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Sample records for nonlinear canonical transformations

  1. Hamiltonian models of multiphoton processes and four--photon squeezed states via nonlinear canonical transformations

    CERN Document Server

    De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Siena, Silvio De; Lisi, Antonio Di; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    We introduce nonlinear canonical transformations that yield effective Hamiltonians of multiphoton down conversion processes, and we define the associated non-Gaussian multiphoton squeezed states as the coherent states of the multiphoton Hamiltonians. We study in detail the four-photon processes and the associated non-Gaussian four-photon squeezed states. The realization of squeezing, the behavior of the field statistics, and the structure of the phase space distributions show that these states realize a natural four-photon generalization of the two-photon squeezed states.

  2. Canonical Transformations of Kepler Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these…

  3. Non-linear canonical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Eeke; de Leeuw, Jan

    1983-01-01

    Non-linear canonical correlation analysis is a method for canonical correlation analysis with optimal scaling features. The method fits many kinds of discrete data. The different parameters are solved for in an alternating least squares way and the corresponding program is called CANALS. An

  4. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-02-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  5. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-04-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  6. Canonical transformation method in classical electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Yu. G.

    1983-08-01

    The solutions of Maxwell's equations in the parabolic equation approximation is obtained on the basis of the canonical transformation method. The Hamiltonian form of the equations for the field in an anisotropic stratified medium is also examined. The perturbation theory for the calculation of the wave reflection and transmission coefficients is developed.

  7. Canonically Transformed Detectors Applied to the Classical Inverse Scattering Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C; Torres, J M

    2005-01-01

    The concept of measurement in classical scattering is interpreted as an overlap of a particle packet with some area in phase space that describes the detector. Considering that usually we record the passage of particles at some point in space, a common detector is described e.g. for one-dimensional systems as a narrow strip in phase space. We generalize this concept allowing this strip to be transformed by some, possibly non-linear, canonical transformation, introducing thus a canonically transformed detector. We show such detectors to be useful in the context of the inverse scattering problem in situations where recently discovered scattering echoes could not be seen without their help. More relevant applications in quantum systems are suggested.

  8. Canonically Transformed Detectors Applied to the Classical Inverse Scattering Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Seligman, T. H.; Torres, J. M.

    The concept of measurement in classical scattering is interpreted as an overlap of a particle packet with some area in phase space that describes the detector. Considering that usually we record the passage of particles at some point in space, a common detector is described e.g. for one-dimensional systems as a narrow strip in phase space. We generalize this concept allowing this strip to be transformed by some, possibly non-linear, canonical transformation, introducing thus a canonically transformed detector. We show such detectors to be useful in the context of the inverse scattering problem in situations where recently discovered scattering echoes could not be seen without their help. More relevant applications in quantum systems are suggested.

  9. Linear canonical transforms theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kutay, M; Ozaktas, Haldun; Sheridan, John

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the essential mathematical foundations of linear canonical transforms from a signals and systems perspective. Substantial attention is devoted to how these transforms relate to optical systems and wave propagation. There is extensive coverage of sampling theory and fast algorithms for numerically approximating the family of transforms. Chapters on topics ranging from digital holography to speckle metrology provide a window on the wide range of applications. This volume will serve as a reference for researchers in the fields of image and signal processing, wave propagation, optical information processing and holography, optical system design and modeling, and quantum optics. It will be of use to graduate students in physics and engineering, as well as for scientists in other areas seeking to learn more about this important yet relatively unfamiliar class of integral transformations.

  10. Canonical Transformations can Dramatically Simplify Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, John

    2016-01-01

    A useful way to keep track of the SUSY invariance of a theory is by formulating it with a BRST Poisson Bracket. It turns out that there is a crucial subtlety that is hidden in this formulation. When the theory contains a Chiral Multiplet, the relevant BRST Poisson Bracket has a very important Canonical Transformation that leaves it invariant. This Canonical Transformation takes all or part of the Scalar Field $A$ and replaces it with a Zinn Source $J_A$, and also takes the related Zinn Source $\\Gamma_A$ and replaces it with an `Antighost' Field $\\eta_A$. Naively, this looks like it is just a change of notation. But in fact the interpretation means that one has moved some of the conserved Noether SUSY current from the Field Action, and placed it partly in the Zinn Sources Action, and so the SUSY current in the Field part of the Action is no longer conserved, because the Zinn Sources do not satisfy any equations of motion. They are not quantized, because they are Sources. So it needs to be recognized that SUSY ...

  11. Nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations: 2 modes

    CERN Document Server

    Scharnhorst, K

    2010-01-01

    Extending our earlier study of nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations (canonical transformations for fermions) for one fermionic mode, in the present paper we perform a thorough study of general (nonlinear) canonical transformations for two fermionic modes. We find that the Bogolyubov-Valatin group for n=2 fermionic modes which can be implemented by means of unitary SU(2^n = 4) transformations is isomorphic to SO(6;R)/Z_2. The investigation touches on a number of subjects. As a novelty from a mathematical point of view, we study the structure of nonlinear basis transformations in a Clifford algebra [specifically, in the Clifford algebra C(0,4)] entailing (supersymmetric) transformations among multivectors of different grades. A prominent algebraic role in this context is being played by biparavectors (products of Dirac matrices, quadriquaternions, sedenions) and spin bivectors (antisymmetric complex matrices). The studied biparavectors are equivalent to Eddington's E-numbers and can be understood in ter...

  12. Convolution theorems for the linear canonical transform and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Bing; TAO Ran; WANG Yue

    2006-01-01

    As generalization of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), the linear canonical transform (LCT) has been used in several areas, including optics and signal processing. Many properties for this transform are already known, but the convolution theorems, similar to the version of the Fourier transform, are still to be determined. In this paper, the authors derive the convolution theorems for the LCT, and explore the sampling theorem and multiplicative filter for the band limited signal in the linear canonical domain. Finally, the sampling and reconstruction formulas are deduced, together with the construction methodology for the above mentioned multiplicative filter in the time domain based on fast Fourier transform (FFT), which has much lower computational load than the construction method in the linear canonical domain.

  13. On the Fock Transformation in Nonlinear Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bouda, A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new deformed Poisson brackets which leads to the Fock coordinate transformation by using an analogous procedure as in Deformed Special Relativity. We therefore derive the corresponding momentum transformation which is revealed to be different from previous results. Contrary to the earlier version of Fock's nonlinear relativity for which plane waves cannot be described, our resulting algebra keeps invariant for any coordinate and momentum transformations the four dimensional contraction $p_{\\mu} x^{\\mu} $, allowing therefore to associate plane waves for free particles. As in Deformed Special Relativity, we also derive a canonical transformation with which the new coordinates and momentum satisfy the usual Poisson brackets and therefore transform like the usual Lorentz vectors. Finally, we establish the dispersion relation for Fock's nonlinear relativity.

  14. Nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations: Two modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnhorst, K.; van Holten, J.-W.

    2011-11-01

    Extending our earlier study of nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations (canonical transformations for fermions) for one fermionic mode, in the present paper, we perform a thorough study of general (nonlinear) canonical transformations for two fermionic modes. We find that the Bogolyubov-Valatin group for n=2 fermionic modes, which can be implemented by means of unitary SU(2n=4) transformations, is isomorphic to SO(6;R)/Z2. The investigation touches on a number of subjects. As a novelty from a mathematical point of view, we study the structure of nonlinear basis transformations in a Clifford algebra [specifically, in the Clifford algebra C(0,4)] entailing (supersymmetric) transformations among multivectors of different grades. A prominent algebraic role in this context is being played by biparavectors (linear combinations of products of Dirac matrices, quadriquaternions, sedenions) and spin bivectors (antisymmetric complex matrices). The studied biparavectors are equivalent to Eddington's E-numbers and can be understood in terms of the tensor product of two commuting copies of the division algebra of quaternions H. From a physical point of view, we present a method to diagonalize any arbitrary two-fermion Hamiltonians. Relying on Jordan-Wigner transformations for two-spin- {1}/{2} and single-spin- {3}/{2} systems, we also study nonlinear spin transformations and the related problem of diagonalizing arbitrary two-spin- {1}/{2} and single-spin- {3}/{2} Hamiltonians. Finally, from a calculational point of view, we pay due attention to explicit parametrizations of SU(4) and SO(6;R) matrices (of respective sizes 4×4 and 6×6) and their mutual relation.

  15. Canonical transforms, quantumness and probability representation of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, Margarita A

    2011-01-01

    The linear canonical transforms of position and momentum are used to construct the tomographic probability representation of quantum states where the fair probability distribution determines the quantum state instead of the wave function or density matrix. The example of Moshinsky shutter problem is considered.

  16. Non-linear canonical correlation for joint analysis of MEG signals from two subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCampi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of analysing magnetoencephalography (MEG data measured from two persons undergoing the same experiment, and we propose a method that searches for sources with maximally correlated energies. Our method is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, which provides linear transformations, one for each subject, such that the correlation between the transformed MEG signals is maximized. Here, we present a nonlinear version of CCA which measures the correlation of energies. Furthermore, we introduce a delay parameter in the modelto analyse, e.g., leader-follower changes in experiments where the two subjects are engaged in social interaction.

  17. Output feedback stabilization for stochastic nonlinear systems in observer canonical form with stable zero-dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘子刚; 刘允刚; 施颂椒

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of output feedback stabilization for stochastic nonlinear systems. We consider a class of stochastic nonlinear systems in observer canonical form with stable zero-dynamics. We introduce a sequence of state transformations that transform the system into a lower triangular structure that is amenable for integrator backstepping design. Then we design the output-feedback controller and prove that the closed-loop system is bounded in probability. Furthermore, when the disturbance vector field vanishes at the origin, the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable in the large. With special care, the controller preserves the equilibrium of the nonlinear system. An example is included to illustrate the theoretical findings.

  18. Canonical Nonlinear Viscous Core Solution in pipe and elliptical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcakir, Ozge

    2016-11-01

    In an earlier paper (Ozcakir et al. (2016)), two new nonlinear traveling wave solutions were found with collapsing structure towards the center of the pipe as Reynolds number R -> ∞ , which were called Nonlinear Viscous Core (NVC) states. Asymptotic scaling arguments suggested that the NVC state collapse rate scales as R - 1 / 4 where axial, radial and azimuthal velocity perturbations from Hagen-Poiseuille flow scale as R - 1 / 2, R - 3 / 4 and R - 3 / 4 respectively, while (1 - c) = O (R - 1 / 2) where c is the traveling wave speed. The theoretical scaling results were roughly consistent with full Navier-Stokes numerical computations in the range 105 NVC states for pipes with elliptical cross-section and identify similar canonical structure in these cases. National Science Foundation NSF-DMS-1515755, EPSRC Grant EP/1037948/1.

  19. Fast Numerical Nonlinear Fourier Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear Fourier transform, which is also known as the forward scattering transform, decomposes a periodic signal into nonlinearly interacting waves. In contrast to the common Fourier transform, these waves no longer have to be sinusoidal. Physically relevant waveforms are often available for the analysis instead. The details of the transform depend on the waveforms underlying the analysis, which in turn are specified through the implicit assumption that the signal is governed by a certain evolution equation. For example, water waves generated by the Korteweg-de Vries equation can be expressed in terms of cnoidal waves. Light waves in optical fiber governed by the nonlinear Schr\\"dinger equation (NSE) are another example. Nonlinear analogs of classic problems such as spectral analysis and filtering arise in many applications, with information transmission in optical fiber, as proposed by Yousefi and Kschischang, being a very recent one. The nonlinear Fourier transform is eminently suited to address them ...

  20. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Damiano [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain ''componential'' map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory. (orig.)

  1. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then, we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain "componential" map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory.

  2. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-02-01

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain "componential" map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory.

  3. A Top-Down Account of Linear Canonical Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Bernardo Wolf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We contend that what are called Linear Canonical Transforms (LCTs should be seen as a part of the theory of unitary irreducible representations of the '2+1' Lorentz group. The integral kernel representation found by Collins, Moshinsky and Quesne, and the radial and hyperbolic LCTs introduced thereafter, belong to the discrete and continuous representation series of the Lorentz group in its parabolic subgroup reduction. The reduction by the elliptic and hyperbolic subgroups can also be considered to yield LCTs that act on functions, discrete or continuous in other Hilbert spaces. We gather the summation and integration kernels reported by Basu and Wolf when studiying all discrete, continuous, and mixed representations of the linear group of 2×2 real matrices. We add some comments on why all should be considered canonical.

  4. 3d mirror symmetry as a canonical transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Drukker, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the free Fermi-gas formulation of certain 3d ${\\cal N}=3$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories by allowing Fayet-Iliopoulos couplings as well as mass terms for bifundamental matter fields. The resulting partition functions are given by simple modifications of the argument of the Airy function found previously. With these extra parameters it is easy to see that mirror-symmetry corresponds to linear canonical transformations on the phase space (or operator algebra) of the 1-dimensional fermions.

  5. Canonical Transform Method for Treating Strongly Anisotropy Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, J. F.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    An infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of magnetism in magnets with strong single-ion anisotropy is given. This approach is based on a canonical transformation of the system into one with a diagonal crystal field, an effective two-ion anisotropy, and reduced ground-state corrections....... A matrix-element matching procedure is used to obtain an explicit expression for the spin-wave energy to second order. The consequences of this theory are illustrated by an application to a simple example with planar anisotropy and an external magnetic field. A detailed comparison between the results...

  6. Mapping of shape invariant potentials by the point canonical transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Setare, M R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper by using the method of point canonical transformation we find that the Coulomb and Kratzer potentials can be mapped to the Morse potential. Then we show that the P\\"{o}schl-Teller potential type I belongs to the same subclass of shape invariant potentials as Hulth\\'{e}n potential. Also we show that the shape-invariant algebra for Coulomb, Kratzer, and Morse potentials is SU(1,1), while the shape-invariant algebra for P\\"{o}schl-Teller type I and Hulth\\'{e}n is SU(2).

  7. New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guanlei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle plays an important role in mathematics, physics, signal processing, and so on. Firstly, based on definition of the linear canonical transform (LCT and the traditional Pitt's inequality, one novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains is obtained, which is connected with the LCT parameters a and b. Then one novel logarithmic uncertainty principle is derived from this novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains, which is associated with parameters of the two LCTs. Secondly, from the relation between the original function and LCT, one entropic uncertainty principle and one Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the LCT domains are derived, which are associated with the LCT parameters a and b. The reason why the three lower bounds are only associated with LCT parameters a and b and independent of c and d is presented. The results show it is possible that the bounds tend to zeros.

  8. System Identification and Filtering of Nonlinear Controlled Markov Processes by Canonical Variate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-30

    In this Phase I SBIR study, new methods are developed for the system identification and stochastic filtering of nonlinear controlled Markov processes...state space Markov process models and canonical variate analysis (CVA) for obtaining optimal nonlinear procedures for system identification and stochastic

  9. Quantum Deformed Canonical Transformations, W_{\\infty}-algebras and Unitary Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, E.; Reuter, M.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the algebraic properties of the quantum counterpart of the classical canonical transformations using the symbol-calculus approach to quantum mechanics. In this framework we construct a set of pseudo-differential operators which act on the symbols of operators, i.e., on functions defined over phase-space. They act as operatorial left- and right- multiplication and form a $W_{\\infty}\\times W_{\\infty}$- algebra which contracts to its diagonal subalgebra in the classical limit. We ...

  10. Sl$_{q}$(2) realizations for Kepler and oscillator potentials and q-canonical transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dayi, O F; Dayi, O F; Duru, I H

    1994-01-01

    The realizations of the Lie algebra corresponding to the dynamical symmetry group SO(2,1) of the Kepler and oscillator potentials are q-deformed. The q-canonical transformation connecting two realizations is given and a general definition for q-canonical transformation is deduced. q-Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for a Kepler like potential is obtained from the q-oscillator Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. Energy spectrum and the ground state wave function are calculated.

  11. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs. II. Application of canonical perturbation theory in basic graph structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We consider exact and asymptotic solutions of the stationary cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on metric graphs. We focus on some basic example graphs. The asymptotic solutions are obtained using the canonical perturbation formalism developed in our earlier paper [S. Gnutzmann and D. Waltner, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032204]. For closed example graphs (interval, ring, star graph, tadpole graph), we calculate spectral curves and show how the description of spectra reduces to known characteristic functions of linear quantum graphs in the low-intensity limit. Analogously for open examples, we show how nonlinear scattering of stationary waves arises and how it reduces to known linear scattering amplitudes at low intensities. In the short-wavelength asymptotics we discuss how genuine nonlinear effects may be described using the leading order of canonical perturbation theory: bifurcation of spectral curves (and the corresponding solutions) in closed graphs and multistability in open graphs.

  12. Non-adiabatic molecular Hamiltonian: Canonical transformation coupling electronic and vibrational motions

    OpenAIRE

    Hubac, Ivan; Babinec, Peter; Polasek, Martin; Urban, Jan; Mach, Pavel; Masik, Jozef; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    1998-01-01

    The coupling of electronic and vibrational motion is studied by two canonical transformations namely normal coordinate transformation and momentum transformation on molecular Hamiltonian. It is shown that by these transformations we can pass from crude approximation to adiabatic approximation and then to non-adiabatic (diabatic) Hamiltonian. This leads to renormalized fermions and renormalized diabatic phonons. Simple calculations on $H_{2}$, $HD$, and $D_{2}$ systems are performed and compar...

  13. Wigner Distribution Functions and the Representation of Canonical Transformations in Time-Dependent Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moshinsky

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For classical canonical transformations, one can, using the Wigner transformation, pass from their representation in Hilbert space to a kernel in phase space. In this paper it will be discussed how the time-dependence of the uncertainties of the corresponding time-dependent quantum problems can be incorporated into this formalism.

  14. Canonical analysis and transformation of Skylab multispectral scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Barr, D. M.; Merembeck, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The original transformation matrix, C, had sixteen axes. However, the first three axes contained 98.83% of the variance contained within the transformation. The values for axes one, two, and three were 83.61%, 14.49%, and 0.72%, respectively. The result was an 81.25% reduction in data bulk. It is expected that using transformed data for classification will result in significant reductions in computer cost.

  15. Quantum Deformed Canonical Transformations, W_{infty}-algebras and Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Gozzi, E

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the algebraic properties of the quantum counterpart of the classical canonical transformations using the symbol-calculus approach to quantum mechanics. In this framework we construct a set of pseudo-differential operators which act on the symbols of operators, i.e., on functions defined over phase-space. They act as operatorial left- and right- multiplication and form a $W_{infty}times W_{infty}$- algebra which contracts to its diagonal subalgebra in the classical limit. We also describe the Gel'fand-Naimark-Segal (GNS) construction in this language and show that the GNS representation-space (a doubled Hilbert space) is closely related to the algebra of functions over phase-space equipped with the star-product of the symbol-calculus.

  16. Feedback diagonal canonical form and its application to stabilization of nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Daizhan; HU Qingxi; QIN Huashu

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of stabilization of a class of nonlinear systems, which are possibly of non-minimum phase. A new feedback-equivalent canonical form, called diagonal normal form, of linear control systems is proposed. Using it, the corresponding normal form of affine nonlinear control systems is obtained. Based on this new normal form and the design technique of center manifold, a new constructing method for stabilizing control is presented. Certain examples are included to demonstrate the design strategy of stabilizers.

  17. Transforming differential equations of multi-loop Feynman integrals into canonical form

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The method of differential equations has been proven to be a powerful tool for the computation of multi-loop Feynman integrals appearing in quantum field theory. It has been observed that in many instances a canonical basis can be chosen, which drastically simplifies the solution of the differential equation. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that computes the transformation to a canonical basis, starting from some basis that is, for instance, obtained by the usual integration-by-parts reduction techniques. The algorithm requires the existence of a rational transformation to a canonical basis, but is otherwise completely agnostic about the differential equation. In particular, it is applicable to problems involving multiple scales and allows for a rational dependence on the dimensional regulator. It is demonstrated that the algorithm is suitable for current multi-loop calculations by presenting its successful application to a number of non-trivial examples.

  18. Bäcklund-Darboux Transformation for Non-Isospectral Canonical System and Riemann-Hilbert Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sakhnovich

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A GBDT version of the Bäcklund-Darboux transformation is constructed for a non-isospectral canonical system, which plays essential role in the theory of random matrix models. The corresponding Riemann-Hilbert problem is treated and some explicit formulas are obtained. A related inverse problem is formulated and solved.

  19. Point Canonical Transformation for Solving Five-Parameter Exponential-Type Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJin; XIANGAn-Ping; YUWan-Lun

    2003-01-01

    Using the approach of mapping of shape invariant potentials under point canonical transformations, the energy spectra and wave functions are most easily determined for the bound states of the five-parameter exponential-type potential with a little extra effort.

  20. Transformation design and nonlinear Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Brougham, Thomas; Jex, Igor

    2009-01-01

    We study a class of nonlinear Hamiltonians, with applications in quantum optics. The interaction terms of these Hamiltonians are generated by taking a linear combination of powers of a simple `beam splitter' Hamiltonian. The entanglement properties of the eigenstates are studied. Finally, we show how to use this class of Hamiltonians to perform special tasks such as conditional state swapping, which can be used to generate optical cat states and to sort photons.

  1. Nonlinear Dispersion Relation in Wave Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞杰; 严以新; 曹宏生

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear dispersion relation is presented to model the nonlinear dispersion of waves over the whole range of possible water depths. It reduces the phase speed over-prediction of both Hedges′ modified relation and Kirby and Dalrymple′s modified relation in the region of 1<kh<1.5 for small wave steepness and maintains the monotonicity in phase speed variation for large wave steepness. And it has a simple form. By use of the new nonlinear dispersion relation along with the mild slope equation taking into account weak nonlinearity, a mathematical model of wave transformation is developed and applied to laboratory data. The results show that the model with the new dispersion relation can predict wave transformation over complicated bathymetry satisfactorily.

  2. Continued Fraction as a Discrete Nonlinear Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, C M; Bender, Carl M.; Milton, Kimball A.

    1993-01-01

    The connection between a Taylor series and a continued-fraction involves a nonlinear relation between the Taylor coefficients $\\{ a_n \\}$ and the continued-fraction coefficients $\\{ b_n \\}$. In many instances it turns out that this nonlinear relation transforms a complicated sequence $\\{a_n \\}$ into a very simple one $\\{ b_n \\}$. We illustrate this simplification in the context of graph combinatorics.

  3. Symmetry-broken canonizations of the semi-discrete integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system with background-controlled inter-site coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.

    2016-11-01

    The integrable system of nonlinear Schrödinger type consisting of two mutually symmetric basic subsystems and one concomitant subsystem given on a ribbon of triangular lattice is characterized by the highly nonstandard form of Poisson structure. The fact of system criticality against the positive semi-definite background parameter provides us the clue how to organize the nonlinear point transformation ensuring the canonization of field variables. Precisely it allows to introduce two subsets of mutually symmetric intermediate (auxiliary) field variables and to involve one or another of them into a rational procedure of canonization realizable already in terms of two mutually asymmetric subsets of field amplitudes. There are two variants of system asymmetric standardization (namely, the minus-asymmetric and plus-asymmetric ones) emanated from the two-leg structure of underlying space lattice of the primary (noncanonical) nonlinear system. Either of the two asymmetrically standardized nonlinear systems consists of two canonical subsystems which can be referred to as the strong and the weak ones. The strong subsystem is the subsystem of bright nonlinear excitations on the whole admissible interval of the background parameter. In contrast the type of nonlinear excitations in the weak subsystem depends on the chosen domain of the background parameter. Thus in the under-critical region of the background parameter, the weak subsystem behaves as the subsystem of bright excitations while in the over-critical region it turns into the subsystem of dark excitations. Moreover in the very critical point, the field amplitudes of weak subsystem shrink to zero and the canonical system as the whole is reduced to the single strong subsystem. The general results concerning both minus-asymmetric and plus-asymmetric standardizations are confirmed analytically by means of the system multi-component one-soliton solution.

  4. Canonical transformations and loop formulation of SU(N) lattice gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manu; Sreeraj, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    We construct canonical transformations to reformulate SU(N) Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory in terms of a set of fundamental loop and string flux operators along with their canonically conjugate loop and string electric fields. The canonical relations between the initial SU(N) link operators and the final SU(N) loop and string operators, consistent with SU(N) gauge transformations, are explicitly constructed over the entire lattice. We show that as a consequence of SU(N) Gauss laws all SU(N) string degrees of freedom become cyclic and decouple from the physical Hilbert space Hp. The Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian rewritten in terms of the fundamental physical loop operators has global SU(N) invariance. There are no gauge fields. We further show that the (1 /g2 ) magnetic field terms on plaquettes create and annihilate the fundamental plaquette loop fluxes while the (g2 ) electric field terms describe all their interactions. In the weak coupling (g2→0 ) continuum limit the SU(N) loop dynamics is described by SU(N) spin Hamiltonian with nearest neighbor interactions. In the simplest SU(2) case, where the canonical transformations map the SU(2) loop Hilbert space into the Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms, we analyze the special role of the hydrogen atom dynamical symmetry group S O (4 ,2 ) in the loop dynamics and the spectrum. A simple tensor network ansatz in the SU(2) gauge invariant hydrogen atom loop basis is discussed.

  5. Quantum oscillator and Kepler-Coulomb problems in curved spaces: Deformed shape invariance, point canonical transformations, and rational extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesne, C.

    2016-10-01

    The quantum oscillator and Kepler-Coulomb problems in d-dimensional spaces with constant curvature are analyzed from several viewpoints. In a deformed supersymmetric framework, the corresponding nonlinear potentials are shown to exhibit a deformed shape invariance property. By using the point canonical transformation method, the two deformed Schrödinger equations are mapped onto conventional ones corresponding to some shape-invariant potentials, whose rational extensions are well known. The inverse point canonical transformations then provide some rational extensions of the oscillator and Kepler-Coulomb potentials in curved space. The oscillator on the sphere and the Kepler-Coulomb potential in a hyperbolic space are studied in detail and their extensions are proved to be consistent with already known ones in Euclidean space. The partnership between nonextended and extended potentials is interpreted in a deformed supersymmetric framework. Those extended potentials that are isospectral to some nonextended ones are shown to display deformed shape invariance, which in the Kepler-Coulomb case is enlarged by also translating the degree of the polynomial arising in the rational part denominator.

  6. Canonical transformations relating the oscillator and Coulomb problems and their relevance for collective motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshinsky, M.; Seligman, T.H.

    1981-08-01

    The present paper can be viewed from two standpoints. The first is that it derives the canonical transformation that takes the Hamiltonian of the Coulomb problem (in the Fock--Bargmann formulation) into that of the harmonic oscillator, while transforming the angular momenta of both problems into each other. The second is the one in which the solution of the previous problem is required if we wish to find the canonical transformation relating microscopic and macroscopic collective models, where the former is derived from a system of A particles moving in two dimensions and interacting through harmonic oscillator forces. The canonical transformation shows the existence of a U(3) symmetry group in the microscopic collective model corresponding to that of the three-dimensional oscillator which is the Hamiltonian of the macroscopic collective model. The importance of this result rests on the fact that had the motion of the particles taken place in the physical three-dimensional space, rather than the hypothetical two-dimensional one discussed here, the symmetry group would have been U(6) rather than U(3). Thus, the group theoretical structure of an s-d boson picture or, equivalently, of a generalized Bohr--Mottelson approach, is present implicitly in an A-body system interacting through harmonic oscillator forces.

  7. Multireference quantum chemistry through a joint density matrix renormalization group and canonical transformation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Takeshi; Kurashige, Yuki; Neuscamman, Eric; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2010-01-01

    We describe the joint application of the density matrix renormalization group and canonical transformation theory to multireference quantum chemistry. The density matrix renormalization group provides the ability to describe static correlation in large active spaces, while the canonical transformation theory provides a high-order description of the dynamic correlation effects. We demonstrate the joint theory in two benchmark systems designed to test the dynamic and static correlation capabilities of the methods, namely, (i) total correlation energies in long polyenes and (ii) the isomerization curve of the [Cu2O2]2+ core. The largest complete active spaces and atomic orbital basis sets treated by the joint DMRG-CT theory in these systems correspond to a (24e,24o) active space and 268 atomic orbitals in the polyenes and a (28e,32o) active space and 278 atomic orbitals in [Cu2O2]2+.

  8. Image encryption algorithm based on wavelet packet decomposition and discrete linear canonical transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K. K.; Jain, Heena

    2013-01-01

    The security of digital data including images has attracted more attention recently, and many different image encryption methods have been proposed in the literature for this purpose. In this paper, a new image encryption method using wavelet packet decomposition and discrete linear canonical transform is proposed. The use of wavelet packet decomposition and DLCT increases the key size significantly making the encryption more robust. Simulation results of the proposed technique are also presented.

  9. Canonical Correlation Between Partial Discharges and Gas Formation in Transformer Oil Paper Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA has been widely applied to diagnose internal faults in transformer insulation systems. However, the accuracy of DGA technique is limited because of the lack of positive correlation of the fault-identifying gases with faults found in power transformers. This paper presents a laboratory study on the correlation between oil dissolved gas formation and partial discharge (PD statistical parameters. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA is employed to explore the underlying correlation and to extract principal feature parameters and gases in the development of different PD defects. This study is aimed to provide more information in assisting the separation, classification and identification of PD defects, which might improve the existing transformer dissolved gas analysis (DGA schemes. An application of a novel ratio method for discharge diagnosis is proposed. The evaluation of DGA data both in laboratory and actual transformers proves the effectiveness of the method and the correlation investigation.

  10. Canonical Transformations and Loop Formulation of SU(N) Lattice Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Manu

    2015-01-01

    We construct canonical transformations to reformulate SU(N) Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory in terms of a set of fundamental loop & string flux operators along with their canonically conjugate loop & string electric fields. We show that as a consequence of SU(N) Gauss laws all SU(N) string degrees of freedom become cyclic and decouple from the physical Hilbert space ${\\cal H}^p$. The canonical relations between the initial SU(N) link operators and the final SU(N) loop & string operators over the entire lattice are worked out in a self consistent manner. The Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian rewritten in terms of the fundamental physical loop operators has global SU(N) invariance. There are no gauge fields. We further show that the $(1/g^2)$ magnetic field terms on plaquettes create and annihilate the fundamental plaquette loop fluxes while the $(g^2)$ electric field terms describe all their interactions. In the weak coupling ($g^2 \\rightarrow 0$) continuum limit the SU(N) loop dynamics is described b...

  11. First-order systems of linear partial differential equations: normal forms, canonical systems, transform methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Toparkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider first-order systems with constant coefficients for two real-valued functions of two real variables. This is both a problem in itself, as well as an alternative view of the classical linear partial differential equations of second order with constant coefficients. The classification of the systems is done using elementary methods of linear algebra. Each type presents its special canonical form in the associated characteristic coordinate system. Then you can formulate initial value problems in appropriate basic areas, and you can try to achieve a solution of these problems by means of transform methods.

  12. Use of the multinomial jack-knife and bootstrap in generalized non-linear canonical correlation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der Eeke; Leeuw, de Jan

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the estimation of mean and standard errors of the eigenvalues and category quantifications in generalized non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS). Starting points are the delta method equations, but the jack-knife and bootstrap are used to provide finite differen

  13. Canonical equations of Hamilton for the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Guo; Ren, Zhanmei

    2013-01-01

    We define two different systems of mathematical physics: the second-order differential system (SODS) and the first-order differential system (FODS). The Newton's second law of motion and the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation (NLSE) are the exemplary SODS and FODS, respectively. We obtain a new kind of canonical equations of Hamilton (CEH), which are of some kind of symmetry in form and are formally different with the conventional CEH without symmetry [H. Goldstein, C. Poole, J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, third ed., Addison-Wesley, 2001]. We also prove that the number of the CEHs is equal to the number of the generalized coordinates for the FODS, but twice the number of the generalized coordinates for the SODS. We show that the FODS can only be expressed by the new CEH, but do not by the conventional CEH, while the SODS can be done by both the new and the conventional CEHs. As an example, we prove that the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation can be expressed with the new CEH in a consistent way.

  14. Canonical equations of Hamilton for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Ren, Zhanmei

    2015-09-01

    We define two different systems of mathematical physics: the second order differential system (SODS) and the first order differential system (FODS). The Newton's second law of motion and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) are the exemplary SODS and FODS, respectively. We obtain a new kind of canonical equations of Hamilton (CEH), which exhibit some kind of symmetry in form and are formally different from the conventional CEH without symmetry [H. Goldstein, C. Poole, J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, third ed., Addison- Wesley, 2001]. We also prove that the number of the CEHs is equal to the number of the generalized coordinates for the FODS, but twice the number of the generalized coordinates for the SODS. We show that the FODS can only be expressed by the new CEH, but not introduced by the conventional CEH, while the SODS can be done by both the new and the conventional CEHs. As an example, we prove that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be expressed with the new CEH in a consistent way.

  15. Efficient matrix approach to optical wave propagation and Linear Canonical Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Sami A; Fried, David L; Pease, Edwin A; Brennan, Terry J; Dolash, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The Fresnel diffraction integral form of optical wave propagation and the more general Linear Canonical Transforms (LCT) are cast into a matrix transformation form. Taking advantage of recent efficient matrix multiply algorithms, this approach promises an efficient computational and analytical tool that is competitive with FFT based methods but offers better behavior in terms of aliasing, transparent boundary condition, and flexibility in number of sampling points and computational window sizes of the input and output planes being independent. This flexibility makes the method significantly faster than FFT based propagators when only a single point, as in Strehl metrics, or a limited number of points, as in power-in-the-bucket metrics, are needed in the output observation plane.

  16. Point canonical transformation versus deformed shape invariance for position-dependent mass Schrodinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Quesne, C

    2008-01-01

    On using the known equivalence between the presence of a position-dependent mass (PDM) in the Schr\\"odinger equation and a deformation of the canonical commutation relations, a method based on deformed shape invariance has recently been devised for generating pairs of potential and PDM for which the Schr\\"odinger equation is exactly solvable. This approach has provided the bound-state energy spectrum, as well as the ground-state and the first few excited-state wavefunctions. The general wavefunctions have however remained unknown in explicit form because for their determination one would need the solutions of a rather tricky differential-difference equation. Here we show that solving this equation may be avoided by combining the deformed shape invariance technique with the point canonical transformation method in a novel way. It consists in employing our previous knowledge of the PDM problem energy spectrum to construct a constant-mass Schr\\"odinger equation with similar characteristics and in deducing the PD...

  17. Identification of the nonlinear vibration system of power transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zheng; Hai, Huang; Pan, Jie; Yanni, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the identification of the nonlinear vibration system of power transformers. A Hammerstein model is used to identify the system with electrical inputs and the vibration of the transformer tank as the output. The nonlinear property of the system is modelled using a Fourier neural network consisting of a nonlinear element and a linear dynamic block. The order and weights of the network are determined based on the Lipschitz criterion and the back-propagation algorithm. This system identification method is tested on several power transformers. Promising results for predicting the transformer vibration and extracting system parameters are presented and discussed.

  18. Asymptotics for Nonlinear Transformations of Fractionally Integrated Time Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The asymptotic theory for nonlinear transformations of fractionally integrated time series is developed. By the use of fractional Occupation Times Formula, various nonlinear functions of fractionally integrated series such as ARFIMA time series are studied, and the asymptotic distributions of the sample moments of such functions are obtained and analyzed. The transformations considered in this paper includes a variety of functions such as regular functions, integrable functions and asymptotically homogeneous functions that are often used in practical nonlinear econometric analysis. It is shown that the asymptotic theory of nonlinear transformations of original and normalized fractionally integrated processes is different from that of fractionally integrated processes, but is similar to the asymptotic theory of nonlinear transformations of integrated processes.

  19. Nonlinear Radon Transform Using Zernike Moment for Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the linear Radon transform to a nonlinear space and propose a method by applying the nonlinear Radon transform to Zernike moments to extract shape descriptors. These descriptors are obtained by computing Zernike moment on the radial and angular coordinates of the pattern image's nonlinear Radon matrix. Theoretical and experimental results validate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed method in the case of nonlinear space equals or outperforms that in the case of linear Radon.

  20. Social inequality, lifestyles and health - a non-linear canonical correlation analysis based on the approach of Pierre Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Janssen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and empirical approach of Pierre Bourdieu, a multivariate non-linear method is introduced as an alternative way to analyse the complex relationships between social determinants and health. The analysis is based on face-to-face interviews with 695 randomly selected respondents aged 30 to 59. Variables regarding socio-economic status, life circumstances, lifestyles, health-related behaviour and health were chosen for the analysis. In order to determine whether the respondents can be differentiated and described based on these variables, a non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed. The results can be described on three dimensions; Eigenvalues add up to the fit of 1.444, which can be interpreted as approximately 50 % of explained variance. The three-dimensional space illustrates correspondences between variables and provides a framework for interpretation based on latent dimensions, which can be described by age, education, income and gender. Using non-linear canonical correlation analysis, health characteristics can be analysed in conjunction with socio-economic conditions and lifestyles. Based on Bourdieus theoretical approach, the complex correlations between these variables can be more substantially interpreted and presented.

  1. A NONLINEAR TRANSFORMATION AND A BOUNDARY-INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM FOR ACLASS OF NONLINEAR CONVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of a nonlinear transformation, a class of nonlinear convectiondiffusion PDE in one space dimension is converted into a linear one, the unique solution of a nonlinear boundary-initial value problem for the nonlinear PDE can be exactly expressed by the nonlinear transformation, and several illustrative examples are given

  2. Nonlinear Multiscale Transformations: From Synchronization to Error Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Donat Dept. Matematica Aplicada, University of Valencia, Spain. arandiga@uv. es donat uv. es Abstract Data-dependent interpolatory techniques can be used...Numer. Algorith. 23, 175-216, 2000. 5. F. Arhndiga, R. Donat, and A. Harten. Multiresolution based on weighted averages of the hat function II : Nonlinear...transforms for image coding via lifting scheme. submitted to IEEE Trans. on Image Nonlinear multiscale transformations 313 Method II ’ 1 I ŕ, 11蕀 r

  3. Nonlinear Dispersion Effect on Wave Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruijie; Dong-Young LEE

    2000-01-01

    A new nonlinear dispersion relation is given in this paper, which can overcome the limitation of the intermediate minimum value in the dispersion relation proposed by Kirby and Dalrymple (1986), and which has a better approximation to Hedges' empirical relation than the modilied relations by Hedges (1987). Kirby and Dahymple (1987) for shallow waters. The new dispersion relation is simple in form. thus it can be used easily in practice. Meanwhile. a general explicil approximalion to the new dispersion rela tion and olher nonlinear dispersion relations is given. By use of the explicit approximation to the new dispersion relation along with the mild slope equation taking inlo account weakly nonlinear effect, a mathematical model is obtained, and it is applied to laboratory data. The results show that the model developed vith the new dispersion relation predicts wave translornation over complicated topography quite well.

  4. Stabilization of nonlinear systems by similarity transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Zuber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system x˙=A(x+b(xu, u(x=s∗(xx, x∈ℝn, where the pair (A(x,b(x is given, we obtain the feedback vector s(x to stabilize the corresponding closed loop system. For an arbitrarily chosen constant vector g, a sufficient condition of the existence and an explicit form of a similarity transformation T(A(x,b(x,g is established. The latter transforms matrix A(x into the Frobenius matrix, vector b(x into g, and an unknown feedback vector s(x into the first unit vector. The boundaries of A˜(y,g are determined by the boundaries of {∂kA(x∂xk,∂kb(x∂xk}, k=0,n−1¯. The stabilization of the transformed system is subject to the choice of the constant vector g.

  5. Nonlinear transformation on the transfer entropy of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenyu; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-09-01

    Transfer entropy (TE) now is widely used in the data mining and economic field. However, TE itself demands that time series intend to be stationary and meet Markov condition. Naturally, we are interested in investigating the effect of the nonlinear transformation of the two series on the TE. Therefore, the paper is designed to study the TE of five nonlinear ;volatile; transformations based on the data which are generated by the linear modeling and the logistic maps modeling, as well as the dataset that come from financial markets. With only one of the TE of nonlinear transformations fluctuating around the TE of original series, the TE of others all have increased with different degrees.

  6. One dimensional resonant Fibonacci quasicrystals: noncanonical linear and canonical nonlinear effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werchner, M; Schafer, M; Kira, M; Koch, S W; Sweet, J; Olitzky, J D; Hendrickson, J; Richards, B C; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H M; Poddubny, A N; Ivchenko, E L; Voronov, M; Wegener, M

    2009-04-13

    A detailed experimental and theoretical study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of different Fibonacci-spaced multiple-quantum-well structures is presented. Systematic numerical studies are performed for different average spacing and geometrical arrangement of the quantum wells. Measurements of the linear and nonlinear (carrier density dependent) reflectivity are shown to be in good agreement with the computational results. As the pump pulse energy increases, the excitation-induced dephasing broadens the exciton resonances resulting in a disappearance of sharp features and reduction in peak reflectivity.

  7. Applications of Canonical transformations and nontrivial vacuum solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2004-12-01

    MISHCHENKO, YURIY. Applications of Canonical Transformations and Nontrivial Vacuum Solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. (Under the direction of Chueng-Ryong Ji.) In this dissertation we consider two recent applications of Bogoliubov Transformation to the phenomenology of quantum mixing and the theory of critical phenomena. In recent years quantum mixing got in the focus of the searches for New Physics due to its unparalleled sensitivity to SM parameters and indications of neutrino mixing. It was recently suggested that Bogoliubov Transformation may be important in proper definition of the flavor states that otherwise results in problems in perturbative treatment. As first part of this dissertation we investigate this conjecture and develop a complete formulation of such a mixing field theory involving introduction of general formalism, analysis of space-time conversion and phenomenological implications. As second part of this dissertati

  8. Canonical and Singular Propagation of Ultrashort Pulses in a Nonlinear Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Glasner; Miroslav Kolesik; Moloney, Jerome V.; Newell, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the two types of singular behaviors of ultrashort pulses in a nonlinear medium, pulse steepening if the weak longitudinal dispersion is normal and collapse if it is anomalous. Connections with analogous behaviors of wave packets of almost monochromatic waves in strongly dispersive media are discussed.

  9. Similarity transformation approach to identifiability analysis of nonlinear compartmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, S; Godfrey, K R; Rabitz, H

    1989-04-01

    Through use of the local state isomorphism theorem instead of the algebraic equivalence theorem of linear systems theory, the similarity transformation approach is extended to nonlinear models, resulting in finitely verifiable sufficient and necessary conditions for global and local identifiability. The approach requires testing of certain controllability and observability conditions, but in many practical examples these conditions prove very easy to verify. In principle the method also involves nonlinear state variable transformations, but in all of the examples presented in the paper the transformations turn out to be linear. The method is applied to an unidentifiable nonlinear model and a locally identifiable nonlinear model, and these are the first nonlinear models other than bilinear models where the reason for lack of global identifiability is nontrivial. The method is also applied to two models with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics, both of considerable importance in pharmacokinetics, and for both of which the complicated nature of the algebraic equations arising from the Taylor series approach has hitherto defeated attempts to establish identifiability results for specific input functions.

  10. Nonlinear pulse propagation: a time-transformation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuzhe; Agrawal, Govind P; Maywar, Drew N

    2012-04-01

    We present a time-transformation approach for studying the propagation of optical pulses inside a nonlinear medium. Unlike the conventional way of solving for the slowly varying amplitude of an optical pulse, our new approach maps directly the input electric field to the output one, without making the slowly varying envelope approximation. Conceptually, the time-transformation approach shows that the effect of propagation through a nonlinear medium is to change the relative spacing and duration of various temporal slices of the pulse. These temporal changes manifest as self-phase modulation in the spectral domain and self-steepening in the temporal domain. Our approach agrees with the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation for 100 fs pulses and the finite-difference time-domain solution of Maxwell's equations for two-cycle pulses, while producing results 20 and 50 times faster, respectively.

  11. Covariant Description of Transformation Optics in Linear and Nonlinear Media

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The technique of transformation optics (TO) is an elegant method for the design of electromagnetic media with tailored optical properties. In this paper, we focus on the formal structure of TO theory. By using a complete covariant formalism, we present a general transformation law that holds for arbitrary materials including bianisotropic, magneto-optical, nonlinear and moving media. Due to the principle of general covariance, the formalism is applicable to arbitrary space-time coordinate transformations and automatically accounts for magneto-electric coupling terms. The formalism is demonstrated for the calculation of the second harmonic generation in a twisted TO concentrator.

  12. Non-canonical distribution and non-equilibrium transport beyond weak system-bath coupling regime: A polaron transformation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dazhi; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-08-01

    The concept of polaron, emerged from condense matter physics, describes the dynamical interaction of moving particle with its surrounding bosonic modes. This concept has been developed into a useful method to treat open quantum systems with a complete range of system-bath coupling strength. Especially, the polaron transformation approach shows its validity in the intermediate coupling regime, in which the Redfield equation or Fermi's golden rule will fail. In the polaron frame, the equilibrium distribution carried out by perturbative expansion presents a deviation from the canonical distribution, which is beyond the usual weak coupling assumption in thermodynamics. A polaron transformed Redfield equation (PTRE) not only reproduces the dissipative quantum dynamics but also provides an accurate and efficient way to calculate the non-equilibrium steady states. Applications of the PTRE approach to problems such as exciton diffusion, heat transport and light-harvesting energy transfer are presented.

  13. Canonical structure of evolution equations with non-linear dispersive terms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Talukdar; J Shamanna; S Ghosh

    2003-07-01

    The inverse problem of the variational calculus for evolution equations characterized by non-linear dispersive terms is analysed with a view to clarify why such a system does not follow from Lagrangians. Conditions are derived under which one could construct similar equations which admit a Lagrangian representation. It is shown that the system of equations thus obtained can be Hamiltonized by making use of the Dirac’s theory of constraints. The specific results presented refer to the third- and fifth-order equations of the so-called distinguished subclass.

  14. Canonical quantization of nonlinear sigma models with a theta term and applications to symmetry-protected topological phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Matthew F.; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-08-01

    We canonically quantize O (D +2 ) nonlinear sigma models (NLSMs) with a theta term on arbitrary smooth, closed, connected, oriented D -dimensional spatial manifolds M , with the goal of proving the suitability of these models for describing symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of bosons in D spatial dimensions. We show that in the disordered phase of the NLSM, and when the coefficient θ of the theta term is an integer multiple of 2 π , the theory on M has a unique ground state and a finite energy gap to all excitations. We also construct the ground state wave functional of the NLSM in this parameter regime, and we show that it is independent of the metric on M and given by the exponential of a Wess-Zumino term for the NLSM field, in agreement with previous results on flat space. Our results show that the NLSM in the disordered phase and at θ =2 π k , k ∈Z , has a symmetry-preserving ground state but no topological order (i.e., no topology-dependent ground state degeneracy), making it an ideal model for describing SPT phases of bosons. Thus, our work places previous results on SPT phases derived using NLSMs on solid theoretical ground. To canonically quantize the NLSM on M , we use Dirac's method for the quantization of systems with second class constraints, suitably modified to account for the curvature of space. In a series of four Appendixes, we provide the technical background needed to follow the discussion in the main sections of the paper.

  15. Generalized non-linear strength theory and transformed stress space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yangping; LU Dechun; ZHOU Annan; ZOU Bo

    2004-01-01

    Based on the test data of frictional materials and previous research achievements in this field, a generalized non-linear strength theory (GNST) is proposed. It describes non-linear strength properties on the π-plane and the meridian plane using a unified formula, and it includes almost all the present non-linear strength theories, which can be used in just one material. The shape of failure function of the GNST is a smooth curve between the SMP criterion and the Mises criterion on the π-plane, and an exponential curve on the meridian plane. Through the transformed stress space based on the GNST, the combination of the GNST and various constitutive models using p and q as stress parameters can be realized simply and rationally in three-dimensional stress state.

  16. 1/f noise from the nonlinear transformations of the variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kaulakys, B; Ruseckas, J

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the low-frequency noise with power spectrum $1/f^\\beta$ (also known as $1/f$ fluctuations or flicker noise) remains a challenge. Recently, the nonlinear stochastic differential equations for modeling $1/f^\\beta$ noise have been proposed and analyzed. Here we use the self-similarity properties of this model with respect to the nonlinear transformations of the variable of these equations and show that $1/f^\\beta$ noise of the observable may yield from the power-law transformations of well-known standard processes, like the Brownian motion, Bessel and similar stochastic processes. Analytical and numerical investigations of such techniques for modeling processes with $1/f^\\beta$ fluctuations is presented.

  17. Hans Hinterreiter’s non-linear transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil

    Hans Hinterreiter (1902-1989) was a Swiss painter, belonging to the Constructivist movement, who spent most of his life in Ibiza, Spain. Since 1930 he occupied himself with the laws of form and colour. Parallel to Escher, he discovered laws of coloured symmetry before crystallographers started...... poster illustrates four different cases of this process, starting always with a plane-group pattern and showing both the application of non-linear transformations and coloured symmetry. In his more complex patterns, two of which are shown on the poster, Hinterreiter created domains of affinely......-step approach that combines plane group patterns with the principles of coloured symmetry and nonlinear transformations, his understanding of crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry and a meticulous application of these principles even to the most complex patterns produced a legacy close to the heart...

  18. Variations on the Planar Landau Problem: Canonical Transformations, A Purely Linear Potential and the Half-Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Govaerts, Jan; Mweene, Habatwa V

    2009-01-01

    The ordinary Landau problem of a charged particle in a plane subjected to a perpendicular homogeneous and static magnetic field is reconsidered from different points of view. The role of phase space canonical transformations and their relation to a choice of gauge in the solution of the problem is addressed. The Landau problem is then extended to different contexts, in particular the singular situation of a purely linear potential term being added as an interaction, for which a complete purely algebraic solution is presented. This solution is then exploited to solve this same singular Landau problem in the half-plane, with as motivation the potential relevance of such a geometry for quantum Hall measurements in the presence of an electric field or a gravitational quantum well.

  19. Reconstruction of band-limited signals from multichannel and periodic nonuniform samples in the linear canonical transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Deyun; Ran, Qiwen; Li, Yuanmin

    2011-09-01

    Linear canonical transforms (LCTs) are a family of integral transforms with wide application in optical, acoustical, electromagnetic, and other wave propagation problems. This paper addresses the problem of signal reconstruction from multichannel and periodic nonuniform samples in the LCT domain. Firstly, the multichannel sampling theorem (MST) for band-limited signals with the LCT is proposed based on multichannel system equations, which is the generalization of the well-known sampling theorem for the LCT. We consider the problem of reconstructing the signal from its samples which are acquired using a multichannel sampling scheme. For this purpose, we propose two alternatives. The first scheme is based on the conventional Fourier series and inverse LCT operation. The second is based on the conventional Fourier series and inverse Fourier transform (FT) operation. Moreover, the classical Papoulis MST in FT domain is shown to be special case of the achieved results. Since the periodic nonuniformly sampled signal in the LCT has valuable applications, the reconstruction expression for the periodic nonuniformly sampled signal has been then obtained by using the derived MST and the specific space-shifting property of the LCT. Last, the potential applications of the MST are presented to show the advantage of the theory.

  20. An algorithm and its application for obtaining some kind of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian canonical formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Wen-Xiu; Alatancang

    2007-01-01

    Using factorization viewpoint of differential operator, this paper discusses how ti transform a nonlinear evolution equation to infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian linear canonical formulation. It proves a sufficient condition of canonical factorization of operator, and provides a kind of mechanical algebraic method to achieve canonical '(δ)/(δ)x'-type expression, correspondingly. Then three examples are given, which show the application of the obtained algorithm. Thus a novel idea for inverse problem can be derived fegibly.

  1. Hans Hinterreiter’s non-linear transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil

    poster illustrates four different cases of this process, starting always with a plane-group pattern and showing both the application of non-linear transformations and coloured symmetry. In his more complex patterns, two of which are shown on the poster, Hinterreiter created domains of affinely...... of plane-group patterns onto curvilinear nets of different kinds, mostly combined with a skilful application of principles of dichroic or polychromatic symmetry. Unlike Escher, Hinterreiter strove to achieve the aesthetic ideal of a pure abstract form [2] with its inherent symmetries. His unique, two...

  2. A transformation similarity constraint for groupwise nonlinear registration in longitudinal neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Greg M.; Gutman, Boris A.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Thompson, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease and other brain disorders often show a similar spatial distribution of volume change throughout the brain over time, but this information is not yet used in registration algorithms to refine the quantification of change. Here, we develop a mathematical basis to incorporate that prior information into a longitudinal structural neuroimaging study. We modify the canonical minimization problem for non-linear registration to include a term that couples a collection of registrations together to enforce group similarity. More specifically, throughout the computation we maintain a group-level representation of the transformations and constrain updates to individual transformations to be similar to this representation. The derivations necessary to produce the Euler-Lagrange equations for the coupling term are presented and a gradient descent algorithm based on the formulation was implemented. We demonstrate using 57 longitudinal image pairs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) that longitudinal registration with such a groupwise coupling prior is more robust to noise in estimating change, suggesting such change maps may have several important applications.

  3. Bias, redshift space distortions and primordial nongaussianity of nonlinear transformations: application to Lyman alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Seljak, Uros

    2012-01-01

    On large scales a nonlinear transformation of matter density field can be viewed as a biased tracer of the density field itself. A nonlinear transformation also modifies the redshift space distortions in the same limit, giving rise to a velocity bias. In models with primordial nongaussianity a nonlinear transformation generates a scale dependent bias on large scales. We derive analytic expressions for these for a general nonlinear transformation. These biases can be expressed entirely in terms of the one point distribution function (PDF) of the final field and the parameters of the transformation. Our analysis allows one to devise nonlinear transformations with nearly arbitrary bias properties, which can be used to increase the signal in the large scale clustering limit. We apply the results to the ionizing equilibrium model of Lyman-alpha forest, in which Lyman-alpha flux F is related to the density perturbation delta via a nonlinear transformation. Velocity bias can be expressed as an average over the Lyman...

  4. q-Schrödinger equations for V=u$^{2}$ + 1/u$^{2}$ and Morse potentials in terms of the q-canonical transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Dayi, O F

    1995-01-01

    The realizations of the Lie algebra corresponding to the dynamical symmetry group SO(2,1) of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equations for the Morse and the V=u^2+ 1/u^2 potentials were known to be related by a canonical transformation. q--deformed analog of this transformation connecting two different realizations of the sl_q(2) algebra is presented. By the virtue of the q--canonical transformation a q--deformed Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the Morse potential is obtained from the q-deformed V=u^2+ 1/u^2 Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. Wave functions and eigenvalues of the q--Schr\\"{o}dinger equations yielding a new definition of the q--Laguerre polynomials are studied.

  5. Global canonical symmetry in a quantum system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子平

    1996-01-01

    Based on the phase-space path integral for a system with a regular or singular Lagrangian the generalized canonical Ward identities under the global symmetry transformation in extended phase space are deduced respectively, thus the relations among Green functions can be found. The connection between canonical symmetries and conservation laws at the quantum level is established. It is pointed out that this connection in classical theories, in general, is no longer always preserved in quantum theories. The advantage of our formulation is that we do not need to carry out the integration over the canonical momenta in phase-space generating functional as usually performed. A precise discussion of quantization for a nonlinear sigma model with Hopf and Chern-Simons terms is reexamined. The property of fractional spin at quantum level has been clarified.

  6. Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Faroughy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two broad scenarios for extended linear Lorentz transformations (ELTs are modeled in Section 2 for mixing subluminal and superluminal sectors resulting in standard or deformed energy-momentum dispersions. The first scenario is elucidated in the context of four diverse realizations of a continuous function f ( v , with 0 ≤ f ( v ≤ 1 and f ( 0 = f ( c = 1 , which is fitted in the ELT. What goes in the making of the ELT in this scenario is not the boost speed v , as ascertained by two inertial observers in uniform relative motion (URM, but v × f ( v . The second scenario infers the preexistence of two rest-mass-dependent superluminal speeds whereby the ELTs are finite at the light speed c . Particle energies are evaluated in this scenario at c for several particles, including the neutrinos, and are auspiciously found to be below the GKZ energy cutoff and in compliance with a host of worldwide ultrahigh energy cosmic ray data. Section 3 presents two broad scenarios involving a number of novel nonlinear LTs (NLTs featuring small Lorentz invariance violations (LIVs, as well as resurrecting the notion of simultaneity for limited spacetime events as perceived by two observers in URM. These inquiries corroborate that NLTs could be potent tools for investigating LIVs past the customary LTs.

  7. Obtention of Schroedinger-Cat-Like-States through canonical transformations in the quantum phase space; Obtencion de estados tipo gato de Schroedinger mediante transformaciones canonicas en el espacio fase cuantico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga S, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Employing canonical transformations defined in the coherent-state representation of quantum mechanics, we introduce Schroedinger-Cat- Like-States. The squeezed displaced number states with real squeezing parameter are contained in these states. (Author)

  8. Transform-both-sides nonlinear models for in vitro pharmacokinetic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A H M Mahbub; Gilmour, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    Transform-both-sides nonlinear models have proved useful in many experimental applications including those in pharmaceutical sciences and biochemistry. The maximum likelihood method is commonly used to fit transform-both-sides nonlinear models, where the regression and transformation parameters are estimated simultaneously. In this paper, an analysis of variance-based method is described in detail for estimating transform-both-sides nonlinear models from randomized experiments. It estimates the transformation parameter from the full treatment model and then the regression parameters are estimated conditionally on this estimate of the transformation parameter. The analysis of variance method is computationally simpler compared with the maximum likelihood method of estimation and allows a more natural separation of different sources of lack of fit. Simulation studies show that the analysis of variance method can provide unbiased estimators of complex transform-both-sides nonlinear models, such as transform-both-sides random coefficient nonlinear regression models and transform-both-sides fixed coefficient nonlinear regression models with random block effects.

  9. Explicit N-Fold Darboux Transformations and Soliton Solutions for Nonlinear Derivative Schrodinger Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Eh-Gui

    2001-01-01

    An explicit N-fold Darboux transformation for a coupled of derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equations is constructed with the help of a gauge transformation of spectral problems. As a reduction, the Darboux transformation for well-known Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation is further obtained, from which a general form of N-soliton solutions for Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation is given.``

  10. Differential Transform Method with Complex Transforms to Some Nonlinear Fractional Problems in Mathematical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper witnesses the coupling of an analytical series expansion method which is called reduced differential transform with fractional complex transform. The proposed technique is applied on three mathematical models, namely, fractional Kaup-Kupershmidt equation, generalized fractional Drinfeld-Sokolov equations, and system of coupled fractional Sine-Gordon equations subject to the appropriate initial conditions which arise frequently in mathematical physics. The derivatives are defined in Jumarie’s sense. The accuracy, efficiency, and convergence of the proposed technique are demonstrated through the numerical examples. It is observed that the presented coupling is an alternative approach to overcome the demerit of complex calculation of fractional differential equations. The proposed technique is independent of complexities arising in the calculation of Lagrange multipliers, Adomian’s polynomials, linearization, discretization, perturbation, and unrealistic assumptions and hence gives the solution in the form of convergent power series with elegantly computed components. All the examples show that the proposed combination is a powerful mathematical tool to solve other nonlinear equations also.

  11. Nonlinear wave evolution in VLASOV plasma: a lie-transform analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J.R.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear wave evolution in Vlasov plasma is analyzed using the Lie transform, a powerful mathematical tool which is applicable to Hamiltonian systems. The first part of this thesis is an exposition of the Lie transform. Dewar's general Lie transform theory is explained and is used to construct Deprit's Lie transform perturbation technique. The basic theory is illustrated by simple examples.

  12. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Transformation optics is a powerful concept for designing novel optical components such as high transmission waveguides and cloaking devices. The selection of specific transformations is a non-unique problem. Here we reveal that transformations which allow for all dielectric and broadband optical...... realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  13. Experimental Detection and Quantification of Structural Nonlinearity Using Homogeneity and Hilbert Transform Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Tcherniak, Dmitri

    2010-01-01

    exists. The present study suggests a framework for the detection of structural nonlinearities. Two methods for detection are compared, the homogeneity method and a Hilbert transform based method. Based on these two methods, a nonlinearity index is suggested. Through simulations and laboratory experiments...

  14. Bäcklund Transformation of Fractional Riccati Equation and Infinite Sequence Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional PDEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation with nonlinear superposition principle of solutions is employed to establish the infinite sequence solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. To illustrate the reliability of the method, some examples are provided.

  15. The fractional complex transformation for nonlinear fractional partial differential equations in the mathematical physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed M.E. Zayed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the modified extended tanh-function method is employed to solve fractional partial differential equations in the sense of the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. Based on a nonlinear fractional complex transformation, certain fractional partial differential equations can be turned into nonlinear ordinary differential equations of integer orders. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to four nonlinear equations namely, the space–time fractional generalized nonlinear Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV equations, the space–time fractional nonlinear Whitham–Broer–Kaup equations, the space–time fractional nonlinear coupled Burgers equations and the space–time fractional nonlinear coupled mKdV equations.

  16. Investigation into image quality difference between total variation and nonlinear sparsifying transform based compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is attracting growing concerns in sparse-view computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction. The most standard approach of CS is total variation (TV) minimization. However, images reconstructed by TV usually suffer from distortions, especially in reconstruction of practical CT images, in forms of patchy artifacts, improper serrate edges and loss of image textures. Most existing CS approaches including TV achieve image quality improvement by applying linear transforms to object image, but linear transforms usually fail to take discontinuities into account, such as edges and image textures, which is considered to be the key reason for image distortions. Actually, discussions on nonlinear filter based image processing has a long history, leading us to clarify that the nonlinear filters yield better results compared to linear filters in image processing task such as denoising. Median root prior was first utilized by Alenius as nonlinear transform in CT image reconstruction, with significant gains obtained. Subsequently, Zhang developed the application of nonlocal means-based CS. A fact is gradually becoming clear that the nonlinear transform based CS has superiority in improving image quality compared with the linear transform based CS. However, it has not been clearly concluded in any previous paper within the scope of our knowledge. In this work, we investigated the image quality differences between the conventional TV minimization and nonlinear sparsifying transform based CS, as well as image quality differences among different nonlinear sparisying transform based CSs in sparse-view CT image reconstruction. Additionally, we accelerated the implementation of nonlinear sparsifying transform based CS algorithm.

  17. Extended Mapping Transformation Method and Its Applications to Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation(s)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the mapping transformation method through introducing variable coefficients.By means of the extended mapping transformation method, many explicit and exact general solutions with arbitrary functions for some nonlinear partial differential equations, which contain solitary wave solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions, are obtained.

  18. Nonlinear model of a distribution transformer appropriate for evaluating the effects of unbalanced loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Matej; Štumberger, Gorazd; Štumberger, Bojan; Dolinar, Drago

    Power packages for calculation of power system transients are often used when studying and designing electromagnetic power systems. An accurate model of a distribution transformer is needed in order to obtain realistic values from these calculations. This transformer model must be derived in such a way that it is applicable when calculating those operating conditions appearing in practice. Operation conditions where transformers are loaded with nonlinear and unbalanced loads are especially challenging. The purpose of this work is to derive a three-phase transformer model that is appropriate for evaluating the effects of nonlinear and unbalanced loads. A lumped parameter model instead of a finite element (FE) model is considered in order to ensure that the model can be used in power packages for the calculation of power system transients. The transformer model is obtained by coupling electric and magnetic equivalent circuits. The magnetic equivalent circuit contains only three nonlinear reluctances, which represent nonlinear behaviour of the transformer. They are calculated by the inverse Jiles-Atherton (J-A) hysteresis model, while parameters of hysteresis are identified using differential evolution (DE). This considerably improves the accuracy of the derived transformer model. Although the obtained transformer model is simple, the simulation results show good agreement between measured and calculated results.

  19. Solution of (3+1-Dimensional Nonlinear Cubic Schrodinger Equation by Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Zedan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four-dimensional differential transform method has been introduced and fundamental theorems have been defined for the first time. Moreover, as an application of four-dimensional differential transform, exact solutions of nonlinear system of partial differential equations have been investigated. The results of the present method are compared very well with analytical solution of the system. Differential transform method can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and reduces the size of computational work. With this method, exact solutions may be obtained without any need of cumbersome work, and it is a useful tool for analytical and numerical solutions.

  20. Fast Inverse Nonlinear Fourier Transforms for Fiber Bragg Grating Design and Related Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander

    2016-01-01

    The problem of constructing a fiber Bragg grating profile numerically such that the reflection coefficient of the grating matches a given specification is considered. The well-known analytic solution to this problem is given by a suitable inverse nonlinear Fourier transform (also known as inverse scattering transform) of the specificed reflection coefficient. Many different algorithms have been proposed to compute this inverse nonlinear Fourier transform numerically. The most efficient ones require $\\mathcal{O}(D^{2})$ floating point operations (flops) to generate $D$ samples of the grating profile. In this paper, two new fast inverse nonlinear Fourier transform algorithms that require only $\\mathcal{O}(D\\log^{2}D)$ flops are proposed. The merits of our algorithms are demonstrated in numerical examples, in which they are compared to a conventional layer peeling method, the Toeplitz inner bordering method and integral layer peeling. One of our two algorithms also extends to the design problem for fiber-assiste...

  1. Observability analysis of nonlinear systems using pseudo-linear transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In the linear control theory, the observability Popov-Belevitch-Hautus (PBH) test plays an important role in studying observability along with the observability rank condition and observability Gramian. The observability rank condition and observability Gramian have been extended to nonlinear system

  2. Loss of canonical Smad4 signaling promotes KRAS driven malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Leung

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in North America. Activating KRAS mutations and Smad4 loss occur in approximately 90% and 55% of PDAC, respectively. While their roles in the early stages of PDAC development have been confirmed in genetically modified mouse models, their roles in the multistep malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct cells have not been directly demonstrated. Here, we report that Smad4 represents a barrier in KRAS-mediated malignant transformation of the near normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE cell line model. Marked Smad4 downregulation by shRNA in KRAS (G12V expressing HPDE cells failed to cause tumorigenic transformation. However, KRAS-mediated malignant transformation occurred in a new HPDE-TGF-β resistant (TβR cell line that completely lacks Smad4 protein expression and is resistant to the mito-inhibitory activity of TGF-β. This transformation resulted in tumor formation and development of metastatic phenotype when the cells were implanted orthotopically into the mouse pancreas. Smad4 restoration re-established TGF-β sensitivity, markedly increased tumor latency by promoting apoptosis, and decreased metastatic potential. These results directly establish the critical combination of the KRAS oncogene and complete Smad4 inactivation in the multi-stage malignant transformation and metastatic progression of normal human HPDE cells.

  3. Direct Forecasting of Subsurface Flow Response from Non-Linear Dynamic Data By Linear Least-Squares in Canonical Functional Principal Component Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, A.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogeological forecasting problems, like many subsurface forecasting problems, often suffer from the scarcity of reliable data yet complex prior information about the underlying earth system. Assimilating and integrating this information into an earth model requires using iterative parameter space exploration techniques or Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques. Since such an earth model needs to account for many large and small scale features of the underlying system, as the system gets larger, iterative modeling can become computationally prohibitive, in particular when the forward model would allow for only a few hundred model evaluations. In addition, most modeling methods do not include the purpose for which inverse method are built, namely, the actual forecast and usually focus only on data and model. In this study, we present a technique to extract features of the earth system informed by time-varying dynamic data (data features) and those that inform a time-varying forecasting variable (forecast features) using Functional Principal Component Analysis. Canonical Coefficient Analysis is then used to examine the relationship between these features using a linear model. When this relationship suggests that the available data informs the required forecast, a simple linear regression can be used on the linear model to directly estimate the posterior of the forecasting problem, without any iterative inversion of model parameters. This idea and method is illustrated using an example of contaminant flow in an aquifer with complex prior, large dimension and non-linear flow & transport model.

  4. Fragmentation, fluidity, and transformation: nonlinear development in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rona

    2011-01-01

    The results of a small group of children studied through ages six through eleven suggest that latency is no longer an accurate term to describe middle childhood and preadolescence. This longitudinal research suggests a more nonlinear process than has previously been documented in psychoanalytic research and supports a dynamic systems approach to development. Self structures break down and remain in an ongoing state of non-linear development. Without stable structural organization, sexual and aggressive thoughts and feelings are less contained and less differentiated throughout this period of development. Gender role identity is in a continuous state of fluidity during middle childhood. While both boys and girls experience gender role fluidity, the meaning of male and female gender identifications and the expression of sexual and aggressive feelings differ for boys and girls.

  5. Inverse scattering transform for the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonvanishing boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Jun; Lam, Wa Kun

    2004-06-01

    An inverse scattering transform for the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonvanishing boundary conditions is derived by introducing an affine parameter to avoid constructing Riemann sheets. A one-soliton solution simpler than that in the literature is obtained, which is a breather and degenerates to a bright or dark soliton as the discrete eigenvalue becomes purely imaginary. The solution is mapped to that of the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation by a gaugelike transformation, predicting some sub-picosecond solitons in optical fibers.

  6. Solution of Excited Non-Linear Oscillators under Damping Effects Using the Modified Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Abdelhafez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified differential transform method (MDTM, Laplace transform and Padé approximants are used to investigate a semi-analytic form of solutions of nonlinear oscillators in a large time domain. Forced Duffing and forced van der Pol oscillators under damping effect are studied to investigate semi-analytic forms of solutions. Moreover, solutions of the suggested nonlinear oscillators are obtained using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method. A comparison of the result by the numerical Runge-Kutta fourth-order accuracy method is compared with the result by the MDTM and plotted in a long time domain.

  7. Medical Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Nonlinear Approximation of Contourlet Transform and Regional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the pros and cons of contourlet transform and multimodality medical imaging, here we propose a novel image fusion algorithm that combines nonlinear approximation of contourlet transform with image regional features. The most important coefficient bands of the contourlet sparse matrix are retained by nonlinear approximation. Low-frequency and high-frequency regional features are also elaborated to fuse medical images. The results strongly suggested that the proposed algorithm could improve the visual effects of medical image fusion and image quality, image denoising, and enhancement.

  8. Effect of Multipoint Heterogeneity on Nonlinear Transformations for Geological Modeling: Porosity-Permeability Relations Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J A Vargas-Guzmán

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of statistical expected values for transformations is performed in this study to quantify the effect of heterogeneity on spatial geological modeling and evaluations. Algebraic transformations are frequently applied to data from logging to allow for the modeling of geological properties. Transformations may be powers, products, and exponential operations which are commonly used in well-known relations (e.g., porosity-permeability transforms). The results of this study show that correct computations must account for residual transformation terms which arise due to lack of independence among heterogeneous geological properties. In the case of an exponential porosity-permeability transform, the values may be positive. This proves that a simple exponential model back-transformed from linear regression underestimates permeability. In the case of transformations involving two or more properties, residual terms may represent the contribution of heterogeneous components which occur when properties vary together, regardless of a pair-wise linear independence. A consequence of power- and product-transform models is that regression equationswithin those transformations need corrections via residual cumulants. A generalization of this result isthat transformations of multivariate spatial attributes require multiple-point random variable relations. This analysis provides practical solutions leading to a methodology for nonlinear modeling using correct back transformations in geology.

  9. BCKLUND TRANSFORMATION AND LAX REPRESENTATION FOR A NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the Hirota bilinear method is applied to a nonlinear equation which is a deformation to a KdV equation with a source. Using the Hirota’s bilinear operator, we obtain its bilinear form and construct its bilinear Bcklund transformation. And then we obtain the Lax representation for the equation from the bilinear Bcklund transformation and testify the Lax representation by the compatibility condition.

  10. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-08

    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption.

  11. Fast Inverse Nonlinear Fourier Transform For Generating Multi-Solitons In Optical Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander

    2015-01-01

    The achievable data rates of current fiber-optic wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems are limited by nonlinear interactions between different subchannels. Recently, it was thus proposed to replace the conventional Fourier transform in WDM systems with an appropriately defined nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT). The computational complexity of NFTs is a topic of current research. In this paper, a fast inverse NFT algorithm for the important special case of multi-solitonic signals is presented. The algorithm requires only $\\mathcal{O}(D\\log^{2}D)$ floating point operations to compute $D$ samples of a multi-soliton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm for this problem with $\\log^{2}$-linear complexity. The paper also includes a many samples analysis of the generated nonlinear Fourier spectra.

  12. Canonical Typicality

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that a system, S, weakly coupled to a heat bath, B, is described by the canonical ensemble when the composite, S+B, is described by the microcanonical ensemble corresponding to a suitable energy shell. This is true both for classical distributions on the phase space and for quantum density matrices. Here we show that a much stronger statement holds for quantum systems. Even if the state of the composite corresponds to a single wave function rather than a mixture, the reduced ...

  13. Capacity estimates for optical transmission based on the nonlinear Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A.; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-09-01

    What is the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted error-free in fibre-optic communication systems? For linear channels, this was established in classic works of Nyquist and Shannon. However, despite the immense practical importance of fibre-optic communications providing for >99% of global data traffic, the channel capacity of optical links remains unknown due to the complexity introduced by fibre nonlinearity. Recently, there has been a flurry of studies examining an expected cap that nonlinearity puts on the information-carrying capacity of fibre-optic systems. Mastering the nonlinear channels requires paradigm shift from current modulation, coding and transmission techniques originally developed for linear communication systems. Here we demonstrate that using the integrability of the master model and the nonlinear Fourier transform, the lower bound on the capacity per symbol can be estimated as 10.7 bits per symbol with 500 GHz bandwidth over 2,000 km.

  14. Harmonic Domain Modelling of Transformer Core Nonlinearities Using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Wiechowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the results of implementation and verification of an already existing algorithm that allows for calculating saturation characteristics of singlephase power transformers. The algorithm was described for the first time in 1993. Now this algorithm has been implemented using...... the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) as an external script in the harmonic domain calculations of a power system analysis tool PowerFactory [10]. The algorithm is verified by harmonic measurements on a single-phase power transformer. A theoretical analysis of the core nonlinearities phenomena...... in single and three-phase transformers is also presented. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the method can be applied for modelling nonlinearities of three-phase autotransformers....

  15. A non-linear discrete transform for pattern recognition of discrete chaotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karanikas, C

    2003-01-01

    It is shown, by an invertible non-linear discrete transform that any finite sequence or any collection of strings of any length can be presented as a random walk on trees. These transforms create the mathematical background for coding any information, for exploring its local variability and diversity. With the underlying computational algorithms, with several examples and applications we propose that these transforms can be used for pattern recognition of immune type. In other words we propose a mathematical platform for detecting self and non-self strings of any alphabet, based on a negative selection algorithms, for scouting data's periodicity and self-similarity and for measuring the diversity of chaotic strings with fractal dimension methods. In particular we estimate successfully the entropy and the ratio of chaotic data with self similarity. Moreover we give some applications of a non-linear denoising filter.

  16. Non-linear gauge transformations in $D=10$ SYM theory and the BCJ duality

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seungjin; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress on scattering amplitudes in super Yang--Mills and superstring theory benefitted from the use of multiparticle superfields. They universally capture tree-level subdiagrams, and their generating series solve the non-linear equations of ten-dimensional super Yang--Mills. We provide simplified recursions for multiparticle superfields and relate them to earlier representations through non-linear gauge transformations of their generating series. In this work we discuss the gauge transformations which enforce their Lie symmetries as suggested by the Bern--Carrasco--Johansson duality between color and kinematics. Another gauge transformation due to Harnad and Shnider is shown to streamline the theta-expansion of multiparticle superfields, bypassing the need to use their recursion relations beyond the lowest components. The findings of this work tremendously simplify the component extraction from kinematic factors in pure spinor superspace.

  17. Representation of nonlinear random transformations by non-gaussian stochastic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Claudio; Crippa, Paolo; Pirani, Massimiliano; Biagetti, Giorgio

    2008-06-01

    The learning capability of neural networks is equivalent to modeling physical events that occur in the real environment. Several early works have demonstrated that neural networks belonging to some classes are universal approximators of input-output deterministic functions. Recent works extend the ability of neural networks in approximating random functions using a class of networks named stochastic neural networks (SNN). In the language of system theory, the approximation of both deterministic and stochastic functions falls within the identification of nonlinear no-memory systems. However, all the results presented so far are restricted to the case of Gaussian stochastic processes (SPs) only, or to linear transformations that guarantee this property. This paper aims at investigating the ability of stochastic neural networks to approximate nonlinear input-output random transformations, thus widening the range of applicability of these networks to nonlinear systems with memory. In particular, this study shows that networks belonging to a class named non-Gaussian stochastic approximate identity neural networks (SAINNs) are capable of approximating the solutions of large classes of nonlinear random ordinary differential transformations. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated and discussed by some application examples.

  18. The Relationship between Tsallis Statistics, the Fourier Transform, and Nonlinear Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kenric P

    2008-01-01

    Tsallis statistics (or q-statistics) in nonextensive statistical mechanics is a one-parameter description of correlated states. In this paper we use a translated entropic index: $1 - q \\to q$ . The essence of this translation is to improve the mathematical symmetry of the q-algebra and make q directly proportional to the nonlinear coupling. A conjugate transformation is defined $\\hat q \\equiv \\frac{{- 2q}}{{2 + q}}$ which provides a dual mapping between the heavy-tail q-Gaussian distributions, whose translated q parameter is between $ - 2 < q < 0$, and the compact-support q-Gaussians, between $0 < q < \\infty $ . This conjugate transformation is used to extend the definition of the q-Fourier transform to the domain of compact support. A conjugate q-Fourier transform is proposed which transforms a q-Gaussian into a conjugate $\\hat q$ -Gaussian, which has the same exponential decay as the Fourier transform of a power-law function. The nonlinear statistical coupling is defined such that the conjugate ...

  19. Local-instantaneous filtering in the integral transform solution of nonlinear diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, E. N.; Cotta, R. M.; Orlande, H. R. B.

    A novel filtering strategy is proposed to be utilized in conjunction with the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), in the solution of nonlinear diffusion problems. The aim is to optimize convergence enhancement, yielding computationally efficient eigenfunction expansions. The proposed filters include space and time dependence, extracted from linearized versions of the original partial differential system. The scheme automatically updates the filter along the time integration march, as the required truncation orders for the user requested accuracy begin to exceed a prescribed maximum system size. A fully nonlinear heat conduction example is selected to illustrate the computational performance of the filtering strategy, against the classical single-filter solution behavior.

  20. Differential transform method for solving linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kanth, A.S.V. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: asvravikanth@yahoo.com; Aruna, K. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-17

    In this Letter, we propose a reliable algorithm to develop exact and approximate solutions for the linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations. The approach rest mainly on two-dimensional differential transform method which is one of the approximate methods. The method can easily be applied to many linear and non-linear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. Exact solutions can also be achieved by the known forms of the series solutions. Several illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method.

  1. An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, H W

    2004-01-01

    Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.

  2. Nonlinear system modeling based on experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAEZ,THOMAS L.; HUNTER,NORMAN F.

    2000-02-02

    The canonical variate analysis technique is used in this investigation, along with a data transformation algorithm, to identify a system in a transform space. The transformation algorithm involves the preprocessing of measured excitation/response data with a zero-memory-nonlinear transform, specifically, the Rosenblatt transform. This transform approximately maps the measured excitation and response data from its own space into the space of uncorrelated, standard normal random variates. Following this transform, it is appropriate to model the excitation/response relation as linear since Gaussian inputs excite Gaussian responses in linear structures. The linear model is identified in the transform space using the canonical variate analysis approach, and system responses in the original space are predicted using inverse Rosenblatt transformation. An example is presented.

  3. Does Nonlinear Modeling Play a Role in Plasmid Bioprocess Monitoring using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta B; Calado, Cecília R C; Figueiredo, Mário A T; Bioucas-Dias, José M

    2016-11-16

    The monitoring of biopharmaceutical products using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy relies on calibration techniques involving the acquisition of spectra of bioprocess samples along the process. The most commonly used method for that purpose is partial least squares (PLS) regression, under the assumption that a linear model is valid. Despite being successful in the presence of small nonlinearities, linear methods may fail in the presence of strong nonlinearities. This paper studies the potential usefulness of nonlinear regression methods for predicting, from in situ near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra acquired in high-throughput mode, biomass and plasmid concentrations in Escherichia coli DH5-α cultures producing the plasmid model pVAX-LacZ. The linear methods PLS and ridge regression (RR) are compared with their kernel (nonlinear) versions, kPLS and kRR, as well as with the (also nonlinear) relevance vector machine (RVM) and Gaussian process regression (GPR). For the systems studied, RR provided better predictive performances compared to the remaining methods. Moreover, the results point to further investigation based on larger data sets whenever differences in predictive accuracy between a linear method and its kernelized version could not be found. The use of nonlinear methods, however, shall be judged regarding the additional computational cost required to tune their additional parameters, especially when the less computationally demanding linear methods herein studied are able to successfully monitor the variables under study.

  4. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Anno, F; Illuminati, F; Anno, Fabio Dell'; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixings of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems; and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local oscillator angle allows to vary at will the statist...

  5. The unified transform for linear, linearizable and integrable nonlinear partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, A. S.; De Lillo, S.

    2014-03-01

    So-called inverse scattering provides a powerful method for analyzing the initial value problem for a large class of nonlinear evolution partial differential equations which are called integrable. In the late 1990s, the first author, motivated by inverse scattering, introduced a new method for analyzing boundary value problems. This method provides a unified treatment for linear, linearizable and integrable nonlinear partial differential equations. Here, this method, which is often referred to as the unified transform, is illustrated for the following concrete cases: the heat equation on the half-line; the nonlinear Schrödinger equation on the half-line; Burger's equation on the half-line; and Burger's equation on a moving boundary.

  6. Backlund Transformation and Similarity Reductions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations Using Extended Homogeneous Balance Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN En-Gui

    2001-01-01

    Two new applications of homogeneous balance (HB) method are presented.It is shown that HB methodcan be extended to search for the Backlund transformations and similarity reductions of nonlinear partial differentialequations.The close relations among the HB method,Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale method and Clarkson-Kruskal directreduction method are also found.KdV-MKdV equation is considered as an illustrative example,and its one kind of Backlund transformation,three kinds of similarity reductions and several kinds of travelling wave solutions are obtained by using extended HB method.

  7. A non-linear frequency transform and its application to speaker recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yibiao; YUAN Dongmei; XUE Feng

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyzing contribution of short-time spectrum in different frequency sub-bands to speaker recognition and using of polynomial curve matching techniques, a non-linear frequency transform and feature detection algorithm are proposed to highlight the speaker's individuality in short-time spectrum of speech. The experimental results show that the perfor-mance of speaker recognition system is improved effectively, the average error rate of recognition relatively falls about 70.5%, 60.8% and 70.5% in comparison with classical frequency transform of Mel, Bark and ERB (Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidth) respectively.

  8. Adaptive Neuron Model: An architecture for the rapid learning of nonlinear topological transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for the rapid learning of nonlinear mappings and topological transformations using a dynamically reconfigurable artificial neural network is presented. This fully-recurrent Adaptive Neuron Model (ANM) network was applied to the highly degenerate inverse kinematics problem in robotics, and its performance evaluation is bench-marked. Once trained, the resulting neuromorphic architecture was implemented in custom analog neural network hardware and the parameters capturing the functional transformation downloaded onto the system. This neuroprocessor, capable of 10(exp 9) ops/sec, was interfaced directly to a three degree of freedom Heathkit robotic manipulator. Calculation of the hardware feed-forward pass for this mapping was benchmarked at approximately 10 microsec.

  9. Coupled Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equations and the Miura Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Yan; ZHU Jun-Yi

    2011-01-01

    @@ A wide class of coupled nonlinear Schr?dinger(NLS)equations are derived by virtue of the dressing method,and the associated parametric solutions are discussed.As an illustration,the explicit solution of the coupled NLS-type equation associated with σ1 is given.The Miura transformation for a AKNS-type hierarchy is established,from which a modified coupled NLS-type equation is shown to be equivalent to the Heisenberg spin equation.%A wide class of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equations are derived by virtue of the dressing method, and the associated parametric solutions are discussed. As an illustration, the explicit solution of the coupled NLS-type equation associated with O\\ is given. The Miura transformation for a AKNS-type hierarchy is established, from which a modified coupled NLS-type equation is shown to be equivalent to the Heisenberg spin equation.

  10. Breather-to-soliton transformation rules in the hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdury, Amdad; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2017-06-01

    We study the exact first-order soliton and breather solutions of the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equations hierarchy up to fifth order. We reveal the underlying physical mechanism which transforms a breather into a soliton. Furthermore, we show how the dynamics of the Akhmediev breathers which exist on a constant background as a result of modulation instability, is connected with solitons on a zero background. We also demonstrate that, while a first-order rogue wave can be directly transformed into a soliton, higher-order rogue wave solutions become rational two-soliton solutions with complex collisional structure on a background. Our results will have practical implications in supercontinuum generation, turbulence, and similar other complex nonlinear scenarios.

  11. Design of time-pulse coded optoelectronic neuronal elements for nonlinear transformation and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Lazareva, Maria V.

    2008-03-01

    In the paper the actuality of neurophysiologically motivated neuron arrays with flexibly programmable functions and operations with possibility to select required accuracy and type of nonlinear transformation and learning are shown. We consider neurons design and simulation results of multichannel spatio-time algebraic accumulation - integration of optical signals. Advantages for nonlinear transformation and summation - integration are shown. The offered circuits are simple and can have intellectual properties such as learning and adaptation. The integrator-neuron is based on CMOS current mirrors and comparators. The performance: consumable power - 100...500 μW, signal period- 0.1...1ms, input optical signals power - 0.2...20 μW time delays - less 1μs, the number of optical signals - 2...10, integration time - 10...100 of signal periods, accuracy or integration error - about 1%. Various modifications of the neuron-integrators with improved performance and for different applications are considered in the paper.

  12. Modeling of Propagation and Transformation of Transient Nonlinear Waves on A Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wojciech Sulisz; Maciej Paprota

    2013-01-01

    A novel theoretical approach is applied to predict the propagation and transformation of transient nonlinear waves on a current. The problem was solved by applying an eigenfunction expansion method and the derived semi-analytical solution was employed to study the transformation of wave profile and the evolution of wave spectrum arising from the nonlinear interactions of wave components in a wave train which may lead to the formation of very large waves. The results show that the propagation of wave trains is significantly affected by a current. A relatively small current may substantially affect wave train components and the wave train shape. This is observed for both opposing and following current. The results demonstrate that the application of the nonlinear model has a substantial effect on the shape of a wave spectrum. A train of originally linear and very narrow-banded waves changes its one-peak spectrum to a multi-peak one in a fairly short distance from an initial position. The discrepancies between the wave trains predicted by applying the linear and nonlinear models increase with the increasing wavelength and become significant in shallow water even for waves with low steepness. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a wave flume to verify theoretical results. The free-surface elevations recorded by a system of wave gauges are compared with the results provided by the nonlinear model. Additional verification was achieved by applying a Fourier analysis and comparing wave amplitude spectra obtained from theoretical results with experimental data. A reasonable agreement between theoretical results and experimental data is observed for both amplitudes and phases. The model predicts fairly well multi-peak spectra, including wave spectra with significant nonlinear wave components.

  13. Darboux Transformation for Coupled Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation and Its Breather Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Yu, Fajun; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a 3×3 spectral problem, a Darboux transformation (DT) method for coupled Schrödinger (CNLS) equation is constructed, which is more complex than 2×2 spectral problems. A scheme of soliton solutions of an integrable CNLS system is realised by using DT. Then, we obtain the breather solutions for the integrable CNLS system. The method is also appropriate for more non-linear soliton equations in physics and mathematics.

  14. Canonical Chern-Simons gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Souvik; Vaz, Cenalo

    2017-07-01

    We study the canonical description of the axisymmetric vacuum in 2 +1 -dimensional gravity, treating Einstein's gravity as a Chern-Simons gauge theory on a manifold with the restriction that the dreibein is invertible. Our treatment is in the spirit of Kuchař's description of the Schwarzschild black hole in 3 +1 dimensions, where the mass and angular momentum are expressed in terms of the canonical variables and a series of canonical transformations that turn the curvature coordinates and their conjugate momenta into new canonical variables is performed. In their final form, the constraints are seen to require that the momenta conjugate to the Killing time and curvature radius vanish, and what remains is the mass, the angular momentum, and their conjugate momenta, which we derive. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation is trivial and describes time independent systems with wave functions described only by the total mass and total angular momentum.

  15. Development of Differential Sensitivity for Shape Changes Resulting from Linear and Nonlinear Planar Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A shape bias for extending names to objects that look visually similar has been commonly accepted but it is hard to define which kind of shape dissimilarities are diagnostic for the identity of an object. Here, we present a transformational approach to describe shape differences that can incorporate many significant shape features. We introduce two kinds of transformations: one kind concerns linear transformations of the image plane (affine transformations, generally limiting shape variations within the borders of basic-level categories; the other kind concerns nonlinear continuous transformations of the image plane (topological transformations, allowing all kinds of shape variation crossing and not crossing the borders of basic-level categories. We administered stimulus pairs differing in these shape transformations to children of 3 years to 7 years old in a delayed match-to-sample task. With increasing age, especially between 5 years and 6 years, children became more sensitive to the topological deformations that are relevant for between-category distinctions, indicating that acquired categorical knowledge in early years induces perceptual learning of the relevant generic shape differences between categories.

  16. The Vestibular System Implements a Linear–Nonlinear Transformation In Order to Encode Self-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Corentin; Schneider, Adam D.; Chacron, Maurice J.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well established that the neural code representing the world changes at each stage of a sensory pathway, the transformations that mediate these changes are not well understood. Here we show that self-motion (i.e. vestibular) sensory information encoded by VIIIth nerve afferents is integrated nonlinearly by post-synaptic central vestibular neurons. This response nonlinearity was characterized by a strong (∼50%) attenuation in neuronal sensitivity to low frequency stimuli when presented concurrently with high frequency stimuli. Using computational methods, we further demonstrate that a static boosting nonlinearity in the input-output relationship of central vestibular neurons accounts for this unexpected result. Specifically, when low and high frequency stimuli are presented concurrently, this boosting nonlinearity causes an intensity-dependent bias in the output firing rate, thereby attenuating neuronal sensitivities. We suggest that nonlinear integration of afferent input extends the coding range of central vestibular neurons and enables them to better extract the high frequency features of self-motion when embedded with low frequency motion during natural movements. These findings challenge the traditional notion that the vestibular system uses a linear rate code to transmit information and have important consequences for understanding how the representation of sensory information changes across sensory pathways. PMID:22911113

  17. The vestibular system implements a linear-nonlinear transformation in order to encode self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Corentin; Schneider, Adam D; Chacron, Maurice J; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well established that the neural code representing the world changes at each stage of a sensory pathway, the transformations that mediate these changes are not well understood. Here we show that self-motion (i.e. vestibular) sensory information encoded by VIIIth nerve afferents is integrated nonlinearly by post-synaptic central vestibular neurons. This response nonlinearity was characterized by a strong (~50%) attenuation in neuronal sensitivity to low frequency stimuli when presented concurrently with high frequency stimuli. Using computational methods, we further demonstrate that a static boosting nonlinearity in the input-output relationship of central vestibular neurons accounts for this unexpected result. Specifically, when low and high frequency stimuli are presented concurrently, this boosting nonlinearity causes an intensity-dependent bias in the output firing rate, thereby attenuating neuronal sensitivities. We suggest that nonlinear integration of afferent input extends the coding range of central vestibular neurons and enables them to better extract the high frequency features of self-motion when embedded with low frequency motion during natural movements. These findings challenge the traditional notion that the vestibular system uses a linear rate code to transmit information and have important consequences for understanding how the representation of sensory information changes across sensory pathways.

  18. The vestibular system implements a linear-nonlinear transformation in order to encode self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corentin Massot

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that the neural code representing the world changes at each stage of a sensory pathway, the transformations that mediate these changes are not well understood. Here we show that self-motion (i.e. vestibular sensory information encoded by VIIIth nerve afferents is integrated nonlinearly by post-synaptic central vestibular neurons. This response nonlinearity was characterized by a strong (~50% attenuation in neuronal sensitivity to low frequency stimuli when presented concurrently with high frequency stimuli. Using computational methods, we further demonstrate that a static boosting nonlinearity in the input-output relationship of central vestibular neurons accounts for this unexpected result. Specifically, when low and high frequency stimuli are presented concurrently, this boosting nonlinearity causes an intensity-dependent bias in the output firing rate, thereby attenuating neuronal sensitivities. We suggest that nonlinear integration of afferent input extends the coding range of central vestibular neurons and enables them to better extract the high frequency features of self-motion when embedded with low frequency motion during natural movements. These findings challenge the traditional notion that the vestibular system uses a linear rate code to transmit information and have important consequences for understanding how the representation of sensory information changes across sensory pathways.

  19. Short-time Lv transform and its application for non-linear FM signal detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Luo; Xiumei Li; Guoan Bi

    2015-01-01

    A new time-frequency transform, known as short-time Lv transform (STLVT), is proposed by applying the inverse Lv dis-tribution to process consecutive segments of long data sequence. Compared with other time-frequency representations, the STLVT is able to achieve better energy concentration in the time-frequency domain for signals containing multiple linear and/or non-linear frequency modulated components. The merits of the STLVT are demonstrated in terms of the effects of window length and overlap length between adjacent segments on signal energy concentra-tion in the time-frequency domain, and the required computational complexity. An application on the spectrum sensing for cognitive ratio (CR) by using a joint use of the STLVT and Hough transform (HT) is proposed and simulated.

  20. Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation and its applications to nonlinear fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin

    2012-06-01

    In this Letter, the fractional derivatives in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and the Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation are employed for constructing the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The power of this manageable method is presented by applying it to several examples. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  1. The canonical form of the Rabi hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Szopa, M; Ceulemans, A; Szopa, Marek; Mys, Geert; Ceulemans, Arnout

    1996-01-01

    The Rabi Hamiltonian, describing the coupling of a two-level system to a single quantized boson mode, is studied in the Bargmann-Fock representation. The corresponding system of differential equations is transformed into a canonical form in which all regular singularities between zero and infinity have been removed. The canonical or Birkhoff-transformed equations give rise to a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem, involving the energy and a transformational parameter which affects the coupling strength. The known isolated exact solutions of the Rabi Hamiltonian are found to correspond to the uncoupled form of the canonical system.

  2. Analytical solutions of a generalized Duffing-harmonic oscillator by a nonlinear time transformation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailing [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Department of Mathematics, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chung, Kwok-wai, E-mail: makchung@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mathematics, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-02-27

    The analytical solutions of nonlinear oscillators obtained from most perturbation or approximate methods usually have poor accuracy near homoclinic/heteroclinic (HH) orbits. In this Letter, we propose a nonlinear time transformation method to overcome such difficulty. In particular, we apply such method with Padé approximation to find analytical solutions of a generalized Duffing-harmonic oscillator having a rational form for the potential energy. For some parametric ranges, HH orbits exist in such an oscillator. For analytical approximation of periodic solution obtained from the present method, it is shown that the relative error of period with respect to the exact period tends to zero when the amplitude of periodic solution tends to either zero or infinity. The relative error is still very small even near to HH orbits. Furthermore, analytical approximate of HH orbits can also be obtained. From the illustrative examples, the phase portraits are in excellent agreement with the exact HH orbits. The results from the present method are compared with the exact solutions and that from the cubication method. -- Highlights: ► A nonlinear transformation is proposed for a generalized Duffing-harmonic oscillator. ► The relative error of period with respect to the exact one is always very small. ► Approximate solution of homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits can be obtained. ► Phase portraits are in excellent agreement even at homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits.

  3. Girsanov's transformation based variance reduced Monte Carlo simulation schemes for reliability estimation in nonlinear stochastic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjilal, Oindrila; Manohar, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    The study considers the problem of simulation based time variant reliability analysis of nonlinear randomly excited dynamical systems. Attention is focused on importance sampling strategies based on the application of Girsanov's transformation method. Controls which minimize the distance function, as in the first order reliability method (FORM), are shown to minimize a bound on the sampling variance of the estimator for the probability of failure. Two schemes based on the application of calculus of variations for selecting control signals are proposed: the first obtains the control force as the solution of a two-point nonlinear boundary value problem, and, the second explores the application of the Volterra series in characterizing the controls. The relative merits of these schemes, vis-à-vis the method based on ideas from the FORM, are discussed. Illustrative examples, involving archetypal single degree of freedom (dof) nonlinear oscillators, and a multi-degree of freedom nonlinear dynamical system, are presented. The credentials of the proposed procedures are established by comparing the solutions with pertinent results from direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Laboratory Study of the Nonlinear Transformation of Irregular Waves over A Mild Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于博; 马玉祥; 马小舟; 董国海

    2014-01-01

    This-paper-considers-the-nonlinear-transformation-of-irregular-waves-propagating-over-a-mild-slope-(1꞉40).-Two-cases-of-irregular-waves,-which-are-mechanically-generated-based-on-JONSWAP-spectra,-are-used-for-this-purpose.-The-results-indicate-that-the-wave-heights-obey-the-Rayleigh-distribution-at-the-offshore-location;however,-in-the-shoaling-region,-the-heights-of-the-largest-waves-are-underestimated-by-the-theoretical-distributions.-In-the-surf-zone,-the-wave-heights-can-be-approximated-by-the-composite-Weibull-distribution.-In-addition,-the-nonlinear-phase-coupling-within-the-irregular-waves-is-investigated-by-the-wavelet-based-bicoherence.-The-bicoherence-spectra-reflect-that-the-number-of-frequency-modes-participating-in-the-phase-coupling-increases-with-the-decreasing-water-depth,-as-does-the-degree-of-phase-coupling.-After-the-incipient-breaking,-even-though-the-degree-of-phase-coupling-decreases,-a-great-number-of-higher-harmonic-wave-modes-are-also-involved-in-nonlinear-interactions.-Moreover,-the-summed-bicoherence-indicates-that-the-frequency-mode-related-to-the-strongest-local-nonlinear-interactions-shifts-to-higher-harmonics-with-the-decreasing-water-depth.

  5. Blind Identification of SIMO Wiener Systems Based on Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Steven; Via, Javier; Santamaria, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    We consider the problem of blind identification and equalization of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) nonlinear channels. Specifically, the nonlinear model consists of multiple single-channel Wiener systems that are excited by a common input signal. The proposed approach is based on a well-known blind identification technique for linear SIMO systems. By transforming the output signals into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), a linear identification problem is obtained, which we propose to solve through an iterative procedure that alternates between canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to estimate the linear parts, and kernel canonical correlation (KCCA) to estimate the memoryless nonlinearities. The proposed algorithm is able to operate on systems with as few as two output channels, on relatively small data sets and on colored signals. Simulations are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  6. Two-parameter non-linear spacetime perturbations gauge transformations and gauge invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, M; Sopuerta, C F; Bruni, Marco; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2003-01-01

    An implicit fundamental assumption in relativistic perturbation theory is that there exists a parametric family of spacetimes that can be Taylor expanded around a background. The choice of the latter is crucial to obtain a manageable theory, so that it is sometime convenient to construct a perturbative formalism based on two (or more) parameters. The study of perturbations of rotating stars is a good example: in this case one can treat the stationary axisymmetric star using a slow rotation approximation (expansion in the angular velocity Omega), so that the background is spherical. Generic perturbations of the rotating star (say parametrized by lambda) are then built on top of the axisymmetric perturbations in Omega. Clearly, any interesting physics requires non-linear perturbations, as at least terms lambda Omega need to be considered. In this paper we analyse the gauge dependence of non-linear perturbations depending on two parameters, derive explicit higher order gauge transformation rules, and define gaug...

  7. Homotopy Perturbation Transform Method with He's Polynomial for Solution of Coupled Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinkar; Singh, Prince; Chauhan, Shubha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a combined form of the Laplace transform method with the homotopy perturbation method (HPTM) is applied to solve nonlinear systems of partial differential equations viz. the system of third order KdV Equations and the systems of coupled Burgers' equations in one- and two- dimensions. The nonlinear terms can be easily handled by the use of He's polynomials. The results shows that the HPTM is very efficient, simple and avoids the round-off errors. Four test examples are considered to illustrate the present scheme. Further the results are compared with Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) which shows that this method is a suitable method for solving systems of partial differential equations.

  8. Hardware Implementation of a Genetic Algorithm Based Canonical Singed Digit Multiplierless Fast Fourier Transform Processor for Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Ultra Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Benhamid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ultra Wide Band (UWB technology has attracted many researchers' attention due to its advantages and its great potential for future applications. The physical layer standard of Multi-band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM UWB system is defined by ECMA International. In this standard, the data sampling rate from the analog-to-digital converter to the physical layer is up to 528 M sample sec-1. Therefore, it is a challenge to realize the physical layer especially the components with high computational complexity in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI implementation. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT block which plays an important role in MB-OFDM system is one of these components. Furthermore, the execution time of this module is only 312.5 ns. Therefore, if employing the traditional approach, high power consumption and hardware cost of the processor will be needed to meet the strict specifications of the UWB system. The objective of this study was to design an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC FFT processor for this system. The specification was defined from the system analysis and literature research. Approach: Based on the algorithm and architecture analysis, a novel Genetic Algorithm (GA based Canonical Signed Digit (CSD Multiplier less 128-point FFT processor and its inverse (IFFT for MB-OFDM UWB systems had been proposed. The proposed pipelined architecture was based on the modified Radix-22 algorithm that had same number of multipliers as that of the conventional Radix-22. However, the multiplication complexity and the ROM memory needed for storing twiddle factors coefficients could be eliminated by replacing the conventional complex multipliers with a newly proposed GA optimized CSD constant multipliers. The design had been coded in Verilog HDL and targeted Xilinx Virtex-II FPGA series. It was fully implemented and tested on real hardware using Virtex-II FG456 prototype board and logic analyzer

  9. On Multi-Laplace Transform for Solving Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations with Mixed Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach is proposed to deal with a class of nonlinear partial equations including integer and noninteger order derivative. This class of equations cannot be handled with any other commonly used analytical technique. The proposed method is based on the multi-Laplace transform. We solved as an example some complicated equations. Three illustrative examples are presented to confirm the applicability of the proposed method. We have presented in detail the stability, the convergence and the uniqueness analysis of some examples.

  10. Nonlinear structure analysis of carbon and energy markets with MFDCCA based on maximum overlap wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear structure between carbon and energy markets by employing the maximum overlap wavelet transform (MODWT) as well as the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis based on maximum overlap wavelet transform (MFDCCA-MODWT). Based on the MODWT multiresolution analysis and the statistic Qcc(m) significance, relatively significant cross-correlations are obtained between carbon and energy future markets either on different time scales or on the whole. The result of the Granger causality test indicates bidirectional Granger causality between carbon and electricity future markets, although the Granger causality relationship between the carbon and oil price is not evident. The existence of multifractality for the returns between carbon and energy markets is proven with the MFDCCA-MODWT algorithm. In addition, results of investigating the origin of multifractality demonstrate that both long-range correlations and fat-tailed distributions play important roles in the contributions of multifractality.

  11. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n -mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [ F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004) ], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.

  12. Optimizing BAO measurements with non-linear transformations of Lyman-alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xinkang; Seljak, Uros

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effect of applying a non-linear transformation to the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest transmitted flux $F=e^{-\\tau}$ and the ability of analytic models to predict the resulting clustering amplitude. Both the large-scale bias of the transformed field (signal) and the amplitude of small scale fluctuations (noise) can be arbitrarily modified, but we were unable to find a transformation that increases significantly the signal-to-noise ratio on large scales using Taylor expansion up to third order. We achieve a 33% improvement in signal to noise for Gaussianized field in transverse direction. On the other hand, we explore analytic model for the large-scale biasing of the Ly$\\alpha$ forest, and present an extension of this model to describe the biasing of the transformed fields. Using hydrodynamic simulations we show that the model works best to describe the biasing with respect to velocity gradients, but is less successful in predicting the biasing with respect to large-scale density fluctuations, especially ...

  13. Analysis of Radiative Radial Fin with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity Using Nonlinear Differential Transformation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiative radial fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is analyzed. The calculations are carried out by using differential transformation method (DTM, which is a seminumerical-analytical solution technique that can be applied to various types of differential equations, as well as the Boubaker polynomials expansion scheme (BPES. By using DTM, the nonlinear constrained governing equations are reduced to recurrence relations and related boundary conditions are transformed into a set of algebraic equations. The principle of differential transformation is briefly introduced and then applied to the aforementioned equations. Solutions are subsequently obtained by a process of inverse transformation. The current results are then compared with previously obtained results using variational iteration method (VIM, Adomian decomposition method (ADM, homotopy analysis method (HAM, and numerical solution (NS in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The findings reveal that both BPES and DTM can achieve suitable results in predicting the solution of such problems. After these verifications, we analyze fin efficiency and the effects of some physically applicable parameters in this problem such as radiation-conduction fin parameter, radiation sink temperature, heat generation, and thermal conductivity parameters.

  14. Dark-gray soliton transformations: possibility to study microscopic quantum phenomena by nonlinear optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tenorio, C.; Serkin, V. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Peña-Moreno, R.; Morales-Lara, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) model with an external harmonic potential is one of the most important in modern science. This model makes it possible to analyze a variety of nonlinear phenomena, in nonlinear optics and laser physics, biophysics and in the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms. It is shown that the main specific feature of the dynamics of dark GP matter wave solitons in a parabolic trap is the formation of solitons with dynamically changing form-factors producing the periodic variation in the modulation depth (the degree of "blackness") of dark solitons. In general, the period of dark soliton oscillations in trapping potential depends on the specific conditions of the experiment and does not coincide with the oscillation period of a linear quantum-mechanical oscillator. In the case of an immobile pedestal in the trap, the oscillation period of the black soliton considerably increases because of the periodic transformation of the black soliton to the gray one and vice versa. Surprisingly, that if the dark soliton is superimposed on the base pedestal oscillating in the trap and displaced from the trap center, the oscillation period of the dark soliton coincides with the period of oscillations of the linear harmonic oscillator, while the dynamics of the dark soliton is similar to that of a classical particle obeying the Newton mechanics laws.

  15. A Reconfigurable Sound Wave Decomposition Filterbank for Hearing Aids Based on Nonlinear Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoguang; Tian, Lan; Ma, Xiaojie; Wei, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Hearing impaired people have their own hearing loss characteristics and listening preferences. Therefore hearing aid system should become more natural, humanized and personalized, which requires the filterbank in hearing aids provides flexible sound wave decomposition schemes, so that patients are likely to use the most suitable scheme for their own hearing compensation strategy. In this paper, a reconfigurable sound wave decomposition filterbank is proposed. The prototype filter is first cosine modulated to generate uniform subbands. Then by non-linear transformation the uniform subbands are mapped to nonuniform subbands. By changing the control parameters, the nonlinear transformation changes which leads to different subbands allocations. It provides four different sound wave decomposition schemes without changing the structure of the filterbank. The performance of the proposed reconfigurable filterbank was compared with that of fixed filerbanks, fully customizable filterbanks and other existing reconfigurable filterbanks. It is shown that the proposed filterbank provides satisfactory matching performance as well as low complexity and delay, which make it suitable for real hearing aid applications.

  16. When Canonical Quantization Fails, Here is How to Fix It

    OpenAIRE

    Klauder, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Following Dirac, the rules of canonical quantization include classical and quantum contact transformations of classical and quantum phase space variables. While arbitrary classical canonical coordinate transformations exist that is not the case for some analogous quantum canonical coordinate transformations. This failure is due to the rigid connection of quantum variables arising by promoting the corresponding classical variable from a $c$-number to a $q$-number. A different relationship of $...

  17. Applying Differential Transforms and ADER to Multi-Dimensional Atmospheric Transport and Non-Linear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential Transforms (DTs), a core component of so-called "automatic" or "algorithmic" differentiation, offer significant flexibility and efficiency to any numerical method. The i-th and j-th DT, U(i,j), of a function, u(x,y), is simply U(i,j)=1/(i!j!)*∂(i+j)u/∂xi∂yj. Being a term in the Taylor series of u(x,y) makes the reverse transform trivial. This relation also computes initial DTs from known spatial derivatives. What is novel about DTs is how they simplify a complex PDE system, transforming most arithmetic, trigonometric, and other operators into simple recurrence relations in derivative space. This allows one to simply and quickly compute analytical derivatives of highly complex and non-linear functions. Consider a pseudo-conservation law system, u(x)t+f(u,x)x=s(u,x), for instance. The fluxes and source terms could be (and often are) highly complex, non-linear functions of the state vector and independent variables. Regardless of the spatial discretization (variational / finite-element, weak / finite-volume, or strong / finite-difference), one nearly always must resort to tensored quadrature to evaluate face fluxes and body source terms, and this treatment is expensive. However, if one uses DTs to analytically compute spatial derivatives of the flux and source terms, given spatial derivatives of u, then the fluxes and source terms are directly expanded as polynomials, allowing for significantly cheaper, quadrature-free integration, sampling, and differentiation with a single dot product. Besides being simpler, this also allows flexibility for Galerkin methods in particular to analytically and cheaply compute body integrals, which are often approximated inexactly with quadrature. Computing Nth-order DTs in D dimensions is of O(D2*N) complexity, and whether for transport or non-linear compressible Euler equations, they are cheaper to compute and integrate analytically than quadrature. Further, because time-dependent PDE systems relate spatial

  18. A method for detection and characterisation of structural non-linearities using the Hilbert transform and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondra, V.; Sever, I. A.; Schwingshackl, C. W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detection and characterisation of structural non-linearities from a single frequency response function using the Hilbert transform in the frequency domain and artificial neural networks. A frequency response function is described based on its Hilbert transform using several common and newly introduced scalar parameters, termed non-linearity indexes, to create training data of the artificial neural network. This network is subsequently used to detect the existence of non-linearity and classify its type. The theoretical background of the method is given and its usage is demonstrated on different numerical test cases created by single degree of freedom non-linear systems and a lumped parameter multi degree of freedom system with a geometric non-linearity. The method is also applied to several experimentally measured frequency response functions obtained from a cantilever beam with a clearance non-linearity and an under-platform damper experimental rig with a complex friction contact interface. It is shown that the method is a fast and noise-robust means of detecting and characterising non-linear behaviour from a single frequency response function.

  19. Alleviating Border Effects in Wavelet Transforms for Nonlinear Time-varying Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU, H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Border effects are very common in many finite signals analysis and processing approaches using convolution operation. Alleviating the border effects that can occur in the processing of finite-length signals using wavelet transform is considered in this paper. Traditional methods for alleviating the border effects are suitable to compression or coding applications. We propose an algorithm based on Fourier series which is proved to be appropriate to the application of time-frequency analysis of nonlinear signals. Fourier series extension method preserves the time-varying characteristics of the signals. A modified signal duration expression for measuring the extent of border effects region is presented. The proposed algorithm is confirmed to be efficient to alleviate the border effects in comparison to the current methods through the numerical examples.

  20. Statistical selection of multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear dynamic models of spike train transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa H M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2007-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear dynamic model of spike train to spike train transformations was previously formulated for hippocampal-cortical prostheses. This paper further described the statistical methods of selecting significant inputs (self-terms) and interactions between inputs (cross-terms) of this Volterra kernel-based model. In our approach, model structure was determined by progressively adding self-terms and cross-terms using a forward stepwise model selection technique. Model coefficients were then pruned based on Wald test. Results showed that the reduced kernel models, which contained much fewer coefficients than the full Volterra kernel model, gave good fits to the novel data. These models could be used to analyze the functional interactions between neurons during behavior.

  1. An Analog of the Fourier Transform Associated with a Nonlinear One-Dimensional Schroedinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhidkov, E P

    2001-01-01

    We consider an eigenvalue problem which includes a nonlinear Schroedinger equation on the half-line [0,\\infty) and certain boundary conditions. It is shown that the spectrum of this problem fills a half-line and that to each point of the spectrum there corresponds a unique eigenfunction. The main result of the paper is that an arbitrary infinitely differentiable function g(x) rapidly decaying as x\\to\\infty and satisfying suitable boundary conditions at the point x=0 can be uniquely expanded into an integral over eigenfunctions similar to the representation of functions by the Fourier transform (the latter is obviously associated with a linear self-adjoint eigenvalue problem).

  2. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, L.; Rabenstein, R.

    2004-12-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  3. Iterating block spin transformations of the O(3) nonlinear {sigma} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, A.P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Hasenbusch, M. [DAMTP, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW (England); Pinn, K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 9, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    We study the iteration of block spin transformations in the O(3) symmetric nonlinear {sigma} model on a two-dimensional square lattice with the help of the Monte Carlo method. In contrast with the classical Monte Carlo renormalization group approach, we {ital do} attempt to explicitly compute the block spin effective actions. Using two different methods for the determination of effective couplings, we study the renormalization group flow for various parametrization and truncation schemes. The largest ansatz for the effective action contains thirteen coupling constants. Actions on the renormalized trajectory should describe theories with no lattice artifacts, even at a small correlation length. However, tests with the step scaling function of L{umlt u}scher, Weisz, and Wolff reveal that our truncated effective actions show sizable scaling violations indicating that the {ital Ans{umlt a}tze} are still too small. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. A new modification to homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform for solving nonlinear Cauchy reaction diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourazar, S. S.; Nazari-Golshan, A.

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid of Fourier transform and new modified homotopy perturbation method based on the Adomian method is developed to solve linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. The Taylor series expansion is used to expand nonlinear term of partial differential equation and the Adomian polynomial incorporated into homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform, is used to solve partial differential equations. Three case study problems, partial differential equations, are handled using homotopy perturbation method and Fourier transform modified homotopy perturbation method (FTMHPM). Results obtained are compared with exact solution. The comparison reveals that for same components of recursive sequences, errors associated with Fourier transform modified method are much less than the other and are valid for a large range of x-axis coordinates.

  5. [Canon Busting and Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Articles on literary canon include: "Educational Anomie" (Stephen W. White); "Why Western Civilization?" (William J. Bennett); "Peace Plan for Canon Wars" (Gerald Graff, William E. Cain); "Canons, Cultural Literacy, and Core Curriculum" (Lynne V. Cheney); "Canon Busting: Basic Issues" (Stanley…

  6. A Numerical Computation of a System of Linear and Nonlinear Time Dependent Partial Differential Equations Using Reduced Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analytical solution of an initial value system of time dependent linear and nonlinear partial differential equations by implementing reduced differential transform (RDT method. The effectiveness and the convergence of RDT method are tested by means of five test problems, which indicates the validity and great potential of the reduced differential transform method for solving system of partial differential equations.

  7. Auto-Baecklund transformation and exact solutions for modified nonlinear dispersive mK(m,n) equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Yong; Zhang Hong Qin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the idea of homogenous balance method and with the help of Mathematica, we obtain a new auto-Baecklund transformation for modified nonlinear dispersive equation mK(m,n). Then based on the Baecklund transformation, some solitary patterns solution for mK(m,n) equation are derived. In addition, we also obtain the general solutions for mK(n,n) in higher dimensional spatial domains, even in N dimensional space.

  8. Quadrature-dependent Bogoliubov transformations and multiphoton squeezed states

    CERN Document Server

    De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Siena, Silvio De; Lisi, Antonio Di; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a linear, canonical transformation of the fundamental single--mode field operators $a$ and $a^{\\dagger}$ that generalizes the linear Bogoliubov transformation familiar in the construction of the harmonic oscillator squeezed states. This generalization is obtained by adding to the linear transformation a nonlinear function of any of the fundamental quadrature operators $X_{1}$ and $X_{2}$, making the original Bogoliubov transformation quadrature--dependent. Remarkably, the conditions of canonicity do not impose any constraint on the form of the nonlinear function, and lead to a set of nontrivial algebraic relations between the $c$--number coefficients of the transformation. We examine in detail the structure and the properties of the new quantum states defined as eigenvectors of the transformed annihilation operator $b$. These eigenvectors define a class of multiphoton squeezed states. The structure of the uncertainty products and of the quasiprobability distributions in phase space shows that bes...

  9. The allometry of coarse root biomass: log-transformed linear regression or nonlinear regression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshan Lai

    Full Text Available Precise estimation of root biomass is important for understanding carbon stocks and dynamics in forests. Traditionally, biomass estimates are based on allometric scaling relationships between stem diameter and coarse root biomass calculated using linear regression (LR on log-transformed data. Recently, it has been suggested that nonlinear regression (NLR is a preferable fitting method for scaling relationships. But while this claim has been contested on both theoretical and empirical grounds, and statistical methods have been developed to aid in choosing between the two methods in particular cases, few studies have examined the ramifications of erroneously applying NLR. Here, we use direct measurements of 159 trees belonging to three locally dominant species in east China to compare the LR and NLR models of diameter-root biomass allometry. We then contrast model predictions by estimating stand coarse root biomass based on census data from the nearby 24-ha Gutianshan forest plot and by testing the ability of the models to predict known root biomass values measured on multiple tropical species at the Pasoh Forest Reserve in Malaysia. Based on likelihood estimates for model error distributions, as well as the accuracy of extrapolative predictions, we find that LR on log-transformed data is superior to NLR for fitting diameter-root biomass scaling models. More importantly, inappropriately using NLR leads to grossly inaccurate stand biomass estimates, especially for stands dominated by smaller trees.

  10. An improved Γ-Riccati Bäcklund transformation and its applications for the inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger model from plasma physics and nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wei, Guang-Mei

    2012-02-01

    The inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger-type (NLS) model from certain plasmas and optical fibers is investigated with symbolic computation. An improved Γ-Riccati Bäcklund transformation (Γ-R BT) is presented, which can generate successively a hierarchy of solutions through algebraic manipulations. Based on the improved Γ-R BT, the Darboux transformation is obtained, the analytic one/two-soliton-like solutions are presented, and the physical characteristics of the influences of the coefficient parameters on the propagation of the soliton pulses are discussed graphically.

  11. Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation and its applications to nonlinear fractional partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin, E-mail: lubinhb@163.com [School of Mathematical Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2012-06-04

    In this Letter, the fractional derivatives in the sense of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative and the Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation are employed for constructing the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The power of this manageable method is presented by applying it to several examples. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations. -- Highlights: ► Backlund transformation of fractional Riccati equation is presented. ► A new method for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations is proposed. ► Three important fractional differential equations are solved successfully. ► Some new exact solutions of the fractional differential equations are obtained.

  12. Nonlinear behavior analysis of split-winding dry-type transformer using a new star model and a coupled field-circuit approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizian Davood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of short circuit and inrush current simulations in the split-winding transformer, a novel nonlinear equivalent circuit is introduced in this paper for nonlinear simulation of this transformer. The equivalent circuit is extended using the nonlinear inductances. Employing a numerical method, leakage and magnetizing inductances in the split-winding transformer are extracted and the nonlinear model inductances are estimated using these inductances. The introduced model is validated and using this nonlinear model, inrush and short-circuit currents are calculated. It has been seen that the introduced model is valid and suitable for simulations of the split-winding transformer due to various loading conditions. Finally, the effects of nonlinearity of the model inductances are discussed in the following.

  13. Canonical equations of Hamilton with beautiful symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Guo

    2012-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation plays the essential role in constructing the framework of modern physics. In this paper, a new form of canonical equations of Hamilton with the complete symmetry is obtained, which are valid not only for the first-order differential system, but also for the second-order differential system. The conventional form of the canonical equations without the symmetry [Goldstein et al., Classical Mechanics, 3rd ed, Addison-Wesley, 2001] are only for the second-order differential system. It is pointed out for the first time that the number of the canonical equations for the first-order differential system is half of that for the second-order differential system. The nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, a universal first-order differential system, can be expressed with the new canonical equations in a consistent way.

  14. A Non-linear Scaling Algorithm Based on chirp-z Transform for Squint Mode FMCW-SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bin-bin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A non-linear scaling chirp-z imaging algorithm for squint mode Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Synthetic Aperture Radar (FMCW-SAR is presented to solve the problem of the focus accuracy decline. Based on the non-linear characteristics in range direction for the echo signal in Doppler domain, a non-linear modulated signal is introduced to perform a non-linear scaling based on chirp-z transform. Then the error due to range compression and range migration correction can be reduced, therefore the range resolution of radar image is improved. By using the imaging algorithm proposed, the imaging performances for point targets, compared with that from the original chirp-z algorithm, are demonstrated to be improved in range resolution and image contrast, and to be maintained the same in azimuth resolution.

  15. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables is ...... airborne data. The simulation study shows that canonical information analysis is as accurate as and much faster than algorithms presented in previous work, especially for large sample sizes. URL: http://www.imm.dtu.dk/pubdb/p.php?6270...

  16. Criterion of Magnetic Saturation and Simulation of Nonlinear Magnetization for a Linear Multi-core Pulse Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾正中; 蒯斌; 孙凤举; 丛培天; 邱爱慈

    2002-01-01

    The linear multi-core pulse transformer is an important primary driving source usedin pulsed power apparatus for the production of dense plasma owing to its compact, relatively low-cost and easy-to-handle characteristics. The evaluation of the magnetic saturation of the transformer cores is essential to the transformer design, because the energy transfer efficiency of the transformer will degrade significantly after magnetic saturation. This work proposes analytical formulas of the criterion of magnetic saturation for the cores when the transformer drives practical loads. Furthermore, an electric circuit model based on a dependent source treatment for simulating the electric behavior of the cores related to their nonlinear magnetization is developed using the initial magnetization curve of the cores. The numerical simulation with the model is used to evaluate the validity of the criterion. Both the criterion and the model are found to be in agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabenstein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional transformation method (FTM is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  18. Focusing Translational Variant Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Using Keystone Transform and Extended Nonlinear Chirp Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to its unique advantages, such as the ability of forward-looking imaging. In translational variant bistatic forward-looking SAR (TV-BFSAR, it is difficult to get a well focused image due to large range cell migration (RCM and 2-D variation of both Doppler characteristics and RCM. In this paper, an extended azimuth nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS algorithm is proposed to deal with these problems. Firstly, Keystone Transform (KT is introduced to remove the spatial-variant linear RCM, which is of great significance in TV-BFSAR. Secondly, a correction factor is multiplied to the signal in range frequency domain to compensate for the residual RCM. At last, a fourth-order filtering together with azimuth NLCS is performed in every range gate to equalize both the azimuth-variant Doppler centroid and frequency modulation rate based on the azimuth numerical fitting. The proposed method is verified by simulation and real data processing. Multiple targets are generated and focused by the method, of which the peak sidelobe ratio (PSLR is around −13 dB and integrated sidelobe ratio (ISLR is around −10 dB. The method is accurate and can achieve high-resolution focusing for TV-BFSAR data.

  19. Quantum chemical computations and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies of a nonlinear food dye E110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, M; Sekar, N; Jayakumar, V S; Joe, I Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of a well-known food dye sunset yellow FCF (E110) has been recorded and analysed. Assignments of the vibrational spectrum has been facilitated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results of the optimized molecular structure obtained on the basis of B3LYP with 6-31G(d) along with the 'LANL2DZ' basis sets give clear evidence for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and strong hydrogen bonding enhancing the optical nonlinearity of the molecule. The first hyperpolarizability of the acidic monoazo dye 'E110' is computed. Azo stretching frequencies have been lowered due to conjugation and pi-electron delocalization. Hydroxyl vibrations with intramolecular H-bonding are analyzed, supported by the computed results. The natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis confirms this strong hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group and nitrogen of the azo group of the molecule. Assignments of benzene and naphthalene ring vibrations are found to agree well with the theoretical wave numbers.

  20. Model of Three-Limb Three-Phase Transformer Based on Nonlinear Open Circuit Characteristic with Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the realization of a three-phase transformer model based on a non-linear open-circuit characteristic. The proposed model is based on the fact that in case of a star connection with a neutral wire on the primary windings for all three phases, the applied voltage presents phase voltage and line (phase currents are magnetization currents. These variables are available for measuring and it is easy to obtain three non-linear open circuit characteristics. The results of simulations and a comparison with references and experimental results verified this approach.

  1. Stable canonical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iemhoff, R.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Bezhanishvili, Guram

    2016-01-01

    We introduce stable canonical rules and prove that each normal modal multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by stable canonical rules. We apply these results to construct finite refutation patterns for modal formulas, and prove that each normal modal logic is axiomatizable by stable

  2. Auto-Bäcklund Transformations and Exact Solutions for Some Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations with Nonlinear Terms of Any Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Hongqing

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, by introducing some proper transformations, the applied range of the homogenous balance (HB) method is extended. With the help of Mathematica, we obtain three auto-Bäcklund transformations (BT) for the generalized Fithugh-Nagumo equation, the generalized Burgers-Fisher equation, the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation, respectively, by use of the extended HB method. From these BTs, some exact solutions for these equations are derived.

  3. Improving the ensemble transform Kalman filter using a second-order Taylor approximation of the nonlinear observation operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF assimilation scheme has recently seen rapid development and wide application. As a specific implementation of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF, the ETKF is computationally more efficient than the conventional EnKF. However, the current implementation of the ETKF still has some limitations when the observation operator is strongly nonlinear. One problem is that the nonlinear operator and its tangent-linear operator are iteratively calculated in the minimization of a nonlinear objective function similar to 4DVAR, which may be computationally expensive. Another problem is that it uses the tangent-linear approximation of the observation operator to estimate the multiplicative inflation factor of the forecast errors, which may not be sufficiently accurate. This study seeks a way to avoid these problems. First, we apply the second-order Taylor approximation of the nonlinear observation operator to avoid iteratively calculating the operator and its tangent-linear operator. The related computational cost is also discussed. Second, we propose a scheme to estimate the inflation factor when the observation operator is strongly nonlinear. Experimentation with the Lorenz-96 model shows that using the second-order Taylor approximation of the nonlinear observation operator leads to a reduction of the analysis error compared with the traditional linear approximation. Similarly, the proposed inflation scheme leads to a reduction of the analysis error compared with the procedure using the traditional inflation scheme.

  4. Jordan Canonical Form Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2009-01-01

    Jordan Canonical Form (JCF) is one of the most important, and useful, concepts in linear algebra. The JCF of a linear transformation, or of a matrix, encodes all of the structural information about that linear transformation, or matrix. This book is a careful development of JCF. After beginning with background material, we introduce Jordan Canonical Form and related notions: eigenvalues, (generalized) eigenvectors, and the characteristic and minimum polynomials. We decide the question of diagonalizability, and prove the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Then we present a careful and complete proof of t

  5. Nonlinear Effects in Piezoelectric Transformers Explained by Thermal-Electric Model Based on a Hypothesis of Self-Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2012-01-01

    As the trend within power electronic still goes in the direction of higher power density and higher efficiency, it is necessary to develop new topologies and push the limit for the existing technology. Piezoelectric transformers are a fast developing technology to improve efficiency and increase...... power density of power converters. Nonlinearities in piezoelectric transformers occur when the power density is increased enough. The simple linear equations are not valid at this point and more complex theory of electro elasticity must be applied. In This work a simplified thermo-electric model...

  6. Non-Linear N-Parameter Spacetime Perturbations: Gauge Transformations through the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Sopuerta, C F; Gualtieri, L; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Bruni, Marco; Gualtieri, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    We present a new way of deriving gauge transformations in non--linear relativistic perturbation theory. The main ingredient in this formulation is the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. The associated formal machinery allows us to generalize one-parameter perturbation theory to an arbitrary number of parameters, and to prove the main results concerning the consistency of the scheme to any order in the perturbations. Gauge transformations at any required order can then be directly derived from a generating exponential formula via a simple Taylor expansion. We outline the relation between our novel formulation and previous results.

  7. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU Shing-Tung

    2008-01-01

    @@ Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the Coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations. For example, Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds. In order to understand complex manifolds, it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure. In general, we should have a pair (M, ds2M) where ds2M is the metric. The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries. Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  8. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Shing-Tung(Yau; S.-T.)

    2008-01-01

    Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations.For example,Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds.In order to understand complex manifolds,it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure.In general,we should have a pair(M,ds~2_M)where ds~2_M is the metric.The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries.Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  9. Calculations of canonical averages from the grand canonical ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, D S; Gelin, M F; Vdovin, A I

    2008-02-01

    Grand canonical and canonical ensembles become equivalent in the thermodynamic limit, but when the system size is finite the results obtained in the two ensembles deviate from each other. In many important cases, the canonical ensemble provides an appropriate physical description but it is often much easier to perform the calculations in the corresponding grand canonical ensemble. We present a method to compute averages in the canonical ensemble based on calculations of the expectation values in the grand canonical ensemble. The number of particles, which is fixed in the canonical ensemble, is not necessarily the same as the average number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble.

  10. Thermodynamic extension of density-functional theory. I. Canonical Massieu-Planck function, its Legendre and Massieu-Planck transforms for equilibrium state in terms of density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Balawender, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A unified formulation of the equilibrium state of a many-electron system in terms of an ensemble (mixed-state) density matrix, which applies the maximum entropy principle combined with the use of Massieu-Planck function, is presented. The properties of the characteristic functionals for macrocanonical ensemble are established. Their extension to other ensembles is accomplished via a Legendre transform. The relations between equilibrium states defined by a formal mathematical procedure and by criteria adopted for traditional (Gibbs, Helmholtz) potentials are investigated using Massieu-Planck transform. The preeminence of the Massieu-Planck function over the traditional thermodynamic potentials is discussed in detail on an example of their second derivatives. Introduced functions are suitable for application to the extensions of the density functional theory, both at finite and zero temperatures.

  11. A Graphical representation of the grand canonical partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Smii, Boubaker

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider a stochastic partial differential equation defined on a Lattice $L_\\delta$ with coefficients of non-linearity with degree $p$. An analytic solution in the sense of formal power series is given. The obtained series can be re-expressed in terms of rooted trees with two types of leaves. Under the use of the so-called Cole-Hopf transformation and for the particular case $p=2$, one thus get the generalized Burger equation. A graphical representation of the solution and its logarithm is done in this paper. A discussion of the summability of the previous formal solutions is done in this paper using Borel sum. A graphical calculus of the correlation function is given. The special case when the noise is of L\\'evy type gives a simplified representations of the solution of the generalized Burger equation. From the previous results we recall a graphical representation of the grand canonical partition function.

  12. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  13. Canonical transfer and multiscale energetics for primitive and quasi-geostrophic atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, X San

    2016-01-01

    The past years have seen the success of a novel multiscale energetic formalism in a variety of ocean and engineering fluid applications. In a self-contained way, this study introduces it to the atmospheric dynamical diagnostics, with important theoretical updates. Multiscale energy equations are derived using a new analysis apparatus, namely, multiscale window transform, with respect to both the primitive equation and quasi-geostrophic models. A reconstruction of the "atomic" energy fluxes on the multiple scale windows allows for a natural and unique separation of the in-scale transports and cross-scale transfers from the intertwined nonlinear processes. The resulting energy transfers bear a Lie bracket form, reminiscent of the Poisson bracket in Hamiltonian mechanics, we hence would call them "canonical". A canonical transfer process is a mere redistribution of energy among scale windows, without generating or destroying energy as a whole. By classification, a multiscale energetic cycle comprises of availabl...

  14. Comparison differential transformation technique with Adomian decomposition method for linear and nonlinear initial value problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Halim Hassan, I.H. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)], E-mail: ismhalim@hotmail.com

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we will compare the differential transformation method DTM and Adomian decomposition method ADM to solve partial differential equations (PDEs). The definition and operations of differential transform method was introduced by Zhou [Zhou JK. Differential transformation and its application for electrical circuits. Wuuhahn, China: Huarjung University Press; 1986 [in Chinese

  15. Design on Dual-band Impedance Transformer Based on a Variant of Canonical Genetic Algorithm%基于改进遗传算法的双波带阻抗变换器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史玮; 蔡钧

    2014-01-01

    阻抗匹配技术在微波工程中十分重要。提出了一种基于改进遗传算法的双频带阻抗匹配的设计方法,该阻抗变换器能在2个频率点对任意电阻性负载实现理想的阻抗匹配。通过对多节传输线匹配方程的严格解,得到了双频阻抗变换器的精确设计公式,对用该方法设计的阻抗变换器性能进行了仿真分析,结果显示了该方法的有效性,可用于实际的设计。%The impedance matching technique is very important in microwave engineering. This paper proposes a dual-band impedance matching design method based on a variant of canonical Genetic Algorithm. The impedance transformer can realize ideal im-pedance matching in two frequency points in any resistive load. Based on the exact solution of multi-section transmission line matching equation, the precise design formula of dual band impedance transformer is obtained. The simulation analysis on impedance transforma-tion performances designed by the method is implemented, and the results show that the proposed method is effective and can be used in practical design.

  16. Characterization of nonlinear background components in voltammetry by use of large amplitude periodic perturbations and fourier transform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alan M; Duffy, Noel W; Elton, Darrell M; Fleming, Barry D

    2009-11-01

    Under most experimental conditions, a distinctly nonlinear background current is encountered in all forms of voltammetry which arises from the potential dependence of the capacitance. The nonlinear background current has been successfully modeled under large amplitude sinusoidal ac voltammetric conditions with a fourth order polynomial. The model was applied to a dummy cell containing a nonideal ceramic capacitor and commonly used electrodes. The nonlinearity in behavior of the background capacitance is particularly significant when considering the discrimination between the Faradaic and background contributions in the higher order harmonics resolved in ac voltammetry by Fourier transform-inverse Fourier transform approaches and in the simulation of the background current and hence double-layer capacitance as a function of potential. Typically, measurable background current under large amplitude conditions is detectable in the dc and fundamental to fourth harmonic components in large amplitude ac voltammetry. For analytical purposes, this background current can be corrected on a per harmonic basis without the need for any model. Background correction has been successfully applied to the first four harmonics for the oxidation of ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid over the concentration range of 5-500 microM in aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution.

  17. [Canon Busting and Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Articles on literary canon include: "Educational Anomie" (Stephen W. White); "Why Western Civilization?" (William J. Bennett); "Peace Plan for Canon Wars" (Gerald Graff, William E. Cain); "Canons, Cultural Literacy, and Core Curriculum" (Lynne V. Cheney); "Canon Busting: Basic Issues" (Stanley Fish); "A Truce in Curricular Wars" (Chester E. Finn,…

  18. Girsanov's transformation based variance reduced Monte Carlo simulation schemes for reliability estimation in nonlinear stochastic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjilal, Oindrila, E-mail: oindrila@civil.iisc.ernet.in; Manohar, C.S., E-mail: manohar@civil.iisc.ernet.in

    2017-07-15

    The study considers the problem of simulation based time variant reliability analysis of nonlinear randomly excited dynamical systems. Attention is focused on importance sampling strategies based on the application of Girsanov's transformation method. Controls which minimize the distance function, as in the first order reliability method (FORM), are shown to minimize a bound on the sampling variance of the estimator for the probability of failure. Two schemes based on the application of calculus of variations for selecting control signals are proposed: the first obtains the control force as the solution of a two-point nonlinear boundary value problem, and, the second explores the application of the Volterra series in characterizing the controls. The relative merits of these schemes, vis-à-vis the method based on ideas from the FORM, are discussed. Illustrative examples, involving archetypal single degree of freedom (dof) nonlinear oscillators, and a multi-degree of freedom nonlinear dynamical system, are presented. The credentials of the proposed procedures are established by comparing the solutions with pertinent results from direct Monte Carlo simulations. - Highlights: • The distance minimizing control forces minimize a bound on the sampling variance. • Establishing Girsanov controls via solution of a two-point boundary value problem. • Girsanov controls via Volterra's series representation for the transfer functions.

  19. Effect of window function for measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter using fast fourier transform of tone-burst signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Jong Beom; Song, Dong Gil; Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In ultrasonic nonlinear parameter measurement using the fast Fourier transform(FFT) of tone-burst signals, the side lobe and leakage on spectrum because of finite time and non-periodicity of signals makes it difficult to measure the harmonic magnitudes accurately. The window function made it possible to resolve this problem. In this study, the effect of the Hanning and Turkey window functions on the experimental measurement of nonlinear parameters was analyzed. In addition, the effect of changes in tone burst signal number with changes in the window function on the experimental measurement was analyzed. The result for both window functions were similar and showed that they enabled reliable nonlinear parameter measurement. However, in order to restore original signal amplitude, the amplitude compensation coefficient should be considered for each window function. On a separate note, the larger number of tone bursts was advantageous for stable nonlinear parameter measurement, but this effect was more advantageous in the case of the Hanning window than the Tukey window.

  20. Nonlinear Transformation of Orbital Angular Momentum through Quasi-phase Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Guang-hao; Chen, Jin-hui; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2013-01-01

    We propose and investigate the quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear optical frequency conversion of optical vortices in periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes are used to represent the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, characterized with the azimuthal and radial indices. Typical three-wave nonlinear interactions among the involved OAM modes are studied with the help of coupling wave equations. Being different from normal QPM process where the energy and quasi-momentum conservations are satisfied, both of the azimuthal and radial indices of the OAM states keep constant in most of the cases. However, abnormal change of the radial index is observed when there is asynchronous nonlinear conversion in different parts of the beams. The QPM nonlinear evolution of fractional OAM states is also discussed showing some interesting properties. In comparison with the traditional birefringent phase matching (BPM), the QPM technique avoids the undesired walk-off effect to reserve high-qua...

  1. Nonlinear image encryption using a fully phase nonzero-order joint transform correlator in the Gyrator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet

    2017-02-01

    A novel nonlinear image encryption scheme based on a fully phase nonzero-order joint transform correlator architecture (JTC) in the Gyrator domain (GD) is proposed. In this encryption scheme, the two non-overlapping data distributions of the input plane of the JTC are fully encoded in phase and this input plane is transformed using the Gyrator transform (GT); the intensity distribution captured in the GD represents a new definition of the joint Gyrator power distribution (JGPD). The JGPD is modified by two nonlinear operations with the purpose of retrieving the encrypted image, with enhancement of the decrypted signal quality and improvement of the overall security. There are three keys used in the encryption scheme, two random phase masks and the rotation angle of the GT, which are all necessary for a proper decryption. Decryption is highly sensitivity to changes of the rotation angle of the GT as well as to little changes in other parameters or keys. The proposed encryption scheme in the GD still preserves the shift-invariance properties originated in the JTC-based encryption in the Fourier domain. The proposed encryption scheme is more resistant to brute force attacks, chosen-plaintext attacks, known-plaintext attacks, and ciphertext-only attacks, as they have been introduced in the cryptanalysis of the JTC-based encryption system. Numerical results are presented and discussed in order to verify and analyze the feasibility and validity of the novel encryption-decryption scheme.

  2. The Bäcklund Transformations and Abundant Exact Explicit Solutions for a General Nonintegrable Nonlinear Convection-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bäcklund transformations and abundant exact explicit solutions for a class of nonlinear wave equation are obtained by the extended homogeneous balance method. These solutions include the solitary wave solution of rational function, the solitary wave solutions, singular solutions, and the periodic wave solutions of triangle function type. In addition to rederiving some known solutions, some entirely new exact solutions are also established. Explicit and exact particular solutions of many well-known nonlinear evolution equations which are of important physical significance, such as Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation, FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, Burgers-Huxley equation, Chaffee-Infante reaction diffusion equation, Newell-Whitehead equation, Fisher equation, Fisher-Burgers equation, and an isothermal autocatalytic system, are obtained as special cases.

  3. Covariant canonical quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippel, G.M. von [University of Regina, Department of Physics, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Wohlfarth, M.N.R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. This procedure agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and we apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses. Covariant canonical quantization can thus be understood as a ''first'' or pre-quantization within the framework of conventional QFT. (orig.)

  4. Covariant canonical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hippel, G M; Hippel, Georg M. von; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. Covariant canonical quantization agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses.

  5. A Servomechanism Design for Nonlinear Systems with Arbitrary Relative DegreeBy Using Nonlinear Plug-in Adaptive Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohmori, Hiromitsu

    This work considers an adaptive servosystem design for a class of nonlinear systems that can be transformed into a canonical form. Although our proposed compensator is based on nonlinear internal model principle, overall control system structure adopts plug-in manner, i.e. the compensator to achieve tracking and disturbance rejection is placed outside the existed feedback controller. Moreover such compensator can be designed by solving error feedback nonlinear regulation problem and by using recursive procedure. An adaptation mechanism is introduced to cope with the unknown parameters of exosystem.

  6. Linearizability of Nonlinear Third-Order Ordinary Differential Equations by Using a Generalized Linearizing Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Thailert, E.; Suksern, S.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the linearization problem of third-order ordinary differential equation under the generalized linearizing transformation. We identify the form of the linearizable equations and the conditions which allow the third-order ordinary differential equation to be transformed into the simplest linear equation. We also illustrate how to construct the generalized linearizing transformation. Some examples of linearizable equation are provided to demonstrate our procedure.

  7. Heterotrimeric G-protein, Gα16, is a critical downstream effector of non-canonical Wnt signaling and a potent inhibitor of transformed cell growth in non small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Avasarala

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR are the largest family of cell surface molecules that play important role/s in a number of biological and pathological processes including cancers. Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of Wnt7a signaling via its cognate receptor Frizzled9, a GPCR, in inhibition of cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and reversal of transformed phenotype in non small cell lung cancer primarily through activation of the tumor suppressor, PPARγ. However, the G-protein effectors that couple to this important tumor suppressor pathway have not been identified, and are of potential therapeutic interest. In this study, by using two independent Wnt7a/Frizzled9-specific read-outs, we identify Gα16 as a novel downstream effector of Wnt7a/Frizzled9 signaling. Interestingly, Gα16 expression is severely down-regulated, both at the messenger RNA levels and protein levels, in many non small cell lung cancer cell lines. Additionally, through gene-specific knock-downs and expression of GTPase-deficient forms (Q212L of Gα16, we also establish Gα16 as a novel regulator of non small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth. Taken together, our data not only establish the importance of Gα16 as a critical downstream effector of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway but also as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of non small cell lung cancer.

  8. Deformed Special Relativity in a Canonical Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, S; Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the nature of kinematical and dynamical laws in $\\kappa $-Minkowski spacetime from a new perspective: the canonical phase space approach. We have introduced a new form of $\\kappa$-Minkowski phase space algebra from which we recover the $\\kappa$-extended finite Lorentz transformations derived in \\cite{kim}. This is a particular form of a Deformed Special Relativity model that admits a modified energy-momentum dispersion law as well as noncommutative $\\kappa$-Minkowski phase space. We show that this system can be completely mapped to a set of phase space variables that obey canonical (and {\\it{not}} $\\kappa$-Minkowski) phase space algebra and Special Relativity Lorentz transformation (and {\\it{not}} $\\kappa$-extended Lorentz transformation). We demonstrate the usefulness and simplicity of this approach through a number of applications both in classical and quantum mechanics. We also construct a Lagrangian for the $\\kappa$-particle.

  9. Hojman's conservation theorems for generalized Raitzin canonical equations of motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Yong-Fen; Li Ren-Jie; Zhao Shu-Hong

    2005-01-01

    Using the Lie symmetry under infinitesimal transformations in which the time is not variable, Hojman's conservation theorems for Raitzin's canonical equations of motion in generalized classical mechanics are studied. The generalized Raitzin's canonical equations of motion are established. The determining equations of Lie symmetry under infinitesimal transformations are given. The Hojman conservation theorems of the system are established. Finally, an example is also presented to illustrate the application of the result.

  10. Correction of detector nonlinearity in Fourier transform spectroscopy with a low-temperature blackbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Lars; Newman, Stuart; Bakan, Stephan

    2005-09-01

    The nonlinearity of a mercury cadmium telluride photoconductive detector, an integral part of a modified commercial interferometer used for airborne research, has been analyzed and evaluated against a number of correction schemes. A high-quality blackbody with accurate temperature control has been used as a stable and well-characterized radiation source. The detector nonlinearity was established as a function of scene temperature between 194 and 263 K. Second- and third-order corrections to the measured interferogram have been tested by analyzing the measured signal both within and outside the spectral response region of the detector. A combined correction scheme is proposed that best represents the real nonlinear response of the detector.

  11. Hopfion canonical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A; Norvaisas, E; Shnir, Ya

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of the canonical quantization of the rotational mode of the charge Q=1 and Q=2 spinning Hopfions. The axially-symmetric solutions are constructed numerically, it is shown the quantum corrections to the mass of the configurations are relatively large.

  12. Hopfion canonical quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acus, A. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); Halavanau, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, BSU, Minsk (Belarus); Norvaisas, E. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); Shnir, Ya., E-mail: shnir@maths.tcd.ie [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, BSU, Minsk (Belarus); Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-05-03

    We study the effect of the canonical quantization of the rotational mode of the charge Q=1 and Q=2 spinning Hopfions. The axially-symmetric solutions are constructed numerically, it is shown the quantum corrections to the mass of the configurations are relatively large.

  13. Revisiting Canonical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2012-01-01

    Conventional canonical quantization procedures directly link various c-number and q-number quantities. Here, we advocate a different association of classical and quantum quantities that renders classical theory a natural subset of quantum theory with \\hbar>0. While keeping the good results of conventional procedures, some examples are noted where the new procedures offer better results than conventional ones.

  14. Nonlinear Radon Transform and Its Application to Face Recognition%非线性Radon变换及其在人脸识别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘俊英; 何思斌

    2011-01-01

    Three nonlinear Radon transforms, including parabola, hyperbola, and ellipse Radon transform, are studied respectively, and the relationships among them are analyzed. Then, the three nonlinear Radon transforms are applied to face recognition. When shape parameters of parabola, hyperbola, and ellipse are approximately infinite, linear Radon transform of image is equal to parabola Radon transform and hyperbola Radon transform is equal to ellipse Radon transform. Nonlinear Radon transform possesses the characters of reducing noise and can be used to represent texture features of image. Moreover, polluted face images are represented by feature matrix via three nonlinear Radon transforms, and then combined with principal component analysis in face recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of nonlinear Radon transform in face recognition.%探讨抛物线、双曲线、椭圆3种非线性Radon变换及其性质,分析它们之间的关系,并将所述3种非线性Radon变换应用于人脸识别.通过对这3种非线性Radon变换及其性质研究得出,当抛物线、双曲线及椭圆的形状参数趋于无穷大时,图像抛物线Radon变换与线性Radon变换相等,双曲线Radon变换与椭圆Radon变换相等;同时,非线性Radon变换具有降噪功能和表达图像纹理特征的特点.文中将受噪声污染的人脸图像分别表示为3种非线性Radon变换下的特征矩阵,并结合PCA算法应用于人脸识别.实验结果表明非线性Radon变换在人脸识别中的有效性.

  15. Nonlinear Internal Waves in the South China Sea: Their generation and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D. M.; Qiang, L.; Park, J.

    2008-12-01

    Observations of thermocline motions using inverted echo-sounders in the South China Sea provide evidence of the generation and evolution of an internal tide which can ultimately steepen to form nonlinear internal waves. The sill topography is complex and the observations are primarily sensitive to the first internal mode, requiring care in the interpretation of measurements close to the source. However, a two dimensional analysis illustrates the sensitivity of the response to tidal forcing over the Luzon sill between Taiwan and the Philippines, which exhibits a strong diurnal inequality leading to great variability in the far-field response. Negative interfacial slopes in the internal tide steepen with time, their subsequent evolution depending on the competing effects of nonlinearity, non-hydrostatic and rotational dispersion. Large initial interfacial slopes steepen to form a nonlinear wave train. For weak initial slopes, rotational dispersion inhibits steepening and formation of waves of permanent form. Analysis of our observations with simplified models support a dynamical explanation of internal wave development in terms of the stratification, tidal forcing, nonlinearity, nonhydrostatic and rotational effects.

  16. A non-linear preprocessing for opto-digital image encryption using multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoug, Seif Eddine; Bouguezel, Saad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel opto-digital image encryption technique is proposed by introducing a new non-linear preprocessing and using the multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform (MPDFrFT). The non-linear preprocessing is performed digitally on the input image in the spatial domain using a piecewise linear chaotic map (PLCM) coupled with the bitwise exclusive OR (XOR). The resulting image is multiplied by a random phase mask before applying the MPDFrFT to whiten the image. Then, a chaotic permutation is performed on the output of the MPDFrFT using another PLCM different from the one used in the spatial domain. Finally, another MPDFrFT is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The parameters of the PLCMs together with the multiple fractional orders of the MPDFrFTs constitute the secret key for the proposed cryptosystem. Computer simulation results and security analysis are presented to show the robustness of the proposed opto-digital image encryption technique and the great importance of the new non-linear preprocessing introduced to enhance the security of the cryptosystem and overcome the problem of linearity encountered in the existing permutation-based opto-digital image encryption schemes.

  17. The canonical and grand canonical models for nuclear multifragmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Das Gupta

    2010-08-01

    Many observables seen in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions can be explained on the basis of statistical equilibrium. Calculations based on statistical equilibrium can be implemented in microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble or grand canonical ensemble. This paper deals with calculations with canonical and grand canonical ensembles. A recursive relation developed recently allows calculations with arbitrary precision for many nuclear problems. Calculations are done to study the nature of phase transition in nuclear matter.

  18. Variable structure control of nonlinear systems through simplified uncertain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt

    1986-01-01

    A variable structure control approach is presented for the robust stabilization of feedback equivalent nonlinear systems whose proposed model lies in the same structural orbit of a linear system in Brunovsky's canonical form. An attempt to linearize exactly the nonlinear plant on the basis of the feedback control law derived for the available model results in a nonlinearly perturbed canonical system for the expanded class of possible equivalent control functions. Conservatism tends to grow as modeling errors become larger. In order to preserve the internal controllability structure of the plant, it is proposed that model simplification be carried out on the open-loop-transformed system. As an example, a controller is developed for a single link manipulator with an elastic joint.

  19. Variational principle and phase space measure in non-canonical coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi, A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-canonical equations of motion are derived from a variational principle written in symplectic form. The invariant measure of phase space and the covariant expression for the entropy are derived from non-canonical transformations of coordinates. This shows that the geometry of non-canonical phase space is non trivial even if dynamics has no compressibility.

  20. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Vemuri

    2008-02-01

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  1. Higher Derivatives and Canonical Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    HAMAMOTO, Shinji

    1995-01-01

    A canonical formalism for higher-derivative theories is presented on the basis of Dirac's method for constrained systems. It is shown that this formalism shares a path integral expression with Ostrogradski's canonical formalism.

  2. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  3. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  4. Nonlinear Transformation Optics Techniques in the Design of Counter-Directed Energy Weapon Shields for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    or proof, rather as a review and reference for subsequent sections. Brau’s Modern Problems in Electrodynamics and Mill’s Nonlinear Optics are both... Modern Problems in Electrodynamics , follows from the Lorentz-Drude Model for the polarization of the atom[2]. In this model, the electron is harmonically...2] C. A. Brau, Modern Problems in Classical Electrodynamics , New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. [3] K. Than, “Scientists Create Cloak of

  5. Certainty equivalence in nonlinear output regulation with unmeasured error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, F.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we consider a nonlinear output regulation problem in which the controlled output and the measured output are not the same. It is assumed that the controlled plant has a single control input, and that it can be transformed into Gauthier-Kupka's observability canonical form. Then, it is shown that a design based on certainty equivalence is effective for determining a controller that solves the given problem.

  6. On Measure Transformed Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Merck (MRK), Pfizer ( PFE ), Johnson and Johnson (JNJ), American express (AXP), JP Morgan (JPM), and Bank of America (BAC). For each pair of companies...respectively. Note that MTCCA and KCCA better cluster companies in similar sectors: (MSFT, INTC, AAPL) - technology, 19 (MRK, PFE , JNJ) - pharmaceuticals...non-linear dependencies. Two classes of MTCCA were 20 MSFT INTC AAPL MRK PFE JNJ AXP JPM BAC MSFT INTC AAPL MRK PFE JNJ AXP JPM BAC 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

  7. Holographic renormalization as a canonical transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The gauge/string dualities have drawn attention to a class of variational problems on a boundary at infinity, which are not well defined unless a certain boundary term is added to the classical action. In the context of supergravity in asymptotically AdS spaces these problems are systematically addressed by the method of holographic renormalization. We argue that this class of a priori ill defined variational problems extends far beyond the realm of holographic dualities. As we show, exactly the same issues arise in gravity in non asymptotically AdS spaces, in point particles with certain unbounded from below potentials, and even fundamental strings in flat or AdS backgrounds. We show that the variational problem in all such cases can be made well defined by the following procedure, which is intrinsic to the system in question and does not rely on the existence of a holographically dual theory: (i) The first step is the construction of the space of the most general asymptotic solutions of the classical equati...

  8. Canonical Strangeness Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Sollfrank, J; Redlich, Krzysztof; Satz, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    According to recent experimental data and theoretical developments we discuss three distinct topics related to strangeness enhancement in nuclear reactions. We investigate the compatibility of multi-strange particle ratios measured in a restricted phase space with thermal model parameters extracted recently in 4pi. We study the canonical suppression as a possible reason for the observed strangeness enhancement and argue that a connection between QGP formation and the undersaturation of strangeness is not excluded.

  9. Middleton beyond the Canon

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The traditional vision of Middleton as a playwright depicted him as an author of city comedies and tragicomedies, who in his very last years suddenly approached the tragic genre. Among his last four plays, three composed in succession are tragedies: Hengist, 1620, Women Beware Women, 1621 and The Changeling, 1622; the last two are recognized as masterpieces. In the last forty years, Middleton’s canon has changed with new attributions. This paper analyses the new pattern emerging in Middleton’...

  10. Soliton solutions for two nonlinear partial differential equations using a Darboux transformation of the Lax pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji; Ren, Bo; Li, Hua-mei; Li, Yi-Shen

    2008-03-01

    Two Darboux transformations of the (1+1) -dimensional Wu-Zhang (WZ) equation and the two-component Camassa-Holm (2CH) system with the reciprocal transformation are obtained. One-loop and two-loop soliton solutions and multisoliton(like) solutions of the 2CH system are obtained by using the Darboux transformations and selecting different seed solutions of the corresponding equations. The bidirectional soliton solutions of the (1+1) -dimensional WZ equation are also obtained. The interactions of two-soliton head-on and overtaking collisions for the WZ equation and the evolution of the two-soliton(-like) solutions for the 2CH system are studied.

  11. Acceleration of Relativistic Electron Dynamics by Means of X2C Transformation: Application to the Calculation of Nonlinear Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Lukas; Kadek, Marius; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkina, Olga L; Ruud, Kenneth; Repisky, Michal

    2016-12-13

    The Liouville-von Neumann equation based on the four-component matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is transformed to a quasirelativistic exact two-component (X2C) form and then used to solve the time evolution of the electronic states only. By this means, a significant acceleration by a factor of 7 or more has been achieved. The transformation of the original four-component equation of motion is formulated entirely in matrix algebra, following closely the X2C decoupling procedure of Ilias and Saue [ J. Chem. Phys. 2007 , 126 , 064102 ] proposed earlier for a static (time-independent) case. In a dynamic (time-dependent) regime, however, an adiabatic approximation must in addition be introduced in order to preserve the block-diagonal form of the time-dependent Dirac-Fock operator during the time evolution. The resulting X2C Liouville-von Neumann electron dynamics (X2C-LvNED) is easy to implement as it does not require an explicit form of the picture-change transformed operators responsible for the (higher-order) relativistic corrections and/or interactions with external fields. To illustrate the accuracy and performance of the method, numerical results and computational timings for nonlinear optical properties are presented. All of the time domain X2C-LvNED results show excellent agreement with the reference four-component calculations as well as with the results obtained from frequency domain response theory.

  12. Simultaneous nonlinear encryption of grayscale and color images based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  13. Inverse scattering transform for the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation with fully asymmetric non-zero boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondini, Gino; Fagerstrom, Emily; Prinari, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    We formulate the inverse scattering transform (IST) for the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with fully asymmetric non-zero boundary conditions (i.e., when the limiting values of the solution at space infinities have different non-zero moduli). The theory is formulated without making use of Riemann surfaces, and instead by dealing explicitly with the branched nature of the eigenvalues of the associated scattering problem. For the direct problem, we give explicit single-valued definitions of the Jost eigenfunctions and scattering coefficients over the whole complex plane, and we characterize their discontinuous behavior across the branch cut arising from the square root behavior of the corresponding eigenvalues. We pose the inverse problem as a Riemann-Hilbert Problem on an open contour, and we reduce the problem to a standard set of linear integral equations. Finally, for comparison purposes, we present the single-sheet, branch cut formulation of the inverse scattering transform for the initial value problem with symmetric (equimodular) non-zero boundary conditions, as well as for the initial value problem with one-sided non-zero boundary conditions, and we also briefly describe the formulation of the inverse scattering transform when a different choice is made for the location of the branch cuts.

  14. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov Equations Using an Enhanced Algorithm of the Generalized Two-Dimensional Differential Transform Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜; 王维国

    2012-01-01

    By constructing the iterative formula with a so-called convergence-control parameter, the generalized two-dimensional differential transform method is improved. With the enhanced technique, the nonlinear fractional Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equations are dealt analytically and approximate solutions are derived. The results show that the employed approach is a promising tool for solving many nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The algorithm described in this work is expected to be employed to solve more problems in fractional calculus.

  15. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Kolmogorov—Petrovskii—Piskunov Equations Using an Enhanced Algorithm of the Generalized Two-Dimensional Differential Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-Na; Wang, Wei-Guo

    2012-08-01

    By constructing the iterative formula with a so-called convergence-control parameter, the generalized two-dimensional differential transform method is improved. With the enhanced technique, the nonlinear fractional Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equations are dealt analytically and approximate solutions are derived. The results show that the employed approach is a promising tool for solving many nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The algorithm described in this work is expected to be employed to solve more problems in fractional calculus.

  16. Whose Canon? Culturalization versus Democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Bjurström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current accounts – and particularly the critique – of canon formation are primarily based on some form of identity politics. In the 20th century a representational model of social identities replaced cultivation as the primary means to democratize the canons of the fine arts. In a parallel development, the discourse on canons has shifted its focus from processes of inclusion to those of exclusion. This shift corresponds, on the one hand, to the construction of so-called alternative canons or counter-canons, and, on the other hand, to attempts to restore the authority of canons considered to be in a state of crisis or decaying. Regardless of the democratic stance of these efforts, the construction of alternatives or the reestablishment of decaying canons does not seem to achieve their aims, since they break with the explicit and implicit rules of canon formation. Politically motivated attempts to revise or restore a specific canon make the workings of canon formation too visible, transparent and calculated, thereby breaking the spell of its imaginary character. Retracing the history of the canonization of the fine arts reveals that it was originally tied to the disembedding of artists and artworks from social and worldly affairs, whereas debates about canons of the fine arts since the end of the 20th century are heavily dependent on their social, cultural and historical reembedding. The latter has the character of disenchantment, but has also fettered the canon debate in notions of “our” versus “their” culture. However, by emphasizing the dedifferentiation of contemporary processes of culturalization, the advancing canonization of popular culture seems to be able to break with identity politics that foster notions of “our” culture in the present thinking on canons, and push it in a more transgressive, syncretic or hybrid direction.

  17. CANONICAL FORMULATION OF NONHOLONOMIC CONSTRAINED SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO YONG-XIN; YU YING; HUANG HAI-JUN

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Ehresmann connection theory and symplectic geometry, the canonical formulation of nonholonomic constrained mechanical systems is described. Following the Lagrangian formulation of the constrained system, the Hamiltonian formulation is given by Legendre transformation. The Poisson bracket defined by an anti-symmetric tensor does not satisfy the Jacobi identity for the nonintegrability of nonholonomic constraints. The constraint manifold can admit symplectic submanifold for some cases, in which the Lie algebraic structure exists.

  18. Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq-type modelling of infragravity wave transformation over a low-sloping beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tissier, M.F.S.; Bonneton, P.; Ruessink, B.G.; Marche, F.; Chazel, F.; Lannes, D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent field studies over low sloping beaches have shown that infragravity waves could dissipate a significant part of their energy in the inner surf zone. This phenomenon and the associated short- and long-wave transformations are not well-understood. In this paper, we assess the ability of the ful

  19. CT perfusion analysis by nonlinear regression for predicting hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Edwin; Horsch, Alexander D.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Velthuis, BK; Viergever, Max A.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intravenous thrombolysis can improve clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients but increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT). Blood-brain barrier damage, which can be quantified by the vascular permeability for contrast agents, is a potential predictor for HT. This stud

  20. Spectral transformations in the regime of pulse self-trapping in a nonlinear photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Novitsky, Denis

    2011-01-01

    We consider interaction of a femtosecond light pulse with a one-dimensional photonic crystal with relaxing cubic nonlinearity in the regime of self-trapping. By use of numerical simulations, it is shown that, under certain conditions, the spectra of reflected and transmitted light possess the properties of narrow-band (quasi-monochromatic) or wide-band (continuum-like) radiation. It is remarkable that these spectral features appear due to a significant frequency shift and occur inside a photonic band gap of the structure under investigation.

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF NONLINEAR WAVE TRANSFORMATION AROUND WAVE-PERMEABLE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi; YAN Yi-xin

    2005-01-01

    The problem of wave partial/full reflection and transmission by wave-permeable structure is approached by solving the shape-related function with focus on the understanding of wave attenuation.2D depth-averaged Boussinesq type wave equations are given with new damping item in simulating the nonlinear wave transmission through wave-permeable structure.1D wave equation is examined to give the analytical expression of the absorbing coefficient, and is compared with laboratory data in flume to calibrate the coefficients, and the expression is applied directly in modified Boussinesq type equations.Compared with wave basin data for various incident wave conditions,the accurate predictions of combined diffraction-refraction effects in simulating nonlinear wave going through wave-permeable breakwater in the engineering application can be obtained.It shows that wave-permeable breakwaters with proper absorbing effects can be used as an effective alternative to massive gravity breakwaters in reduction of wave transmission in shallow water.

  2. Effect of the nonlinearity of the CCD in Fourier transform profilometry on spectrum overlapping and measurement accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Nao-Sheng; Zou Bei-Ji

    2013-01-01

    In Fourier transform profilometry (FTP),we must restrain spectrum overlapping caused by the nonlinearity of the charge coupled device (CCD) and increase the measurement accuracy of the object shape.Firstly,the causes of producing higher-order spectrum components and inducing spectrum overlapping are analysed theoretically,and a simple physical explanation and analytical deduction are given.Secondly,aiming to suppress spectrum overlapping and improve measurement accuracy,the influence of spatial carrier frequency of projection grating on them is analysed.A method of increasing the spatial carrier frequency of projection grating to restrain or reduce the spectrum overlapping significantly is proposed.We then analyze the mechanism of how the spectrum overlapping is reduced.Finally,the simulation results and experimental measurements verify the correction of the proposed theory and method.

  3. A corrected likelihood approach for the nonlinear transformation model with application to fluorescence lifetime measurements using exponential mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebafka, Tabea; Roueff, François; Souloumiac, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    A fast and efficient estimation method is proposed that compensates the distortion in nonlinear transformation models. A likelihood-based estimator is developed that can be computed by an EM-type algorithm. The consistency of the estimator is shown and its limit distribution is provided. The new estimator is particularly well suited for fluorescence lifetime measurements, where only the shortest arrival time of a random number of emitted fluorescence photons can be detected and where arrival times are often modeled by a mixture of exponential distributions. The method is evaluated on real and synthetic data. Compared to currently used methods in fluorescence, the new estimator should allow a reduction of the acquisition time of an order of magnitude.

  4. Transformation and disintegration of strongly nonlinear internal waves by topography in stratified lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Vlasenko

    Full Text Available For many lakes the nonlinear transfer of energy from basin-scale internal waves to short-period motions, such as solitary internal waves (SIW and wave trains, their successive interaction with lake boundaries, as well as over-turning and breaking are important mechanisms for an enhanced mixing of the turbulent benthic boundary layer. In the present paper, the evolution of plane SIWs in a variable depth channel, typical of a lake of variable depth, is considered, with the basis being the Reynolds equations. The vertical fluid stratification, wave amplitudes and bottom parameters are taken close to those observed in Lake Constance, a typical mountain lake. The problem is solved numerically. Three different scenarios of a wave evolution over variable bottom topography are examined. It is found that the basic parameter controlling the mechanism of wave evolution is the ratio of the wave amplitude to the distance from the metalimnion to the bottom d. At sites with a gentle sloping bottom, where d is small, propagating (weak or strong internal waves adjust to the local ambient conditions and preserve their form. No secondary waves or wave trains arise during wave propagation from the deep part to the shallow water. If the amplitude of the propagating waves is comparable with the distance between the metalimnion and the top of the underwater obstacle ( d ~ 1, nonlinear dispersion plays a key role. A wave approaching the bottom feature splits into a sequence of secondary waves (solitary internal waves and an attached oscillating wave tail. The energy of the SIWs above the underwater obstacle is transmitted in parts from the first baroclinic mode, to the higher modes. Most crucially, when the internal wave propagates from the deep part of a basin to the shallow boundary, a breaking event can arise. The cumulative effects of the nonlinearity lead to a steepening and

  5. PREDICTION OF VORTEX-INDUCED VIBRATION OF LONG FLEXIBLE CYLINDERS MODELED BY A COUPLED NONLINEAR OSCILLATOR:INTEGRAL TRANSFORM SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ji-jun; AN Chen; LEVI Carlos; SU Jian

    2012-01-01

    The Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) was applied to predict dynamic response of Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of a long flexible cylinder.A nonlinear wake oscillator model was used to represent the cross-flow force acting on the cylinder,leading to a coupled system of second-order Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in temporal variable.The GITT approach was used to transform the system of PDEs to a system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs),which was numerically solved by using the Adams-Moulton and Gear method (DIVPAG) developed by the International Mathematics and Statistics Library (IMSL).Numerical results were presented for comparison to those given by the finite difference method and experimental results,allowing a critical evaluation of the technique performance.The influence of variation of mean axial tension induced by elongation of flexible cylinder was evaluated,which was shown to be not negligible in numerical simulation of VIV of a long flexible cylinder.

  6. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  7. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  8. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  9. Univalence and Starlikeness of Nonlinear Integral Transform of Certain Class of Analytic Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Obradović; S Ponnusamy; P Vasundhra

    2009-11-01

    Let $\\mathcal{U}(, )$ denote the class of all normalized analytic functions in the unit disk $|z| < 1$ satisfying the condition \\begin{equation*}\\frac{f(z)}{z}≠ 0\\quad\\text{and}\\quad\\left|f'(z)\\left(\\frac{z}{f(z)}\\right)^{ +1}-1\\right| < ,\\quad |z| < 1.\\end{equation*} For $f\\in\\mathcal{U}(, )$ with ≤ 1 and $0≠_1≤ 1$, and for a positive real-valued integrable function defined on [0,1] satisfying the normalized condition $\\int^1_0\\varphi(t)dt=1$, we consider the transform $G_\\varphi f(z)$ defined by \\begin{equation*}G_\\varphi f(z)=z\\left[\\int^1_0\\varphi(t)\\left(\\frac{zt}{f(tz)}\\right)^ dt\\right]^{-1/ 1},\\quad z\\in.\\end{equation*} In this paper, we find conditions on the range of parameters and so that the transform $G_\\varphi f$ is univalent or star-like. In addition, for a given univalent function of certain form, we provide a method of obtaining functions in the class $\\mathcal{U}(, )$.

  10. Canonical formalism for coupled beam optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheifets, S.A.

    1989-09-01

    Beam optics of a lattice with an inter-plane coupling is treated using canonical Hamiltonian formalism. The method developed is equally applicable both to a circular (periodic) machine and to an open transport line. A solution of the equation of a particle motion (and correspondingly transfer matrix between two arbitrary points of the lattice) are described in terms of two amplitude functions (and their derivatives and corresponding phases of oscillations) and four coupling functions, defined by a solution of the system of the first-order nonlinear differential equations derived in the paper. Thus total number of independent parameters is equal to ten. 8 refs.

  11. Weakly nonlinear models for internal waves: inverse scattering transform and solitary wave contents

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shengqian

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution emanating from ``internal dam-break'' initial conditions is studied for a class of models of stratified Euler fluids in configurations close to two-homogeneous layers separated by a thin diffused interface. Direct numerical simulations and experiments in wave tanks show that such initial conditions eventually give rise to coherent structures that are close to solitary-wave solutions moving ahead of a region of dispersive wave motion and turbulent mixing close to the location of the initial dam step. A priori theoretical predictions of the main features of these solitary waves, such as their amplitudes and speeds, appear to be unavailable, even for simplified models of wave evolution in stratified fluids. With the aim of providing estimates of the existence, amplitude and speed of such solitary waves, an approach based on Inverse Scattering Transform (IST) for completely integrable models is developed here and tested against direct numerical simulations of Euler fluids and some of their mode...

  12. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  13. Highway traffic estimation of improved precision using the derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Zervos, Nikolaos; Melkikh, Alexey

    2015-12-01

    The paper proves that the PDE dynamic model of the highway traffic is a differentially flat one and by applying spatial discretization its shows that the model's transformation into an equivalent linear canonical state-space form is possible. For the latter representation of the traffic's dynamics, state estimation is performed with the use of the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. The proposed filter consists of the Kalman Filter recursion applied on the transformed state-space model of the highway traffic. Moreover, it makes use of an inverse transformation, based again on differential flatness theory which enables to obtain estimates of the state variables of the initial nonlinear PDE model. By avoiding approximate linearizations and the truncation of nonlinear terms from the PDE model of the traffic's dynamics the proposed filtering methods outperforms, in terms of accuracy, other nonlinear estimators such as the Extended Kalman Filter. The article's theoretical findings are confirmed through simulation experiments.

  14. Solutions of nonlinear differential equations with feature detection using fast Walsh transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Walsh functions form an orthonormal basis set consisting of square waves. Square waves make the system well suited for detecting and representing functions with discontinuities. Given a uniform distribution of 2p cells on a one-dimensional element, it is proved that the inner product of the Walsh Root function for group p with every polynomial of degree ≤ (p - 1) across the element is identically zero. It is also proved that the magnitude and location of a discontinuous jump, as represented by a Heaviside function, are explicitly identified by its Fast Walsh Transform (FWT) coefficients. These two proofs enable an algorithm that quickly provides a Weighted Least Squares fit to distributions across the element that include a discontinuity. It is shown that flux reconstruction relative to the FWT fit in partial differential equations provides improved accuracy. The detection of a discontinuity further enables analytic relations to locally describe its evolution and provide increased accuracy. Examples are provided for time-accurate advection, Burgers' equation, and quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow.

  15. MCRG Flow for the nonlinear Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koerner, Daniel; Wipf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A study of the renormalization group flow in the three-dimensional nonlinear O(N) sigma model using Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG) techniques is presented. To achieve this, we combine an improved blockspin transformation with the canonical demon method to determine the flow diagram for a number of different truncations. Systematic errors of the approach are highlighted. Results are discussed with hindsight on the fixed point structure of the model and the corresponding critical exponents. Special emphasis is drawn on the existence of a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point as required for theories modeling the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity.

  16. Conformal invariance and Hojman conserved quantities of canonical Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Liu Shi-Xing; Mei Feng-Xiang; Guo Yong-Xin

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the conformal invariance by infinitesimal transformations of canonical Hamilton systems. The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance being Lie symmetrical simultaneously by the action of infinitesimal transformations are given. The determining equations of the conformal invariance are gained. Then the Hojman conserved quantities of conformal invariance by special infinitesimal transformations are obtained. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the results.

  17. AN APOLOGY OF THE LITERARY CANON IN A LINGUISTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vladimirovich Sosnin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of selecting practical material for a linguistic study aspiring to objectivity and states that in such a study orientation to the literary text is absolutely essential, as a solid corpus of literary texts is indispensable for describing complicated linguistic phenomena and mental structures standing behind them. The article puts forward the postulate that any serious study into the English language should be constructed on the English literary canon – a global textual corpus on the basis of which the greatest part of the educated speakers’ conceptual sphere is formed. At the same time, the article considers certain problems related to the Anglicist’s orientation towards the canon – its definition, limits, central and peripheral authors, the criteria of a literary work canonic status, arguments of those opposing any canonicity in literature, reconstruction of the canon in other cultures. The article also analyzes the cognitive aspect and tells about the key transformation of the English mentality, which gave rise to thinking in the terms of the time, cause-and-effect, and probability in canonic literature. The author of the article comes up with a principal conclusion: orientation to the literary canon in a linguistic study allows reconciling of linguistics and literature studies and including into the analysis nonlinguistic semiotic systems as well as idiolectal systems of conceptualizing the world in literary works.

  18. Nonlinear phase interaction between nonstationary signals: a comparison study of methods based on Hilbert-Huang and Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Novak, Vera; Peng, C-K; Liu, Yanhui; Hu, Kun

    2009-06-01

    Phase interactions among signals of physical and physiological systems can provide useful information about the underlying control mechanisms of the systems. Physical and biological recordings are often noisy and exhibit nonstationarities that can affect the estimation of phase interactions. We systematically studied effects of nonstationarities on two phase analyses including (i) the widely used transfer function analysis (TFA) that is based on Fourier decomposition and (ii) the recently proposed multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) analysis that is based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)-an advanced nonlinear decomposition algorithm. We considered three types of nonstationarities that are often presented in physical and physiological signals: (i) missing segments of data, (ii) linear and step-function trends embedded in data, and (iii) multiple chaotic oscillatory components at different frequencies in data. By generating two coupled oscillatory signals with an assigned phase shift, we quantify the change in the estimated phase shift after imposing artificial nonstationarities into the oscillatory signals. We found that all three types of nonstationarities affect the performances of the Fourier-based and the HHT-based phase analyses, introducing bias and random errors in the estimation of the phase shift between two oscillatory signals. We also provided examples of nonstationarities in real physiological data (cerebral blood flow and blood pressure) and showed how nonstationarities can complicate result interpretation. Furthermore, we propose certain strategies that can be implemented in the TFA and the MMPF methods to reduce the effects of nonstationarities, thus improving the performances of the two methods.

  19. A Comparative Study of Kernel and Robust Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashad M. Alam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of measures of canonical correlation coefficient are now used in multimedia related fields like object recognition, image segmentation facial expression recognition and pattern recognition in the different literature. Some robust forms of classical canonical correlation coefficient are introduced recently to address the robustness issue of the canonical coefficient in the presence of outliers and departure from normality. Also a few number of kernels are used in canonical analysis to capture nonlinear relationship in data space, which is linear in some higher dimensional feature space. But not much work has been done to investigate their relative performances through i simulation from the view point of sensitivity, breakdown analysis as well as ii using real data sets. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare performances of kernel canonical correlation coefficients (Gaussian function, Laplacian function and Polynomial function with that of robust and classical canonical correlation coefficient measures using simulation with five sample sizes (50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000, influence function, breakdown point along with several real data and a multi-modal data sets, focusing on the specific case of segmented images with associated text. We investigate the bias, mean square error(MISE, qualitative robustness index (RI, sensitivity curve of each estimator under a variety of situations and also employ box plots and scatter plots of canonical variates to judge their performances. We have observed that the class of kernel estimators perform better than the class of classical and robust estimators in general and the kernel estimator with Laplacian function has shown the best performance for large sample size and break down is high in case of nonlinear data.

  20. Canonical Height Functions For Monomial Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jan-Li

    2012-01-01

    We show that the canonical height function defined by Silverman does not have the Northcott finiteness property in general. We develop a new canonical height function for monomial maps. In certain cases, this new canonical height function has nice properties.

  1. Kernel canonical-correlation Granger causality for multiple time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Duan, Xujun; Liao, Wei; Gao, Qing; Chen, Huafu

    2011-04-01

    Canonical-correlation analysis as a multivariate statistical technique has been applied to multivariate Granger causality analysis to infer information flow in complex systems. It shows unique appeal and great superiority over the traditional vector autoregressive method, due to the simplified procedure that detects causal interaction between multiple time series, and the avoidance of potential model estimation problems. However, it is limited to the linear case. Here, we extend the framework of canonical correlation to include the estimation of multivariate nonlinear Granger causality for drawing inference about directed interaction. Its feasibility and effectiveness are verified on simulated data.

  2. A canonical state-space representation for SISO systems using multipoint Jordan CFE. [Continued-Fraction Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chyi; Guo, Tong-Yi; Shieh, Leang-San

    1991-01-01

    A canonical state-space realization based on the multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion (CFE) is presented for single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. The similarity transformation matrix which relates the new canonical form to the phase-variable canonical form is also derived. The presented canonical state-space representation is particularly attractive for the application of SISO system theory in which a reduced-dimensional time-domain model is necessary.

  3. BRST charge for nonlinear algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, I L

    2007-01-01

    We study the construction of the classical nilpotent canonical BRST charge for the nonlinear gauge algebras where a commutator (in terms of Poisson brackets) of the constraints is a finite order polynomial of the constraints.

  4. Canonical quantization of constrained systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, A.; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C.A.G. (Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina (AR))

    1990-07-01

    The consideration of first-class constraints together with gauge conditions as a set of second-class constraints in a given system is shown to be incorrect when carrying out its canonical quantization.

  5. Canonical averaging of the equations of quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Chirkov, A. G.

    2005-01-01

    The representation of a Schrodinger equations as a classic Hamiltonian system allows to construct a unified perturbation theory both in classic, and in a quantum mechanics grounded on the theory of canonical transformations, and also to receive asymptotic estimations of affinity of the precisian approximated solutions of Schrodinger equations

  6. Discrete canonical analysis of three dimensional gravity with cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berra-Montiel, J

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, corresponds to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.

  7. Spin Foams and Canonical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Noui, Karim

    2011-01-01

    This review is devoted to the analysis of the mutual consistency of the spin foam and canonical loop quantizations in three and four spacetime dimensions. In the three-dimensional context, where the two approaches are in good agreement, we show how the canonical quantization \\`a la Witten of Riemannian gravity with a positive cosmological constant is related to the Turaev-Viro spin foam model, and how the Ponzano-Regge amplitudes are related to the physical scalar product of Riemannian loop quantum gravity without cosmological constant. In the four-dimensional case, we recall a Lorentz-covariant formulation of loop quantum gravity using projected spin networks, compare it with the new spin foam models, and identify interesting relations and their pitfalls. Finally, we discuss the properties which a spin foam model is expected to possess in order to be consistent with the canonical quantization, and suggest a new model illustrating these results.

  8. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  9. Full-State Linearization and Stabilization of SISO Markovian Jump Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the linearization and stabilizing control design problems for a class of SISO Markovian jump nonlinear systems. According to the proposed relative degree set definition, the system can be transformed into the canonical form through the appropriate coordinate changes followed with the Markovian switchings; that is, the system can be full-state linearized in every jump mode with respect to the relative degree set n,…,n. Then, a stabilizing control is designed through applying the backstepping technique, which guarantees the asymptotic stability of Markovian jump nonlinear systems. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  10. Estimating Resilience by Canonical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiering, Myron B.

    1982-02-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is used to formulate linear estimates of independent or orthogonal (incremental) information on the performance of water resource systems. Simple economic and resilience indicators are compared, and for the particular configurations chosen in this paper the replicated and independent information sets are explained in terms of the connectivity of the various reservoirs. The canonical correlations are relatively high, indicating that there is significant replication of information; a taxonomy is developed which suggests those basin and structural characteristics which would indicate less replication and consequently improved description of system performance. The procedure is based on simulation studies reported in an earlier paper in this series.

  11. Symmetries in Non-Linear Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Aldaya, Victor; López-Ruiz, Francisco F; Cossío, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the use of symmetries of a physical system so as to characterize the corresponding solution manifold by means of Noether invariants. This constitutes a necessary preliminary step towards the correct quantisation in non-linear cases, where the success of Canonical Quantisation is not guaranteed in general. To achieve this task "point symmetries" of the Lagrangian are generally not enough, and the notion of contact transformations is in order. The use of the Poincar\\'e-Cartan form permits finding both the symplectic structure on the solution manifold, through the Hamilton-Jacobi transformation, and the required symmetries, realized as Hamiltonian vector fields, associated with functions on the solution manifold (thus constituting an inverse of the Noether Theorem), lifted back to the evolution space through the inverse of this Hamilton-Jacobi mapping. In this framework, solutions and symmetries are somehow identified and this correspondence is also kept at a perturbative level. We prese...

  12. Subspaces of FMmlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹红星; 戴琼海; 赵克; 陈桂明; 李衍达

    2002-01-01

    The subspaces of FMmlet transform are investigated.It is shown that some of the existing transforms like the Fourier transform,short-time Fourier transform,Gabor transform,wavelet transform,chirplet transform,the mean of signal,and the FM-1let transform,and the butterfly subspace are all special cases of FMmlet transform.Therefore the FMmlet transform is more flexible for delineating both the linear and nonlinear time-varying structures of a signal.

  13. Variation principle of piezothermoelastic bodies, canonical equation and homogeneous equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-hong; ZHANG Hui-ming

    2007-01-01

    Combining the symplectic variations theory, the homogeneous control equation and isoparametric element homogeneous formulations for piezothermoelastic hybrid laminates problems were deduced. Firstly, based on the generalized Hamilton variation principle, the non-homogeneous Hamilton canonical equation for piezothermoelastic bodies was derived. Then the symplectic relationship of variations in the thermal equilibrium formulations and gradient equations was considered, and the non-homogeneous canonical equation was transformed to homogeneous control equation for solving independently the coupling problem of piezothermoelastic bodies by the incensement of dimensions of the canonical equation. For the convenience of deriving Hamilton isoparametric element formulations with four nodes, one can consider the temperature gradient equation as constitutive relation and reconstruct new variation principle. The homogeneous equation simplifies greatly the solution programs which are often performed to solve nonhomogeneous equation and second order differential equation on the thermal equilibrium and gradient relationship.

  14. Romanticism, Sexuality, and the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kathleen K.

    1990-01-01

    Traces the Romanticism in the work and persona of film director Jean-Luc Godard. Examines the contradictions posed by Godard's politics and representations of sexuality. Asserts, that by bringing an ironic distance to the works of such canonized directors, viewers can take pleasure in those works despite their contradictions. (MM)

  15. Romanticism, Sexuality, and the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kathleen K.

    1990-01-01

    Traces the Romanticism in the work and persona of film director Jean-Luc Godard. Examines the contradictions posed by Godard's politics and representations of sexuality. Asserts, that by bringing an ironic distance to the works of such canonized directors, viewers can take pleasure in those works despite their contradictions. (MM)

  16. Resistant multiple sparse canonical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficult to compute or grasp intuitively. CCA appears to have quite powerful applications to high-throughput data, as we can use it to discover, for example, relationships between gene expression and gene copy number variation. One of the biggest problems of CCA is that the number of variables (often upwards of 10,000) makes biological interpretation of linear combinations nearly impossible. To limit variable output, we have employed a method known as sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA), while adding estimation which is resistant to extreme observations or other types of deviant data. In this paper, we have demonstrated the success of resistant estimation in variable selection using SCCA. Additionally, we have used SCCA to find multiple canonical pairs for extended knowledge about the datasets at hand. Again, using resistant estimators provided more accurate estimates than standard estimators in the multiple canonical correlation setting. R code is available and documented at https://github.com/hardin47/rmscca.

  17. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  18. Fingerprinting the Non-linear Response of Three Arm Star Polystyrene by Mechanical Spectral Hole Burning, Lissajous-Bowditch Loops, and Fourier Transform Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhiyuan; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) has become a powerful tool to fingerprint the nonlinear response of polymers and other complex fluids. In a recent work, Nabila and McKenna used the mechanical spectral hole burning (MSHB) which was developed in our labs, along with Lissajous-Bowditch (LB) curves and Fourier transform rheology (FTR) methods to characterize the nonlinearity of linear polystyrene solutions. They observed a linear relationship between the horizontal hole intensity and the square of pump strain amplitude. The similar quadratic dependence was found for the third harmonics from FTR. However, the origins are not same for these two signatures. In the current work, the nonlinearity of polymers with more complicated molecular structure, such as three arm star polystyrene, will be studied by these three methods. The concentration dependence of the fingerprinting will also be discussed. The authors are thankful to the American Chemical Society, Petroleum Research Fund 53205-ND7, for the support of this project.

  19. The Transport of Relative Canonical Helicity

    CERN Document Server

    You, Setthivoine

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of relative canonical helicity is examined in the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic formalism. Canonical helicity is defined here as the helicity of the plasma species' canonical momentum. The species' canonical helicity are coupled together and can be converted from one into the other while the total gauge-invariant relative canonical helicity remains globally invariant. The conversion is driven by enthalpy differences at a surface common to ion and electron canonical flux tubes. The model provides an explanation for why the threshold for bifurcation in counter-helicity merging depends on the size parameter. The size parameter determines whether magnetic helicity annihilation channels enthalpy into the magnetic flux tube or into the vorticity flow tube components of the canonical flux tube. The transport of relative canonical helicity constrains the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields, and provides a more general framework for driving flows and currents from enthalpy or inductive b...

  20. Titchmarsh-Weyl theory for canonical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Raj Acharya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop Titchmarsh- Weyl theory of canonical systems. To this end, we first observe the fact that Schrodinger and Jacobi equations can be written into canonical systems. We then discuss the theory of Weyl m-function for canonical systems and establish the relation between the Weyl m-functions of Schrodinger equations and that of canonical systems which involve Schrodinger equations.

  1. Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.

  2. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  3. Grand canonical Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fritsch, S; Junghans, C; Ciccotti, G; Site, L Delle; Kremer, K

    2011-01-01

    For simulation studies of (macro-) molecular liquids it would be of significant interest to be able to adjust/increase the level of resolution within one region of space, while allowing for the free exchange of molecules between (open) regions of different resolution/representation. In the present work we generalize the adaptive resolution idea in terms of a generalized Grand Canonical approach. This provides a robust framework for truly open Molecular Dynamics systems. We apply the method to liquid water at ambient conditions.

  4. What is "Relativistic Canonical Quantization"?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to give the most popular description of the scheme of quantization of relativistic fields that was named relativistic canonical quantization (RCQ). I do not give here the full exact account of this scheme. But with the help of this review any physicist, even not a specialist in the relativistic quantum theory, will be able to get a general view of the content of RCQ, of its connection with other known approaches, of its novelty and of its fruitfulness.

  5. Discrete quantum Fourier transform using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity and displacement operator and photon-number-resolving measurement under the decoherence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jino; Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Yang, Hyeon; Choi, Seong-Gon

    2016-12-01

    We present a scheme for implementing discrete quantum Fourier transform (DQFT) with robustness against the decoherence effect using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs). The multi-photon DQFT scheme can be achieved by operating the controlled path and merging path gates that are formed with weak XKNLs and linear optical devices. To enhance feasibility under the decoherence effect, in practice, we utilize a displacement operator and photon-number-resolving measurement in the optical gate using XKNLs. Consequently, when there is a strong amplitude of the coherent state, we demonstrate that it is possible to experimentally implement the DQFT scheme, utilizing current technology, with a certain probability of success under the decoherence effect.

  6. 非线性诱导的功率控制高斯光束变换效应%Power-Controlled Transformation of Gaussian Beams Induced by Nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆大全

    2013-01-01

    研究了强非局域非线性介质中功率控制的高斯光束变换效应.通过自由传输与强非局域非线性传输的关系,得到了强非局域非线性介质出射端的场分布,并进一步得到了出射后高斯光束的解析表达式.随着功率的增加,出射后的光束束腰在出射面左右交替变化,束腰宽度也振荡变化.选取适当的功率区间,可通过功率调节对高斯光束进行连续可调的变换.%The power-controlled transformation of Gaussian beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media is investigated.Based on the relation between the solution for the free propagation and that for the strongly nonlocal nonlinear propagation,the field at the output plane is obtained,and then the analytical solution for the output Gaussian beam is obtained.With the increase of the input power,the waist is located alternatively at the left-and right-hand side of the output plane; and the waist width varies oscillatorily.Therefore,one can make a continuously steerable transformation on the Gaussian beam if appropriate input power range is chosen.

  7. Homotopy perturbation Laplace transform solution of fractional non-linear reaction diffusion system of Lotka-Volterra type differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Tiwana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the fractional non linear reaction diffusion (FNRD system of Lotka-Volterra type. The system of equations together with the boundary conditions are solved by Homotopy perturbation transform method (HPTM. The series solutions are obtained for the two cases (homogeneous and non-homogeneous of FNRD system. The effect of fractional parameter on the mass concentration of two species are shown and discussed with the help of 3D graphs.

  8. Canonical Force Distributions in Pairwise Interatomic Interactions from the Perspective of the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2016-05-26

    Force-based canonical approaches have recently given a unified but different viewpoint on the nature of bonding in pairwise interatomic interactions. Differing molecular categories (covalent, ionic, van der Waals, hydrogen, and halogen bonding) of representative interatomic interactions with binding energies ranging from 1.01 to 1072.03 kJ/mol have been modeled canonically giving a rigorous semiempirical verification to high accuracy. However, the fundamental physical basis expected to provide the inherent characteristics of these canonical transformations has not yet been elucidated. Subsequently, it was shown through direct numerical differentiation of these potentials that their associated force curves have canonical shapes. However, this approach to analyzing force results in inherent loss of accuracy coming from numerical differentiation of the potentials. We now show that this serious obstruction can be avoided by directly demonstrating the canonical nature of force distributions from the perspective of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This requires only differentiation of explicitly known Coulombic potentials, and we discuss how this approach to canonical forces can be used to further explain the nature of chemical bonding in pairwise interatomic interactions. All parameter values used in the canonical transformation are determined through explicit physical based algorithms, and it does not require direct consideration of electron correlation effects.

  9. Nonlinear Raman Shift Induced by Exciton-to-Trion Transformation in Suspended Trilayer MoS2

    CERN Document Server

    Taghinejad, Hossein; Tarasov, Alexey; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Hosseinnia, Amir H; Campbell, Philip M; Eftekhar, Ali A; Vogel, Eric M; Adibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have recently attracted remarkable attention because of their unique physical properties. Here, we use photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy to study the formation of the so- called trions in a synthesized freestanding trilayer MoS2. A trion is a charged quasi-particle formed by adding one electron or hole to a neutral exciton (a bound electron-hole pair). We demonstrate accurate control over the transformation of excitons to trions by tuning the power of the optical pump (laser). Increasing the power of the excitation laser beyond a certain threshold (~ 4 mW) allows modulation of trion-to-exciton PL intensity ratio as well as the spectral linewidth of both trions and excitons. Via a systematic and complementary Raman analysis we disclose a strong coupling between laser induced exciton-to-trion transformation and the characteristic phononic vibrations of MoS2. The onset of such an optical transformation corresponds to the ...

  10. Canonical and alternative MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Genaro; Pascual, Jaime

    2007-11-01

    The archetype of MAPK cascade activation is somewhat challenged by the most recent discovery of unexpected phosphorylation patterns, alternative activation mechanisms and sub-cellular localization, in various members of this protein kinase family. In particular, activation by autophosphorylation pathways has now been described for the three best understood MAPK subgroups: ERK1/2; JNK1/2 and p38 alpha/beta. Also, a form of dosage compensation between homologs has been shown to occur in the case of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. In this paper we summarize the MAPK activation pathway, with an emphasis on non-canonical examples. We use this information to propose a model for MAPK signal transduction that considers a cross-talk between MAPKs with different activation loop sequence motifs and unique C-terminal extensions. We highlight the occurrence of non-canonical substrate specificity during MAPK auto-activation, in strong connection with MAPK homo- and hetero-dimerization events.

  11. Automatic sleep staging using empirical mode decomposition, discrete wavelet transform, time-domain, and nonlinear dynamics features of heart rate variability signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farideh; Setarehdan, Seyed-Kamaledin; Ayala-Moyeda, Jose; Nazeran, Homer

    2013-10-01

    The conventional method for sleep staging is to analyze polysomnograms (PSGs) recorded in a sleep lab. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most important signals in PSGs but recording and analysis of this signal presents a number of technical challenges, especially at home. Instead, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are much easier to record and may offer an attractive alternative for home sleep monitoring. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal proves suitable for automatic sleep staging. Thirty PSGs from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database were used. Three feature sets were extracted from 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments: time-domain features, nonlinear-dynamics features and time-frequency features. The latter was achieved by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods. Normalized energies in important frequency bands of HRV signals were computed using time-frequency methods. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical evaluations. Automatic sleep staging was based on HRV signal features. The ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni was used for individual feature assessment. Most features were beneficial for sleep staging. A t-test was used to compare the means of extracted features in 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments. The results showed that the extracted features means were statistically similar for a small number of features. A separability measure showed that time-frequency features, especially EMD features, had larger separation than others. There was not a sizable difference in separability of linear features between 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments but separability of nonlinear features, especially EMD features, decreased in 0.5-min HRV segments. HRV signal features were classified by linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) methods. Classification results based on features from 5-min segments surpassed those obtained from 0.5-min segments. The best result was obtained from features using 5-min HRV

  12. The Psalter in the Canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Jeppesen

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The Psalter, read as a coherent book instead of being read as 150 independent poems, reveals some patterns and a continuum of ideas, which might not express the editors’ original intention, but support the readers’ understanding of this canonical book. The article suggests that, even if the majority of texts are laments, the Psalter is a book of praise, underlined for instance by the endings of the Psalter’s five books. The five books relate the Psalter to the Pentateuch, and a form of competition between David and Moses is found (see esp Book 4, of which David was the winner. This is one of the reasons why the Christians were able to read the Psalter as a Christian book.

  13. Canonical curves with low apolarity

    CERN Document Server

    Ballico, Edoardo; Notari, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and let $C$ be a non--hyperelliptic smooth projective curve of genus $g$ defined over $k$. Since the canonical model of $C$ is arithmetically Gorenstein, Macaulay's theory of inverse systems allows to associate to $C$ a cubic form $f$ in the divided power $k$--algebra $R$ in $g-2$ variables. The apolarity of $C$ is the minimal number $t$ of linear form in $R$ needed to write $f$ as sum of their divided power cubes. It is easy to see that the apolarity of $C$ is at least $g-2$ and P. De Poi and F. Zucconi classified curves with apolarity $g-2$ when $k$ is the complex field. In this paper, we give a complete, characteristic free, classification of curves $C$ with apolarity $g-1$ (and $g-2$).

  14. Lorentz Covariant Canonical Symplectic Algorithms for Dynamics of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the Lorentz covariance of algorithms is introduced. Under Lorentz transformation, both the form and performance of a Lorentz covariant algorithm are invariant. To acquire the advantages of symplectic algorithms and Lorentz covariance, a general procedure for constructing Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms (LCCSA) is provided, based on which an explicit LCCSA for dynamics of relativistic charged particles is built. LCCSA possesses Lorentz invariance as well as long-term numerical accuracy and stability, due to the preservation of discrete symplectic structure and Lorentz symmetry of the system. For situations with time-dependent electromagnetic fields, which is difficult to handle in traditional construction procedures of symplectic algorithms, LCCSA provides a perfect explicit canonical symplectic solution by implementing the discretization in 4-spacetime. We also show that LCCSA has built-in energy-based adaptive time steps, which can optimize the computation performance when th...

  15. Revisiting Interpretation of Canonical Correlation Analysis: A Tutorial and Demonstration of Canonical Commonality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.; Gates, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In the face of multicollinearity, researchers face challenges interpreting canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results. Although standardized function and structure coefficients provide insight into the canonical variates produced, they fall short when researchers want to fully report canonical effects. This article revisits the interpretation of…

  16. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  17. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  18. De canon : een oude katholieke kerkstructuur?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, P.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Op 30 november 2011 houdt theoloog prof. dr. Peter-Ben Smit zijn oratie aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Daarin gaat hij na hoe de canon van het Nieuwe Testament tot stand kwam binnen de vroege kerk, en wat de functie van de canon was bij de uitleg - oftewel exegese - van de Schrift. Dit onderwerp kwam

  19. CANONICAL EXTENSIONS OF SYMMETRIC LINEAR RELATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH

    2006-01-01

    The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The

  20. Canonical structure of 2D black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1994-01-01

    We determine the canonical structure of two-dimensional black-hole solutions arising in $2D$ dilaton gravity. By choosing the Cauchy surface appropriately we find that the canonically conjugate variable to the black hole mass is given by the difference of local (Schwarzschild) time translations at right and left spatial infinities. This can be regarded as a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem.

  1. Subsets of configurations and canonical partition functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, J.; Bruckmann, F.; Kieburg, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We explain the physical nature of the subset solution to the sign problem in chiral random matrix theory: the subset sum over configurations is shown to project out the canonical determinant with zero quark charge from a given configuration. As the grand canonical chiral random matrix partition...

  2. The canonical controller and its regularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Jan C.; Belur, Madhu N.; Anak Agung Julius, A.A.J.; Trentelman, Harry L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with properties of canonical controllers. We first specify the behavior that they implement. It follows that a canonical controller implements the desired controlled behavior if and only if the desired behavior is implementable. We subsequently investigate the regularity of the cont

  3. Canon, Jubilees 23 and Psalm 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter M. Venter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There never existed only one form of the biblical canon. This can be seen in the versions as well as editions of the Hebrew and Greek Bibles. History and circumstances played a central role in the gradual growth of eventually different forms of the biblical canon. This process can be studied using the discipline of intertextuality. There always was a movement from traditum to traditio in the growth of these variant forms of biblical canon. This can be seen in an analysis of the intertextuality in Jubilees 23:8–32. The available canon of the day was interpreted there, not according to a specific demarcated volume of canonical scriptures, but in line with the theology presented in those materials, especially that of Psalm 90.

  4. Unbiased Mitoproteome Analyses Confirm Non-canonical RNA, Expanded Codon Translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic MS/MS mass spectrometry detections are usually biased towards peptides cleaved by experimentally added digestion enzyme(s). Hence peptides resulting from spontaneous degradation and natural proteolysis usually remain undetected. Previous analyses of tryptic human proteome data (cleavage after K, R) detected non-canonical tryptic peptides translated according to tetra- and pentacodons (codons expanded by silent mono- and dinucleotides), and from transcripts systematically (a) deleting mono-, dinucleotides after trinucleotides (delRNAs), (b) exchanging nucleotides according to 23 bijective transformations. Nine symmetric and fourteen asymmetric nucleotide exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C; and X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A) produce swinger RNAs. Here unbiased reanalyses of these proteomic data detect preferentially non-canonical tryptic peptides despite assuming random cleavage. Unbiased analyses couldn't reconstruct experimental tryptic digestion if most detected non-canonical peptides were false positives. Detected non-tryptic non-canonical peptides map preferentially on corresponding, previously described non-canonical transcripts, as for tryptic non-canonical peptides. Hence unbiased analyses independently confirm previous trypsin-biased analyses that showed translations of del- and swinger RNA and expanded codons. Accounting for natural proteolysis completes trypsin-biased mitopeptidome analyses, independently confirms non-canonical transcriptions and translations.

  5. Unbiased Mitoproteome Analyses Confirm Non-canonical RNA, Expanded Codon Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Seligmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic MS/MS mass spectrometry detections are usually biased towards peptides cleaved by experimentally added digestion enzyme(s. Hence peptides resulting from spontaneous degradation and natural proteolysis usually remain undetected. Previous analyses of tryptic human proteome data (cleavage after K, R detected non-canonical tryptic peptides translated according to tetra- and pentacodons (codons expanded by silent mono- and dinucleotides, and from transcripts systematically (a deleting mono-, dinucleotides after trinucleotides (delRNAs, (b exchanging nucleotides according to 23 bijective transformations. Nine symmetric and fourteen asymmetric nucleotide exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C; and X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A produce swinger RNAs. Here unbiased reanalyses of these proteomic data detect preferentially non-canonical tryptic peptides despite assuming random cleavage. Unbiased analyses couldn't reconstruct experimental tryptic digestion if most detected non-canonical peptides were false positives. Detected non-tryptic non-canonical peptides map preferentially on corresponding, previously described non-canonical transcripts, as for tryptic non-canonical peptides. Hence unbiased analyses independently confirm previous trypsin-biased analyses that showed translations of del- and swinger RNA and expanded codons. Accounting for natural proteolysis completes trypsin-biased mitopeptidome analyses, independently confirms non-canonical transcriptions and translations.

  6. Multiplicity fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions using canonical and grand-canonical ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, P. [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Science, Simrol (India); Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India)

    2016-02-15

    We report the higher-order cumulants and their ratios for baryon, charge and strangeness multiplicity in canonical and grand-canonical ensembles in ideal thermal model including all the resonances. When the number of conserved quanta is small, an explicit treatment of these conserved charges is required, which leads to a canonical description of the system and the fluctuations are significantly different from the grand-canonical ensemble. Cumulant ratios of total-charge and net-charge multiplicity as a function of collision energies are also compared in grand-canonical ensemble. (orig.)

  7. BRST quantization and canonical Ward identity of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG YongChang; JIANG YunGuo; LI XinGuo

    2007-01-01

    According to the method of path integral quantization for the canonical constrained system in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin scheme, the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system was quantized. Both the Hamiltonian of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system in phase space and the quantization procedure were simplified. The BRST generator was constructed, and the BRST transformations of supersymmetric fields were gotten; the effective action was calculated, and the generating functional for the Green function was achieved; also, the gauge generator was constructed, and the gauge transformation of the system was obtained. Finally, the Ward-Takahashi identities based on the canonical Noether theorem were calculated, and two relations between proper vertices and propagators were obtained.

  8. Stabilization of a class of switched nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The stabilization of a class of switched nonlinear systems is investigated in the paper. The systems concerned are of (generalized) switched Byrnes-Isidori canonical form, which has all switched models in (generalized) ByrnesIsidori canonical form. First, a stability result of switched systems is obtained. Then it is used to solve the stabilization problem of the switched nonlinear control systems. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a switched affine nonlinear system to be feedback equivalent to (generalized) switched Byrnes-Isidori canonical systems are presented.Finally, as an application the stability of switched lorenz systems is investigated.

  9. Na2 BaMQ4 (M=Ge, Sn; Q=S, Se): Infrared Nonlinear Optical Materials with Excellent Performances and that Undergo Structural Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kui; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-06-01

    Infrared nonlinear optical (IR NLO) materials with excellent performances are particularly important in laser technology. However, to design and synthesize an efficient IR NLO material with a balance between the optical band gap and the NLO coefficient is still a huge challenge. With this in mind, four new IR NLO materials Na2 BaSnS4 , Na2 BaSnSe4 , Na2 BaGeS4 , and Na2 BaGeSe4 were successfully designed and synthesized. The compounds exhibit excellent properties with a suitable balance of band gap and NLO coefficient measured for Na2 BaSnS4 (3.27 eV and about 17×KDP, that is, about 17 times that of KH2 PO4 (KDP)) and Na2 BaGeS4 (3.7 eV and about 10×KDP), demonstrating that the systems satisfy the key requirements as promising IR NLO candidates. Remarkably, the new compounds also undergo a novel structural transformation from tetragonal to trigonal systems, the first time that this has been reported for quaternary metal chalcogenides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Non-linear antigenic regions in epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) studied by EGF-TGF alpha chimaeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poll, M L; van Rotterdam, W; Gadellaa, M M; Stortelers, C; van Vugt, M J; van Zoelen, E J

    2000-07-01

    With the help of 16 chimaeras between human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and human transforming growth factor alpha (hTGF alpha), a detailed analysis was performed on the epitope recognized by two polyclonal antibodies raised against hEGF, and one polyclonal antibody raised against hTGF alpha. All three antibodies recognized essentially the same antigenic site, a non-linear and conformation-dependent sequence that is located near the second and fourth disulphide-bonded cysteines and that includes the start of the B-loop beta-sheet. The epitope recognized by the anti-hEGF antibodies was further characterized using 8 chimaeras between hEGF and an EGF-repeat from Drosophila Notch and was found to include Met(21), Ala(30) and Asn(32). All three polyclonal antibodies were able to neutralize the biological activity of the respective growth factor when tested on 32D murine haematopoietic progenitor cells transfected with ErbB-1, indicating that the receptor binding domain is shielded upon binding of the antibody.

  11. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.

  12. Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms

  13. The Algebraic Riccati Matrix Equation for Eigendecomposition of Canonical Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic Riccati matrix equation is used for eigendecomposition of special structured matrices. This is achieved by similarity transformation and then using the algebraic Riccati matrix equation to the triangulation of matrices. The process is the decomposition of matrices into small and specially structured submatrices with low dimensions for easy finding of eigenpairs. Here, we show that previous canonical forms I, II, III, and so on are special cases of the presented method. Numerical and structural examples are included to show the efficiency of the present method.

  14. Canonical charges and asymptotic symmetry algebra of conformal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Irakleidou, Maria; Preis, Florian

    2014-01-01

    We study canonical conformal gravity in four dimensions and construct the gauge generators and the associated charges. Using slightly generalized boundary conditions compared to those in \\cite{Grumiller:2013mxa} we find that the charges associated with space-time diffeomorphisms are finite and conserved in time. They are also shown to agree with the Noether charges found in \\cite{Grumiller:2013mxa}. However, there exists no charge associated with Weyl transformations. Consequently the asymptotic symmetry algebra is isomorphic to the Lie algebra of the boundary condition preserving diffeomorphisms. For illustrative purposes we apply the results to the Mannheim--Kazanas--Riegert solution of conformal gravity.

  15. Regularized canonical correlation analysis with unlabeled data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-chuan ZHOU; Hai-bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    In standard canonical correlation analysis (CCA), the data from definite datasets are used to estimate their canonical correlation. In real applications, for example in bilingual text retrieval, it may have a great portion of data that we do not know which set it belongs to. This part of data is called unlabeled data, while the rest from definite datasets is called labeled data. We propose a novel method called regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA), which makes use of both labeled and unlabeled samples. Specifically, we learn to approximate canonical correlation as if all data were labeled. Then. we describe a generalization of RCCA for the multi-set situation. Experiments on four real world datasets, Yeast, Cloud, Iris, and Haberman, demonstrate that,by incorporating the unlabeled data points, the accuracy of correlation coefficients can be improved by over 30%.

  16. Canonical equations of Hamilton with beautiful symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation plays the essential role in constructing the framework of modern physics. In this paper, a new form of canonical equations of Hamilton with the complete symmetry is obtained, which are valid not only for the first-order differential system, but also for the second-order differential system. The conventional form of the canonical equations without the symmetry [Goldstein et al., Classical Mechanics, 3rd ed, Addison-Wesley, 2001] are only for the second-order differe...

  17. Investigating the Dynamics of Canonical Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; Sears, Jason; Intrator, Thomas; You, Setthivoine

    2016-10-01

    Canonical flux tubes are flux tubes of the circulation of a species' canonical momentum. They provide a convenient generalization of magnetic flux tubes to regimes beyond magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We hypothesize that hierarchies of instabilities which couple disparate scales could transfer magnetic pitch into helical flows and vice versa while conserving the total canonical helicity. This work first explores the possibility of a sausage instability existing on top of a kink as mechanism for coupling scales, then presents the evolution of canonical helicity in a gyrating kinked flux rope. Analytical and numerical stability spaces derived for magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents indicate that, as a flux tube lengthens and collimates, it may become kink unstable with a sausage instability developing on top of the kink. A new analysis of 3D magnetic field and ion flow data on gyrating kinked magnetic flux ropes from the Reconnection Scaling Experiment tracks the evolution of canonical flux tubes and their helicity. These results and methodology are being developed as part of the Mochi experiment specifically designed to observe the dynamics of canonical flux tubes. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0010340 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program and prepared in part by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697161.

  18. The dark sector from interacting canonical and non-canonical scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, Rudinei C; Kremer, Gilberto M, E-mail: kremer@Fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-09-07

    In this work general models with interactions between two canonical scalar fields and between one non-canonical (tachyon type) and one canonical scalar field are investigated. The potentials and couplings to the gravity are selected through the Noether symmetry approach. These general models are employed to describe interactions between dark energy and dark matter, with the fields being constrained by the astronomical data. The cosmological solutions of some cases are compared with the observed evolution of the late Universe.

  19. Dark Sector from Interacting Canonical and Non-Canonical Scalar Fields

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, Rudinei C

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is investigated general models with interactions between two canonical scalar fields and between one non-canonical (tachyon-type) and one canonical scalar field. The potentials and couplings to the gravity are selected through the Noether symmetry approach. These general models are employed to describe interactions between dark energy and dark matter, with the fields being constrained by the astronomical data. The cosmological solutions of some cases are compared with the observed evolution of the late Universe.

  20. Both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling independently promote stem cell growth in mammospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Many

    Full Text Available The characterization of mammary stem cells, and signals that regulate their behavior, is of central importance in understanding developmental changes in the mammary gland and possibly for targeting stem-like cells in breast cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a signaling mechanism associated with maintenance of self-renewing stem cells in many tissues, including mammary epithelium, and can be oncogenic when deregulated. Wnt1 and Wnt3a are examples of ligands that activate the canonical pathway. Other Wnt ligands, such as Wnt5a, typically signal via non-canonical, β-catenin-independent, pathways that in some cases can antagonize canonical signaling. Since the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in stem cell regulation is not well characterized, we set out to investigate this using mammosphere formation assays that reflect and quantify stem cell properties. Ex vivo mammosphere cultures were established from both wild-type and Wnt1 transgenic mice and were analyzed in response to manipulation of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. An increased level of mammosphere formation was observed in cultures derived from MMTV-Wnt1 versus wild-type animals, and this was blocked by treatment with Dkk1, a selective inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with this, we found that a single dose of recombinant Wnt3a was sufficient to increase mammosphere formation in wild-type cultures. Surprisingly, we found that Wnt5a also increased mammosphere formation in these assays. We confirmed that this was not caused by an increase in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling but was instead mediated by non-canonical Wnt signals requiring the receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 and activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK. We conclude that both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals have positive effects promoting stem cell activity in mammosphere assays and that they do so via independent signaling mechanisms.

  1. Non-Canonical Statistics of a Spin-Boson Model: Theory and Exact Monte-Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chee Kong; Gong, Jiangbin

    2012-01-01

    Equilibrium canonical distribution in statistical mechanics assumes weak system-bath coupling (SBC). In real physical situations this assumption can be invalid and equilibrium quantum statistics of the system may be non-canonical. By exploiting both polaron transformation and perturbation theory in a spin-boson model, an analytical treatment is advocated to study non-canonical statistics of a two-level system at arbitrary temperature and for arbitrary SBC strength, yielding theoretical results in agreement with exact Monte-Carlo simulations. In particular, the eigen-representation of system's reduced density matrix is used to quantify non-canonical statistics as well as the quantumness of the open system. For example, it is found that irrespective of SBC strength, non-canonical statistics enhances as temperature decreases but vanishes at high temperature.

  2. Quantum theory of nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Vivek M

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger model is quantised and exactly solved using the canonical framework. It is found that the usual canonical quantisation of the model leads to a theory with pathological inner product. This problem is resolved by constructing another inner product over the vector space of the theory. The resultant theory is found to be identical to that of nonrelativistic bosons with delta function interaction potential, devoid of any nonlocality. The exact eigenstates are found using the Bethe ansatz technique.

  3. Comparison of nonlinear local Lyapunov vectors with bred vectors, random perturbations and ensemble transform Kalman filter strategies in a barotropic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Liu, Deqiang

    2016-09-01

    The breeding method has been widely used to generate ensemble perturbations in ensemble forecasting due to its simple concept and low computational cost. This method produces the fastest growing perturbation modes to catch the growing components in analysis errors. However, the bred vectors (BVs) are evolved on the same dynamical flow, which may increase the dependence of perturbations. In contrast, the nonlinear local Lyapunov vector (NLLV) scheme generates flow-dependent perturbations as in the breeding method, but regularly conducts the Gram-Schmidt reorthonormalization processes on the perturbations. The resulting NLLVs span the fast-growing perturbation subspace efficiently, and thus may grasp more components in analysis errors than the BVs. In this paper, the NLLVs are employed to generate initial ensemble perturbations in a barotropic quasi-geostrophic model. The performances of the ensemble forecasts of the NLLV method are systematically compared to those of the random perturbation (RP) technique, and the BV method, as well as its improved version—the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) method. The results demonstrate that the RP technique has the worst performance in ensemble forecasts, which indicates the importance of a flow-dependent initialization scheme. The ensemble perturbation subspaces of the NLLV and ETKF methods are preliminarily shown to catch similar components of analysis errors, which exceed that of the BVs. However, the NLLV scheme demonstrates slightly higher ensemble forecast skill than the ETKF scheme. In addition, the NLLV scheme involves a significantly simpler algorithm and less computation time than the ETKF method, and both demonstrate better ensemble forecast skill than the BV scheme.

  4. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions Canonical momenta indicators of electroencephalography

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, L

    1997-01-01

    A series of papers has developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI), deriving aggregate behavior of experimentally observed columns of neurons from statistical electrical-chemical properties of synaptic interactions. While not useful to yield insights at the single neuron level, SMNI has demonstrated its capability in describing large-scale properties of short-term memory and electroencephalographic (EEG) systematics. The necessity of including nonlinear and stochastic structures in this development has been stressed. Sets of EEG and evoked potential data were fit, collected to investigate genetic predispositions to alcoholism and to extract brain signatures of short-term memory. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), a global optimization algorithm, was used to perform maximum likelihood fits of Lagrangians defined by path integrals of multivariate conditional probabilities. Canonical momenta indicators (CMI) are thereby derived for individual's EEG data. The CMI give better signal recog...

  5. Paul Weiss and the genesis of canonical quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Dean; Blum, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the life and work of a figure who, we argue, was of primary importance during the early years of field quantisation and (albeit more indirectly) quantum gravity. A student of Dirac and Born, he was interned in Canada during the second world war as an enemy alien and after his release never seemed to regain a good foothold in physics, identifying thereafter as a mathematician. He developed a general method of quantizing (linear and non-linear) field theories based on the parameters labelling an arbitrary hypersurface. This method (the `parameter formalism' often attributed to Dirac), though later discarded, was employed (and viewed at the time as an extremely important tool) by the leading figures associated with canonical quantum gravity: Dirac, Pirani and Schild, Bergmann, DeWitt, and others. We argue that he deserves wider recognition for this and other innovations.

  6. Canonical formalism of action-at-a-distance electrodynamics and many-particle potential among charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tadayuki; Kimura, Toshiei

    1993-10-01

    The second post-Coulombian Lagrangian of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics for a many-particle system is treated according to a canonical formalism of a singular Lagrangian with higher derivatives. The canonical equations are given in terms of a reduced Hamiltonian with Dirac brackets, but they are transformed to be expressed in terms of ordinary Poisson brackets by redefinition of canonical variables. The reduced Hamiltonian includes a characteristic form of three-particle and four-particle potentials. Finally a direct pathway to the reduced Hamiltonian is presented via first-order formalism of the Maxwell theory with charged particles.

  7. The output SNR analysis of Parameter Estimation Algorithm for QFM Signals using Ambiguity function based on the Linear Canonical Transform%采用线性正则域模糊函数的QFM信号参数估计算法输出信噪比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉娥; 卜红霞; 杨洪涛; 王晓燕

    2013-01-01

    采用线性正则域模糊函数的二次调频(quadratic frequency modulated,QFM)信号参数估计算法简单易解,估计精度较高,误差传递小,在实际应用中有较好的前景.本文对输出信噪比进行了较为深入而详细的分析,推导了输出信噪比与输入信噪比及信号采样点数之间的关系表达式;通过仿真实验比较了在同等条件下和积分广义模糊函数算法(integrated generalized ambiguity function,IGAF)以及多项式相位变换(polynomial-phase transform,PPT)算法的输出信噪比大小,以及达到相同大小输出信噪比所需采样点数.发现该算法的输出信噪比要大于IGAF算法和PPT算法,且达到相同大小的输出信噪比所需采样点数分别是IGAF算法和PPT算法的1/4和1/9,即得到相同大小的输出信噪比时该算法所需的采样点数更少.%The parameter estimation algorithm for QFM signals using ambiguity function based on the linear canonical transform (LCTAF) is simple and has high estimation precision.Its error transfer is also small and has a good application prospect in the project.In this paper,the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this algorithm is analyzed deeply and derived the relationship between the output SNR and the number of sampling points and input SNR.By simulation experiments we compare the output SNR of LCTAF algorithm,with that of integrated generalized ambiguity function (IGAF) algorithm and polynomial-phase transform (PPT) algorithm under the same condition.And the required numbers of sampling points when the three algorithms achieve the same output SNR are also presented.We find out that the output SNR of our proposed algorithm is bigger than that of IGAF algorithm and PPT algorithm under the same simulation conditions.When achieving the same output SNR,the number of sampling points of LCTAF needed are 1/4 and 1/9 of the IGAF algorithm and the PPT algorithm needed,respectively.That is,the LCTAF algorithm needs fewer

  8. Agonistic and antagonistic roles for TNIK and MINK in non-canonical and canonical Wnt signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikryukov

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling is a key regulatory factor in animal development and homeostasis and plays an important role in the establishment and progression of cancer. Wnt signals are predominantly transduced via the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors to two distinct pathways, the canonical ß-catenin pathway and a non-canonical pathway controlling planar cell polarity and convergent extension. Interference between these pathways is an important determinant of cellular and phenotypic responses, but is poorly understood. Here we show that TNIK (Traf2 and Nck-interacting kinase and MINK (Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase MAP4K signalling kinases are integral components of both canonical and non-canonical pathways in Xenopus. xTNIK and xMINK interact and are proteolytically cleaved in vivo to generate Kinase domain fragments that are active in signal transduction, and Citron-NIK-Homology (CNH Domain fragments that are suppressive. The catalytic activity of the Kinase domain fragments of both xTNIK and xMINK mediate non-canonical signalling. However, while the Kinase domain fragments of xTNIK also mediate canonical signalling, the analogous fragments derived from xMINK strongly antagonize this signalling. Our data suggest that the proteolytic cleavage of xTNIK and xMINK determines their respective activities and is an important factor in controlling the balance between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling in vivo.

  9. Concept maps and canonical models in neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Sanguino, A; del Rosario, R C H; Mendoza, E R

    2009-05-01

    Most bioscientists engage in informal modelling in their research and explicitly document this activity's results in diagrams or "concept maps". While canonical modelling approaches such as Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) immediately allow the construction of a corresponding system of equations, the problem of determining appropriate parameter values remains. Goel et al. introduced Concept Map Modelling (CMM) as a framework to address this problem through an interactive dialogue between experimenters and modellers. The CMM dialogue extracts the experimenters' implicit knowledge about dynamical behaviour of the parts of the system being modelled in form of rough sketches and verbal statements, e.g. value ranges. These are then used as inputs for parameter and initial value estimates for the symbolic canonical model based on the diagram. Canonical models have the big advantage that a great variety of parameter estimation methods have been developed for them in recent years. The paper discusses the suitability of this approach for neuropsychiatry using recent work of Qi et al. on a canonical model of presynaptic dopamine metabolism. Due to the complexity of systems encountered in neuropsychiatry, hybrid models are often used to complement the canonical models discussed here.

  10. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  11. Canonical and micro-canonical typical entanglement of continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Dahlsten, O C O [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Gross, D [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-03

    We present a framework, compliant with the general canonical principle of statistical mechanics, to define measures on the set of pure Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Within such a framework, we define two specific measures, referred to as 'micro-canonical' and 'canonical', and apply them to study systematically the statistical properties of the bipartite entanglement of n-mode pure Gaussian states at, respectively, given maximal energy and given temperature. We prove the 'concentration of measure' around a finite average, occurring for the entanglement in the thermodynamical limit in both the canonical and the micro-canonical approach. For finite n, we determine analytically the average and standard deviation of the entanglement (as quantified by the reduced purity) between one mode and all the other modes. Furthermore, we numerically investigate more general situations, clearly showing that the onset of the concentration of measure already occurs at relatively small n.

  12. Nonlinear Excitation of Inviscid Stationary Vortex in a Boundary-Layer Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Duck, Peter W.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the excitation of inviscid stationary crossflow instabilities near an isolated surface hump (or indentation) underneath a three-dimensional boundary layer. As the hump height (or indentation depth) is increased from zero, the receptivity process becomes nonlinear even before the stability characteristics of the boundary layer are modified to a significant extent. This behavior contrasts sharply with earlier findings on the excitation of the lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting modes and is attributed to the inviscid nature of the crossflow modes, which leads to a decoupling between the regions of receptivity and stability. As a result of this decoupling, similarity transformations exist that allow the nonlinear receptivity of a general three-dimensional boundary layer to be studied with a set of canonical solutions to the viscous sublayer equations. The parametric study suggests that the receptivity is likely to become nonlinear even before the hump height becomes large enough for flow reversal to occur in the canonical solution. We also find that the receptivity to surface humps increases more rapidly as the hump height increases than is predicted by linear theory. On the other hand, receptivity near surface indentations is generally smaller in comparison with the linear approximation. Extension of the work to crossflow receptivity in compressible boundary layers and to Gortler vortex excitation is also discussed.

  13. Macrophages Mediate a Switch between Canonical and Non-Canonical Wnt Pathways in Canine Mammary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Magdalena; Mucha, Joanna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Homa, Agata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Majewska, Alicja; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Pietrzak, Marta; Perszko, Mikołaj; Romanowska, Karolina; Pawłowski, Karol; Manuali, Elisabetta; Hellmen, Eva; Motyl, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Objective According to the current hypothesis, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are “corrupted” by cancer cells and subsequently facilitate, rather than inhibit, tumor metastasis. Because the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell–TAM interactions are complicated and controversial we aimed to better define this phenomenon. Methods and Results Using microRNA microarrays, Real-time qPCR and Western blot we showed that co-culture of canine mammary tumor cells with TAMs or treatment with macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited the canonical Wnt pathway and activated the non-canonical Wnt pathway in tumor cells. We also showed that co-culture of TAMs with tumor cells increased expression of canonical Wnt inhibitors in TAMs. Subsequently, we demonstrated macrophage-induced invasive growth patterns and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Validation of these results in canine mammary carcinoma tissues (n = 50) and xenograft tumors indicated the activation of non-canonical and canonical Wnt pathways in metastatic tumors and non-metastatic malignancies, respectively. Activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway correlated with number of TAMs. Conclusions We demonstrated that TAMs mediate a “switch” between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in canine mammary tumors, leading to increased tumor invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, similar changes in neoplastic cells were observed in the presence of macrophage-conditioned medium or live macrophages. These observations indicate that rather than being “corrupted” by cancer cells, TAMs constitutively secrete canonical Wnt inhibitors that decrease tumor proliferation and development, but as a side effect, they induce the non-canonical Wnt pathway, which leads to tumor metastasis. These data challenge the conventional understanding of TAM–cancer cell interactions. PMID:24404146

  14. Discrete canonical analysis of three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Montiel, J.; E. Rosales-Quintero, J.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, correspond to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.

  15. An algorithm for calculation of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1973-01-01

    Jordan canonical forms are used extensively in the literature on control systems. However, very few methods are available to compute them numerically. Most numerical methods compute a set of basis vectors in terms of which the given matrix is diagonalized when such a change of basis is possible. Here, a simple and efficient method is suggested for computing the Jordan canonical form and the corresponding transformation matrix. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector, and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques.

  16. Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Chatterjee; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamics of general relativistic systems with boundary, obeying a Hamiltonian constraint in the bulk, is determined solely by the boundary quantum dynamics, and hence by the area spectrum. Assuming, for large area of the boundary, (a) an area spectrum as determined by non-perturbative canonical quantum general relativity (NCQGR), (b) an energy spectrum that bears a power law relation to the area spectrum, (c) an area law for the leading order microcanonical entropy, leading thermal fluctuation corrections to the canonical entropy are shown to be logarithmic in area with a universal coefficient. Since the microcanonical entropy also has universal logarithmic corrections to the area law (from quantum space-time fluctuations, as found earlier) the canonical entropy then has a universal form including logarithmic corrections to the area law. This form is shown to be independent of the index appearing in assumption (b). The index, however, is crucial in ascertaining the domain of validity of our approach based on thermal equilibrium.

  17. Functional linear regression via canonical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guozhong; Wang, Jane-Ling; Yang, Wenjing; 10.3150/09-BEJ228

    2011-01-01

    We study regression models for the situation where both dependent and independent variables are square-integrable stochastic processes. Questions concerning the definition and existence of the corresponding functional linear regression models and some basic properties are explored for this situation. We derive a representation of the regression parameter function in terms of the canonical components of the processes involved. This representation establishes a connection between functional regression and functional canonical analysis and suggests alternative approaches for the implementation of functional linear regression analysis. A specific procedure for the estimation of the regression parameter function using canonical expansions is proposed and compared with an established functional principal component regression approach. As an example of an application, we present an analysis of mortality data for cohorts of medflies, obtained in experimental studies of aging and longevity.

  18. Control of underactuated robotic systems with the use of the derivative-free nonlinear Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G.; Siano, Pierluigi

    2013-10-01

    The Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is used for developing a robust controller which can be applied to underactuated MIMO robotic systems. Using differential flatness theory it is shown that the model of a closed-chain 2-DOF robotic manipulator can be transformed to linear canonical form. For the linearized equivalent of the robotic system it is shown that a state feedback controller can be designed. Since certain elements of the state vector of the linearized system can not be measured directly, it is proposed to estimate them with the use of a novel filtering method, the so-called Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. Moreover, by redesigning the Kalman Filter as a disturbance observer, it is is shown that one can estimate simultaneously external disturbances terms that affect the robotic model or disturbance terms which are associated with parametric uncertainty.

  19. Nonlinear electrodynamics with birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglov, S I

    2015-01-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with three parameters is suggested. The phenomena of vacuum birefringence takes place when there is the external constant magnetic field. We calculate the indices of refraction for two polarizations of electromagnetic waves, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic induction field. From the Bir\\'{e}fringence Magn\\'{e}tique du Vide (BMV) experiment one of the coefficients, $\\gamma\\approx 10^{-20}$ T$^{-2}$, was estimated. The canonical, symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors and dilatation current were obtained. The dilatation symmetry and the dual symmetry are broken in the model considered.

  20. Change detection in the dynamics of an intracellular protein synthesis model using nonlinear Kalman filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G; Rigatou, Efthymia G; Djida, Jean Daniel

    2015-10-01

    A method for early diagnosis of parametric changes in intracellular protein synthesis models (e.g. the p53 protein - mdm2 inhibitor model) is developed with the use of a nonlinear Kalman Filtering approach (Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter) and of statistical change detection methods. The intracellular protein synthesis dynamic model is described by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. It is shown that such a dynamical system satisfies differential flatness properties and this allows to transform it, through a change of variables (diffeomorphism), to the so-called linear canonical form. For the linearized equivalent of the dynamical system, state estimation can be performed using the Kalman Filter recursion. Moreover, by applying an inverse transformation based on the previous diffeomorphism it becomes also possible to obtain estimates of the state variables of the initial nonlinear model. By comparing the output of the Kalman Filter (which is assumed to correspond to the undistorted dynamical model) with measurements obtained from the monitored protein synthesis system, a sequence of differences (residuals) is obtained. The statistical processing of the residuals with the use of x2 change detection tests, can provide indication within specific confidence intervals about parametric changes in the considered biological system and consequently indications about the appearance of specific diseases (e.g. malignancies).

  1. Scalar potentials out of canonical quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman, W; Socorro, J; Urena-Lopez, L A

    2005-01-01

    Using canonical quantization of a flat FRW cosmological model containing a real scalar field $\\phi$ endowed with a scalar potential $V(\\phi)$, we are able to obtain exact and semiclassical solutions of the so called Wheeler-DeWitt equation for a particular family of scalar potentials. Some features of the solutions and their classical limit are discussed.

  2. Kuidas Canon suureks kasvas / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Jaapani kaamerate ja büroomasinate tootja Canon Groupi arengust, tegevusest kolmes regioonis - USA-s, Euroopas ja Aasias ning ettevõtte pikaajalise edu põhjustest - ärifilosoofiast ning ajastatud tootearendusest. Vt. samas: Firma esialgne nimi oli Kwanon; Konkurendid koonduvad

  3. Probing the small distance structure of canonical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hooft, G.

    2010-01-01

    In canonical quantum gravity, the formal functional integral includes an integration over the local conformal factor, and we propose to perform the functional integral over this factor before doing any of the other functional integrals. By construction, the resulting effective theory would be expect

  4. Green's Conjecture for the generic canonical curve

    OpenAIRE

    Teixidor-I-Bigas, Montserrat

    1998-01-01

    Green's Conjecture states the following : syzygies of the canonical model of a curve are simple up to the p^th stage if and only if the Clifford index of C is greater than p. We prove that the generic curve of genus g satisfies Green's conjecture.

  5. Canonical analysis based on mutual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2015-01-01

    combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...

  6. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  7. Regularized Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takane, Yoshio; Hwang, Heungsun; Abdi, Herve

    2008-01-01

    Multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (Generalized CANO or GCANO for short) is an important technique because it subsumes a number of interesting multivariate data analysis techniques as special cases. More recently, it has also been recognized as an important technique for integrating information from multiple sources. In this paper, we…

  8. Canonical duties, liabilities of trustees and administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, F G

    1985-06-01

    The new Code of Canon Law outlines a number of duties of those who have responsibility for administering the Church's temporal goods. Before assuming office, administrators must pledge to be efficient and faithful, and they must prepare an inventory of goods belonging to the juridic person they serve. Among their duties, administrators must: Ensure that adequate insurance is provided; Use civilly valid methods to protect canonical ownership of the goods; Observe civil and canon law prescriptions as well as donors' intentions; Collect and safeguard revenues, repay debts, and invest funds securely; Maintain accurate records, keep documents secure, and prepare an annual budget; Prepare an annual report and present it to the Ordinary where prescribed; Observe civil law concerning labor and social policy, and pay employees a just and decent wage. Administrators who carry out acts that are invalid canonically are liable for such acts. The juridic person is not liable, unless it derived benefit from the transaction. Liability is especially high when the sale of property is involved or when a contract is entered into without proper cannonical consent. Although Church law is relatively powerless to punish those who have been negligent, stewards, administrators, and trustees must do all they can to be truthful to the responsibility with which they have been entrusted.

  9. Generalized canonical correlation analysis with missing values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Velden (Michel); Y. Takane

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo new methods for dealing with missing values in generalized canonical correlation analysis are introduced. The first approach, which does not require iterations, is a generalization of the Test Equating method available for principal component analysis. In the second approach, missing

  10. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingyi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a canonical ensemble model for the black hole quantum tunnelling radiation is introduced. In this model the probability distribution function corresponding to the emission shell is calculated to second order. The formula of pressure and internal energy of the thermal system is modified, and the fundamental equation of thermodynamics is also discussed.

  11. Canonical equivalence between massive spin 1 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Arias, Pio J.; Perez-Mosquera, Jean C.

    2004-01-01

    The model of Cremmer-Scherck and Proca are considered in dimensions greater than 3+1. It is obtained that the Proca model correspond to a gauged fixed version of the Cremmer-Scherck one, and we show their canonical equivalence.

  12. Nonlinear control for dual quaternion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D.

    addressed via coordinate transformation. It is shown that driftless nonlinear systems that do not meet Brockett's conditions for coordinate transformation can be augmented such that they can be transformed into the Brockett's canonical form, which is nonholonomic. It is also shown that the kinematics for quaternion systems can be represented by a nonholonomic integrator. Then, a discontinuous controller designed for nonholonomic systems is applied. Examples of various applications for dual quaternion systems are given including spacecraft attitude and position control and robotics.

  13. Quantum canonical ensemble: A projection operator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Wim; Lemmens, Lucien; Brosens, Fons

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the exact number of particles N, and taking this knowledge into account, the quantum canonical ensemble imposes a constraint on the occupation number operators. The constraint particularly hampers the systematic calculation of the partition function and any relevant thermodynamic expectation value for arbitrary but fixed N. On the other hand, fixing only the average number of particles, one may remove the above constraint and simply factorize the traces in Fock space into traces over single-particle states. As is well known, that would be the strategy of the grand-canonical ensemble which, however, comes with an additional Lagrange multiplier to impose the average number of particles. The appearance of this multiplier can be avoided by invoking a projection operator that enables a constraint-free computation of the partition function and its derived quantities in the canonical ensemble, at the price of an angular or contour integration. Introduced in the recent past to handle various issues related to particle-number projected statistics, the projection operator approach proves beneficial to a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics for which the canonical ensemble offers a natural and appropriate environment. In this light, we present a systematic treatment of the canonical ensemble that embeds the projection operator into the formalism of second quantization while explicitly fixing N, the very number of particles rather than the average. Being applicable to both bosonic and fermionic systems in arbitrary dimensions, transparent integral representations are provided for the partition function ZN and the Helmholtz free energy FN as well as for two- and four-point correlation functions. The chemical potential is not a Lagrange multiplier regulating the average particle number but can be extracted from FN+1 -FN, as illustrated for a two-dimensional fermion gas.

  14. Natural chymotrypsin-like-cleaved human mitochondrial peptides confirm tetra-, pentacodon, non-canonical RNA translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-09-01

    Mass spectra of human mitochondrial peptides match non-canonical transcripts systematically (a) deleting mono/dinucleotides after trinucleotides (delRNA), (b) exchanging nucleotides (swinger RNA), translated according to tri, (c) tetra- and pentacodons (codons expanded by a 4th (and 5th) silent nucleotide(s)). Swinger transcriptions are 23 bijective transformations, nine symmetric (XY, e.g. AC) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X->Y->Z->X, e.g. A->C->G->A). Here, proteomic analyses assuming cleavage after W,Y, F (chymotrypsin-like, for trypsinized samples) detect fewer chymotrypsinized than trypsinized peptides. Detected non-canonical peptides map preferentially on detected non-canonical RNAs for chymotrypsinized peptides, as previously found for trypsinized peptides. This suggests residual natural chymotrypsin-like digestion detectable within experimentally trypsinized peptide data. Some trypsinized peptides are detected twice, by analyses assuming trypsin, and those assuming chymotrypsin cleavages. They have higher spectra counts than peptides detected only once, meaning that abundant peptides are more frequently detected, but detection certainties resemble those for peptides detected only once. Analyses assuming 'incorrect' digestions are inadequate negative controls for digestion enzymes naturally active in biological samples. Chymotrypsin-analyses confirm non-canonical transcriptions/translations independently of results obtained assuming trypsinization, increase non-canonical peptidome coverage, indicating mitogenome-encoding of yet undetected proteins.

  15. Canonical analysis of scalar fields in two-dimensional curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, D. G. C.; Patrushev, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Scalar fields on a two-dimensional curved surface are considered and the canonical structure of this theory analyzed. Both the first- and second-order forms of the Einstein-Hilbert (EH) action for the metric are used (these being inequivalent in two dimensions). The Dirac constraint formalism is used to find the generator of the gauge transformation, using the formalisms of Henneaux, Teitelboim and Zanelli (HTZ) and of Castellani (C). The HTZ formalism is slightly modified in the case of the first-order EH action to accommodate the gauge transformation of the metric; this gauge transformation is unusual as it mixes the affine connection with the scalar field.

  16. Field Theories on Canonical and Lie-Algebra Noncommutative Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G; Doplicher, L; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele; Doplicher, Luisa

    2002-01-01

    Field theories on canonical noncommutative spacetimes, which are being studied also in connection with string theory, and on $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime, which is a popular example of Lie-algebra noncommutative spacetime, can be naturally constructed by introducing a suitable generating functional for Green functions in energy-momentum space. Direct reference to a star product is not necessary. It is sufficient to make use of the simple properties that the Fourier transform preserves in these spacetimes and establish the rules for products of wave exponentials that are dictated by the non-commutativity of the coordinates. The approach also provides an elementary description of "planar" and "non-planar" Feynman diagrams. We also comment on the rich phenomenology emerging from the analysis of these theories.

  17. Field Theories on Canonical and Lie-Algebra Noncommutative Spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelino-Camelia, G.; Arzano, M.; Doplicher, L.

    2003-01-01

    Field theories on canonical noncommutative spacetimes, which are being studied also in connection with string theory, and on k-Minkowski spacetime, which is a popular example of Lie-algebra noncommutative spacetime, can be naturally constructed by introducing a suitable generating functional for Green functions in energy-momentum space. Direct reference to a star product is not necessary. It is sufficient to make use of the simple properties that the Fourier transform preserves in these spacetimes and establish the rules for products of wave exponentials that are dictated by the non-commutativity of the coordinates. The approach also provides an elementary description of "planar" and "non-planar" Feynman diagrams. We also comment on the rich phenomenology emerging from the analysis of these theories.

  18. New approach to canonical partition functions computation in $N_f=2$ lattice QCD at finite baryon density

    CERN Document Server

    Bornyakov, V G; Goy, V A; Molochkov, A V; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nikolaev, A A; Zakharov, V I

    2016-01-01

    We propose and test a new approach to computation of canonical partition functions in lattice QCD at finite density. We suggest a few steps procedure. We first compute numerically the quark number density for imaginary chemical potential $i\\mu_{qI}$. Then we restore the grand canonical partition function for imaginary chemical potential using fitting procedure for the quark number density. Finally we compute the canonical partition functions using high precision numerical Fourier transformation. Additionally we compute the canonical partition functions using known method of the hopping parameter expansion and compare results obtained by two methods in the deconfining as well as in the confining phases. The agreement between two methods indicates the validity of the new method. Our numerical results are obtained in two flavor lattice QCD with clover improved Wilson fermions.

  19. Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, an algorithm has been presented for computing sound channel parameters in the western and southern Bay of Bengal. The estimated canonical sound speed profile using these parameters has been compared with computed...

  20. Non-canonical modulators of nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Colin M; Zheng, Ya-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and protein kinases, nuclear receptors (NRs) are a rich source of pharmaceutical targets. Over 80 NR-targeting drugs have been approved for 18 NRs. The focus of drug discovery in NRs has hitherto been on identifying ligands that bind to the canonical ligand binding pockets of the C-terminal ligand binding domains (LBDs). Due to the development of drug resistance and selectivity concerns, there has been considerable interest in exploring other, non-canonical ligand binding sites. Unfortunately, the potencies of compounds binding at other sites have generally not been sufficient for clinical development. However, the situation has changed dramatically over the last 3years, as compounds with sufficient potency have been reported for several NR targets. Here we review recent developments in this area from a medicinal chemistry point of view in the hope of stimulating further interest in this area of research.

  1. Microcanonical and canonical approach to traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Surda, Anton

    2007-01-01

    A system of identical cars on a single-lane road is treated as a microcanonical and canonical ensemble. Behaviour of the cars is characterized by the probability of car velocity as a function of distance and velocity of the car ahead. The calculations a performed on a discrete 1D lattice with discrete car velocities. Probability of total velocity of a group of cars as a function of density is calculated in microcanonical approach. For a canonical ensemble, fluctuations of car density as a function of total velocity is found. Phase transitions between free and jammed flow for large deceleration rate of cars and formation of queues of cars with the same velocity for low deceleration rate are described.

  2. Canonical Quantum Gravity on Noncommutative Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Kober, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper canonical quantum gravity on noncommutative space-time is considered. The corresponding generalized classical theory is formulated by using the moyal star product, which enables the representation of the field quantities depending on noncommuting coordinates by generalized quantities depending on usual coordinates. But not only the classical theory has to be generalized in analogy to other field theories. Besides, the necessity arises to replace the commutator between the gravitational field operator and its canonical conjugated quantity by a corresponding generalized expression on noncommutative space-time. Accordingly the transition to the quantum theory has also to be performed in a generalized way and leads to extended representations of the quantum theoretical operators. If the generalized representations of the operators are inserted to the generalized constraints, one obtains the corresponding generalized quantum constraints including the Hamiltonian constraint as dynamical constraint. Af...

  3. Observables in classical canonical gravity: folklore demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Pons, J M; Sundermeyer, K A

    2010-01-01

    We give an overview of some conceptual difficulties, sometimes called paradoxes, that have puzzled for years the physical interpetation of classical canonical gravity and, by extension, the canonical formulation of generally covariant theories. We identify these difficulties as stemming form some terminological misunderstandings as to what is meant by "gauge invariance", or what is understood classically by a "physical state". We make a thorough analysis of the issue and show that all purported paradoxes disappear when the right terminology is in place. Since this issue is connected with the search of observables - gauge invariant quantities - for these theories, we formally show that time evolving observables can be constructed for every observer. This construction relies on the fixation of the gauge freedom of diffeomorphism invariance by means of a scalar coordinatization. We stress the condition that the coordinatization must be made with scalars. As an example of our method for obtaining observables we d...

  4. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Sarkar; Chiranjib Chakraborty

    2015-10-01

    We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.

  5. Canonical approach to 2D induced gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Popovic, D

    2001-01-01

    Using canonical method the Liouville theory has been obtained as a gravitational Wess-Zumino action of the Polyakov string. From this approach it is clear that the form of the Liouville action is the consequence of the bosonic representation of the Virasoro algebra, and that the coefficient in front of the action is proportional to the central charge and measures the quantum braking of the classical symmetry.

  6. Canonical Formulation of pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balasin, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We construct a Hamiltonian formulation for the class of plane-fronted gravitational waves with parallel rays (pp-waves). Because of the existence of a light-like Killing vector, the dynamics is effectively reduced to a 2+1 evolution with "time" chosen to be light-like. In spite of the vanishing action this allows us to geometrically identify a symplectic form as well as dynamical Hamiltonian, thus casting the system into canonical form.

  7. On Complex Supermanifolds with Trivial Canonical Bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Groeger, Josua

    2016-01-01

    We give an algebraic characterisation for the triviality of the canonical bundle of a complex supermanifold in terms of a certain Batalin-Vilkovisky superalgebra structure. As an application, we study the Calabi-Yau case, in which an explicit formula in terms of the Levi-Civita connection is achieved. Our methods include the use of complex integral forms and the recently developed theory of superholonomy.

  8. Baby Skyrmions stabilized by canonical quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acus, A.; Norvaisas, E. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); Shnir, Ya., E-mail: shnir@maths.tcd.i [School of Theoretical Physics - DIAS, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)

    2009-11-23

    We analyse the effect of the canonical quantization of the rotational mode of the O(3)sigma-model which includes the Skyrme term. Numerical evidence is presented that the quantum correction to the mass of the rotationally-invariant charge n=1,2 configurations may stabilize the solution even in the limit of vanishing potential. The corresponding range of values of the parameters is discussed.

  9. Baby Skyrmions stabilized by canonical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A; Shnir, Ya

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the effect of the canonical quantization of the rotational mode of the O(3) $\\sigma$-model which includes the Skyrme term. Numerical evidence is presented that the quantum correction to the mass of the rotationally-invariant charge $n=1,2$ configurations may stabilize the solution even in the limit of vanishing potential. The corresponding range of values of the parameters is discussed.

  10. Il Canone Linguistico Boccacciano, Non Senza Dissenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Casini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Author of prose’s greatest masterpiece of medieval literature in the vernacular, Giovanni Boccaccio was crucial to defining the Italian language canon, especially since Pietro Bembo proposed its coding in the sixteenth century. Not without controversy, however, since shortly after the publication of Prose Della Volgar Language, Bembo presents the first contrasting theories that support the linguistic model presented by Machiavelli

  11. Cluster expansion in the canonical ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Pulvirenti, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We consider a system of particles confined in a box $\\La\\subset\\R^d$ interacting via a tempered and stable pair potential. We prove the validity of the cluster expansion for the canonical partition function in the high temperature - low density regime. The convergence is uniform in the volume and in the thermodynamic limit it reproduces Mayer's virial expansion providing an alternative and more direct derivation which avoids the deep combinatorial issues present in the original proof.

  12. Technical Note: A measure of watershed nonlinearity II: re-introducing an IFP inverse fractional power transform for streamflow recession analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    This note illustrates, in the context of Brutsaert-Nieber (1977) model: -dQ/dt = aQb, the utility of a newly rediscovered inverse fractional power (IFP) transform of the flow rates. This method of streamflow recession analysis dates back a half-century. The IFP transform Δb on an operand Q is defined as Δb Q = 1/Qb-1. Brutsaert-Nieber model by IFP transform thus becomes: ΔbQ(t) = ΔbQ(0) + (b-1) at, if b ≠ 1. The IFP transformed recession curve appears as a straight line on a semi-IFP plot. The method has both the advantage of being independent of the size of computational time step, and the disadvantage of being depending on the parameter b value. This is used to calibrate the Brutsaert-Nieber recession flow model in which b is a slope (or shape) parameter, and a is an intercept (or a scale parameter). It is applied to four observed events on the Spoon River in Illinois (4237 km2). The results show that the IFP transform method gives a narrower range of parameter b values than the regression method in a recession plot. Theoretically, an IFP transformed recession curve for large watersheds falls between those performed by the reciprocal of the cubic root (RoCR) transform and the reciprocal of the square root (RoSR) one. In general, the forgotten IFP transform method merits a fresh look, especially for hillslopes and zero-order catchments, the building blocks of a watershed system. In particular, because of its origin in hillslope hydrology, the 1-parameter RoSR transform need be falsified or verified for application to headwater catchments.

  13. Canonical Sets of Best L1-Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Dryanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mathematics, the term approximation usually means either interpolation on a point set or approximation with respect to a given distance. There is a concept, which joins the two approaches together, and this is the concept of characterization of the best approximants via interpolation. It turns out that for some large classes of functions the best approximants with respect to a certain distance can be constructed by interpolation on a point set that does not depend on the choice of the function to be approximated. Such point sets are called canonical sets of best approximation. The present paper summarizes results on canonical sets of best L1-approximation with emphasis on multivariate interpolation and best L1-approximation by blending functions. The best L1-approximants are characterized as transfinite interpolants on canonical sets. The notion of a Haar-Chebyshev system in the multivariate case is discussed also. In this context, it is shown that some multivariate interpolation spaces share properties of univariate Haar-Chebyshev systems. We study also the problem of best one-sided multivariate L1-approximation by sums of univariate functions. Explicit constructions of best one-sided L1-approximants give rise to well-known and new inequalities.

  14. Momentum-dependent symmetries and non-Noether conserved quantities for nonholonomic nonconservative Hamilton canonical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing-Li; Chen Li-Qun; Chen Xian-Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the momentum-dependent symmetries for nonholonomic nonconservative Hamilton canonical systems. The definition and determining equations of the momentum-dependent symmetries are presented, based on the invariance of differential equations under infinitesimal transformations with respect to the generalized coordinates and generalized momentums. The structure equation and the non-Noether conserved quantities of the systems are obtained. The inverse issues associated with the momentum-dependent symmetries are discussed. Finally, an example is discussed to further illustrate the applications.

  15. Adaptive Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis Algorithms for Nonparametric Identification of Wiener and Hammerstein Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Santamaría

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats the identification of nonlinear systems that consist of a cascade of a linear channel and a nonlinearity, such as the well-known Wiener and Hammerstein systems. In particular, we follow a supervised identification approach that simultaneously identifies both parts of the nonlinear system. Given the correct restrictions on the identification problem, we show how kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA emerges as the logical solution to this problem. We then extend the proposed identification algorithm to an adaptive version allowing to deal with time-varying systems. In order to avoid overfitting problems, we discuss and compare three possible regularization techniques for both the batch and the adaptive versions of the proposed algorithm. Simulations are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm.

  16. Canonical Formulation of the Light-Front Gluodynamics and Quantization of the Non-Abelian Plane Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, V T; Pivovarov, G B; Vary, J P; Kim, Victor T.; Matveev, Victor A.; Pivovarov, Grigorii B.; Vary, James P.

    2001-01-01

    Without a gauge fixing, canonical variables for the light-front SU(2) gluodynamics are determined. The Gauss law is written in terms of the canonical variables. The system is qualified as a generalized dynamical system with first class constraints. Abeliazation is a specific feature of the formulation (most of the canonical variables transform nontrivially only under the action of an Abelian subgroup of the gauge transformations). At finite volume, a discrete spectrum of the light-front Hamiltonian $P_+$ is obtained in the sector of vanishing $P_-$. We obtain, therefore, a quantized form of the classical solutions previously known as non-Abelian plane waves. Then, considering the infinite volume limit, we find that the presence of the mass gap depends on the way the infinite volume limit is taken, which may suggest the presence of different ``phases'' of the infinite volume theory.

  17. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, John Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-11-24

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of {approx} 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm-1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach.

  18. A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in multireference problems

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Alexander Yu

    2014-01-01

    We describe how multirefence dynamic correlation theories can be naturally obtained as single-reference correlation theories in a canonically transformed frame. Such canonically transformed correlation theories are very simple and involve identical expressions to their single-reference counterparts. The corresponding excitations involve quasiparticles rather than the bare particles of the system. High-order density matrices (or their approximations) and the numerical metric instabilities common to multireference correlation theories do not appear. As an example, we formulate the Bogoliubov canonically transformed version of second-order M{\\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory and demonstrate its performance in hydrogen, water, and nitrogen bond dissociation.

  19. Theory of extreme correlations using canonical Fermions and path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shastry, B. Sriram, E-mail: sriram@physics.ucsc.edu

    2014-04-15

    The  t–J  model is studied using a novel and rigorous mapping of the Gutzwiller projected electrons, in terms of canonical electrons. The mapping has considerable similarity to the Dyson–Maleev transformation relating spin operators to canonical Bosons. This representation gives rise to a non Hermitian quantum theory, characterized by minimal redundancies. A path integral representation of the canonical theory is given. Using it, the salient results of the extremely correlated Fermi liquid (ECFL) theory, including the previously found Schwinger equations of motion, are easily rederived. Further, a transparent physical interpretation of the previously introduced auxiliary Greens function and the ‘caparison factor’, is obtained. The low energy electron spectral function in this theory, with a strong intrinsic asymmetry, is summarized in terms of a few expansion coefficients. These include an important emergent energy scale Δ{sub 0} that shrinks to zero on approaching the insulating state, thereby making it difficult to access the underlying very low energy Fermi liquid behavior. The scaled low frequency ECFL spectral function, related simply to the Fano line shape, has a peculiar energy dependence unlike that of a Lorentzian. The resulting energy dispersion obtained by maximization is a hybrid of a massive and a massless Dirac spectrum E{sub Q}{sup ∗}∼γQ−√(Γ{sub 0}{sup 2}+Q{sup 2}), where the vanishing of Q, a momentum type variable, locates the kink minimum. Therefore the quasiparticle velocity interpolates between (γ∓1) over a width Γ{sub 0} on the two sides of Q=0, implying a kink there that strongly resembles a prominent low energy feature seen in angle resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) of cuprate materials. We also propose novel ways of analyzing the ARPES data to isolate the predicted asymmetry between particle and hole excitations. -- Highlights: •Spectral function of the Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquid theory at low energy.

  20. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  1. An Approach for Electromagnetic Transient Simulation of Power Transformers With Nonlinear Exciting Branch%考虑变压器励磁非线性的电磁暂态仿真算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翊; 房大中; 王庆平

    2012-01-01

    A model for electromagnetic transient simulation of power transformer containing nonlinear exciting branch is built and the inrush current of power transformer under no-load switching is simulated by a simple simulation circuit. Applying piece-wise linearization the nonlinear phenomenon appeared in exciting branch of power transformer is processed and by means of simulation results under various simulation step lengths the overshoot appeared due to long step length adopted in piece-wise linearization is explained. The overshoot can be effectively limited by decreasing the step length, however the time for the simulation is evidently increased. On the basis of piece-wise linearization a predictor-corrector method is proposed to ameliorate the overshoot. A predictor-corrector module is added into the electromagnetic transient simulation program for power transformer, thus without changing step length the overshoot is overcome and the simulation process is accelerated. Simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed transformer model and the predictor-corrector method.%建立了一种含有非线性励磁支路的变压器电磁暂态仿真模型。通过简单的仿真线路,仿真了变压器空载合闸时发生励磁涌流的现象。应用分段线性化的方法处理变压器励磁支路的非线性问题,并通过不同仿真步长下励磁电流的仿真结果,说明了分段线性化在大步长下出现的过冲现象。减小仿真步长可有效抑制过冲,但是仿真时间明显增加。在分段线性化方法的基础上提出了预测校正法改善过冲问题。在变压器电磁暂态仿真的程序设计中加入了预测校正模块,在不改变步长的情况下,解决了过冲问题,加快了仿真的计算速度。最后通过仿真结果验证了变压器模型及预测校正方法的正确性和有效性。

  2. The quantum theory of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Playing a prominent role in communications, quantum science and laser physics, quantum nonlinear optics is an increasingly important field. This book presents a self-contained treatment of field quantization and covers topics such as the canonical formalism for fields, phase-space representations and the encompassing problem of quantization of electrodynamics in linear and nonlinear media. Starting with a summary of classical nonlinear optics, it then explains in detail the calculation techniques for quantum nonlinear optical systems and their applications, quantum and classical noise sources in optical fibers and applications of nonlinear optics to quantum information science. Supplemented by end-of-chapter exercises and detailed examples of calculation techniques in different systems, this book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, condensed matter physics, quantum information and atomic physics. A solid foundation in quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamic...

  3. A Canonical Biomechanical Vocal Fold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Siegmund, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The present article aimed at constructing a canonical geometry of the human vocal fold (VF) from subject-specific image slice data. A computer-aided design approach automated the model construction. A subject-specific geometry available in literature, three abstractions (which successively diminished in geometric detail) derived from it, and a widely used quasi two-dimensional VF model geometry were used to create computational models. The first three natural frequencies of the models were used to characterize their mechanical response. These frequencies were determined for a representative range of tissue biomechanical properties, accounting for underlying VF histology. Compared with the subject-specific geometry model (baseline), a higher degree of abstraction was found to always correspond to a larger deviation in model frequency (up to 50% in the relevant range of tissue biomechanical properties). The model we deemed canonical was optimally abstracted, in that it significantly simplified the VF geometry compared with the baseline geometry but can be recalibrated in a consistent manner to match the baseline response. Models providing only a marginally higher degree of abstraction were found to have significant deviation in predicted frequency response. The quasi two-dimensional model presented an extreme situation: it could not be recalibrated for its frequency response to match the subject-specific model. This deficiency was attributed to complex support conditions at anterior-posterior extremities of the VFs, accentuated by further issues introduced through the tissue biomechanical properties. In creating canonical models by leveraging advances in clinical imaging techniques, the automated design procedure makes VF modeling based on subject-specific geometry more realizable. PMID:22209063

  4. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-07-16

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  5. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, A S

    2015-01-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. The corresponding computational algorithm is more efficient for high perturbative orders than the algorithms of Van Vleck and Magnus methods.

  6. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-06-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson's ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  7. Women and Textiles: Warping the Architectural Canon

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Textiles have long been a part of the canon of Western architecture—from the folds of draped female forms in ancient Greek temples to the abstract Mayan patterns “knitted” together in Frank Lloyd Wright’s textile block houses of the 1920s. Yet just as any façade may conceal what’s inside, architecture’s shared history with weaving is often obscured. Today architecture sits at the top alongside the “fine arts” of painting and sculpture, while woven textiles occupy a less prominent position in ...

  8. Canonical energy and linear stability of Schwarzschild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Consider linearised perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole in 4 dimensions. Using the linearised Newman-Penrose curvature component, which satisfies the Teukolsky equation, as a Hertz potential we generate a `new' metric perturbation satisfying the linearised Einstein equation. We show that the canonical energy, given by Hollands and Wald, of the `new' metric perturbation is the conserved Regge-Wheeler-like energy used by Dafermos, Holzegel and Rodnianski to prove linear stability and decay of perturbations of Schwarzschild. We comment on a generalisation of this strategy to prove the linear stability of the Kerr black hole.

  9. An optimization approach for fitting canonical tensor decompositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2009-02-01

    Tensor decompositions are higher-order analogues of matrix decompositions and have proven to be powerful tools for data analysis. In particular, we are interested in the canonical tensor decomposition, otherwise known as the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (CPD), which expresses a tensor as the sum of component rank-one tensors and is used in a multitude of applications such as chemometrics, signal processing, neuroscience, and web analysis. The task of computing the CPD, however, can be difficult. The typical approach is based on alternating least squares (ALS) optimization, which can be remarkably fast but is not very accurate. Previously, nonlinear least squares (NLS) methods have also been recommended; existing NLS methods are accurate but slow. In this paper, we propose the use of gradient-based optimization methods. We discuss the mathematical calculation of the derivatives and further show that they can be computed efficiently, at the same cost as one iteration of ALS. Computational experiments demonstrate that the gradient-based optimization methods are much more accurate than ALS and orders of magnitude faster than NLS.

  10. Simultaneous Semi-Coupled Dictionary Learning for Matching in Canonical Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilotpal; Mandal, Devraj; Biswas, Soma

    2017-05-24

    Cross-modal recognition and matching with privileged information are important challenging problems in the field of computer vision. The cross-modal scenario deals with matching across different modalities and needs to take care of the large variations present across and within each modality. The privileged information scenario deals with the situation that all the information available during training may not be available during the testing stage and hence algorithms need to leverage the extra information from the training stage itself. We show that for multi-modal data, either one of the above situations may arise if one modality is absent during testing. Here, we propose a novel framework which can handle both these scenarios seamlessly with applications to matching multi-modal data. The proposed approach jointly uses data from the two modalities to build a canonical representation which encompasses information from both the modalities. We explore four different types of canonical representations for different types of data. The algorithm computes dictionaries and canonical representation for data from both the modalities such that the transformed sparse coefficients of both the modalities are equal to that of the canonical representation. The sparse coefficients are finally matched using Mahalanobis metric. Extensive experiments on different datasets, involving RGBD, text-image and audio-image data show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  11. Nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Finn

    1995-01-01

    It is generally very difficult to solve nonlinear systems, and such systems often possess chaotic solutions. In the rare event that a system is completely solvable, it is said to integrable. Such systems never have chaotic solutions. Using the Inverse Scattering Transform Method (ISTM) two...

  12. Nonlinear Gravitational Lagrangians revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Magnano, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The Legendre transformation method, applied in 1987 to deal with purely metric gravitational Lagrangians with nonlinear dependence on the Ricci tensor, is extended to metric-affine models and is shown to provide a concise and insightful comparison of the dynamical content of the two variational frameworks.

  13. Improved fiber nonlinearity mitigation in dispersion managed optical OFDM links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasan, Ilavarasan; Saminathan, Brindha; Murugappan, Meenakshi

    2017-02-01

    Fiber nonlinearity is seen as a capacity limiting factor in OFDM based dispersion managed links since the Four Wave Mixing effects become enhanced due to the high PAPR. In this paper, the authors have compared the linear and nonlinear PAPR reduction techniques for fiber nonlinearity mitigation in OFDM based dispersion managed links. In the existing optical systems, linear transform techniques such as SLM and PTS have been implemented to reduce nonlinear effects. In the proposed study, superior performance of the L2-by-3 nonlinear transform technique is demonstrated for PAPR reduction to mitigate fiber nonlinearities. The performance evaluation is carried out by interfacing multiple simulators. The results of both linear and nonlinear transform techniques have been compared and the results show that nonlinear transform technique outperforms the linear transform in terms of nonlinearity mitigation and improved BER performance.

  14. Single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s-525 km DQPSK transmission using ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation and nonlinear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Tomiyama, Yutaro

    2011-01-01

    developed an ultrafast timedomain optical Fourier transformation technique in a round-trip configuration. By applying this technique to subpicosecond pulses, transmission impairments were greatly reduced, and BER performance below FEC limit was obtained with increased system margin. Copyright © 2011...

  15. Swinger RNA self-hybridization and mitochondrial non-canonical swinger transcription, transcription systematically exchanging nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-06-21

    Stem-loop hairpins punctuate mitochondrial post-transcriptional processing. Regulation of mitochondrial swinger transcription, transcription producing RNAs matching the mitogenome only assuming systematic exchanges between nucleotides (23 bijective transformations along 9 symmetric exchanges XY, e.g. AG, and 14 asymmetric exchanges X>Y>Z>X, e.g. A>G>C>A) remains unknown. Does swinger RNA self-hybridization regulate swinger, as regular, transcription? Groups of 8 swinger transformations share canonical self-hybridization properties within each group, group 0 includes identity (regular) transcription. The human mitogenome has more stem-loop hairpins than randomized sequences for all groups. Group 2 transformations reveal complementarity of the light strand replication origin (OL) loop and a neighboring tRNA gene, detecting the longtime presumed OL/tRNA homology. Non-canonical G=U pairings in hairpins increases with swinger RNA detection. These results confirm biological relevancy of swinger-transformed DNA/RNA, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected swinger DNA/RNA and swinger peptides. Swinger-transformed mitogenomes include unsuspected multilayered information.

  16. Power, Gender, and Canon Formation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Steele

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available I propose to analyze Castellanos's trajectory from marginalized ethnographer and critic of "latino" society, to presidential insider and ambassador, and the first modern Mexican woman writer to be accepted into the literary canon. I will explore the intersection of politics, gender, and the (self- creation of a literary persona with regard to the following issues: 1 the tension between self-exposure and self-censorship in Castellanos's literary work; 2 Castellanos's intense and problematic relationship with her illegitimate, mestizo half-brother; 3 the coincidences and contradictions between Castellanos's journalistic account of her relationship with her servant Maria Escandon, and Maria's own oral history twenty years later; 4 the tension between depression and dependency, on the one hand, and self-assertiveness and audacity, on the other; 5 the relation between Castellanos's role as ambassador and the personal, apolitical, often frivolous character of her journalistic articles written in Israel; 6 the contradictory readings of Castellanos's death, and the respective implications for her place in the canon; and 7 the implications, for their reception, of the love letters published in Cartas a Ricardo 1994, as opposed to 1974.

  17. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  18. Observables in classical canonical gravity: Folklore demystified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J. M.; Salisbury, D. C.; Sundermeyer, K. A.

    2010-04-01

    We give an overview of some conceptual difficulties, sometimes called paradoxes, that have puzzled for years the physical interpetation of classical canonical gravity and, by extension, the canonical formulation of generally covariant theories. We identify these difficulties as stemming form some terminological misunderstandings as to what is meant by "gauge invariance", or what is understood classically by a "physical state". We make a thorough analysis of the issue and show that all purported paradoxes disappear when the right terminology is in place. Since this issue is connected with the search of observables - gauge invariant quantities - for these theories, we formally show that time evolving observables can be constructed for every observer. This construction relies on the fixation of the gauge freedom of diffeomorphism invariance by means of a scalar coordinatization. We stress the condition that the coordinatization must be made with scalars. As an example of our method for obtaining observables we discuss the case of the massive particle in AdS spacetime.

  19. Observables in classical canonical gravity: Folklore demystified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, J M [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Salisbury, D C [Department of Physics, Austin College, Sherman, Texas 75090-4440, USA, and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Boltzmannstrasse 22, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Sundermeyer, K A, E-mail: pons@ecm.ub.e, E-mail: dsalisbury@austincollege.ed, E-mail: ksun@gmx.d [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    We give an overview of some conceptual difficulties, sometimes called paradoxes, that have puzzled for years the physical interpetation of classical canonical gravity and, by extension, the canonical formulation of generally covariant theories. We identify these difficulties as stemming form some terminological misunderstandings as to what is meant by 'gauge invariance', or what is understood classically by a 'physical state'. We make a thorough analysis of the issue and show that all purported paradoxes disappear when the right terminology is in place. Since this issue is connected with the search of observables - gauge invariant quantities - for these theories, we formally show that time evolving observables can be constructed for every observer. This construction relies on the fixation of the gauge freedom of diffeomorphism invariance by means of a scalar coordinatization. We stress the condition that the coordinatization must be made with scalars. As an example of our method for obtaining observables we discuss the case of the massive particle in AdS spacetime.

  20. Non-canonical RAN Translation of CGG Repeats Has Canonical Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Diana C; Cooper, Thomas A

    2016-04-21

    Repeat expansions cause dominantly inherited neurological disorders. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kearse et al. (2016) examine the requirements for RAN translation of the CGG repeats that cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, revealing similarities and differences with canonical translation.

  1. Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hateley, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

  2. Detection of parametric changes in the Peyrard-Bishop- Dauxois model of DNA using nonlinear Kalman filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, G; Rigatou, E; Djida, J D

    2015-01-01

    The derivative-free nonlinear Kalman filter is proposed for state estimation and fault diagnosis in distributed parameter systems of the wave-type and particularly in the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model of DNA dynamics. At a first stage, a nonlinear filtering approach is introduced for estimating the dynamics of the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois 1D nonlinear wave equation, through the processing of a small number of measurements. It is shown that the numerical solution of the associated partial differential equation results in a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. With the application of a diffeomorphism that is based on differential flatness theory it is shown that an equivalent description of the system is obtained in the linear canonical (Brunovsky) form. This transformation enables to obtain local estimates about the state vector of the DNA model through the application us of the standard Kalman filter recursion. At a second stage, the local statistical approach to fault diagnosis is used to perform fault diagnosis for this distributed parameter system by processing with statistical tools the differences (residuals) between the output of the Kalman filter and the measurements obtained from the distributed parameter system. Optimal selection of the fault threshold is succeeded by using the local statistical approach to fault diagnosis. The efficiency of the proposed filtering approach in the problem of fault diagnosis for parametric change detection, in nonlinear wave-type models of DNA dynamics, is confirmed through simulation experiments.

  3. On Baecklund transformation of D{sub n} type Toda lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanra, Barun, E-mail: barunkhanra@rediffmail.co [Sailendra Sircar Vidyalaya, 62A Shyampukur Street, Calcutta - 700004 (India); Ghose Choudhury, A., E-mail: a_ghosechoudhury@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Surendranath College, 24/2 Mahatma Gandhi Road, Calcutta - 700009 (India)

    2010-09-06

    In this Letter we study the Baecklund transformation for the discrete D{sub n} type Toda lattice with dynamic boundary conditions. As in the periodic case, the transformation is found to be canonical with a corresponding generating function.

  4. A New High Performance Realization of Hyperchaotic Modified Canonical Chua Circuit Using JFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prem Bhushan Mital; Umesh Kumar; R.S. Prasad

    2008-01-01

    @@ A new implementation of hyperchaotic modified canonical Chua circuit using junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) is proposed. The design is based on a source coupled JFET circuit to approximate a smooth cubic non-linearity and a two-terminal negative resistance element containing a p-n-p silicon transistor and an n-channel JFET. The realization is supported by Orcad Pspice simulation and numerical MATLAB results. The hyper-chaotic nature is confirmed by two positive Lyapunov exponents associated with the attractor which is a fractal with a Lyapunov dimension between 3 and 4.

  5. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term -{\\Delta}Q, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and {\\Delta} is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensional Euler vorticity equation of a neutral fluid. A heuristic estimate shows that current sheets grow exponentially (even in a fully nonlinear regime) together with the action variable P that is conjugate to Q. By numerical simulation, the predicted behavior of the canonical variables, yielding exponential growth of current sheets, has been demonstrated.

  6. Application of Pulse-Inversion Technique and Wavelet Transform for Nonlinear Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing%脉冲反转和小波变换在非线性超声检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江念; 王召巴; 陈友兴

    2015-01-01

    Based on correlation of the multi-level wavelet coefficients, a new algorithm combined with pulse-inversion tech-nique was proposed to improve the accuracy and robustness of defects for nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive testing.The pulse-in-version technique was used to inhibit the odd harmonics due to nonlinearity of the input instrumentation.By employing the wavelet transform method, adhesive joints tested ultrasonic signal were de-noising processed.The experimental results show that proposed method can efficiently extract the pure second harmonic and enhance ability to characterize the adhesive strength by ultrasonic non-linear coefficient.%为提高非线性超声检测技术的准确性和鲁棒性,文中将脉冲反转技术和信号小波系数相关性滤波算法结合用于处理非线性超声检测信号。利用脉冲反转技术抑制实验仪器产生的奇数次谐波信号,再根据信号小波系数相关性算法滤除噪声。实验结果表明:上述信号处理方法能有效提取频率纯净的二次谐波,提高了超声非线性系数表征试件粘接强度的能力。

  7. Extension of warm inflation to non-canonical scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2014-01-01

    We extend the warm inflationary scenario to the case of the non-canonical scalar fields. The equation of motion and the other basic equations of this new scenario are obtained. The Hubble damped term is enhanced in non-canonical inflation. A linear stability analysis is performed to give the proper slow roll conditions in warm non-canonical inflation. We study the density fluctuations in the new picture and obtain an approximate analytic expression of the power spectrum. The energy scale at the horizon crossing is depressed by both non-canonical effect and thermal effect, so does the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Besides the synergy, the non-canonical effect and the thermal effect are competing in the case of the warm non-canonical inflation.

  8. Nonlinear approximation with redundant dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, M.; Gribonval, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear approximation and data representation with redundant function dictionaries. In particular, approximation with redundant wavelet bi-frame systems is studied in detail. Several results for orthonormal wavelets are generalized to the redundant case. In general......, for a wavelet bi-frame system the approximation properties are limited by the number of vanishing moments of the system. In some cases this can be overcome by oversampling, but at a price of replacing the canonical expansion by another linear expansion. Moreover, for special non-oversampled wavelet bi-frames we...... can obtain good approximation properties not restricted by the number of vanishing moments, but again without using the canonical expansion....

  9. Canonical symmetry properties of the constrained singular generalized mechanical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱民; 江金环; 李子平

    2003-01-01

    Based on generalized Apell-Chetaev constraint conditions and to take the inherent constrains for singular Lagrangian into account, the generalized canonical equations for a general mechanical system with a singular higher-order Lagrangian and subsidiary constrains are formulated. The canonical symmetries in phase space for such a system are studied and Noether theorem and its inversion theorem in the generalized canonical formalism have been established.

  10. Canonical symmetry properties of the constrained singular generalized mechanical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiAi-Min; JiangJin-Huan; LiZi-Ping

    2003-01-01

    Based on generalized Apell-Chetaev constraint conditions and to take the inherent constrains for singular Lagrangian into account,the generalized canonical equations for a general mechanical system with a singular higher-order Lagrangian and subsidiary constrains are formulated. The canonical symmetries in phase space for such a system are studied and Noether theorem and its inversion theorem in the generalized canonical formalism have been established.

  11. Canonical terminal patterning is an evolutionary novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J; Benton, Matthew A; Dearden, Peter K

    2013-05-01

    Patterning of the terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo is achieved by an exquisitely regulated signal that passes between the follicle cells of the ovary, and the developing embryo. This pathway, however, is missing or modified in other insects. Here we trace the evolution of this pathway by examining the origins and expression of its components. The three core components of this pathway: trunk, torso and torso-like have different evolutionary histories and have been assembled step-wise to form the canonical terminal patterning pathway of Drosophila and Tribolium. Trunk, torso and a gene unrelated to terminal patterning, prothoraciotrophic hormone (PTTH), show an intimately linked evolutionary history, with every holometabolous insect, except the honeybee, possessing both PTTH and torso genes. Trunk is more restricted in its phylogenetic distribution, present only in the Diptera and Tribolium and, surprisingly, in the chelicerate Ixodes scapularis, raising the possibility that trunk and torso evolved earlier than previously thought. In Drosophila torso-like restricts the activation of the terminal patterning pathway to the poles of the embryo. Torso-like evolved in the pan-crustacean lineage, but based on expression of components of the canonical terminal patterning system in the hemimetabolous insect Acyrthosiphon pisum and the holometabolous insect Apis mellifera, we find that the canonical terminal-patterning system is not active in these insects. We therefore propose that the ancestral function of torso-like is unrelated to terminal patterning and that torso-like has become co-opted into terminal patterning in the lineage leading to Coleoptera and Diptera. We also show that this co-option has not resulted in changes to the molecular function of this protein. Torso-like from the pea aphid, honeybee and Drosophila, despite being expressed in different patterns, are functionally equivalent. We propose that co-option of torso-like into restricting the activity

  12. The Literary Canon in the Age of New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    and mediality of the canon. In a development that has largely gone unnoticed outside German speaking countries, new approaches for discussing current and future processes of canonization have been developed in recent years. One pivotal element of this process has been a thorough re-evaluation new media...... as a touchstone for both defining literature in the digital age and inquiring into the mechanisms of contemporary canon formation. The article is thus aimed at introducing both the specifically German approach to canon developed in recent years and its results to a larger scholarly community....

  13. Update on non-canonical microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Non-canonical microRNAs are a recently-discovered subset of microRNAs. They structurally and functionally resemble canonical miRNAs, but were found to follow distinct maturation pathways, typically bypassing one or more steps of the classic canonical biogenesis pathway. Non-canonical miRNAs were found to have diverse origins, including introns, snoRNAs, endogenous shRNAs and tRNAs. Our knowledge about their functions remains relatively primitive; however, many interesting discoveries have tak...

  14. The Topology of Canonical Flux Tubes in Flared Jet Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander Lavine, Eric; You, Setthivoine

    2017-01-01

    Magnetized plasma jets are generally modeled as magnetic flux tubes filled with flowing plasma governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We outline here a more fundamental approach based on flux tubes of canonical vorticity, where canonical vorticity is defined as the circulation of the species’ canonical momentum. This approach extends the concept of magnetic flux tube evolution to include the effects of finite particle momentum and enables visualization of the topology of plasma jets in regimes beyond MHD. A flared, current-carrying magnetic flux tube in an ion-electron plasma with finite ion momentum is thus equivalent to either a pair of electron and ion flow flux tubes, a pair of electron and ion canonical momentum flux tubes, or a pair of electron and ion canonical vorticity flux tubes. We examine the morphology of all these flux tubes for increasing electrical currents, different radial current profiles, different electron Mach numbers, and a fixed, flared, axisymmetric magnetic geometry. Calculations of gauge-invariant relative canonical helicities track the evolution of magnetic, cross, and kinetic helicities in the system, and show that ion flow fields can unwind to compensate for an increasing magnetic twist. The results demonstrate that including a species’ finite momentum can result in a very long collimated canonical vorticity flux tube even if the magnetic flux tube is flared. With finite momentum, particle density gradients must be normal to canonical vorticities, not to magnetic fields, so observations of collimated astrophysical jets could be images of canonical vorticity flux tubes instead of magnetic flux tubes.

  15. Nonlocal homogenization for nonlinear metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    We present a consistent theoretical approach for calculating effective nonlinear susceptibilities of metamaterials taking into account both frequency and spatial dispersion. Employing the discrete dipole model, we demonstrate that effects of spatial dispersion become especially pronounced in the vicinity of effective permittivity resonance where nonlinear susceptibilities reach their maxima. In that case spatial dispersion may enable simultaneous generation of two harmonic signals with the same frequency and polarization but different wave vectors. We also prove that the derived expressions for nonlinear susceptibilities transform into the known form when spatial dispersion effects are negligible. In addition to revealing new physical phenomena, our results provide useful theoretical tools for analysing resonant nonlinear metamaterials.

  16. New Canonical Variables for d=11 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Melosch, S; Melosch, Stephan; Nicolai, Hermann

    1998-01-01

    A set of new canonical variables for $d=11$ supergravity is proposed which renders the supersymmetry variations and the supersymmetry constraint polynomial. The construction is based on the $SO(1,2)\\times SO(16)$ invariant reformulation of $d=11$ supergravity given in previous work, and has some similarities with Ashtekar's reformulation of Einstein's theory. The new bosonic variables fuse the gravitational degrees of freedom with those of the three-index photon $A_{MNP}$ in accordance with the hidden symmetries of the dimensionally reduced theory. Although $E_8$ is not a symmetry of the theory, the bosonic sector exhibits a remarkable $E_8$ structure, hinting at the existence of a novel type of ``exceptional geometry''.

  17. The Deuteron as a Canonically Quantized Biskyrmion

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A; Norvaisas, E; Riska, D O

    2003-01-01

    The ground state configurations of the solution to Skyrme's topological soliton model for systems with baryon number larger than 1 are well approximated with rational map ans"atze, without individual baryon coordinates. Here canonical quantization of the baryon number 2 system, which represents the deuteron, is carried out in the rational map approximation. The solution, which is described by the 6 parameters of the chiral group SU(2)$times$SU(2), is stabilized by the quantum corrections. The matter density of the variational quantized solution has the required exponential large distance falloff and the quantum numbers of the deuteron. Similarly to the axially symmetric semiclassical solution, the radius and the quadrupole moment are, however, only about half as large as the corresponding empirical values. The quantized deuteron solution is constructed for representations of arbitrary dimension of the chiral group.

  18. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-22

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  19. Families of Log Canonically Polarized Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Dundon, Ariana

    2011-01-01

    Determining the number of singular fibers in a family of varieties over a curve is a generalization of Shafarevich's Conjecture and has implications for the types of subvarieties that can appear in the corresponding moduli stack. We consider families of log canonically polarized varieties over $\\P^1$, i.e. families $g:(Y,D)\\to \\P^1$ where $D$ is an effective snc divisor and the sheaf $\\omega_{Y/\\P^1}(D)$ is $g$-ample. After first defining what it means for fibers of such a family to be singular, we show that with the addition of certain mild hypotheses (the fibers have finite automorphism group, $\\sO_Y(D)$ is semi-ample, and the components of $D$ must avoid the singular locus of the fibers and intersect the fibers transversely), such a family must either be isotrivial or contain at least 3 singular fibers.

  20. BRST quantization and canonical Ward identity of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the method of path integral quantization for the canonical constrained system in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin scheme, the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system was quantized. Both the Hamiltonian of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system in phase space and the quantization procedure were simplified. The BRST generator was constructed, and the BRST transforma- tions of supersymmetric fields were gotten; the effective action was calculated, and the generating functional for the Green function was achieved; also, the gauge generator was constructed, and the gauge transformation of the system was ob- tained. Finally, the Ward-Takahashi identities based on the canonical Noether theorem were calculated, and two relations between proper vertices and propaga- tors were obtained.

  1. Exploring finite density QCD phase transition with canonical approach -Power of multiple precision computation-

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Shotaro

    2015-01-01

    The canonical approach for finite density lattice QCD has a numerical instability. This instability makes it difficult to use the method reliably at the finite real chemical potential region. We studied this instability in detail and found that it is caused by the cancellation of significant digits. In order to reduce the effect of this cancellation, we adopt the multiple precision calculation for our discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) program, and we get the canonical partition function Zc(n,T) with required accuracy. From the obtained Zc(n,T), we calculate Lee--Yang zero distribution varying the number of significant digits. As a result, some curves surround the origin in the fugacity plane, but they are moved by varying the number of significant digits. Hence, we conclude that these curves are pseudo phase transition lines, and not real ones.

  2. Towards a 'canonical' agranular cortical microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Beul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on regularities in the intrinsic microcircuitry of cortical areas, variants of a 'canonical' cortical microcircuit have been proposed and widely adopted, particularly in computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics. However, this circuit is founded on striate cortex, which manifests perhaps the most extreme instance of cortical organization, in terms of a very high density of cells in highly differentiated cortical layers. Most other cortical regions have a less well differentiated architecture, stretching in gradients from the very dense eulaminate primary cortical areas to the other extreme of dysgranular and agranular areas of low density and poor laminar differentiation. It is unlikely for the patterns of inter- and intra-laminar connections to be uniform in spite of strong variations of their structural substrate. This assumption is corroborated by reports of divergence in intrinsic circuitry across the cortex. Consequently, it remains an important goal to define local microcircuits for a variety of cortical types, in particular, agranular cortical regions. As a counterpoint to the striate microcircuit, which may be anchored in an exceptional cytoarchitecture, we here outline a tentative microcircuit for agranular cortex. The circuit is based on a synthesis of the available literature on the local microcircuitry in agranular cortical areas of the rodent brain, investigated by anatomical and electrophysiological approaches. A central observation of these investigations is a weakening of interlaminar inhibition as cortical cytoarchitecture becomes less distinctive. Thus, our study of agranular microcircuitry revealed deviations from the well-known 'canonical' microcircuit established for striate cortex, suggesting variations in the intrinsic circuitry across the cortex that may be functionally relevant.

  3. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Prabhakar; H Bhate

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation. The factorization and commutation has been pointed out earlier for Schrödinger operator. We show that it extends to a large class of nonlinear differential equations which admit Lax pairs including Boussinesq, Davey–Stewartson, Bogoyavlensky–Schiff and -wave interaction equation.

  4. Nonlinear Markov Control Processes and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    further research we indicated possible extensions to state spaces with nontrivial geometry, to the controlled nonlinear quantum dynamic semigroups and...space nonlinear Markov semigroup is a one-parameter semigroup of (possibly nonlinear) transformations of the unit simplex in n-dimensional Euclidean...certain mixing property of nonlinear transition probabilities. In case of the semigroup parametrized by continuous time one defines its generator as the

  5. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  6. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  7. Canonical connection on a class of Riemannian almost product manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mekerov, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    The canonical connection on a Riemannian almost product manifolds is an analogue to the Hermitian connection on an almost Hermitian manifold. In this paper we consider the canonical connection on a class of Riemannian almost product manifolds with nonintegrable almost product structure.

  8. Iterative algorithms to approximate canonical Gabor windows: Computational aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    In this paper we investigate the computational aspects of some recently proposed iterative methods for approximating the canonical tight and canonical dual window of a Gabor frame (g,a,b). The iterations start with the window g while the iteration steps comprise the window g, the k^th iterand...

  9. The Literary Canon in the Age of New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    and mediality of the canon. In a development that has largely gone unnoticed outside German speaking countries, new approaches for discussing current and future processes of canonization have been developed in recent years. One pivotal element of this process has been a thorough re-evaluation new media...

  10. CERN Photo Club (CPC) / Canon Contest - My View of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Steyaert, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club has organized in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016.

  11. Critical Literature Pedagogy: Teaching Canonical Literature for Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsheim-Black, Carlin; Macaluso, Michael; Petrone, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Critical Literature Pedagogy (CLP), a pedagogical framework for applying goals of critical literacy within the context of teaching canonical literature. Critical literacies encompass skills and dispositions to understand, question, and critique ideological messages of texts; because canonical literature is often…

  12. Three-order pseudo-Hamilton canonical equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Shan-Jun; Huang Pei-Tian; Yan Rong; Zhao Hong-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Based on the three-order Lagrangian equations, Hamilton's function ofacceleration H* and generalized acceleration momentum P*α are defined, and pseudo-Hamilton canonical equations corresponding to three-order Lagrangian equations are obtained. The equations are similar to Hamilton's canonical equations of analytical mechanics in form.

  13. Canonical Quantum Teleportation of Two-Particle Arbitrary State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiang; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2005-01-01

    The canonical quantum teleportation of two-particle arbitrary state is realized by means of phase operator and number operator. The maximally entangled eigenstates between the difference of phase operators and the sum of number operators are considered as the quantum channels. In contrast to the standard quantum teleportation, the different unitary local operation of canonical teleportation can be simplified by a general expression.

  14. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  15. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  16. Matrix product purifications for canonical ensembles and quantum number distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Matrix product purifications (MPPs) are a very efficient tool for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures. When a system features symmetries, these can be used to reduce computation costs substantially. It is straightforward to compute an MPP of a grand-canonical ensemble, also when symmetries are exploited. This paper provides and demonstrates methods for the efficient computation of MPPs of canonical ensembles under utilization of symmetries. Furthermore, we present a scheme for the evaluation of global quantum number distributions using matrix product density operators (MPDOs). We provide exact matrix product representations for canonical infinite-temperature states, and discuss how they can be constructed alternatively by applying matrix product operators to vacuum-type states or by using entangler Hamiltonians. A demonstration of the techniques for Heisenberg spin-1 /2 chains explains why the difference in the energy densities of canonical and grand-canonical ensembles decays as 1 /L .

  17. The canon as text for a biblical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Loader

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of the canonical approach is questioned and its fascination at least partly traced to the Reformation, as well as to the post-Reformation’s need for a clear and authoritative canon to perform the function previously performed by the church. This does not minimise the elusiveness and deeply contradictory positions both within the canon and triggered by it. On the one hand, the canon itself is a centripetal phenomenon and does play an important role in exegesis and theology. Even so, on the other hand, it not only contains many difficulties, but also causes various additional problems of a formal as well as a theological nature. The question is mooted whether the canonical approach alleviates or aggravates the dilemma. Since this approach has become a major factor in Christian theology, aspects of the Christian canon are used to gauge whether “canon” is an appropriate category for eliminating difficulties that arise by virtue of its own existence. Problematic uses and appropriations of several Old Testament canons are advanced, as well as evidence in the New Testament of a consciousness that the “old” has been surpassed(“Überbietungsbewußtsein”. It is maintained that at least the Childs version of the canonical approach fails to smooth out these and similar difficulties. As a method it can cater for the New Testament’s (superior role as the hermeneutical standard for evaluating the Old, but flounders on its inability to create the theological unity it claims can solve religious problems exposed by Old Testament historical criticism. It is concluded that canon as a category cannot be dispensed with, but is useful for the opposite of the purpose to which it is conventionally put: far from bringing about theological “unity” or producing a standard for “correct” exegesis, it requires different readings of different canons.

  18. El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policarpo, Alcibiades

    This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz"…

  19. 中国FDI双重集聚的非线性转换效应——基于LPSTR模型%The Nonlinear Transformation Effects from the Dual Agglomeration of China's FDI Industry:a Study Based on LPSTR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵果庆

    2015-01-01

    The dual agglomeration of China' s FDI refers to concentration in both spatial and industrial levels. In this respect,how FDI industrial agglomeration boosters structural transformation of domestic industries and how enlarges regional gaps of domestic industries are two questions of important research interest and policy studies. Armed with the model of Non-Linear Panel Smooth Transition Regression ( NLPSTR ) , we estimate the dual agglomeration of FDI industries on the industry growth and structural transformation of domestic industry. The results show that the agglomeration of FDI industry improves the industry structure of domestic industries by generating function transformation and enlarges regional gap of domestic industries at the same time. Thus,China should improve the investment climate in weak regions,and attract FDI' s agglomeration which boosts the institutional transformation of domestic industries in order to narrow the gap of regional development. In this way we prevent the excessive dependence on the technologies of FDI industries by developing innovation and its own core technologies in high mechanism of industries.%中国FDI产业在空间与产业发生双重集聚现象. FDI产业的集聚如何帮助我国内资产业转换结构,又如何扩大地区内资产业发展差距,这是具有学术和政策研究价值的一个问题的两个方面. 本文基于Logistic函数面板平滑转换回归模型( LPSTR)模型,以2003-2011年数据检证了FDI产业的双重集聚溢出对内资产业增长机制及其结构转换效应. 结果表明,FDI产业集聚通过内资产业生产函数转换提升了我国内资产业结构,同时还扩大了地区内资产业发展差距. 因此,我国要改善低机制地区投资环境,吸引FDI产业集聚,以FDI产业集聚促进内资产业增长机制转换,从而缩小我国地区产业极差,同时,还要建立产业创新机制,营造核心技术,以防高机制产业对FDI产业技术的过度依赖.

  20. Canonical Coordinates for Retino-Cortical Magnification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Florack

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A geometric model for a biologically-inspired visual front-end is proposed, based on an isotropic, scale-invariant two-form field. The model incorporates a foveal property typical of biological visual systems, with an approximately linear decrease of resolution as a function of eccentricity, and by a physical size constant that measures the radius of the geometric foveola, the central region characterized by maximal resolving power. It admits a description in singularity-free canonical coordinates generalizing the familiar log-polar coordinates and reducing to these in the asymptotic case of negligibly-sized geometric foveola or, equivalently, at peripheral locations in the visual field. It has predictive power to the extent that quantitative geometric relationships pertaining to retino-cortical magnification along the primary visual pathway, such as receptive field size distribution and spatial arrangement in retina and striate cortex, can be deduced in a principled manner. The biological plausibility of the model is demonstrated by comparison with known facts of human vision.

  1. Dissolution of Marriage According to Canon Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Sulejman Ahmedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Canon law, dissolution of marriage is not allowed since it was considered sacred and as such cannot break until the two spouses are alive, except only if one of the spouses passes away. But throughout history we find cases when allowed dissolution of the marriage and causes specific conditions set by the church. Thus, according to the Old Testament, if, a man married to a woman, didn’t like something about his wife, should write a request for divorce and allow her to leave his home. Meanwhile according to the New Testament records, divorce is prohibited. Although most Protestants continue to espouse the view that marriage was sacred and as such should not be divorced, from those who had supported the idea of granting the divorce. One of them was Luther, who in his remarks before his preachers said: "In my opinion, the issue of divorce belongs to the law, are not they to whom called for regulation of parental relationships, why not have they the authority to regulate the relations between spouses". Protestant churches allow the dissolution of marriage: a Because of adultery by the wife; allowed by Jesus, b Unjustified abandonment of the marital community; c If there were other reasons: if one spouse refuses to have sexual marriage, if the husband abuses his wife     repeatedly and without cause, severe illness of one spouse.

  2. Finite Canonical Measure for Nonsingular Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2011-01-01

    The total canonical (Liouville-Henneaux-Gibbons-Hawking-Stewart) measure is finite for completely nonsingular Friedmann-Robertson-Walker classical universes with a minimally coupled massive scalar field and a positive cosmological constant. For a cosmological constant very small in units of the square of the scalar field mass, most of the measure is for nearly de Sitter solutions with no inflation at a much more rapid rate. However, if one restricts to solutions in which the scalar field energy density is ever more than twice the equivalent energy density of the cosmological constant, then the number of e-folds of rapid inflation must be large, and the fraction of the measure is low in which the spatial curvature is comparable to the cosmological constant at the time when it is comparable to the energy density of the scalar field. The measure for such classical FRW-Lambda-phi models with both a big bang and a big crunch is also finite. Only the solutions with a big bang that expand forever, or the time-revers...

  3. The canonical equilibrium of constrained molecular models

    CERN Document Server

    Echenique, Pablo; García-Risueño, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of the computer simulation of biological molecules, it is very common to impose holonomic constraints on the fastest degrees of freedom; normally bond lengths, but also possibly bond angles. However, as any other element that affects the physical model, the imposition of constraints must be assessed from the point of view of accuracy: both the dynamics and the equilibrium statistical mechanics are model-dependent, and they will be changed if constraints are used. In this review, we investigate the accuracy of constrained models at the level of the equilibrium statistical mechanics distributions produced by the different dynamics. We carefully derive the canonical equilibrium distributions of both the constrained and unconstrained dynamics, comparing the two of them by means of a "stiff" approximation to the latter. We do so both in the case of flexible and hard constraints, i.e., when the value of the constrained coordinates depends on the conformation and when it is a cons...

  4. An $OSp$ extension of Canonical Tensor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Tensor models are generalizations of matrix models, and are studied as discrete models of quantum gravity for arbitrary dimensions. Among them, the canonical tensor model (CTM for short) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system with a number of first-class constraints, which have a similar algebraic structure as the constraints of the ADM formalism of general relativity. In this paper, we formulate a super-extension of CTM as an attempt to incorporate fermionic degrees of freedom. The kinematical symmetry group is extended from $O(N)$ to $OSp(N,\\tilde N)$, and the constraints are constructed so that they form a first-class constraint super-Poisson algebra. This is a straightforward super-extension, and the constraints and their algebraic structure are formally unchanged from the purely bosonic case, except for the additional signs associated to the order of the fermionic indices and dynamical variables. However, this extension of CTM leads to the existence of negative norm state...

  5. Zwitterionic versus canonical amino acids over the various defects in zeolites: a two-layer ONIOM calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zhou, Lijun

    2014-10-13

    Defects are often considered as the active sites for chemical reactions. Here a variety of defects in zeolites are used to stabilize zwitterionic glycine that is not self-stable in gas phase; in addition, effects of acidic strengths and zeolite channels on zwitterionic stabilization are demonstrated. Glycine zwitterions can be stabilized by all these defects and energetically prefer to canonical structures over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites rather than Ti Lewis acidic site, silanol and titanol hydroxyls. For titanol (Ti-OH), glycine interacts with framework Ti and hydroxyl sites competitively, and the former with Lewis acidity predominates. The transformations from canonical to zwitterionic glycine are obviously more facile over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites than over Ti Lewis acidic site, titanol and silanol hydroxyls. Charge transfers that generally increase with adsorption energies are found to largely decide the zwitterionic stabilization effects. Zeolite channels play a significant role during the stabilization process. In absence of zeolite channels, canonical structures predominate for all defects; glycine zwitterions remain stable over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites and only with synergy of H-bonding interactions can exist over Ti Lewis acidic site, while automatically transform to canonical structures over silanol and titanol hydroxyls.

  6. NON -IDEAL IRIS BOUNDARY LOCALIZATION ALGORITHM BASED ON COMBINATION OF HOUGH TRANSFORM AND NONLINEAR ENHANCEMENT%Hough 变换与非线性增强结合的非理想虹膜边界定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万洪林; 于海涛; 杨济民

    2014-01-01

    边界定位是非理想虹膜识别的关键问题之一。非理想虹膜由于经常存在纹理过强、睫毛和眼睑遮挡、虹膜巩膜对比度较差、瞳孔位置偏移等问题,这使其边界尤其是外边界定位容易出现偏差。针对上述问题,笔者提出了一种基于非线性图像增强的非理想虹膜边界定位方法。在内边界定位中,该方法首先使用混合高斯模型得到瞳孔粗略位置,然后使用弦长均衡策略搜索虹膜内边界及其中心;在外边界定位中,首先对虹膜图像进行非线性灰度变换,再利用边缘检测和改进的 Hough 变换定位虹膜外边界。实验结果表明:本算法与经典方法相比可大大提高非理想虹膜分割的准确率。%Iris boundary localization is one of the key issues of an iris recognition system.For non -ideal iris images,frequently -occurred strong texture,eyelashes or eyelids occlusion,low contrast between iris and sclera, and pupil deviation,etc,will lead inaccuracy localization of iris boundaries,particularly the outer one.We investigate this issue and propose the boundaries localization for non -ideal iris images based on the nonlinear image enhancement.In the process of inner localization,we firstly employ EM algorithm to segment pupil approximately,then use the string -equilibrium technique to search iris center and the inner boundary.In outer boundary localization,we transform nonlinearly the iris intensity,and adopt edge detector and improved Hough transform to find outer boundary.The experimental results depict that our algorithm improves the non -ideal iris localization accuracy compared to the classical algorithms.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2008-06-01

    The open problem of constructing a consistent and experimentally tested quantum theory of the gravitational field has its place at the heart of fundamental physics. The main approaches can be roughly divided into two classes: either one seeks a unified quantum framework of all interactions or one starts with a direct quantization of general relativity. In the first class, string theory (M-theory) is the only known example. In the second class, one can make an additional methodological distinction: while covariant approaches such as path-integral quantization use the four-dimensional metric as an essential ingredient of their formalism, canonical approaches start with a foliation of spacetime into spacelike hypersurfaces in order to arrive at a Hamiltonian formulation. The present book is devoted to one of the canonical approaches—loop quantum gravity. It is named modern canonical quantum general relativity by the author because it uses connections and holonomies as central variables, which are analogous to the variables used in Yang Mills theories. In fact, the canonically conjugate variables are a holonomy of a connection and the flux of a non-Abelian electric field. This has to be contrasted with the older geometrodynamical approach in which the metric of three-dimensional space and the second fundamental form are the fundamental entities, an approach which is still actively being pursued. It is the author's ambition to present loop quantum gravity in a way in which every step is formulated in a mathematically rigorous form. In his own words: 'loop quantum gravity is an attempt to construct a mathematically rigorous, background-independent, non-perturbative quantum field theory of Lorentzian general relativity and all known matter in four spacetime dimensions, not more and not less'. The formal Leitmotiv of loop quantum gravity is background independence. Non-gravitational theories are usually quantized on a given non-dynamical background. In contrast, due to

  8. Generalization of Hasimoto's transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the famous Hasimoto's transformation by showing that the dynamics of a closed unidimensional vortex filament embedded in a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature gives rise under Hasimoto's transformation to the non-linear Schrodinger equation. We also give a natural interpretation of the function \\psi introduced by Hasimoto in terms of moving frames associated to a natural complex bundle over the filament.

  9. Emerging of massive gauge particles in inhomogeneous local gauge transformations: replacement of Higgs mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Struckmeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    A generalized theory of gauge transformations is presented on the basis of the covariant Hamiltonian formalism of field theory, for which the covariant canonical field equations are equivalent to the Euler-Lagrange field equations. Similar to the canonical transformation theory of point dynamics, the canonical transformation rules for fields are derived from generating functions. Thus---in contrast to the usual Lagrangian description---the covariant canonical transformation formalism automatically ensures the mappings to preserve the action principle, and hence to be {\\em physical}. On that basis, we work out the theory of inhomogeneous local gauge transformations that generalizes the conventional local SU(N) gauge transformation theory. It is shown that massive gauge bosons naturally emerge in this description, which thus could supersede the Higgs mechanism.

  10. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  11. The exact solutions for a nonisospectral nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Tongke [Finance College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)], E-mail: tkning@shnu.edu.cn; Zhang Weiguo; Jia Gao [Science College, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2009-10-30

    In this paper, lax pair for the nonisospectral nonlinear Schroedinger hierarchy is given, the time dependence of nonisospectral scattering data is derived and exact solutions for the nonisospectral nonlinear Schroedinger hierarchy are obtained through the inverse scattering transform.

  12. Lie symmetries and non-Noether conserved quantities for Hamiltonian canonical equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing-Li; Chen Li-Qun; Xie Feng-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and non-Noether conserved quantities of Hamiltonian dynamical systems in phase space. Based on the infinitesimal transformations with respect to the generalized coordinates and generalized momenta, we obtain the determining equations and structure equation of the Lie symmetry for Hamiltonian dynamical systems. This work extends the research of non-Noether conserved quantity for Hamilton canonical equations,and leads directly to a new type of non-Noether conserved quantities of the systems. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

  13. Racah's method for general subalgebra chains: Coupling coefficients of SO(5) in canonical and physical bases

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, M A; McCoy, A E; 10.1063/1.3445529

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the method of infinitesimal generators ("Racah's method") can be broadly and systematically formulated as a method applicable to the calculation of reduced coupling coefficients for a generic subalgebra chain G>H, provided the reduced matrix elements of the generators of G and the recoupling coefficients of H are known. The calculation of SO(5)>SO(4) reduced coupling coefficients is considered as an example, and a procedure for transformation of reduced coupling coefficients between canonical and physical subalegebra chains is presented. The problem of calculating coupling coefficients for generic irreps of SO(5), reduced with respect to any of its subalgebra chains, is completely resolved by this approach.

  14. Third post-Newtonian constrained canonical dynamics for binary point masses in harmonic coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2005-02-01

    The conservative dynamics of two point masses given in harmonic coordinates up to the third post-Newtonian order is treated within the framework of constrained canonical dynamics. A representation of the approximate Poincaré algebra is constructed with the aid of Dirac brackets. Uniqueness of the generators of the Poincaré group or the integrals of motion is achieved by imposing their action on the point mass coordinates to be identical with that of the usual infinitesimal Poincaré transformations. The second post-Coulombian approximation to the dynamics of two point charges as predicted by Feynman-Wheeler electrodynamics in Lorentz gauge is treated similarly.

  15. Non-canonical WNT signalling in the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changgong; Bellusci, Saverio; Borok, Zea; Minoo, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    The role of WNT signalling in metazoan organogenesis has been a topic of widespread interest. In the lung, while the role of canonical WNT signalling has been examined in some detail by multiple studies, the non-canonical WNT signalling has received limited attention. Reliable evidence shows that this important signalling mechanism constitutes a major regulatory pathway in lung development. In addition, accumulating evidence has also shown that the non-canonical WNT pathway is critical for maintaining lung homeostasis and that aberrant activation of this pathway may underlie several debilitating lung diseases. Functional analyses have further revealed that the non-canonical WNT pathway regulates multiple cellular activities in the lung that are dependent on the specific cellular context. In most cell types, non-canonical WNT signalling regulates canonical WNT activity, which is also critical for many aspects of lung biology. This review will summarize what is currently known about the role of non-canonical WNT signalling in lung development, homeostasis and pathogenesis of disease. PMID:26261051

  16. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  17. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  18. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  19. Canonical approach to finite density QCD with multiple precision computation

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Ryutaro; Oka, Shotaro

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_B$) dependence of thermodynamic observables, i.e., pressure, baryon number density and susceptibility by lattice QCD using the canonical approach. We compare the results with those by the multi parameter reweighting (MPR) method; Both methods give very consistent values in the regions where errors of the MPR are under control. The canonical method gives reliable results over $\\mu_ B/T=3$,with $T$ being temperature. Multiple precision operations play an important roll in the evaluation of canonical partition functions.

  20. Exact Discrete Analogs of Canonical Commutation and Uncertainty Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An exact discretization of the canonical commutation and corresponding uncertainty relations are suggested. We prove that the canonical commutation relations of discrete quantum mechanics, which is based on standard finite difference, holds for constant wave functions only. In this paper, we use the recently proposed exact discretization of derivatives, which is based on differences that are represented by infinite series. This new mathematical tool allows us to build sensible discrete quantum mechanics based on the suggested differences and includes the correct canonical commutation and uncertainty relations.

  1. Chondrules: The canonical and noncanonical views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Harold C.; Jones, Rhian H.

    2016-10-01

    Millimeter-scale rock particles called chondrules are the principal components of the most common meteorites, chondrites. Hence, chondrules were arguably the most abundant components of the early solar system at the time of planetesimal accretion. Despite their fundamental importance, the existence of chondrules would not be predicted from current observations and models of young planetary systems. There are many different models for chondrule formation, but no single model satisfies the many constraints determined from their mineralogical and chemical properties and from chondrule analog experiments. Significant recent progress has shown that several models can satisfy first-order constraints and successfully reproduce chondrule thermal histories. However, second- and third-order constraints such as chondrule size ranges, open system behavior, oxidation states, reheating, and chemical diversity have not generally been addressed. Chondrule formation models include those based on processes that are known to occur in protoplanetary disk environments, including interactions with the early active Sun, impacts and collisions between planetary bodies, and radiative heating. Other models for chondrule heating mechanisms are based on hypothetical processes that are possible but have not been observed, like shock waves, planetesimal bow shocks, and lightning. We examine the evidence for the canonical view of chondrule formation, in which chondrules were free-floating particles in the protoplanetary disk, and the noncanonical view, in which chondrules were the by-products of planetesimal formation. The fundamental difference between these approaches has a bearing on the importance of chondrules during planet formation and the relevance of chondrules to interpreting the evolution of protoplanetary disks and planetary systems.

  2. MBARI CANON Experiment Visualization and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, R.; Oscar, N.; Ryan, J. P.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    We describe the task of understanding a marine drift experiment conducted by MBARI in Fall 2012 ('CANON'). Datasets were aggregated from a drifting ADCP, from the MBARI Environmental Sample Processor, from Long Range Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (LRAUVs), from other in situ sensors, from NASA and NOAA remote sensing platforms, from moorings, from shipboard CTD casts and from post-experiment metagenomic analysis. We seek to combine existing approaches to data synthesis -- visual inspection, cross correlation and co.-- with three new ideas. This approach has the purpose of differentiating biological signals into three causal categories: Microcurrent advection, physical factors and microbe metabolism. Respective examples are aberrance from Lagrangian frame drift due to windage, changes in solar flux over several days, and microbial population responses to shifts in nitrate concentration. The three ideas we implemented are as follows: First, we advect LRAUV data to look for patterns in time series data for conserved quanitities such as salinity. We investigate whether such patterns can be used to support or undermine the premise of Lagrangian motion of the experiment ensemble. Second we built a set of configurable filters that enable us to visually isolate segments of data: By type, value, time, anomaly and location. Third we associated data hypotheses with a Bayesian inferrence engine for the purpose of model validation, again across sections taken from within the complete data complex. The end result is towards a free-form exploration of experimental data with low latency: from question to view, from hypothesis to test (albeit with considerable preparatory effort.) Preliminary results show the three causal categories shifting in relative influence.

  3. Classification of B(a)cklund transformations for second-ordor nonlinear PDES%一类二阶非线性偏微分方程B(a)ecklund变换的分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王理凡

    2011-01-01

    讨论形如ut=F(u,ux,uxx)的非线性偏微分方程由可积系统vx=P(v,u,ux),vt=Q(v,u,ux)定义的B(a)cklund变换u→v分类问题,证明了这样的非线性偏微分方程只能是Burgers方程ut=uxx+2uux,而相应的可积系统是vx=(λ+v)(u-v),vt=(λ+v)(u2+ux-uv)-λ(λ+v)(u-v),其中λ是任意常数.%Classify B(a)cklund transformations u ι→v for partial differential equations of the form ut= F(u, ux, uxx )which are defined via associated integrable systems of the form vx = P ( v, u, ux ), vt = Q( v, u, ux ) is classified. It is showed that the only such nonlinear partial differential equation is the Burgers' equation ut = uxx + 2uux, and the associated integra ble system is vx = (λ,+ v) (u - v), vt = (λ, + v) (u2 + ux - uv) - λ (λ + v) ( u - v), where λ is an arbitrary constant.

  4. 脉冲噪声的非线性变换有源控制算法研究%Research active control algorithm based on nonlinear transform of impulsive noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沛; 张景荣

    2016-01-01

    α稳定分布模型是描述脉冲噪声的最佳理论工具,研究了对称α稳定分布脉冲噪声的有源控制;对基于非线性变换的脉冲噪声有源控制算法进行了推导与分析,并对FXSigmod算法进行了计算机仿真,用实验证实算法消除噪声的效果。该算法无需估测阈值,容易实现,连续更新性能好,可快速有效抑制脉冲噪声。%The alpha stable distribution provides a strong theoretical tool for the analysis of the non‐Gaussian impulsive noise signals .Active control of symmetricαstable distribution impulsive noise is studied .Impulsive noise algorithm based on nonlinear transform is derived and analyzed ,the computer simulation was carried out to validate FxSigmod algorithm .Simulation results prove the effectiveness of the algorithm .It does not need the parameter selection and thresholds estimation .it is easy to implement .Continuous update performance of algorithm is good ,which can restrain impulsive noise quickly and efficiently .

  5. Canonical and non-canonical barriers facing antimiR cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christopher J; Saltzman, W Mark; Slack, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Once considered genetic "oddities", microRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as key epigenetic regulators of numerous biological processes, including some with a causal link to the pathogenesis, maintenance, and treatment of cancer. The crux of small RNA-based therapeutics lies in the antagonism of potent cellular targets; the main shortcoming of the field in general, lies in ineffective delivery. Inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs is a relatively nascent therapeutic concept, but as with predecessor RNA-based therapies, success hinges on delivery efficacy. This review will describes the canonical (e.g. pharmacokinetics and clearance, cellular uptake, endosome escape, etc.) and non-canonical (e.g. spatial localization and accessibility of miRNA, technical limitations of miRNA inhibition, off-target impacts, etc.) challenges to the delivery of antisense-based anti-miRNA therapeutics (i.e. antimiRs) for the treatment of cancer. Emphasis will be placed on how the current leading antimiR platforms-ranging from naked chemically modified oligonucleotides to nanoscale delivery vehicles-are affected by and overcome these barriers. The perplexity of antimiR delivery presents both engineering and biological hurdles that must be overcome in order to capitalize on the extensive pharmacological benefits of antagonizing tumor-associated miRNAs.

  6. Nonlinear Behaviors Analysis of Full-bridge Resonant Converter Based on Loosely Coupled Transformer%基于松散耦合变压器的全桥谐振变换器非线性行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢帆; 张波; 丘东元

    2014-01-01

    The loosely coupled inductive power transfer system is an effective and safe method of power transmission,which uses electromagnetic induction technology to achieve non-contact transmission of energy while solving the shortcoming of traditional power supply with wires.The nonlinear bifurcation phenomenon of the full-bridge resonant converter is analyzed with the change of the coupling coefficient of the loosely coupled transformer.The state equations and nonlinear models of the system are built based on the mutual inductance modeling.The nonlinear behaviors are numerically analyzed when the system resonates,and the complex three-dimensional bifurcation diagram is obtained with the coupling coefficient as the bifurcation parameter.The complex bifurcation behaviors of the system are validated by circuit simulation.Moreover,the border collision phenomenon and the characteristics of the time and frequency domains are analyzed.This study expands nonlinear research on the switching converter to the wireless power transfer system,providing important guidance for reliability design of the wireless power transfer system.%松散耦合感应电能传输系统利用电磁感应技术,实现了能量的非接触传输,解决了传统导线直接供电的缺陷,是一种有效、安全的电能传输方法。文中以全桥谐振变换器为例,基于松散耦合变压器分析了系统随着耦合系数的改变而发生的非线性分岔现象。通过互感模型建立系统的状态方程及其非线性模型,分析了系统谐振时的非线性行为,得到以耦合系数为分岔参数的系统复杂三维分岔图。电路仿真验证了系统的复杂分岔行为,并且进一步分析了系统在分岔过程中经历的边界碰撞现象以及准周期状态下系统的时域与频域特征。该研究将开关变换器的非线性研究拓展到无线电能传输系统中,对无线电能传输系统的可靠设计具有重要指导意义。

  7. Lie transforms and their use in Hamiltonian perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J.R.

    1978-06-01

    A review is presented of the theory of Lie transforms as applied to Hamiltonian systems. We begin by presenting some general background on the Hamiltonian formalism and by introducing the operator notation for canonical transformations. We then derive the general theory of Lie transforms. We derive the formula for the new Hamiltonian when one uses a Lie transform to effect a canonical transformation, and we use Lie transforms to prove a very general version of Noether's theorem, or the symmetry-equals-invariant theorem. Next we use the general Lie transform theory to derive Deprit's perturbation theory. We illustrate this perturbation theory by application to two well-known problems in classical mechanics. Finally we present a chapter on conventions. There are many ways to develop Lie transforms. The last chapter explains the reasons for the choices made here.

  8. ORDERED ANALYTIC REPRESENTATION OF PDES BY HAMILTONIAN CANONICAL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengYu; ChenYong

    2002-01-01

    Based on the method of symplectic geometry and variational calculation,the method for some PDEs to be ordered and analytically represented by Hamiltonian canonical system is discussed. Meanwhile some related necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained.

  9. The Canonical Expanding Soliton and Harnack inequalities for Ricci flow

    CERN Document Server

    Cabezas-Rivas, Esther

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Canonical Expanding Ricci Soliton, and use it to derive new Harnack inequalities for Ricci flow. This viewpoint also gives geometric insight into the existing Harnack inequalities of Hamilton and Brendle.

  10. Log canonical thresholds of quasi-ordinary hypersurface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero; Villa, Manuel González

    2011-01-01

    The log canonical thresholds of irreducible quasi-ordinary hypersurface singularities are computed, using an explicit list of pole candidates for the motivic zeta function found by the last two authors.

  11. Canonical Approaches to Applications of the Virial Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2016-02-11

    Canonical approaches are applied for investigation of the extraordinarily accurate electronic ground state potentials of H2(+), H2, HeH(+), and LiH using the virial theorem. These approaches will be dependent on previous investigations involving the canonical nature of E(R), the Born-Oppenheimer potential, and F(R), the associated force of E(R), that have been demonstrated to be individually canonical to high accuracy in the case of the systems investigated. Now, the canonical nature of the remaining functions in the virial theorem [the electronic kinetic energy T(R), the electrostatic potential energy V(R), and the function W(R) = RF(R)] are investigated and applied to H2, HeH(+), and LiH with H2(+) chosen as reference. The results will be discussed in the context of a different perspective of molecular bonding that goes beyond previous direct applications of the virial theorem.

  12. Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K.

    2017-07-01

    Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.

  13. Asymptotic distributions in the projection pursuit based canonical correlation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, associations between two sets of random variables based on the projection pursuit (PP) method are studied. The asymptotic normal distributions of estimators of the PP based canonical correlations and weighting vectors are derived.

  14. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  15. Canonical and Irish Gothic Features in Melmoth the Wanderer

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In the eighteenth century, a Gothic literary canon emerged. This B.A. Thesis aims to show that there is not a unique type of Gothic literary tradition. To illustrate this, a variant of the canonical Gothic, namely the Irish Gothic, is presented, with an Irish novel, Melmoth the Wanderer (1820) by Charles Robert Maturin, as an illustration of its main traits. Following an analytic method, the distinctive features of each Gothic tradition are explained separately. Then, an analysis of the major...

  16. The role of the Wnt canonical signaling in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libro, Rosaliana; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-08-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt canonical pathway controls multiple biological processes throughout development and adult life. Growing evidences have suggested that deregulation of the Wnt canonical pathway could be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The Wnt canonical signaling is a pathway tightly regulated, which activation results in the inhibition of the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK-3β) function and in increased β-catenin activity, that migrates into the nucleus, activating the transcription of the Wnt target genes. Conversely, when the Wnt canonical pathway is turned off, increased levels of GSK-3β promote β-catenin degradation. Hence, GSK-3β could be considered as a key regulator of the Wnt canonical pathway. Of note, GSK-3β has also been involved in the modulation of inflammation and apoptosis, determining the delicate balance between immune tolerance/inflammation and neuronal survival/neurodegeneration. In this review, we have summarized the current acknowledgements about the role of the Wnt canonical pathway in the pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with particular regard to the main in vitro and in vivo studies in this field, by reviewing 85 research articles about. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J; Canup, R M

    2014-09-13

    Impacts that leave the Earth-Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such 'non-canonical' impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth-Moon angular momentum by a factor of 2 or more. We find that the Moon's semi-major axis at the end of its accretion is approximately 7R⊕, which is comparable to the location of the evection resonance for a post-impact Earth with a 2.5 h rotation period in the absence of a disc. Thus, the dynamics of the Moon's assembly may directly affect its ability to be captured into the resonance.

  18. Update on non-canonical microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed Maher; Park, Chanhyun

    2015-01-01

    Non-canonical microRNAs are a recently-discovered subset of microRNAs. They structurally and functionally resemble canonical miRNAs, but were found to follow distinct maturation pathways, typically bypassing one or more steps of the classic canonical biogenesis pathway. Non-canonical miRNAs were found to have diverse origins, including introns, snoRNAs, endogenous shRNAs and tRNAs. Our knowledge about their functions remains relatively primitive; however, many interesting discoveries have taken place in the past few years. They have been found to take part in several cellular processes, such as immune response and stem cell proliferation. Adversely, their deregulation has pathologic effects on several different tissues, which strongly suggests an integral role for non-canonical miRNAs in disease pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the recently-discovered functional characteristics of non-canonical miRNAs and illustrate their principal maturation pathways as well as debating their potential role in multiple cellular processes. PMID:25372759

  19. Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical disks

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Impacts that leave the Earth-Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such "non-canonical" impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth-M...

  20. Process modelling on a canonical basis[Process modelling; Canonical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepmann, Volker

    2006-12-20

    Based on an equation oriented solving strategy, this thesis investigates a new approach to process modelling. Homogeneous thermodynamic state functions represent consistent mathematical models of thermodynamic properties. Such state functions of solely extensive canonical state variables are the basis of this work, as they are natural objective functions in optimisation nodes to calculate thermodynamic equilibrium regarding phase-interaction and chemical reactions. Analytical state function derivatives are utilised within the solution process as well as interpreted as physical properties. By this approach, only a limited range of imaginable process constraints are considered, namely linear balance equations of state variables. A second-order update of source contributions to these balance equations is obtained by an additional constitutive equation system. These equations are general dependent on state variables and first-order sensitivities, and cover therefore practically all potential process constraints. Symbolic computation technology efficiently provides sparsity and derivative information of active equations to avoid performance problems regarding robustness and computational effort. A benefit of detaching the constitutive equation system is that the structure of the main equation system remains unaffected by these constraints, and a priori information allows to implement an efficient solving strategy and a concise error diagnosis. A tailor-made linear algebra library handles the sparse recursive block structures efficiently. The optimisation principle for single modules of thermodynamic equilibrium is extended to host entire process models. State variables of different modules interact through balance equations, representing material flows from one module to the other. To account for reusability and encapsulation of process module details, modular process modelling is supported by a recursive module structure. The second-order solving algorithm makes it

  1. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  2. Dichotomy of nonlinear systems: Application to chaos control of nonlinear electronic circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinzhi [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: jinzhiw@pku.edu.cn; Duan Zhisheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Lin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-02-27

    In this Letter a new method of chaos control for Chua's circuit and the modified canonical Chua's electrical circuit is proposed by using the results of dichotomy in nonlinear systems. A linear feedback control based on linear matrix inequality (LMI) is given such that chaos oscillation or hyperchaos phenomenon of circuit systems injected control signal disappear. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  4. Physical states in the canonical tensor model from the perspective of random tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Gaurav; Sasakura, Naoki; Sato, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Tensor models, generalization of matrix models, are studied aiming for quantum gravity in dimensions larger than two. Among them, the canonical tensor model is formulated as a totally constrained system with first-class constraints, the algebra of which resembles the Dirac algebra of general relativity. When quantized, the physical states are defined to be vanished by the quantized constraints. In explicit representations, the constraint equations are a set of partial differential equations for the physical wave-functions, which do not seem straightforward to be solved due to their non-linear character. In this paper, after providing some explicit solutions for N = 2 , 3, we show that certain scale-free integration of partition functions of statistical systems on random networks (or random tensor networks more generally) provides a series of solutions for general N. Then, by generalizing this form, we also obtain various solutions for general N. Moreover, we show that the solutions for the cases with a cosmological constant can be obtained from those with no cosmological constant for increased N. This would imply the interesting possibility that a cosmological constant can always be absorbed into the dynamics and is not an input parameter in the canonical tensor model. We also observe the possibility of symmetry enhancement in N = 3, and comment on an extension of Airy function related to the solutions.

  5. Components of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are not mis-expressed in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Machado Colli

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are involved in the genesis of multiple tumors; however, their role in pituitary tumorigenesis is mostly unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated gene and protein expression of Wnt pathways in pituitary tumors and whether these expression correlate to clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes of the WNT canonical pathway: activating ligands (WNT11, WNT4, WNT5A, binding inhibitors (DKK3, sFRP1, β-catenin (CTNNB1, β-catenin degradation complex (APC, AXIN1, GSK3β, inhibitor of β-catenin degradation complex (AKT1, sequester of β-catenin (CDH1, pathway effectors (TCF7, MAPK8, NFAT5, pathway mediators (DVL-1, DVL-2, DVL-3, PRICKLE, VANGL1, target genes (MYB, MYC, WISP2, SPRY1, TP53, CCND1; calcium dependent pathway (PLCB1, CAMK2A, PRKCA, CHP; and planar cell polarity pathway (PTK7, DAAM1, RHOA were evaluated by QPCR, in 19 GH-, 18 ACTH-secreting, 21 non-secreting (NS pituitary tumors, and 5 normal pituitaries. Also, the main effectors of canonical (β-catenin, planar cell polarity (JNK, and calcium dependent (NFAT5 Wnt pathways were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There are no differences in gene expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways between all studied subtypes of pituitary tumors and normal pituitaries, except for WISP2, which was over-expressed in ACTH-secreting tumors compared to normal pituitaries (4.8x; p = 0.02, NS pituitary tumors (7.7x; p = 0.004 and GH-secreting tumors (5.0x; p = 0.05. β-catenin, NFAT5 and JNK proteins showed no expression in normal pituitaries and in any of the pituitary tumor subtypes. Furthermore, no association of the studied gene or protein expression was observed with tumor size, recurrence, and progressive disease. The hierarchical clustering showed a regular pattern of genes of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways randomly distributed throughout the dendrogram. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce previous reports

  6. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions Training and testing canonical momenta indicators of EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, L

    1998-01-01

    A series of papers has developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI), deriving aggregate behavior of experimentally observed columns of neurons from statistical electrical-chemical properties of synaptic interactions. While not useful to yield insights at the single neuron level, SMNI has demonstrated its capability in describing large-scale properties of short-term memory and electroencephalographic (EEG) systematics. The necessity of including nonlinear and stochastic structures in this development has been stressed. Sets of EEG and evoked potential data were fit, collected to investigate genetic predispositions to alcoholism and to extract brain signatures of short-term memory. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), a global optimization algorithm, was used to perform maximum likelihood fits of Lagrangians defined by path integrals of multivariate conditional probabilities. Canonical momenta indicators (CMI) are thereby derived for individual's EEG data. The CMI give better signal recog...

  7. Expanded all-optical programmable logic array based on multi-input/output canonical logic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Dong, Jianji; Zou, Bingrong; Wu, Zhao; Dong, Wenchan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-04-21

    We present an expanded all-optical programmable logic array (O-PLA) using multi-input and multi-output canonical logic units (CLUs) generation. Based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), two-input and three-input CLUs are simultaneously achieved in five different channels with an operation speed of 40 Gb/s. Clear temporal waveforms and wide open eye diagrams are successfully observed. The effectiveness of the scheme is validated by extinction ratio and optical signal-to-noise ratio measurements. The computing capacity, defined as the total amount of logic functions achieved by the O-PLA, is discussed in detail. For a three-input O-PLA, the computing capacity of the expanded CLUs-PLA is more than two times as large as that of the standard CLUs-PLA, and this multiple will increase to more than three and a half as the idlers are individually independent.

  8. Physical states in the canonical tensor model from the perspective of random tensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, Gaurav; Sato, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Tensor models, generalization of matrix models, are studied aiming for quantum gravity in dimensions larger than two. Among them, the canonical tensor model is formulated as a totally constrained system with first-class constraints, the algebra of which resembles the Dirac algebra of general relativity. When quantized, the physical states are defined to be vanished by the quantized constraints. In explicit representations, the constraint equations are a set of partial differential equations for physical wave-functions, which do not seem straightforward to solve due to their non-linear character. In this paper, after providing some explicit solutions for N = 2,3, we show that certain scale-free integration of partition functions of statistical systems on random networks, or random tensor networks more generally, provides a series of solutions for general N. Then, by generalizing this form, we also obtain various solutions for general N. Moreover, we show that the solutions for the cases with a cosmological con...

  9. Transform image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Sabzali; Ersoy, Okan K.

    1992-03-01

    Blockwise transform image enhancement techniques are discussed. Previously, transform image enhancement has usually been based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) applied to the whole image. Two major drawbacks with the DFT are high complexity of implementation involving complex multiplications and additions, with intermediate results being complex numbers, and the creation of severe block effects if image enhancement is done blockwise. In addition, the quality of enhancement is not very satisfactory. It is shown that the best transforms for transform image coding, namely, the scrambled real discrete Fourier transform, the discrete cosine transform, and the discrete cosine-III transform, are also the best for image enhancement. Three techniques of enhancement discussed in detail are alpha- rooting, modified unsharp masking, and filtering motivated by the human visual system response (HVS). With proper modifications, it is observed that unsharp masking and HVS- motivated filtering without nonlinearities are basically equivalent. Block effects are completely removed by using an overlap-save technique in addition to the best transform.

  10. The acquisition of nonlinear visuomotor transformations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.; Heuer, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Participants in two experiments moved a mouse-like device to the right to move a cursor on a computer screen to a target position. The cursor was invisible during motion but reappeared at the end of each movement. The relationship between the amplitudes of the cursor movement and the mouse movement

  11. Extended Homogeneous Balance Method and Lax Pairs, Backlund Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI ChengLin

    2002-01-01

    Using the extended homogeneous balance method, which is very concise and primary, Lax pairs and Backlund transformation for most nonlinear evolution equations, such as the compound KdV-Burgers equation and nonlinear diffusion equation are obtained.

  12. Lecture notes on wavelet transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic exposition of the basic ideas and results of wavelet analysis suitable for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers alike. The primary goal of this text is to show how different types of wavelets can be constructed, illustrate why they are such powerful tools in mathematical analysis, and demonstrate their use in applications. It also develops the required analytical knowledge and skills on the part of the reader, rather than focus on the importance of more abstract formulation with full mathematical rigor.  These notes differs from many textbooks with similar titles in that a major emphasis is placed on the thorough development of the underlying theory before introducing applications and modern topics such as fractional Fourier transforms, windowed canonical transforms, fractional wavelet transforms, fast wavelet transforms, spline wavelets, Daubechies wavelets, harmonic wavelets and non-uniform wavelets. The selection, arrangement, and presentation of the material in these ...

  13. Nonlinear modeling of thermoacoustically driven energy cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prateek; Scalo, Carlo; Lodato, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We present an investigation of nonlinear energy cascade in thermoacoustically driven high-amplitude oscillations, from the initial weakly nonlinear regime to the shock wave dominated limit cycle. We develop a first principle based quasi-1D model for nonlinear wave propagation in a canonical minimal unit thermoacoustic device inspired by the experimental setup of Biwa et al.. Retaining up to quadratic nonlinear terms in the governing equations, we develop model equations for nonlinear wave propagation in the proximity of differentially heated no-slip boundaries. Furthermore, we discard the effects of acoustic streaming in the present study and focus on nonlinear energy cascade due to high amplitude wave propagation. Our model correctly predicts the observed exponential growth of the thermoacoustically amplified second harmonic, as well as the energy transfer rate to higher harmonics causing wave steepening. Moreover, we note that nonlinear coupling of local pressure with heat transfer reduces thermoacoustic amplification gradually thus causing the system to reach limit cycle exhibiting shock waves. Throughout, we verify the results from the quasi-1D model with fully compressible Navier-Stokes simulations.

  14. On Nonlinear Higher Spin Curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Manvelyan, Ruben(Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. St. 2, Yerevan, 0036, Armenia); Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad

    2011-01-01

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider in detail the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the deWit-Freedman curvature.

  15. On nonlinear higher spin curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manvelyan, Ruben, E-mail: manvel@physik.uni-kl.d [Department of Physics, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. Str. 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Mkrtchyan, Karapet, E-mail: karapet@yerphi.a [Department of Physics, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. Str. 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Ruehl, Werner, E-mail: ruehl@physik.uni-kl.d [Department of Physics, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Tovmasyan, Murad, E-mail: mtovmasyan@ysu.a [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. Str. 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2011-05-09

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.

  16. Non-canonical Stat3 signaling in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jaya; DiGiovanni, John

    2016-12-01

    Stat3 is a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription family and is a known regulator of essential biologic processes including angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. Canonical Stat3-mediated signaling involves tyrosine phosphorylation on specific residues that leads to homodimerization and translocation to the nucleus. For many years it was presumed that most, if not all, of the functions of Stat3, both normal and aberrant, were due to the canonical cytokine and growth factor signaling mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that Stat3 functions through alternate non-canonical pathways to bring about some of these biological functions both in normal cells as well as during cancer development and progression. A number of studies have now shown that Stat3 has a function in mitochondria and that unphosphorylated Stat3 (uStat3) can also function as a transcription factor broadening the potential mechanisms involved in Stat3 action. In this review article, we discuss these two main non-canonical functions of Stat3 and their potential roles in oncogenesis. Given the many facets of Stat3 signaling, additional comprehensive investigations are required to fully understand the role of non-canonical Stat3 signaling in cancer and whether these pathways can be targeted for cancer prevention and treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Canonical Wnt Signaling Regulates Atrioventricular Junction Programming and Electrophysiological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillers, Benjamin S; Chiplunkar, Aditi; Aly, Haytham; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Efimov, Igor R; Boukens, Bastiaan J; Rentschler, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Proper patterning of the atrioventricular canal (AVC) is essential for delay of electrical impulses between atria and ventricles, and defects in AVC maturation can result in congenital heart disease. Objective To determine the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium during AVC development. Methods and Results We utilized a novel allele of β-catenin that preserves β-catenin’s cell adhesive functions but disrupts canonical Wnt signaling, allowing us to probe the effects of Wnt loss of function independently. We show that loss of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium results in tricuspid atresia with hypoplastic right ventricle associated with loss of AVC myocardium. In contrast, ectopic activation of Wnt signaling was sufficient to induce formation of ectopic AV junction-like tissue as assessed by morphology, gene expression, and electrophysiologic criteria. Aberrant AVC development can lead to ventricular preexcitation, a characteristic feature of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We demonstrate that postnatal activation of Notch signaling downregulates canonical Wnt targets within the AV junction. Stabilization of β-catenin protein levels can rescue Notch-mediated ventricular preexcitation and dysregulated ion channel gene expression. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that myocardial canonical Wnt signaling is an important regulator of AVC maturation and electrical programming upstream of Tbx3. Our data further suggests that ventricular preexcitation may require both morphologic patterning defects, as well as myocardial lineage reprogramming, to allow robust conduction across accessory pathway tissue. PMID:25599332

  18. Nonlinear data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Reich, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on nonlinear data assimilation that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. Both contributions focus on so-called particle filters. The first contribution by Jan van Leeuwen focuses on the potential of proposal densities. It discusses the issues with present-day particle filters and explorers new ideas for proposal densities to solve them, converging to particle filters that work well in systems of any dimension, closing the contribution with a high-dimensional example. The second contribution by Cheng and Reich discusses a unified framework for ensemble-transform particle filters. This allows one to bridge successful ensemble Kalman filters with fully nonlinear particle filters, and allows a proper introduction of localization in particle filters, which has been lacking up to now.

  19. Canonical symplectic particle-in-cell method for long-term large-scale simulations of the Vlasov–Maxwell equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jianyuan; Zhang, Ruili; He, Yang; Wang, Yulei; Sun, Yajuan; Burby, Joshua W.; Ellison, Leland; Zhou, Yao

    2015-12-14

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is the most important numerical tool in plasma physics. However, its long-term accuracy has not been established. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a canonical symplectic PIC method for the Vlasov-Maxwell system by discretising its canonical Poisson bracket. A fast local algorithm to solve the symplectic implicit time advance is discovered without root searching or global matrix inversion, enabling applications of the proposed method to very large-scale plasma simulations with many, e.g. 10(9), degrees of freedom. The long-term accuracy and fidelity of the algorithm enables us to numerically confirm Mouhot and Villani's theory and conjecture on nonlinear Landau damping over several orders of magnitude using the PIC method, and to calculate the nonlinear evolution of the reflectivity during the mode conversion process from extraordinary waves to Bernstein waves.

  20. Strong nonlinear focusing of light in nonlinearly controlled electromagnetic active metamaterial field concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.

    2014-05-01

    The idea of nonlineartransformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects