phys. (to be published)], which models the slab branch of the ion temperature gradient driven instability in the four-dimensional drift-kinetic regime. First, the numerical results show that the gradient of the guiding center density, related to the general potential vorticity, is stabilizing both linearly, by increasing the instability threshold, and nonlinearly, by activating zonal flows. Accordingly, the Reynolds stress is found to scale like LΩ-2 in the quasilinear regime, LΩ being the gradient length of the guiding center density. Second, the local temperature gradient appears to increase linearly with the curvature of the zonal flows, regardless of its sign. Such behavior agrees qualitatively with a perturbative theory. Indeed, while linear eigenmodes are localized at the maximum of the temperature gradient in the absence of zonal flows, they tend to be expelled if both exhibit a maximum at the same location. In this case, the reduction mechanism of the turbulent transport results from the ability of large zonal flow curvatures to render strong temperature gradients stable with respect to perturbations.

  7. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, G.S. [Scientific Software - Intercomp, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  8. CMB Anisotropies from a Gradient Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    A pure gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect at linear level. We confirm this by showing that its contribution to the dipolar power asymmetry of CMB anisotropies vanishes, if Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To this end, the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit is extended to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. At second order, a gradient mode generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce a quadrupole moment. For instance in a matter-dominated model it is equal to 5/18 times the square of the linear gradient part. This quadrupole can be cancelled by superposing a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a non-linear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  9. Conjugation in "Escherichia coli"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phornphisutthimas, Somkiat; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is a genetic transfer that involves cell-to-cell between donor and recipient cells. With the current method used to teach students in genetic courses at the undergraduate level, the transconjugants are identified using bacterial physiology and/or antibiotic resistance. Using physiology, however, is difficult for both…

  10. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  11. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  12. The Nonlinear Analytical Envelope Equation in quadratic nonlinear crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We here derive the so-called Nonlinear Analytical Envelope Equation (NAEE) inspired by the work of Conforti et al. [M. Conforti, A. Marini, T. X. Tran, D. Faccio, and F. Biancalana, "Interaction between optical fields and their conjugates in nonlinear media," Opt. Express 21, 31239-31252 (2013)], whose notation we follow. We present a complete model that includes $\\chi^{(2)}$ terms [M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and C. De Angelis, "Nonlinear envelope equation for broadband optical pulses in quadratic media," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053841 (2010)], $\\chi^{(3)}$ terms, and then extend the model to delayed Raman effects in the $\\chi^{(3)}$ term. We therefore get a complete model for ultrafast pulse propagation in quadratic nonlinear crystals similar to the Nonlinear Wave Equation in Frequency domain [H. Guo, X. Zeng, B. Zhou, and M. Bache, "Nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain: accurate modeling of ultrafast interaction in anisotropic nonlinear media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 494-504 (2013)], but where the envelope is...

  13. Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-08-05

    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.

  14. Improving the accuracy of pulsed field gradient NMR diffusion experiments: Correction for gradient non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Mark A.; Bowyer, Paul J.; Adam Bone, P.; Davis, Adrian L.; Swanson, Alistair G.; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.

    2009-05-01

    Pulsed field gradient NMR is a well-established technique for the determination of self-diffusion coefficients. However, a significant source of systematic error exists in the spatial variation of the applied pulsed field gradient. Non-uniform pulsed field gradients cause the decay of peak amplitudes to deviate from the expected exponential dependence on gradient squared. This has two undesirable effects: the apparent diffusion coefficient will deviate from the true value to an extent determined by the choice of experimental parameters, and the error estimated by the nonlinear least squares fitting will contain a significant systematic contribution. In particular, the apparent diffusion coefficient determined by exponential fitting of the diffusional attenuation of NMR signals will depend both on the exact pulse widths used and on the range of gradient amplitudes chosen. These problems can be partially compensated for if experimental attenuation data are fitted to a function corrected for the measured spatial dependence of the gradient and signal strength. This study describes a general alternative to existing methods for the calibration of NMR diffusion measurements. The dominant longitudinal variation of the pulsed field gradient amplitude and the signal strength are mapped by measuring pulsed field gradient echoes in the presence of a weak read gradient. These data are then used to construct a predicted signal decay function for the whole sample, which is parameterised as the exponential of a power series. Results are presented which compare diffusion coefficients obtained using the new calibration method with previous literature values.

  15. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  16. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  17. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  18. Theory of Digitized Conjugate Surface and Solution to Conjugate Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lai-yuan; Liao Dao-xun; Yi Chuan-yun

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of designing and processing digitized surfaces, the method to spreading digitized surface has been proposed. The key technique is to solve the problem of digitized conjugate surface. In the paper, the digitized conjugate surface was theoretically investigated, and the solution of conjugate surface based on digitized surface was also studied. The digitized conjugate surface theory was then proposed, and applied to build the model of solving conjugate surface based on digitized surface. A corresponding algorithm was developed. This paper applies the software Conjugater-1.0 that is developed by ourselves to compute the digitized conjugate surfaces of the drum-tooth surface. This study provides theoretical and technical bases for analyzing engagement of digitized surface, simulation and numerical processing technique.

  19. Synthesis of Imidazole Derivatives for Their Second-order Nonlinear Optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The design and the synthesis of two conjugated donor-acceptor imidazole derivatives(1, 2) were carried out for second-order nonlinear optics. The thermal properties, the transparency and second-order nonlinear optical properties of the molecules were investigated. The experimental results indicate that a good nonlinearity-transparency-thermal stability trade-off is achieved for them.

  20. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  1. Phase conjugation by four-wave mixing in inhomogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edward A.; Lininger, Diana M.; Goldman, Martin V.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of density, temperature, and velocity gradients on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a plasma are investigated. A fluid model is used in which the stimulated Brillouin terms are included, but pump depletion is neglected. The steady state phase conjugate reflectivity and signal transmission coefficients are calculated and discussed for both degenerate and resonant FWM. The substantial effects of inhomogeneity on the use of FWM as a plasma diagnostic are discussed.

  2. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  3. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase-conjugator

    CERN Document Server

    Okulov, A Yu

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to configuration most suitable for a coherent coupling of a thousands of a fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that Michelson phase conjugating configuration with double passage through array of fiber amplifiers have the definite advantages compared to one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless to amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on entrance/output beamsplitter. In both configurations the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope due to gain saturation is capable to randomize the position of chirp inside envelope thus it may reduce the visibility of interference pattern at output beamsplitter. A certain advantages...

  4. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  5. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  6. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  7. Optical phase conjugation in semiconductor-doped glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussignol, P.; Ricard, D.; Rustagi, K. C.; Flytzanis, C.

    1985-08-01

    We have studied optical phase conjugation in two types of semiconductor-doped glasses. Corning 3.68 and Schott OG 530 at λ = 0.532 μm using picosecond pulses. We observe a slow nonlinearity in agreement with the slow decay of luminescence. The saturation of the reflectivity is strongly correlated with the absorption saturation of these glasses and may be interpreted in terms of a three-level system model.

  8. An Adaptive Nonlinear Filter for System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunbo Ogunfunmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary difficulty in the identification of Hammerstein nonlinear systems (a static memoryless nonlinear system in series with a dynamic linear system is that the output of the nonlinear system (input to the linear system is unknown. By employing the theory of affine projection, we propose a gradient-based adaptive Hammerstein algorithm with variable step-size which estimates the Hammerstein nonlinear system parameters. The adaptive Hammerstein nonlinear system parameter estimation algorithm proposed is accomplished without linearizing the systems nonlinearity. To reduce the effects of eigenvalue spread as a result of the Hammerstein system nonlinearity, a new criterion that provides a measure of how close the Hammerstein filter is to optimum performance was used to update the step-size. Experimental results are presented to validate our proposed variable step-size adaptive Hammerstein algorithm given a real life system and a hypothetical case.

  9. Particle transport in density gradient driven TE mode turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Skyman, Andreas; Strand, P I

    2011-01-01

    The turbulent transport of main ion and trace impurities in a tokamak device in the presence of steep electron density gradients has been studied. The parameters are chosen for trapped electron (TE) mode turbulence, driven primarily by steep electron density gradients relevant to H-mode physics, but with a transition to temperature gradient driven turbulence as the density gradient flattens. Results obtained through non-linear (NL) and quasilinear (QL) gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code are compared with results obtained from a fluid model. Main ion and impurity transport is studied by examining the balance of convective and diffusive transport, as quantified by the density gradient corresponding to zero particle flux (peaking factor). Scalings are obtained for the impurity peaking with the background electron density gradient and the impurity charge number. It is shown that the impurity peaking factor is weakly dependent on impurity charge and significantly smaller than the driving electron density ...

  10. Gravity gradient-terrain aided navigation based on particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling; Ma, Jie; Tian, Jin-Wen

    2009-10-01

    Based on Particle Filter, Gravity Gradient-Terrain aided position technology is proposed in this paper. With the sensitivity of gravity gradient to terrain, the gravity gradient reference map can be computed from the local terrain elevation data. The position can be actualized through matching the real-time measured gravity gradient data to the prepared gravity gradient reference map. The most widely used approximate filtering method is the extended Kaman filter (EKF). EKF is computationally simple but, the convergence of the state estimation for the position is not guaranteed. Particle filter (PF) makes use of the non-linear state and measurement functions, no linearization technology is needed. PF can assure the convergence of the state estimation which follows from the classical results on convergence of Bayesian estimators. Simulations have been done and Particle filter has been shown to be a superior alternative to the EKF in the gravity gradient-terrain matching navigation systems.

  11. Gradients are shaping up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbach, Tobias; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2015-04-23

    In animal embryos, morphogen gradients determine tissue patterning and morphogenesis. Shyer et al. provide evidence that, during vertebrate gut formation, tissue folding generates graded activity of signals required for subsequent steps of gut growth and differentiation, thereby revealing an intriguing link between tissue morphogenesis and morphogen gradient formation.

  12. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjugation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation(FDPC) is based on phase conjuga-tion of spectrum of an input signal.It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal.The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed.Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically.It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC.The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  13. Fast Distributed Gradient Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.

  14. Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.

  15. PRESSURE GRADIENT FROM THE CONTRIBUTION OF BOTH GEOTHERMAL AND GRAVITY IN THE LITHOSPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The pressure gradient of the lithosphere is a key to explaining various geological processes, and varies also in time and space similar to the geothermal gradient. In this paper a correlation formula of geothermal gradients and pressure gradients was built with the thermocomprestion coefficients. Based on this formula, the article has studied the relation between the pressure gradients and the geothermal gradients in the lithosphere, and the results indicate that the pressure gradient in the lithosphere is nonlinear, and its minimum value is the lithostatic gradient, and that the pressure gradient of the lithosphere will increase obviously with the contribution of both geothermal and gravity, and could be twice times more than the lithostatic gradient.

  16. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in hum...

  17. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  18. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  19. Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-04-23

    Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual trade-off between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which small scattering-angles of the gradient update are initially muted out. The model update hierarchical filtering strategy include applying varying degrees of filtering to the different anisotropic parameter updates, a feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using FWI and reflection-based FWI, when the modeled data are obtained with the single-scattering theory, allows access to additional low model wavenumber components. Combining such access to wavenumbers with scattering-angle filters applied to the individual parameter gradients allows for multiple strategies to avoid complex FWI nonlinearity as well as the parameter trade-off.

  20. Gradient bounds for a thin film epitaxy equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Qiao, Zhonghua; Tang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    We consider a gradient flow modeling the epitaxial growth of thin films with slope selection. The surface height profile satisfies a nonlinear diffusion equation with biharmonic dissipation. We establish optimal local and global wellposedness for initial data with critical regularity. To understand the mechanism of slope selection and the dependence on the dissipation coefficient, we exhibit several lower and upper bounds for the gradient of the solution in physical dimensions d ≤ 3.

  1. Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin Piltan; Shahnaz Tayebi Haghighi

    2012-01-01

    In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers) and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method) and optimization the sliding surface...

  2. Hierarchically deflated conjugate residual

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Azusa

    2016-01-01

    We present a progress report on a new class of multigrid solver algorithm suitable for the solution of 5d chiral fermions such as Domain Wall fermions and the Continued Fraction overlap. Unlike HDCG \\cite{Boyle:2014rwa}, the algorithm works directly on a nearest neighbour fine operator. The fine operator used is Hermitian indefinite, for example $\\Gamma_5 D_{dwf}$, and convergence is achieved with an indefinite matrix solver such as outer iteration based on conjugate residual. As a result coarse space representations of the operator remain nearest neighbour, giving an 8 point stencil rather than the 81 point stencil used in HDCG. It is hoped this may make it viable to recalculate the matrix elements of the little Dirac operator in an HMC evolution.

  3. Dihydroazulene-buckminsterfullerene conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santella, Marco; Mazzanti, Virginia; Jevric, Martyn;

    2012-01-01

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has recently attracted interest as a molecular switch for molecular electronics. In this field, Buckminsterfullerene, C(60), has been shown to be a useful anchoring group for adhering a molecular wire to an electrode. Here we have...... combined the two units with the overall aim to elucidate how C(60) influences the DHA-VHF switching events. Efficient synthetic protocols for making covalently linked DHA-C(60) conjugates were developed, using Prato, Sonogashira, Hay, and Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reactions. These syntheses provide as well...... of DHA to its corresponding VHF. Thus, C(60) was found to significantly quench this conversion when situated closely to the DHA unit....

  4. A Descent Gradient Method and Its Global Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-kui

    2014-01-01

    Y Liu and C Storey(1992) proposed the famous LS conjugate gradient method which has good numerical results. However, the LS method has very weak convergence under the Wolfe-type line search. In this paper, we give a new descent gradient method based on the LS method. It can guarantee the sufficient descent property at each iteration and the global convergence under the strong Wolfe line search. Finally, we also present extensive preliminary numerical experiments to show the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing with the famous PRP+ method.

  5. A finite deformation theory of higher-order gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, Mitsutoshi; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2008-01-01

    crystal plasticity that is based on an assumption of the existence of higher-order stresses. Furthermore, a boundary-value problem for simple shear of a constrained thin strip is studied numerically, and some characteristic features of finite deformation are demonstrated through a comparison to a solution......For higher-order gradient crystal plasticity, a finite deformation formulation is presented. The theory does not deviate much from the conventional crystal plasticity theory. Only a back stress effect and additional differential equations for evolution of the geometrically necessary dislocation...... (GND) densities supplement the conventional theory within a non-work-conjugate framework in which there is no need to introduce higher-order microscopic stresses that would be work-conjugate to slip rate gradients. We discuss its connection to a work-conjugate type of finite deformation gradient...

  6. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  7. Laser textured surface gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a novel technique for fabricating surfaces with roughness and wettability gradients and their subsequent applications for chemical sensors. Surface roughness gradients on brass sheets are obtained directly by nanosecond laser texturing. When these structured surfaces are exposed to air, their wettability decreases with time (up to 20 days) achieving both spatial and temporal wettability gradients. The surfaces are responsive to organic solvents. Contact angles of a series of dilute isopropanol solutions decay exponentially with concentration. In particular, a fall of 132° in contact angle is observed on a surface gradient, one order of magnitude higher than the 14° observed for the unprocessed surface, when the isopropanol concentration increased from 0 to 15.6 wt%. As the wettability changes gradually over the surface, contact angle also changes correspondingly. This effect offers multi-sensitivity at different zones on the surface and is useful for accurate measurement of chemical concentration.

  8. Second gradient poromechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sciarra, Giulio; Coussy, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Second gradient theories have been developed in mechanics for treating different phenomena as capillarity in fluids, plasticity and friction in granular materials or shear band deformations. Here, there is an attempt of formulating a second gradient Biot like model for porous materials. In particular the interest is focused in describing the local dilatant behaviour of a porous material induced by pore opening elastic and capillary interaction phenomena among neighbouring pores and related micro-filtration phenomena by means of a continuum microstructured model. The main idea is to extend the classical macroscopic Biot model by including in the description second gradient effects. This is done by assuming that the surface contribution to the external work rate functional depends on the normal derivative of the velocity or equivalently assuming that the strain work rate functional depends on the porosity and strain gradients. According to classical thermodynamics suitable restrictions for stresses and second g...

  9. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm.

  10. Analytic solutions of a class of nonlinear partial differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-qing; DING Qi

    2008-01-01

    An approach is presented for computing the adjoint operator vector of a class of nonlinear (that is,partial-nonlinear) operator matrices by using the properties of conjugate operators to generalize a previous method proposed by the author.A unified theory is then given to solve a class of nonlinear (partial-nonlinear and including all linear)and non-homogeneous differential equations with a mathematical mechanization method.In other words,a transformation is constructed by homogenization and triangulation,which reduces the original system to a simpler diagonal system.Applications are given to solve some elasticity equations.

  11. Lipschitz regularity results for nonlinear strictly elliptic equations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Olivier; Nguyen, Vinh Duc

    2017-10-01

    Most of Lipschitz regularity results for nonlinear strictly elliptic equations are obtained for a suitable growth power of the nonlinearity with respect to the gradient variable (subquadratic for instance). For equations with superquadratic growth power in gradient, one usually uses weak Bernstein-type arguments which require regularity and/or convex-type assumptions on the gradient nonlinearity. In this article, we obtain new Lipschitz regularity results for a large class of nonlinear strictly elliptic equations with possibly arbitrary growth power of the Hamiltonian with respect to the gradient variable using some ideas coming from Ishii-Lions' method. We use these bounds to solve an ergodic problem and to study the regularity and the large time behavior of the solution of the evolution equation.

  12. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  13. Nonlinear Phase Control and Anomalous Phase Matching in Plasmonic Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute a particularly attractive set of materials. By means of modern nanolithographic fabrication techniques, flat, ultrathin optical elements may be constructed. However, in spite of their strong optical nonlinearities, plasmonic metasurfaces have so far been investigated mostly in the linear regime. Here we introduce full nonlinear phase control over plasmonic elements in metasurfaces. We show that for nonlinear interactions in a phase-gradient nonlinear metasurface a new anomalous nonlinear phase matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analog of the generalized Snell law demonstrated for linear metasurfaces. This phase matching condition is very different from the other known phase matching schemes. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities provides a foundation for the design of flat nonlinear optical elements based on metasurfaces. Our demonstrated flat nonlinear elements (i.e. lenses) act...

  14. Nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-01-01

    Research in nonlinear dynamics is rapidly expanding and its range of applications is extending beyond the traditional areas of science where it was first developed. Indeed while linear analysis and modelling, which has been very successful in mathematical physics and engineering, has become a mature science, many elementary phenomena of intrinsic nonlinear nature were recently experimentally detected and investigated, suggesting new theoretical work. Complex systems, as turbulent fluids, were known to be governed by intrinsically nonlinear laws since a long time ago, but received purely phenomenological descriptions. The pioneering works of Boltzmann and Poincare, probably because of their intrinsic difficulty, did not have a revolutionary impact at their time; it is only very recently that their message is reaching a significant number of mathematicians and physicists. Certainly the development of computers and computer graphics played an important role in developing geometric intuition of complex phenomena through simple numerical experiments, while a new mathematical framework to understand them was being developed.

  15. Aptamer-Drug Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guizhi; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-11-18

    Western medicine often aims to specifically treat diseased tissues or organs. However, the majority of current therapeutics failed to do so owing to their limited selectivity and the consequent "off-target" side effects. Targeted therapy aims to enhance the selectivity of therapeutic effects and reduce adverse side effects. One approach toward this goal is to utilize disease-specific ligands to guide the delivery of less-specific therapeutics, such that the therapeutic effects can be guided specifically to diseased tissues or organs. Among these ligands, aptamers, also known as chemical antibodies, have emerged over the past decades as a novel class of targeting ligands that are capable of specific binding to disease biomarkers. Compared with other types of targeting ligands, aptamers have an array of unique advantageous features, which make them promising for developing aptamer-drug conjugates (ApDCs) for targeted therapy. In this Review, we will discuss ApDCs for targeted drug delivery in chemotherapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and photothermal therapy, primarily of cancer.

  16. Sequential measurements of conjugate observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica ' Francesco Brioschi' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.

  17. Nonlinear optics of astaxanthin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A.; Fisch, Herbert; Haas, Karl-Heinz; Haedicke, E.; Paust, J.; Schrof, Wolfgang; Ticktin, Anton

    1993-02-01

    Carotinoids exhibit large nonlinear optical properties due to their extended (pi) -electron system. Compared to other polyenes which show a broad distribution of conjugation lengths, carotinoids exhibit a well defined molecular structure, i.e. a well defined conjugation length. Therefore the carotinoid molecules can serve as model compounds to study the relationship between structure and nonlinear optical properties. In this paper the synthesis of four astaxanthins with C-numbers ranging from 30 to 60, their preparation into thin films, wavelength dispersive Third Harmonic Generation (THG) measurements and some molecular modelling calculations will be presented. Resonant (chi) (3) values reach 1.2(DOT)10-10 esu for C60 astaxanthin. In the nonresonant regime a figure of merit (chi) (3)/(alpha) of several 10-13 esu-cm is demonstrated.

  18. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  19. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Helin, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domain. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate gradient based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simul...

  20. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, T.; Yudytskiy, M.

    2013-08-01

    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem, a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domains. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate-gradient-based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of European Southern Observatory.

  1. Helical peptide-polyamine and -polyether conjugates as synthetic ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Monica; Francescon, Marco; Fregonese, Massimo; Gennaro, Renato; Pengo, Paolo; Rossi, Paola; Scrimin, Paolo; Tecilla, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Two new synthetic ionophores in which the hydrophobic portion is represented by a short helical Aib-peptide (Aib=α-amino-isobutyric acid) and the hydrophilic one is a poly-amino (1a) or a polyether (1b) chain have been prepared. The two conjugates show a high ionophoric activity in phospholipid membranes being able to efficiently dissipate a pH gradient and, in the case of 1b, to transport Na(+) across the membrane. Bioactivity evaluation of the two conjugates shows that 1a has a moderate antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms and it is able to permeabilize the inner and the outer membrane of Escherichia coli cells.

  2. CMB anisotropies from a gradient mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-03-01

    A linear gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect on short distance physics. We confirm this by showing that if there was such a gradient mode extending across the whole observable Universe, it would not cause any hemispherical asymmetry in the power of CMB anisotropies, as long as Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To study the effect of the long wavelength mode on short wavelength modes, we generalize the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. Next, we consider effects that are of second order in the long mode. A gradient mode Φ = qṡx generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce an observable quadrupole moment. For instance, in a matter-dominated model it is equal to Q = 5(qṡx)2/18. This quadrupole can be canceled by superposition of a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a nonlinear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  3. Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Piltan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method and optimization the sliding surface slope by gradient descent method. It is shown that this type of control methodology, although used to a certain model, can be used to conveniently control the dynamics of the arm with suitable tradeoff in accuracy of modeling. This relatively controller is more plausible to implement in an actual real-time when compared to other techniques of nonlinear controller methodology of continuum arms. Principles of sliding mode methodology is based on derive the sliding surface slope and nonlinear dynamic model and applied in the system. Based on the gradient descent optimization method, the sliding surface slope and gain updating factor has been developed in certain and partly uncertain continuum robots. This methodology is represented in certain and uncertain area whose only optimization for certain area and test this optimization for uncertainty. The new techniques proposed and methodologies adopted in this paper supported by MATLAB/SIMULINK results represent a significant contribution to the field of design an optimized nonlinear sliding mode controller for continuum robots.

  4. Microfluidic chip containing porous gradient for chemotaxis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abboodi, Aswan; Tjeung, Ricky; Doran, Pauline; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Chan, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a new porous gradient microfluidic device based on in situ Gtn-HPA/CMC-Tyr hydrogel that comprises gelatin hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate and carboxymethyl cellulose tyramine (CMC-Tyr) conjugate. The device is fabricated using a soft lithographic technique, in which microstructures were patterned on a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a polymeric mold. Human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) were employed as invasive cancer cell model. Porosity gradients were generated by flowing pore etching fluid in the gradient generator network. Results suggested that spatial control of the porosity can be obtained, which mimics the 3-dimensional microenvironment in vivo for cell-based screening applications including real time chemotaxis, cytotoxicity, and continuous drug-response monitoring. A chemoattractant gradient is then generated and cell migration is monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. The viability of cells was evaluated using calcien AM stain. Herein, we successfully monitored the chemotactic responses of cancer cells, confirmed the validity of using in situ porous hydrogels as a construction material for a microchemotaxis device, and demonstrated the potential of the hydrogel with tunable porosity based microfluidic device in biological experiments. This device will also be practical in controlling the chemical and mechanical properties of the surroundings during the formation of tissue engineered constructs.

  5. Uniform gradient expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giovannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  6. Uniform gradient expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Section of Milan-Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy)

    2015-06-30

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  7. Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  8. Gradient systems and mechanical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengxiang Mei; Huibin Wu

    2016-01-01

    All types of gradient systems and their properties are discussed. Two problems connected with gradient sys-tems and mechanical systems are studied. One is the direct problem of transforming a mechanical system into a gradi-ent system, and the other is the inverse problem, which is transforming a gradient system into a mechanical system.

  9. Conjugated Molecules for the Smart Filtering of Intense Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The practical realization of smart optical filters, i.e. devices which change their optical transmission in a suitable way to keep a working state for a general light sensitive element , can involve the use of conjugated molecules whose light absorption properties are light- intensity dependent (nonlinear optical effect. The verification of optical limiting displayed by some particular conjugated molecules, e.g. phthalocyanines, is quite noteworthy and can be successfully exploited for the realization of such smart optical devices. In the present contribution the analysis of the relevant molecular feature of a phthalocyanine are analyzed with the aim of determining useful correlations between optical limiting performance and phthalocyanine chemical structure. In particular , the electronic nature of the substituent is considered as a key factor for the explanation of some observed optical limiting trends.

  10. D-π-A conjugated molecules for optoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Dong; Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2015-06-01

    Dipolar chromophores consisting of electron donor (D) and electron acceptor (A) groups connected through a conjugated π-bridge have been actively studied and integrated in optoelectronic and electronic devices. Generally, such π-conjugated molecules provide substantial delocalization of π-electrons over the molecules. Here, a brief overview of recent research on D-π-A dipolar chromophores including their syntheses and several promising applications is reported, especially in nonlinear optical devices and organic photovoltaics. Structure/property relationships are discussed in order to exploit the potentials by tuning the π-electron density, polarizability, and HOMO-LUMO band gap of the chromophores. Some of the examples may well set the stage for chip-scale integration of optoelectronics as well as the realization of an important array of new device technologies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Conjugated polymer fluorescence: Interplay of correlations and alternation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soos, Z.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galvao, D.S. [Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (United States)]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Etemad, S. [Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (United States); Kepler, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Conjugated polymers can have high conductivity on doping, large nonlinear optical response in semiconducting state, and be used as LEDs. These polymers include polyactylene, polydiacetylenes, polysilanes, polythiophene, poly-p-phenylenevinylene. Polymer fluorescence is related to the lowest singlet excited state S{sub 1}. Polymer and oligomer data are shown for the excitation energy ratio of the two-photon and one-photon gaps. There is a ratio crossover with increasing e-e correlations in any centrosymmetri chain with an insulating ground state. The {pi}-conjugated polymers present various band gaps at constant correlations, and single-particle gaps can be related to the structure. The nature of the lowest singlet excited state depends sensitively on both correlations and alternation. 22 refs, 2 figs.

  12. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-01

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  13. Application of heat-balance integral method to conjugate thermal explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilov Vasily

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate thermal explosion is an extension of the classical theory, proposed and studied recently by the author. The paper reports application of heat-balance integral method for developing phase portraits for systems undergoing conjugate thermal explosion. The heat-balance integral method is used as an averaging method reducing partical differential equation problem to the set of first-order ordinary differential equations. The latter reduced problem allows natural interpretation in appropriately chosen phase space. It is shown that, with the help of heat-balance integral technique, conjugate thermal explosion problem can be described with a good accuracy by the set of non-linear first-order differential equations involving complex error function. Phase trajectories are presented for typical regimes emerging in conjugate thermal explosion. Use of heat-balance integral as a spatial averaging method allows efficient description of system evolution to be developed.

  14. Analytical solution of conjugate turbulent forced convection boundary layer flow over plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joneydi Shariatzadeh Omid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conjugate (coupled forced convection heat transfer from a heated conducting plate under turbulent boundary layer flow is considered. A heated plate of finite thickness is cooled under turbulent forced convection boundary layer flow. Because the conduction and convection boundary layer flow is coupled (conjugated in the problem, a semi-analytical solution based on Differential Transform Method (DTM is presented for solving the non-linear integro-differential equation occurring in the problem. The main conclusion is that in the conjugate heat transfer case the temperature distribution of the plate is flatter than the one in the non-conjugate case. This feature is more pronounced under turbulent flow when compared with the laminar flow.

  15. Preparation and immunochemical characterization of meningococcal group C polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates as a new generation of vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuvery, E.C.; Miedema, F; Van Delft, R.; Haverkamp, J.

    1983-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis group C polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates have been prepared by using high-molecular-weight polysaccharide and purified tetanus toxoid and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. The influence of three conditions of preparation was studied. Biochemical assays, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and isopycnic CsCl gradient ultracentrifugation have been used to characterize the conjugates. The polysaccharide-to-protein ratios of th...

  16. Optical phase conjugation in atomic beams and vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, John James

    1997-07-01

    Optical phase conjugation in atomic beams and vapors using alkali metal atoms as the nonlinear medium is examined. The significance of the sodium system is that the nonlinear gain is high due to the hyperfine system, which behaves as a Raman system. The gains observed were larger than 100 in cases involving two separate pump lasers. The gain is also seen to be more complicated than a Raman system. The frequency of the beams is examined for three separate configurations. We examine a self pumped configuration, an externally pumped configuration consisting of two pump lasers and a probe, and a ring configuration. The observed gain in a self pumped configuration is a result of a mixture of a three level Mollow type gain and a Raman gain. The initial cavity laser is a result of the Mollow gain, and the conjugate produced is seen to arise from the interaction of the cavity beams with the initial pump beam to produce the conjugate. In the externally pumped scheme, the gain is due to Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) in a double-Λ Raman system. There is an equilibrium that is obtained that is responsible for the high gains observed in this particular setup. The bandwidth of the ground state two photon induced coherence is less than the natural lifetime, indicating CPT as the gain mechanism. In the ring configuration, we observed two separate gains. There is a forward and a backward gain. These two oscillations occur together for a 430 MHZ bandwidth which coincides with the observed width of the phase conjugate oscillation. The design of our vapor cells is discussed in depth. The heat pipe configuration, necessary to successfully conduct these experiments is shown in detail. The design of our atomic beams is also discussed.

  17. Large solutions of semilinear elliptic equations with nonlinear gradient terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan V. Lair

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that large positive solutions exist for the equation (P±:Δu±|∇u|q=p(xuγ in Ω⫅RN(N≥3 for appropriate choices of γ>1,q>0 in which the domain Ω is either bounded or equal to RN. The nonnegative function p is continuous and may vanish on large parts of Ω. If Ω=RN, then p must satisfy a decay condition as |x|→∞. For (P+, the decay condition is simply ∫0∞tϕ(tdt<∞, where ϕ(t=max|x|=tp(x. For (P−, we require that t2+βϕ(t be bounded above for some positive β. Furthermore, we show that the given conditions on γ and p are nearly optimal for equation (P+ in that no large solutions exist if either γ≤1 or the function p has compact support in Ω.

  18. Research study of conjugate materials; Conjugate material no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper reported an introductory research on possibilities of new glass `conjugate materials.` The report took up the structure and synthetic process of conjugate materials to be researched/developed, classified them according to structural elements on molecular, nanometer and cluster levels, and introduced the structures and functions. Further, as glasses with new functions to be proposed, the paper introduced transparent and high-strength glass used for houses and vehicles, light modulation glass which realizes energy saving and optical data processing, and environmentally functional glass which realizes environmental cleaning or high performance biosensor. An initial survey was also conducted on rights of intellectual property to be taken notice of in Japan and abroad in the present situation. Reports were summed up and introduced of Osaka National Research Institute, Electrotechnical Laboratory, and National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya which are all carrying out leading studies of conjugate materials. 235 refs., 135 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Thermal rectification in nonlinear quantum circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruokola, T.; Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transport in nonlinear solid-state quantum circuits. We give a detailed account of heat rectification effects, i.e., the asymmetry of heat current with respect to a reversal of the thermal gradient, in a system consisting of two reservoirs at finite...

  20. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-03-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  1. Improvement of the analysis of dansylated derivatives of polyamines and their conjugates by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaniella, B; Mateos, J L; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    2001-06-15

    The paper described a method for improving the hydrolysis of conjugated polyamines in PH fraction, isolated from the lichen Evernia prunastri, as well as the optimization of dansylation procedure of these polyamines on the basis of the pH value to which derivatization is achieved. Dansylated polyamines have been later separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a gradient elution. Hydrolysis of conjugates requires acid treatment at room temperature rather than at 110 degrees C, as usually described. Dansylation is improved at high pH values, whereas removal of phenolics (mainly evernic acid), from the conjugates requires low pH values.

  2. Nonlinear PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    From the Back Cover: The emphasis throughout the present volume is on the practical application of theoretical mathematical models helping to unravel the underlying mechanisms involved in processes from mathematical physics and biosciences. It has been conceived as a unique collection of abstract methods dealing especially with nonlinear partial differential equations (either stationary or evolutionary) that are applied to understand concrete processes involving some important applications re...

  3. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting...... the successful propagation and long-term continued existence of these extra-chromosomal elements is extensive. Apart from the accessory genetic elements that may provide plasmid-harboring cells a selective advantage, special focus is placed on the mechanisms conjugative plasmids employ to ensure their stable...... maintenance in the host cell. These importantly include the ability to self-mobilize in a process termed conjugative transfer, which may occur across species barriers. Other plasmid stabilizing mechanisms include the multimer resolution system, active partitioning, and post-segregational-killing of plasmid...

  4. Performance-Based Adaptive Gradient Descent Optimal Coefficient Fuzzy Sliding Mode Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Rezaie; Arman Jahed; Bamdad Boroomand; Farzin Piltan

    2012-01-01

    Design a nonlinear controller for second order nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems is the main challenge in this paper. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of a chattering free Mamdani’s fuzzy-based tuning gradient descent optimal error-based fuzzy sliding mode controller for highly nonlinear dynamic six degrees of freedom robot manipulator, in presence of uncertainties. Conversely, pure sliding mode controller is used in many applications; it has two important drawbacks namely; c...

  5. Performance evaluation of matrix gradient coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Schultz, Gerrit; Testud, Frederik; Welz, Anna Masako; Weber, Hans; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new performance measure of a matrix coil (also known as multi-coil) from the perspective of efficient, local, non-linear encoding without explicitly considering target encoding fields. An optimization problem based on a joint optimization for the non-linear encoding fields is formulated. Based on the derived objective function, a figure of merit of a matrix coil is defined, which is a generalization of a previously known resistive figure of merit for traditional gradient coils. A cylindrical matrix coil design with a high number of elements is used to illustrate the proposed performance measure. The results are analyzed to reveal novel features of matrix coil designs, which allowed us to optimize coil parameters, such as number of coil elements. A comparison to a scaled, existing multi-coil is also provided to demonstrate the use of the proposed performance parameter. The assessment of a matrix gradient coil profits from using a single performance parameter that takes the local encoding performance of the coil into account in relation to the dissipated power.

  6. Hypercube Solutions for Conjugate Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    alternative term that emphasizes the role of A in this definition. We also say that x and y are A-orthogonal. [Ref. 18: p. 410] The method of conjugate...conjugate (A-orthogonal). begin CG u0 =zeros(n) (arbitrary initial guess) Po = r0 = b- Auo for i = 0 : n = pTAp , (denominator used below) ai = (pTri...application, it could characterize water or chemical penetration in soil. We shall continue to use the term "heat equation", though, for the sake of

  7. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Yasuho [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-05-04

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  8. Face recognition with histograms of fractional differential gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Ma, Yan; Cao, Qi

    2014-05-01

    It has proved that fractional differentiation can enhance the edge information and nonlinearly preserve textural detailed information in an image. This paper investigates its ability for face recognition and presents a local descriptor called histograms of fractional differential gradients (HFDG) to extract facial visual features. HFDG encodes a face image into gradient patterns using multiorientation fractional differential masks, from which histograms of gradient directions are computed as the face representation. Experimental results on Yale, face recognition technology (FERET), Carnegie Mellon University pose, illumination, and expression (CMU PIE), and A. Martinez and R. Benavente (AR) databases validate the feasibility of the proposed method and show that HFDG outperforms local binary patterns (LBP), histograms of oriented gradients (HOG), enhanced local directional patterns (ELDP), and Gabor feature-based methods.

  9. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  10. Reinforcement Learning by Value Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Fairbank, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the value-gradient is introduced and developed in the context of reinforcement learning. It is shown that by learning the value-gradients exploration or stochastic behaviour is no longer needed to find locally optimal trajectories. This is the main motivation for using value-gradients, and it is argued that learning value-gradients is the actual objective of any value-function learning algorithm for control problems. It is also argued that learning value-gradients is significantly more efficient than learning just the values, and this argument is supported in experiments by efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude, in several problem domains. Once value-gradients are introduced into learning, several analyses become possible. For example, a surprising equivalence between a value-gradient learning algorithm and a policy-gradient learning algorithm is proven, and this provides a robust convergence proof for control problems using a value function with a general function approximator.

  11. Nonlinear Negative Refraction by Difference Frequency Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jianjun; Feng, Yaming; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Negative refraction has attracted much interest for its promising capability in imaging applications. Such an effect can be implemented by negative index meta-materials, however, which are usually accompanied by high loss and demanding fabrication processes. Recently, alternative nonlinear approaches like phase conjugation and four wave mixing have shown advantages of low-loss and easy-to-implement, but associated problems like narrow accepting angles can still halt their practical applications. Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a new scheme to realize negative refraction by nonlinear difference frequency generation with wide tunability, where a thin BBO slice serves as a negative refraction layer bending the input signal beam to the idler beam at a negative angle. Furthermore, we realize optical focusing effect using such nonlinear negative refraction, which may enable many potential applications in imaging science.

  12. Nonlinear negative refraction by difference frequency generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianjun; Shen, Dongyi; Feng, Yaming; Wan, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Negative refraction has attracted much interest for its promising capability in imaging applications. Such an effect can be implemented by negative index meta-materials, however, which are usually accompanied by high loss and demanding fabrication processes. Recently, alternative nonlinear approaches like phase conjugation and four wave mixing have shown advantages of low-loss and easy-to-implement, but associated problems like narrow accepting angles can still halt their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a scheme to realize negative refraction by nonlinear difference frequency generation with wide tunability, where a thin Beta barium borate slice serves as a negative refraction layer bending the input signal beam to the idler beam at a negative angle. Furthermore, we realize optical focusing effect using such nonlinear negative refraction, which may enable many potential applications in imaging science.

  13. On contravariant product conjugate connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Blaga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Invariance properties for the covariant and contravariant connections on a Riemannian manifold with respect to an almost product structure are stated. Restricting to a distribution of the contravariant connections is also discussed. The particular case of the conjugate connection is investigated and properties of the extended structural and virtual tensors for the contravariant connections are given.

  14. Actinomycete integrative and conjugative elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poele, Evelien M. te; Bolhuis, Henk; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on actinomycete integrative and conjugative elements (AICEs). The best characterised AICEs, pSAM2 of Streptomyces ambofaciens (10.9 kb), SLP1 (17.3 kb) of Streptomyces coelicolor and pMEA300 of Amycolatopsis methanolica (13.3 kb), are present as integrative eleme

  15. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  16. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  17. Bacteriophytochromes control conjugation in Agrobacterium fabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingnan; Rottwinkel, Gregor; Feng, Juan; Liu, Yiyao; Lamparter, Tilman

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial conjugation, the transfer of single stranded plasmid DNA from donor to recipient cell, is mediated through the type IV secretion system. We performed conjugation assays using a transmissible artificial plasmid as reporter. With this assay, conjugation in Agrobacterium fabrum was modulated by the phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2, photoreceptors that are most sensitive in the red region of visible light. In conjugation studies with wild-type donor cells carrying a pBIN-GUSINT plasmid as reporter that lacked the Ti (tumor inducing) plasmid, no conjugation was observed. When either agp1(-) or agp2(-) knockout donor strains were used, plasmid DNA was delivered to the recipient, indicating that both phytochromes suppress conjugation in the wild type donor. In the recipient strains, the loss of Agp1 or Agp2 led to diminished conjugation. When wild type cells with Ti plasmid and pBIN-GUS reporter plasmid were used as donor, a high rate of conjugation was observed. The DNA transfer was down regulated by red or far-red light by a factor of 3.5. With agp1(-) or agp2(-) knockout donor cells, conjugation in the dark was about 10 times lower than with the wild type donor, and with the double knockout donor no conjugation was observed. These results imply that the phytochrome system has evolved to inhibit conjugation in the light. The decrease of conjugation under different temperature correlated with the decrease of phytochrome autophosphorylation.

  18. Facile biosynthesis, separation and conjugation of gold nanoparticles to doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Anil; Peter, Yves-Alain; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2008-12-01

    Particle shape and size determine the physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of nanoscale materials, including optical absorption, fluorescence, and electric and magnetic moments. It is thus desirable to be able to synthesize and separate various particle shapes and sizes. Biosynthesis using microorganisms has emerged as a more ecologically friendly, simpler, and more reproducible alternative to chemical synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles, allowing the generation of rare forms such as triangles. Here we show that the plant pathogenic fungus Helminthosporum solani, when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions, produces a diverse mixture of extracellular gold nanocrystals in the size range from 2 to 70 nm. A plurality are polydisperse spheres, but a significant number are homogeneously sized rods, triangles, pentagons, pyramids, and stars. The particles can be separated according to their size and shape by using a sucrose density gradient in a tabletop microcentrifuge, a novel and facile approach to nanocrystal purification. Conjugation to biomolecules can be performed without further processing, as illustrated with the smallest fraction of particles which were conjugated to the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and taken up readily into HEK293 cells. The cytotoxicity of the conjugates was comparable to that of an equivalent concentration of Dox.

  19. Nonlinear instability and dynamic bifurcation of a planeinterface during solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金平; 侯安新; 黄定华; 鲍征宇; 高志农; 屈松生

    2001-01-01

    By taking average over the curvature, the temperature and its gradient, the solute con-centration and its gradient at the flange of planar interface perturbed by sinusoidal ripple during solidifi-cation, the nonlinear dynamic equations of the sinusoidal perturbation wave have been set up. Analysisof the nonlinear instability and the behaviors of dynamic bifurcation of the solutions of these equationsshows that (i) the way of dynamic bifurcation of the flat-to-cellular interface transition vades with differ-ent thermal gradients. The quasi-subcritical-lag bifurcation occurs in the small interface thermal gradientscope, the supercritical-lag bifurcation in the medium thermal gradient scope and the supercritical bifur-cation in the large thermal gradient scope. (ii) The transition of cellular-to-flat interface is realizedthrough supercritical inverse bifurcation in the rapid solidification area.

  20. Engineering spatial gradients of signaling proteins using magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemay, L; Hostachy, S; Hoffmann, C; Gautier, J; Gueroui, Z

    2013-11-13

    Intracellular biochemical reactions are often localized in space and time, inducing gradients of enzymatic activity that may play decisive roles in determining cell's fate and functions. However, the techniques available to examine such enzymatic gradients of activity remain limited. Here, we propose a new method to engineer a spatial gradient of signaling protein concentration within Xenopus egg extracts using superparamagnetic nanoparticles. We show that, upon the application of a magnetic field, a concentration gradient of nanoparticles with a tunable length extension is established within confined egg extracts. We then conjugate the nanoparticles to RanGTP, a small G-protein controlling microtubule assembly. We found that the generation of an artificial gradient of Ran-nanoparticles modifies the spatial positioning of microtubule assemblies. Furthermore, the spatial control of the level of Ran concentration allows us to correlate the local fold increase in Ran-nanoparticle concentration with the spatial positioning of the microtubule-asters. Our assay provides a bottom-up approach to examine the minimum ingredients generating polarization and symmetry breaking within cells. More generally, these results show how magnetic nanoparticles and magnetogenetic tools can be used to control the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling pathways.

  1. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase conjugator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulov, A Yu

    2014-04-10

    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to the most suitable configuration for a coherent coupling of thousands of fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that a Michelson phase-conjugating configuration with double passage through an array of fiber amplifiers has the definite advantage compared to a one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless of the amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers, the Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on an entrance/output beam splitter. In both configurations, the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope, due to gain saturation, is capable of randomizing the position of chirp inside an envelope; thus it may reduce the visibility of the interference pattern at an output beam splitter. Certain advantages are inherent to the sech-form temporal envelope because of the exponential precursor and self-similar propagation in gain medium. The Gaussian envelope is significantly compressed in a deep gain saturation regime, and the frequency chirp position inside pulse envelope is more deformed.

  2. Dynamic ADI methods for elliptic equations with gradient dependent coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, S.

    1977-04-01

    The dynamic alternating direction implicit (DADI) methods, previously introduced and applied to elliptic problems with linear and nonlinear coefficients (a(u)), are applied here to elliptic problems with nonlinear gradient-dependent coefficients (a(grad u)), such as the minimal surface equation, the capillary surface equation, and the magnetostatic equation. Certain improvements of these methods are developed, and they are extended to ''3-directional'' or ''3-dimensional'' situations. 28 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Double phase conjugation in tungsten bronze crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, E J; Clark Iii, W W; Miller, M J; Wood, G L; Monson, B; Salamo, G J; Neurgaonkar, R R

    1990-02-20

    In this paper we report a new method for double phase conjugation particularly suited to the tungsten bronze crystal strontium barium niobate. It has also been observed to produce conjugate waves in BaTiO(3) and BSKNN. This new arrangement is called the bridge conjugator because the two beams enter opposing [100] crystal faces and fan together to form a bridge without reflection off a crystal face. Our measurements indicate that the bridge conjugator is competitive with previously reported double phase conjugate mirrors in reflectivity, response time, ease of alignment, and fidelity.

  4. Energy in density gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Vranjes, J

    2015-01-01

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

  5. Energy in density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, J., E-mail: jvranjes@yahoo.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kono, M., E-mail: kono@fps.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  6. Conjugative plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Pachulec

    Full Text Available Many clinical isolates of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain conjugative plasmids. The host range of these plasmids is limited to Neisseria species, but presence of a tetracycline (tetM determinant inserted in several of these plasmids is an important cause of the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance. Previously plasmids with different backbones (Dutch and American type backbones and with and without different tetM determinants (Dutch and American type tetM determinants have been identified. Within the isolates tested, all plasmids with American or Dutch type tetM determinants contained a Dutch type plasmid backbone. This demonstrated that tetM determinants should not be used to differentiate between conjugal plasmid backbones. The nucleotide sequences of conjugative plasmids with Dutch type plasmid backbones either not containing the tetM determinant (pEP5233 or containing Dutch (pEP5289 or American (pEP5050 type tetM determinants were determined. Analysis of the backbone sequences showed that they belong to a novel IncP1 subfamily divergent from the IncP1alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subfamilies. The tetM determinants were inserted in a genetic load region found in all these plasmids. Insertion was accompanied by the insertion of a gene with an unknown function, and rearrangement of a toxin/antitoxin gene cluster. The genetic load region contains two toxin/antitoxins of the Zeta/Epsilon toxin/antitoxin family previously only found in Gram positive organisms and the virulence associated protein D of the VapD/VapX toxin/antitoxin family. Remarkably, presence of VapX of pJD1, a small cryptic neisserial plasmid, in the acceptor strain strongly increased the conjugation efficiency, suggesting that it functions as an antitoxin for the conjugative plasmid. The presence of the toxin and antitoxin on different plasmids might explain why the host range of this IncP1 plasmid is limited to Neisseria species. The isolated plasmids

  7. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 A Unified Nonlinear Feedback Functional Method for Study Both Control and Synchronization of Spatiotemporal Chaos Fang Jinqing Ali M. K. (Department of Physics, The University of Lethbridge,Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4,Canada) Two fundamental questions dominate future chaos control theories.The first is the problem of controlling hyperchaos in higher dimensional systems.The second question has yet to be addressed:the problem of controlling spatiotemporal chaos in a spatiotemporal system.In recent years, control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos and hyperchaos have became a much more important and challenging subject. The reason for this is the control and synchronism of such behaviours have extensive and great potential of interdisciplinary applications, such as security communication, information processing, medicine and so on. However, this subject is not much known and remains an outstanding open.

  9. Global Existence of Solutions for a Viscous Cahn-Hilliard Equation with Gradient Dependent Potentials and Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengyuan Qu; Yang Cao

    2013-11-01

    We consider a class of nonlinear viscous Cahn–Hilliard equations with gradient dependent potentials and sources. By a Galerkin approximation scheme combined with the potential well method, we prove the global existence of weak solutions.

  10. Generalization of strain-gradient theory to finite elastic deformation for isotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    This paper concerns finite deformation in the strain-gradient continuum. In order to take account of the geometric nonlinearity, the original strain-gradient theory which is based on the infinitesimal strain tensor is rewritten given the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. Following introducing the generalized isotropic Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material model for the strain-gradient elasticity, the boundary value problem is investigated in not only the material configuration but also the spatial configuration building upon the principle of virtual work for a three-dimensional solid. By presenting one example, the convergence of the strain-gradient and classical theories is studied.

  11. Nonlinear images of scatterers in chirped pulsed laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yong-Hua; Wang You-Wen; Wen Shuang-Chun; Fan Dian-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The bandwidth and the duration of incident pulsed beam are proved to play important roles in modifying the nonlinear image of amplitude-type scatterer.It is found that the initially positive chirp-type bandwidth can suppress the nonlinear image,while the negative one can enhance it,and that both effects are inversely proportional to the incident pulse duration.Numerical simulations further demonstrate that the location of nonlinear image is at the conjugate plane of the scatterer and that,for negatively pre-chirped pulsed beam,the nonlinear image peak intensity can be higher than that in the corresponding monochromatic case under certain conditions.Moreover the effect of group velocity dispersion on nonlinear image is found to be similar to that of chirp-type bandwidth.

  12. Conjugated Polymers for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco

    arylation (DAr) and direct arylation polymerization (DArP) have been applied to the preparation of PPDTBT, making this polymer readily available in only 4 synthetic steps and thus easily transferable to a large scale-production setup. DArP avoids organometallic species and therefore is an appealing......This dissertation is aimed at developing materials for flexible, large area, ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) fully printed under ambient conditions. A large screening of conjugated polymers, both novel and well-known materials, has been carried out in order to find suitable candidates...... for scalable PSCs fully printed under ambient conditions [Adv. Energy Mater. 2015, 5, 1402186]. PPDTBT resulted to be the conjugated polymer with the best photovoltaic performance within the 104 synthesized macromolecules. Therefore, further studies have been done on such material. The impact of side chain...

  13. Conjugated polyelectrolytes fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This is the first monograph to specifically focus on fundamentals and applications of polyelectrolytes, a class of molecules that gained substantial interest due to their unique combination of properties. Combining both features of organic semiconductors and polyelectrolytes, they offer a broad field for fundamental research as well as applications to analytical chemistry, optical imaging, and opto-electronic devices. The initial chapters introduce readers to the synthesis, optical and electrical properties of various conjugated polyelectrolytes. This is followed by chapters on the applica

  14. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  15. Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Martti; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Malcuit, Michelle S.; Boyd, Robert W.

    1989-08-01

    We develop a semiclassical theory of the polarization properties of phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing. The theory includes the effects of saturation by the pump waves. We solve the density-matrix equations of motion in steady state for a nonlinear medium consisting of stationary atoms with a ground and excited state connected by two-photon transitions. As an illustration of the general results, we consider an S0-->S0 two-photon transition, which is known to lead to perfect polarization conjugation in the limit of third-order theory. We show that the fidelity of the polarization-conjugation process is degraded for excessively large pump intensities. The degradation can occur both due to transfer of population to the excited state and due to nonresonant Stark shifts. Theoretical results are compared to those of a recent experiment [Malcuit, Gauthier, and Boyd, Opt. Lett. 13, 663 (1988)].

  16. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-27

    Fano resonances - resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile - have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies.

  17. Model predictive control for wind power gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Boyd, Stephen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    ranges. The system dynamics are quite non-linear, and the constraints and objectives are not convex functions of the control inputs, so the resulting optimal control problem is difficult to solve globally. In this paper, we show that by a novel change of variables, which focuses on power flows, we can......We consider the operation of a wind turbine and a connected local battery or other electrical storage device, taking into account varying wind speed, with the goal of maximizing the total energy generated while respecting limits on the time derivative (gradient) of power delivered to the grid. We...... transform the problem to one with linear dynamics and convex constraints. Thus, the problem can be globally solved, using robust, fast solvers tailored for embedded control applications. We implement the optimal control problem in a receding horizon manner and provide extensive closed-loop tests with real...

  18. Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.

  19. Low dipole moment large β electrooptic chromophores based on exocyclic double bond conjugated bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Novel low dipole moment (μ) and large first hyperpolarizability (β) electrooptic chromophores have been designed based on the special characteristic of reversed dipole moment in the excited state of exocyclic double bond (ECDB) conjugated bridge by the optimization of the substituted method, and their electronic and second-order nonlinear optical properties have been theoretically investigated by employing the AM1/FF and ZINDO/S-CI approaches. By extending the conjugation length and optimizing the donor/acceptor strength, the oscillator strength of the excited transition that contributes to the molecular nonlinearity can be further enhanced. The designed chromophores possess a larger figure of merit (FOM) than that of D) ground state dipole moment.``

  20. Modelling conjugation with stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, K R; Christiansen, L E; Hasman, H; Madsen, H

    2010-03-07

    Conjugation is an important mechanism involved in the transfer of resistance between bacteria. In this article a stochastic differential equation based model consisting of a continuous time state equation and a discrete time measurement equation is introduced to model growth and conjugation of two Enterococcus faecium strains in a rich exhaustible media. The model contains a new expression for a substrate dependent conjugation rate. A maximum likelihood based method is used to estimate the model parameters. Different models including different noise structure for the system and observations are compared using a likelihood-ratio test and Akaike's information criterion. Experiments indicating conjugation on the agar plates selecting for transconjugants motivates the introduction of an extended model, for which conjugation on the agar plate is described in the measurement equation. This model is compared to the model without plate conjugation. The modelling approach described in this article can be applied generally when modelling dynamical systems.

  1. Azide-derivatized gold nanosphere "clicked" to indium and zinc phthalocyanines for improved nonlinear optical limiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, Owolabi M.; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-05-01

    We report on the conjugation of azide-derivatized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to alkyne moieties of ZnPc and InPc via azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition reaction to form phthalocyanines-AuNPs (MPc-AuNPs) conjugates. The detailed structural characterizations of the composites were in good agreement with the expected results. The nonlinear absorption coefficients and other nonlinear optical limiting parameters were almost two times larger for the conjugates compared to free phthalocyanines. We established direct relationship between improved photophysical characterizations and enhanced nonlinear effects of reverse saturable absorption mechanisms favoured by excited triplet absorption of the phthalocyanines in the presence of AuNPs. The combination of InPc with AuNPs resulted in the lowest limiting intensity value of 0.06 J/cm2, hence the best performance in terms of optical limiting.

  2. A Gradient-Based Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Majid; Boyd, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive models are necessary to design shape memory alloy (SMA) components at nano- and micro-scales in NEMS and MEMS. The behavior of small-scale SMA structures deviates from that of the bulk material. Unfortunately, this response cannot be modeled using conventional constitutive models which lack an intrinsic length scale. At small scales, size effects are often observed along with large gradients in the stress or strain. Therefore, a gradient-based thermodynamically consistent constitutive framework is established. Generalized surface and body forces are assumed to contribute to the free energy as work conjugates to the martensite volume fraction, transformation strain tensor, and their spatial gradients. The rates of evolution of these variables are obtained by invoking the principal of maximum dissipation after assuming a transformation surface, which is a differential equation in space. This approach is compared to the theories that use a configurational force (microforce) balance law. The developed constitutive model includes energetic and dissipative length scales that can be calibrated experimentally. Boundary value problems, including pure bending of SMA beams and simple torsion of SMA cylindrical bars, are solved to demonstrate the capabilities of this model. These problems contain the differential equation for the transformation surface as well as the equilibrium equation and are solved analytically and numerically. The simplest version of the model, containing only the additional gradient of martensite volume fraction, predicts a response with greater transformation hardening for smaller structures.

  3. Iterative restoration algorithms for nonlinear constraint computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold

    A general iterative-restoration principle is introduced to facilitate the implementation of nonlinear optical processors. The von Neumann convergence theorem is generalized to include nonorthogonal subspaces which can be reduced to a special orthogonal projection operator by applying an orthogonality condition. This principle is shown to permit derivation of the Jacobi algorithm, the recursive principle, the van Cittert (1931) deconvolution method, the iteration schemes of Gerchberg (1974) and Papoulis (1975), and iteration schemes using two Fourier conjugate domains (e.g., Fienup, 1981). Applications to restoring the image of a double star and division by hard and soft zeros are discussed, and sample results are presented graphically.

  4. Beam Combining by Phase Transition Nonlinear Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    use the Redlich Kwong equation of state for the media we consider. This equation of state can be written RT a p - -b -FT(p.-’ + b)p ; 2-I M (2-1) where...as ac 3 dg-A7 C VA/\\CIIJT (6) The Redlich - Kwong equation of state; i.e., _ RT T-1/2 v-P v(v+P) (7) can be used to compute aP/lT, where the relevant...practical the application of nonlinear phase conjugate techniques to the beam combining of multiple lasers with a coherence characteristic of a

  5. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur J. L. Cooper; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Bruschi, Sam A.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes that catalyze the conversion of cysteine S-conjugates [RSCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] and selenium Se-conjugates [RSeCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] that contain a leaving group in the β position to pyruvate, ammonium and a sulfur-containing fragment (RSH) or selenium-containing fragment (RSeH), respectively. At least ten PLP enzymes catalyze β-elimination reactions with such cysteine S-conjugates. All are enzymes involved in amino acid m...

  6. The Tcp conjugation system of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Jessica A; Rood, Julian I

    2017-03-07

    The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses a family of large conjugative plasmids that is typified by the tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. Since these plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes or genes encoding extracellular or sporulation-associated toxins, the conjugative transfer of these plasmids appears to be important for the epidemiology of C. perfringens-mediated diseases. Sequence analysis of members of this plasmid family identified a highly conserved 35kb region that encodes proteins with various functions, including plasmid replication and partitioning. The tcp conjugation locus also was identified in this region, initially based on low-level amino acid sequence identity to conjugation proteins from the integrative conjugative element Tn916. Genetic studies confirmed that the tcp locus is required for conjugative transfer and combined with biochemical and structural analyses have led to the development of a functional model of the Tcp conjugation apparatus. This review summarises our current understanding of the Tcp conjugation system, which is now one of the best-characterized conjugation systems in Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Modelling conjugation with stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Conjugation is an important mechanism involved in the transfer of resistance between bacteria. In this article a stochastic differential equation based model consisting of a continuous time state equation and a discrete time measurement equation is introduced to model growth and conjugation of two...... using a likelihood-ratio test and Akaike's information criterion. Experiments indicating conjugation on the agar plates selecting for transconjugants motivates the introduction of an extended model, for which conjugation on the agar plate is described in the measurement equation. This model is compared...

  8. Strongly Nonlinear Transverse Perturbations in Phononic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikitenkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the surface heterogeneities formation in low-dimensional phononic crystals is studied. It is shown that phononic transverse perturbations in this medium are highly nonlinear. They can be described with the help of the Riemann wave and may form stable wave structures of the finite amplitude. The Riemann wave deformation is described analytically. The Riemann wave time existence up to the beginning of the gradient catastrophe is calculated.

  9. One day prediction of nighttime VLF amplitudes using nonlinear autoregression and neural network modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, H.; Hobara, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field amplitude of very low frequency (VLF) transmitter from Hawaii (NPM) has been continuously recorded at Chofu (CHF), Tokyo, Japan. The VLF amplitude variability indicates lower ionospheric perturbation in the D region (60-90 km altitude range) around the NPM-CHF propagation path. We carried out the prediction of daily nighttime mean VLF amplitude by using Nonlinear Autoregressive with Exogenous Input Neural Network (NARX NN). The NARX NN model, which was built based on the daily input variables of various physical parameters such as stratospheric temperature, total column ozone, cosmic rays, Dst, and Kp indices possess good accuracy during the model building. The fitted model was constructed within the training period from 1 January 2011 to 4 February 2013 by using three algorithms, namely, Bayesian Neural Network (BRANN), Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network (LMANN), and Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG). The LMANN has the largest Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94 and smallest root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.19 dB. The constructed models by using LMANN were applied to predict the VLF amplitude from 5 February 2013 to 31 December 2013. As a result the one step (1 day) ahead predicted nighttime VLF amplitude has the r of 0.93 and RMSE of 2.25 dB. We conclude that the model built according to the proposed methodology provides good predictions of the electric field amplitude of VLF waves for NPM-CHF (midlatitude) propagation path.

  10. Fully Nonlinear Simulations of Wave Resonance by An Array of Cylinders in Vertical Motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hao-cai; WANG Chi-zhong; LENG Jian-xing

    2013-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the resonant oscillations of the liquid confined within multiple or an array of floating bodies with fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the free surface and the body surface in two dimensions.The velocity potentials at each time step are obtained through the FEM with 8-node quadratic shape functions.The finite element linear system is solved by the conjugate gradient (CG) method with a symmetric successive overelaxlation (SSOR) preconditioner.The waves at the open boundary are absorbed by the combination of the damping zone method and the Sommerfeld-Orlanski equation.Numerical examples are given by an array of floating wedgeshaped cylinders and rectangular cylinders.Results are provided for heave motions including wave elevations,profiles and hydrodynamic forces.Comparisons are made in several cases with the results obtained from the second order solution in the time domain.It is found that the wave amplitude in the middle region of the array is larger than those in other places,and the hydrodynamic force on a cylinder increases with the cylinder closing to the middle of the array.

  11. A Comparative Study on Different Parallel Solvers for Nonlinear Analysis of Complex Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallelization of 2D/3D software SAPTIS is discussed for nonlinear analysis of complex structures. A comparative study is made on different parallel solvers. The numerical models are presented, including hydration models, water cooling models, modulus models, creep model, and autogenous deformation models. A finite element simulation is made for the whole process of excavation and pouring of dams using these models. The numerical results show a good agreement with the measured ones. To achieve a better computing efficiency, four parallel solvers utilizing parallelization techniques are employed: (1 a parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG solver based on OpenMP, (2 a parallel preconditioned Krylov subspace solver based on MPI, (3 a parallel sparse equation solver based on OpenMP, and (4 a parallel GPU equation solver. The parallel solvers run either in a shared memory environment OpenMP or in a distributed memory environment MPI. A comparative study on these parallel solvers is made, and the results show that the parallelization makes SAPTIS more efficient, powerful, and adaptable.

  12. Test of charge conjugation invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefkens, B M K; Prakhov, S; Gårdestig, A; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D; Koulbardis, A; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Supek, I; Tippens, W B

    2005-02-04

    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of eta decay to pi0pi0gamma and to pi0pi0pi0gamma. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(eta-->pi0pi0gamma)pi0pi0pi0gamma)<6 x 10(-5) at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.

  13. Waveguide mutually pumped phase conjugators

    OpenAIRE

    James, S. W.; Youden, K.E.; Jeffrey, P. M.; EASON, R. W.; Chandler, P.J.; Zhang, L.; Townsend, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of the Bridge Mutually Pumped Phase Conjugator is reported in a planar waveguide structure in photorefractive BaTiO3. The waveguide was fabricated by the technique of ion implantation. using 1.5 MeV H+ at a dose of 10^16 ions/cm^2. An order of magnitude decrease in response time is observed in the waveguide as compared to typical values obtained in bulk crystals, probably resulting from a combination of the optical confinement within the waveguide, and possibly modification of t...

  14. Short Conjugators in Solvable Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Sale, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    We give an upper bound on the size of short conjugators in certain solvable groups. Diestel-Leader graphs, which are a horocyclic product of trees, are discussed briefly and used to study the lamplighter groups. The other solvable groups we look at can be recognised in a similar vein, as groups which act on a horocyclic product of well known spaces. These include the Baumslag-Solitar groups BS(1,q) and semidirect products of Z^n with Z^k. Results can also be applied to the conjugacy of parabolic elements in Hilbert modular groups and to elements in 3-manifold groups.

  15. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, J W

    2010-01-01

    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...

  16. Design and characterization of nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Tae-Jin

    In the field of nanobiotechnology, nanoscale dimensions result in physical properties that differ from more conventional bulk material state. The integration of nanomaterials with biomolecules has begun to be used for unique physical properties, and for biological specific recognition, thereby leading to novel nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates. The direction of this dissertation is to develop biocatalytic nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates and to characterize them. For this, biological catalysts are employed to combine with nanomaterials. Two large parts include functional ization of nanomaterials with biomolecules and assembly of nanomaterials using a biological catalyst. First part of this thesis work is the exploration of the biocatalytic properties of nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates. Si nanocolumns have higher surface area which leads more amount of biocatalytis immobilization than flat Si wafer with the same projected area. The enhanced activity of soybean peroxidase (SBP) immobilized onto Si nanocolumns as novel nanostructured supports is focused. Next, the catalytic activity of immobilized DNAzyme onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is compared to that in solution phase, and multiple turnovers are examined. The relationship between hybridization efficiency and activity is investigated as a function of surface density of DNAzyme on MWNTs. Then, cellular delivery of silica nanoparticle-protein conjugates is visually confirmed and therefore the intracellular function of a protein delivered by silica nanoparticle-protein conjugates is proved. For one example of the intracellular function, stable SBP immobilized onto silica nanoparticles to activate a prodrug is demonstrated. Second part of this thesis work is the formation of nanostructured materials through the enzymatic assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Enzymatic polymerization of a phenol compound is applied to the bridging of two or more SWNTs functionalized with phenol

  17. Auxin conjugated to fluorescent dyes--a tool for the analysis of auxin transport pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, K; Kizińska, J; Szewczuk, Z; Banasiak, A

    2014-09-01

    Auxin is a small molecule involved in most processes related to plant growth and development. Its effect usually depends on the distribution in tissues and the formation of concentration gradients. Until now there has been no tool for the direct tracking of auxin transport at the cellular and tissue level; therefore the majority of studies have been based on various indirect methods. However, due to their various restrictions, relatively little is known about the relationship between various pathways of auxin transport and specific developmental processes. We present a new research tool: fluorescently labelled auxin in the form of a conjugate with two different fluorescent tracers, FITC and RITC, which allows direct observation of auxin transport in plant tissues. Chemical analysis and biological tests have shown that our conjugates have auxin-like biological activity and transport; therefore they can be used in all experimental systems as an alternative to IAA. In addition, the conjugates are a universal tool that can be applied in studies of all plant groups and species. The conjugation procedure presented in this paper can be adapted to other fluorescent dyes, which are constantly being improved. In our opinion, the conjugates greatly expand the possibilities of research concerning the role of auxin and its transport in different developmental processes in plants.

  18. Broadband excitation and collection in fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Ghimire, Navin; Bao, Hongchun; Gu, Min

    2013-08-01

    Broadband excitation and collection in a fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscope are realized by using a single hollow-core double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a gradient index lens. Femtosecond pulses with central wavelengths in the range of 750-850 nm can be directly delivered through the core of the fiber for nonlinear excitation without pre-chirping. A gradient index lens with numerical aperture 0.8 designed to operate over the near-infrared wavelength range is used for focusing the laser beam from the fiber for nonlinear excitation and for collecting the fluorescent signal from the sample. This compact system is suitable to perform nonlinear imaging of multiple fluorophors in the wavelength range of 750-850 nm.

  19. Numerical simulation of nonlinear continuity equations by evolving diffeomorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Carrillo, José A.

    2016-09-22

    In this paper we present a numerical scheme for nonlinear continuity equations, which is based on the gradient flow formulation of an energy functional with respect to the quadratic transportation distance. It can be applied to a large class of nonlinear continuity equations, whose dynamics are driven by internal energies, given external potentials and/or interaction energies. The solver is based on its variational formulation as a gradient flow with respect to the Wasserstein distance. Positivity of solutions as well as energy decrease of the semi-discrete scheme are guaranteed by its construction. We illustrate this property with various examples in spatial dimension one and two.

  20. Variational principle for nonlinear wave propagation in dissipative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of many natural systems is dominated by nonlinear waves propagating through the medium. We show that in any extended system that supports nonlinear wave fronts with positive surface tension, the asymptotic wave-front dynamics can be formulated as a gradient system, even when the underlying evolution equations for the field variables cannot be written as a gradient system. The variational potential is simply given by a linear combination of the occupied volume and surface area of the wave front and changes monotonically over time.

  1. Ultrafast dynamics of a series multi-branched styryl derivatives with reverse conjugated structural configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaochuan; Jiang, Yihua; Wang, Yizhuo; Wang, Guiqiu; Liu, Dajun; Hua, Jianli

    2017-07-01

    To study the effect of conjugated structural configurations on the two-photon absorption properties, tri-branched compounds with the same electron-donating and electron-accepting groups connected in a reverse conjugated structural mode, are systematically investigated using steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopies, open-aperture Z-scan, and two-photon fluorescence measurements. The two-photon absorption cross-section of compound R03 with the strong electron donor triphenylamine as the central core of 766 GM is notably large and is approximately 1.7 times larger than that of the tri-branched compound T03-a with a reverse conjugated structural mode and with the 1,3,5-triazine electron acceptor as the central core. This finding indicates that the conjugated mode does have an important effect on the nonlinear optical properties. A two-color pump-probe experiment is used to investigate the ultrafast responses and intra-molecular charge transfer properties of these multi-branched compounds. The formation and relaxation lifetimes of the intra-molecular charge transfer state are determined to be in the ranges of several picoseconds and several hundreds of picoseconds, respectively, for all of the compounds in CHCl3 solutions. An extended π-conjugated system, increased intra-molecular cooperative effect, and effective direction of charge transfer are responsible for the observed large two-photon absorption character.

  2. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  3. NONLINEAR EXPECTATIONS AND NONLINEAR MARKOV CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG SHIGE

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear expectations. The author obtains a nonlinear generalization of the well-known Kolmogorov's consistent theorem and then use it to construct filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations via nonlinear Markov chains. Compared to the author's previous results, i.e., the theory of g-expectations introduced via BSDE on a probability space, the present framework is not based on a given probability measure. Many fully nonlinear and singular situations are covered. The induced topology is a natural generalization of Lp-norms and L∞-norm in linear situations.The author also obtains the existence and uniqueness result of BSDE under this new framework and develops a nonlinear type of von Neumann-Morgenstern representation theorem to utilities and present dynamic risk measures.

  4. Inverse Coefficient Problems for Nonlinear Elliptic Variational Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-sheng Yang; Yun-hua Ou

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a class of inverse coefficient problems for nonlinear elliptic variational inequalities. The unknown coefficient of elliptic variational inequalities depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients. It is shown that the nonlinear elliptic variational inequalities is unique solvable for the given class of coefficients. The existence of quasisolutions of the inverse problems is obtained.

  5. Nonlinear and cooperative control of multiple hovercraft with input constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, William B.; Olfati-Saber, Reza; Richard M Murray

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an approach for distributed nonlinear control of multiple hovercraft-type underactuated vehicles with bounded and unidirectional inputs. First, a bounded nonlinear controller is given for stabilization and tracking of a single vehicle, using a cascade backstepping method. Then, this controller is combined with a distributed gradient-based control for multi-vehicle formation stabilization using formation potential functions previously constructed. The vehicles are u...

  6. A NEW ALGORITHM OF THE NONLINEAR ADAPTIVE INTERPOLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Lingfeng; Guo Baolong

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm of NonLinearly Adaptive Interpolation (NLAI). NLAI is based on both the gradients and the curvature of the signals with the predicted subsection. It is characterized by adaptive nonlinear interpolation method with extracting the characteristics of signals. Experimental research testifies the validity of the algorithm using the echoes of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). A comparison of this algorithm with other traditional algorithms demonstrates that it is feasible.

  7. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  8. Policy Gradient Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Data-Based Optimal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Biao; Liu, Derong; Wu, Huai-Ning; Wang, Ding; Lewis, Frank L

    2016-11-22

    The model-free optimal control problem of general discrete-time nonlinear systems is considered in this paper, and a data-based policy gradient adaptive dynamic programming (PGADP) algorithm is developed to design an adaptive optimal controller method. By using offline and online data rather than the mathematical system model, the PGADP algorithm improves control policy with a gradient descent scheme. The convergence of the PGADP algorithm is proved by demonstrating that the constructed.

  9. Gradient approach for the evaluation of the fatigue limit of welded structures under complex loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nadot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Welded ‘T-junctions’ are tested at different load ratio for constant and variable amplitude loading. Fatigue results are analyzed through the type of fatigue mechanisms depending on the loading type. A gradient approach (WSG: Welded Stress Gradient is used to evaluate the fatigue limit and the comparison with experimental results shows a relative good agreement. Nonlinear cumulative damage theory is used to take into account the variable amplitude loading.

  10. Simultaneous concentration and purification through gradient deformation chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, A; Hendrickson, R L; Ladisch, M R

    1995-05-01

    Mobile-phase additives, commonly used to modulate absorbate retention in gradient elution chromatography, are usually assumed to be either linearly retained or unretained. Previous theoretical work from our laboratory has shown that these modulators, such as salts in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and organic modifiers in reversed-phase chromatography, can absorb nonlinearly, giving rise to gradient deformation. Consequently, adsorbate peaks that elute in the vicinity of the head of the deformed gradient may exhibit unusual shapes, form shoulders, and/or be concentrated. These effects for a reversed-phase sorbent with aqueous acetonitrile (ACN) as the modulator are verified experimentally. Gradient deformation is demonstrated experimentally and agrees with simulations based on ACN isotherm parameters that are independently determined from batch equilibrium studies using the layer model. Unusual absorbate peak shapes were found experimentally for single-component injections of phenylalanine, similar to those calculated by the simulations. A binary mixture of tryptophan and phenylalanine is used to demonstrate simultaneous concentration and separation, again in agreement with simulations. The possibility of gradient deformation in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography is discussed.

  11. The Conjugate Acid-Base Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that beginning chemistry students have in understanding acid-base chemistry. Describes the use of conjugate acid-base charts in helping students visualize the conjugate relationship. Addresses chart construction, metal ions, buffers and pH titrations, and the organic functional groups and nonaqueous solvents. (TW)

  12. DENDRIMER CONJUGATES FOR SELECTIVE OF PROTEIN AGGREGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimer conjugates are presented, which are formed between a dendrimer and a protein solubilising substance. Such dendrimer conjugates are effective in the treatment of protein aggregate-related diseases (e.g. prion-related diseases). The protein solubilising substance and the dendrimer together...

  13. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  14. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...

  15. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  16. CONJUGATE-SYMPLECTICITY OF LINEAR MULTISTEP METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernst Hairer

    2008-01-01

    For the numerical treatment of Hamiltonian differential equations, symplectic integra-tors are the most suitable choice, and methods that are conjugate to a symplectic integrator share the same good long-time behavior. This note characterizes linear multistep methods whose underlying one-step method is conjugate to a symplectic integrator. The bounded-hess of parasitic solution components is not addressed.

  17. Kinetic models of conjugated metabolic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    A general method is developed for the quantitative kinetic analysis of conjugated metabolic cycles in the human organism. This method is used as a basis for constructing a kinetic graph and model of the conjugated citric acid and ureapoiesis cycles. The results from a kinetic analysis of the model for these cycles are given.

  18. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...

  19. LEDs based on conjugated PPV block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.J.; Hilberer, A.; Krasnikov, V.V.; Werts, M.; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G.

    1997-01-01

    A way to control the bandgap in semi-conducting polymers is by preparing polymers with a partially conjugated backbone. In our laboratory, three conjugated copolymers containing PPV trimers as light emitting chromophores have been synthesized, which emit in the blue, green and orange wavelength regi

  20. PREPARATION OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CONJUGATES OF SELF-ASSEMBLING NANOPARTICLES WITH CELL-PENETRATING PEPTIDE AND DOXORUBICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra Sagykyzy Shagyrova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Nano-sized carriers can help to reduce toxicity and improve clinical efficacy of drugs. Virus-like particles (VLPs are biocompatible and biodegradable self-assembling nanoparticles, which show great promise as carriers for substances for targeted delivery and controlled release. Either chemical conjugation of physical incorporation without formation of covalent bonds is possible to load substances of interest into VLPs.Objectives: To produce VLPs from recombinant viral capsid protein (HBcAg and test feasibility of methods of formation of chemical and physical conjugates of VLPs with substances of pharmacological interest.Methods: Virus-like particles composed from recombinant hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg were produced by recombinant expression in E.coli and purified by successive centrifugation through sucrose gradients. Peptide transportan 10 was synthesized and used for carbodiimide (EDC-mediated conjugation to VLPs. Doxorubicin (DOX was loaded into the nucleic acid-containing VLPs to form physical conjugate.Results: VLPs with chemically attached moieties of cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 were produced. The conjugate was examined in SDS-PAGE to confirm presence of conjugation products. Conjugation efficiency (molar ration peptide/protein in the conjugate reaches 0.5:1 (i.e. 50% of protein chains have one attached peptide moiety. The nucleic acid-containing VLPs can be loaded with the DOX forming stable non-covalent physical conjugate.Conclusion: Recombinantly expressed VLPs allow easy attaching of small molecules making them a convenient platform to develop drug carriers.

  1. A mathematical basis for strain-gradient plasticity theory. Part II: Tensorial plastic multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, N. A.; Willis, J. R.

    2009-07-01

    A phenomenological, flow theory version of gradient plasticity for isotropic and anisotropic solids is constructed along the lines of Gudmundson [Gudmundson, P., 2004. A unified treatment of strain-gradient plasticity. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 52, 1379-1406]. Both energetic and dissipative stresses are considered in order to develop a kinematic hardening theory, which in the absence of gradient terms reduces to conventional J 2 flow theory with kinematic hardening. The dissipative stress measures, work-conjugate to plastic strain and its gradient, satisfy a yield condition with associated plastic flow. The theory includes interfacial terms: elastic energy is stored and plastic work is dissipated at internal interfaces, and a yield surface is postulated for the work-conjugate stress quantities at the interface. Uniqueness and extremum principles are constructed for the solution of boundary value problems, for both the rate-dependent and the rate-independent cases. In the absence of strain gradient and interface effects, the minimum principles reduce to the classical extremum principles for a kinematically hardening elasto-plastic solid. A rigid-hardening version of the theory is also stated and the resulting theory gives rise to an extension to the classical limit load theorems. This has particular appeal as previous trial fields for limit load analysis can be used to generate immediately size-dependent bounds on limit loads.

  2. A conjugate thermo-electric model for a composite medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Chávez

    Full Text Available Electrical transmission signals have been used for decades to characterize the internal structure of composite materials. We theoretically analyze the transmission of an electrical signal through a composite material which consists of two phases with different chemical compositions. We assume that the temperature of the biphasic system increases as a result of Joule heating and its electrical resistivity varies linearly with temperature; this last consideration leads to simultaneously study the electrical and thermal effects. We propose a nonlinear conjugate thermo-electric model, which is solved numerically to obtain the current density and temperature profiles for each phase. We study the effect of frequency, resistivities and thermal conductivities on the current density and temperature. We validate the prediction of the model with comparisons with experimental data obtained from rock characterization tests.

  3. D=0 Matrix Model as Conjugate Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Menahem, S

    1993-01-01

    The D=0 matrix model is reformulated as a 2d nonlocal quantum field theory. The interactions occur on the one-dimensional line of hermitian matrix eigenvalues. The field is conjugate to the density of matrix eigenvalues which appears in the Jevicki-Sakita collective field theory. The classical solution of the field equation is either unique or labeled by a discrete index. Such a solution corresponds to the Dyson sea modified by an entropy term. The modification smoothes the sea edges, and interpolates between different eigenvalue bands for multiple-well potentials. Our classical eigenvalue density contains nonplanar effects, and satisfies a local nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with similarities to the Marinari-Parisi $D=1$ reformulation. The quantum fluctuations about a classical solution are computable, and the IR and UV divergences are manifestly removed to all orders. The quantum corrections greatly simplify in the double scaling limit, and include both string-perturbative and nonperturbative effects.

  4. NUMERICAL APPROACH TO DETERMINING INSTANTANEOUS CONTACT REGION FOR CONJUGATE SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taiyong; LI Jingcai; HE Gaiyun; FAN Shengbo; HAO Yongjiang

    2008-01-01

    According to the defect of traditional method of determining instantaneous contact regions for conjugate surfaces, a numerical approach to the determination is proposed. A local coordinate system is built by using the surface unit tangent and unit normal at the contact point. Considering that the gap forming the boundary of instantaneous contact region in the direction of the common normal vectors is given, a system of nonlinear equations is built to find the instantaneous contact boundary in local coordinate system, a modified Powell's hybrid algorithm of finite-difference approximation to the Jacobian used to solve the system. The new method simplifies the task of determining instantaneous contact regions without calculating curvature and relative curvature. The validity of the proposed approach is verified by an example of hypoid gears.

  5. Cavity optomechanics with a nonlinear photonic-crystal nanomembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makles, Kevin; Kuhn, Aurélien; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-ENS-CNRS, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Antoni, Thomas [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures LPN-CNRS, UPR-20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-ENS-CNRS, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Braive, Rémy [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures LPN-CNRS, UPR-20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Université Paris Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures LPN-CNRS, UPR-20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2014-12-04

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized a nanomembrane which could be used as a moving end mirror of a Fabry-Perot cavity. The high reflectivity and optimized mechanical properties of the membrane should allow us to demonstrate the mechanical ground state of the membrane. As any sub-micron mechanical resonator, our system demonstrates nonlinear dynamical effects. We characterize the mechanical response to a strong pump drive and observe a shift in the oscillation frequency and phase conjugation of the mechanical mode. Such nonlinear effects are expected to play a role in the quantum dynamics of the membrane as well.

  6. Energetic Tuning in Spirocyclic Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Bronstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise control of the energy levels in a conjugated polymer is the key to allowing their exploitation in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of spirocycles into conjugated polymers has traditionally been used to enhance their solid state microstructure. Here we present a highly novel method of energetic tuning through the use of electronically active spirocyclic systems. By modifying the size and oxidation state of a heteroatom in an orthogonal spirocycle we demonstrate energetic fine tuning in both the absorption and emission of a conjugated polymer. Furthermore, the synthesis of highly novel triplet-decker spirocyclic conjugated polymers is presented. This new method of energetic manipulation in a conjugated polymer paves the way for future application targeted synthesis of polymers with electronically active spirocycles.

  7. Demonstration of 400 Gb/s optical PDM-OFDM superchannel unrepeatered transmission by all optical phase-conjugated copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanxiang; Li, Juhao; Zhu, Paikun; Wu, Zhongying; Chen, Jingbiao; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2016-12-01

    Unrepeatered transmission delivers data over a few hundred kilometers without in-line active elements and it can effectively reduce the line complexity and the overall system cost. In this paper, we propose all optical phase-conjugated copy (OPC) to improve optical signal noise ratio (OSNR) margin and nonlinear tolerance for unrepeatered transmission of polarization division multiplexing (PDM) optical superchannel with EDFA only amplification. Orthogonal pumps FWM scheme is utilized to generate the optical phase-conjugated copy. The original superchannel and the phase-conjugated copy are simultaneously transmitted and received. The phases of the copy symbols are conjugated and summed with the original superchannel symbols to suppress both linear noise and nonlinear phase noise at the receiver. The proposed OPC scheme is simple and effective in phase-conjugated copy generation and digital signal processing (DSP). What is more, it is transparent to signal bit rate and modulation format, which applies to optical superchannel transmission. We experimentally verify the proposed scheme on a 400 Gb/s optical polarization division multiplexing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-OFDM) superchannel. A Q-factor improvement of 2.1 dB is achieved after 180 km SSMF unrepeatered transmission. The optimum launch power in OPC scheme increases from -3 dBm to -2 dBm. To verify the maximum reach, we extend fiber length and realize 240 km SSMF unrepeatered transmission.

  8. Gradient-based estimation of Manning's friction coefficient from noisy data

    CERN Document Server

    Calo, Victor M; Gehre, Matthias; Jin, Bangti; Radwan, Hany

    2012-01-01

    We study the numerical recovery of Manning's roughness coefficient for the diffusive wave approximation of the shallow water equation. We describe a conjugate gradient method for the numerical inversion. Numerical results for one-dimensional model are presented to illustrate the feasibility of the approach. Also we provide a proof of the differentiability of the weak form with respect to the coefficient as well as the continuity and boundedness of the linearized operator under reasonable assumptions using the maximal parabolic regularity theory.

  9. A donor-nanotube paradigm for nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dequan; Bulat, Felipe A; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N

    2008-09-01

    Studies of the nonlinear electronic response of donor/acceptor substituted nanotubes suggest a behavior that is both surprising and qualitatively distinct from that in conventional conjugated organic species. We find that the carbon nanotubes serve as both electronic bridges and acceptors, leading to a donor-nanotube paradigm for the effective design of large first hyperpolarizabilities. We also find that tuning the donor orientation, relative to the nanotube, can significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability.

  10. Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy of Excited States in Polyfluorene

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, M; Vardeny, Z V

    2006-01-01

    We used a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) spectroscopies to study the singlet excited states order, and primary photoexcitations in polyfluorene; an important blue emitting p-conjugated polymer. The polarized NLO spectroscopies include ultrafast pump-probe photomodulation, two-photon absorption, and electroabsorption. For completeness we also measured the linear absorption and photoluminescence spectra. We found that the primary photoexcitations in polyfluorene are singlet excitons.

  11. Stabilization of electron-scale turbulence by electron density gradient in national spherical torus experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Ruiz, J.; White, A. E. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mazzucato, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Theory and experiments have shown that electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence on the electron gyro-scale, k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub e} ≲ 1, can be responsible for anomalous electron thermal transport in NSTX. Electron scale (high-k) turbulence is diagnosed in NSTX with a high-k microwave scattering system [D. R. Smith et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 123501 (2008)]. Here we report on stabilization effects of the electron density gradient on electron-scale density fluctuations in a set of neutral beam injection heated H-mode plasmas. We found that the absence of high-k density fluctuations from measurements is correlated with large equilibrium density gradient, which is shown to be consistent with linear stabilization of ETG modes due to the density gradient using the analytical ETG linear threshold in F. Jenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4096 (2001)] and linear gyrokinetic simulations with GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)]. We also found that the observed power of electron-scale turbulence (when it exists) is anti-correlated with the equilibrium density gradient, suggesting density gradient as a nonlinear stabilizing mechanism. Higher density gradients give rise to lower values of the plasma frame frequency, calculated based on the Doppler shift of the measured density fluctuations. Linear gyrokinetic simulations show that higher values of the electron density gradient reduce the value of the real frequency, in agreement with experimental observation. Nonlinear electron-scale gyrokinetic simulations show that high electron density gradient reduces electron heat flux and stiffness, and increases the ETG nonlinear threshold, consistent with experimental observations.

  12. Flame Propagation Through Concentration Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunyaIINO; MitsuakiTANABE; 等

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in homogeneous propane-air mixture and in several concentration gradient of mixture.Igniter is put on the upper side of the combustion chamber,In concentration gradient experiment.ixture was ignited from lean side.An experimental study was conducted in a combustion chamber.The combustion chamber has glass windows for optical measurements at any side.For the measurement of distribution of fuel concentration,infraed absorption method using 3.39μm He-Ne laser was used,and for the observation of proagating flams,Schlieren method was employed.As a measurment result of flame propagation velocity and flammable limit,for a mixture of an identical local equivalence ratio.flame propagation velocity in concentration gradient is faster than that in homogeneous mixture,and rich flammable limit in concentration gradient shows a tendency to be higher than that in homogeneous mixture.

  13. Photoconductive properties of conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Halls, J J M

    1997-01-01

    The research described in my dissertation has involved the fabrication and characterisation of photovoltaic cells based on conjugated polymers, including the widely studied polymer poly(p-phenylenevinylene). These materials have semiconducting properties which arise from the delocalisation of electrons along the pi-electron systems of the polymer chains. Research into these materials is motivated both by their novel electronic properties, and also their potential for use in a wide range of applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs), thin-film transistors, and photovoltaic cells (solar cells and light detectors). Light absorbed in a photovoltaic cell generates opposite charges which are collected at two different electrodes, giving rise to an electric current

  14. Test of Charge Conjugation Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefkens, B. M.; Prakhov, S.; Gårdestig, A.; Allgower, C. E.; Bekrenev, V.; Briscoe, W. J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J. R.; Craig, K.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Knecht, N.; Koetke, D.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Lolos, G.; Lopatin, I.; Manley, D. M.; Manweiler, R.; Marušić, A.; McDonald, S.; Olmsted, J.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Price, J. W.; Ramirez, A. F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Spinka, H.; Stanislaus, T. D.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H. M.; Supek, I.; Tippens, W. B.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of η decay to π0π0γ and to π0π0π0γ. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(η→π0π0γ)<5×10-4 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isoscalar electromagnetic interactions of the light quarks. We have also measured BR(η→π0π0π0γ)<6×10-5 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.

  15. Peptide-LNA oligonucleotide conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Hansen, Lykke Haastrup; Vester, Birte

    2013-01-01

    properties, peptides were introduced into oligonucleotides via a 2'-alkyne-2'-amino-LNA scaffold. Derivatives of methionine- and leucine-enkephalins were chosen as model peptides of mixed amino acid content, which were singly and doubly incorporated into LNA/DNA strands using highly efficient copper......Although peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) are well-known for nucleic acids delivery and therapy, reports on internal attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides are limited in number. To develop a convenient route for preparation of internally labeled POCs with improved biomedical......(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" chemistry. DNA/RNA target binding affinity and selectivity of the resulting POCs were improved in comparison to LNA/DNA mixmers and unmodified DNA controls. This clearly demonstrates that internal attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides can significantly...

  16. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka

    2012-07-01

    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  17. Long pendulums in gravitational gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suits, B H [Physics Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Previous results for long pendulums above a spherical Earth are generalized for arbitrary non-uniform gravitational fields in the limit of small oscillation. As is the case for the previous results, gravitational gradients are multiplied by the length of the string even though the string is assumed massless. The effect is shown to arise from the constraint on the motion imposed by the string. The significance of these results for real gradients is discussed. (letters and comments)

  18. Low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-09-07

    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS.

  19. Nonlinear Second-Order Multivalued Boundary Value Problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leszek Gasiński; Nikolaos S Papageorgiou

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear second-order differential inclusions involving the ordinary vector -Laplacian, a multivalued maximal monotone operator and nonlinear multivalued boundary conditions. Our framework is general and unifying and incorporates gradient systems, evolutionary variational inequalities and the classical boundary value problems, namely the Dirichlet, the Neumann and the periodic problems. Using notions and techniques from the nonlinear operatory theory and from multivalued analysis, we obtain solutions for both the `convex' and `nonconvex' problems. Finally, we present the cases of special interest, which fit into our framework, illustrating the generality of our results.

  20. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  1. Theoretical study on second-order nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetric bis (phenylethynyl) benzene series derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU, Wei; FENG, Ji-Kang; YU, Kun-Qian; REN, Ai-Min; CUI, Meng

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Z1NDO methods, according to the sum-overstates (SOS) expression, the progran for the calculation of the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities βuk and βμ ofmolecules was devised, and the structures and nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetric bis (phenylethynyl) benzene series derivatives were studied. The influence of the molecular conjugated chain lengths, the donor and the acceptor on βμwas examined.

  2. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  3. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  4. Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Nishino, H; Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2002-01-01

    We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4 and 6 (mod 8).

  5. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  6. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  7. Time complexity analysis for distributed memory computers: implementation of parallel conjugate gradient method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Haan, M.J.; Hertzberger, L.O.; van Leeuwen, J.

    1991-01-01

    New developments in Computer Science, both hardware and software, offer researchers, such as physicists, unprecedented possibilities to solve their computational intensive problems.However, full exploitation of e.g. new massively parallel computers, parallel languages or runtime environments require

  8. New Microstructures for Old Monomers: Syntheses of Gradient pi-Conjugated Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-05

    e.g., efficient absorption, exciton dissociation, and charge conduction for solar cells). As a result, blends of homopolymers are typically used for...Type Cyano Substituted Polythiophene Derivative: A Potential Electron Acceptor in Polymeric Solar Cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 10732-10740. (5...Wilson, R.; Whitting, G. L.; Berkebile, S.; Ramsey, M. G.; Friend, R. H.; Greenham, N. C. Efficient Polythiophene /Polyfluorene Copolymer Bulk

  9. A composite step conjugate gradients squared algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tony; Szeto, Tedd

    1994-03-01

    We propose a new and more stable variant of the CGS method [27] for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. The method is based on squaring the Composite Step BCG method, introduced recently by Bank and Chan [1,2], which itself is a stabilized variant of BCG in that it skips over steps for which the BCG iterate is not defined and causes one kind of breakdown in BCG. By doing this, we obtain a method (Composite Step CGS or CSCGS) which not only handles the breakdowns described above, but does so with the advantages of CGS, namely, no multiplications by the transpose matrix and a faster convergence rate than BCG. Our strategy for deciding whether to skip a step does not involve any machine dependent parameters and is designed to skip near breakdowns as well as produce smoother iterates. Numerical experiments show that the new method does produce improved performance over CGS on practical problems.

  10. PBH tests for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Recently, concepts of nonlinear eigenvalues and eigenvectors are introduced. In this paper, we establish connections between the nonlinear eigenvalues and nonlinear accessibility/observability. In particular, we provide a generalization of Popov- Belevitch-Hautus (PBH) test to nonlinear accessibilit

  11. QUASILINEAR ELLIPTIC BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS WITH DISCONTINUOUS NONLINEARITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we shall consider a discontinuous nonlinear nonmonotone elliptic boundary value problem, i.e. a quasilinear elliptic hemivariational inequality. This kind of problems is strongly motivated by various problems in mechanics. By use of the notion of the generalized gradient of Clarke and the theory of pseudomonotone operators, we will prove the existence of solutions.

  12. Intracellular water diffusion probed by femtosecond nonlinear CARS microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potma, E.O; de Boeij, W.P.; Wiersma, D. A.; Elsaesser, T; Mukamel, S; Murnane, MM; Scherer, NF

    2001-01-01

    We report on a nonlinear coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscope system based on a high repetition rate femtosecond cavity-dumped visible optical parametric oscillator. This microscope enables real-time mapping of water concentration gradients in single living cells at high spatial resolution.

  13. Optimization Formulations for the Maximum Nonlinear Buckling Load of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , benchmarked on a number of numerical examples of laminated composite structures for the maximization of the buckling load considering fiber angle design variables. The optimization formulations are based on either linear or geometrically nonlinear analysis and formulated as mathematical programming problems...... solved using gradient based techniques. The developed local criterion is formulated such it captures nonlinear effects upon loading and proves useful for both analysis purposes and as a criterion for use in nonlinear buckling optimization. © 2010 Springer-Verlag....

  14. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  15. D-A conjugated polymers containing substituted thiophene, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and non-conjugation linkers: Synthesis and study of optical and electrochemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASHANTH KUMAR K R; UDAYAKUMAR D; SIJI NARENDRAN N K; CHANDRASEKHARAN K; RITU SRIVASTAVA

    2016-09-01

    In this communication, we report synthesis and characterization of new D-A conjugated polymers (P1-P3) consisting of electron-donating (D) 3,4-didodecyloxythiophene, electron-accepting (A) 1,3,4- oxadiazole unit and non-conjugation linkers. The conjugated segment in P1-P3 contains only five aromatic rings resulting in short conjugation length, but has an alternate D-A arrangement which significantly enhances the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interaction within the segment. As a result, these polymers exhibited lowoptical band gap in the range 2.51–2.76 eV. Fluorescence emission studies revealed that the polymer thin films emit intense blue light with emission maxima in the wavelength rage 430–480 nm. All three polymers undergo both oxidation and reduction processes under electrochemical conditions. Further, these polymers (P1–P3) exhibit low-lying HOMO and LUMO levels as a result of D-A structure of the conjugated segment. Polymer light-emitting devices were fabricated using these polymers as emissive layer with a device configuration of ITO/MoO₃/polymer/LiF/Al. The test device based on P2 emitted blue light with a low threshold voltage of 5 V. Z-scan studies reveal that the polymers exhibit a strong optical limiting behavior. The value of the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) of polymers is of the order 10⁻¹¹m/W which indicates that these materials may be accomplished for fabricating optical limiters.

  16. Analysis of Partial Volume Effects on Arterial Input Functions Using Gradient Echo: A Simulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Pedersen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    perfusion metrics was investigated for the gradient echo pulse sequence at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. It is shown that the tissue contribution broadens and introduces fluctuations in the AIF. Furthermore, partial volume effects bias perfusion metrics in a nonlinear fashion, compromising quantitative perfusion...

  17. Gradient plasticity crack tip characterization by means of the extended finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Natarajan, S.; Bordas, S.

    2017-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories are being widelyused for fracture assessment, as they provide a richerdescription of crack tip fields by incorporating the influenceof geometrically necessary dislocations. Characterizingthe behavior at the small scales involved in crack tip deformationrequires...... applications. The non-linear X-FEMcode developed in MATLAB can be downloaded fromwww.empaneda.com/codes....

  18. Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Rawat, G.S.; Mishra, C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood.We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western

  19. Phase conjugation by degenerate four wave mixing in disodium fluorescein solution in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Sekhar, P. Chandra; Venkateswarlu, P.; Geroge, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Organic dyes are known to show the resonant type of nonlinear optical properties, including phase conjugation. In the present work, disodium fluorescein in methanol is used as an organic nonlinear medium for degenerate four wave mixing at 532 nm to see the intensity dependence of the phase conjugate signal at different concentrations of the solution. It is observed that the maximum reflectivity of the signal occurs in a concentration range of 5 x 10(exp -3)/cu cm to 1.2 x 10(exp -2) g/cu cm. It is also observed that the intensity of the signal drops suddenly to less than half of its maximum outside the concentration range mentioned above. An investigation of the phase conjugate signal intensity by changing the delay time between probe signal and the forward pump is also examined. Briefly discussed is the possibility of population grating in dye liquids as a source of enhancing the third order susceptibility besides the other techniques mentioned in reference. The experiment is done by beam splitting the second harmonic (532 nm) of Nd:YAG laser, Q-switched at 20 pulses/sec (pulse width is approximately 8 and 200 mJ per pulse).

  20. Evaluation of iodovinyl antibody conjugates: Comparison with a p-iodobenzoyl conjugate and direct radioiodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Wilbur, D.S. (NeoRx Corporation, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The preparations and conjugations of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 5-(125I/131I)iodo-4-pentenoate (7a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 3,3-dimethyl-5-(125I/131I)iodo-4-pentenoate (7b) to monoclonal antibodies are reported. Reagents 7a and 7b were prepared in high radiochemical yield by iododestannylation of their corresponding 5-tri-n-butylstannyl precursors. Radioiodinated antibody conjugates were prepared by reaction of 7a or 7b with the protein at basic pH. Evaluation of these conjugates by several in vitro procedures demonstrated that the radiolabel was attached to the antibody in a stable manner and that the conjugates maintained immunoreactivity. Comparative dual-isotope biodistribution studies of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment conjugate of 7a and 7b with the same Fab fragment labeled with N-succinimidyl p-(131I)iodobenzoate (PIB, p-iodobenzoate, 2) or directly radioiodinated have been carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab conjugate of 2 demonstrated that the biodistributions were similar in most organs, except the neck tissue (thyroid-containing) and the stomach, which contained substantially increased levels of the 7a label. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab fragment radioiodinated by using the chloramine-T method demonstrated that the biodistributions were remarkably similar, suggesting roughly equivalent in vivo deiodination of these labeled antibody fragments. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab conjugate of 7b indicated that there was {approximately} a 2-fold reduction in the amount of in vivo deiodination of the 7b conjugate as compared to the 7a conjugate.

  1. Immobilized pH gradients (IPG) simulator--an additional step in pH gradient engineering: I. Linear pH gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, C; Righetti, P G

    1991-12-01

    A new computer program, called immobilized pH gradients (IPG) simulator, is proposed for calculating and optimizing any recipe for use in isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients. Unlike our previous monoprotic electrolyte gradient simulation (MGS) and polyelectrolyte gradient simulation (PGS) programs, based on minimizing CV(beta), the present program has a target function the minimization of the quadratic moment around zero of the residuals (mu 2). With this algorithm it is possible to formulate IPG recipes which have deviations from linearity well below 1% of the given pH interval (a limit set with the previous MGS and PGS programs), in fact, as small as 0.1-0.2% (in pH units). The new simulator performs 2-3 times better than the previous ones in the pH 4-10 range, and is absolutely necessary when working outside this range, at extreme pH values, where CV(beta) cannot work against the buffering power of bulk water, thus generating pH recipes with huge deviations from linearity. In the latter cases, mu 2 performs 10 times better than CV(beta). When utilizing strong titrants for extended pH intervals, the "all or none" rule has been discovered: such titrants should always be used in tandem, since omission of one of the two at either the acidic or basic extremes produces strongly distorted pH profiles. Our new, most powerful simulator also contains equations for creating nonlinear gradients, notably: concave and convex exponentials and sigmoidal (see the companion paper: Righetti, P. G. and Tonani, C., Electrophoresis 1991, 12, 1021-1027).

  2. Gradient type optimization methods for electronic structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xin; Wen, Zaiwen; Zhou, Aihui

    2013-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) in electronic structure calculations can be formulated as either a nonlinear eigenvalue or direct minimization problem. The most widely used approach for solving the former is the so-called self-consistent field (SCF) iteration. A common observation is that the convergence of SCF is not clear theoretically while approaches with convergence guarantee for solving the latter are often not competitive to SCF numerically. In this paper, we study gradient type methods for solving the direct minimization problem by constructing new iterations along the gradient on the Stiefel manifold. Global convergence (i.e., convergence to a stationary point from any initial solution) as well as local convergence rate follows from the standard theory for optimization on manifold directly. A major computational advantage is that the computation of linear eigenvalue problems is no longer needed. The main costs of our approaches arise from the assembling of the total energy functional and its grad...

  3. Study of the starting pressure gradient in branching network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the production of oil in low permeability reservoirs with high efficiency,it is necessary to fully understand the properties and special behaviors of the reservoirs and correctly describe the flow in the reservoirs.This paper applies the branching network mode to the study of the starting pressure gradient of nonlinear Newtonian fluid (Bingham fluid) in the reservoirs with low permeability based on the fact that the fractured network may exist in the reservoirs.The proposed model for starting pressure gradient is a function of yield stress,microstructural parameters of the network.The proposed model may have the potential in further exploiting the mechanisms of flow in porous media with fractured network.

  4. Deciphering conjugative plasmid permissiveness in wastewater microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Milani, Stefan Morberg

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designed to robustly treat polluted water. They are characterized by ceaseless flows of organic, chemical and microbial matter, followed by treatment steps before environmental release. WWTPs are hotspots of horizontal gene transfer between bacteria via...... still remains largely uncharted. Furthermore, current in vitro methods used to assess conjugation in complex microbiomes do not include in situ behaviours of recipient cells, resulting in partial understanding of transfers. We investigated the in vitro conjugation capacities of WWTP microbiomes from...... diversity of recipient bacterial phyla for the plasmid was observed, especially in WWTP outlets. We also identified permissive bacteria potentially able to cross WWTPs and engage in conjugation before and after water treatment. Bacterial activity and lifestyle seem to influence conjugation extent...

  5. Conjugated amplifying polymers for optical sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Sébastien; Swager, Timothy M

    2013-06-12

    Thanks to their unique optical and electrochemical properties, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention over the last two decades and resulted in numerous technological innovations. In particular, their implementation in sensing schemes and devices was widely investigated and produced a multitude of sensory systems and transduction mechanisms. Conjugated polymers possess numerous attractive features that make them particularly suitable for a broad variety of sensing tasks. They display sensory signal amplification (compared to their small-molecule counterparts) and their structures can easily be tailored to adjust solubility, absorption/emission wavelengths, energy offsets for excited state electron transfer, and/or for use in solution or in the solid state. This versatility has made conjugated polymers a fluorescence sensory platform of choice in the recent years. In this review, we highlight a variety of conjugated polymer-based sensory mechanisms together with selected examples from the recent literature.

  6. Design and Application of Antimicrobial Peptide Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Reinhardt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are an interesting class of antibiotics characterized by their unique antibiotic activity and lower propensity for developing resistance compared to common antibiotics. They belong to the class of membrane-active peptides and usually act selectively against bacteria, fungi and protozoans. AMPs, but also peptide conjugates containing AMPs, have come more and more into the focus of research during the last few years. Within this article, recent work on AMP conjugates is reviewed. Different aspects will be highlighted as a combination of AMPs with antibiotics or organometallic compounds aiming to increase antibacterial activity or target selectivity, conjugation with photosensitizers for improving photodynamic therapy (PDT or the attachment to particles, to name only a few. Owing to the enormous resonance of antimicrobial conjugates in the literature so far, this research topic seems to be very attractive to different scientific fields, like medicine, biology, biochemistry or chemistry.

  7. Nonlinear thermokinetic phenomena due to the Seebeck effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2014-07-22

    We propose a novel mechanism to produce nonlinear thermokinetic vortex flows around a circular cylinder with ideally high thermal conductivity in an electrolyte. That is, the nonlinear thermokinetic slip velocity, which is proportional to the square of the temperature gradient [∇(T)0(2)], is derived based on the electrolyte Seebeck effect, heat conduction equation, and Helmholtz–Smoluchowski formula. Different from conventional linear thermokinetic theory, our theory predicts that the inversion of the temperature gradient does not change the direction of the thermokinetic flows and thus a Janus particle using this phenomenon can move to the both hotter and colder regions in a temperature gradient field by changing the direction of its dielectric end. Our findings bridge the gap between the electro- and thermo-kinetic phenomena and provide an integrated physical viewpoint for the interface science.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of magnetic islands imbedded in small-scale turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraglia, M; Agullo, O; Benkadda, S; Garbet, X; Beyer, P; Sen, A

    2009-10-02

    The nonlinear dynamics of magnetic tearing islands imbedded in a pressure gradient driven turbulence is investigated numerically in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. The study reveals regimes where the linear and nonlinear phases of the tearing instability are controlled by the properties of the pressure gradient. In these regimes, the interplay between the pressure and the magnetic flux determines the dynamics of the saturated state. A secondary instability can occur and strongly modify the magnetic island dynamics by triggering a poloidal rotation. It is shown that the complex nonlinear interaction between the islands and turbulence is nonlocal and involves small scales.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of Magnetic Islands Imbedded in Small-Scale Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Muraglia, Magali; Benkadda, Sadruddin; Garbet, Xavier; Beyer, P; Sen, Abhijit; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.145001

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of magnetic tearing islands imbedded in a pressure gradient driven turbulence is investigated numerically in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. The study reveals regimes where the linear and nonlinear phases of the tearing instability are controlled by the properties of the pressure gradient. In these regimes, the interplay between the pressure and the magnetic flux determines the dynamics of the saturated state. A secondary instability can occur and strongly modify the magnetic island dynamics by triggering a poloidal rotation. It is shown that the complex nonlinear interaction between the islands and turbulence is nonlocal and involves small scales.

  10. Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-12-01

    We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes.

  11. Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-01-01

    We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.

  12. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials: Some structure-function correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sabapathi Gokulnath; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear optical properties of representative core-modified expanded porphyrins have been investigated with an emphasis on the structure-property relationship between the aromaticity and conformational behaviour. It has been shown that the measured two-photon absorption cross section (2) values depend on the structure of macrocycle, its aromaticity and the number of -electrons in conjugation.

  13. A RANK THEOREM FOR NONLINEAR SEMI-FREDHOLM OPERATORS BETWEEN TWO BANACH MANIFOLDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article the concept of local conjugation of a C1 mapping between two Banach manifolds is introduced. Then a rank theorem for nonlinear semi-Fredholm operators between two Banach manifolds and a finite rank theorem are established in global analysis.

  14. Hybrid electronics and electrochemistry with conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle

    2010-07-01

    In this critical review, we discuss the history and development of polymer devices wherein manipulation of the electronic conductivity by electrochemical redox processes in a conjugated polymer is used to form new functions. The devices employed are an electrochemical transistor, an electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor and light-emitting electrochemical cells, all of which combine doping/undoping of a conjugated polymer with modification of electronic transport (130 references).

  15. Rapid modification of retroviruses using lipid conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nimisha G.; Lyon, L. Andrew; LeDoux, Joseph M.

    2009-02-01

    Methods are needed to manipulate natural nanoparticles. Viruses are particularly interesting because they can act as therapeutic cellular delivery agents. Here we examine a new method for rapidly modifying retroviruses that uses lipid conjugates composed of a lipid anchor (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), a polyethylene glycol chain, and biotin. The conjugates rapidly and stably modified retroviruses and enabled them to bind streptavidin. The implication of this work for modifying viruses for gene therapy and vaccination protocols is discussed.

  16. Energetic tuning in spirocyclic conjugated polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Bronstein; Frank D. King

    2016-01-01

    Precise control of the energy levels in a conjugated polymer is the key to allowing their exploitation in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of spirocycles into conjugated polymers has traditionally been used to enhance their solid state microstructure. Here we present a highly novel method of energetic tuning through the use of electronically active spirocyclic systems. By modifying the size and oxidation state of a heteroatom in an orthogonal spirocycle we demonstrate energetic fine t...

  17. Assessment of the modulated gradient model in decaying isotropic turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A recently introduced nonlinear model undergoes evaluations based on two isotropic turbulent cases:a University of Wiscosion-Madison case at a moderate Reynolds number and a Johns Hopkins University case at a high Reynolds number.The model uses an estimation of the subgrid-scale(SGS) kinetic energy to model the magnitude of the SGS stress tensor,and uses the normalized velocity gradient tensor to model the structure of the SGS stress tensor.Testing is performed for the first case through a comparison betwee...

  18. Visualizing Spacetime Curvature via Gradient Flows I: Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Kayll

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the study of the dynamics of spacetime curvature in a very real sense hide the intricacies of the nonlinear regime. Whether it be huge formulae, or mountains of numerical data, standard methods of presentation make little use of our remarkable skill, as humans, at pattern recognition. Here we introduce a new approach to the visualization of spacetime curvature. We examine the flows associated with the gradient fields of invariants derived from the spacetime. These flows reveal a remarkably rich structure, and offer fresh insights even for well known analytical solutions to Einstein's equations. This paper serves as an overview and as an introduction to this approach.

  19. Ion temperature gradient turbulence in helical and axisymmetric RFP plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Predebon, I

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence induced by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) is investigated in the helical and axisymmetric plasma states of a reversed field pinch device by means of gyrokinetic calculations. The two magnetic configurations are systematically compared, both linearly and nonlinearly, in order to evaluate the impact of the geometry on the instability and its ensuing transport, as well as on the production of zonal flows. Despite its enhanced confinement, the high-current helical state demonstrates a lower ITG stability threshold compared to the axisymmetric state, and ITG turbulence is expected to become an important contributor to the total heat transport.

  20. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonella Fiacca; Nikolaos Matzakos; Nikolaos S Papageorgiou; Raffaella Servadei

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all $\\mathbb{R}$. Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower solution, we prove the existence of a solution between them. Also for a special version of the problem, we prove the existence of extremal solutions in the order interval formed by the upper and lower solutions. Then we drop the requirement that the monotone nonlinearity is defined on all of $\\mathbb{R}$. This case is important because it covers variational inequalities. Using the theory of operators of monotone type we show that the problem has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth locally Lipschitz functionals we prove the existence of at least two nontrivial solutions (multiplicity theorem).

  1. Bond Growth under Temperature Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Satyawali

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain and bond growth for dry snow are determined by the distribution of temperature andtemperature gradient in the snow matrix. From the standpoint of particle approach and based oncubic packing structure, a bond growth model has been developed for TG metamorphism. The paper.highlights the importance of bond formation and its effect on snow viscosity and finally on the rateof settlement. This is very important for developing a numerical snow pack model if microstructureis considered to be a basic parameter. A few experiments have been carried out to validate bond formation under temperature gradient.

  2. The Chemistry and Biology of Oligonucleotide Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, R.L.; Ming, Xin; Nakagawa, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides have tremendous potential as therapeutic agents. Because of their ability to engage in Watson-Crick base pairing they can interact with messenger mRNA or pre-mRNA targets with high selectivity and thus offer the possibility of precise manipulation of gene expression. This possibility has engendered extensive efforts to develop oligonucleotides as drugs, with many candidates already in clinical trials. However, a major impediment to the maturation of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics is the fact that these relatively large and usually highly charged molecules have great difficulty crossing cellular membranes and thus in penetrating to their sites of action in the cytosol or nucleus. In this Account we first summarize some basic aspects of the biology of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides and then discuss chemical conjugation as an approach to improving the intracellular delivery and therapeutic potential of these agents. Our emphasis will be on the pharmacological ramifications of oligonucleotide conjugates rather than the details of conjugation chemistry. One important approach has been conjugation with ligands designed to bind to particular receptors and thus provide specificity to the interaction of cells with oligonucleotides. Another approach has been to couple antisense or siRNA with agents such as cell penetrating peptides that are designed to provoke escape of the conjugate from intracellular vesicular compartments. Both of these approaches have enjoyed some success. However, there remains much to be learned before oligonucleotide conjugates can find an important place in human therapeutics. PMID:22353142

  3. Metal-leachate-induced conjugate protein instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Osborne, Brandi; Singh, Satish K; Wang, Wei

    2012-08-01

    During the scale-up of an ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) step for a protein-based conjugate vaccine, significant precipitation was observed at room temperature. It was found that a specific type of metal hosebarb fitting used in the UF/DF system, when placed in the conjugate solution, caused the precipitation. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis showed significant amounts of Ni(II), Zn(II), and Cu(II) present in the conjugate solution. A kinetic study showed that the concentration of these metal ions gradually increased with increasing incubation time with a corresponding decrease in conjugate concentration. Direct spiking of trace amounts of NiCl₂, ZnCl₂, and CuCl₂ into the conjugate solution also caused precipitation, and spiking studies showed that the metal ions caused precipitation of the conjugate but not of the carrier protein, antigen, or carrier protein + linker. The precipitation was found to be significantly dependent on buffer species but not solution pH and led to an irreversible loss of tertiary structure even after dissolution in and removal of guanidine hydrochloride. The precipitation is likely the result of formation of transition-metal complexes with histidine residues on the antigen peptide, which may involve both intraconjugate and interconjugate antigens. Such complexation may lead to formation of multimers that may exceed the solubility limit.

  4. Conjugated microporous polymers: design, synthesis and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanhong; Jin, Shangbin; Xu, Hong; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-10-21

    Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a class of organic porous polymers that combine π-conjugated skeletons with permanent nanopores, in sharp contrast to other porous materials that are not π-conjugated and with conventional conjugated polymers that are nonporous. As an emerging material platform, CMPs offer a high flexibility for the molecular design of conjugated skeletons and nanopores. Various chemical reactions, building blocks and synthetic methods have been developed and a broad variety of CMPs with different structures and specific properties have been synthesized, driving the rapid growth of the field. CMPs are unique in that they allow the complementary utilization of π-conjugated skeletons and nanopores for functional exploration; they have shown great potential for challenging energy and environmental issues, as exemplified by their excellent performance in gas adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, light emitting, light harvesting and electrical energy storage. This review describes the molecular design principles of CMPs, advancements in synthetic and structural studies and the frontiers of functional exploration and potential applications.

  5. General relativity limit of Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a scalar field in gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Wang, Anzhong

    2012-01-01

    We present a fully nonlinear study of long wavelength cosmological perturbations within the framework of the projectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity, coupled to a single scalar field. Adopting the gradient expansion technique, we explicitly integrate the dynamical equations up to any order of the expansion, then restrict the integration constants by imposing the momentum constraint. While the gradient expansion relies on the long wavelength approximation, amplitudes of perturbations do not have to be small. When the $\\lambda\\to 1$ limit is taken, the obtained nonlinear solutions exhibit a continuous behavior at any order of the gradient expansion, recovering general relativity in the presence of a scalar field and the "dark matter as an integration constant". This is in sharp contrast to the results in the literature based on the "standard" (and naive) perturbative approach where in the same limit, the perturbative expansion of the action breaks down and the scalar graviton mode appears to be strongly coupled. We...

  6. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate 160Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential quarternary phase-shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over a 110km single-mode fiber by taking advantage of mid-span optical phase conjugation (OPC). The technique is based on nonlinear wavelength conversion by cascaded second harmonic...

  7. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independe...... of the small-scale structure of the Earth’s lithospheric field....

  8. Surface gradients under electrochemical control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, Sven Olle

    2014-01-01

    Gradients are systems in which the physicochemical properties of a solution and/or surface change gradually in space and/or time. They are used for a myriad of technological and biological applications, for example for high-throughput screening, or for the investigation of biological systems. The de

  9. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  10. GOCE level 2 gravity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Two of the GOCE Level 2 products are the gravity gradients (GGs) in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and the GGs in the Local North-Oriented Frame (LNOF). The GRF is an instrument frame and the GGs are derived from the L1b GGs. The L1b to L2 GG processing involves corrections for temporal gravi

  11. Reinforcement Learning Through Gradient Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-14

    Reinforcement learning is often done using parameterized function approximators to store value functions. Algorithms are typically developed for...practice of existing types of algorithms, the gradient descent approach makes it possible to create entirely new classes of reinforcement learning algorithms

  12. Communication: Bond length alternation of conjugated oligomers: Another step on the fifth rung of Perdew's ladder of functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbal, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Denis; Adamo, Carlo; Stoll, Hermann; Leininger, Thierry

    2010-10-21

    In this work, we present the application of the hybrid short-range density functional theory/long-range MP2 energy gradients to the bond length alternation in polymethineimine and polyacetylene conjugated oligomers. Compared to other density functional calculations, our results are quite superior, even to fourth rung functionals, usually better than MP2 and very close to the available CCSD(T) values.

  13. Communication: Bond length alternation of conjugated oligomers: Another step on the fifth rung of Perdew's ladder of functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbal, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Denis; Adamo, Carlo; Stoll, Hermann; Leininger, Thierry

    2010-10-01

    In this work, we present the application of the hybrid short-range density functional theory/long-range MP2 energy gradients to the bond length alternation in polymethineimine and polyacetylene conjugated oligomers. Compared to other density functional calculations, our results are quite superior, even to fourth rung functionals, usually better than MP2 and very close to the available CCSD(T) values.

  14. Geometrical relaxation of excitations in one-dimensional conjugated polymers; Giichijigen kyoeki kobunshi reiki jotai no shusa kozo kanwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Large ultrafast optical nonlinearities in conjugated polymers have attracted much attention because of possible applications to nonlinear optical devices. One-dimensional systems such as conjugated polymers have localized excited states with geometrical relaxation. In this study, photoexcited states in polydiacetylene has been investigated by femtosecond Raman gain spectroscopy with 300-fs resolution. A new photoinduced Raman peak with lifetime of 1.5 ps has been observed at 1200cm{sup -1} for the first time. This peak indicates acetylene-like structure of the main chain relaxes to butatriene-like structure due to the formation of self-trapped exciting with the geometrical relaxation. The formation and decay kinetics of the Raman signals is consistent with the relaxation processes of exciting observed by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Phase Conjugated and Transparent Wavelength Conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM Signals Employing a Single-Layer Graphene Coated Fiber Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-02

    We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using the fabricated graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device and employing Nyquist 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal, we experimentally demonstrate phase conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. We also compare the time-varying symbol sequence for graphene-assisted phase conjugated and transparent wavelength conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM signal.

  16. Enhanced Transmission Stability of Polarization Solitons in Birefringent Fibres with an Optical Phase Conjugator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟成; 谢嘉宁; 路洪; 徐文成

    2003-01-01

    An optical phase conjugator is used to enhance transmission stability of polarization solitons in highly birefringent fibres. Two polarization solitons form a breather in fibres with low birefringence firstly and the optical phase conjugator is used to make the spectra of polarization solitons converse, which results in the fact that the polarization soliton along the fast axis is compressed due to the strengthened self-phase modulation effect. Two polarization solitons are compressed further due to the cross-phase modulation effect. The enhanced nonlinear effects make the central peak frequencies of two polarization solitons shift to the larger range in opposite directions so that they trap each other fully to suppress the effect of birefringence.

  17. Fluorescence microscopy beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Meng; Fiolka, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized biomedical research over the past three decades. Its high molecular specificity and unrivaled single molecule level sensitivity have enabled breakthroughs in a variety of research fields. For in vivo applications, its major limitation is the superficial imaging depth as random scattering in biological tissues causes exponential attenuation of the ballistic component of a light wave. Here we present fluorescence microscopy beyond the ballistic regime by combining single cycle pulsed ultrasound modulation and digital optical phase conjugation. We demonstrate near isotropic 3D localized sound-light interaction with an imaging depth as high as thirteen scattering path lengths. With the exceptionally high optical gain provided by the digital optical phase conjugation system, we can deliver sufficient optical power to a focus inside highly scattering media for not only fluorescence microscopy but also a variety of linear and nonlinear spectroscopy measurements. This techno...

  18. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  19. Nonlinear functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Fouché

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss some aspects of nonlinear functional analysis. It included reviews of Banach’s contraction theorem, Schauder’s fixed point theorem, globalising techniques and applications of homotopy theory to nonlinear functional analysis. The author emphasises that fundamentally new ideas are required in order to achieve a better understanding of phenomena which contain both nonlinear and definite infinite dimensional features.

  20. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...