Optimization Formulations for the Maximum Nonlinear Buckling Load of Composite Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik
2011-01-01
This paper focuses on criterion functions for gradient based optimization of the buckling load of laminated composite structures considering different types of buckling behaviour. A local criterion is developed, and is, together with a range of local and global criterion functions from literature......, benchmarked on a number of numerical examples of laminated composite structures for the maximization of the buckling load considering fiber angle design variables. The optimization formulations are based on either linear or geometrically nonlinear analysis and formulated as mathematical programming problems...... solved using gradient based techniques. The developed local criterion is formulated such it captures nonlinear effects upon loading and proves useful for both analysis purposes and as a criterion for use in nonlinear buckling optimization. © 2010 Springer-Verlag....
On Compliance and Buckling Objective Functions in Topology Optimization of Snap-Through Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgaard, Esben; Dahl, Jonas
2013-01-01
This paper deals with topology optimization of static geometrically nonlinear structures experiencing snap-through behaviour. Different compliance and buckling criterion functions are studied and applied for topology optimization of a point loaded curved beam problem with the aim of maximizing...... the snap-through buckling load. The response of the optimized structures obtained using the considered objective functions are evaluated and compared. Due to the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the problem, the load level at which the objective function is evaluated has a tremendous effect on the resulting...... optimized design. A well-known issue in buckling topology optimization is artificial buckling modes in low density regions. The typical remedy applied for linear buckling does not have a natural extension to nonlinear problems, and we propose an alternative approach. Some possible negative implications...
Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis of a locally stretched plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilardj, Madina; Ikhenzzen, Ghania [University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (U.S.T.H.B), Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Merssager, Tanguy; Kanit, Toufik [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille Universite Lille 1, Cite ScientifiqueVilleneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)
2016-08-15
Uniformly stretched thin plates do not buckle unless they are in special boundary conditions. However, buckling commonly occurs around discontinuities, such as cracks, cuts, narrow slits, holes, and different openings, of such plates. This study aims to show that buckling can also occur in thin plates that contain no defect or singularity when the stretching is local. This specific stability problem is analyzed with the finite element method. A brief literature review on stretched plates is presented. Linear and nonlinear buckling stress analyses are conducted for a partially stretched rectangular plate, and various load cases are considered to investigate the influence of the partial loading expanse on the critical tensile buckling load. Results are summarized in iso-stress areas, tables and graphs. Local stretching on one end of the plate induces buckling in the thin plate even without geometrical imperfection.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik
2012-01-01
This paper presents a novel FEM-based approach for fiber angle optimal design of laminated composite structures exhibiting complicated nonlinear buckling behavior, thus enabling design of lighter and more cost-effective structures. The approach accounts for the geometrically nonlinear behavior of...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik
2012-01-01
This paper presents a novel FEM-based approach for fiber angle optimal design of laminated composite structures exhibiting complicated nonlinear buckling behavior, thus enabling design of lighter and more cost-effective structures. The approach accounts for the geometrically nonlinear behavior...... of the structure by utilizing path tracing response analysis up until the buckling point. The method simultaneously includes loss of stability due to bifurcation and limiting behavior and thereby avoids problems related to mode or stability type switching during optimization. The optimization formulation...
Ruszczynski, Andrzej
2011-01-01
Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...
Effect of Physical Nonlinearity on Local Buckling in Sandwich Beams
Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly
2010-01-01
This article deals with experimental, theoretical, and FE characterization of the local buckling in foam-core sandwich beams. In the theoretical approach, this phenomena is considered in a periodic formulation (unbounded wrinkle wave); a nonlinear stress—strain response of the face material is
On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we determine the dynamic buckling load of a strictly nonlinear but weakly damped elastic oscillatory model structure subjected to small perturbations The loading history is explicitly time dependent and varies slowly with time over a natural period of oscillation of the structure. A multiple timing regular ...
Buckling Causes Nonlinear Dynamics of Filamentous Viruses Driven through Nanopores
McMullen, Angus; de Haan, Hendrick W.; Tang, Jay X.; Stein, Derek
2018-02-01
Measurements and Langevin dynamics simulations of filamentous viruses driven through solid-state nanopores reveal a superlinear rise in the translocation velocity with driving force. The mobility also scales with the length of the virus in a nontrivial way that depends on the force. These dynamics are consequences of the buckling of the leading portion of a virus as it emerges from the nanopore and is put under compressive stress by the viscous forces it encounters. The leading tip of a buckled virus stalls and this reduces the total viscous drag force. We present a scaling theory that connects the solid mechanics to the nonlinear dynamics of polyelectrolytes translocating nanopores.
Buckling Optimization of Thick Stiffened Cylindrical Shell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qasim Hassan Bader
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this work the critical pressure due to buckling was calculated numerically by using ANSYS15 for both stiffened and un-stiffened cylinder for various locations and installing types , strengthening of the cylinder causes a more significant increase in buckling pressures than non reinforced cylinder . The optimum design of structure was done by using the ASYS15 program; in this step the number of design variables 21 DVs. These variables are Independent variables that directly affect. The design variables represented the thickness of the cylinder and( height and width of 10 stiffeners. State variables (SVs, these variables are dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs and are necessary to constrain the design. The objective function is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. In this case the state variable is critical pressure (CP and the objective function is the total (volume of the structure. The optimum weight of the structure with reasonable required conditions for multi types of structure was found. The result shows the best location of stiffener at internal side with circumferential direction. In this case the critical pressure can be increased about 18.6% and the total weight of the structure decreases to 15.8%.
MODELING OF NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND BUCKLING OF ELASTIC INHOMOGENEOUS SHELLS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bazhenov V.A.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper outlines the fundamentals of the method of solving static problems of geometrically nonlinear deformation, buckling, and postbuckling behavior of thin thermoelastic inhomogeneous shells with complex-shaped mid-surface, geometrical features throughout the thickness, and multilayer structure under complex thermomechanical loading. The method is based on the geometrically nonlinear equations of three-dimensional thermoelasticity and the moment finiteelement scheme. The method is justified numerically. Comparing solutions with those obtained by other authors and by software LIRA and SCAD is conducted.
Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube
Liu, Ning; Wang, Yong-Gang; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao
2014-04-01
Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.
Ma, Weilin; Liu, Jiande; Dong, Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Xiaozhou
2017-02-01
In order to theoretically study the buckle propagation of subsea pipelines with slip-on buckle arrestors, a two-dimensional ring model was set up to represent the pipeline and a nonlinear spring model was adopted to simulate the contact between pipeline's inner walls and between pipeline's outer wall and slip-on buckle arrestor's inner wall during buckle propagation. In addition, some reverse springs are added to prevent the wall of left and right sides separating from the inner wall of slip-on buckle arrestors. Considering large deformation kinematics relations and the elastic-plastic constitutive relation of material, balance equations were established with the principle of virtual work. The variation of external pressure with respect to the cross-sectional area of pipelines was analyzed, and the lower bound of the crossover pressure of slip-on buckle arrestors was calculated based on Maxwell's energy balance method. By comparing the theoretical results with experiment and finite element numerical simulation, the theoretical method is proved to be correct and reliable.
Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Komarov, Valeriy
2015-10-01
Composite drive shafts are extensively used in automotive and aeronautical applications due to lightweight combined with exceptional strength and stiffness. Complexity of the drive shaft design problem associated with the need to determine rational values for multiple parameters characterizing composite material (fiber orientation angles, stacking sequence and ply thicknesses), as well as with the fact that multiple conflicting design constraints should be considered simultaneously. In this paper we approach this problem considering carbon/epoxy drive shaft design as a multistep optimization process. It includes the following steps: 1) determination of fiber orientation angles and laminate stacking sequence based on analysis of loading conditions and analytical expressions predicting buckling load and minimal natural frequency of idealized drive shaft; 2) finding rational ply thicknesses using formal optimization procedure utilizing response surface approximations and gradient-based optimization algorithm; and 3) verification analysis of the optimized configuration with the use of nonlinear buckling analysis to ensure satisfaction of stability constraint.
On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The elastic model structure is itself a generalization of most physical elastic structures in common use in Structural Engineering .The dynamic buckling load is obtained nontrivially and compared with related previous results of similar loading conditions. The result shows that the dynamic buckling load does not depend on ...
Na, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ji-Hwan
2008-02-01
The volume fraction optimization of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) composite plate is investigated for stress reduction and thermo-mechanical buckling. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and varied continuously in the thickness direction. The 3-D finite element is adopted using an 18-node solid element to analyze the plate model more accurately for the variation of material properties and temperature field in the thickness direction. Tensile and compressive stress ratios of the structure under mechanical load are evaluated for stress analysis. Temperature at each node is obtained by solving the steady-state heat transfer problem in the thermo-mechanical buckling analysis, and Newton-Raphson method is used for nonlinear analysis. Tensile stress ratios, compressive stress ratios and critical temperatures are analyzed for various thickness ratios and volume fraction distributions in the numerical study. Finally, the optimal design of FGM composite plate is investigated by considering the stress and the critical temperature.
Nonlinear buckling behaviour of spherical shells: barriers and symmetry-breaking dimples.
Hutchinson, John W; Thompson, J Michael T
2017-05-13
The nonlinear axisymmetric post-buckling behaviour of perfect, thin, elastic spherical shells subject to external pressure and their asymmetric bifurcations are characterized, providing results for a structure/loading combination with an exceptionally nonlinear buckling response. Immediately after the onset of buckling, the buckling mode localizes into a dimple at the poles. The relations among the pressure, the dimple amplitude and the change in volume of the shell are determined over a large range of pole deflections. These results allow accurate evaluation of criteria such as the Maxwell condition for which the energies in the unbuckled and buckled states are the same and evaluation of the influences of pressure versus volume-controlled loadings. Non-axisymmetric bifurcation from the axisymmetric state, which occurs deep into the post-buckling regime in the form of multi-lobed dimples, is also established and discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.' © 2017 The Author(s).
Nonlinear mode interaction in equal-leg angle struts susceptible to cellular buckling.
Bai, L; Wang, F; Wadee, M A; Yang, J
2017-11-01
A variational model that describes the interactive buckling of a thin-walled equal-leg angle strut under pure axial compression is presented. A formulation combining the Rayleigh-Ritz method and continuous displacement functions is used to derive a system of differential and integral equilibrium equations for the structural component. Solving the equations using numerical continuation reveals progressive cellular buckling (or snaking) arising from the nonlinear interaction between the weak-axis flexural buckling mode and the strong-axis flexural-torsional buckling mode for the first time-the resulting behaviour being highly unstable. Physical experiments conducted on 10 cold-formed steel specimens are presented and the results show good agreement with the variational model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wanil Byun
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The supercavitating vehicle is an underwater vehicle that is surrounded almost completely by a supercavity to reduce hydrodynamic drag substantially. Since the cruise speed of the vehicle is much higher than that of conventional submarines, the drag force is huge and a buckling may occur. The buckling phenomenon is analyzed in this study through static and dynamic approaches. Critical buckling load and pressure as well as buckling mode shapes are calculated using static buckling analysis and a stability map is obtained from dynamic buckling analysis. When the finite element method (FEM is used for the buckling analysis, the solver requires a linear static solver and an eigenvalue solver. In this study, these two solvers are integrated and a consolidated buckling analysis module is constructed. Furthermore, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is combined in the buckling analysis module to perform a design optimization computation of a simplified supercavitating vehicle. The simplified configuration includes cylindrical shell structure with three stiffeners. The target for the design optimization process is to minimize total weight while maintaining the given structure buckling-free.
Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA
Fields, Alexander; Axelrod, Kevin; Cohen, Adam
2012-02-01
Bare double-stranded DNA is a stiff biopolymer with a persistence length of roughly 53 nm under physiological conditions. Cells and viruses employ extensive protein machinery to overcome this stiffness and bend, twist, and loop DNA to accomplish tasks such as packaging, recombination, gene regulation, and repair. The mechanical properties of DNA are of fundamental importance to the mechanism and thermodynamics of these processes, but physiologically relevant curvature has been difficult to access experimentally. We designed and synthesized a DNA hairpin construct in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on a short segment of duplex DNA, inducing Euler buckling followed by bending to thermally inaccessible radii of curvature. The efficiency of F"orster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores covalently linked to the hairpin indicated the degree of buckling. Bulk and single-molecule measurements yielded distinctly different force-compression curves for intact DNA and for strands with single nicks, base pair mismatches, and damage sites. These results suggest that changes in local mechanical properties may play a significant role in the recognition of these features by DNA-binding proteins.
Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated
Nonlinear contact between inner walls of deep sea pipelines in buckling process
Ma, Weilin; Yu, Jianxing; Zhou, Qingji; Xie, Bin; Cao, Jing; Li, Zhibo
2015-02-01
In order to study buckling propagation mechanism in deep sea pipelines, the contact between pipeline's inner walls in buckling process was studied. A two-dimensional ring model was used to represent the pipeline and a nonlinear spring model was adopted to simulate the contact between inner walls. Based on the elastoplastic constitutive relationship and the principle of virtual work theory, the coupling effect of pipeline's nonlinear large deformation and wall contact was included in the theoretical analysis with the aid of MATLAB, and the application scope of the theoretical model was also discussed. The calculated results show that during the loading process, the change in external pressure is closely related to the distribution of section stress, and once the walls are contacting each other, the external pressure increases and then remains stable after it reaches a specific value. Without fracture, the pipeline section will stop showing deformation. The results of theoretical calculations agree well with those of numerical simulations. Finally, in order to ensure reliability and accuracy of the theoretical results, the collapse pressure and propagation pressure were both verified by numerical simulations and experiments. Therefore, the theoretical model can be used to analyze pipeline's buckling deformation and contact between pipeline's inner walls, which forms the basis for further research on three-dimensional buckling propagation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik
2015-01-01
Robust buckling optimal design of laminated composite structures is conducted in this work. Optimal designs are obtained by considering geometric imperfections in the optimization procedure. Discrete Material Optimization is applied to obtain optimal laminate designs. The optimal geometric...... imperfection is represented by the “worst” shape imperfection. The two optimization problems are combined through the recurrence optimization. Hereby the imperfection sensitivity of the considered structures can be studied. The recurrence optimization is demonstrated through a U-profile and a cylindrical panel...... example. The imperfection sensitivity of the optimized structure decreases during the recurrence optimization for both examples, hence robust buckling optimal structures are designed....
Nonlinear morphoelastic plates II: Exodus to buckled states
McMahon, J.
2011-05-11
Morphoelasticity is the theory of growing elastic materials. The theory is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and provides a formulation of the deformation and stresses induced by growth. Following a companion paper, a general theory of growing non-linear elastic Kirchhoff plate is described. First, a complete geometric description of incompatibility with simple examples is given. Second, the stability of growing Kirchhoff plates is analyzed. © SAGE Publications 2011.
Nemeth, Michael P.
2014-01-01
Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.
Local analytical sensitivity analysis for design of continua with optimized 3D buckling behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
2018-01-01
The localized analytical sensitivity for eigenfrequency is extended to the non-linear problem of 3D continuum buckling analysis. Implemented in a finite element approach the inherent complexity of mode switching and multiple eigenvalues is found not to be a practical problem. The number of necess......The localized analytical sensitivity for eigenfrequency is extended to the non-linear problem of 3D continuum buckling analysis. Implemented in a finite element approach the inherent complexity of mode switching and multiple eigenvalues is found not to be a practical problem. The number...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shariyat, M.; Asgari, D.
2013-01-01
Influences of the thickness variability and bidirectional material heterogeneity on the thermal buckling of the cylindrical shells have not been investigated so far. In the present paper, nonlinear thermal buckling and postbuckling analyses of imperfect, variable thickness cylindrical shells made of bidirectional functionally graded materials undergoing uniform temperature rises are accomplished for the first time, employing a third-order shear-deformation theory, von Karman-type kinematic nonlinearity, and a nonlinear finite element method. Material properties may vary in both radial and axial directions and can be temperature-dependent. Buckling temperature is detected by a modified Budiansky's criterion. The results reveal that temperature-dependency of the material properties reduces the buckling temperature. Moreover, effects of the volume fraction index on decreasing the buckling temperature are more remarkable for higher radius to thickness ratios. Furthermore, effects of reduction of the thickness in the axial direction may be compensated by an appropriate distribution of the material properties. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear thermal postbuckling of imperfect FGM cylindrical shells is investigated. • Material properties of the shell may vary in both radial and axial directions. • Geometric imperfections and thickness variability are also taken into account. • Material properties are considered to be temperature-dependent. • The nonlinear governing equations are solved by an updating finite element scheme
Optimal design of trusses under a nonconvex global buckling constraint
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ben-Tal, A.; Jarre, F.; Kočvara, Michal; Nemirovski, A.; Zowe, J.
2000-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 2 (2000), s. 189-213 ISSN 1389-4420 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075707 Grant - others:BMBF(DE) 03ZO7BAY Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : truss design * buckling * nonconvex semidefinite programming Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Hoff, N J; Klein, Bertram
1944-01-01
In the present part I of a series of reports on the inward bulge type buckling of monocoque cylinders the buckling load in combined bending and compression is first derived. Next the reduction in the buckling load because of a nonlinear direct stress distribution is determined. In experiments nonlinearity may result from an inadequate stiffness of the end attachments in actual airplanes from the existence of concentrated loads or cut-outs. The effect of a shearing force upon the critical load is investigated through an analysis of the results of tests carried out at GALCIT with 55 reinforced monocoque cylinders. Finally, a simple criterion of general instability is presented in the form of a buckling inequality which should be helpful to the designer of a monocoque in determining the sizes of the rings required for excluding the possibility of inward bulge type buckling.
Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anders Clausen
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM permits the fabrication of functionally optimized components with high geometrical complexity. The opportunity of using porous infill as an integrated part of the manufacturing process is an example of a unique AM feature. Automated design methods are still incapable of fully exploiting this design freedom. In this work, we show how the so-called coating approach to topology optimization provides a means for designing infill-based components that possess a strongly improved buckling load and, as a result, improved structural stability. The suggested approach thereby addresses an important inadequacy of the standard minimum compliance topology optimization approach, in which buckling is rarely accounted for; rather, a satisfactory buckling load is usually assured through a post-processing step that may lead to sub-optimal components. The present work compares the standard and coating approaches to topology optimization for the MBB beam benchmark case. The optimized structures are additively manufactured using a filamentary technique. This experimental study validates the numerical model used in the coating approach. Depending on the properties of the infill material, the buckling load may be more than four times higher than that of solid structures optimized under the same conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Nielsen, A.
2004-01-01
and the objective of the optimizations is minimum mass with constraints on (possibly multiple) eigenfrequencies, displacements, and stresses. For the case of stress constraints, we deal differently with tensile and compressive stresses, for which we control buckling on the element level. The stress constraints...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik
2015-01-01
Robust design of laminated composite structures is considered in this work. Because laminated composite structures are often thin walled, buckling failure can occur prior to material failure, making it desirable to maximize the buckling load. However, as a structure always contains imperfections...... and “worst” shape imperfection optimizations to design robust composite structures. The approach is demonstrated on an U-profile where the imperfection sensitivity is monitored, and based on the example it can be concluded that robust designs can be obtained....
Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole
2016-01-01
Additive manufacturing (AM) permits the fabrication of functionally optimized components with high geometrical complexity. The opportunity of using porous infill as an integrated part of the manufacturing process is an example of a unique AM feature. Automated design methods are still incapable...... addresses an important inadequacy of the standard minimum compliance topology optimization approach, in which buckling is rarely accounted for; rather, a satisfactory buckling load is usually assured through a post-processing step that may lead to sub-optimal components. The present work compares...... the standard and coating approaches to topology optimization for the MBB beam benchmark case. The optimized structures are additively manufactured using a filamentary technique. This experimental study validates the numerical model used in the coating approach. Depending on the properties of the infill...
Nonlinear Forced Vibration of a Viscoelastic Buckled Beam with 2 : 1 Internal Resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu-Yang Xiong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of a viscoelastic buckled beam subjected to primary resonance in the presence of internal resonance is investigated for the first time. For appropriate choice of system parameters, the natural frequency of the second mode is approximately twice that of the first providing the condition for 2 : 1 internal resonance. The ordinary differential equations of the two mode shapes are established using the Galerkin method. The problem is replaced by two coupled second-order differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The multiple scales method is applied to derive the modulation-phase equations. Steady-state solutions of the system as well as their stability are examined. The frequency-amplitude curves exhibit the steady-state response in the directly excited and indirectly excited modes due to modal interaction. The double-jump, the saturation phenomenon, and the nonperiodic region phenomena are observed illustrating the influence of internal resonance. The validity range of the analytical approximations is assessed by comparing the analytical approximate results with a numerical solution by the Runge-Kutta method. The unstable regions in the internal resonance are explored via numerical simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagheri, Saman; Nikkar, Ali [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-11-15
This paper deals with the determination of approximate solutions for a model of column buckling using two efficient and powerful methods called He's variational approach and variational iteration algorithm-II. These methods are used to find analytical approximate solution of nonlinear dynamic equation of a model for the column buckling. First and second order approximate solutions of the equation of the system are achieved. To validate the solutions, the analytical results have been compared with those resulted from Runge-Kutta 4th order method. A good agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the numerical results and the exact solution shows that the present methods can be easily extended to other nonlinear oscillation problems in engineering. The accuracy and convenience of the proposed methods are also revealed in comparisons with the other solution techniques.
Haiping, Liu; Wenhua, Shi
2016-09-01
The micro-vibration from flywheel system, as one of the main disturbances, has restricted the effective use of high sensitive payloads in satellites. In order to suppress the low- frequency line spectrum from the flywheel, a novel nonlinear vibration absorber (NVA) using Euler buckled beam is developed. The proposed NVA is attached on the supporting structure of the flywheel assembly, aiming to attenuate the line spectrum introduced by the flywheel in operation. A discrete multi-degree-of-freedom dynamic model, which includes the NVA, the flywheel and the supporting structure by taking into account of the gyroscopic effect of the flywheel, is built. The NVA is represented by a linear positive stiffness spring and parallel Euler buckled beams. The systematic dynamic equations with and without the NVA under the micro-vibration from the flywheel, respectively, are solved by using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method in time-domain. In addition, the effects of initial imperfection, oblique angle and damping coefficient of the Euler buckled beam on the vibration suppression performance are studied. The calculating results reveal that a typical nonlinear dynamic absorber for controlling the micro-vibration from the flywheel is constructed successfully based on the provided designing parameters of the Euler buckled beam. Compared with the vibration responses of the combined system with and without the NVA, it can be concluded that the NVA has better attenuation performance. The initial imperfection and damping coefficient of the Euler buckled beam exist optimum values, and with the increase of the oblique angle, the vibration controlling characteristics of the NVA have been improved.
Nonlinear Optimization with Financial Applications
Bartholomew-Biggs, Michael
2005-01-01
The book introduces the key ideas behind practical nonlinear optimization. Computational finance - an increasingly popular area of mathematics degree programs - is combined here with the study of an important class of numerical techniques. The financial content of the book is designed to be relevant and interesting to specialists. However, this material - which occupies about one-third of the text - is also sufficiently accessible to allow the book to be used on optimization courses of a more general nature. The essentials of most currently popular algorithms are described, and their performan
Shape optimization of spacer grids / development of a FE model their buckling analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, B. M.; Im, S. Y.; Chang, J. H.; Jang, I. G.; Choi, K. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)
2000-04-01
An optimal design method is adopted for spacer grids. For contact analysis, a typical cell out of repeated pattern in the assembly is modeled. A commercial code, ABAQUS, is used for detailed analysis of frictional contact. For the optimization, design variables are taken from geometric parameters and several objectives are considered. The optimized shapes and resulting performances are discussed and shown satisfactory. This method is illustrated as a good design tool for structures that has complex behavior due to friction and wear. In this study considered is the buckling of spacer grids in the nuclear fuel assembly, which are required to have a sufficient strength against an accident like earthquake. Special attention is given to the modeling of the spot-welding and the constraints between the unit spacers assembled together : it is found that a proper treatment of the constraints is critical for accurate assessment of the buckling behavior including strain localization at the point of spot welding. The buckling strength of the 17 x 17 spacer grid, which is difficult to analyze due to a large number of degrees of freedom, is obtained from analysis for the smaller models 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 7 x 7 and 9 x 9 spacer grids. 9 refs., 36 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)
Singular Nonlinear H∞ Optimal Control Problem
Schaft, A.J. van der
1996-01-01
The theory of nonlinear H∞ optimal control for affine nonlinear systems is extended to the more general context of singular H∞ optimal control of nonlinear systems using ideas from the linear H∞ theory. Our approach yields under certain assumptions a necessary and sufficient condition for
Djomo Mbong, T. L. M.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.
2018-01-01
In this study, the effect of a controllable parametric excitation on both linear and nonlinear vibrational resonances on the dynamic of a buckled beam excited by a combination of uncontrollable low- and high-frequency periodic forces are investigated. First of all, the beam dynamic is assumed to be constrained by two periodic and independent ambient solicitations, such as wind and earthquake. An axial load of the beam represented by a periodic and parametric excitation is used to control the vibrational resonance phenomenon, induced by the presence of the two external excitations. Approximate analytical expressions for the linear response and the high-frequency force amplitude at which linear vibrational resonance occurs are obtained. An analytical expression of the amplitude of the nonlinear response at the superharmonic equal to the double of the low-frequency, is obtained. For all these expressions, we show the effect of the parametric excitation. We compare all the obtained results with the ones of the case where, the parametric force is absent. It is shown that, the presence of the parametric excitation permit the suppression of both linear and nonlinear vibrational resonances. Moreover, the vibration amplitudes of the buckled beam are significantly reduced, around certain threshold values for the amplitude and the frequency of the parametric excitation.
Mallick, Rajnish; Ganguli, Ranjan; Kumar, Ravi
2017-05-01
The optimized design of a smart post-buckled beam actuator (PBA) is performed in this study. A smart material based piezoceramic stack actuator is used as a prime-mover to drive the buckled beam actuator. Piezoceramic actuators are high force, small displacement devices; they possess high energy density and have high bandwidth. In this study, bench top experiments are conducted to investigate the angular tip deflections due to the PBA. A new design of a linear-to-linear motion amplification device (LX-4) is developed to circumvent the small displacement handicap of piezoceramic stack actuators. LX-4 enhances the piezoceramic actuator mechanical leverage by a factor of four. The PBA model is based on dynamic elastic stability and is analyzed using the Mathieu-Hill equation. A formal optimization is carried out using a newly developed meta-heuristic nature inspired algorithm, named as the bat algorithm (BA). The BA utilizes the echolocation capability of bats. An optimized PBA in conjunction with LX-4 generates end rotations of the order of 15° at the output end. The optimized PBA design incurs less weight and induces large end rotations, which will be useful in development of various mechanical and aerospace devices, such as helicopter trailing edge flaps, micro and nano aerial vehicles and other robotic systems.
Ye, Hong-Ling; Wang, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ning; Sui, Yun-Kang
2017-10-01
The purpose of the present work is to study the buckling problem with plate/shell topology optimization of orthotropic material. A model of buckling topology optimization is established based on the independent, continuous, and mapping method, which considers structural mass as objective and buckling critical loads as constraints. Firstly, composite exponential function (CEF) and power function (PF) as filter functions are introduced to recognize the element mass, the element stiffness matrix, and the element geometric stiffness matrix. The filter functions of the orthotropic material stiffness are deduced. Then these filter functions are put into buckling topology optimization of a differential equation to analyze the design sensitivity. Furthermore, the buckling constraints are approximately expressed as explicit functions with respect to the design variables based on the first-order Taylor expansion. The objective function is standardized based on the second-order Taylor expansion. Therefore, the optimization model is translated into a quadratic program. Finally, the dual sequence quadratic programming (DSQP) algorithm and the global convergence method of moving asymptotes algorithm with two different filter functions (CEF and PF) are applied to solve the optimal model. Three numerical results show that DSQP&CEF has the best performance in the view of structural mass and discretion.
Chen, X. L.; Liew, K. M.
2004-12-01
In this paper, the buckling behavior of functionally graded material (FGM) rectangular plates subjected to pin loads, partial uniform loads and parabolic loads is studied using the mesh-free method based on the radial basis function. The proposed mesh-free method approximates displacements based on scattered nodes, thus it can avoid the disadvantages that arise in the finite element method (FEM) from the use of elements. Variational forms of the system equations for the calculation of non-uniform prebuckling stress distribution and buckling loads of the plate are established. Two-step solution procedures are implemented. First the non-uniform prebuckling stresses are obtained based on a two-dimensional (2D) elastic plane stress problem. Then buckling loads of plates with the predetermined non-uniform prebuckling stresses are calculated based on Mindlin's plate assumption. Selected numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed mesh-free method.
De Pascalis, Riccardo
2010-07-22
Euler\\'s celebrated buckling formula gives the critical load N for the buckling of a slender cylindrical column with radius B and length L as N/(π3B2)=(E/4)(B/L)2 where E is Young\\'s modulus. Its derivation relies on the assumptions that linear elasticity applies to this problem, and that the slenderness (B/L) is an infinitesimal quantity. Here we ask the following question: What is the first non-linear correction in the right hand-side of this equation when terms up to (B/L)4 are kept? To answer this question, we specialize the exact solution of incremental non-linear elasticity for the homogeneous compression of a thick compressible cylinder with lubricated ends to the theory of third-order elasticity. In particular, we highlight the way second- and third-order constants-including Poisson\\'s ratio-all appear in the coefficient of (B/L)4. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
A simplified lumped model for the optimization of post-buckled beam architecture wideband generator
Liu, Weiqun; Formosa, Fabien; Badel, Adrien; Hu, Guangdi
2017-11-01
Buckled beams structures are a classical kind of bistable energy harvesters which attract more and more interests because of their capability to scavenge energy over a large frequency band in comparison with linear generator. The usual modeling approach uses the Galerkin mode discretization method with relatively high complexity, while the simplification with a single-mode solution lacks accuracy. It stems on the optimization of the energy potential features to finally define the physical and geometrical parameters. Therefore, in this paper, a simple lumped model is proposed with explicit relationship between the potential shape and parameters to allow efficient design of bistable beams based generator. The accuracy of the approximation model is studied with the effectiveness of application analyzed. Moreover, an important fact, that the bending stiffness has little influence on the potential shape with low buckling level and the sectional area determined, is found. This feature extends the applicable range of the model by utilizing the design of high moment of inertia. Numerical investigations demonstrate that the proposed model is a simple and reliable tool for design. An optimization example of using the proposed model is demonstrated with satisfactory performance.
Nonlinear buckling of woven fabrics, part I: elastic and non-elastic cases
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Anandjiwala, RD
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the fabric buckling model proposed by Grosberg and Swani has been modified by incorporating Huang’s bending rule. The proposed model is an extension of the present model and also covers the special cases. The numerical results appear...
Optimal design for nonlinear response models
Fedorov, Valerii V
2013-01-01
Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models discusses the theory and applications of model-based experimental design with a strong emphasis on biopharmaceutical studies. The book draws on the authors' many years of experience in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. While the focus is on nonlinear models, the book begins with an explanation of the key ideas, using linear models as examples. Applying the linearization in the parameter space, it then covers nonlinear models and locally optimal designs as well as minimax, optimal on average, and Bayesian designs. The authors also discuss ada
Introduction to Nonlinear and Global Optimization
Hendrix, E.M.T.; Tóth, B.
2010-01-01
This self-contained text provides a solid introduction to global and nonlinear optimization, providing students of mathematics and interdisciplinary sciences with a strong foundation in applied optimization techniques. The book offers a unique hands-on and critical approach to applied optimization
Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.
2007-06-01
The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)
Xue, Jianghong; Xia, Fei; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Jianwen; Chen, Shuhua; Xiong, Ying; Tan, Zuyuan; Liu, Renhuai; Yuan, Hong
2017-06-30
This paper presents a multiscale approach to study the nonlinear vibration of fiber reinforced composite laminates containing an embedded, through-width delamination dividing the laminate into four sub-laminates. The equations of motion are established from macroscopic nonlinear mechanics for plates and shells and micro-mechanics of composite material to allow for the influences of large amplitude, membrane stretching in the neutral plane, and the interactions of the sublaminates. Analytical solutions obtained in this paper reveal that the interaction penalty at the interfaces plays a coupling effect between sublaminates, which eventually alters the vibration characters of the four-sublaminate lamina in macroscopic and microscopic mechanism. From a macro perspective, sub-laminates above and below the delamination vibrate in exactly the same mode in spite of their different stiffness and the four-sublaminate lamina has a consistent global vibration mode. In accompanying with the macro vibration, micro buckles occur on the interfaces of the delamination with amplitude about 10 -3 times of that of the global mode. It is found that the vibration frequency is an eigenvalue of the delaminated lamina determined only by the geometry of the delamination. Authentication of the multiscale study is fulfilled by comparing the analytical solutions with the FEA results.
Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B. Scott; Shaw, Steven W.
2015-01-01
resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described...
Nonlinear analysis approximation theory, optimization and applications
2014-01-01
Many of our daily-life problems can be written in the form of an optimization problem. Therefore, solution methods are needed to solve such problems. Due to the complexity of the problems, it is not always easy to find the exact solution. However, approximate solutions can be found. The theory of the best approximation is applicable in a variety of problems arising in nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. This book highlights interesting aspects of nonlinear analysis and optimization together with many applications in the areas of physical and social sciences including engineering. It is immensely helpful for young graduates and researchers who are pursuing research in this field, as it provides abundant research resources for researchers and post-doctoral fellows. This will be a valuable addition to the library of anyone who works in the field of applied mathematics, economics and engineering.
Nonlinear analysis and analog simulation of a piezoelectric buckled beam with fractional derivative
Mokem Fokou, I. S.; Buckjohn, C. Nono Dueyou; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.
2017-08-01
In this article, an analog circuit for implementing fractional-order derivative and a harmonic balance method for a vibration energy harvesting system under pure sinusoidal vibration source is proposed in order to predict the system response. The objective of this paper is to discuss the performance of the system with fractional derivative and nonlinear damping (μb). Bifurcation diagram, phase portrait and power spectral density (PSD) are provided to deeply characterize the dynamics of the system. These results are corroborated by the 0-1 test. The appearance of the chaotic vibrations reduces the instantaneous voltage. The pre-experimental investigation is carried out through appropriate software electronic circuit (Multisim). The corresponding electronic circuit is designed, exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior, in accord with numerical simulations. The impact of fractional derivative and nonlinear damping is presented with detail on the output voltage and power of the system. The agreement between numerical and analytical results justifies the efficiency of the analytical technique used. In addition, by combining the harmonic excitation with the random force, the stochastic resonance phenomenon occurs and improves the harvested energy. It emerges from these results that the order of fractional derivative μ and nonlinear damping μb play an important role in the response of the system.
Singular nonlinear H-infinity optimal control problem
Maas, W.C.A.; Maas, W.C.A.; van der Schaft, Arjan
1996-01-01
The theory of nonlinear H∞ of optimal control for affine nonlinear systems is extended to the more general context of singular H∞ optimal control of nonlinear systems using ideas from the linear H∞ theory. Our approach yields under certain assumptions a necessary and sufficient condition for
Optimal Variational Method for Truly Nonlinear Oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasile Marinca
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Optimal Variational Method (OVM is introduced and applied for calculating approximate periodic solutions of “truly nonlinear oscillators”. The main advantage of this procedure consists in that it provides a convenient way to control the convergence of approximate solutions in a very rigorous way and allows adjustment of convergence regions where necessary. This approach does not depend upon any small or large parameters. A very good agreement was found between approximate and numerical solution, which proves that OVM is very efficient and accurate.
Fast reactor optimization using nonlinear programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakab, J.
1976-01-01
A considerable number of fast reactor optimization problems may be formulated as nonlinear programming problems, which allows the automation of the optimization process by using the computer for evaluation of intermediate results and decision making. The speeds are compared of various minimizing methods in dependence on the number of variables. A programme was written in Fortran for the IBM 360/40 computer based on the gradient quasi-Newton method which belongs to the penalty function method group. Numerical experiments showed that the speed of determining the constrained extreme depended on the penalty constant and on the number of variables and constraints. An excessively low value of the penalty constant results in a procedure failure while an excessively high value causes the slowing down of the convergence. Increasing the number of variables extends the procedure while the dependence of the procedure speed on the number of constraints alone is insignificant. (Z.M.)
Nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering with applications in Matlab
Bakr, Mohamed
2013-01-01
Nonlinear Optimization in Electrical Engineering with Applications in MATLAB® provides an introductory course on nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering, with a focus on applications such as the design of electric, microwave, and photonic circuits, wireless communications, and digital filter design. Basic concepts are introduced using a step-by-step approach and illustrated with MATLAB® codes that the reader can use and adapt. Topics covered include: classical optimization methods; one dimensional optimization; unconstrained and constrained optimization; global optimization; space map
COMPARISON OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR APS-U
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Y.; Borland, Michael
2017-06-25
Many different objectives and genetic algorithms have been proposed for storage ring nonlinear dynamics performance optimization. These optimization objectives include nonlinear chromaticities and driving/detuning terms, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic acceptance, chromatic detuning, local momentum acceptance, variation of transverse invariant, Touschek lifetime, etc. In this paper, the effectiveness of several different optimization methods and objectives are compared for the nonlinear beam dynamics optimization of the Advanced Photon Source upgrade (APS-U) lattice. The optimized solutions from these different methods are preliminarily compared in terms of the dynamic acceptance, local momentum acceptance, chromatic detuning, and other performance measures.
Topology optimization of nonlinear optical devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2011-01-01
This paper considers the design of nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinearity stems from a nonlinear material model with a permittivity that depends on the local time-averaged intensity of the electric field. A finite element model is developed for time-harmonic wave propagation and an incremen......This paper considers the design of nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinearity stems from a nonlinear material model with a permittivity that depends on the local time-averaged intensity of the electric field. A finite element model is developed for time-harmonic wave propagation...
Continuous nonlinear optimization for engineering applications in GAMS technology
Andrei, Neculai
2017-01-01
This book presents the theoretical details and computational performances of algorithms used for solving continuous nonlinear optimization applications imbedded in GAMS. Aimed toward scientists and graduate students who utilize optimization methods to model and solve problems in mathematical programming, operations research, business, engineering, and industry, this book enables readers with a background in nonlinear optimization and linear algebra to use GAMS technology to understand and utilize its important capabilities to optimize algorithms for modeling and solving complex, large-scale, continuous nonlinear optimization problems or applications. Beginning with an overview of constrained nonlinear optimization methods, this book moves on to illustrate key aspects of mathematical modeling through modeling technologies based on algebraically oriented modeling languages. Next, the main feature of GAMS, an algebraically oriented language that allows for high-level algebraic representation of mathematical opti...
Gradient-based optimization in nonlinear structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dou, Suguang
, frequency stabilization, and disk resonator gyroscope. For advanced design of these structures, it is of considerable value to extend current optimization in linear structural dynamics into nonlinear structural dynamics. In this thesis, we present a framework for modelling, analysis, characterization......The intrinsic nonlinearity of mechanical structures can give rise to rich nonlinear dynamics. Recently, nonlinear dynamics of micro-mechanical structures have contributed to developing new Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), for example, atomic force microscope, passive frequency divider...... coefficients are calculated directly from a nonlinear finite element model. Based on the analysis and the characterization, a new class of optimization problems is studied. In the optimization, design sensitivity analysis is performed by using the adjoint method which is suitable for large-scale structural...
On a Highly Nonlinear Self-Obstacle Optimal Control Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Donato, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.didonato@unitn.it [University of Trento, Department of Mathematics (Italy); Mugnai, Dimitri, E-mail: dimitri.mugnai@unipg.it [Università di Perugia, Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica (Italy)
2015-10-15
We consider a non-quadratic optimal control problem associated to a nonlinear elliptic variational inequality, where the obstacle is the control itself. We show that, fixed a desired profile, there exists an optimal solution which is not far from it. Detailed characterizations of the optimal solution are given, also in terms of approximating problems.
Tailoring the nonlinear response of MEMS resonators using shape optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Lily L.; Polunin, Pavel M.; Dou, Suguang
2017-01-01
We demonstrate systematic control of mechanical nonlinearities in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonators using shape optimization methods. This approach generates beams with non-uniform profiles, which have nonlinearities and frequencies that differ from uniform beams. A set of bridge-type mic...
A Nonlinear Fuel Optimal Reaction Jet Control Law
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Breitfeller, Eric
2002-01-01
We derive a nonlinear fuel optimal attitude control system (ACS) that drives the final state to the desired state according to a cost function that weights the final state angular error relative to the angular rate error...
Parallel Nonlinear Optimization for Astrodynamic Navigation, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CU Aerospace proposes the development of a new parallel nonlinear program (NLP) solver software package. NLPs allow the solution of complex optimization problems,...
Thermal post-buckling of slender composite and FGM columns ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G Venkateswara Rao
linear post-buckling problem is obtained by treating it as a linear eigenvalue problem using the concept of effective stiffness. Here, the total degrees of freedom ... In these studies, the thermal buckling load and the corresponding nonlinear ..... Noordhoff International, Leyden. [3] Rao G V and Raju P C 1977 Post-buckling of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinmyoung Seok
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this article, we are interested in singularly perturbed nonlinear elliptic problems involving a fractional Laplacian. Under a class of nonlinearity which is believed to be almost optimal, we construct a positive solution which exhibits multiple spikes near any given local minimum components of an exterior potential of the problem.
Optimization of nonlinear controller with an enhanced biogeography approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Salem
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the optimization of nonlinear controllers basing of an enhanced Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO approach. Indeed, The BBO is combined to a predator and prey model where several predators are used with introduction of a modified migration operator to increase the diversification along the optimization process so as to avoid local optima and reach the optimal solution quickly. The proposed approach is used in tuning the gains of PID controller for nonlinear systems. Simulations are carried out over a Mass spring damper and an inverted pendulum and has given remarkable results when compared to genetic algorithm and BBO.
Discrete-time inverse optimal control for nonlinear systems
Sanchez, Edgar N
2013-01-01
Discrete-Time Inverse Optimal Control for Nonlinear Systems proposes a novel inverse optimal control scheme for stabilization and trajectory tracking of discrete-time nonlinear systems. This avoids the need to solve the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and minimizes a cost functional, resulting in a more efficient controller. Design More Efficient Controllers for Stabilization and Trajectory Tracking of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems The book presents two approaches for controller synthesis: the first based on passivity theory and the second on a control Lyapunov function (CLF). Th
ROTAX: a nonlinear optimization program by axes rotation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Tadakazu
1977-09-01
A nonlinear optimization program employing the axes rotation method has been developed for solving nonlinear problems subject to nonlinear inequality constraints and its stability and convergence efficiency were examined. The axes rotation method is a direct search of the optimum point by rotating the orthogonal coordinate system in a direction giving the minimum objective. The searching direction is rotated freely in multi-dimensional space, so the method is effective for the problems represented with the contours having deep curved valleys. In application of the axes rotation method to the optimization problems subject to nonlinear inequality constraints, an improved version of R.R. Allran and S.E.J. Johnsen's method is used, which deals with a new objective function composed of the original objective and a penalty term to consider the inequality constraints. The program is incorporated in optimization code system SCOOP. (auth.)
Nonlinear Structures Optimization for Flexible Flapping Wing MAVs
2009-02-01
nonlinear optimization, flapping wing, fluid structure interaction, micro -air vehicles, flexible wing, flapping mechanism 16. SECURITY... Structures Optimization for Flexible Flapping Wing Micro -Air Vehicles” was funded with Chief Scientist Innovative Research funds. This project was divided...predict a 10% resisting load to the model, and Python Scripting to wrap around everything. 2 Building the Model in Abaqus CAE The flapping wing
Galerkin approximations of nonlinear optimal control problems in Hilbert spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mickael D. Chekroun
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear optimal control problems in Hilbert spaces are considered for which we derive approximation theorems for Galerkin approximations. Approximation theorems are available in the literature. The originality of our approach relies on the identification of a set of natural assumptions that allows us to deal with a broad class of nonlinear evolution equations and cost functionals for which we derive convergence of the value functions associated with the optimal control problem of the Galerkin approximations. This convergence result holds for a broad class of nonlinear control strategies as well. In particular, we show that the framework applies to the optimal control of semilinear heat equations posed on a general compact manifold without boundary. The framework is then shown to apply to geoengineering and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions formulated here in terms of optimal control of energy balance climate models posed on the sphere $\\mathbb{S}^2$.
Introduction to the theory of nonlinear optimization
Jahn, Johannes
2007-01-01
This book serves as an introductory text to optimization theory in normed spaces. The topics of this book are existence results, various differentiability notions together with optimality conditions, the contingent cone, a generalization of the Lagrange multiplier rule, duality theory, extended semidefinite optimization, and the investigation of linear quadratic and time minimal control problems. This textbook presents fundamentals with particular emphasis on the application to problems in the calculus of variations, approximation and optimal control theory. The reader is expected to have a ba
Creep buckling analysis of shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.
1977-01-01
The current study was conducted in an effort to determine the degree of conservatism or lack of conservatism in current ASME design rules concerning time-dependent (creep) buckling. In the course of this investigation, certain observations were made concerning the numerical solution of creep buckling problems. It was demonstrated that a nonlinear finite element code could be used to solve the time-dependent buckling problem. A direct method of solution was presented which proved to be computationally efficient and provided answers which agreed very well with available analytical solutions. It was observed that the calculated buckling times could vary widely for small errors in computed displacements. The presence of high creep strain rates contributed to the prediction of early buckling times when calculated during the primary creep stage. The predicted time estimates were found to increase with time until the secondary stage was reached and the estimates approached the critical times predicted without primary creep. It can be concluded, therefore, that for most nuclear piping components, whose primary creep stage is small compared to the secondary stage, the effect of primary creep is negligible and can be omitted from the calculations. In an evaluation of the past and current ASME design rules for time-dependent, load controlled buckling, it was concluded that current use of design load safety factors is not equivalent to a safety factor of ten on service life for low creep exponents
A multi-level set gradient based algorithm for buckling optimization of blended composite structures
Farzan Nasab, Farshad; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; de Boer, Andries
2016-01-01
An approach is presented for the optimization of stiffened composite skins, which guarantees the continuity (blending) of plies over all individual panels. To fulfill design guidelines with respect to symmetry, balance, contiguity, disorientation and percentage rule of the layup, first a stacking
Optimal beamforming in MIMO systems with HPA nonlinearity
Qi, Jian
2010-09-01
In this paper, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems under the consideration of nonlinear high-power amplifiers (HPAs) are investigated. The optimal beamforming scheme, with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, is proposed for MIMO systems with HPA nonlinearity. The performance of the proposed MIMO beamforming scheme in the presence of HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP), outage probability and system capacity, considering transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects of several system parameters, namely, parameters of nonlinear HPA, numbers of transmit and receive antennas, and modulation order of phase-shift keying (PSK), on performance. ©2010 IEEE.
Conference on High Performance Software for Nonlinear Optimization
Murli, Almerico; Pardalos, Panos; Toraldo, Gerardo
1998-01-01
This book contains a selection of papers presented at the conference on High Performance Software for Nonlinear Optimization (HPSN097) which was held in Ischia, Italy, in June 1997. The rapid progress of computer technologies, including new parallel architec tures, has stimulated a large amount of research devoted to building software environments and defining algorithms able to fully exploit this new computa tional power. In some sense, numerical analysis has to conform itself to the new tools. The impact of parallel computing in nonlinear optimization, which had a slow start at the beginning, seems now to increase at a fast rate, and it is reasonable to expect an even greater acceleration in the future. As with the first HPSNO conference, the goal of the HPSN097 conference was to supply a broad overview of the more recent developments and trends in nonlinear optimization, emphasizing the algorithmic and high performance software aspects. Bringing together new computational methodologies with theoretical...
Optimal filtering, parameter tracking, and control of nonlinear nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March-Leuba, C.; March-Leuba, J.; Perez, R.B.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a new formulation of a class of nonlinear optimal control problems in which the system's signals are noisy and some system parameters are changing arbitrarily with time. The methodology is validated with an application to a nonlinear nuclear reactor model. A variational technique based on Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is used to filter the noisy signals, estimate the time-varying parameters, and calculate the optimal controls. The reformulation of the variational technique as an initial value problem allows this microprocessor-based algorithm to perform on-line filtering, parameter tracking, and control
Globalized robust optimization for nonlinear uncertain inequalities
Ben-Tal, A.; Brekelmans, Ruud; den Hertog, Dick; Vial, J.P.
Robust optimization is a methodology that can be applied to problems that are affected by uncertainty in their parameters. The classical robust counterpart of a problem requires the solution to be feasible for all uncertain parameter values in a so-called uncertainty set and offers no guarantees for
Buckling Design and Imperfection Sensitivity of Sandwich Composite Launch-Vehicle Shell Structures
Schultz, Marc R.; Sleight, David W.; Myers, David E.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Lovejoy, Andrew W.; Hilburger, Mark W.
2016-01-01
Composite materials are increasingly being considered and used for launch-vehicle structures. For shell structures, such as interstages, skirts, and shrouds, honeycomb-core sandwich composites are often selected for their structural efficiency. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the structural response, including buckling, of sandwich composite shell structures. Additionally, small geometric imperfections can significantly influence the buckling response, including considerably reducing the buckling load, of shell structures. Thus, both the response of the theoretically perfect structure and the buckling imperfection sensitivity must be considered during the design of such structures. To address the latter, empirically derived design factors, called buckling knockdown factors (KDFs), were developed by NASA in the 1960s to account for this buckling imperfection sensitivity during design. However, most of the test-article designs used in the development of these recommendations are not relevant to modern launch-vehicle constructions and material systems, and in particular, no composite test articles were considered. Herein, a two-part study on composite sandwich shells to (1) examine the relationship between the buckling knockdown factor and the areal mass of optimized designs, and (2) to interrogate the imperfection sensitivity of those optimized designs is presented. Four structures from recent NASA launch-vehicle development activities are considered. First, designs optimized for both strength and stability were generated for each of these structures using design optimization software and a range of buckling knockdown factors; it was found that the designed areal masses varied by between 6.1% and 19.6% over knockdown factors ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. Next, the buckling imperfection sensitivity of the optimized designs is explored using nonlinear finite-element analysis and the as-measured shape of a large-scale composite cylindrical
Pareto optimality for nonlinear infinite dimensional control systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgenios P. Avgerinos
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In this note we establish the existence of Pareto optimal solutions for nonlinear, infinite dimensional control systems with state dependent control constraints and an integral criterion taking values in a separable, reflexive Banach lattice. An example is also presented in detail. Our result extends earlier ones obtained by Cesari and Suryanarayana.
Mechanical buckling of artery under pulsatile pressure.
Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao
2012-04-30
Tortuosity that often occurs in carotid and other arteries has been shown to be associated with high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and other diseases. However the mechanisms of tortuosity development are not clear. Our previous studies have suggested that arteries buckling could be a possible mechanism for the initiation of tortuous shape but artery buckling under pulsatile flow condition has not been fully studied. The objectives of this study were to determine the artery critical buckling pressure under pulsatile pressure both experimentally and theoretically, and to elucidate the relationship of critical pressures under pulsatile flow, steady flow, and static pressure. We first tested the buckling pressures of porcine carotid arteries under these loading conditions, and then proposed a nonlinear elastic artery model to examine the buckling pressures under pulsatile pressure conditions. Experimental results showed that under pulsatile pressure arteries buckled when the peak pressures were approximately equal to the critical buckling pressures under static pressure. This was also confirmed by model simulations at low pulse frequencies. Our results provide an effective tool to predict artery buckling pressure under pulsatile pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Zong-Sheng; Fu, Wei-Ping; Xue, Ru
2015-01-01
Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is proposed in recent years that simulates the teaching-learning phenomenon of a classroom to effectively solve global optimization of multidimensional, linear, and nonlinear problems over continuous spaces. In this paper, an improved teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is presented, which is called nonlinear inertia weighted teaching-learning-based optimization (NIWTLBO) algorithm. This algorithm introduces a nonlinear inertia weighted factor into the basic TLBO to control the memory rate of learners and uses a dynamic inertia weighted factor to replace the original random number in teacher phase and learner phase. The proposed algorithm is tested on a number of benchmark functions, and its performance comparisons are provided against the basic TLBO and some other well-known optimization algorithms. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence rate and better performance than the basic TLBO and some other algorithms as well.
subjected to uniform external pressure. A simple, approximate method of analysis for the buckling of such a shell is offered for the purpose of...stress analysis. The loading with hydrostatic external pressure is considered as a special case of the interaction relation, and the method of analysis for...are included in which properly selected test data are evaluated. A diagramatic comparison of the suggested method of analysis and the test data shows a reasonably close agreement. (Author)
Optimal Control Of Nonlinear Wave Energy Point Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Zhou, Qiang; Kramer, Morten
2013-01-01
In this paper the optimal control law for a single nonlinear point absorber in irregular sea-states is derived, and proven to be a closed-loop controller with feedback from measured displacement, velocity and acceleration of the floater. However, a non-causal integral control component dependent...... on future velocities appears in the optimal control law, rendering the optimal control law less useful for real time implementation. To circumvent this problem a causal closed-loop controller with the same feedback information is proposed, based on a slight modification of the optimal control law. The basic...... idea behind the control strategy is to enforce the stationary velocity response of the absorber into phase with the wave excitation force at any time. The controller is optimal under monochromatic wave excitation. It is demonstrated that the devised causal controller, in plane irregular sea states...
Optimal Tuned Mass Damper for Nonlinear Structure under Different Earthquakes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Shakeri
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Since there is no closed-form formula for designing TMD (Tuned Mass Damper for nonlinear structures, some researchers have proposed numerical optimization procedures such as a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal values of TMD parameters for nonlinear structures. These methods are based on determining the optimal values of TMD parameters to minimize the maximum response (e.g. inter story drift of the controlled structure subjected to a specific earthquake record. Therefore, the performance of TMD that has been designed using a specific record strongly depends on the characteristics of the earthquake record. By changing the characteristics of the input earthquake record, the efficiency of TMD is changed and in some cases, it is possible that the response of the controlled structure is increased. To overcome the shortcomings of the previous researches, in this paper, an efficient method for designing optimal TMD on nonlinear structures is proposed, in which the effect of different ground motion records is considered in the design procedure. In the proposed method, the optimal value of the TMD parameters are determined so that the average maximum response (e.g. inter story drift resulting from different records in the controlled structure is minimized. To illustrate the procedure of the propose method, the method is used to design optimal TMD for a sample structure. The results of numerical simulations show that the average maximum response of controlled structure resulting from different records is reduced significantly. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed method for designing optimal TMD under different earthquakes is effective.
Optimal nonlinear excitation of decadal variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation
Ziqing, Z.; Mu, M.; Dijkstra, H.A.
2013-01-01
Nonlinear development of salinity perturbations in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is investigated with a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation method. The results show two types of optimal initial perturbations of sea surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.
1984-01-01
The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress
Variable Metric Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Least Squares
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukšan, Ladislav; Spedicato, E.
2000-01-01
Roč. 124, č. 1-2 (2000), s. 61-95 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/0080 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : quasi-Newton methods * variable metric methods * unconstrained optimization * nonlinear least squares * sparse problems * partially separable problems * limited-memory methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.455, year: 2000
New Exact Penalty Functions for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingzhuang Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For two kinds of nonlinear constrained optimization problems, we propose two simple penalty functions, respectively, by augmenting the dimension of the primal problem with a variable that controls the weight of the penalty terms. Both of the penalty functions enjoy improved smoothness. Under mild conditions, it can be proved that our penalty functions are both exact in the sense that local minimizers of the associated penalty problem are precisely the local minimizers of the original constrained problem.
Stochastic behavior of nanoscale dielectric wall buckling.
Friedman, Lawrence H; Levin, Igor; Cook, Robert F
2016-03-01
The random buckling patterns of nanoscale dielectric walls are analyzed using a nonlinear multi-scale stochastic method that combines experimental measurements with simulations. The dielectric walls, approximately 200 nm tall and 20 nm wide, consist of compliant, low dielectric constant (low- k ) fins capped with stiff, compressively stressed TiN lines that provide the driving force for buckling. The deflections of the buckled lines exhibit sinusoidal pseudoperiodicity with amplitude fluctuation and phase decorrelation arising from stochastic variations in wall geometry, properties, and stress state at length scales shorter than the characteristic deflection wavelength of about 1000 nm. The buckling patterns are analyzed and modeled at two length scales: a longer scale (up to 5000 nm) that treats randomness as a longer-scale measurable quantity, and a shorter-scale (down to 20 nm) that treats buckling as a deterministic phenomenon. Statistical simulation is used to join the two length scales. Through this approach, the buckling model is validated and material properties and stress states are inferred. In particular, the stress state of TiN lines in three different systems is determined, along with the elastic moduli of low- k fins and the amplitudes of the small-scale random fluctuations in wall properties-all in the as-processed state. The important case of stochastic effects giving rise to buckling in a deterministically sub-critical buckling state is demonstrated. The nonlinear multiscale stochastic analysis provides guidance for design of low- k structures with acceptable buckling behavior and serves as a template for how randomness that is common to nanoscale phenomena might be measured and analyzed in other contexts.
Optimization of nonlinear quarter car suspension–seat–driver mod
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh P. Nagarkar
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper a nonlinear quarter car suspension–seat–driver model was implemented for optimum design. A nonlinear quarter car model comprising of quadratic tyre stiffness and cubic stiffness in suspension spring, frame, and seat cushion with 4 degrees of freedom (DoF driver model was presented for optimization and analysis. Suspension system was aimed to optimize the comfort and health criterion comprising of Vibration Dose Value (VDV at head, frequency weighted RMS head acceleration, crest factor, amplitude ratio of head RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration and amplitude ratio of upper torso RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration along with stability criterion comprising of suspension space deflection and dynamic tyre force. ISO 2631-1 standard was adopted to assess ride and health criterions. Suspension spring stiffness and damping and seat cushion stiffness and damping are the design variables. Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization – Crowding Distance (MOPSO-CD algorithm are implemented for optimization. Simulation result shows that optimum design improves ride comfort and health criterion over classical design variables.
Optimum single modal and bimodal buckling design of symmetric laminates
Qian, B.; Reiss, R.; Aung, W.
1989-01-01
Variational calculus is used to determine the design that maximizes the resistance of classical symmetric laminates against buckling. The orientations of the constituent orthotropic laminae with respect to the principal axes of the laminate are the design variables. It is shown that the optimal design may not be a point of analyticity of the buckling load. Local analytic extrema are obtained from the design derivatives of the buckling load. Nonanalytic extrema occur whenever the buckling load is a repeated eigenvalue. A novel approach, using a directional design derivative, is employed to determine nonanalytic extrema. Specific examples are presented for biaxial buckling for several different boundary conditions.
Nitinol stent design - understanding axial buckling.
McGrath, D J; O Brien, B; Bruzzi, M; McHugh, P E
2014-12-01
Nitinol׳s superelastic properties permit self-expanding stents to be crimped without plastic deformation, but its nonlinear properties can contribute towards stent buckling. This study investigates the axial buckling of a prototype tracheobronchial nitinol stent design during crimping, with the objective of eliminating buckling from the design. To capture the stent buckling mechanism a computational model of a radial force test is simulated, where small geometric defects are introduced to remove symmetry and allow buckling to occur. With the buckling mechanism ascertained, a sensitivity study is carried out to examine the effect that the transitional plateau region of the nitinol loading curve has on stent stability. Results of this analysis are then used to redesign the stent and remove buckling. It is found that the transitional plateau region can have a significant effect on the stability of a stent during crimping, and by reducing the amount of transitional material within the stent hinges during loading the stability of a nitinol stent can be increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.
2010-01-01
Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and
Spin glasses and nonlinear constraints in portfolio optimization
Andrecut, M.
2014-01-01
We discuss the portfolio optimization problem with the obligatory deposits constraint. Recently it has been shown that as a consequence of this nonlinear constraint, the solution consists of an exponentially large number of optimal portfolios, completely different from each other, and extremely sensitive to any changes in the input parameters of the problem, making the concept of rational decision making questionable. Here we reformulate the problem using a quadratic obligatory deposits constraint, and we show that from the physics point of view, finding an optimal portfolio amounts to calculating the mean-field magnetizations of a random Ising model with the constraint of a constant magnetization norm. We show that the model reduces to an eigenproblem, with 2N solutions, where N is the number of assets defining the portfolio. Also, in order to illustrate our results, we present a detailed numerical example of a portfolio of several risky common stocks traded on the Nasdaq Market.
Fuel cycle optimization using the nonlinear reactivity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yueksel, Z.; Cecen, Y.; Tombakoglu, M.
2002-01-01
Fuel cycle optimization is one of the key subjects of reactor operation. In this study, fuel cycles of Spectral Shift PWR and Pebble Bed HTGR are optimized by using nonlinear reactivity model. The Spectral Shift concept is based on the adjustments of fuel to moderator ratio as a function of burnup. For n-batch fuel cycle, where n is equal to 3 and 4, the fuel to moderator ratio is determined as a function of burnup to maximize discharge burnup, Bd. Results show that it is possible to increase discharge burnup up to 25 percent compared to typical commercial PWR designs. Another problem arises in the design of PB-HTGR's fuel pebbles and mixing ratio. The optimization of the composition of fuel pebbles and mixing ratio for direct and n-pass fuel cycles are analyzed to maximize discharge burnup. We compared our results with the current design parameters of HTR-10 and PBMR.(author)
Buckling of Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2012-01-01
In this paper, the risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter bucket foundations is addressed using numerical methods. Imperfect geometries are introduced based on the pre-buckling mode shapes from a linear Eigenvalue buckling analysis. Various imperfect geometries are intr...
On the buckling of an elastic rotating beam
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furta, Stanislaw D.; Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian
1997-01-01
A nonlinear model is developed, which describes the buckling phenomena of an elastic beam clamped to the interior of a rotating wheel. We use a power series method to obtain an approximate expression of the buckling equation and compare this with previous results in the literature. The linearized...
Fitting Nonlinear Curves by use of Optimization Techniques
Hill, Scott A.
2005-01-01
MULTIVAR is a FORTRAN 77 computer program that fits one of the members of a set of six multivariable mathematical models (five of which are nonlinear) to a multivariable set of data. The inputs to MULTIVAR include the data for the independent and dependent variables plus the user s choice of one of the models, one of the three optimization engines, and convergence criteria. By use of the chosen optimization engine, MULTIVAR finds values for the parameters of the chosen model so as to minimize the sum of squares of the residuals. One of the optimization engines implements a routine, developed in 1982, that utilizes the Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) variable-metric method for unconstrained minimization in conjunction with a one-dimensional search technique that finds the minimum of an unconstrained function by polynomial interpolation and extrapolation without first finding bounds on the solution. The second optimization engine is a faster and more robust commercially available code, denoted Design Optimization Tool, that also uses the BFGS method. The third optimization engine is a robust and relatively fast routine that implements the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.
Global Optimization of Nonlinear Blend-Scheduling Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro A. Castillo Castillo
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The scheduling of gasoline-blending operations is an important problem in the oil refining industry. This problem not only exhibits the combinatorial nature that is intrinsic to scheduling problems, but also non-convex nonlinear behavior, due to the blending of various materials with different quality properties. In this work, a global optimization algorithm is proposed to solve a previously published continuous-time mixed-integer nonlinear scheduling model for gasoline blending. The model includes blend recipe optimization, the distribution problem, and several important operational features and constraints. The algorithm employs piecewise McCormick relaxation (PMCR and normalized multiparametric disaggregation technique (NMDT to compute estimates of the global optimum. These techniques partition the domain of one of the variables in a bilinear term and generate convex relaxations for each partition. By increasing the number of partitions and reducing the domain of the variables, the algorithm is able to refine the estimates of the global solution. The algorithm is compared to two commercial global solvers and two heuristic methods by solving four examples from the literature. Results show that the proposed global optimization algorithm performs on par with commercial solvers but is not as fast as heuristic approaches.
Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems
Huan, Xun
2013-01-01
The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design
Ratner, LW
2003-01-01
In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it
Robust C subroutines for non-linear optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun
2004-01-01
This report presents a package of robust and easy-to-use C subroutines for solving unconstrained and constrained non-linear optimization problems. The intention is that the routines should use the currently best algorithms available. All routines have standardized calls, and the user does not have...... to worry about special parameters controlling the iterations. For convenience we include an option for numerical checking of the user s implementation of the gradient. Note that another report [3] presents a collection of robust subroutines for both unconstrained and constrained optimization...... of the C subroutines have been replaced by more effective and robust versions translated from the original Fortran subroutines to C by the Bandler Group, see [1]. Also the test examples have been modi ed to some extent. For a description of the original Fortran subroutines see the report [17]. The software...
Buckling of Carbon Nanotubes: A State of the Art Review
Shima, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
The nonlinear mechanical response of carbon nanotubes, referred to as their “buckling" behavior, is a major topic in the nanotube research community. Buckling means a deformation process in which a large strain beyond a threshold causes an abrupt change in the strain energy vs. deformation profile. Thus far, much effort has been devoted to analysis of the buckling of nanotubes under various loading conditions: compression, bending, torsion, and their certain combinations. Such extensive studies have been motivated by (i) the structural resilience of nanotubes against buckling and (ii) the substantial influence of buckling on their physical properties. In this contribution, I review the dramatic progress in nanotube buckling research during the past few years. PMID:28817032
Non-linear and signal energy optimal asymptotic filter design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josef Hrusak
2003-10-01
Full Text Available The paper studies some connections between the main results of the well known Wiener-Kalman-Bucy stochastic approach to filtering problems based mainly on the linear stochastic estimation theory and emphasizing the optimality aspects of the achieved results and the classical deterministic frequency domain linear filters such as Chebyshev, Butterworth, Bessel, etc. A new non-stochastic but not necessarily deterministic (possibly non-linear alternative approach called asymptotic filtering based mainly on the concepts of signal power, signal energy and a system equivalence relation plays an important role in the presentation. Filtering error invariance and convergence aspects are emphasized in the approach. It is shown that introducing the signal power as the quantitative measure of energy dissipation makes it possible to achieve reasonable results from the optimality point of view as well. The property of structural energy dissipativeness is one of the most important and fundamental features of resulting filters. Therefore, it is natural to call them asymptotic filters. The notion of the asymptotic filter is carried in the paper as a proper tool in order to unify stochastic and non-stochastic, linear and nonlinear approaches to signal filtering.
Optimal Nonlinear Pricing, Bundling Commodities and Contingent Services
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podesta, Marion; Poudou, Jean-Christophe
2008-01-01
In this paper, we propose to analyze optimal nonlinear pricing when a firm offers in a bundle a commodity and a contingent service. The paper studies a mechanism design where all private information can be captured in a single scalar variable in a monopoly context. We show that to propose the package for commodity and service is less costly for the consumer, the firm has lower consumers' rent than the situation where it sells their good and contingent service under an independent pricing strategy. In fact, the possibility to use price discrimination via the supply of package is dominated by the fact that it is costly for the consumer to sign two contracts. Bundling energy and a contingent service is a profitable strategy for a energetician monopoly practising optimal nonlinear tariff. We show that the rates of the energy and the contingent service depend to the optional character of the contingent service and depend to the degree of complementarity between commodities and services. (authors)
Robust and fast nonlinear optimization of diffusion MRI microstructure models.
Harms, R L; Fritz, F J; Tobisch, A; Goebel, R; Roebroeck, A
2017-07-15
Advances in biophysical multi-compartment modeling for diffusion MRI (dMRI) have gained popularity because of greater specificity than DTI in relating the dMRI signal to underlying cellular microstructure. A large range of these diffusion microstructure models have been developed and each of the popular models comes with its own, often different, optimization algorithm, noise model and initialization strategy to estimate its parameter maps. Since data fit, accuracy and precision is hard to verify, this creates additional challenges to comparability and generalization of results from diffusion microstructure models. In addition, non-linear optimization is computationally expensive leading to very long run times, which can be prohibitive in large group or population studies. In this technical note we investigate the performance of several optimization algorithms and initialization strategies over a few of the most popular diffusion microstructure models, including NODDI and CHARMED. We evaluate whether a single well performing optimization approach exists that could be applied to many models and would equate both run time and fit aspects. All models, algorithms and strategies were implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to remove run time constraints, with which we achieve whole brain dataset fits in seconds to minutes. We then evaluated fit, accuracy, precision and run time for different models of differing complexity against three common optimization algorithms and three parameter initialization strategies. Variability of the achieved quality of fit in actual data was evaluated on ten subjects of each of two population studies with a different acquisition protocol. We find that optimization algorithms and multi-step optimization approaches have a considerable influence on performance and stability over subjects and over acquisition protocols. The gradient-free Powell conjugate-direction algorithm was found to outperform other common algorithms in terms of
Design optimization of a twist compliant mechanism with nonlinear stiffness
Tummala, Y.; Frecker, M. I.; Wissa, A. A.; Hubbard, J. E., Jr.
2014-10-01
A contact-aided compliant mechanism called a twist compliant mechanism (TCM) is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness when it is twisted in both directions along its axis. The inner core of the mechanism is primarily responsible for its flexibility in one twisting direction. The contact surfaces of the cross-members and compliant sectors are primarily responsible for its high stiffness in the opposite direction. A desired twist angle in a given direction can be achieved by tailoring the stiffness of a TCM. The stiffness of a compliant twist mechanism can be tailored by varying thickness of its cross-members, thickness of the core and thickness of its sectors. A multi-objective optimization problem with three objective functions is proposed in this paper, and used to design an optimal TCM with desired twist angle. The objective functions are to minimize the mass and maximum von-Mises stress observed, while minimizing or maximizing the twist angles under specific loading conditions. The multi-objective optimization problem proposed in this paper is solved for an ornithopter flight research platform as a case study, with the goal of using the TCM to achieve passive twisting of the wing during upstroke, while keeping the wing fully extended and rigid during the downstroke. Prototype TCMs have been fabricated using 3D printing and tested. Testing results are also presented in this paper.
Design optimization of a twist compliant mechanism with nonlinear stiffness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I; Wissa, A A; Hubbard, J E Jr
2014-01-01
A contact-aided compliant mechanism called a twist compliant mechanism (TCM) is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness when it is twisted in both directions along its axis. The inner core of the mechanism is primarily responsible for its flexibility in one twisting direction. The contact surfaces of the cross-members and compliant sectors are primarily responsible for its high stiffness in the opposite direction. A desired twist angle in a given direction can be achieved by tailoring the stiffness of a TCM. The stiffness of a compliant twist mechanism can be tailored by varying thickness of its cross-members, thickness of the core and thickness of its sectors. A multi-objective optimization problem with three objective functions is proposed in this paper, and used to design an optimal TCM with desired twist angle. The objective functions are to minimize the mass and maximum von-Mises stress observed, while minimizing or maximizing the twist angles under specific loading conditions. The multi-objective optimization problem proposed in this paper is solved for an ornithopter flight research platform as a case study, with the goal of using the TCM to achieve passive twisting of the wing during upstroke, while keeping the wing fully extended and rigid during the downstroke. Prototype TCMs have been fabricated using 3D printing and tested. Testing results are also presented in this paper. (paper)
Robust Homography Estimation Based on Nonlinear Least Squares Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Mou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The homography between image pairs is normally estimated by minimizing a suitable cost function given 2D keypoint correspondences. The correspondences are typically established using descriptor distance of keypoints. However, the correspondences are often incorrect due to ambiguous descriptors which can introduce errors into following homography computing step. There have been numerous attempts to filter out these erroneous correspondences, but it is unlikely to always achieve perfect matching. To deal with this problem, we propose a nonlinear least squares optimization approach to compute homography such that false matches have no or little effect on computed homography. Unlike normal homography computation algorithms, our method formulates not only the keypoints’ geometric relationship but also their descriptor similarity into cost function. Moreover, the cost function is parametrized in such a way that incorrect correspondences can be simultaneously identified while the homography is computed. Experiments show that the proposed approach can perform well even with the presence of a large number of outliers.
ARSTEC, Nonlinear Optimization Program Using Random Search Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmuson, D. M.; Marshall, N. H.
1979-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: The ARSTEC program was written to solve nonlinear, mixed integer, optimization problems. An example of such a problem in the nuclear industry is the allocation of redundant parts in the design of a nuclear power plant to minimize plant unavailability. 2 - Method of solution: The technique used in ARSTEC is the adaptive random search method. The search is started from an arbitrary point in the search region and every time a point that improves the objective function is found, the search region is centered at that new point. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Presently, the maximum number of independent variables allowed is 10. This can be changed by increasing the dimension of the arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sharma
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In an Electric Submersible Pump (ESP lifted oil field, the ESP of each oil well should be operated inside its operating window. The total power consumed by the ESPs in the oil field should be minimized. The speed of the ESPs and the production choke valve opening should be optimally chosen for maximizing the total oil produced from the oil field. At the same time, the capacity of the separator should not be exceeded. In this paper, nonlinear steady state optimization based on Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP is developed. Two optimal control structures are proposed in this paper. In the first case, the optimal pump speed is controlled by a PI controller by varying the electrical excitation signal to the motors. The optimal fluid flow rate through each oil well is controlled by another PI controller by varying the production choke valve opening. The paper shows that the production choke valve for each oil well has to be always 100% open to maintain the optimal fluid flow rate. In the second case, the production choke valves are considered to be always 100% open as hard constraints. The optimal fluid flow rate through each oil well is controlled by a PI controller by varying the pump speed. It is shown that when the optimal fluid flow rate is tracked by the controller, the speed of each of the pumps is equal to the optimal pump speed calculated by the optimizer. This basically means that we can achieve the optimization objective with the same optimal results as in the first case by using only a single PI controller. The limitations of these two optimal control structures for very low values and for very high values of the separator capacity are discussed. For the feasible range of separator capacities, the optimal locus of the fluid flow rate and the pump speed are shown in this paper.
Buckling optimisation of sandwich cylindrical panels
Abouhamzeh, M.; Sadighi, M.
2016-06-01
In this paper, the buckling load optimisation is performed on sandwich cylindrical panels. A finite element program is developed in MATLAB to solve the governing differential equations of the global buckling of the structure. In order to find the optimal solution, the genetic algorithm Toolbox in MATLAB is implemented. Verifications are made for both the buckling finite element code and also the results from the genetic algorithm by comparisons to the results available in literature. Sandwich cylindrical panels are optimised for the buckling strength with isotropic or orthotropic cores with different boundary conditions. Results are presented in terms of stacking sequence of fibers in the face sheets and core to face sheet thickness ratio.
Developing optimal non-linear scoring function for protein design.
Hu, Changyu; Li, Xiang; Liang, Jie
2004-11-22
Motivation. Protein design aims to identify sequences compatible with a given protein fold but incompatible to any alternative folds. To select the correct sequences and to guide the search process, a design scoring function is critically important. Such a scoring function should be able to characterize the global fitness landscape of many proteins simultaneously. To find optimal design scoring functions, we introduce two geometric views and propose a formulation using a mixture of non-linear Gaussian kernel functions. We aim to solve a simplified protein sequence design problem. Our goal is to distinguish each native sequence for a major portion of representative protein structures from a large number of alternative decoy sequences, each a fragment from proteins of different folds. Our scoring function discriminates perfectly a set of 440 native proteins from 14 million sequence decoys. We show that no linear scoring function can succeed in this task. In a blind test of unrelated proteins, our scoring function misclassfies only 13 native proteins out of 194. This compares favorably with about three-four times more misclassifications when optimal linear functions reported in the literature are used. We also discuss how to develop protein folding scoring function.
Buckling driven debonding in sandwich columns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Rasmus Christian
2008-01-01
results from two mechanisms: (a) interaction of local debond buckling and global buckling and (b) the development of a damaged zone at the debond crack tip. Based on the pronounced imperfection sensitivity, the author predicts that an experimental measurement of the strength of sandwich structures may......A compression loaded sandwich column that contains a debond is analyzed using a geometrically non-linear finite element model. The model includes a cohesive zone along one face sheet/core interface whereby the debond can extend by interface crack growth. Two geometrical imperfections are introduced...
Shama, Mohamed
2013-01-01
Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures. The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...
Issues related to topology optimization of snap-through problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgaard, Esben; Dahl, Jonas
2012-01-01
This work focuses on issues related to topology optimization of static geometrically nonlinear structures experiencing snap-through behaviour. Different compliance and buckling criterion functions are studied and applied to topology optimization of a point loaded curved beam problem with the aim...
Zhang, Songchuan; Xia, Youshen
2018-01-01
Much research has been devoted to complex-variable optimization problems due to their engineering applications. However, the complex-valued optimization method for solving complex-variable optimization problems is still an active research area. This paper proposes two efficient complex-valued optimization methods for solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems of real functions in complex variables, respectively. One solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with linear equality constraints. Another solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with both linear equality constraints and an -norm constraint. Theoretically, we prove the global convergence of the proposed two complex-valued optimization algorithms under mild conditions. The proposed two algorithms can solve the complex-valued optimization problem completely in the complex domain and significantly extend existing complex-valued optimization algorithms. Numerical results further show that the proposed two algorithms have a faster speed than several conventional real-valued optimization algorithms.
A nonlinear optimal control approach for chaotic finance dynamics
Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Loia, V.; Tommasetti, A.; Troisi, O.
2017-11-01
A new nonlinear optimal control approach is proposed for stabilization of the dynamics of a chaotic finance model. The dynamic model of the financial system, which expresses interaction between the interest rate, the investment demand, the price exponent and the profit margin, undergoes approximate linearization round local operating points. These local equilibria are defined at each iteration of the control algorithm and consist of the present value of the systems state vector and the last value of the control inputs vector that was exerted on it. The approximate linearization makes use of Taylor series expansion and of the computation of the associated Jacobian matrices. The truncation of higher order terms in the Taylor series expansion is considered to be a modelling error that is compensated by the robustness of the control loop. As the control algorithm runs, the temporary equilibrium is shifted towards the reference trajectory and finally converges to it. The control method needs to compute an H-infinity feedback control law at each iteration, and requires the repetitive solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. Through Lyapunov stability analysis it is shown that an H-infinity tracking performance criterion holds for the control loop. This implies elevated robustness against model approximations and external perturbations. Moreover, under moderate conditions the global asymptotic stability of the control loop is proven.
Optimization of hardening/softening behavior of plane frame structures using nonlinear normal modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dou, Suguang; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2016-01-01
Devices that exploit essential nonlinear behavior such as hardening/softening and inter-modal coupling effects are increasingly used in engineering and fundamental studies. Based on nonlinear normal modes, we present a gradient-based structural optimization method for tailoring the hardening....../softening behavior of nonlinear mechanical systems. The iterative optimization procedure consists of calculation of nonlinear normal modes, solving an adjoint equation system for sensitivity analysis and an update of design variables using a mathematical programming tool. We demonstrate the method with examples...
CUA OpenMP Nonlinear Optimization Tool, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nonlinear programming (NLP) allows for the solution of complex engineering problems, however, none of the currently available solvers capitalizes on parallel...
NonLinear Parallel OPtimization Tool, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CU Aerospace, in partnership with the University of Illinois propose the further development of a new sparse nonlinear programming architecture that exploits...
Buckling analysis of planar compression micro-springs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Zhang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Large compression deformation causes micro-springs buckling and loss of load capacity. We analyzed the impact of structural parameters and boundary conditions for planar micro-springs, and obtained the change rules for the two factors that affect buckling. A formula for critical buckling deformation of micro-springs under compressive load was derived based on elastic thin plate theory. Results from this formula were compared with finite element analysis results but these did not always correlate. Therefore, finite element analysis is necessary for micro-spring buckling analysis. We studied the variation of micro-spring critical buckling deformation caused by four structural parameters using ANSYS software under two constraint conditions. The simulation results show that when an x-direction constraint is added, the critical buckling deformation increases by 32.3-297.9%. The critical buckling deformation decreases with increase in micro-spring arc radius or section width and increases with increase in micro-spring thickness or straight beam width. We conducted experiments to confirm the simulation results, and the experimental and simulation trends were found to agree. Buckling analysis of the micro-spring establishes a theoretical foundation for optimizing micro-spring structural parameters and constraint conditions to maximize the critical buckling load.
Buckling Design and Analysis of a Payload Fairing One-Sixth Cylindrical Arc-Segment Panel
Kosareo, Daniel N.; Oliver, Stanley T.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.
2013-01-01
Design and analysis results are reported for a panel that is a 16th arc-segment of a full 33-ft diameter cylindrical barrel section of a payload fairing structure. Six such panels could be used to construct the fairing barrel, and, as such, compression buckling testing of a 16th arc-segment panel would serve as a validation test of the buckling analyses used to design the fairing panels. In this report, linear and nonlinear buckling analyses have been performed using finite element software for 16th arc-segment panels composed of aluminum honeycomb core with graphiteepoxy composite facesheets and an alternative fiber reinforced foam (FRF) composite sandwich design. The cross sections of both concepts were sized to represent realistic Space Launch Systems (SLS) Payload Fairing panels. Based on shell-based linear buckling analyses, smaller, more manageable buckling test panel dimensions were determined such that the panel would still be expected to buckle with a circumferential (as opposed to column-like) mode with significant separation between the first and second buckling modes. More detailed nonlinear buckling analyses were then conducted for honeycomb panels of various sizes using both Abaqus and ANSYS finite element codes, and for the smaller size panel, a solid-based finite element analysis was conducted. Finally, for the smaller size FRF panel, nonlinear buckling analysis was performed wherein geometric imperfections measured from an actual manufactured FRF were included. It was found that the measured imperfection did not significantly affect the panel's predicted buckling response
On the buckling of an elastic rotating beam
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furta, Stanislaw D.; Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian
1997-01-01
A nonlinear model is developed, which describes the buckling phenomena of an elastic beam clamped to the interior of a rotating wheel. We use a power series method to obtain an approximate expression of the buckling equation and compare this with previous results in the literature. The linearized...... problem is integrated and this results in a second order differential equation of the Fuchs type, which allows an asymptotic expansion of the buckling equation. By means of Lyapunov and Chetaev functions, a rigorous proof is given that the loss of stability of the trivial equilibrium shape occurs for any...
Perturbation appraisal of the dynamic buckling of an elastic model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we examine the dynamic stability of a nonlinear dynamical system, with quadratic nonlinearity, pressurized by a strictly slowly varying time dependent load applied just after the initial time. Regular perturbation method in asymptotic expansions of the variables is used .The dynamic buckling load is determined ...
Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...
A Nonlinear Physics-Based Optimal Control Method for Magnetostrictive Actuators
Smith, Ralph C.
1998-01-01
This paper addresses the development of a nonlinear optimal control methodology for magnetostrictive actuators. At moderate to high drive levels, the output from these actuators is highly nonlinear and contains significant magnetic and magnetomechanical hysteresis. These dynamics must be accommodated by models and control laws to utilize the full capabilities of the actuators. A characterization based upon ferromagnetic mean field theory provides a model which accurately quantifies both transient and steady state actuator dynamics under a variety of operating conditions. The control method consists of a linear perturbation feedback law used in combination with an optimal open loop nonlinear control. The nonlinear control incorporates the hysteresis and nonlinearities inherent to the transducer and can be computed offline. The feedback control is constructed through linearization of the perturbed system about the optimal system and is efficient for online implementation. As demonstrated through numerical examples, the combined hybrid control is robust and can be readily implemented in linear PDE-based structural models.
Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés
2013-01-01
Fitting spline curves to data points is a very important issue in many applied fields. It is also challenging, because these curves typically depend on many continuous variables in a highly interrelated nonlinear way. In general, it is not possible to compute these parameters analytically, so the problem is formulated as a continuous nonlinear optimization problem, for which traditional optimization techniques usually fail. This paper presents a new bioinspired method to tackle this issue. In this method, optimization is performed through a combination of two techniques. Firstly, we apply the indirect approach to the knots, in which they are not initially the subject of optimization but precomputed with a coarse approximation scheme. Secondly, a powerful bioinspired metaheuristic technique, the firefly algorithm, is applied to optimization of data parameterization; then, the knot vector is refined by using De Boor's method, thus yielding a better approximation to the optimal knot vector. This scheme converts the original nonlinear continuous optimization problem into a convex optimization problem, solved by singular value decomposition. Our method is applied to some illustrative real-world examples from the CAD/CAM field. Our experimental results show that the proposed scheme can solve the original continuous nonlinear optimization problem very efficiently. PMID:24376380
Xin, Yu; Reneker, Darrell
2009-03-01
Electrospinning offers a useful way to produce fibers with micron and nanometer scale diameter. The present work deals with the buckling phenomenon characteristic of a jet impinging upon the surface of collector. A viscous jet may have either tensile or compressive forces along its axis. The periodic buckling that is often observed is attributed to the occurrence of compressive forces as the jet decelerates at the collector. With the increase of axial compressive stresses along the jet, a jet with circular cross sections first buckles by formation of sharp folds, and then by formation of coils. The resulting buckling patterns include zigzag patterns and coils that which can be controlled by changing parameters, such as density, viscosity, conductivity, voltage, polymer concentration, distance and volumetric flow rate. Uniformly buckled polymer fibers can be made at a rate of one turn per microsecond. An experimental apparatus was built to continuously collect buckling coils of nylon 6, from a water surface, into a multilayer sheet. These small ``springs'' and sheets will be tested for mechanical properties needed in biomedical applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romes Antonio Borges
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present work focuses on the optimal design of nonlinear mechanical systems by using heuristic optimization methods. In this context, the nonlinear optimization problem is devoted to a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear damped system, constituted of a primary mass attached to the ground by a linear spring and a secondary mass attached to the primary system by a nonlinear spring. This arrangement forms a nonlinear dynamic vibration absorber (nDVA, which is used in this contribution as a representative example of a nonlinear mechanical system. The sensitivity analysis of the suppression bandwidth, namely, the frequency range over which the ratio of the main mass displacement amplitude to the amplitude of the forcing function is less than unity, with respect to the design variables that characterize the nonlinear system based on the first order finite differences is presented. For illustration purposes the optimization problem is written as to maximize the suppression bandwidth by using three recent bioinspired optimization methods: Bees Colony Algorithm, Firefly Colony Algorithm, and Fish Swarm Algorithm. The results are compared with other evolutionary strategies.
Nonlinear dynamic simulation of optimal depletion of crude oil in the lower 48 United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruth, M.; Cleveland, C.J.
1993-01-01
This study combines the economic theory of optimal resource use with econometric estimates of demand and supply parameters to develop a nonlinear dynamic model of crude oil exploration, development, and production in the lower 48 United States. The model is simulated with the graphical programming language STELLA, for the years 1985 to 2020. The procedure encourages use of economic theory and econometrics in combination with nonlinear dynamic simulation to enhance our understanding of complex interactions present in models of optimal resource use. (author)
Zhang, Xing; Mu, Mu; Wang, Qiang; Pierini, Stefano
2017-06-01
In this study, the initial perturbations that are the easiest to trigger the Kuroshio Extension (KE) transition connecting a basic weak jet state and a strong, fairly stable meandering state, are investigated using a reduced-gravity shallow water ocean model and the CNOP (Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation) approach. This kind of initial perturbation is called an optimal precursor (OPR). The spatial structures and evolutionary processes of the OPRs are analyzed in detail. The results show that most of the OPRs are in the form of negative sea surface height (SSH) anomalies mainly located in a narrow band region south of the KE jet, in basic agreement with altimetric observations. These negative SSH anomalies reduce the meridional SSH gradient within the KE, thus weakening the strength of the jet. The KE jet then becomes more convoluted, with a high-frequency and large-amplitude variability corresponding to a high eddy kinetic energy level; this gradually strengthens the KE jet through an inverse energy cascade. Eventually, the KE reaches a high-energy state characterized by two well defined and fairly stable anticyclonic meanders. Moreover, sensitivity experiments indicate that the spatial structures of the OPRs are not sensitive to the model parameters and to the optimization times used in the analysis.
Optimization of lift gas allocation in a gas lifted oil field as non-linear optimization problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roshan Sharma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Proper allocation and distribution of lift gas is necessary for maximizing total oil production from a field with gas lifted oil wells. When the supply of the lift gas is limited, the total available gas should be optimally distributed among the oil wells of the field such that the total production of oil from the field is maximized. This paper describes a non-linear optimization problem with constraints associated with the optimal distribution of the lift gas. A non-linear objective function is developed using a simple dynamic model of the oil field where the decision variables represent the lift gas flow rate set points of each oil well of the field. The lift gas optimization problem is solved using the emph'fmincon' solver found in MATLAB. As an alternative and for verification, hill climbing method is utilized for solving the optimization problem. Using both of these methods, it has been shown that after optimization, the total oil production is increased by about 4. For multiple oil wells sharing lift gas from a common source, a cascade control strategy along with a nonlinear steady state optimizer behaves as a self-optimizing control structure when the total supply of lift gas is assumed to be the only input disturbance present in the process. Simulation results show that repeated optimization performed after the first time optimization under the presence of the input disturbance has no effect in the total oil production.
Distributed Optimization for a Class of Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Disturbance Rejection.
Wang, Xinghu; Hong, Yiguang; Ji, Haibo
2016-07-01
The paper studies the distributed optimization problem for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems in the presence of external disturbances. To solve the problem, we need to achieve the optimal multiagent consensus based on local cost function information and neighboring information and meanwhile to reject local disturbance signals modeled by an exogenous system. With convex analysis and the internal model approach, we propose a distributed optimization controller for heterogeneous and nonlinear agents in the form of continuous-time minimum-phase systems with unity relative degree. We prove that the proposed design can solve the exact optimization problem with rejecting disturbances.
Koyuncu, A.; Cigeroglu, E.; Özgüven, H. N.
2017-10-01
In this study, a new approach is proposed for identification of structural nonlinearities by employing cascaded optimization and neural networks. Linear finite element model of the system and frequency response functions measured at arbitrary locations of the system are used in this approach. Using the finite element model, a training data set is created, which appropriately spans the possible nonlinear configurations space of the system. A classification neural network trained on these data sets then localizes and determines the types of all nonlinearities associated with the nonlinear degrees of freedom in the system. A new training data set spanning the parametric space associated with the determined nonlinearities is created to facilitate parametric identification. Utilizing this data set, initially, a feed forward regression neural network is trained, which parametrically identifies the classified nonlinearities. Then, the results obtained are further improved by carrying out an optimization which uses network identified values as starting points. Unlike identification methods available in literature, the proposed approach does not require data collection from the degrees of freedoms where nonlinear elements are attached, and furthermore, it is sufficiently accurate even in the presence of measurement noise. The application of the proposed approach is demonstrated on an example system with nonlinear elements and on a real life experimental setup with a local nonlinearity.
Artery buckling affects the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaques.
Sanyal, Arnav; Han, Hai-Chao
2015-01-01
Tortuous arteries are often seen in patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. While the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaque under lumen pressure has been studied extensively, the mechanical stability of atherosclerotic arteries and subsequent effect on the plaque stress remain unknown. To this end, we investigated the buckling and post-buckling behavior of model stenotic coronary arteries with symmetric and asymmetric plaque. Buckling analysis for a model coronary artery with symmetric and asymmetric plaque was conducted using finite element analysis based on the dimensions and nonlinear anisotropic materials properties reported in the literature. Artery with asymmetric plaque had lower critical buckling pressure compared to the artery with symmetric plaque and control artery. Buckling increased the peak stress in the plaque and led to the development of a high stress concentration in artery with asymmetric plaque. Stiffer calcified tissue and severe stenosis increased the critical buckling pressure of the artery with asymmetric plaque. Arteries with atherosclerotic plaques are prone to mechanical buckling which leads to a high stress concentration in the plaques that can possibly make the plaques prone to rupture.
Zhong, Xiangnan; He, Haibo; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Zhanshan
2014-12-01
In this paper, we develop and analyze an optimal control method for a class of discrete-time nonlinear Markov jump systems (MJSs) with unknown system dynamics. Specifically, an identifier is established for the unknown systems to approximate system states, and an optimal control approach for nonlinear MJSs is developed to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation based on the adaptive dynamic programming technique. We also develop detailed stability analysis of the control approach, including the convergence of the performance index function for nonlinear MJSs and the existence of the corresponding admissible control. Neural network techniques are used to approximate the proposed performance index function and the control law. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, three simulation studies, one linear case, one nonlinear case, and one single link robot arm case, are used to validate the performance of the proposed optimal control method.
Van Dijk, N.P.
2012-01-01
This thesis aims at understanding and improving topology optimization techniques focusing on density-based level-set methods and geometrical nonlinearities. Central in this work are the numerical modeling of the mechanical response of a design and the consistency of the optimization process itself.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongquan Zhou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In view of the traditional numerical method to solve the nonlinear equations exist is sensitive to initial value and the higher accuracy of defects. This paper presents an invasive weed optimization (IWO algorithm which has population diversity with the heuristic global search of differential evolution (DE algorithm. In the iterative process, the global exploration ability of invasive weed optimization algorithm provides effective search area for differential evolution; at the same time, the heuristic search ability of differential evolution algorithm provides a reliable guide for invasive weed optimization. Based on the test of several typical nonlinear equations and a circle packing problem, the results show that the differential evolution invasive weed optimization (DEIWO algorithm has a higher accuracy and speed of convergence, which is an efficient and feasible algorithm for solving nonlinear systems of equations.
NonLinear Parallel OPtimization Tool, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technological advancement proposed is a novel large-scale Noninear Parallel OPtimization Tool (NLPAROPT). This software package will eliminate the computational...
Benchmark study of shear buckling of a cylindrical vessel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dostal, M.; Austin, N.M.; Peano, A.; Combescure, A.; Bastien, R.; Carnoy, E.G.
1986-01-01
The possibility of a buckling failure of the primary vessel subjected to seismic excitation has been considered, by all major designers of loop and pool type liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. The problem is particularly onerous in this type of reactor due to their large size, coupled with small wall thicknesses. This report details the results of the first phase in a joint European code validation exercise on the static shear buckling behaviour of thin, low aspect ratio stainless steel cylinders. Linear and non-linear finite element analyses were performed by four organizations using three different computer codes, i.e. NNC (UK)-ABAQUS, ISMES (Italy)-ABAQUS, CEA (France)-BILBO/INCA and NOVATOME (France)-NOVNL. The computed results were compared directly with experimental results. It was discovered that refined finite element models were essential if accurate buckling loads were to be calculated. Buckling analyses in 3D were therefore computationally expensive and 2D analyses, where applicable, proved an useful alternative. Traditional linear (Euler) bifurcation analysis seriously over-estimated the buckling loads by around 50 %. Extrapolation techniques can however be used to reduce this discrepancy. Elasto-plastic bifurcation analysis predicted conservative buckling loads close to the experimental value. Non-linear, large displacement analyses were performed on the vessel. The effect of geometrical imperfections in the vessel was considered. These analyses all over-estimated the experimental buckling load by 10 %-25 % and appeared to be largely insensitive to the initial imperfection size. Each of the codes appeared to predict reasonably well the final buckled geometry although the analytical load-deflection estimate did not agree exactly with the experiment
Finite dimensional approximation of a class of constrained nonlinear optimal control problems
Gunzburger, Max D.; Hou, L. S.
1994-01-01
An abstract framework for the analysis and approximation of a class of nonlinear optimal control and optimization problems is constructed. Nonlinearities occur in both the objective functional and in the constraints. The framework includes an abstract nonlinear optimization problem posed on infinite dimensional spaces, and approximate problem posed on finite dimensional spaces, together with a number of hypotheses concerning the two problems. The framework is used to show that optimal solutions exist, to show that Lagrange multipliers may be used to enforce the constraints, to derive an optimality system from which optimal states and controls may be deduced, and to derive existence results and error estimates for solutions of the approximate problem. The abstract framework and the results derived from that framework are then applied to three concrete control or optimization problems and their approximation by finite element methods. The first involves the von Karman plate equations of nonlinear elasticity, the second, the Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity, and the third, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible, viscous flows.
Universal Optimization Efficiency for Nonlinear Irreversible Heat Engines
Zhang, Yanchao; Guo, Juncheng; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan
2017-06-01
We introduce a multi-parameter combined objective function of heat engines under the strong coupling and symmetry condition and derive the universal expression of the optimization efficiency. The results obtained show that the optimization efficiency derived from the multi-parameter combined objective function include a variety of optimization efficiencies, such as the efficiency at the maximum power, efficiency at the maximum efficiency-power state, efficiency at the maximum ecological or unified trade-off function, and Carnot efficiency. It is further explained that these results are also suitable for the endoreversible cycle model of the Carnot heat engines operating between two heat reservoirs.
Scleral Buckling with Chandelier Illumination.
Seider, Michael I; Nomides, Riikka E K; Hahn, Paul; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Mahmoud, Tamer H
2016-01-01
Scleral buckling is a highly successful technique for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that requires intra-operative examination of the retina and treatment of retinal breaks via indirect ophthalmoscopy. Data suggest that scleral buckling likely results in improved outcomes for many patients but is declining in popularity, perhaps because of significant advances in vitrectomy instrumentation and visualization systems. Emerging data suggest that chandelier-assisted scleral buckling is safe and has many potential advantages over traditional buckling techniques. By combining traditional scleral buckling with contemporary vitreoretinal visualization techniques, chandelier-assistance may increase the popularity of scleral buckling to treat primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment for surgeons of the next generation, maintaining buckling as an option for appropriate patients in the future.
Algorithmic Approximation of Optimal Value Differential Stability Bounds in Nonlinear Programming,
1981-08-01
NCLASSIFIED RANO/PA6659 N IN *~4 112.0.0 ~11111,.. I32 111 IIIII 111111.25 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NATIOt AL BJRLAU Of SIANDARD 1964 A * LEVEL 00 o pm...Sensitivity Analysis in Parametric Nonlinear Programming, Doctoral Dissertation, School of Engineering and Applied Science, The George Washington University...Differential Stability of the Optimal Value Function in Constrained Nonlinear Programing, Doctoral Disser- tation, School of Engineering and Applied
A Nonlinear GMRES Optimization Algorithm for Canonical Tensor Decomposition
De Sterck, Hans
2011-01-01
A new algorithm is presented for computing a canonical rank-R tensor approximation that has minimal distance to a given tensor in the Frobenius norm, where the canonical rank-R tensor consists of the sum of R rank-one components. Each iteration of the method consists of three steps. In the first step, a tentative new iterate is generated by a stand-alone one-step process, for which we use alternating least squares (ALS). In the second step, an accelerated iterate is generated by a nonlinear g...
Optimal nonlinear estimation for aircraft flight control in wind shear
Mulgund, Sandeep S.
1994-01-01
The most recent results in an ongoing research effort at Princeton in the area of flight dynamics in wind shear are described. The first undertaking in this project was a trajectory optimization study. The flight path of a medium-haul twin-jet transport aircraft was optimized during microburst encounters on final approach. The assumed goal was to track a reference climb rate during an aborted landing, subject to a minimum airspeed constraint. The results demonstrated that the energy loss through the microburst significantly affected the qualitative nature of the optimal flight path. In microbursts of light to moderate strength, the aircraft was able to track the reference climb rate successfully. In severe microbursts, the minimum airspeed constraint in the optimization forced the aircraft to settle on a climb rate smaller than the target. A tradeoff was forced between the objectives of flight path tracking and stall prevention.
Optimized Bias Voltage Modulation Sequence for cMUT and Nonlinear Contrast Imaging
Fouan, Damien; Bouakaz, Ayache
Rationale and aim: In the field of ultrasonic contrast agent imaging, Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (cMUT) are of great interest because of their wide frequency bandwidth. However, due to their intrinsic nonlinear behaviour, their use with classical nonlinear imaging techniques (pulse inversion, amplitude modulation, harmonic imaging..) is still limited. Different approaches have been proposed to suppress the nonlinear part of the emitting signal from a cMUT. Recently, a new imaging sequence called Bias Voltage Modulation (BVM) has shown very good potential but is limited to the conventional regime of the probe (well below the collapse voltage). Thus the probe's sensitivity is not optimized.
Lin, Zin; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W
2017-07-15
We exploit recently developed topology-optimization techniques to design complex, wavelength-scale resonators for enhancing various nonlinear χ(2) and χ(3) frequency conversion processes. In particular, we demonstrate aperiodic, multi-track ring resonators and two-dimensional slab microcavities exhibiting long lifetimes Q≳104, small modal volumes V≳(λ/2n)3, and among the largest nonlinear overlaps (a generalization of phase matching in large-etalon waveguides) possible, paving the way for efficient, compact, and wide-bandwdith integrated nonlinear devices.
Fuzzy Adaptive Decentralized Optimal Control for Strict Feedback Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems.
Sun, Kangkang; Sui, Shuai; Tong, Shaocheng
2018-04-01
This paper considers the optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control design problem for a class of interconnected large-scale nonlinear systems in strict feedback form and with unknown nonlinear functions. The fuzzy logic systems are introduced to learn the unknown dynamics and cost functions, respectively, and a state estimator is developed. By applying the state estimator and the backstepping recursive design algorithm, a decentralized feedforward controller is established. By using the backstepping decentralized feedforward control scheme, the considered interconnected large-scale nonlinear system in strict feedback form is changed into an equivalent affine large-scale nonlinear system. Subsequently, an optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme is constructed. The whole optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive controller is composed of a decentralized feedforward control and an optimal decentralized control. It is proved that the developed optimal decentralized controller can ensure that all the variables of the control system are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the cost functions are the smallest. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the developed optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaolong Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Parameter estimation is an important problem in nonlinear system modeling and control. Through constructing an appropriate fitness function, parameter estimation of system could be converted to a multidimensional parameter optimization problem. As a novel swarm intelligence algorithm, chicken swarm optimization (CSO has attracted much attention owing to its good global convergence and robustness. In this paper, a method based on improved boundary chicken swarm optimization (IBCSO is proposed for parameter estimation of nonlinear systems, demonstrated and tested by Lorenz system and a coupling motor system. Furthermore, we have analyzed the influence of time series on the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation results show it is feasible and with desirable performance for parameter estimation of nonlinear systems.
Complex fluid network optimization and control integrative design based on nonlinear dynamic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sui, Jinxue; Yang, Li; Hu, Yunan
2016-01-01
In view of distribution according to complex fluid network’s needs, this paper proposed one optimization computation method of the nonlinear programming mathematical model based on genetic algorithm. The simulation result shows that the overall energy consumption of the optimized fluid network has a decrease obviously. The control model of the fluid network is established based on nonlinear dynamics. We design the control law based on feedback linearization, take the optimal value by genetic algorithm as the simulation data, can also solve the branch resistance under the optimal value. These resistances can provide technical support and reference for fluid network design and construction, so can realize complex fluid network optimization and control integration design.
Stupishin, L. U.; Nikitin, K. E.; Kolesnikov, A. G.
2018-02-01
The article is concerned with a methodology of optimal design of geometrically nonlinear (flexible) shells of revolution of minimum weight with strength, stability and strain constraints. The problem of optimal design with constraints is reduced to the problem of unconstrained minimization using the penalty functions method. Stress-strain state of shell is determined within the geometrically nonlinear deformation theory. A special feature of the methodology is the use of a mixed finite-element formulation based on the Galerkin method. Test problems for determining the optimal form and thickness distribution of a shell of minimum weight are considered. The validity of the results obtained using the developed methodology is analyzed, and the efficiency of various optimization algorithms is compared to solve the set problem. The developed methodology has demonstrated the possibility and accuracy of finding the optimal solution.
Galerkin v. discrete-optimal projection in nonlinear model reduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barone, Matthew Franklin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antil, Harbir [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)
2015-04-01
Discrete-optimal model-reduction techniques such as the Gauss{Newton with Approximated Tensors (GNAT) method have shown promise, as they have generated stable, accurate solutions for large-scale turbulent, compressible ow problems where standard Galerkin techniques have failed. However, there has been limited comparative analysis of the two approaches. This is due in part to difficulties arising from the fact that Galerkin techniques perform projection at the time-continuous level, while discrete-optimal techniques do so at the time-discrete level. This work provides a detailed theoretical and experimental comparison of the two techniques for two common classes of time integrators: linear multistep schemes and Runge{Kutta schemes. We present a number of new ndings, including conditions under which the discrete-optimal ROM has a time-continuous representation, conditions under which the two techniques are equivalent, and time-discrete error bounds for the two approaches. Perhaps most surprisingly, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that decreasing the time step does not necessarily decrease the error for the discrete-optimal ROM; instead, the time step should be `matched' to the spectral content of the reduced basis. In numerical experiments carried out on a turbulent compressible- ow problem with over one million unknowns, we show that increasing the time step to an intermediate value decreases both the error and the simulation time of the discrete-optimal reduced-order model by an order of magnitude.
Nonlinear Shaping Architecture Designed with Using Evolutionary Structural Optimization Tools
Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Banachowicz, Marta
2017-10-01
The paper explores the possibilities of using Structural Optimization Tools (ESO) digital tools in an integrated structural and architectural design in response to the current needs geared towards sustainability, combining ecological and economic efficiency. The first part of the paper defines the Evolutionary Structural Optimization tools, which were developed specifically for engineering purposes using finite element analysis as a framework. The development of ESO has led to several incarnations, which are all briefly discussed (Additive ESO, Bi-directional ESO, Extended ESO). The second part presents result of using these tools in structural and architectural design. Actual building projects which involve optimization as a part of the original design process will be presented (Crematorium in Kakamigahara Gifu, Japan, 2006 SANAA“s Learning Centre, EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland 2008 among others). The conclusion emphasizes that the structural engineering and architectural design mean directing attention to the solutions which are used by Nature, designing works optimally shaped and forming their own environments. Architectural forms never constitute the optimum shape derived through a form-finding process driven only by structural optimization, but rather embody and integrate a multitude of parameters. It might be assumed that there is a similarity between these processes in nature and the presented design methods. Contemporary digital methods make the simulation of such processes possible, and thus enable us to refer back to the empirical methods of previous generations.
Optimal Fitting of Non-linear Detector Pulses with Nonstationary Noise
Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Cabera, B.; Figueroa-Felicianco, E.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Optimal extraction of pulses of constant known shape from a time series with stationary noise is well understood and widely used in detection applications. Applications where high resolution is required over a wide range of input signal amplitudes use much of the dynamic range of the sensor. The noise will in general vary over this signal range, and the response may be a nonlinear function of the energy input. We present an optimal least squares procedure for inferring input energy in such a detector with nonstationary noise and nonlinear energy response.
Nonlinear Non-convex Optimization of Hydraulic Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Kallesøe, Carsten; Leth, John-Josef
2013-01-01
Pressure management in water supply systems is an effective way to reduce the leakage in a system. In this paper, the pressure management and the reduction of power consumption of a water supply system is formulated as an optimization problem. The problem is to minimize the power consumption in p....... They can be used for a general hydraulic networks to optimize the leakage and energy consumption and to satisfy the demands at the end-users. The results in this paper show that the power consumption of the pumps is reduced....
On Critical Buckling Loads of Columns under End Load Dependent on Direction.
Başbük, Musa; Eryılmaz, Aytekin; Atay, M Tarık
2014-01-01
Most of the phenomena of various fields of applied sciences are nonlinear problems. Recently, various types of analytical approximate solution techniques were introduced and successfully applied to the nonlinear differential equations. One of the aforementioned techniques is the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). In this study, we applied HAM to find critical buckling load of a column under end load dependent on direction. We obtained the critical buckling loads and compared them with the exact analytic solutions in the literature.
Probing Shells Against Buckling: A Nondestructive Technique for Laboratory Testing
Thompson, J. Michael T.; Hutchinson, John W.; Sieber, Jan
2017-12-01
This paper addresses testing of compressed structures, such as shells, that exhibit catastrophic buckling and notorious imperfection sensitivity. The central concept is the probing of a loaded structural specimen by a controlled lateral displacement to gain quantitative insight into its buckling behavior and to measure the energy barrier against buckling. This can provide design information about a structure’s stiffness and robustness against buckling in terms of energy and force landscapes. Developments in this area are relatively new but have proceeded rapidly with encouraging progress. Recent experimental tests on uniformly compressed spherical shells, and axially loaded cylinders, show excellent agreement with theoretical solutions. The probing technique could be a valuable experimental procedure for testing prototype structures, but before it can be used a range of potential problems must be examined and solved. The probing response is highly nonlinear and a variety of complications can occur. Here, we make a careful assessment of unexpected limit points and bifurcations, that could accompany probing, causing complications and possibly even collapse of a test specimen. First, a limit point in the probe displacement (associated with a cusp instability and fold) can result in dynamic buckling as probing progresses, as demonstrated in the buckling of a spherical shell under volume control. Second, various types of bifurcations which can occur on the probing path which result in the probing response becoming unstable are also discussed. To overcome these problems, we outline the extra controls over the entire structure that may be needed to stabilize the response.
Artery buckling analysis using a four-fiber wall model.
Liu, Qin; Wen, Qi; Mottahedi, Mohammad; Han, Hai-Chao
2014-08-22
Artery bent buckling has been suggested as a possible mechanism that leads to artery tortuosity, which is associated with aging, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and other pathological conditions. It is necessary to understand the relationship between microscopic wall structural changes and macroscopic artery buckling behavior. To this end, the objectives of this study were to develop arterial buckling equations using a microstructure-based 4-fiber reinforced wall model, and to simulate the effects of vessel wall microstructural changes on artery buckling. Our results showed that the critical pressure increased nonlinearly with the axial stretch ratio, and the 4-fiber model predicted higher critical buckling pressures than what the Fung model predicted. The buckling equation using the 4-fiber model captured the experimentally observed reduction of critical pressure induced by elastin degradation and collagen fiber orientation changes in the arterial wall. These results improve our understanding of arterial stability and its relationship to microscopic wall remodeling, and the model provides a useful tool for further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OPTIMIZATION OF NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC SYSTEMS IN THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Rybakov Konstantin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The author presents the spectral method of determining relatively optimal control in case of incomplete infor- mation about the state vector for multidimensional nonlinear continuous stochastic systems, which are governed by Itô’s stochastic differential equations. The quality criterion is given as the mean of the function determined on the system tracks. One should find the equation that depends on state vector time and coordinates, of which there is exact information from measuring system. Solving the problem of finding optimal control is based upon the actual sufficient optimum condition and the ratios derived from them. These ratios, which determine nonlinear continuous stochastic systems optimal control in case of incomplete state vector information (Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov and Bellman equation systems and the tying ratios that allow to determine control structure with the help of a spectral transformation usually lead to the system of nonlinear equations for the coefficients of optimal control and optimal state vector probability density coordinates expansion into a basic system functions series. This nonlinear equations system solving method does not depend on the chosen basis, it is solved either with iterative methods or with reducing it to the equivalent method of unconditional optimization with the following usage of zero-order method, including metaheuristic methods global extremum search. In this article, determin- ing optimal control goes down to improving control spectral characteristics in space (in the coefficient space of dividing control according to the orthonormal system functions. The author dwells upon the issue of taking so called geometrical control constraints into account as a special case. Using the spectral form of the mathematical description it is necessary to reduce spectral characteristics of functions, operators and functionals to some chosen orders, and therefore moving to finite-dimensional problems of
Optimal control of dissipative nonlinear dynamical systems with triggers of coupled singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedrih, K
2008-01-01
This paper analyses the controllability of motion of nonconservative nonlinear dynamical systems in which triggers of coupled singularities exist or appear. It is shown that the phase plane method is useful for the analysis of nonlinear dynamics of nonconservative systems with one degree of freedom of control strategies and also shows the way it can be used for controlling the relative motion in rheonomic systems having equivalent scleronomic conservative or nonconservative system For the system with one generalized coordinate described by nonlinear differential equation of nonlinear dynamics with trigger of coupled singularities, the functions of system potential energy and conservative force must satisfy some conditions defined by a Theorem on the existence of a trigger of coupled singularities and the separatrix in the form of 'an open a spiral form' of number eight. Task of the defined dynamical nonconservative system optimal control is: by using controlling force acting to the system, transfer initial state of the nonlinear dynamics of the system into the final state of the nonlinear dynamics in the minimal time for that optimal control task
Optimal control of dissipative nonlinear dynamical systems with triggers of coupled singularities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hedrih, K [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Nis, Mathematical Institute SANU, ul. Vojvode Tankosic 3/V/22, 18000-Nis (Serbia)], E-mail: katica@masfak.ni.ac.yu, E-mail: khedrih@eunet.yu
2008-02-15
This paper analyses the controllability of motion of nonconservative nonlinear dynamical systems in which triggers of coupled singularities exist or appear. It is shown that the phase plane method is useful for the analysis of nonlinear dynamics of nonconservative systems with one degree of freedom of control strategies and also shows the way it can be used for controlling the relative motion in rheonomic systems having equivalent scleronomic conservative or nonconservative system For the system with one generalized coordinate described by nonlinear differential equation of nonlinear dynamics with trigger of coupled singularities, the functions of system potential energy and conservative force must satisfy some conditions defined by a Theorem on the existence of a trigger of coupled singularities and the separatrix in the form of 'an open a spiral form' of number eight. Task of the defined dynamical nonconservative system optimal control is: by using controlling force acting to the system, transfer initial state of the nonlinear dynamics of the system into the final state of the nonlinear dynamics in the minimal time for that optimal control task.
Initial post dynamic buckling of a quadratic-cubic column ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this investigation, we determine the dynamic buckling load of an imperfect finite column resting on a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear elastic foundation trapped by an explicitly time dependent sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load .The resultant coefficients are dynamically slowly varying and the formulation contains ...
Perturbation analysis on the dynamic buckling of a lightly damped ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This investigation makes a conscious effort at analytical determination of the dynamic buckling load of an imperfect lightly damped spherical cap modulated by a sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load. Essentially, the formulation is that of an elastic nonlinear oscillatory system, with small perturbations and with coefficients ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sönmez, Ümit; Tutum, Cem Celal
2008-01-01
In this work, a new compliant bistable mechanism design is introduced. The combined use of pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM) and the Elastica buckling theory is presented for the first time to analyze the new design. This mechanism consists of the large deflecting straight beams, buckling beams......, and a slider. The kinematic analysis of this new mechanism is studied, using nonlinear Elastica buckling beam theory, the PRBM of a large deflecting cantilever beam, the vector loop closure equations, and numerically solving nonlinear algebraic equations. A design method of the bistable mechanism...
Nonlinear Chance Constrained Problems: Optimality Conditions, Regularization and Solvers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adam, Lukáš; Branda, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 170, č. 2 (2016), s. 419-436 ISSN 0022-3239 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Chance constrained programming * Optimality conditions * Regularization * Algorithms * Free MATLAB codes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/adam-0460909.pdf
Subdifferential of Optimal Value Functions in Nonlinear Infinite Programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huy, N. Q.; Giang, N. D.; Yao, J.-C.
2012-01-01
This paper presents an exact formula for computing the normal cones of the constraint set mapping including the Clarke normal cone and the Mordukhovich normal cone in infinite programming under the extended Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification condition. Then, we derive an upper estimate as well as an exact formula for the limiting subdifferential of the marginal/optimal value function in a general Banach space setting.
Li, Xiao-Fan; Finkbeiner, Joshua; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.
2003-01-01
Optimizing resonator shapes for maximizing the ratio of maximum to minimum gas pressure at an end of the resonator is investigated numerically. It is well known that the resonant frequencies and the nonlinear standing waveform in an acoustical resonator strongly depend on the resonator geometry. A quasi-Newton type scheme was used to find optimized axisymmetric resonator shapes achieving the maximum pressure compression ratio with an acceleration of constant amplitude. The acoustical field was solved using a one-dimensional model, and the resonance frequency shift and hysteresis effects were obtained through an automation scheme based on continuation method. Results are presented for optimizing three types of geometry: a cone, a horn-cone and a half cosine- shape. For each type, different optimized shapes were found when starting with different initial guesses. Further, the one-dimensional model was modified to study the effect of an axisymmetric central blockage on the nonlinear standing wave.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.
1986-01-01
Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested
Pihler-Puzović, D; Hazel, A L; Mullin, T
2016-09-14
We report the results from a combined experimental and numerical investigation of buckling in a novel variant of an elastic column under axial load. We find that including a regular line of centred holes in the column can prevent conventional, global, lateral buckling. Instead, the local microstructure introduced by the holes allows the column to buckle in an entirely different, internal, mode in which the holes are compressed in alternate directions, but the column maintains the lateral reflection symmetry about its centreline. The internal buckling mode can be accommodated within a smaller external space than the global one; and it is the preferred buckling mode over an intermediate range of column lengths for sufficiently large holes. For very short or sufficiently long columns a modification of the classical, global, lateral buckling is dominant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sie Long Kek
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A computational approach is proposed for solving the discrete time nonlinear stochastic optimal control problem. Our aim is to obtain the optimal output solution of the original optimal control problem through solving the simplified model-based optimal control problem iteratively. In our approach, the adjusted parameters are introduced into the model used such that the differences between the real system and the model used can be computed. Particularly, system optimization and parameter estimation are integrated interactively. On the other hand, the output is measured from the real plant and is fed back into the parameter estimation problem to establish a matching scheme. During the calculation procedure, the iterative solution is updated in order to approximate the true optimal solution of the original optimal control problem despite model-reality differences. For illustration, a wastewater treatment problem is studied and the results show the efficiency of the approach proposed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aijia Ouyang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear Muskingum models are important tools in hydrological forecasting. In this paper, we have come up with a class of new discretization schemes including a parameter θ to approximate the nonlinear Muskingum model based on general trapezoid formulas. The accuracy of these schemes is second order, if θ≠1/3, but interestingly when θ=1/3, the accuracy of the presented scheme gets improved to third order. Then, the present schemes are transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem which can be solved by a hybrid invasive weed optimization (HIWO algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the present methods. The numerical results substantiate the fact that the presented methods have better precision in estimating the parameters of nonlinear Muskingum models.
Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)
Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.
2018-01-01
The vibrations of mechanical systems and structures are often a combination of periodic and random motions. Emerging interest to exploit nonlinearities in vibration energy harvesting systems for charging microelectronics may be challenged by such reality due to the potential to transition between favorable and unfavorable dynamic regimes for DC power delivery. Therefore, a need exists to devise an optimization method whereby charging power from nonlinear energy harvesters remains maximized when excitation conditions are neither purely harmonic nor purely random, which have been the attention of past research. This study meets the need by building from an analytical approach that characterizes the dynamic response of nonlinear energy harvesting platforms subjected to combined harmonic and stochastic base accelerations. Here, analytical expressions are formulated and validated to optimize charging power while the influences of the relative proportions of excitation types are concurrently assessed. It is found that about a 2 times deviation in optimal resistive loads can reduce the charging power by 20% when the system is more prominently driven by harmonic base accelerations, whereas a greater proportion of stochastic excitation results in a 11% reduction in power for the same resistance deviation. In addition, the results reveal that when the frequency of a predominantly harmonic excitation deviates by 50% from optimal conditions the charging power reduces by 70%, whereas the same frequency deviation for a more stochastically dominated excitation reduce total DC power by only 20%. These results underscore the need for maximizing direct current power delivery for nonlinear energy harvesting systems in practical operating environments.
Nonlinear programming models to optimize uneven-aged loblolly pine management
Benedict J. Schulte; Joseph. Buongiorno; Kenneth Skog
1999-01-01
Nonlinear programming models of uneven-aged loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) management were developed to identify sustainable management regimes which optimize: 1) soil expectation value (SEV), 2) tree diversity, or 3) annual sawtimber yields. The models use the equations of SouthPro, a site- and density-dependent, multi-species matrix growth and yield model that...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least s...
Modeling shape selection of buckled dielectric elastomers
Langham, Jacob; Bense, Hadrien; Barkley, Dwight
2018-02-01
A dielectric elastomer whose edges are held fixed will buckle, given a sufficiently applied voltage, resulting in a nontrivial out-of-plane deformation. We study this situation numerically using a nonlinear elastic model which decouples two of the principal electrostatic stresses acting on an elastomer: normal pressure due to the mutual attraction of oppositely charged electrodes and tangential shear ("fringing") due to repulsion of like charges at the electrode edges. These enter via physically simplified boundary conditions that are applied in a fixed reference domain using a nondimensional approach. The method is valid for small to moderate strains and is straightforward to implement in a generic nonlinear elasticity code. We validate the model by directly comparing the simulated equilibrium shapes with the experiment. For circular electrodes which buckle axisymetrically, the shape of the deflection profile is captured. Annular electrodes of different widths produce azimuthal ripples with wavelengths that match our simulations. In this case, it is essential to compute multiple equilibria because the first model solution obtained by the nonlinear solver (Newton's method) is often not the energetically favored state. We address this using a numerical technique known as "deflation." Finally, we observe the large number of different solutions that may be obtained for the case of a long rectangular strip.
Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems
Chen, T.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.
1998-01-06
A method and system are disclosed for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established. 6 figs.
Optimized nonlinear inversion of surface-wave dispersion data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raykova, Reneta B.
2014-01-01
A new code for inversion of surface wave dispersion data is developed to obtain Earth’s crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. The author developed Optimized Non–Linear Inversion ( ONLI ) software, based on Monte-Carlo search. The values of S–wave velocity VS and thickness h for a number of horizontal homogeneous layers are parameterized. Velocity of P–wave VP and density ρ of relevant layers are calculated by empirical or theoretical relations. ONLI explores parameters space in two modes, selective and full search, and the main innovation of software is evaluation of tested models. Theoretical dispersion curves are calculated if tested model satisfied specific conditions only, reducing considerably the computation time. A number of tests explored impact of parameterization and proved the ability of ONLI approach to deal successfully with non–uniqueness of inversion problem. Key words: Earth’s structure, surface–wave dispersion, non–linear inversion, software
Nonlinear Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a Carnot Engine Cycle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Feidt
2016-06-01
Full Text Available As part of the efforts to unify the various branches of Irreversible Thermodynamics, the proposed work reconsiders the approach of the Carnot engine taking into account the finite physical dimensions (heat transfer conductances and the finite speed of the piston. The models introduce the irreversibility of the engine by two methods involving different constraints. The first method introduces the irreversibility by a so-called irreversibility ratio in the entropy balance applied to the cycle, while in the second method it is emphasized by the entropy generation rate. Various forms of heat transfer laws are analyzed, but most of the results are given for the case of the linear law. Also, individual cases are studied and reported in order to provide a simple analytical form of the results. The engine model developed allowed a formal optimization using the calculus of variations.
The secondary buckling transition: wrinkling of buckled spherical shells.
Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan
2014-07-01
We theoretically explain the complete sequence of shapes of deflated spherical shells. Decreasing the volume, the shell remains spherical initially, then undergoes the classical buckling instability, where an axisymmetric dimple appears, and, finally, loses its axisymmetry by wrinkles developing in the vicinity of the dimple edge in a secondary buckling transition. We describe the first axisymmetric buckling transition by numerical integration of the complete set of shape equations and an approximate analytic model due to Pogorelov. In the buckled shape, both approaches exhibit a locally compressive hoop stress in a region where experiments and simulations show the development of polygonal wrinkles, along the dimple edge. In a simplified model based on the stability equations of shallow shells, a critical value for the compressive hoop stress is derived, for which the compressed circumferential fibres will buckle out of their circular shape in order to release the compression. By applying this wrinkling criterion to the solutions of the axisymmetric models, we can calculate the critical volume for the secondary buckling transition. Using the Pogorelov approach, we also obtain an analytical expression for the critical volume at the secondary buckling transition: The critical volume difference scales linearly with the bending stiffness, whereas the critical volume reduction at the classical axisymmetric buckling transition scales with the square root of the bending stiffness. These results are confirmed by another stability analysis in the framework of Donnel, Mushtari and Vlasov (DMV) shell theory, and by numerical simulations available in the literature.
Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong
2015-04-01
Highly dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely employed to describe the system dynamics of industrial spatially distributed processes (SDPs). In this paper, we consider the optimal control problem of the general highly dissipative SDPs, and propose an adaptive optimal control approach based on neuro-dynamic programming (NDP). Initially, Karhunen-Loève decomposition is employed to compute empirical eigenfunctions (EEFs) of the SDP based on the method of snapshots. These EEFs together with singular perturbation technique are then used to obtain a finite-dimensional slow subsystem of ordinary differential equations that accurately describes the dominant dynamics of the PDE system. Subsequently, the optimal control problem is reformulated on the basis of the slow subsystem, which is further converted to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. HJB equation is a nonlinear PDE that has proven to be impossible to solve analytically. Thus, an adaptive optimal control method is developed via NDP that solves the HJB equation online using neural network (NN) for approximating the value function; and an online NN weight tuning law is proposed without requiring an initial stabilizing control policy. Moreover, by involving the NN estimation error, we prove that the original closed-loop PDE system with the adaptive optimal control policy is semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the developed method is tested on a nonlinear diffusion-convection-reaction process and applied to a temperature cooling fin of high-speed aerospace vehicle, and the achieved results show its effectiveness.
Optimal Control of Nonlinear Hydraulic Networks in the Presence of Disturbance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Leth, John-Josef; Kallesøe, Carsten
2014-01-01
consumption. To this end, an optimal control strategy is proposed in this paper. In the water supply system model, the hydraulic resistance of the valve is estimated by the real data from a water supply system and it is considered to be a disturbance. The method which is used to solve the nonlinear optimal...... control problem is the interior point method. The method which is used in this paper can be used for a general hydraulic networks to optimize the leakage and energy consumption and to satisfy the demands at the end-users....
Twist buckling behavior of arteries.
Garcia, Justin R; Lamm, Shawn D; Han, Hai-Chao
2013-10-01
Arteries are often subjected to torsion due to body movement and surgical procedures. While it is essential that arteries remain stable and patent under twisting loads, the stability of arteries under torsion is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to experimentally investigate the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and to determine the critical buckling torque, the critical buckling twist angle, and the buckling shape. Porcine common carotid arteries were slowly twisted in vitro until buckling occurred while subjected to a constant axial stretch ratio (1.1, 1.3, 1.5 (in vivo level) and 1.7) and lumen pressure (20, 40, 70 and 100 mmHg). Upon buckling, the arteries snapped to form a kink. For a group of six arteries, the axial stretch ratio significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) and the critical buckling twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Lumen pressure also significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) but had no significant effect on the critical twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Convex material constants for a Fung strain energy function were determined and fit well with the axial force, lumen pressure, and torque data measured pre-buckling. The material constants are valid for axial stretch ratios, lumen pressures, and rotation angles of 1.3-1.5, 20-100 mmHg, and 0-270[Formula: see text], respectively. The current study elucidates the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and provides new insight into mechanical instability of blood vessels.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Fang Zhong
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The irregular wave disturbance attenuation problem for jacket-type offshore platforms involving the nonlinear characteristics is studied. The main contribution is that a digital-control-based approximation of optimal wave disturbances attenuation controller (AOWDAC is proposed based on iteration control theory, which consists of a feedback item of offshore state, a feedforward item of wave force and a nonlinear compensated component with iterative sequences. More specifically, by discussing the discrete model of nonlinear offshore platform subject to wave forces generated from the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP wave spectrum and linearized wave theory, the original wave disturbances attenuation problem is formulated as the nonlinear two-point-boundary-value (TPBV problem. By introducing two vector sequences of system states and nonlinear compensated item, the solution of introduced nonlinear TPBV problem is obtained. Then, a numerical algorithm is designed to realize the feasibility of AOWDAC based on the deviation of performance index between the adjacent iteration processes. Finally, applied the proposed AOWDAC to a jacket-type offshore platform in Bohai Bay, the vibration amplitudes of the displacement and the velocity, and the required energy consumption can be reduced significantly.
A nonlinear model for the characterization and optimization of athletic training and performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Turner James D.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Study aim: Mathematical models of the relationship between training and performance facilitate the design of training protocols to achieve performance goals. However, current linear models do not account for nonlinear physiological effects such as saturation and over-training. This severely limits their practical applicability, especially for optimizing training strategies. This study describes, analyzes, and applies a new nonlinear model to account for these physiological effects. Material and methods: This study considers the equilibria and step response of the nonlinear differential equation model to show its characteristics and trends, optimizes training protocols using genetic algorithms to maximize performance by applying the model under various realistic constraints, and presents a case study fitting the model to human performance data. Results: The nonlinear model captures the saturation and over-training effects; produces realistic training protocols with training progression, a high-intensity phase, and a taper; and closely fits the experimental performance data. Fitting the model parameters to subsets of the data identifies which parameters have the largest variability but reveals that the performance predictions are relatively consistent. Conclusions: These findings provide a new mathematical foundation for modeling and optimizing athletic training routines subject to an individual’s personal physiology, constraints, and performance goals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, A.M.
1986-01-01
The problem of exact variational calculations of few-particle systems in the exponential basis of the relative coordinates using nonlinear parameters is studied. The techniques of stepwise optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters are used to calculate the S and P states of homonuclear muonic molecules with an error of no more than +0.001 eV. The global-chaos technique also has proved to be successful in the case of the nuclear systems 3 H and 3 He
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomas Ulitinas
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes the task in truss height and in the optimization of the cross-sections of their elements. Element cross-sections are designed of steel profiles considering requirements for strength, stability and rigidity. A mathematical model is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem. It is solved as an iterative process, using mathematical software package “MATLAB” routine “fmincon”. The ratio of buckling is corrected in the each iteration. Optimization results are compared with those obtained applying software package “Robot Millennium”.Article in Lithuanian
Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2017-06-08
This paper presents an approximate optimal distributed control scheme for a known interconnected system composed of input affine nonlinear subsystems using event-triggered state and output feedback via a novel hybrid learning scheme. First, the cost function for the overall system is redefined as the sum of cost functions of individual subsystems. A distributed optimal control policy for the interconnected system is developed using the optimal value function of each subsystem. To generate the optimal control policy, forward-in-time, neural networks are employed to reconstruct the unknown optimal value function at each subsystem online. In order to retain the advantages of event-triggered feedback for an adaptive optimal controller, a novel hybrid learning scheme is proposed to reduce the convergence time for the learning algorithm. The development is based on the observation that, in the event-triggered feedback, the sampling instants are dynamic and results in variable interevent time. To relax the requirement of entire state measurements, an extended nonlinear observer is designed at each subsystem to recover the system internal states from the measurable feedback. Using a Lyapunov-based analysis, it is demonstrated that the system states and the observer errors remain locally uniformly ultimately bounded and the control policy converges to a neighborhood of the optimal policy. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the developed controller.
Honório, Leonardo M; Costa, Exuperry Barros; Oliveira, Edimar J; Fernandes, Daniel de Almeida; Moreira, Antonio Paulo G M
2018-04-13
This work presents a novel methodology for Sub-Optimal Excitation Signal Generation and Optimal Parameter Estimation of constrained nonlinear systems. It is proposed that the evaluation of each signal must also account for the difference between real and estimated system parameters. However, this metric is not directly obtained once the real parameter values are not known. The alternative presented here is to adopt the hypothesis that, if a system can be approximated by a white box model, this model can be used as a benchmark to indicate the impact of a signal over the parametric estimation. In this way, the proposed method uses a dual layer optimization methodology: (i) Inner Level; For a given excitation signal a nonlinear optimization method searches for the optimal set of parameters that minimizes the error between the outputs of the optimized and benchmark models. (ii) At the outer level, a metaheuristic optimization method is responsible for constructing the best excitation signal, considering the fitness coming from the inner level, the quadratic difference between its parameters and the cost related to the time and space required to execute the experiment. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strabismus Following Scleral Buckling Surgery.
Ganekal, Sunil; Nagarajappa, Ashwini
2016-01-01
To assess the incidence of strabismus, relationship of strabismus with type and width of scleral buckle after scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment. Retrospective analysis was done of 360 eyes of 344 patients treated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with scleral buckling surgery between January 2008 and January 2013. The mean age of patients was 38.45 ± 18.12 years (range: 7 to 89 years). Strabismus was detected in 48 out of 344 (13.95%) patients at 6 weeks after scleral buckling surgery. Horizontal deviation was the commonest type. Incidence of strabismus was higher after repeat scleral buckling surgery (4/9, 44.4%) compared to patients who had single scleral buckling surgery (44/335, 13.1%) (P=0.02). Strabismus was observed in 18.5% of patients with implants, compared to 11.3% of patients who received explants (P=0.02). Strabismus surgery was performed on 2 (4.1%) cases. Horizontal strabismus is common after scleral buckling surgery for repair of retinal detachment. Repeat scleral buckling and use of implants resulted in a higher incidence of strabismus in the postoperative period. Majority of these cases resolve with conservative management.
Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.
Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan
2014-11-07
We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside the shell. We present a quantitative theory which also captures the influence of shell elasticity on the relationship between osmotic pressure and volume. These findings are relevant for the control of buckled shapes in applications. We show how the osmolyte concentration can be used to control the volume of buckled shells. An accurate analytical formula is derived for the relationship between the osmotic pressure, the elastic moduli and the volume of buckled capsules. This also allows use of elastic capsules as osmotic pressure sensors or deduction of elastic properties and the internal osmolyte concentration from shape changes in response to osmotic pressure changes. We apply our findings to published experimental data on polyelectrolyte capsules.
Yang, Xiong; He, Haibo
2018-03-01
This paper presents a novel adaptive dynamic programming(ADP)-based self-learning robust optimal control scheme for input-affine continuous-time nonlinear systems with mismatched disturbances. First, the stabilizing feedback controller for original nonlinear systems is designed by modifying the optimal control law of the auxiliary system. It is also demonstrated that this feedback controller can optimize a specified value function. Then, within the framework of ADP, a single critic network is constructed to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation associated with the auxiliary system optimal control law. To update the critic network weights, an indicator function and a concurrent learning technique are employed. By using the proposed update law for the critic network, the restrictive conditions including the initial admissible control and the persistence of excitation condition are relaxed. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop auxiliary system is guaranteed in the sense that all the signals are uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the applicability of the developed control strategy is illustrated through simulations for an unstable nonlinear plant and a power system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optimization of Thermal Object Nonlinear Control Systems by Energy Efficiency Criterion.
Velichkin, Vladimir A.; Zavyalov, Vladimir A.
2018-03-01
This article presents the results of thermal object functioning control analysis (heat exchanger, dryer, heat treatment chamber, etc.). The results were used to determine a mathematical model of the generalized thermal control object. The appropriate optimality criterion was chosen to make the control more energy-efficient. The mathematical programming task was formulated based on the chosen optimality criterion, control object mathematical model and technological constraints. The “maximum energy efficiency” criterion helped avoid solving a system of nonlinear differential equations and solve the formulated problem of mathematical programming in an analytical way. It should be noted that in the case under review the search for optimal control and optimal trajectory reduces to solving an algebraic system of equations. In addition, it is shown that the optimal trajectory does not depend on the dynamic characteristics of the control object.
Simplex sliding mode control for nonlinear uncertain systems via chaos optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Zhao; Shieh, Leang-San; Chen, Guanrong; Coleman, Norman P.
2005-01-01
As an emerging effective approach to nonlinear robust control, simplex sliding mode control demonstrates some attractive features not possessed by the conventional sliding mode control method, from both theoretical and practical points of view. However, no systematic approach is currently available for computing the simplex control vectors in nonlinear sliding mode control. In this paper, chaos-based optimization is exploited so as to develop a systematic approach to seeking the simplex control vectors; particularly, the flexibility of simplex control is enhanced by making the simplex control vectors dependent on the Euclidean norm of the sliding vector rather than being constant, which result in both reduction of the chattering and speedup of the convergence. Computer simulation on a nonlinear uncertain system is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method
State and parameter estimation in nonlinear systems as an optimal tracking problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creveling, Daniel R.; Gill, Philip E.; Abarbanel, Henry D.I.
2008-01-01
In verifying and validating models of nonlinear processes it is important to incorporate information from observations in an efficient manner. Using the idea of synchronization of nonlinear dynamical systems, we present a framework for connecting a data signal with a model in a way that minimizes the required coupling yet allows the estimation of unknown parameters in the model. The need to evaluate unknown parameters in models of nonlinear physical, biophysical, and engineering systems occurs throughout the development of phenomenological or reduced models of dynamics. Our approach builds on existing work that uses synchronization as a tool for parameter estimation. We address some of the critical issues in that work and provide a practical framework for finding an accurate solution. In particular, we show the equivalence of this problem to that of tracking within an optimal control framework. This equivalence allows the application of powerful numerical methods that provide robust practical tools for model development and validation
Cap buckling as a potential mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.
Abdelali, Maria; Reiter, Steven; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Michel; L'Allier, Philippe L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Tardif, Jean-Claude
2014-04-01
Plaque rupture in atherosclerosis is the primary cause of potentially deadly coronary events, yet about 40% of ruptures occur away from the plaque cap shoulders and cannot be fully explained with the current biomechanical theories. Here, cap buckling is considered as a potential destabilizing factor which increases the propensity of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and which may also explain plaque failure away from the cap shoulders. To investigate this phenomenon, quasistatic 2D finite element simulations are performed, considering the salient geometrical and nonlinear material properties of diverse atherosclerotic plaques over the range of physiological loads. The numerical results indicate that buckling may displace the location of the peak von Mises stresses in the deflected caps. Plaque buckling, together with its deleterious effects is further observed experimentally in plaque caps using a physical model of deformable mock coronary arteries with fibroatheroma. Moreover, an analytical approach combining quasistatic equilibrium equations with the Navier-Bresse formulas is used to demonstrate the buckling potential of a simplified arched slender cap under intraluminal pressure and supported by foundations. This analysis shows that plaque caps - calcified, fibrotic or cellular - may buckle in specific undulated shapes once submitted to critical loads. Finally, a preliminary analysis of intravascular ultrasonography recordings of patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries corroborates the numerical, experimental and theoretical findings and shows that various plaque caps buckle in vivo. By displacing the sites of high stresses in the plaque cap, buckling may explain the atherosclerotic plaque cap rupture at various locations, including cap shoulders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.
Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David
2015-12-17
Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saviz, M R
2015-01-01
In this paper a nonlinear approach to studying the vibration characteristic of laminated composite plate with surface-bonded piezoelectric layer/patch is formulated, based on the Green Lagrange type of strain–displacements relations, by incorporating higher-order terms arising from nonlinear relations of kinematics into mathematical formulations. The equations of motion are obtained through the energy method, based on Lagrange equations and by using higher-order shear deformation theories with von Karman–type nonlinearities, so that transverse shear strains vanish at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. An isoparametric finite element model is provided to model the nonlinear dynamics of the smart plate with piezoelectric layer/ patch. Different boundary conditions are investigated. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches are found using a genetic algorithm to maximize spatial controllability/observability and considering the effect of residual modes to reduce spillover effect. Active attenuation of vibration of laminated composite plate is achieved through an optimal control law with inequality constraint, which is related to the maximum and minimum values of allowable voltage in the piezoelectric elements. To keep the voltages of actuator pairs in an allowable limit, the Pontryagin’s minimum principle is implemented in a system with multi-inequality constraint of control inputs. The results are compared with similar ones, proving the accuracy of the model especially for the structures undergoing large deformations. The convergence is studied and nonlinear frequencies are obtained for different thickness ratios. The structural coupling between plate and piezoelectric actuators is analyzed. Some examples with new features are presented, indicating that the piezo-patches significantly improve the damping characteristics of the plate for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations. (paper)
Khang, Dahl-Young; Xiao, Jianliang; Kocabas, Coskun; MacLaren, Scott; Banks, Tony; Jiang, Hanqing; Huang, Yonggang Y; Rogers, John A
2008-01-01
We have studied the scaling of controlled nonlinear buckling processes in materials with dimensions in the molecular range (i.e., approximately 1 nm) through experimental and theoretical studies of buckling in individual single-wall carbon nanotubes on substrates of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The results show not only the ability to create and manipulate patterns of buckling at these molecular scales, but also, that analytical continuum mechanics theory can explain, quantitatively, all measurable aspects of this system. Inverse calculation applied to measurements of diameter-dependent buckling wavelengths yields accurate values of the Young's moduli of individual SWNTs. As an example of the value of this system beyond its use in this type of molecular scale metrology, we implement parallel arrays of buckled SWNTs as a class of mechanically stretchable conductor.
Scleral buckling surgery using multiple radial buckles: A valid option?
Sudhalkar, Aditya; Sudhalkar, Anand
2015-01-01
To determine whether radial buckling surgery using two or more radial buckles with or without circumferential silicone tires is still a treatment option for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in the current scenario. Retrospective chart review. Patients with RRD with two or more horse-shoe tears with/without proliferative vitreoretinopathy up to grade C1 who underwent buckling surgery using at least two radial buckle segments without encircling bands or drainage and with at least a 3 year follow up were included in the study. Data collected included demographics, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) at baseline and final follow up, details of the examination, surgical procedure(s) and complications noted, if any. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. Statistical significance was set at p buckle segments placed varied between 2 and 4 per eye. One patient required vitrectomy for persistent retinal detachment. One required buckle removal for infection 5 years after the primary procedure. One patient required strabismus surgery. 12.25 years ± 2.14 years. None of the other patients had any complications. Radial buckling surgery (two or more segments) is a reasonably safe and valid alternative to vitrectomy for RDs with multiple breaks in different planes.
Retout, Sylvie; Comets, Emmanuelle; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France
2009-01-01
International audience; We address the problem of design optimization using cost functions in nonlinear mixed effects models with multiple responses. We focus on the relative feasibility of the optimized designs, in term of sampling times and of number of subjects. To do that, we extend the Fedorov–Wynn algorithm—a dedicated design optimization algorithm—to include a cost function that penalizes less feasible designs as well as to take into account multiple responses. We apply this extension ...
Stabilization of Hypersonic Boundary Layers by Linear and Nonlinear Optimal Perturbations
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2017-01-01
The effect of stationary, finite-amplitude, linear and nonlinear optimal perturbations on the modal disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7 deg. half-angle cone with 0:126 mm nose radius and 0:305 m length is investigated. The freestream parameters (M = 6, Re(exp 1) = 18 x 10(exp. 6) /m) are selected to match the flow conditions of a previous experiment in the VKI H3 hypersonic tunnel. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used in conjunction with a partial-differential equation based planar eigenvalue analysis to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode and first-mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone; however, subharmonic first-mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, do reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. The highest stabilization is observed at streak amplitudes of approximately 20 percent of the freestream velocity. Because the use of initial disturbance profiles based on linear optimal growth theory may yield suboptimal control in the context of nonlinear streaks, the computational predictions are extended to nonlinear optimal growth theory. Results show that by using nonlinearly optimal perturbation leads to slightly enhanced stabilization of plane Mack mode disturbances as well as reduced destabilization of subharmonic first-mode disturbances.
Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianxi Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.
The optimization of the nonlinear parameters in the transcorrelated method: the hydrogen molecule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huggett, J.P.; Armour, E.A.G.
1976-01-01
The nonlinear parameters in a transcorrelated calculation of the groundstate energy and wavefunction of the hydrogen molecule are optimized using the method of Boys and Handy (Proc. R. Soc. A.; 309:195 and 209, 310:43 and 63, 311:309 (1969)). The method gives quite accurate results in all cases and in some cases the results are highly accurate. This is the first time the method has been applied to the optimization of a term in the correlation function which depends linearly on the interelectronic distance. (author)
Hocker, David Lance
The control of quantum systems occurs across a broad range of length and energy scales in modern science, and efforts have demonstrated that locating suitable controls to perform a range of objectives has been widely successful. The justification for this success arises from a favorable topology of a quantum control landscape, defined as a mapping of the controls to a cost function measuring the success of the operation. This is summarized in the landscape principle that no suboptimal extrema exist on the landscape for well-suited control problems, explaining a trend of successful optimizations in both theory and experiment. This dissertation explores what additional lessons may be gleaned from the quantum control landscape through numerical and theoretical studies. The first topic examines the experimentally relevant problem of assessing and reducing disturbances due to noise. The local curvature of the landscape is found to play an important role on noise effects in the control of targeted quantum unitary operations, and provides a conceptual framework for assessing robustness to noise. Software for assessing noise effects in quantum computing architectures was also developed and applied to survey the performance of current quantum control techniques for quantum computing. A lack of competition between robustness and perfect unitary control operation was discovered to fundamentally limit noise effects, and highlights a renewed focus upon system engineering for reducing noise. This convergent behavior generally arises for any secondary objective in the situation of high primary objective fidelity. The other dissertation topic examines the utility of quantum control for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonians not previously considered under the landscape principle. Nonlinear Schrodinger equations are commonly used to model the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), one of the largest known quantum objects. Optimizations of BEC dynamics were performed in which the
Buckling Analysis of a Honeycomb-Core Composite Cylinder with Initial Geometric Imperfections
Cha, Gene; Schultz, Marc R.
2013-01-01
Thin-walled cylindrical shell structures often have buckling as the critical failure mode, and the buckling of such structures can be very sensitive to small geometric imperfections. The buckling analyses of an 8-ft-diameter, 10-ft-long honeycomb-core composite cylinder loaded in pure axial compression is discussed in this document. Two loading configurations are considered configuration 1 uses simple end conditions, and configuration 2 includes additional structure that may more closely approximate experimental loading conditions. Linear eigenvalue buckling analyses and nonlinear analyses with and without initial geometric imperfections were performed on both configurations. The initial imperfections were introduced in the shell by applying a radial load at the midlength of the cylinder to form a single inward dimple. The critical bifurcation buckling loads are predicted to be 924,190 lb and 924,020 lb for configurations 1 and 2, respectively. Nonlinear critical buckling loads of 918,750 lb and 954,900 lb were predicted for geometrically perfect configurations 1 and 2, respectively. Lower-bound critical buckling loads for configurations 1 and 2 with radial perturbations were found to be 33% and 36% lower, respectively, than the unperturbed critical loads. The inclusion of the load introduction cylinders in configuration 2 increased the maximum bending-boundary-layer rotation up to 11%.
Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.
2004-01-01
A parametric study of the effects of test-fixture-induced initial prestress and elastic edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling responses of a compression-loaded, quasi-isotropic curved panel is presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code with high-fidelity models. The results presented show that a wide range of prebuckling and buckling behavior can be obtained by varying parameters that represent circumferential loaded-edge restraint and rotational unloaded-edge restraint provided by a test fixture and that represent the mismatch in specimen and test-fixture radii of curvature. For a certain range of parameters, the panels exhibit substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations that yield buckling loads nearly twice the corresponding buckling load predicted by a traditional linear bifurcation buckling analysis for shallow curved panels. In contrast, the results show another range of parameters exist for which the nonlinear prebuckling deformations either do not exist or are relatively benign, and the panels exhibit buckling loads that are nearly equal to the corresponding linear bifurcation buckling load. Overall, the results should also be of particular interest to scientists, engineers, and designers involved in simulating flight-hardware boundary conditions in structural verification and certification tests, involved in validating structural analysis tools, and interested in tailoring buckling performance.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Buckling of Vacuum Chambers for Fast-Cycling Synchrotrons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bräuner, Lars Erik
tendency towards pressure induced buckling due to some combination of excessive out-gassing, fragility, radiation damage, magnetic field distortion,. The analysis for design is complicated because elliptical shell chambers display a complex form of nonlinear snap buckling behavior under the external...... of these and other shells. The buckling of elastic-plastic elliptical cross section shells subject to external pressure loading is investigated. Testing of the corrugated elliptical hallow shells are performed by the pressure prescribed conditions. A numerical method is then employed to investigate the elastic...
Jagtap, K. R.; Lal, Achchhe; Singh, B. N.
2013-04-01
This paper presents the stochastic post-buckling response of elastically supported FGM plate with random system properties subjected to uniform and nonuniform temperature change with temperature-dependent and -independent material properties. The FGMs plate is supported with two parameters of Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity. The basic formulation is based on higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) with von-Karman nonlinearity using modified C0 continuity. A direct iterative-based nonlinear finite element method combined with first-order perturbation technique is used to compute the second-order statistics (mean and coefficient of variation) of post-buckling response of FGM plates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.
2017-12-26
A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.
Gottlieb, Sigal
2015-04-10
High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search for high order strong stability time-stepping methods with large allowable strong stability coefficient has been an active area of research over the last two decades. This research has shown that explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods exist only up to fourth order. However, if we restrict ourselves to solving only linear autonomous problems, the order conditions simplify and this order barrier is lifted: explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods of any linear order exist. These methods reduce to second order when applied to nonlinear problems. In the current work we aim to find explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods with large allowable time-step, that feature high linear order and simultaneously have the optimal fourth order nonlinear order. These methods have strong stability coefficients that approach those of the linear methods as the number of stages and the linear order is increased. This work shows that when a high linear order method is desired, it may still be worthwhile to use methods with higher nonlinear order.
Wang, Xinwei; Peng, Haijun; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Biaosong; Zhong, Wanxie
2017-05-01
A symplectic pseudospectral method based on the dual variational principle and the quasilinearization method is proposed and is successfully applied to solve nonlinear optimal control problems with inequality constraints in this paper. Nonlinear optimal control problem is firstly converted into a series of constraint linear-quadratic optimal control problems with the help of quasilinearization techniques. Then a symplectic pseudospectral method based on dual variational principle for solving the converted constrained linear-quadratic optimal control problems is developed. In the proposed method, inequality constraints which can be functions of pure state, pure control and mixed state-control are transformed into equality constraints with the help of parameteric variables. After that, state variables, costate variables and parametric variables are interpolated locally at Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points. Finally, based on the parametric variational principle and complementary conditions, the converted problem is transformed into a standard linear complementary problem which can be solved easily. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is of high accuracy and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Piprek
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to model a ski jumper as a multi-body system for an optimal control application. The modeling is based on the constrained Newton-Euler-Equations. Within this paper the complete multi-body modeling methodology as well as the musculoskeletal modeling is considered. For the musculoskeletal modeling and its incorporation in the optimization model, we choose a nonlinear dynamic inversion control approach. This approach uses the muscle models as nonlinear reference models and links them to the ski jumper movement by a control law. This strategy yields a linearized input-output behavior, which makes the optimal control problem easier to solve. The resulting model of the ski jumper can then be used for trajectory optimization whose results are compared to literature jumps. Ultimately, this enables the jumper to get a very detailed feedback of the flight. To achieve the maximal jump length, exact positioning of his body with respect to the air can be displayed.
Optimal Energy Measurement in Nonlinear Systems: An Application of Differential Geometry
Fixsen, Dale J.; Moseley, S. H.; Gerrits, T.; Lita, A.; Nam, S. W.
2014-01-01
Design of TES microcalorimeters requires a tradeoff between resolution and dynamic range. Often, experimenters will require linearity for the highest energy signals, which requires additional heat capacity be added to the detector. This results in a reduction of low energy resolution in the detector. We derive and demonstrate an algorithm that allows operation far into the nonlinear regime with little loss in spectral resolution. We use a least squares optimal filter that varies with photon energy to accommodate the nonlinearity of the detector and the non-stationarity of the noise. The fitting process we use can be seen as an application of differential geometry. This recognition provides a set of well-developed tools to extend our work to more complex situations. The proper calibration of a nonlinear microcalorimeter requires a source with densely spaced narrow lines. A pulsed laser multi-photon source is used here, and is seen to be a powerful tool for allowing us to develop practical systems with significant detector nonlinearity. The combination of our analysis techniques and the multi-photon laser source create a powerful tool for increasing the performance of future TES microcalorimeters.
Mean value first order second moment analysis of buckling of axially ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
These imperfect models are analysed using ANSYS non-linear FE buckling analysis including both geometrical and material non-linearities. From these FE analysis results, the strength distribution of the plate is obtained and reliability analysis is carried out using Mean Value First Order Second Moment (MVFOSM) method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maldonado, G.I.; Turinsky, P.J.
1995-01-01
The determination of the family of optimum core loading patterns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) involves the assessment of the core attributes for thousands of candidate loading patterns. For this reason, the computational capability to efficiently and accurately evaluate a reactor core's eigenvalue and power distribution versus burnup using a nodal diffusion generalized perturbation theory (GPT) model is developed. The GPT model is derived from the forward nonlinear iterative nodal expansion method (NEM) to explicitly enable the preservation of the finite difference matrix structure. This key feature considerably simplifies the mathematical formulation of NEM GPT and results in reduced memory storage and CPU time requirements versus the traditional response-matrix approach to NEM. In addition, a treatment within NEM GPT can account for localized nonlinear feedbacks, such as that due to fission product buildup and thermal-hydraulic effects. When compared with a standard nonlinear iterative NEM forward flux solve with feedbacks, the NEM GPT model can execute between 8 and 12 times faster. These developments are implemented within the PWR in-core nuclear fuel management optimization code FORMOSA-P, combining the robustness of its adaptive simulated annealing stochastic optimization algorithm with an NEM GPT neutronics model that efficiently and accurately evaluates core attributes associated with objective functions and constraints of candidate loading patterns
Joy, Ajin; Paul, Joseph Suresh
2017-08-01
Eliminate the need for parametric tuning in total variation (TV) based multichannel compressed-sensing image reconstruction using statistically optimized nonlinear diffusion without compromising image quality. Nonlinear diffusion controls the denoising process using a contrast parameter that separates the gradients corresponding to noise and true edges in the image. This parameter is statistically estimated from the variance of combined image gradient to yield minimum steady-state reconstruction error. In addition, it uses acquired k-space data to bias the diffusion process toward an optimal solution. The proposed method is compared with TV using a set of noisy spine and brain data sets for three, four, and five-fold undersampling. It is observed that the choice of regularization parameter (step size) of TV-based methods requires prior tuning based on an extensive search procedure. In contrast, statistical estimation of contrast parameter removes this need for tuning by adapting to the changes in data sets and undersampling levels. Although an a-priori tuned TV-based reconstruction can provide a comparable image quality to that of controlled nonlinear diffusion, there are practical limitations with regard to its time complexity for ad-hoc applications to multicoil compressed-sensing reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 78:754-762, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Robust non-gradient C subroutines for non-linear optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun
2004-01-01
This report presents a package of robust and easy-to-use C subroutines for solving unconstrained and constrained non-linear optimization problems, where gradient information is not required. The intention is that the routines should use the currently best algorithms available. All routines have...... and constrained optimization but requiring gradient information. The parameter lists for the subroutines in both collections are similar so it is easy to switch between the non- gradient and the gradient methods. All of the subroutine names in this report start with MI0. The corresponding names of the gradient...... subroutines are obtained by changing 0 to 1. The present report is a new and updated version of a previous report NI-91-04 with the title Non-gradient c Subroutines for Non- Linear Optimization, [16]. Both the previous and the present report describe a collection of subroutines, which have been translated...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Wen Zhu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A kind of high-aspect-ratio shape memory alloy (SMA composite wing is proposed to reduce the wing’s fluttering. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of the SMA composite wings subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation are investigated where the great bending under the flight loads is considered. The stochastic stability of the system is analyzed, and the system’s response is obtained. The conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation are determined, and the probability density of the first-passage time is obtained. Finally, the optimal control strategy is proposed. Numerical simulation shows that the stability of the system varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process; the reliability of the system is improved through optimal control, and the first-passage time is delayed. Finally, the effects of the control strategy are proved by experiments. The results of this paper are helpful for engineering applications of SMA.
Robust Optimization Using Supremum of the Objective Function for Nonlinear Programming Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Se Jung; Park, Gyung Jin
2014-01-01
In the robust optimization field, the robustness of the objective function emphasizes an insensitive design. In general, the robustness of the objective function can be achieved by reducing the change of the objective function with respect to the variation of the design variables and parameters. However, in conventional methods, when an insensitive design is emphasized, the performance of the objective function can be deteriorated. Besides, if the numbers of the design variables are increased, the numerical cost is quite high in robust optimization for nonlinear programming problems. In this research, the robustness index for the objective function and a process of robust optimization are proposed. Moreover, a method using the supremum of linearized functions is also proposed to reduce the computational cost. Mathematical examples are solved for the verification of the proposed method and the results are compared with those from the conventional methods. The proposed approach improves the performance of the objective function and its efficiency
Controller Parameter Optimization for Nonlinear Systems Using Enhanced Bacteria Foraging Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Rajinikanth
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An enhanced bacteria foraging optimization (EBFO algorithm-based Proportional + integral + derivative (PID controller tuning is proposed for a class of nonlinear process models. The EBFO algorithm is a modified form of standard BFO algorithm. A multiobjective performance index is considered to guide the EBFO algorithm for discovering the best possible value of controller parameters. The efficiency of the proposed scheme has been validated through a comparative study with classical BFO, adaptive BFO, PSO, and GA based controller tuning methods proposed in the literature. The proposed algorithm is tested in real time on a nonlinear spherical tank system. The real-time results show that, EBFO tuned PID controller gives a smooth response for setpoint tracking performance.
Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong
2017-01-01
The state inequality constraints have been hardly considered in the literature on solving the nonlinear optimal control problem based the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method. In this paper, an actor-critic (AC) algorithm is developed to solve the optimal control problem with a discounted cost function for a class of state-constrained nonaffine nonlinear systems. To overcome the difficulties resulting from the inequality constraints and the nonaffine nonlinearities of the controlled systems, a novel transformation technique with redesigned slack functions and a pre-compensator method are introduced to convert the constrained optimal control problem into an unconstrained one for affine nonlinear systems. Then, based on the policy iteration (PI) algorithm, an online AC scheme is proposed to learn the nearly optimal control policy for the obtained affine nonlinear dynamics. Using the information of the nonlinear model, novel adaptive update laws are designed to guarantee the convergence of the neural network (NN) weights and the stability of the affine nonlinear dynamics without the requirement for the probing signal. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulation studies. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Design of laminated plates for maximum buckling load
Shin, Yung S.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Watson, Layne T.; Plaut, Raymond H.
1989-01-01
The buckling load of laminated plates having midplane symmetry is maximized for a given total thickness. The thicknesses of the layers are taken as the design variables. Buckling analysis is carried out using the finite element method. The optimality equations are solved by a homotopy method which permits tracing optima as a function of total thickness. It is shown that for any design with a given stacking sequence of ply orientations, there exists a design associated with any other stacking sequence which possesses the same bending stiffness matrix and same total thickness. Hence, from the optimum design for a given stacking sequence, one can directly determine the optimum design for any rearrangement of the ply orientations, and the optimum buckling load is independent of the stacking sequence.
Constrained Optimal Stochastic Control of Non-Linear Wave Energy Point Absorbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Chen, Jian-Bing; Kramer, Morten
2014-01-01
are enforced on the motion of the floater to prevent it from hitting the bottom of the sea or to make unacceptable jumps out of the water. The applied control law, which is of the feedback type with feedback from the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the floater, contains two unprovided gain......The paper deals with the stochastic optimal control of a wave energy point absorber with strong nonlinear buoyancy forces using the reactive force from the electric generator on the absorber as control force. The considered point absorber has only one degree of freedom, heave motion, which is used...
Xanthopoulos, P.; Merz, F.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.
2007-07-01
Ion-temperature-gradient turbulence constitutes a possibly dominant transport mechanism for optimized stellarators, in view of the effective suppression of neoclassical losses characterizing these devices. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator [G. Grieger , in Proceedings of the IAEA Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1990 (IAEA, Vienna, 1991) Vol. 3, p. 525]—assuming an adiabatic electron response—are presented. Several fundamental features are discussed, including the role of zonal flows for turbulence saturation, the resulting flux-gradient relationship, and the coexistence of ion-temperature-gradient modes with trapped ion modes in the saturated state.
An Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Approach Applied to Nonlinear MHD Jeffery-Hamel Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasile Marinca
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A simple and effective procedure is employed to propose a new analytic approximate solution for nonlinear MHD Jeffery-Hamel flow. This technique called the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM does not depend upon any small/large parameters and provides us with a convenient way to control the convergence of the solution. The examples given in this paper lead to the conclusion that the accuracy of the obtained results is growing along with increasing the number of constants in the auxiliary function, which are determined using a computer technique. The results obtained through the proposed method are in very good agreement with the numerical results.
Global stability, periodic solutions, and optimal control in a nonlinear differential delay model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatoli F. Ivanov
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear differential equation with delay serving as a mathematical model of several applied problems is considered. Sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic stability and for the existence of periodic solutions are given. Two particular applications are treated in detail. The first one is a blood cell production model by Mackey, for which new periodicity criteria are derived. The second application is a modified economic model with delay due to Ramsey. An optimization problem for a maximal consumption is stated and solved for the latter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik
2015-01-01
equal. We evaluate the economic performance with an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, where unmeasured disturbances and model mismatch are present. The state of the spray dryer, used in the E-NMPC and MPC, is estimated using Kalman Filters with noise covariances estimated by a maximum......In this paper, we compare the performance of an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) to a linear tracking Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for a spray drying plant. We find in this simulation study, that the economic performance of the two controllers are almost...
Active buckling control of smart plate as diaphragm with PZT5 sensor/actuator patches
Viliani, N. S.; Pourrostami, H.; Mostafavi, S. M.; Hashemizadeh, F.; Safian, M. R.; Hashemi, M.
2014-12-01
In current study, buckling analyses of smart plate is presented. The various types of piezoelectric materials are under investigation for petrochemical industry and other applications. The PZT sensor output is used to determine the input to the PZT actuator using the feedback control algorithm for buckling control of FG plate. This study investigated the governing differential equations of motion of smart plate which includes FG plate as the membrane and PZT5 patches as actuator and sensor. The Fourier series method adopted to obtain the solution for the equation of motion. Also the effects of feedback gain and FGM volume fraction exponent on the critical buckling load for PZT-5A are studied. The potential application of current study can be found in optimal design of sensor's diaphragm. The variation of critical buckling load vs. feedback gain indicates that by increasing the feedback gain, the buckling load increases.
Optimizing optical nonlinearities in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gajić Aleksandra D.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Regardless of the huge advances made in the design and fabrication of mid-infrared and terahertz quantum cascade lasers, success in accessing the ~3-4 mm region of the electromagnetic spectrum has remained limited. This fact has brought about the need to exploit resonant intersubband transitions as powerful nonlinear oscillators, consequently enabling the occurrence of large nonlinear optical susceptibilities as a means of reaching desired wavelengths. In this work, we present a computational model developed for the optimization of second-order optical nonlinearities in In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As quantum cascade laser structures based on the implementation of the Genetic algorithm. The carrier transport and the power output of the structure were calculated by self-consistent solutions to the system of rate equations for carriers and photons. Both stimulated and simultaneous double-photon absorption processes occurring between the second harmonic generation-relevant levels are incorporated into rate equations and the material-dependent effective mass and band non-parabolicity are taken into account, as well. The developed method is quite general and can be applied to any higher order effect which requires the inclusion of the photon density equation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45010
Linear and nonlinear market correlations: Characterizing financial crises and portfolio optimization
Haluszczynski, Alexander; Laut, Ingo; Modest, Heike; Räth, Christoph
2017-12-01
Pearson correlation and mutual information-based complex networks of the day-to-day returns of U.S. S&P500 stocks between 1985 and 2015 have been constructed to investigate the mutual dependencies of the stocks and their nature. We show that both networks detect qualitative differences especially during (recent) turbulent market periods, thus indicating strongly fluctuating interconnections between the stocks of different companies in changing economic environments. A measure for the strength of nonlinear dependencies is derived using surrogate data and leads to interesting observations during periods of financial market crises. In contrast to the expectation that dependencies reduce mainly to linear correlations during crises, we show that (at least in the 2008 crisis) nonlinear effects are significantly increasing. It turns out that the concept of centrality within a network could potentially be used as some kind of an early warning indicator for abnormal market behavior as we demonstrate with the example of the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. Finally, we apply a Markowitz mean variance portfolio optimization and integrate the measure of nonlinear dependencies to scale the investment exposure. This leads to significant outperformance as compared to a fully invested portfolio.
Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik
2014-01-01
In this paper we investigate an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E-NMPC) for a spray drying process. By simulation we evaluate the economic potential of this E-NMPC compared to a conventional PID based control strategy. Spray drying is the preferred process to reduce...... the water content for many liquid foodstuffs and produces a free flowing powder. The main challenge in controlling the spray drying process is to meet the residual moisture specifications and avoid that the powder sticks to the chamber walls of the spray dryer. We present a model for a spray dryer that has...... been validated on experimental data from a pilot plant. We use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The E-NMPC is designed with hard input constraints and soft output constraints. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single...
Optimization of a thermal power reactor by means of a non-linear programming model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavelescu, M.; Dumitrescu, H.; Ghilea, S.
1977-01-01
The problem of optimizing a power reactor of the HWGCR type is dealt with. The reactor will be operated with a Roumanian vitroceramic fuel, essentially a mixture of UO 2 and SiO 2 , that has to meet a great number of irradiation behaviour and reliability requirements. The purpose of optimization is to find the optimum reactor structure for which fuel burnup during the first campaign is maximum with some restrictions on the reactor integral parameters, such as thermal power, fuel mass, and cell power density, as well as some lattice and cell parameters, e.g. the reactor radius and the fuel cell pitch. Due to the problem structure corresponding to a non-linear programming model the SUMT method has been used for solving it by means of the ORPN computing programme. (author)
Optimization and Non-Linear Identification of Reservoir Water Flooding Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Grema
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, dynamic optimization and identification of petroleum reservoir waterflooding using receding horizon (RH principles was examined. Two forms of the strategy were compared on a realistic reservoir model. Sequential quadratic programming (SQP was applied to optimize net present value (NPV using water injection rates as the variables. MRST from SINTEF was used for the reservoir modeling. The identification of the reservoir was performed using nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX neural network from MATLAB. Data for the network training and validation was obtained by carrying out a numerical experiment on a high fidelity model of the reservoir. This model was developed with Eclipse Reservoir Simulator from Schlumberger. From the results obtained, moving-end RH gave a higher NPV than fixed-end RH with a margin of $0.5 billion. The identification algorithm was very much effective and near perfect for the studied reservoir.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yutong Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a technique to automate landmark selection for point-based interpolating transformations for nonlinear medical image registration. Materials and Methods. Interpolating transformations were calculated from homologous point landmarks on the source (image to be transformed and target (reference image. Point landmarks are placed at regular intervals on contours of anatomical features, and their positions are optimized along the contour surface by a function composed of curvature similarity and displacements of the homologous landmarks. The method was evaluated in two cases (=5 each. In one, MRI was registered to histological sections; in the second, geometric distortions in EPI MRI were corrected. Normalized mutual information and target registration error were calculated to compare the registration accuracy of the automatically and manually generated landmarks. Results. Statistical analyses demonstrated significant improvement (<0.05 in registration accuracy by landmark optimization in most data sets and trends towards improvement (<0.1 in others as compared to manual landmark selection.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least...... squares method (ALS). We present a model for the spray drying plant and use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single-shooting method combined with a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic programming (SQP......) algorithm and the adjoint method for computation of gradients. We evaluate the economic performance when unmeasured disturbances are present. By simulation, we demonstrate that the E-NMPC improves the profit of spray drying by 17% compared to conventional PI control....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingyong Yan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A robust fault detection scheme for a class of nonlinear systems with uncertainty is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes robust control theory and parameter optimization algorithm to design the gain matrix of fault tracking approximator (FTA for fault detection. The gain matrix of FTA is designed to minimize the effects of system uncertainty on residual signals while maximizing the effects of system faults on residual signals. The design of the gain matrix of FTA takes into account the robustness of residual signals to system uncertainty and sensitivity of residual signals to system faults simultaneously, which leads to a multiobjective optimization problem. Then, the detectability of system faults is rigorously analyzed by investigating the threshold of residual signals. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the validity and applicability of the proposed approach.
Arimoto, Suguru
An optimal regulator problem for endpoint position control of a robot arm with (or without) redundancy in its total degrees-of-freedom (DOF) is solved by combining Riemannian geometry with nonlinear control theory. Given a target point, within the task-space, that the arm endpoint should reach, a task-space position feedback with joint damping is shown to asymptotically stabilize reaching movements even if the number of DOF of the arm is greater than the dimension of the task space and thereby the inverse kinematics is ill-posed. Usually the speed of convergence of the endpoint trajectory is unsatisfactory, depending on the choice of feedback gains for joint damping. Hence, to speed up the convergence without incurring further energy consumption, an optimal control design for minimizing a performance index composed of an integral of joint dissipation energy plus a linear quadratic form of the task-space control input and output is introduced. It is then shown that the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation derived from the principle of optimality is solvable in control variables and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation itself has an explicit solution. Although the state of the original dynamics (the Euler-Lagrange equation) with DOF-redundancy contains uncontrollable and unobservable manifolds, the dynamics satisfies a nonlinear version of the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma and the task-space input-output passivity. An inverse problem of optimal regulator design for robotic arms under the effect of gravity is also tackled by combining Riemannian geometry with passivity-based control theory.
The effect of collagenase on the critical buckling pressure of arteries.
Martinez, Ricky; Han, Hai-Chao
2012-03-01
The stability of arteries is essential to normal arterial functions and loss of stability can lead to arterial tortuosity and kinking. Collagen is a main extracellular matrix component that modulates the mechanical properties of arteries and collagen degradation at pathological conditions weakens the mechanical strength of arteries. However, the effects of collagen degradation on the mechanical stability of arteries are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of collagen degradation on the critical buckling pressure of arteries. Arterial specimens were subjected to pressurized inflation testing and fitted with nonlinear thick-walled cylindrical model equations to determine their stress strain relationships. The arteries were then tested for the critical buckling pressure at a set of axial stretch ratios. Then, arteries were divided into three groups and treated with Type III collagenase at three different concentrations (64, 128, and 400 U/ml). Mechanical properties and buckling pressures of the arteries were determined after collagenase treatment. Additionally, the theoretical buckling pressures were also determined using a buckling equation. Our results demonstrated that the buckling pressure of arteries was lower after collagenase treatment. The difference between pre- and post- treatment was statistically significant for the highest concentration of 400U/ml but not at the lower concentrations. The buckling equation was found to yield a fair estimation to the experimental critical pressure measurements. These results shed light on the role of matrix remodeling on the mechanical stability of arteries and developments of tortuous arteries.
Nonlinear Optimization-Based Device-Free Localization with Outlier Link Rejection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wendong Xiao
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Device-free localization (DFL is an emerging wireless technique for estimating the location of target that does not have any attached electronic device. It has found extensive use in Smart City applications such as healthcare at home and hospitals, location-based services at smart spaces, city emergency response and infrastructure security. In DFL, wireless devices are used as sensors that can sense the target by transmitting and receiving wireless signals collaboratively. Many DFL systems are implemented based on received signal strength (RSS measurements and the location of the target is estimated by detecting the changes of the RSS measurements of the wireless links. Due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel, certain links may be seriously polluted and result in erroneous detection. In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear optimization approach with outlier link rejection (NOOLR for RSS-based DFL. It consists of three key strategies, including: (1 affected link identification by differential RSS detection; (2 outlier link rejection via geometrical positional relationship among links; (3 target location estimation by formulating and solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Experimental results demonstrate that NOOLR is robust to the fluctuation of the wireless signals with superior localization accuracy compared with the existing Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI approach.
Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality
Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe
2016-01-01
Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.
Buckling of graded coatings: A continuum model
Chiu, Tz-Cheng
2000-12-01
Requirements for the protection of hot section components in many high temperature applications such as earth-to-orbit winged planes and advanced turbine systems have led to the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that utilize ceramic coatings on metal substrates. An alternative concept to homogeneous ceramic coatings is the functionally graded materials (FGM) in which the composition of the coating is intentionally graded to improve the bonding strength and to reduce the magnitude of the residual and thermal stresses. A widely observed failure mode in such layered systems is known to be interface cracking that leads to spallation fracture. In most cases, the final stage of the failure process for a thin coating appears to be due to buckling instability under thermally or mechanically induced compressive stress. The objective of this study is to develop a solution to the buckling instability problem by using continuum elasticity rather than a structural mechanics approach. The emphasis in the solution will be on the investigation of the effect of material inhomogeneity in graded coatings on the instability load, the postbuckling behavior, and fracture mechanics parameters such as the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate. In this analysis, a nonlinear continuum theory is employed to examine the interface crack problem. The analytical solution of the instability problem permits the study of the effect of material inhomogeneity upon the inception of buckling and establishes benchmark results for the numerical solutions of related problems. To study the postbuckling behavior and to calculate the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate a geometrically nonlinear finite element procedure with enriched crack-tip element is developed. Both plane strain and axisymmetric interface crack problems in TBCs with either homogeneous or graded coating are then considered by using the finite element procedure. It is assumed that the
Radiologic Findings in Hydrated Hydrogel Buckles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Nam Ho; Jo, Young Joon; Kim, Jung Yeul; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Song Soo
2008-01-01
Hydrogel buckles, which are used in scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment, have been associated with late complications after successful retinal reattachment surgery, including strabismus, extraocular motility restriction, extrusion through the eyelid or conjunctiva, intraocular erosion, and scleral erosion. Hydrogel buckles sometimes appear as well-marginated, circumferential, lobulating, contoured cystic masses mimicking orbital cysts on orbital CT or MRI. We report the radiologic findings in 5 patients whose hydrogel buckles needed to be differentiated from orbital cysts
Radiologic Findings in Hydrated Hydrogel Buckles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Nam Ho; Jo, Young Joon; Kim, Jung Yeul; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Song Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2008-11-15
Hydrogel buckles, which are used in scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment, have been associated with late complications after successful retinal reattachment surgery, including strabismus, extraocular motility restriction, extrusion through the eyelid or conjunctiva, intraocular erosion, and scleral erosion. Hydrogel buckles sometimes appear as well-marginated, circumferential, lobulating, contoured cystic masses mimicking orbital cysts on orbital CT or MRI. We report the radiologic findings in 5 patients whose hydrogel buckles needed to be differentiated from orbital cysts.
Buckling feedback of the spectral calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing Xingqing; Shan Wenzhi; Luo Jingyu
1992-01-01
This paper studies the problems about buckling feedback of spectral calculations in physical calculations of the reactor and presents a useful method by which the buckling feedback of spectral calculations is implemented. The effect of the buckling feedback in spectra and the broad group cross section, convergence of buckling feedback iteration and the effect of the spectral zones dividing are discussed in the calculations. This method has been used for the physical design of HTR-10 MW Test Module
Test and Analysis of a Buckling-Critical Large-Scale Sandwich Composite Cylinder
Schultz, Marc R.; Sleight, David W.; Gardner, Nathaniel W.; Rudd, Michelle T.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Palm, Tod E.; Oldfield, Nathan J.
2018-01-01
Structural stability is an important design consideration for launch-vehicle shell structures and it is well known that the buckling response of such shell structures can be very sensitive to small geometric imperfections. As part of an effort to develop new buckling design guidelines for sandwich composite cylindrical shells, an 8-ft-diameter honeycomb-core sandwich composite cylinder was tested under pure axial compression to failure. The results from this test are compared with finite-element-analysis predictions and overall agreement was very good. In particular, the predicted buckling load was within 1% of the test and the character of the response matched well. However, it was found that the agreement could be improved by including composite material nonlinearity in the analysis, and that the predicted buckling initiation site was sensitive to the addition of small bending loads to the primary axial load in analyses.
STABILITY MATRICES FOR LATERAL BUCKLING ANALYSIS
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ES OBE
ABSTRACT. In the present work, a new formulation for lateral buckling of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections has been proposed. The formulation employs a coupled lateral buckling functional to investigate the lateral buckling behaviour of a class of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections. While retaining the ...
φq-field theory for portfolio optimization: “fat tails” and nonlinear correlations
Sornette, D.; Simonetti, P.; Andersen, J. V.
2000-08-01
Physics and finance are both fundamentally based on the theory of random walks (and their generalizations to higher dimensions) and on the collective behavior of large numbers of correlated variables. The archetype examplifying this situation in finance is the portfolio optimization problem in which one desires to diversify on a set of possibly dependent assets to optimize the return and minimize the risks. The standard mean-variance solution introduced by Markovitz and its subsequent developments is basically a mean-field Gaussian solution. It has severe limitations for practical applications due to the strongly non-Gaussian structure of distributions and the nonlinear dependence between assets. Here, we present in details a general analytical characterization of the distribution of returns for a portfolio constituted of assets whose returns are described by an arbitrary joint multivariate distribution. In this goal, we introduce a non-linear transformation that maps the returns onto Gaussian variables whose covariance matrix provides a new measure of dependence between the non-normal returns, generalizing the covariance matrix into a nonlinear covariance matrix. This nonlinear covariance matrix is chiseled to the specific fat tail structure of the underlying marginal distributions, thus ensuring stability and good conditioning. The portfolio distribution is then obtained as the solution of a mapping to a so-called φq field theory in particle physics, of which we offer an extensive treatment using Feynman diagrammatic techniques and large deviation theory, that we illustrate in details for multivariate Weibull distributions. The interaction (non-mean field) structure in this field theory is a direct consequence of the non-Gaussian nature of the distribution of asset price returns. We find that minimizing the portfolio variance (i.e. the relatively “small” risks) may often increase the large risks, as measured by higher normalized cumulants. Extensive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Pozo
Full Text Available Optimization models in metabolic engineering and systems biology focus typically on optimizing a unique criterion, usually the synthesis rate of a metabolite of interest or the rate of growth. Connectivity and non-linear regulatory effects, however, make it necessary to consider multiple objectives in order to identify useful strategies that balance out different metabolic issues. This is a fundamental aspect, as optimization of maximum yield in a given condition may involve unrealistic values in other key processes. Due to the difficulties associated with detailed non-linear models, analysis using stoichiometric descriptions and linear optimization methods have become rather popular in systems biology. However, despite being useful, these approaches fail in capturing the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the underlying metabolic systems and the regulatory signals involved. Targeting more complex biological systems requires the application of global optimization methods to non-linear representations. In this work we address the multi-objective global optimization of metabolic networks that are described by a special class of models based on the power-law formalism: the generalized mass action (GMA representation. Our goal is to develop global optimization methods capable of efficiently dealing with several biological criteria simultaneously. In order to overcome the numerical difficulties of dealing with multiple criteria in the optimization, we propose a heuristic approach based on the epsilon constraint method that reduces the computational burden of generating a set of Pareto optimal alternatives, each achieving a unique combination of objectives values. To facilitate the post-optimal analysis of these solutions and narrow down their number prior to being tested in the laboratory, we explore the use of Pareto filters that identify the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by means of a case study
Pozo, Carlos; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Sorribas, Albert; Jiménez, Laureano
2012-01-01
Optimization models in metabolic engineering and systems biology focus typically on optimizing a unique criterion, usually the synthesis rate of a metabolite of interest or the rate of growth. Connectivity and non-linear regulatory effects, however, make it necessary to consider multiple objectives in order to identify useful strategies that balance out different metabolic issues. This is a fundamental aspect, as optimization of maximum yield in a given condition may involve unrealistic values in other key processes. Due to the difficulties associated with detailed non-linear models, analysis using stoichiometric descriptions and linear optimization methods have become rather popular in systems biology. However, despite being useful, these approaches fail in capturing the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the underlying metabolic systems and the regulatory signals involved. Targeting more complex biological systems requires the application of global optimization methods to non-linear representations. In this work we address the multi-objective global optimization of metabolic networks that are described by a special class of models based on the power-law formalism: the generalized mass action (GMA) representation. Our goal is to develop global optimization methods capable of efficiently dealing with several biological criteria simultaneously. In order to overcome the numerical difficulties of dealing with multiple criteria in the optimization, we propose a heuristic approach based on the epsilon constraint method that reduces the computational burden of generating a set of Pareto optimal alternatives, each achieving a unique combination of objectives values. To facilitate the post-optimal analysis of these solutions and narrow down their number prior to being tested in the laboratory, we explore the use of Pareto filters that identify the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by means of a case study that optimizes the
Comparative thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Čukanović Dragan V.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded thick rectangular plates accord¬ing to von Karman non-linear theory is presented. The material properties of the functionally graded plate, except for the Poisson’s ratio, were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction, according to a power-law distribution, in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. Formulations of equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the high order shear deformation theory based on different types of shape functions. Analytical method for determination of the critical buckling temperature for uniform increase of temperature, linear and non-linear change of temperature across thickness of a plate is developed. Numeri¬cal results were obtained in МATLAB software using combinations of symbolic and numeric values. The paper presents comparative results of critical buckling tempera¬ture for different types of shape functions. The accuracy of the formulation presented is verified by comparing to results available from the literature.
Taylor, Ellen Meredith
Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) methods have been developed to simultaneously provide robust shock-capturing in compressible fluid flow and avoid excessive damping of fine-scale flow features such as turbulence. This is accomplished by constructing multiple candidate numerical stencils that adaptively combine so as to provide high order of accuracy and high bandwidth-resolving efficiency in continuous flow regions while averting instability-provoking interpolation across discontinuities. Under certain conditions in compressible turbulence, however, numerical dissipation remains unacceptably high even after optimization of the linear optimal stencil combination that dominates in smooth regions. The remaining nonlinear error arises from two primary sources: (i) the smoothness measurement that governs the application of adaptation away from the optimal stencil and (ii) the numerical properties of individual candidate stencils that govern numerical accuracy when adaptation engages. In this work, both of these sources are investigated, and corrective modifications to the WENO methodology are proposed and evaluated. Excessive nonlinear error due to the first source is alleviated through two separately considered procedures appended to the standard smoothness measurement technique that are designated the "relative smoothness limiter" and the "relative total variation limiter." In theory, appropriate values of their associated parameters should be insensitive to flow configuration, thereby sidestepping the prospect of costly parameter tuning; and this expectation of broad effectiveness is assessed in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of one-dimensional inviscid test problems, three-dimensional compressible isotropic turbulence of varying Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers, and shock/isotropic-turbulence interaction (SITI). In the process, tools for efficiently comparing WENO adaptation behavior in smooth versus shock-containing regions are developed. The
Artery Buckling: New Phenotypes, Models, and Applications
Han, Hai-Chao; Chesnutt, Jennifer K. W.; Garcia, Justin R.; Liu, Qin; Wen, Qi
2012-01-01
Arteries are under significant mechanical loads from blood pressure, flow, tissue tethering, and body movement. It is critical that arteries remain patent and stable under these loads. This review summarizes the common forms of buckling that occur in blood vessels including cross-sectional collapse, longitudinal twist buckling, and bent buckling. The phenomena, model analyses, experimental measurements, effects on blood flow, and clinical relevance are discussed. It is concluded that mechanical buckling is an important issue for vasculature, in addition to wall stiffness and strength, and requires further studies to address the challenges. Studies of vessel buckling not only enrich vascular biomechanics but also have important clinical applications. PMID:23192265
Crestel, Benjamin; Alexanderian, Alen; Stadler, Georg; Ghattas, Omar
2017-07-01
The computational cost of solving an inverse problem governed by PDEs, using multiple experiments, increases linearly with the number of experiments. A recently proposed method to decrease this cost uses only a small number of random linear combinations of all experiments for solving the inverse problem. This approach applies to inverse problems where the PDE solution depends linearly on the right-hand side function that models the experiment. As this method is stochastic in essence, the quality of the obtained reconstructions can vary, in particular when only a small number of combinations are used. We develop a Bayesian formulation for the definition and computation of encoding weights that lead to a parameter reconstruction with the least uncertainty. We call these weights A-optimal encoding weights. Our framework applies to inverse problems where the governing PDE is nonlinear with respect to the inversion parameter field. We formulate the problem in infinite dimensions and follow the optimize-then-discretize approach, devoting special attention to the discretization and the choice of numerical methods in order to achieve a computational cost that is independent of the parameter discretization. We elaborate our method for a Helmholtz inverse problem, and derive the adjoint-based expressions for the gradient of the objective function of the optimization problem for finding the A-optimal encoding weights. The proposed method is potentially attractive for real-time monitoring applications, where one can invest the effort to compute optimal weights offline, to later solve an inverse problem repeatedly, over time, at a fraction of the initial cost.
Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Nonlinear Multiagent System With Unknown Dynamic.
Zhang, Jilie; Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao
2017-08-01
This paper focuses on the distributed optimal cooperative control for continuous-time nonlinear multiagent systems (MASs) with completely unknown dynamics via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) technology. By introducing predesigned extra compensators, the augmented neighborhood error systems are derived, which successfully circumvents the system knowledge requirement for ADP. It is revealed that the optimal consensus protocols actually work as the solutions of the MAS differential game. Policy iteration algorithm is adopted, and it is theoretically proved that the iterative value function sequence strictly converges to the solution of the coupled Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Based on this point, a novel online iterative scheme is proposed, which runs based on the data sampled from the augmented system and the gradient of the value function. Neural networks are employed to implement the algorithm and the weights are updated, in the least-square sense, to the ideal value, which yields approximated optimal consensus protocols. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
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Zhen Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Accelerated degradation test (ADT has been widely used to assess highly reliable products’ lifetime. To conduct an ADT, an appropriate degradation model and test plan should be determined in advance. Although many historical studies have proposed quite a few models, there is still room for improvement. Hence we propose a Nonlinear Generalized Wiener Process (NGWP model with consideration of the effects of stress level, product-to-product variability, and measurement errors for a higher estimation accuracy and a wider range of use. Then under the constraints of sample size, test duration, and test cost, the plans of constant-stress ADT (CSADT with multiple stress levels based on the NGWP are designed by minimizing the asymptotic variance of the reliability estimation of the products under normal operation conditions. An optimization algorithm is developed to determine the optimal stress levels, the number of units allocated to each level, inspection frequency, and measurement times simultaneously. In addition, a comparison based on degradation data of LEDs is made to show better goodness-of-fit of the NGWP than that of other models. Finally, optimal two-level and three-level CSADT plans under various constraints and a detailed sensitivity analysis are demonstrated through examples in this paper.
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Qi-Ming Sun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The actual controlled objects are generally multi-input and multioutput (MIMO nonlinear systems with imprecise models or even without models, so it is one of the hot topics in the control theory. Due to the complex internal structure, the general control methods without models tend to be based on neural networks. However, the neuron of neural networks includes the exponential function, which contributes to the complexity of calculation, making the neural network control unable to meet the real-time requirements. The newly developed multidimensional Taylor network (MTN requires only addition and multiplication, so it is easy to realize real-time control. In the present study, the MTN approach is extended to MIMO nonlinear systems without models to realize adaptive output feedback control. The MTN controller is proposed to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system. Our experimental results show that the output signals of the system are bounded and the tracking error goes nearly to zero. The MTN optimal controller is proven to promise far better real-time dynamic performance and robustness than the BP neural network self-adaption reconstitution controller.
Stabilization of business cycles of finance agents using nonlinear optimal control
Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Ghosh, T.; Sarno, D.
2017-11-01
Stabilization of the business cycles of interconnected finance agents is performed with the use of a new nonlinear optimal control method. First, the dynamics of the interacting finance agents and of the associated business cycles is described by a modeled of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Next, this dynamic model undergoes approximate linearization round a temporary operating point which is defined by the present value of the system's state vector and the last value of the control inputs vector that was exerted on it. The linearization procedure is based on Taylor series expansion of the dynamic model and on the computation of Jacobian matrices. The modelling error, which is due to the truncation of higher-order terms in the Taylor series expansion is considered as a disturbance which is compensated by the robustness of the control loop. Next, for the linearized model of the interacting finance agents, an H-infinity feedback controller is designed. The computation of the feedback control gain requires the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation at each iteration of the control algorithm. Through Lyapunov stability analysis it is proven that the control scheme satisfies an H-infinity tracking performance criterion, which signifies elevated robustness against modelling uncertainty and external perturbations. Moreover, under moderate conditions the global asymptotic stability features of the control loop are proven.
Twist buckling of veins under torsional loading.
Garcia, Justin R; Sanyal, Arnav; Fatemifar, Fatemeh; Mottahedi, Mohammad; Han, Hai-Chao
2017-06-14
Veins are often subjected to torsion and twisted veins can hinder and disrupt normal blood flow but their mechanical behavior under torsion is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the twist deformation and buckling behavior of veins under torsion. Twist buckling tests were performed on porcine internal jugular veins (IJVs) and human great saphenous veins (GSVs) at various axial stretch ratio and lumen pressure conditions to determine their critical buckling torques and critical buckling twist angles. The mechanical behavior under torsion was characterized using a two-fiber strain energy density function and the buckling behavior was then simulated using finite element analysis. Our results demonstrated that twist buckling occurred in all veins under excessive torque characterized by a sudden kink formation. The critical buckling torque increased significantly with increasing lumen pressure for both porcine IJV and human GSV. But lumen pressure and axial stretch had little effect on the critical twist angle. The human GSVs are stiffer than the porcine IJVs. Finite element simulations captured the buckling behavior for individual veins under simultaneous extension, inflation, and torsion with strong correlation between predicted critical buckling torques and experimental data (R 2 =0.96). We conclude that veins can buckle under torsion loading and the lumen pressure significantly affects the critical buckling torque. These results improve our understanding of vein twist behavior and help identify key factors associated in the formation of twisted veins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mechanical buckling of arterioles in collateral development.
Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao
2013-01-07
Collateral arterioles enlarge in both diameter and length, and develop corkscrew-like tortuous patterns during remodeling. Recent studies showed that artery buckling could lead to tortuosity. The objective of this study was to determine arteriole critical buckling pressure and buckling pattern during arteriole remodeling. Arterioles were modeled as elastic cylindrical vessels with an elastic matrix support and underwent axial and radial growth. Our results demonstrated that arteriole critical buckling pressure decreased with increasing axial growth ratio and radius growth ratio, but increased with increasing wall thickness. Arteriole buckling mode number increased (wavelength decreased) with increasing axial growth ratio, but decreased with increasing radius growth ratio and wall thickness. Our study suggests that axial growth in arterioles makes them prone to buckling and that buckling leads to tortuous collaterals. These results shed light on the mechanism of collateral arteriole tortuosity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gunnels, John
2010-06-01
We provide a first demonstration of the idea that matrix-based algorithms for nonlinear combinatorial optimization problems can be efficiently implemented. Such algorithms were mainly conceived by theoretical computer scientists for proving efficiency. We are able to demonstrate the practicality of our approach by developing an implementation on a massively parallel architecture, and exploiting scalable and efficient parallel implementations of algorithms for ultra high-precision linear algebra. Additionally, we have delineated and implemented the necessary algorithmic and coding changes required in order to address problems several orders of magnitude larger, dealing with the limits of scalability from memory footprint, computational efficiency, reliability, and interconnect perspectives. © Springer and Mathematical Programming Society 2010.
Optimal control of singularly perturbed nonlinear systems with state-variable inequality constraints
Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.
1990-01-01
The established necessary conditions for optimality in nonlinear control problems that involve state-variable inequality constraints are applied to a class of singularly perturbed systems. The distinguishing feature of this class of two-time-scale systems is a transformation of the state-variable inequality constraint, present in the full order problem, to a constraint involving states and controls in the reduced problem. It is shown that, when a state constraint is active in the reduced problem, the boundary layer problem can be of finite time in the stretched time variable. Thus, the usual requirement for asymptotic stability of the boundary layer system is not applicable, and cannot be used to construct approximate boundary layer solutions. Several alternative solution methods are explored and illustrated with simple examples.
Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch compression
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Senlin Huang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple scheme that leverages existing x-ray free-electron laser hardware to produce stable single-spike, subfemtosecond x-ray pulses. By optimizing a high-harmonic radio-frequency linearizer to achieve nonlinear compression of a low-charge (20 pC electron beam, we obtain a sharp current profile possessing a few-femtosecond full width at half maximum temporal duration. A reverse undulator taper is applied to enable lasing only within the current spike, where longitudinal space charge forces induce an electron beam time-energy chirp. Simulations based on the Linac Coherent Light Source parameters show that stable single-spike x-ray pulses with a duration less than 200 attoseconds can be obtained.
Liolios, A
2003-01-01
The paper presents a new numerical approach for a non-linear optimal control problem arising in earthquake civil engineering. This problem concerns the elastoplastic softening-fracturing unilateral contact between neighbouring buildings during earthquakes when Coulomb friction is taken into account under second-order instabilizing effects. So, the earthquake response of the adjacent structures can appear instabilities and chaotic behaviour. The problem formulation presented here leads to a set of equations and inequalities, which is equivalent to a dynamic hemivariational inequality in the way introduced by Panagiotopoulos [Hemivariational Inequalities. Applications in Mechanics and Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993]. The numerical procedure is based on an incremental problem formulation and on a double discretization, in space by the finite element method and in time by the Wilson-theta method. The generally non-convex constitutive contact laws are piecewise linearized, and in each time-step a non-c...
Dynamics and optimal control of a non-linear epidemic model with relapse and cure
Lahrouz, A.; El Mahjour, H.; Settati, A.; Bernoussi, A.
2018-04-01
In this work, we introduce the basic reproduction number R0 for a general epidemic model with graded cure, relapse and nonlinear incidence rate in a non-constant population size. We established that the disease free-equilibrium state Ef is globally asymptotically exponentially stable if R0 1, we proved that the system model has at least one endemic state Ee. Then, by means of an appropriate Lyapunov function, we showed that Ee is unique and globally asymptotically stable under some acceptable biological conditions. On the other hand, we use two types of control to reduce the number of infectious individuals. The optimality system is formulated and solved numerically using a Gauss-Seidel-like implicit finite-difference method.
Combined scleral buckling and phacoemulsification
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Pukhraj Rishi
2009-01-01
Conclusion: Combined scleral buckling and phacoemulsification is a safe and effective procedure that spares the patient the burden of repeated surgeries. It may be considered as a treatment option in selected cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with significant cataract with/without early PVR.
Buckling shells are also swimmers
Quilliet, Catherine; Dyfcom Bubbleboost Team
We present an experimental and numerical study on the displacement of shells undergoing deformations in a fluid. When submitted to cycles of pressure difference between outside and inside, a shell buckles and debuckles, showing a succession of shapes and a dynamics that are different during the two phases. Hence such objects are likely to swim, including at low Reynolds (microscopic scale). We studied the swimming of buckling/debuckling shells at macroscopic scale using different approaches (force quantization, shape recording, displacement along a frictionless rail, study of external flow using PIV), and showed that inertia plays a role in propulsion, even in situations where dimensionless numbers correspond also to microswimmers in water. Different fluid viscosities were explored, showing an optimum for the displacement. Interestingly, the most favorable cases lead to displacements in the same direction and sense during both motor stroke (buckling phase) and recovery stroke (de-buckling phase). This work opens the route for the synthesis with high throughput of abusively simple synthetic swimmers, possibly gathered into nanorobots, actuated by a scalar field such as the pressure in echographic devices. Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, European Research Council.
Moroni, Giovanni; Syam, Wahyudin P.; Petrò, Stefano
2014-08-01
Product quality is a main concern today in manufacturing; it drives competition between companies. To ensure high quality, a dimensional inspection to verify the geometric properties of a product must be carried out. High-speed non-contact scanners help with this task, by both speeding up acquisition speed and increasing accuracy through a more complete description of the surface. The algorithms for the management of the measurement data play a critical role in ensuring both the measurement accuracy and speed of the device. One of the most fundamental parts of the algorithm is the procedure for fitting the substitute geometry to a cloud of points. This article addresses this challenge. Three relevant geometries are selected as case studies: a non-linear least-squares fitting of a circle, sphere and cylinder. These geometries are chosen in consideration of their common use in practice; for example the sphere is often adopted as a reference artifact for performance verification of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a cylinder is the most relevant geometry for a pin-hole relation as an assembly feature to construct a complete functioning product. In this article, an improvement of the initial point guess for the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm by employing a chaos optimization (CO) method is proposed. This causes a performance improvement in the optimization of a non-linear function fitting the three geometries. The results show that, with this combination, a higher quality of fitting results a smaller norm of the residuals can be obtained while preserving the computational cost. Fitting an ‘incomplete-point-cloud’, which is a situation where the point cloud does not cover a complete feature e.g. from half of the total part surface, is also investigated. Finally, a case study of fitting a hemisphere is presented.
Optimized parallel convolutions for non-linear fluid models of tokamak ηi turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovich, J.L.; Tomaschke, G.; Kerbel, G.D.
1993-01-01
Non-linear computational fluid models of plasma turbulence based on spectral methods typically spend a large fraction of the total computing time evaluating convolutions. Usually these convolutions arise from an explicit or semi implicit treatment of the convective non-linearities in the problem. Often the principal convective velocity is perpendicular to magnetic field lines allowing a reduction of the convolution to two dimensions in an appropriate geometry, but beyond this, different models vary widely in the particulars of which mode amplitudes are selectively evolved to get the most efficient representation of the turbulence. As the number of modes in the problem, N, increases, the amount of computation required for this part of the evolution algorithm then scales as N 2 /timestep for a direct or analytic method and N ln N/timestep for a pseudospectral method. The constants of proportionality depend on the particulars of mode selection and determine the size problem for which the method will perform equally. For large enough N, the pseudospectral method performance is always superior, though some problems do not require correspondingly high resolution. Further, the Courant condition for numerical stability requires that the timestep size must decrease proportionately as N increases, thus accentuating the need to have fast methods for larger N problems. The authors have developed a package for the Cray system which performs these convolutions for a rather arbitrary mode selection scheme using either method. The package is highly optimized using a combination of macro and microtasking techniques, as well as vectorization and in some cases assembly coded routines. Parts of the package have also been developed and optimized for the CM200 and CM5 system. Performance comparisons with respect to problem size, parallelization, selection schemes and architecture are presented
Pozo, Carlos; Marín-Sanguino, Alberto; Alves, Rui; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Sorribas, Albert
2011-08-25
Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA) models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC) models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.
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Sorribas Albert
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Results Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Conclusions Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.
Zhang, Ridong; Tao, Jili; Lu, Renquan; Jin, Qibing
2018-02-01
Modeling of distributed parameter systems is difficult because of their nonlinearity and infinite-dimensional characteristics. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), a hybrid modeling strategy that consists of a decoupled linear autoregressive exogenous (ARX) model and a nonlinear radial basis function (RBF) neural network model are proposed. The spatial-temporal output is first divided into a few dominant spatial basis functions and finite-dimensional temporal series by PCA. Then, a decoupled ARX model is designed to model the linear dynamics of the dominant modes of the time series. The nonlinear residual part is subsequently parameterized by RBFs, where genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize their hidden layer structure and the parameters. Finally, the nonlinear spatial-temporal dynamic system is obtained after the time/space reconstruction. Simulation results of a catalytic rod and a heat conduction equation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy compared to several other methods.
Optimization of elstomeric micro-fluidic valve dimensions using non-linear finite element methods
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H Khawaja
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We use a nonlinear finite element (FE method model to compare,optimize and determine the limits for useful geometries of microfluidicvalves in elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Simulations havebeen performed with the aim of finding the optimal shape, size andlocation of pressurization that minimizes the pressure required to operatethe valve. One important constraint governing the design parameters isthat the stresses should be within elastic limits, so that the componentremains safe from any type of structural failure. To obtain reliable results,non-linear stress analysis was performed using the Mooney-Rivlin 9parameter approximation which is based on the Hyper Elastic MaterialModel. A 20 noded brick element was used for the development of FEmodel. Mesh sensitivity analysis was also performed to assess the qualityof the results. The simulations were performed with commerciallyavailable FE modeling software, developed by ANSYS Inc. to determinethe effect of varying different geometric parameters on the performanceof micro-fluidic valves.The aim of this work is to determine the geometry of the channel crosssectionthat would result in the largest deflection for the least appliedpressure, i.e. to minimize the pressure needed to operate the valve.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, E.; Suzuki, K.; Yasuda, T.; Ohwa, Y.
1993-01-01
This paper deals with an optimum design method for joint elements in boiler plant structures which are excited by earthquakes. Characteristics of joint elements which connect the boiler and its supporting structure, are supposed to be viscoelastic, elasto-plastic, or a combination of both. Considering the expansion of this study to an active or semi-active aseismic structural control of joint elements, the structures are modeled with the aid of block diagram. In order to improve the efficiency of calculation, substructure synthesis method is introduced. Time-domain optimization is carried out using a nonlinear programming technique. To prevent seismic damage of pipes and ducts, limitations for relative displacements between the boiler and its supporting structure is introduced is inequality constraints. Elasto-plasticity and viscoelasticity of joint elements are simulated by a combination of a spring, a Coulomb friction, and a dashpot. These joint element characteristics are optimized to minimize seismic time-response of the structures. This method is applied to actual boiler plant structures and has proven to be effective and practical for aseismic designs of boiler plant structures
Value Iteration Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Optimal Control of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems.
Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Lin, Hanquan
2016-03-01
In this paper, a value iteration adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is developed to solve infinite horizon undiscounted optimal control problems for discrete-time nonlinear systems. The present value iteration ADP algorithm permits an arbitrary positive semi-definite function to initialize the algorithm. A novel convergence analysis is developed to guarantee that the iterative value function converges to the optimal performance index function. Initialized by different initial functions, it is proven that the iterative value function will be monotonically nonincreasing, monotonically nondecreasing, or nonmonotonic and will converge to the optimum. In this paper, for the first time, the admissibility properties of the iterative control laws are developed for value iteration algorithms. It is emphasized that new termination criteria are established to guarantee the effectiveness of the iterative control laws. Neural networks are used to approximate the iterative value function and compute the iterative control law, respectively, for facilitating the implementation of the iterative ADP algorithm. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the performance of the present method.
Calibration of Mine Ventilation Network Models Using the Non-Linear Optimization Algorithm
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Guang Xu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Effective ventilation planning is vital to underground mining. To ensure stable operation of the ventilation system and to avoid airflow disorder, mine ventilation network (MVN models have been widely used in simulating and optimizing the mine ventilation system. However, one of the challenges for MVN model simulation is that the simulated airflow distribution results do not match the measured data. To solve this problem, a simple and effective calibration method is proposed based on the non-linear optimization algorithm. The calibrated model not only makes simulated airflow distribution results in accordance with the on-site measured data, but also controls the errors of other parameters within a minimum range. The proposed method was then applied to calibrate an MVN model in a real case, which is built based on ventilation survey results and Ventsim software. Finally, airflow simulation experiments are carried out respectively using data before and after calibration, whose results were compared and analyzed. This showed that the simulated airflows in the calibrated model agreed much better to the ventilation survey data, which verifies the effectiveness of calibrating method.
Simulation of diets for dairy goats and growing doelings using nonlinear optimization procedures
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Leonardo Siqueira Glória
2016-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to simulate total dry matter intake and cost of diets optimized by nonlinear programming to meet the nutritional requirements of dairy does and growing doelings. The mathematical model was programmed in a Microsoft Excel(r spreadsheet. Increasing values of body mass and average daily weight gain for growing doelings and increasing body mass values and milk yield for dairy does were used as inputs for optimizations. Three objective functions were considered: minimization of the dietary cost, dry matter intake maximization, and maximization of the efficiency of use of the ingested crude protein. To solve the proposed problems we used the Excel(r Solver(r algorithm. The Excel(r Solver(r was able to balance diets containing different objective functions and provided different spaces of feasible solutions. The best solutions are obtained by least-cost formulations; the other two objective functions, namely maximize dry matter intake and maximize crude protein use, do not produce favorable diets in terms of costs.
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Changle Xiang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Coordinatively controlling the engine and several motor/generators (MGs during a dynamic process is a challenging problem because they are coupled together by the electromechanical transmission (EMT system and all of them have strong nonlinear characteristics. We develop a novel nonlinear optimal control approach based on the multiobjective dynamic optimization model of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, which is equipped with an EMT system. In this approach, the current states of the components are obtained by using the state observation algorithm based on Kalman filtering; the future states of the components and the feasible region of the control variables are estimated by using the dynamic prediction algorithm based on the nonlinear model of the EMT system. Then, the control variables are achieved by using the optimal decision algorithm based on the hierarchical optimization and nonlinear programming, and the influence of the model error and the external disturbance are modified by using the feedback compensation algorithm. The simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed control approach, and the test results verify its real-time performance.
Benchmark study of shear buckling of a cylindrical vessel. Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combescure, A.; Bastien, R.; Carnoy, E.G.; Dostal, M.; Austin, N.M.; Peano, A.; Angeloni, P.
1988-01-01
In Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) potential shear buckling failures of the primary vessel, induced through seismic excitations, have to be considered. The primary vessel material, typically 316 stainless steel, has a low yield strength at the normal operating temperatures of around 400 0 C to 500 0 C. There characteristics tend to make the structure relatively flexible and subject to potential elasto-plastic shear buckling failure. The use of finite element techniques in buckling analyses is currently becoming more accepted. There are at present many finite element codes available which have the capacibility to solve buckling problems. The objective of the study reported herein was to follow on from the previous code validation exercise and investigate the ability of finite element codes to predict buckling behaviour in another test cylinder [a/h = 83, a/L = 1] where non-linear effects would be more significant and plastic shear buckling could be a failure mode. As before four organisations took part in the code validation exercise. NNC [UK] and ISMES [Italy] used the commercially available general purpose FE code ABAQUS. CEA [France] used INCA and BILBO which are members of the commercially available CASTEM suite of FE program. Novatome [France] used their in-house FE code NOVNL. The joint effort was co-ordinated by NNC with the assistance of the Commission of the European Communities Working on Codes and Standards AG2
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Caiqi Zhao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available To solve the problem of critical buckling in the structural analysis and design of the new long-span hollow core roof architecture proposed in this paper (referred to as a “honeycomb panel structural system” (HSSS, lateral compression tests and finite element analyses were employed in this study to examine the lateral compressive buckling performance of this new type of honeycomb panel with different length-to-thickness ratios. The results led to two main conclusions: (1 Under the experimental conditions that were used, honeycomb panels with the same planar dimensions but different thicknesses had the same compressive stiffness immediately before buckling, while the lateral compressive buckling load-bearing capacity initially increased rapidly with an increasing honeycomb core thickness and then approached the same limiting value; (2 The compressive stiffnesses of test pieces with the same thickness but different lengths were different, while the maximum lateral compressive buckling loads were very similar. Overall instability failure is prone to occur in long and flexible honeycomb panels. In addition, the errors between the lateral compressive buckling loads from the experiment and the finite element simulations are within 6%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the nonlinear finite element analysis and provides a theoretical basis for future analysis and design for this new type of spatial structure.
Zhao, Caiqi; Zheng, Weidong; Ma, Jun; Zhao, Yangjian
2016-06-03
To solve the problem of critical buckling in the structural analysis and design of the new long-span hollow core roof architecture proposed in this paper (referred to as a "honeycomb panel structural system" (HSSS)), lateral compression tests and finite element analyses were employed in this study to examine the lateral compressive buckling performance of this new type of honeycomb panel with different length-to-thickness ratios. The results led to two main conclusions: (1) Under the experimental conditions that were used, honeycomb panels with the same planar dimensions but different thicknesses had the same compressive stiffness immediately before buckling, while the lateral compressive buckling load-bearing capacity initially increased rapidly with an increasing honeycomb core thickness and then approached the same limiting value; (2) The compressive stiffnesses of test pieces with the same thickness but different lengths were different, while the maximum lateral compressive buckling loads were very similar. Overall instability failure is prone to occur in long and flexible honeycomb panels. In addition, the errors between the lateral compressive buckling loads from the experiment and the finite element simulations are within 6%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the nonlinear finite element analysis and provides a theoretical basis for future analysis and design for this new type of spatial structure.
Determination of the critical buckling pressure of blood vessels using the energy approach.
Han, Hai-Chao
2011-03-01
The stability of blood vessels under lumen blood pressure is essential to the maintenance of normal vascular function. Differential buckling equations have been established recently for linear and nonlinear elastic artery models. However, the strain energy in bent buckling and the corresponding energy method have not been investigated for blood vessels under lumen pressure. The purpose of this study was to establish the energy equation for blood vessel buckling under internal pressure. A buckling equation was established to determine the critical pressure based on the potential energy. The critical pressures of blood vessels with small tapering along their axis were estimated using the energy approach. It was demonstrated that the energy approach yields both the same differential equation and critical pressure for cylindrical blood vessel buckling as obtained previously using the adjacent equilibrium approach. Tapering reduced the critical pressure of blood vessels compared to the cylindrical ones. This energy approach provides a useful tool for studying blood vessel buckling and will be useful in dealing with various imperfections of the vessel wall.
Rosenberg, D. E.; Alafifi, A.
2016-12-01
Water resources systems analysis often focuses on finding optimal solutions. Yet an optimal solution is optimal only for the modelled issues and managers often seek near-optimal alternatives that address un-modelled objectives, preferences, limits, uncertainties, and other issues. Early on, Modelling to Generate Alternatives (MGA) formalized near-optimal as the region comprising the original problem constraints plus a new constraint that allowed performance within a specified tolerance of the optimal objective function value. MGA identified a few maximally-different alternatives from the near-optimal region. Subsequent work applied Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling to generate a larger number of alternatives that span the near-optimal region of linear problems or select portions for non-linear problems. We extend the MCMC Hit-And-Run method to generate alternatives that span the full extent of the near-optimal region for non-linear, non-convex problems. First, start at a feasible hit point within the near-optimal region, then run a random distance in a random direction to a new hit point. Next, repeat until generating the desired number of alternatives. The key step at each iterate is to run a random distance along the line in the specified direction to a new hit point. If linear equity constraints exist, we construct an orthogonal basis and use a null space transformation to confine hits and runs to a lower-dimensional space. Linear inequity constraints define the convex bounds on the line that runs through the current hit point in the specified direction. We then use slice sampling to identify a new hit point along the line within bounds defined by the non-linear inequity constraints. This technique is computationally efficient compared to prior near-optimal alternative generation techniques such MGA, MCMC Metropolis-Hastings, evolutionary, or firefly algorithms because search at each iteration is confined to the hit line, the algorithm can move in one
Schmitt, Maximilian; Büscher, Thies H; Gorb, Stanislav N; Rajabi, Hamed
2018-02-20
During the lifespan of the stick insect Carausius morosus , their long and narrow tibiae experience substantial compressive loads. The mechanical load on the tibiae increases as the weight of the insect rises. The increase in body weight is accompanied by a notable increase in the insect's body size and, accordingly, by an increase in the length of the tibiae. Both of these changes can raise the risk of buckling of the tibiae. In this study, we tracked changes in the material and geometric properties of the hindleg tibia of C. morosus during growth. The results show that although buckling (either by Euler buckling or local buckling) is the dominant failure mode under compression, the tibia is very capable of maintaining its buckling resistance in each postembryonic developmental stage. This is essentially the result of a compromise between the increasing slenderness of the tibia and its increasing material stiffness. The use of an optimal radius to thickness ratio, a soft resilin-dominated core, and chitin fibres oriented in both longitudinal and circumferential directions are presumably additional strategies preventing buckling of the tibia. This study, providing the first quantitative data on changes in the biomechanical properties of cuticle during the entire life of an insect, is expected to shed more light on the structure-property-function relationship in this complex biological composite. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
On the dynamic buckling of a lightly damped elastic cubic model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... technique to determine the dynamic buckling load of a lightly and viscously damped elastic cubic model structure modulated by a sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load. The imperfect elastic cubic (nonlinear) structure is itself a generalization of most elastic physical structures that have been investigated over the years.
A nonlinear optimal control approach to stabilization of a macroeconomic development model
Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Ghosh, T.; Sarno, D.
2017-11-01
A nonlinear optimal (H-infinity) control approach is proposed for the problem of stabilization of the dynamics of a macroeconomic development model that is known as the Grossman-Helpman model of endogenous product cycles. The dynamics of the macroeconomic development model is divided in two parts. The first one describes economic activities in a developed country and the second part describes variation of economic activities in a country under development which tries to modify its production so as to serve the needs of the developed country. The article shows that through control of the macroeconomic model of the developed country, one can finally control the dynamics of the economy in the country under development. The control method through which this is achieved is the nonlinear H-infinity control. The macroeconomic model for the country under development undergoes approximate linearization round a temporary operating point. This is defined at each time instant by the present value of the system's state vector and the last value of the control input vector that was exerted on it. The linearization is based on Taylor series expansion and the computation of the associated Jacobian matrices. For the linearized model an H-infinity feedback controller is computed. The controller's gain is calculated by solving an algebraic Riccati equation at each iteration of the control method. The asymptotic stability of the control approach is proven through Lyapunov analysis. This assures that the state variables of the macroeconomic model of the country under development will finally converge to the designated reference values.
Memetic Algorithms to Solve a Global Nonlinear Optimization Problem. A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. K. Sakharov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent decades, evolutionary algorithms have proven themselves as the powerful optimization techniques of search engine. Their popularity is due to the fact that they are easy to implement and can be used in all areas, since they are based on the idea of universal evolution. For example, in the problems of a large number of local optima, the traditional optimization methods, usually, fail in finding the global optimum. To solve such problems using a variety of stochastic methods, in particular, the so-called population-based algorithms, which are a kind of evolutionary methods. The main disadvantage of this class of methods is their slow convergence to the exact solution in the neighborhood of the global optimum, as these methods incapable to use the local information about the landscape of the function. This often limits their use in largescale real-world problems where the computation time is a critical factor.One of the promising directions in the field of modern evolutionary computation are memetic algorithms, which can be regarded as a combination of population search of the global optimum and local procedures for verifying solutions, which gives a synergistic effect. In the context of memetic algorithms, the meme is an implementation of the local optimization method to refine solution in the search.The concept of memetic algorithms provides ample opportunities for the development of various modifications of these algorithms, which can vary the frequency of the local search, the conditions of its end, and so on. The practically significant memetic algorithm modifications involve the simultaneous use of different memes. Such algorithms are called multi-memetic.The paper gives statement of the global problem of nonlinear unconstrained optimization, describes the most promising areas of AI modifications, including hybridization and metaoptimization. The main content of the work is the classification and review of existing varieties of
Vibration of post-buckled sandwich plates with FGM face sheets in a thermal environment
Xia, Xian-Kun; Shen, Hui-Shen
2008-07-01
This paper deals with the small- and large-amplitude vibrations of compressively and thermally post-buckled sandwich plates with functionally graded material (FGM) face sheets in thermal environments. Both heat conduction and temperature-dependent material properties are taken into account. The material properties of FGM face sheets are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents, and the material properties of both FGM face sheets and a homogeneous substrate are assumed to be temperature dependent. The formulations are based on a higher-order shear deformation plate theory and a general von Kármán-type equation that includes a thermal effect. The equations of motion are solved by an improved perturbation technique. The numerical illustrations concern small- and large-amplitude vibration characteristics of post-buckled sandwich plates with FGM face sheets under uniform and non-uniform temperature fields. The results show that, as the volume fraction index increases, the fundamental frequency increases in the pre-buckling region, but decreases in the post-buckling region. In contrast, the nonlinear frequency ratio decreases in both the pre- and post-buckling region on increasing the volume fraction index. The results also reveal that the substrate-to-face sheet thickness ratio and temperature changes have a significant effect on the fundamental frequency, but only have a small effect on the nonlinear frequency ratio.
Luo, Biao; Liu, Derong; Wu, Huai-Ning
2017-10-03
Reinforcement learning has proved to be a powerful tool to solve optimal control problems over the past few years. However, the data-based constrained optimal control problem of nonaffine nonlinear discrete-time systems has rarely been studied yet. To solve this problem, an adaptive optimal control approach is developed by using the value iteration-based Q-learning (VIQL) with the critic-only structure. Most of the existing constrained control methods require the use of a certain performance index and only suit for linear or affine nonlinear systems, which is unreasonable in practice. To overcome this problem, the system transformation is first introduced with the general performance index. Then, the constrained optimal control problem is converted to an unconstrained optimal control problem. By introducing the action-state value function, i.e., Q-function, the VIQL algorithm is proposed to learn the optimal Q-function of the data-based unconstrained optimal control problem. The convergence results of the VIQL algorithm are established with an easy-to-realize initial condition Q(0)(x,a)≽ 0. To implement the VIQL algorithm, the critic-only structure is developed, where only one neural network is required to approximate the Q-function. The converged Q-function obtained from the critic-only VIQL method is employed to design the adaptive constrained optimal controller based on the gradient descent scheme. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed adaptive control method is tested on three examples with computer simulation.
Design solutions for improving the lowest buckling loads of a thin laminate plate with notch
Falkowicz, Katarzyna; Debski, Hubert; Teter, Andrzej
2018-01-01
The object of this study are thin-walled rectangular plates with a central cut-out under uniform compression. The load is applied to the shorter and at the same time free-supported edges of the plate. The plates are made of carbon-epoxy laminate. A numerical modal analysis is performed for a number of cases where the plate with a central notch is longitudinally reinforced with isotropic strips fixed on the opposite sides of the plate. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the proposed design solutions on the buckling mode and buckling loads corresponding to the lowest buckling mode. The knowledge of these parameters will enable optimal design of elastic plate elements with predefined mechanical properties and designed mode of buckling. The eigen-problem was solved by numerical analysis using the finite element method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.
2007-01-01
This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...
Post-buckling analysis of composite beams: A simple intuitive ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
form expressions for eval- uating the post-buckling behaviour of composite beams with axially immovable ends using an ..... References. Carlos E N M 2009 Buckling and post-buckling of extensible rods revisited: A multiple-scale solution. Int.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. W. Sun
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an optimized analysis algorithm for non-dispersive infrared (NDIR to in situ monitor stack emissions. The proposed algorithm simultaneously compensates for nonlinear absorption and cross interference among different gases. We present a mathematical derivation for the measurement error caused by variations in interference coefficients when nonlinear absorption occurs. The proposed algorithm is derived from a classical one and uses interference functions to quantify cross interference. The interference functions vary proportionally with the nonlinear absorption. Thus, interference coefficients among different gases can be modeled by the interference functions whether gases are characterized by linear or nonlinear absorption. In this study, the simultaneous analysis of two components (CO2 and CO serves as an example for the validation of the proposed algorithm. The interference functions in this case can be obtained by least-squares fitting with third-order polynomials. Experiments show that the results of cross interference correction are improved significantly by utilizing the fitted interference functions when nonlinear absorptions occur. The dynamic measurement ranges of CO2 and CO are improved by about a factor of 1.8 and 3.5, respectively. A commercial analyzer with high accuracy was used to validate the CO and CO2 measurements derived from the NDIR analyzer prototype in which the new algorithm was embedded. The comparison of the two analyzers show that the prototype works well both within the linear and nonlinear ranges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, A.M.
1986-01-01
Exact variational calculations are treated for few-particle systems in the exponential basis of relative coordinates using nonlinear parameters. The methods of step-by-step optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters are applied to calculate the S and P states of ppμ, ddμ, ttμ homonuclear mesomolecules within the error ≤±0.001 eV. The global chaos method turned out to be well applicable to nuclear 3 H and 3 He systems
Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rasha Mohammed Hussein
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.
Structural Optimization of a Laterally Driven Electromagnetic Micro Optical Switch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Jeong Sam; Kwak, Byung Man [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Soo [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2002-11-15
This paper presents structural optimization for a micro optical switch based on the concept of a laterally driven electromagnetic microactuator (LaDEM). This utilizes a nonlinear behavior of a snap-through buckling occurring in two arch-shaped leaf springs of the switch, when actuated by a distributed Lorentz force induced along the leaf springs. An important objective in the design of the micro optical switch is to achieve a large displacement with low actuation force. For this purpose, a parametric study is first made. The most important parameters are found the initial rise and two sizes of the meander and chosen as design variables. The nonlinear displacement-load response is calculated by a modified Riks method in ABAQUS. Two formulations of structural optimization were studied. In the first formulation, the load needed for the micro mirror to reach a specific displacement is minimized subject to natural frequency and stress constraints. In the other optimization, the displacement was maximized for an applied load subject to the same constraints in the first approach. Nonlinear FE techniques and optimizations are found to be valuable tools for analysis and design of microactuators which utilize a complex nonlinear snap-through buckling behavior.
Optimal experimental design for nonlinear ill-posed problems applied to gravity dams
Lahmer, Tom
2011-12-01
The safe operation of gravity dams requires continuous monitoring in order to detect any changes concerning the stability of these constructions. Damage which may result from cyclic loading, variation in temperature, aging, chemical reactions, etc needs to be identified as fast and as reliable as possible. Generally, existing dams are well monitored by several types of measurement devices which log different physical quantities. The monitoring practice is according to official guidelines and the engineer’s experience. The aim of this paper is to perform a simulation-based optimal design for the monitoring of existing dams. Therefore, a design criterion which is based on average mean-squared reconstruction errors is derived. The reconstructions are obtained as regularized solutions of the nonlinear, inverse and ill-posed problem of damage identification. The basis for these investigations is a hydro-mechanically coupled model applied to gravity dams. Damaged zones in the dams are described by a smeared crack model, i.e. by spatially varying material properties. The inherent correlation of changes in the dominating parameters is explicitly considered during the inverse analysis. For the solution and regularization of the inverse problem, the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method is applied. Numerical results of the inverse analysis and the design process allow assessments of the applicability of the strategies proposed here.
A new non-linear vortex lattice method: Applications to wing aerodynamic optimizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliviu Şugar Gabor
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new non-linear formulation of the classical Vortex Lattice Method (VLM approach for calculating the aerodynamic properties of lifting surfaces. The method accounts for the effects of viscosity, and due to its low computational cost, it represents a very good tool to perform rapid and accurate wing design and optimization procedures. The mathematical model is constructed by using two-dimensional viscous analyses of the wing span-wise sections, according to strip theory, and then coupling the strip viscous forces with the forces generated by the vortex rings distributed on the wing camber surface, calculated with a fully three-dimensional vortex lifting law. The numerical results obtained with the proposed method are validated with experimental data and show good agreement in predicting both the lift and pitching moment, as well as in predicting the wing drag. The method is applied to modifying the wing of an Unmanned Aerial System to increase its aerodynamic efficiency and to calculate the drag reductions obtained by an upper surface morphing technique for an adaptable regional aircraft wing.
Creep buckling: an experiment, an 'exact' solution and some simple thoughts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, P.; Anderson, R.G.
1986-01-01
The paper presents attempts to analyse and understand a carefully conducted creep buckling experiment. The analysis was conducted using the ABAQUS Finite Element Code coupled to a number of plausible creep laws. The results show good agreement between ABAQUS runs and experimental deflections but it is difficult to reproduce the early loads. A simple model of buckling analysis for n-power creep laws is derived as an aid to understanding the development of the deflections for non-linear creep laws. In particular, the model suggests why deflections develop so rapidly and how the creep deflection development relates to the elastic behaviour. (author)
Interaction Buckling Experiments of Box columns
永藤, 寿宮
1988-01-01
Box sections present very interesting properties in the field of compressed elements. The purpose of this experiment is to supply experimental data of interaction buckling (overall and local buckling). Test columns are classified into 4 types according to those columns length. Support conditions are pin-ended type by using new developed bowl shoe.
FLEXURAL, TORSIONAL AND DISTORTIONAL BUCKLING OF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
neutral equilibrium of axially compressed single-cell box column with deformable cross-sections. The study ... FLEXURAL, TORSIONAL AND DISTORTIONAL BUCKLING OF SINGLE-CELL THIN-WALLED BOX COLUMNS cr. P : Critical buckling load. S: ... and v of a thin-walled closed structure in series form as follows: (1).
Flexural buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns
Maljaars, J.; Twilt, L.; Soetens, F.
2009-01-01
In order to study buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns, a finite element model is developed. The results of this model are verified with experiments. Based on a parametric study with the finite element model, it is concluded that the simple calculation model for flexural buckling of fire
Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ious geometric and corrosion characteristics are investigated and it is found that the aspect ratio of the plate, the average thickness diminution, the standard deviation of thickness diminution and the amount of corrosion loss have influence on the reduction of buckling strength of the corroded plates. Buckling strength of one- ...
On the analysis of viscoplastic buckling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
1993-01-01
For elastic-viscoplastic structures the classical elastic-plastic bifurcation approach to inelastic buckling is not valid. Only an elastic bifurcation point exists in the el~tic-viscoplastic case, and the inelastic buckling behaviour is controlled by a strong sensitivity to small imperfections...
Optimization of second harmonic generation and nonlinear phase-shifts in the Cerenkov regime
Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Torruellas, William; Stegeman, George J.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Lambeck, Paul
We present Beam Propagation Method (BPM) studies of Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and nonlinear phase-shifts by cascading. The studies concentrate on SHG by means of radiation modes; the Cerenkov regime. The presented modeling does take into account both depletion and nonlinear phase shifts of
Buckling of Bucket Foundations During Installation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren
axial and latteral pressure during the installation process buckling becomes a crucial design consideration. In 2005, a large wind turbine was to be installed nearshore the harbour in Wilhelmshaven, Germany. The windturbine was never erected since the skirt of the bucket foundation buckled during...... the suction assisted installation process. In this thesis, the phenomenon of buckling of the bucket foundation during installation is investigated by means of Finite Element Analysis. The influence of boundary conditions on the bucket foundation is adressed as well as the effect of including the surrounding...... soil and soil–structure interaction. Investigations are made regarding the buckling incident in Wilhelmshaven and the results are compared to current DNV and Eurocode standards. Finally, analysis of a new design of the cross section with a higher buckling capacity than an equivalent circular cross...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren; Pinna, Rodney; Randolph, M. F.
2015-01-01
Using large monopod bucket foundations as an alternative to monopiles for offshore wind turbines offers the potential for large cost savings compared to typical piled foundations. In this paper, numerical simulations are carried out to assess the risk of structural buckling during installation of...... is investigated. The effects of including soil restraint and soil–structure interaction on the buckling analysis are also addressed.......Using large monopod bucket foundations as an alternative to monopiles for offshore wind turbines offers the potential for large cost savings compared to typical piled foundations. In this paper, numerical simulations are carried out to assess the risk of structural buckling during installation...... of large-diameter bucket foundations. Since shell structures are generally sensitive to initially imperfect geometries, eigenmode-affine imperfections are introduced in a nonlinear finite-element analysis. The influence of modelling the real lid structure compared to classic boundary conditions...
Effects analysis of the friction on the buckling of horizontal string
Ren, F. S.; Zhao, L.; Wang, B. J.; Zhu, A. H.
2017-06-01
This paper takes a slight string that is under the constraint of a horizontal circular tube as the analysis model, and then establishes the differential equations about the nonlinear buckling behavior of the constrained tubing string under the consideration of the friction and boundary constraints. The paper also analyzes the sinusoidal buckling critical load under the friction coefficient ranged from 0 to 0.6 and four different boundary constraints. At the same time, the research simulate these four different boundary constraints: SS-SS, SS-C, C-SS, and C-C. The results show that C-C is suggested as the boundary constraint in the process of drilling operation, so that when the friction increases, the method of inhibiting the drill string buckling can be utilized to prolong the life of the drill string and reduce the drilling cost.
Designing pinhole vacancies in graphene towards functionalization: Effects on critical buckling load
Georgantzinos, S. K.; Markolefas, S.; Giannopoulos, G. I.; Katsareas, D. E.; Anifantis, N. K.
2017-03-01
The effect of size and placement of pinhole-type atom vacancies on Euler's critical load on free-standing, monolayer graphene, is investigated. The graphene is modeled by a structural spring-based finite element approach, in which every interatomic interaction is approached as a linear spring. The geometry of graphene and the pinhole size lead to the assembly of the stiffness matrix of the nanostructure. Definition of the boundary conditions of the problem leads to the solution of the eigenvalue problem and consequently to the critical buckling load. Comparison to results found in the literature illustrates the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Parametric analysis regarding the placement and size of the pinhole-type vacancy, as well as the graphene geometry, depicts the effects on critical buckling load. Non-linear regression analysis leads to empirical-analytical equations for predicting the buckling behavior of graphene, with engineered pinhole-type atom vacancies.
Numerical analysis of flexural buckling resistance of non-uniform compression members
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filipović Aljoša
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents parametric linear-elastic analysis of flexural buckling of idealised non-uniform member and nonlinear analysis of flexural buckling with equivalent imperfections, using software package Abaqus. The analysis includes hinged and cantileverstepped members, where the stiffness ratio of the upper and lower segments and the ratio of the values of axial forces at the top and at the change in the cross-section are varied. The aim of this paper is to define graphic and table models for determining effective lengths coefficients of non-uniform members' segments based on a relevant and reliable database that was obtained using the Finite element method. In addition, the reliability of the method for calculating the flexural stability of the compressed columns according to EC3 was evaluated in which the critical load value was determined in the previous step using the Elastic buckling analysis of idealised elements.
Small scale effect on linear vibration of buckled size-dependent FG nanobeams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sima Ziaee
2015-06-01
The present study is an attempt to present linear free vibration of buckled FG nano-beams. It is assumed that the material properties of FGMs are graded in the thickness direction. The partial differential equation of motion is derived based on Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, von-Karman geometric nonlinearity and Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The exact solution of the post-buckling configurations of FG nano-beams and polynomial-based differential quadrature method are employed to study the linear behaviour of vibrated nano-beams around their post-buckling configurations. The results show the important role of compressive axial force exerted on FG nano-beams in nonlocal behaviour of vibrating FG nano-beams.
Buckling of thin walled composite cylindrical shell filled with solid propellant
Dash, A. P.; Velmurugan, R.; Prasad, M. S. R.
2017-12-01
This paper investigates the buckling of thin walled composite cylindrical tubes that are partially filled with solid propellant equivalent elastic filler. Experimental investigation is conducted on thin composite tubes made out of S2-glass epoxy, which is made by using filament winding technique. The composite tubes are filled with elastic filler having similar mechanical properties as that of a typical solid propellant used in rocket motors. The tubes are tested for their buckling strength against the external pressure in the presence of the filler. Experimental data confirms the enhancement of external pressure carrying capacity of the composite tubes by up to three times as that of empty tubes for a volumetric loading fraction (VLF) of 0.9. Furthermore, the finite element based geometric nonlinearity analysis predicts the buckling behaviour of the partially filled composite tubes close to the experimental results.
El-Khoury, O.; Kim, C.; Shafieezadeh, A.; Hur, J. E.; Heo, G. H.
2015-06-01
This study performs a series of numerical simulations and shake-table experiments to design and assess the performance of a nonlinear clipped feedback control algorithm based on optimal polynomial control (OPC) to mitigate the response of a two-span bridge equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper. As an extended conventional linear quadratic regulator, OPC provides more flexibility in the control design and further enhances system performance. The challenges encountered in this case are (1) the linearization of the nonlinear behavior of various components and (2) the selection of the weighting matrices in the objective function of OPC. The first challenge is addressed by using stochastic linearization which replaces the nonlinear portion of the system behavior with an equivalent linear time-invariant model considering the stochasticity in the excitation. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is employed to find optimal weighting matrices for the control design. The input current to the MR damper installed between adjacent spans is determined using a clipped stochastic optimal polynomial control algorithm. The performance of the controlled system is assessed through a set of shake-table experiments for far-field and near-field ground motions. The proposed method showed considerable improvements over passive cases especially for the far-field ground motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Khoury, O; Shafieezadeh, A; Hur, J E; Kim, C; Heo, G H
2015-01-01
This study performs a series of numerical simulations and shake-table experiments to design and assess the performance of a nonlinear clipped feedback control algorithm based on optimal polynomial control (OPC) to mitigate the response of a two-span bridge equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper. As an extended conventional linear quadratic regulator, OPC provides more flexibility in the control design and further enhances system performance. The challenges encountered in this case are (1) the linearization of the nonlinear behavior of various components and (2) the selection of the weighting matrices in the objective function of OPC. The first challenge is addressed by using stochastic linearization which replaces the nonlinear portion of the system behavior with an equivalent linear time-invariant model considering the stochasticity in the excitation. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is employed to find optimal weighting matrices for the control design. The input current to the MR damper installed between adjacent spans is determined using a clipped stochastic optimal polynomial control algorithm. The performance of the controlled system is assessed through a set of shake-table experiments for far-field and near-field ground motions. The proposed method showed considerable improvements over passive cases especially for the far-field ground motion. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. W. Zhu
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens G. Balchen
1984-10-01
Full Text Available The problem of systematic derivation of a quasi-dynamic optimal control strategy for a non-linear dynamic process based upon a non-quadratic objective function is investigated. The wellknown LQG-control algorithm does not lead to an optimal solution when the process disturbances have non-zero mean. The relationships between the proposed control algorithm and LQG-control are presented. The problem of how to constrain process variables by means of 'penalty' - terms in the objective function is dealt with separately.
Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd
2016-11-01
Conjugate gradient (CG) methods are one of the tools in optimization. Due to its low computational memory requirement, this method is used in solving several of nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems from designs, economics, physics and engineering. In this paper, a new modification of CG family coefficient (βk) is proposed and posses global convergence under exact line search direction. Numerical experimental results based on the number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time show that the new βk performs better than some other well known CG methods under some standard test functions.
Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaijiang Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, using the HEV/PHEV property, the desired battery state of charge is designed according to the road slopes for better recuperation of free braking energy. Fourth, all of the vehicle operating modes engine charge, electric vehicle, motor assist and electric continuously variable transmission, and regenerative braking, can be realized using the proposed real-time optimal control approach. Computer simulation results are shown among the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach and the ADVISOR rule-based approach. The conclusion is that the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach is effective for the energy management problem of the HEV/PHEV system during car following.
Ramezanpour, H R; Setayeshi, S; Akbari, M E
2011-01-01
Determining the optimal and effective scheme for administrating the chemotherapy agents in breast cancer is the main goal of this scientific research. The most important issue here is the amount of drug or radiation administrated in chemotherapy and radiotherapy for increasing patient's survival. This is because in these cases, the therapy not only kills the tumor cells, but also kills some of the healthy tissues and causes serious damages. In this paper we investigate optimal drug scheduling effect for breast cancer model which consist of nonlinear ordinary differential time-delay equations. In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer tumors is discussed and then optimal control theory is applied to find out the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of system. Finally we use Sensitivity Approach (SA) to solve the optimal control problem. The goal of this paper is to determine optimal and effective scheme for administering the chemotherapy agent, so that the tumor is eradicated, while the immune systems remains above a suitable level. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of our proposed procedure. In this paper a new scheme is proposed to design a therapy protocol for chemotherapy in Breast Cancer. In contrast to traditional pulse drug delivery, a continuous process is offered and optimized, according to the optimal control theory for time-delay systems.
Peng, Guanghan; Lu, Weizhen; He, Hongdi
2016-09-01
In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering the global average optimal velocity difference effect on the basis of the full velocity difference (FVD) model. We investigate the influence of the global average optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow by making use of linear stability analysis. It indicates that the stable region will be enlarged by taking the global average optimal velocity difference effect into account. Subsequently, the mKdV equation near the critical point and its kink-antikink soliton solution, which can describe the traffic jam transition, is derived from nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, numerical simulations confirm that the effect of the global average optimal velocity difference can efficiently improve the stability of traffic flow, which show that our new consideration should be taken into account to suppress the traffic congestion for car-following theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ray Richard Paul
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Geotechnical and structural engineers are faced with a difficult task when their designs interact with each other. For complex projects, this is more the norm than the exception. In order to help bridge that gap, a method for modeling the behavior of a foundation using a simple elasto-plastic subgrade reaction was developed. The method uses an optimization technique to position 4-6 springs along a pile foundation to produce similar load deflection characteristics that were modeled by more sophisticated geotechnical finite element software. The methodology uses an Excel spreadsheet for accepting user input and delivering an optimized subgrade spring stiffness, yield, and position along the pile. In this way, the behavior developed from the geotechnical software can be transferred to the structural analysis software. The optimization is achieved through the solver add-in within Excel. Additionally, a beam on a nonlinear elastic foundation model is used to compute deflections of the optimized subgrade reaction configuration.
Thermal buckling of double-layered graphene system in humid environment
Sobhy, Mohammed; Zenkour, Ashraf M.
2018-01-01
In this paper, the effect of humidity conditions on thermal buckling analysis of graphene system contained two layers under different boundary conditions is investigated. The two-variable shear deformation plate theory is employed with the nonlocal continuum theory to deduce the governing stability equations. These equations are solved analytically to obtain the thermal buckling of the nanoplate system with simply supported, clamped and free boundary conditions. The present system of double-layered graphene sheets is composed from two sheets of graphene joined together by an elastic medium and hedged by two-parameter foundations. The external foundations are modeled as Winkler-Pasternak model. Two characteristic types of thermal buckling are considered: synchronous and asynchronous modes of buckling. The temperature rise and moisture concentration are assumed as a fixed, linear or nonlinear function of z (along the thickness direction). For the validation of the formulations, the present results are compared with those published in the references. Furthermore, the influences of the nonlocal parameter, humidity and other parameters on thermal buckling of double-layered graphene system are all discussed.
Experimental and numerical thermal buckling studies on cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochard, J.; Combescure, A.; Locatelli, T.; Tomassian, R.
1989-01-01
An important program of buckling experiments is carried out by C.E.A./D.E.M.T on thin cylinders subjected to a very strong axial gradient of temperature, an axial tension stress, and an external pressure, in order to evaluate: - damage due to thermal buckling, - influence of a thermal load on reduction of buckling pressure, - progressive buckling under a cyclic thermal load
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Fei; Gao Hongrui; Li Zhuoqiu; Tong Hengqing; Lee, Ju-Jang
2009-01-01
It is well known that set of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) can be thought of as the skeleton for the dynamics. However, detecting UPOs of nonlinear map is one of the most challenging problems of nonlinear science in both numerical computations and experimental measures. In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect the UPOs in a non-Lyapunov way. Firstly three special techniques are added to quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), a novel mbest particle, contracting the searching space self-adaptively and boundaries restriction (NCB), then the new method NCB-QPSO is proposed. It can maintain an effective search mechanism with fine equilibrium between exploitation and exploration. Secondly, the problems of detecting the UPOs are converted into a non-negative functions' minimization through a proper translation in a non-Lyapunov way. Thirdly the simulations to 6 benchmark optimization problems and different high order UPOs of 5 classic nonlinear maps are done by the proposed method. And the results show that NCB-QPSO is a successful method in detecting the UPOs, and it has the advantages of fast convergence, high precision and robustness.
Anomalously fast kinetics of lipid monolayer buckling
Oppenheimer, Naomi; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.
2013-08-01
We reexamine previous observations of folding kinetics of compressed lipid monolayers in light of the accepted mechanical buckling mechanism recently proposed by L. Pocivavsek [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1154069 320, 912 (2008)]. Using simple models, we set conservative limits on (a) the energy released in the mechanical buckling process and (b) the kinetic energy entailed by the observed folding motion. These limits imply a kinetic energy at least 30 times greater than the energy supplied by the buckling instability. We discuss possible extensions of the accepted picture that might resolve this discrepancy.
Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.
2002-01-01
Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shrivastava Sachin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A redesign of canard control-surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft was carried out by using carbon fibre composite (CFC for ribs and panels. In this study ply-orientations of CFC structure are optimized using a Genetic-Algorithm (GA with an objective function to have minimum failure index (FI according to Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The redesigned CFC structure was sufficiently strong to withstand aerodynamic loads from stress and deflection points of view. Now, in the present work CFC canard structure has been studied for its buckling strength in comparison to existing metallic design. In this study, the existing metallic design was found to be weak in buckling. Upon a detailed investigation, it was revealed that there are reported failures in the vicinity of zones where initial buckling modes are excited as predicted by the finite element based buckling analysis. In view of buckling failures, the redesigned CFC structure is sufficiently reinforced with stringers at specific locations. After providing reinforcements against buckling, the twist and the camber variations of the airfoil are checked and compared with existing structure data. Finally, the modal analysis has been carried out to compare the variation in excitation frequency due to material change. The CFC structure thus redesigned is safe from buckling and aerodynamic aspects as well.
Shrivastava, Sachin; Mohite, P. M.
2015-01-01
A redesign of canard control-surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft was carried out by using carbon fibre composite (CFC) for ribs and panels. In this study ply-orientations of CFC structure are optimized using a Genetic-Algorithm (GA) with an objective function to have minimum failure index (FI) according to Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The redesigned CFC structure was sufficiently strong to withstand aerodynamic loads from stress and deflection points of view. Now, in the present work CFC canard structure has been studied for its buckling strength in comparison to existing metallic design. In this study, the existing metallic design was found to be weak in buckling. Upon a detailed investigation, it was revealed that there are reported failures in the vicinity of zones where initial buckling modes are excited as predicted by the finite element based buckling analysis. In view of buckling failures, the redesigned CFC structure is sufficiently reinforced with stringers at specific locations. After providing reinforcements against buckling, the twist and the camber variations of the airfoil are checked and compared with existing structure data. Finally, the modal analysis has been carried out to compare the variation in excitation frequency due to material change. The CFC structure thus redesigned is safe from buckling and aerodynamic aspects as well.
Optimization of multi-pulse sequences for nonlinear contrast agent imaging using a cMUT array
Novell, Anthony; Arena, Christopher B.; Kasoji, Sandeep; Dayton, Paul A.
2015-04-01
Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology provides advantages such as wide frequency bandwidth, which can be exploited for contrast agent imaging. Nevertheless, the efficiency of traditional multi-pulse imaging schemes, such as pulse inversion (PI), remains limited because of the intrinsic nonlinear character of cMUTs. Recently, a new contrast imaging sequence, called bias voltage modulation sequence (BVM), has been specifically developed for cMUTs to suppress their unwanted nonlinear behavior. In this study, we propose to optimize contrast agent detection by combining the BVM sequence with PI and/or chirp reversal (CR). An aqueous dispersion of lipid encapsulated microbubbles was exposed to several combinations of multi-pulse imaging sequences. Approaches were evaluated in vitro using 9 inter-connected elements of a cMUT linear array (excitation frequency of 4 MHz peak negative pressure of 100 kPa). For sequences using chirp excitations, a specific compression filter was designed to compress and extract several nonlinear components from the received microbubble responses. A satisfactory cancellation of the nonlinear signal from the source is achieved when BVM is combined with PI and CR. In comparison with PI and CR imaging modes alone, using sequences incorporating BVM increases the contrast-to-tissue ratio by 10.0 dB and 4.6 dB, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of BVM with CR and PI results in a significant increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio (+29 dB). This enhancement is attributed to the use of chirps as excitation signals and the improved preservation of several nonlinear components contained within the contrast agent response.
Optimization of multi-pulse sequences for nonlinear contrast agent imaging using a cMUT array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novell, Anthony; Arena, Christopher B; Kasoji, Sandeep; Dayton, Paul A
2015-01-01
Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology provides advantages such as wide frequency bandwidth, which can be exploited for contrast agent imaging. Nevertheless, the efficiency of traditional multi-pulse imaging schemes, such as pulse inversion (PI), remains limited because of the intrinsic nonlinear character of cMUTs. Recently, a new contrast imaging sequence, called bias voltage modulation sequence (BVM), has been specifically developed for cMUTs to suppress their unwanted nonlinear behavior. In this study, we propose to optimize contrast agent detection by combining the BVM sequence with PI and/or chirp reversal (CR). An aqueous dispersion of lipid encapsulated microbubbles was exposed to several combinations of multi-pulse imaging sequences. Approaches were evaluated in vitro using 9 inter-connected elements of a cMUT linear array (excitation frequency of 4 MHz; peak negative pressure of 100 kPa). For sequences using chirp excitations, a specific compression filter was designed to compress and extract several nonlinear components from the received microbubble responses. A satisfactory cancellation of the nonlinear signal from the source is achieved when BVM is combined with PI and CR. In comparison with PI and CR imaging modes alone, using sequences incorporating BVM increases the contrast-to-tissue ratio by 10.0 dB and 4.6 dB, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of BVM with CR and PI results in a significant increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio (+29 dB). This enhancement is attributed to the use of chirps as excitation signals and the improved preservation of several nonlinear components contained within the contrast agent response. (paper)
Nonlinear H∞ Optimal Control Scheme for an Underwater Vehicle with Regional Function Formulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zool H. Ismail
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A conventional region control technique cannot meet the demands for an accurate tracking performance in view of its inability to accommodate highly nonlinear system dynamics, imprecise hydrodynamic coefficients, and external disturbances. In this paper, a robust technique is presented for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV with region tracking function. Within this control scheme, nonlinear H∞ and region based control schemes are used. A Lyapunov-like function is presented for stability analysis of the proposed control law. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tracking control of the AUV. It is shown that the proposed control law is robust against parameter uncertainties, external disturbances, and nonlinearities and it leads to uniform ultimate boundedness of the region tracking error.
Improving stability and strength characteristics of framed structures with nonlinear behavior
Pezeshk, Shahram
1990-01-01
In this paper an optimal design procedure is introduced to improve the overall performance of nonlinear framed structures. The design methodology presented here is a multiple-objective optimization procedure whose objective functions involve the buckling eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the structure. A constant volume with bounds on the design variables is used in conjunction with an optimality criterion approach. The method provides a general tool for solving complex design problems and generally leads to structures with better limit strength and stability. Many algorithms have been developed to improve the limit strength of structures. In most applications geometrically linear analysis is employed with the consequence that overall strength of the design is overestimated. Directly optimizing the limit load of the structure would require a full nonlinear analysis at each iteration which would be prohibitively expensive. The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm that can improve the limit-load of geometrically nonlinear framed structures while avoiding the nonlinear analysis. One of the novelties of the new design methodology is its ability to efficiently model and design structures under multiple loading conditions. These loading conditions can be different factored loads or any kind of loads that can be applied to the structure simultaneously or independently. Attention is focused on optimal design of space framed structures. Three-dimensional design problems are more complicated to carry out, but they yield insight into real behavior of the structure and can help avoiding some of the problems that might appear in planar design procedure such as the need for out-of-plane buckling constraint. Although researchers in the field of structural engineering generally agree that optimum design of three-dimension building frames especially in the seismic regions would be beneficial, methods have been slow to emerge. Most of the research in this area has dealt
Parametric down-conversion with optimized spectral properties in nonlinear photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corona, Maria; U'Ren, Alfred B.
2007-01-01
We study the joint spectral properties of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal in a collinear, degenerate, type-II geometry. We show that the photonic crystal properties may be exploited to compensate for material dispersion and obtain photon pairs that are nearly factorable, in principle, for arbitrary materials and spectral regions, limited by the ability to fabricate the nonlinear crystal with the required periodic variation in the refractive indices for the ordinary and extraordinary waves
Scleral buckle infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Kang Hsu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a rare case of extraocular inflammation secondary to scleral buckle infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. A 60-year-old female with a history of retinal detachment repair with open-book technique of scleral buckling presented with purulent discharge and irritation in the right eye that had begun 4 weeks earlier and had been treated ineffectively at another hospital. Conjunctival erosion with exposure of the scleral buckle was noted. The scleral buckle was removed and cultured. The explanted material grew gram-negative rod later identified as A. xylosoxidans. On the basis of the susceptibility test results, the patient was treated by subconjunctival injection and fortified topical ceftazidime. After 4 weeks of treatment, the infection resolved.
Computational modelling of buckling of woven fabrics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Anandjiwala, RD
2006-02-01
Full Text Available for reducing unit production cost is critically important if garment industries in developed countries are keen to improve their competitiveness vis-à-vis low labour cost countries. The mechanics of the buckling behaviour of woven fabric started... is limp, resulting in large-scale deformation even under small applied forces. The buckling properties of a woven fabric also influence the sewing of garments and their resultant quality. Moreover, the development of robotised sewing operations...
The effect of spinal osteotomies on spinal cord tension and dural buckling: a cadaveric study.
Safain, Mina G; Burke, Shane M; Riesenburger, Ron I; Zerris, Vasilios; Hwang, Steven W
2015-07-01
The standard surgical release of a tethered cord may result in recurrent scar formation and occasionally be associated with retethering. The application of spinal shortening procedures to this challenging problem potentially can reduce tension on the retethered spinal cord while minimizing the difficulties inherent in traditional lumbosacral detethering revision. Although spinal shortening procedures have proven clinical benefit in patients with a recurrent tethered cord, it is unclear how much shortening is required to achieve adequate reduction in spinal cord tension or what impact these osteotomies have on dural buckling. The authors calculated mean values from 4 human cadavers to evaluate the effect of 3 different spinal shortening procedures--Smith-Petersen osteotomy (SPO), pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO), and vertebral column resection (VCR)--on spinal cord tension and dural buckling. Three cadavers were dedicated to the measurement of spinal cord tension, and 3 other cadavers were devoted to myelography to measure dural buckling parameters. The SPO was associated with a maximal decrease in spinal cord tension of 16.1% from baseline and no dural buckling with any degree of closure. The PSO led to a mean maximal decrease in spinal cord tension of 63.1% from baseline at 12 mm of closure and demonstrated a direct linear relationship between dural buckling and increasing osteotomy closure. Finally, VCR closure correlated with a mean maximal decrease in spinal cord tension of 87.2% from baseline at 10 mm of closure and also showed a direct linear relationship between dural buckling and increases in osteotomy closure. In this cadaveric experiment, the SPO did not lead to appreciable tension reduction, while a substantial response was seen with both the PSO and VCR. The rate of tension reduction may be steeper for the VCR than the PSO. Adequate tension relief while minimizing dural buckling may be optimal with 12-16 mm of posterior osteotomy closure based on
Optimization and anti-optimization of structures under uncertainty
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Elishakoff, Isaac; Ohsaki, Makoto
2010-01-01
.... The necessity of anti-optimization approach is first demonstrated, then the anti-optimization techniques are applied to static, dynamic and buckling problems, thus covering the broadest possible set of applications...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Ghavidel, Sahand; Akbari, Ebrahim; Vahed, Ali Azizi
2014-01-01
Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO) algorithm is a simple but powerful algorithm which is capable of solving general multi-dimensional, linear and nonlinear optimization problems with appreciable efficiency. Recently IWO algorithm is being used in several engineering design owing to its superior performance in comparison with many other existing algorithms. This paper presents a Chaotic IWO (CIWO) algorithms based on chaos, and investigates its performance for optimal settings of Optimal Power Flow (OPF) control variables of OPF problem with non-smooth and non-convex generator fuel cost curves (non-smooth and non-convex OPF). The performance of CIWO algorithms are studied and evaluated on the standard IEEE 30-bus test system with different objective functions. The experimental results suggest that IWO algorithm holds immense promise to appear as an efficient and powerful algorithm for optimization in the power system. - Highlights: • OPF problem has been solved considering non-smooth and non-convex fuel cost curves. • CIWO algorithms have been used based on chaos for solving OPF problem. • A comparative study of the proposed algorithms has been presented comprehensively
Non-Linear Multi-Physics Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization in Electroheating Applications
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
di Barba, P.; Doležel, Ivo; Mognaschi, M. E.; Savini, A.; Karban, P.
2014-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 2 (2014), s. 7016604-7016604 ISSN 0018-9464 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : coupled multi-physics problems * finite element method * non-linear equations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014
Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuijian Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.
Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets.
Yang, Kuijian; Chen, Yuli; Pan, Fei; Wang, Shengtao; Ma, Yong; Liu, Qijun
2016-01-07
The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm), both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.
Buckling Behavior of Compression-Loaded Quasi-Isotropic Curved Panels with a Circular Cutout
Hilburger, Mark W.; Britt, Vicki O.; Nemeth, Michael P.
1999-01-01
Results from a numerical and experimental study of the response of compression-loaded quasi-isotropic curved panels with a centrally located circular cutout are presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code. The effects of cutout size, panel curvature and initial geo- metric imperfections on the overall response of compression-loaded panels are described. In addition, results are presented from a numerical parametric study that indicate the effects of elastic circumferential edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling response of a selected panel and these numerical results are compared to experimentally measured results. These restraints are used to identify the effects of circumferential edge restraints that are introduced by the test fixture that was used in the present study. It is shown that circumferential edge restraints can introduce substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations into shallow compression-loaded curved panels that can results in a significant increase in buckling load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Kotteeswaran
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm is proposed to fine-tune the baseline PI controller parameters of Alstom gasifier. The existing baseline PI controller is not able to meet the performance requirements of Alstom gasifier for sinusoidal pressure disturbance at 0% load. This is considered the major drawback of controller design. A best optimal solution for Alstom gasifier is obtained from a set of nondominated solutions using MOPSO algorithm. Performance of gasifier is investigated at all load conditions. The controller with optimized controller parameters meets all the performance requirements at 0%, 50%, and 100% load conditions. The investigations are also extended for variations in coal quality, which shows an improved stability of the gasifier over a wide range of coal quality variations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maldonado, G.I.; Turinsky, P.J.; Kropaczek, D.J.
1993-01-01
The computational capability of efficiently and accurately evaluate reactor core attributes (i.e., k eff and power distributions as a function of cycle burnup) utilizing a second-order accurate advanced nodal Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) model has been developed. The GPT model is derived from the forward non-linear iterative Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) strategy, thereby extending its inherent savings in memory storage and high computational efficiency to also encompass GPT via the preservation of the finite-difference matrix structure. The above development was easily implemented into the existing coarse-mesh finite-difference GPT-based in-core fuel management optimization code FORMOSA-P, thus combining the proven robustness of its adaptive Simulated Annealing (SA) multiple-objective optimization algorithm with a high-fidelity NEM GPT neutronics model to produce a powerful computational tool used to generate families of near-optimum loading patterns for PWRs. (orig.)
Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiebe, R.; Perez, R.A.; Spottswood, S.M.
2016-01-01
Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Yousung; Shao, Yihan; Gordon, Mark S.; Doren, Douglas J.; Head-Gordon, Martin
2003-01-01
We report a spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) solution at the symmetric dimer structure for cluster models of Si(100). With this solution, it is shown that the symmetric structure is a minimum on the DFT potential energy surface, although higher in energy than the buckled structure. In restricted DFT calculations the symmetric structure is a saddle point connecting the two buckled minima. To further assess the effects of electron correlation on the relative energies of symmetric versus buckled dimers on Si(100), multireference second order perturbation theory (MRMP2) calculations are performed on these DFT optimized minima. The symmetric structure is predicted to be lower in energy than the buckled structure via MRMP2, while the reverse order is found by DFT. The implications for recent experimental interpretations are discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irwin Yousept
2010-07-01
Full Text Available An optimal control problem arising in the context of 3D electromagnetic induction heating is investigated. The state equation is given by a quasilinear stationary heat equation coupled with a semilinear time harmonic eddy current equation. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity and the presence of pointwise inequality state-constraints represent the main challenge of the paper. In the first part of the paper, the existence and regularity of the state are addressed. The second part of the paper deals with the analysis of the corresponding linearized equation. Some suffcient conditions are presented which guarantee thesolvability of the linearized system. The final part of the paper is concerned with the optimal control. The aim of the optimization is to find the optimal voltage such that a desired temperature can be achieved optimally. The corresponding first-order necessary optimality condition is presented.
Fontes, Fernando A. C. C.; Paiva, Luís T.
2016-10-01
We address optimal control problems for nonlinear systems with pathwise state-constraints. These are challenging non-linear problems for which the number of discretization points is a major factor determining the computational time. Also, the location of these points has a major impact in the accuracy of the solutions. We propose an algorithm that iteratively finds an adequate time-grid to satisfy some predefined error estimate on the obtained trajectories, which is guided by information on the adjoint multipliers. The obtained results show a highly favorable comparison against the traditional equidistant-spaced time-grid methods, including the ones using discrete-time models. This way, continuous-time plant models can be directly used. The discretization procedure can be automated and there is no need to select a priori the adequate time step. Even if the optimization procedure is forced to stop in an early stage, as might be the case in real-time problems, we can still obtain a meaningful solution, although it might be a less accurate one. The extension of the procedure to a Model Predictive Control (MPC) context is proposed here. By defining a time-dependent accuracy threshold, we can generate solutions that are more accurate in the initial parts of the receding horizon, which are the most relevant for MPC.
Zhang, Guiying; Block, David E
2009-01-01
Optimization of fermentation media and processes is a difficult task due to the potential for high dimensionality and nonlinearity. Here we develop and evaluate variations on two novel and highly efficient methods for experimental fermentation optimization. The first approach is based on using a truncated genetic algorithm with a developing neural network model to choose the best experiments to run. The second approach uses information theory, along with Bayesian regularized neural network models, for experiment selection. To evaluate these methods experimentally, we used them to develop a new chemically defined medium for Lactococcus lactis IL1403, along with an optimal temperature and initial pH, to achieve maximum cell growth. The media consisted of 19 defined components or groups of components. The optimization results show that the maximum cell growth from the optimal process of each novel method is generally comparable to or higher than that achieved using a traditional statistical experimental design method, but these optima are reached in about half of the experiments (73-94 vs. 161, depending on the variants of methods). The optimal chemically defined media developed in this work are rich media that can support high cell density growth 3.5-4 times higher than the best reported synthetic medium and 72% higher than a commonly used complex medium (M17) at optimization scale. The best chemically defined medium found using the method was evaluated and compared with other defined or complex media at flask- and fermentor-scales. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.
Interior-Point Method for Non-Linear Non-Convex Optimization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan
2004-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 5-6 (2004), s. 431-453 ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : non-linear programming * interior point methods * indefinite systems * indefinite preconditioners * preconditioned conjugate gradient method * merit functions * algorithms * computational experiments Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2004
Nonlinear Optimization of CLIC DRS New Design with Variable Bends and High Field Wigglers
Ghasem, H.; Alabau-Gonzalvo, J.; Papadopoulou, S.; Papaphilippou, Y.
2016-01-01
The new design of CLIC damping rings is based on longitudinal variable bends and high field superconducting wiggler magnets. It provides an ultra-low horizontal normalised emittance of 412 nm-rad at 2.86 GeV. In this paper, nonlinear beam dynamics of the new design of the damping ring (DR) with trapezium field profile bending magnets have been investigated in detail. Effects of the misalignment errors have been studied in the closed orbit and dynamic aperture.
Non-linear optimization of track layouts in loop-sorting-systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Søren Emil; Hansen, Michael R.; Ebbesen, Morten K.
2013-01-01
Optimization used for enhancing geometric structures iswell known. Applying obstacles to the shape optimization problemis on the other hand not very common. It requires a fast contact search algorithmand an exact continuous formulation to solve the problem robustly. This paper focuses on combining...
Optimization of Nonlinear Figure-of-Merits of Integrated Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Lin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Knott, Arnold
2016-01-01
different operating conditions. A systematic analysis of the optimization of these FOMs has not been previously established. The optimization methods are verified on a 100 V power MOSFET implemented in a 0.18 µm partial SOI process. Its FOMs are lowered by 1.3-18.3 times and improved by 22...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young
2005-01-01
The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty, the ele...
An experimental and theoretical investigation of creep buckling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohya, H.
1977-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate creep buckling phenomena and the methods of analysis. Creep buckling experiments were performed on aluminum alloy 2024-T4 cylindrical shells having radius to thickness ratios of 16, 25, 50 and 80, in single, double and triple step axial compression at 250 0 C. It was observed that buckling occurred at one of the edges and the buckling mode depended on the radius to thickness ratio and also on the applied stress level. Thicker cylinders buckled in axisymmetric mode. Thinner ones under higher applied stress levels buckled in the asymmetric mode, whereas they under lower applied stress levels buckled in the axisymmetric mode. Creep buckling times were obtained from end shortening record of the cylinders. Experimental results were compared with theoretical values obtained by the following two methods. One is a simplified method to estimate buckling times, proposed by Gerard et al., Papirno et al. and others. The method is based on the fact that the creep buckling solutions are analogous to those of plastic buckling under a certain assumption. It was found that the bukling times could be reasonably estimated by this simplified method. The other is a finite element computer program for axisymmetric thin shells. This program is based on the incremental theory and can treat thermoelastoplastic creep analysis of axisymmetric thin shells with large deflection. Creep deformation behavior of cylindrical shells under axial compression and buckling times were calculated by the program and the effects of plasticity on buckling times were also investigated
Functional buckling behavior of silicone rubber shells for biomedical use.
van der Houwen, E B; Kuiper, L H; Burgerhof, J G M; van der Laan, B F A M; Verkerke, G J
2013-12-01
The use of soft elastic biomaterials in medical devices enables substantial function integration. The consequent increased simplification in design can improve reliability at a lower cost in comparison to traditional (hard) biomaterials. Functional bi-stable buckling is one of the many new mechanisms made possible by soft materials. The buckling behavior of shells, however, is typically described from a structural failure point of view: the collapse of arches or rupture of steam vessels, for example. There is little or no literature about the functional elastic buckling of small-sized silicone rubber shells, and it is unknown whether or not theory can predict their behavior. Is functional buckling possible within the scale, material and pressure normally associated with physiological applications? An automatic speech valve is used as an example application. Silicone rubber spherical shells (diameter 30mm) with hinged and double-hinged boundaries were subjected to air pressure loading. Twelve different geometrical configurations were tested for buckling and reverse buckling pressures. Data were compared with the theory. Buckling pressure increases linearly with shell thickness and shell height. Reverse buckling shows these same relations, with pressures always below normal buckling pressure. Secondary hinges change normal/reverse buckling pressure ratios and promote symmetrical buckling. All tested configurations buckled within or closely around physiological pressures. Functional bi-stable buckling of silicone rubber shells is possible with adjustable properties in the physiological pressure range. Results can be predicted using the proposed relations and equations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Pattnaik
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper the concept of fuzzy Non-Linear Programming Technique is applied to solve an economic order quantity (EOQ model under restricted space. Since various types of uncertainties and imprecision are inherent in real inventory problems they are classically modeled using the approaches from the probability theory. However, there are uncertainties that cannot be appropriately treated by usual probabilistic models. The questions how to define inventory optimization tasks in such environment how to interpret optimal solutions arise. This paper allows the modification of the Single item EOQ model in presence of fuzzy decision making process where demand is related to the unit price and the setup cost varies with the quantity produced/Purchased. This paper considers the modification of objective function and storage area in the presence of imprecisely estimated parameters. The model is developed for the problem by employing different modeling approaches over an infinite planning horizon. It incorporates all concepts of a fuzzy arithmetic approach, the quantity ordered and the demand per unit compares both fuzzy non linear and other models. Investigation of the properties of an optimal solution allows developing an algorithm whose validity is illustrated through an example problem and ugh MATLAB (R2009a version software, the two and three dimensional diagrams are represented to the application. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied with respect to changes in different parameter values and to draw managerial insights of the decision problem.
Sadeghi, Hassan; Ghaffarzadeh, Navid
2016-09-01
This paper uses a new algorithm namely biogeography based optimization (BBO) intended for the simultaneous placement of the distributed generation (DG) units and the capacitor banks in the distribution network. The procedure of optimization has been conducted in the presence of nonlinear loads (a cause of harmonic injection). The purpose of simultaneous optimal placement of the DG and the capacitor is the reduction of active and reactive losses. The difference in the values of loss reduction at different levels of the load have been included in the objective function and the considered objective function includes the constraints of voltage, size and the number of DG units and capacitor banks and the allowable range of the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the total voltage in accordance with the IEEE 519 standards. In this paper the placement has been performed on two load types ie constant and mixed power, moreover the effects of load models on the results and the effects of optimal placement on reduction of the THD levels have also been analyzed. The mentioned cases have been studied on a 33 bus radial distribution system.
Contrast Optimization by Metaheuristic for Inclusion Detection in Nonlinear Ultrasound Imaging
Girault, Jean-Marc; Ménigot, Sébastien
In ultrasound imaging, improvements have been made possible by taking into account the harmonic frequencies. However, the transmitted signal often consists of providing empirically pre-set transmit frequencies, even if the medium to be explored should be taken into account during the optimization process. To resolve this waveform optimization, transmission of stochastic sequences were proposed combined with a genetic algorithm. A medium with an inclusion was compared in term of contrast to a reference medium without defect. Two media were distinguished thanks an Euclidean distance. In simulation, the optimal distance could be multiplied by 4 in comparison with an usual excitation.
Selective buckling via states of self-stress in topological metamaterials.
Paulose, Jayson; Meeussen, Anne S; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2015-06-23
States of self-stress--tensions and compressions of structural elements that result in zero net forces--play an important role in determining the load-bearing ability of structures ranging from bridges to metamaterials with tunable mechanical properties. We exploit a class of recently introduced states of self-stress analogous to topological quantum states to sculpt localized buckling regions in the interior of periodic cellular metamaterials. Although the topological states of self-stress arise in the linear response of an idealized mechanical frame of harmonic springs connected by freely hinged joints, they leave a distinct signature in the nonlinear buckling behavior of a cellular material built out of elastic beams with rigid joints. The salient feature of these localized buckling regions is that they are indistinguishable from their surroundings as far as material parameters or connectivity of their constituent elements are concerned. Furthermore, they are robust against a wide range of structural perturbations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this topological design through analytical and numerical calculations as well as buckling experiments performed on two- and three-dimensional metamaterials built out of stacked kagome lattices.
On a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach to Buckling Load Calculations
Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.; Nemeth, Michael P.
2001-01-01
As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a recent test series of 5 composite shells carried out by Waters at NASA Langley Research Center is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called "high fidelity analysis", where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.
Selective buckling via states of self-stress in topological metamaterials
Paulose, Jayson; Meeussen, Anne S.; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2015-01-01
States of self-stress—tensions and compressions of structural elements that result in zero net forces—play an important role in determining the load-bearing ability of structures ranging from bridges to metamaterials with tunable mechanical properties. We exploit a class of recently introduced states of self-stress analogous to topological quantum states to sculpt localized buckling regions in the interior of periodic cellular metamaterials. Although the topological states of self-stress arise in the linear response of an idealized mechanical frame of harmonic springs connected by freely hinged joints, they leave a distinct signature in the nonlinear buckling behavior of a cellular material built out of elastic beams with rigid joints. The salient feature of these localized buckling regions is that they are indistinguishable from their surroundings as far as material parameters or connectivity of their constituent elements are concerned. Furthermore, they are robust against a wide range of structural perturbations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this topological design through analytical and numerical calculations as well as buckling experiments performed on two- and three-dimensional metamaterials built out of stacked kagome lattices. PMID:26056303
Post-Buckling Analysis of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Containing Interfacial Disbonds
Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas K.
2016-01-01
A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance plan for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift launch vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method incorporating geometric nonlinearity. In a predetermined circular region, facesheet and core nodes were detached to simulate a disbond, between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core, induced via low-speed impact. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements and obtain realistic stresses in the core. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. Significant changes in the slope of the edge load-deflection response were used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load. Finally, several studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the numerical predictions to refinement in the finite element mesh.
An integer optimization algorithm for robust identification of non-linear gene regulatory networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chemmangattuvalappil Nishanth
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse engineering gene networks and identifying regulatory interactions are integral to understanding cellular decision making processes. Advancement in high throughput experimental techniques has initiated innovative data driven analysis of gene regulatory networks. However, inherent noise associated with biological systems requires numerous experimental replicates for reliable conclusions. Furthermore, evidence of robust algorithms directly exploiting basic biological traits are few. Such algorithms are expected to be efficient in their performance and robust in their prediction. Results We have developed a network identification algorithm to accurately infer both the topology and strength of regulatory interactions from time series gene expression data in the presence of significant experimental noise and non-linear behavior. In this novel formulism, we have addressed data variability in biological systems by integrating network identification with the bootstrap resampling technique, hence predicting robust interactions from limited experimental replicates subjected to noise. Furthermore, we have incorporated non-linearity in gene dynamics using the S-system formulation. The basic network identification formulation exploits the trait of sparsity of biological interactions. Towards that, the identification algorithm is formulated as an integer-programming problem by introducing binary variables for each network component. The objective function is targeted to minimize the network connections subjected to the constraint of maximal agreement between the experimental and predicted gene dynamics. The developed algorithm is validated using both in silico and experimental data-sets. These studies show that the algorithm can accurately predict the topology and connection strength of the in silico networks, as quantified by high precision and recall, and small discrepancy between the actual and predicted kinetic parameters
The cutting of metals via plastic buckling.
Udupa, Anirudh; Viswanathan, Koushik; Ho, Yeung; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan
2017-06-01
The cutting of metals has long been described as occurring by laminar plastic flow. Here we show that for metals with large strain-hardening capacity, laminar flow mode is unstable and cutting instead occurs by plastic buckling of a thin surface layer. High speed in situ imaging confirms that the buckling results in a small bump on the surface which then evolves into a fold of large amplitude by rotation and stretching. The repeated occurrence of buckling and folding manifests itself at the mesoscopic scale as a new flow mode with significant vortex-like components-sinuous flow. The buckling model is validated by phenomenological observations of flow at the continuum level and microstructural characteristics of grain deformation and measurements of the folding. In addition to predicting the conditions for surface buckling, the model suggests various geometric flow control strategies that can be effectively implemented to promote laminar flow, and suppress sinuous flow in cutting, with implications for industrial manufacturing processes. The observations impinge on the foundations of metal cutting by pointing to the key role of stability of laminar flow in determining the mechanism of material removal, and the need to re-examine long-held notions of large strain deformation at surfaces.
Creep buckling problems in fast reactor components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramesh, R.; Damodaran, S.P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.
1995-01-01
Creep buckling analyses for two important components of 500 M We Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), viz. Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and Inner Vessel (IV), are reported. The INCA code of CASTEM system is used for the large displacement elasto-plastic-creep analysis of IHX shell. As a first step, INCA is validated for a typical benchmark problem dealing with the creep buckling of a tube under external pressure. Prediction of INCA is also compared with the results obtained using Hoff's theory. For IV, considering the prohibitively high computational cost for the actual analysis, a simplified analysis which involves only large displacement elastoplastic buckling analysis is performed using isochronous stress strain curve approach. From both of these analysis is performed using isochronous stress strain curve approach. From both of these analysis, it has been inferred that creep buckling failure mode is not of great concern in the design of PFBR components. It has also been concluded from the analysis that Creep Cross Over Curve given in RCC-MR is applicable for creep buckling failure mode also. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Buckling of particle-laden interfaces.
Kassuga, Theo D; Rothstein, Jonathan P
2015-06-15
In this paper, we investigate the buckling of an oil-water interface populated by micron-sized latex particles using a Langmuir trough. In this work, we extend results of buckling of particle-laden interfaces from the millimeter down to the submicron range while investigating the effect of a different capillary length on the resulting wavelength. The experimental data is compared to the existing theoretical framework. An unexpected deviation from the prediction of theory of the dominant wavelength of buckling is observed for particles smaller than one micron. Those observations suggest that there is a transition to a new buckling regime involving the formation of trilayers below one micron. For the first time in particle rafts, cascading of the dominant wavelength similar to that observed in thin polymer films is reported. In addition a series of transitions between wavelengths not observed in thin films is observed within the same particle raft. Lastly, the effect of compression history on the macroscopic arrangement of particles is investigated, along with its effect on the buckling wavelength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Optimal Operation of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : A Nonlinear Model-based Control Approach
Mesbah, A.
2010-01-01
Batch crystallization is extensively employed in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to separate and purify high value-added chemical substances. Despite their widespread application, optimal operation of batch crystallizers is particularly challenging. The difficulties primarily
Stability Matrices for Lateral Buckling Analysis of Beams | Jiki ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
-symmetric sections has been proposed. The formulation employs a coupled lateral buckling functional to investigate the lateral buckling behaviour of a class of beams comprising bi-symmetric sections. While retaining the coupled modes of ...
Assessment of chandelier-assisted scleral buckling surgery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohsen A Abou Shousha
2015-01-01
Using 25 G chandelier endoillumination, surgical microscope, and wide-angle noncontact viewing system of PPV in scleral buckling surgery is easier and more convenient than the original buckling procedure using an indirect ophthalmoscope.
Optimal design of passive gravity compensation system for articulated robots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jin Gyun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sung Rak [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-01-15
In this paper, the optimal design of a spring type gravity compensation system for an articulated robot is presented. Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is adopted to resolve various nonlinear constraints in spring design such as stress, buckling, and fatigue constraints, and to reduce computation time. In addition, continuous relaxation method is used to explain the integer valued design variables. The simulation results show that the gravity compensation system designed by proposed method improves the performance effectively without additional weight gain in the main workspace.
Buckling And Postbuckling Of An Imperfect Plate Subjected To The Shear Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Psotný Martin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The stability analysis of an imperfect plate subjected to the shear load is presented. To solve this problem, a specialized computer program based on FEM has been created. The nonlinear finite element method equations are derived from the variational principle of minimum of total potential energy. To obtain the nonlinear equilibrium paths, the Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is used. Corresponding levels of the total potential energy are defined. Special attention is paid to the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode. Obtained results are compared with those gained using ANSYS system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2011-01-01
This paper deals with optimization of the shape of the transition piece connecting turbine column with a suction bucket used as a monopod foundation for an offshore wind turbine. The structural behaviour of a transition piece made of compact reinforced composite (CRC) is analysed. Several...... geometries are compared to find the one providing better force distribution, preventing stress concentration and buckling, reducing the amount of material used as well as potentially minimizing scour. Local optimization of the cross section is performed with the aim of minimizing the material consumption...... (steel, as well as CRC). A non-linear finiteelement model is developed for analysis of the structure....
Enhanced piezoelectric wind energy harvesting based on a buckled beam
Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Jia; Shu, Chang; Fang, Zhou
2017-05-01
In order to improve the wind energy conversion efficiency, this study entails a concept utilizing the buckling behavior of a buckled beam to induce large amplitude oscillations in a PVDF beam harvester. Specifically, when the buckled beam subjected to the buckling load is in an unstable condition, the wind load can trigger the drastic vibration of the PVDF beam harvester. Experimental results demonstrate that the output performances of the proposed harvester are improved dramatically compared with a traditional cantilever beam harvester.
Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.
2010-01-01
Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.
Buckling of paramagnetic chains in soft gels.
Huang, Shilin; Pessot, Giorgio; Cremer, Peet; Weeber, Rudolf; Holm, Christian; Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan; Menzel, Andreas M; Auernhammer, Günter K
2016-01-07
We study the magneto-elastic coupling behavior of paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels exposed to external magnetic fields. To this end, a laser scanning confocal microscope is used to observe the morphology of the paramagnetic chains together with the deformation field of the surrounding gel network. The paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels show rich morphological shape changes under oblique magnetic fields, in particular a pronounced buckling deformation. The details of the resulting morphological shapes depend on the length of the chain, the strength of the external magnetic field, and the modulus of the gel. Based on the observation that the magnetic chains are strongly coupled to the surrounding polymer network, a simplified model is developed to describe their buckling behavior. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation model featuring an increased matrix stiffness on the surfaces of the particles leads to morphologies in agreement with the experimentally observed buckling effects.
Elastic buckling analysis of corroded stiffened plates with irregular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
reduced by as much as 12% for the interaction of plate-web-torsional buckling mode, and by 2% for column buckling. Keywords. Corrosion; irregular surfaces; stiffened panel; interaction of buckling modes. 1. Introduction. Stiffened plate, where thin plate stiffened with welded longitudinal stiffeners and transverse.
21 CFR 886.3300 - Absorbable implant (scleral buckling method).
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable implant (scleral buckling method). 886... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3300 Absorbable implant (scleral buckling method). (a) Identification. An absorbable implant (scleral buckling method) is a device...
Thermal post-buckling of slender composite and FGM columns ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A simple and novel finite element (FE) formulation is proposed to study the thermal post-buckling of composite and FGM columns with axially immovable ends and operating in severe thermal environment. A linear eigenvalue analysis gives the critical buckling temperature but practically the buckled columns canwithstand ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janmenjoy Nayak
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO based higher order neural network with a single hidden layer called Pi–Sigma Neural Network (PSNN has been proposed for data classification which maintains fast learning capability and avoids the exponential increase of number of weights and processing units. CRO is a recent metaheuristic optimization algorithm inspired by chemical reactions, free from intricate operator and parameter settings such as other algorithms and loosely couples chemical reactions with optimization. The performance of the proposed CRO-PSNN has been tested with various benchmark datasets from UCI machine learning repository and compared with the resulting performance of PSNN, GA-PSNN, PSO-PSNN. The methods have been implemented in MATLAB and the accuracy measures have been tested by using the ANOVA statistical tool. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast, steady and reliable and provides better classification accuracy than others.
Buckling behavior of individual and bundled microtubules.
Soheilypour, Mohammad; Peyro, Mohaddeseh; Peter, Stephen J; Mofrad, Mohammad R K
2015-04-07
As the major structural constituent of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs) serve a variety of biological functions that range from facilitating organelle transport to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cell. Neuronal MTs exhibit a distinct configuration, hexagonally packed bundles of MT filaments, interconnected by MT-associated protein (MAP) tau. Building on our previous work on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension, this study is focused on exploring the compression scenarios. Intracellular MTs carry a large fraction of the compressive loads sensed by the cell and therefore, like any other column-like structure, are prone to substantial bending and buckling. Various biological activities, e.g., actomyosin contractility and many pathological conditions are driven or followed by bending, looping, and buckling of MT filaments. The coarse-grained model previously developed in our lab has been used to study the mechanical behavior of individual and bundled in vivo MT filaments under uniaxial compression. Both configurations show tip-localized, decaying, and short-wavelength buckling. This behavior highlights the role of the surrounding cytoplasm and MAP tau on MT buckling behavior, which allows MT filaments to bear much larger compressive forces. It is observed that MAP tau interconnections improve this effect by a factor of two. The enhanced ability of MT bundles to damp buckling waves relative to individual MT filaments, may be interpreted as a self-defense mechanism because it helps axonal MTs to endure harsher environments while maintaining their function. The results indicate that MT filaments in a bundle do not buckle simultaneously implying that the applied stress is not equally shared among the MT filaments, that is a consequence of the nonuniform distribution of MAP tau proteins along the bundle length. Furthermore, from a pathological perspective, it is observed that axonal MT bundles are more vulnerable to failure in
Optimal control problem for a sixth-order Cahn-Hilliard equation with nonlinear diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changchun Liu
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study the initial-boundary-value problem for a sixth-order Cahn-Hilliard type equation $$displaylines{ u_t=D^2mu, cr mu=gamma D^4u-a(uD^2u-frac{a'(u}2|D u|^2+f(u+ku_t, }$$ which describes the separation properties of oil-water mixtures, when a substance enforcing the mixing of the phases is added. The optimal control of the sixth order Cahn-Hilliard type equation under boundary condition is given and the existence of optimal solution to the sixth order Cahn-Hilliard type equation is proved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chonghui Shao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The flutter and thermal buckling behavior of laminated composite panels embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires are studied in this research. The classical plate theory and nonlinear von-Karman strain-displacement relation are employed to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of the smart laminated panel. The thermodynamic behaviors of SMA wires are simulated based on one-dimensional Brinson SMA model. The aerodynamic pressure on the panel is described by the nonlinear piston theory. Nonlinear governing partial differential equations of motion are derived for the panel via the Hamilton principle. The effects of ply angle of the composite panel, SMA layer location and orientation, SMA wires temperature, volume fraction and prestrain on the buckling, flutter boundary, and amplitude of limit cycle oscillation of the panel are analyzed in detail.
Computational Modelling and Optimal Control of Ebola Virus Disease with non-Linear Incidence Rate
Takaidza, I.; Makinde, O. D.; Okosun, O. K.
2017-03-01
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has exposed the need to connect modellers and those with relevant data as pivotal to better understanding of how the disease spreads and quantifying the effects of possible interventions. In this paper, we model and analyse the Ebola virus disease with non-linear incidence rate. The epidemic model created is used to describe how the Ebola virus could potentially evolve in a population. We perform an uncertainty analysis of the basic reproductive number R 0 to quantify its sensitivity to other disease-related parameters. We also analyse the sensitivity of the final epidemic size to the time control interventions (education, vaccination, quarantine and safe handling) and provide the cost effective combination of the interventions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharifi Somayeh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a family of three-point with eight-order convergence methods for finding the simple roots of nonlinear equations by suitable approximations and weight function based on Maheshwari’s method. Per iteration this method requires three evaluations of the function and one evaluation of its first derivative. These class of methods have the efficiency index equal to 814≈1.682${8^{{\\textstyle{1 \\over 4}}}} \\approx 1.682$. We describe the analysis of the proposed methods along with numerical experiments including comparison with the existing methods. Moreover, the attraction basins of the proposed methods are shown with some comparisons to the other existing methods.
Zhang, Rong; Liu, Wei; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Long
2018-01-01
We investigate the performance at arbitrary power of minimally nonlinear irreversible thermoelectric generators (MNITGs) with broken time-reversal symmetry within linear irreversible thermodynamics, and the efficiency of MNITGs at arbitrary power is analytically derived. Furthermore, a universal bound on the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TGs) with broken time-reversal symmetry and the arbitrary power is obtained. Some system-specific characteristics are discussed and uncovered. A large efficiency at arbitrary power can also be achieved via the cooperative mechanism between the system parameters. Our results indicate that the broken time-reversal symmetry provides the physically allowed degrees of freedom for tuning the performance of thermoelectric devices, and the physical trade-off region between the efficiency and the power output can also offer the appropriate space for optimizing the performance of TGs.
Membrane Buckling Induced by Curved Filaments
Lenz, Martin; Crow, Daniel J. G.; Joanny, Jean-François
2009-07-01
We present a novel buckling instability relevant to membrane budding in eukaryotic cells. In this mechanism, curved filaments bind to a lipid bilayer without changing its intrinsic curvature. As more and more filaments adsorb, newly added ones are more and more strained, which destabilizes the flat membrane. We perform a linear stability analysis of filament-dressed membranes and find that the buckling threshold is within reasonable in vivo parameter values. We account for the formation of long tubes previously observed in cells and in purified systems. We study strongly deformed dressed membranes and their bifurcation diagram numerically. Our mechanism could be validated by a simple experiment.
Scleral Buckle Infection With Pseudallescheria boydii.
Law, Janice C; Breazzano, Mark P; Eliott, Dean
2017-08-01
Pseudallescheria boydii is a ubiquitous fungus that infects soft tissues and is known to cause ocular disease, including keratitis and endophthalmitis, in rare cases. In immunocompromised hosts, P. boydii can disseminate to or from the eye and other organs with lethal consequences. Postoperative P. boydii infections have, in rare cases, complicated several types of ocular surgeries in immunocompetent patients, but never for a scleral buckle. The authors present the first case of an infected scleral buckle from P. boydii. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:676-678.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Dynamic buckling of actin within filopodia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leijnse, Natascha; Oddershede, Lene B; Bendix, Pól Martin
2015-01-01
Filopodia are active tubular structures protruding from the cell surface which allow the cell to sense and interact with the surrounding environment through repetitive elongation-retraction cycles. The mechanical behavior of filopodia has been studied by measuring the traction forces exerted...... on external substrates.(1) These studies have revealed that internal actin flow can transduce a force across the cell surface through transmembrane linkers like integrins. In addition to the elongation-retraction behavior filopodia also exhibit a buckling and rotational behavior. Filopodial buckling...
Scleral buckle infection by Serratia species
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramesh Venkatesh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a rare case of scleral buckle (SB infection with Serratia species. A 48-year-old male with a history of retinal detachment repair with scleral buckling presented with redness, pain, and purulent discharge in the left eye for 4 days. Conjunctival erosion with exposure of the SB and scleral thinning was noted. The SB was removed and sent for culture. Blood and chocolate agar grew Gram-negative rod-shaped bacillus identified as Serratia marcescens. On the basis of the susceptibility test results, the patient was treated with oral and topical antibiotics. After 6 weeks of the treatment, his infection resolved.
Design rules against buckling of dished heads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.; Autrusson, B.
1984-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the validation of the rules of the French code of presure vessels CODAP. First, it is shown that the theories of buckling cannot give alone a sufficient base of validation and that the experimental justification is necessary. Then, the admissible pressure values corresponding to the CODAP formules are compared with the experimental results. This comparison furnishes the safety margins given by the CODAP formules. Finally, buckling tests of torispherical shells carried out at the CEA Saclay (France) are presented. The results obtained can be represented by a simple semi-empiric formula [fr
An exact solution of mechanical buckling for functionally graded material bimorph circular plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jafar Eskandari Jam
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Presented herein is the exact solution of mechanical buckling response of FGM (Functionally Graded Material bimorph circular plates, performed under uniform radial compression, by means of the classic theory and the non-linear Von-Karman assumptions, for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. Material properties are assumed to be symmetric with respect to the middle surface and are graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law, in a way that the middle surface is pure metal and the two sides are pure ceramic. Using the energy method the non-linear equilibrium equations are derived and the stability equations have been used, so as to determine the critical buckling pressure, considering the adjacent equilibrium criterion, and finally a closed-form solution has been achieved for it. The effect of different factors, including thickness to radius variation rate of the plate, volumetric percentage of material index, and Poisson's ratio on the critical buckling compression have been investigated for two simply supported and clamped boundary conditions, and the results
Dynamic Snap-Through of Thermally Buckled Structures by a Reduced Order Method
Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.
2007-01-01
The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures exposed to combined high intensity random pressure fluctuations and thermal loadings. The study is conducted on a flat aluminum beam, which permits a comparison of results obtained by a reduced-order analysis with those obtained from a numerically intensive simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. A uniformly distributed thermal loading is first applied to investigate the dynamic instability associated with thermal buckling. A uniformly distributed random loading is added to investigate the combined thermal-acoustic response. In the latter case, three types of response characteristics are considered, namely: (i) small amplitude vibration around one of the two stable buckling equilibrium positions, (ii) intermittent snap-through response between the two equilibrium positions, and (iii) persistent snap-through response between the two equilibrium positions. For the reduced-order analysis, four categories of modal basis functions are identified including those having symmetric transverse, anti-symmetric transverse, symmetric in-plane, and anti-symmetric in-plane displacements. The effect of basis selection on the quality of results is investigated for the dynamic thermal buckling and combined thermal-acoustic response. It is found that despite symmetric geometry, loading, and boundary conditions, the anti-symmetric transverse and symmetric in-plane modes must be included in the basis as they participate in the snap-through behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; Drohmann, Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; Tuminaro, Raymond S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Computational Mathematics; Boggs, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; Ray, Jaideep [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Quantitative Modeling and Analysis; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Optimization and Uncertainty Estimation
2014-10-01
-model errors. This enables ROMs to be rigorously incorporated in uncertainty-quantification settings, as the error model can be treated as a source of epistemic uncertainty. This work was completed as part of a Truman Fellowship appointment. We note that much additional work was performed as part of the Fellowship. One salient project is the development of the Trilinos-based model-reduction software module Razor , which is currently bundled with the Albany PDE code and currently allows nonlinear reduced-order models to be constructed for any application supported in Albany. Other important projects include the following: 1. ROMES-equipped ROMs for Bayesian inference: K. Carlberg, M. Drohmann, F. Lu (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), M. Morzfeld (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2. ROM-enabled Krylov-subspace recycling: K. Carlberg, V. Forstall (University of Maryland), P. Tsuji, R. Tuminaro. 3. A pseudo balanced POD method using only dual snapshots: K. Carlberg, M. Sarovar. 4. An analysis of discrete v. continuous optimality in nonlinear model reduction: K. Carlberg, M. Barone, H. Antil (George Mason University). Journal articles for these projects are in progress at the time of this writing.
Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers
Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo
2015-09-01
Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature.
Optimal bounds and extremal trajectories for time averages in nonlinear dynamical systems
Tobasco, Ian; Goluskin, David; Doering, Charles R.
2018-02-01
For any quantity of interest in a system governed by ordinary differential equations, it is natural to seek the largest (or smallest) long-time average among solution trajectories, as well as the extremal trajectories themselves. Upper bounds on time averages can be proved a priori using auxiliary functions, the optimal choice of which is a convex optimization problem. We prove that the problems of finding maximal trajectories and minimal auxiliary functions are strongly dual. Thus, auxiliary functions provide arbitrarily sharp upper bounds on time averages. Moreover, any nearly minimal auxiliary function provides phase space volumes in which all nearly maximal trajectories are guaranteed to lie. For polynomial equations, auxiliary functions can be constructed by semidefinite programming, which we illustrate using the Lorenz system.
On the buckling of an elastic holey column
Johnson, C. G.; Jain, U.; Hazel, A. L.; Pihler-Puzović, D.; Mullin, T.
2017-11-01
We report the results of a numerical and theoretical study of buckling in elastic columns containing a line of holes. Buckling is a common failure mode of elastic columns under compression, found over scales ranging from metres in buildings and aircraft to tens of nanometers in DNA. This failure usually occurs through lateral buckling, described for slender columns by Euler's theory. When the column is perforated with a regular line of holes, a new buckling mode arises, in which adjacent holes collapse in orthogonal directions. In this paper, we firstly elucidate how this alternate hole buckling mode coexists and interacts with classical Euler buckling modes, using finite-element numerical calculations with bifurcation tracking. We show how the preferred buckling mode is selected by the geometry, and discuss the roles of localized (hole-scale) and global (column-scale) buckling. Secondly, we develop a novel predictive model for the buckling of columns perforated with large holes. This model is derived without arbitrary fitting parameters, and quantitatively predicts the critical strain for buckling. We extend the model to sheets perforated with a regular array of circular holes and use it to provide quantitative predictions of their buckling.
Buckling Capacity Curves for Steel Spherical Shells Loaded by the External Pressure
Błażejewski, Paweł; Marcinowski, Jakub
2015-03-01
Assessment of buckling resistance of pressurised spherical cap is not an easy task. There exist two different approaches which allow to achieve this goal. The first approach involves performing advanced numerical analyses in which material and geometrical nonlinearities would be taken into account as well as considering the worst imperfections of the defined amplitude. This kind of analysis is customarily called GMNIA and is carried out by means of the computer software based on FEM. The other, comparatively easier approach, relies on the utilisation of earlier prepared procedures which enable determination of the critical resistance pRcr, the plastic resistance pRpl and buckling parameters a, b, h, l 0 needed to the definition of the standard buckling resistance curve. The determination of the buckling capacity curve for the particular class of spherical caps is the principal goal of this work. The method of determination of the critical pressure and the plastic resistance were described by the authors in [1] whereas the worst imperfection mode for the considered class of spherical shells was found in [2]. The determination of buckling parameters defining the buckling capacity curve for the whole class of shells is more complicated task. For this reason the authors focused their attention on spherical steel caps with the radius to thickness ratio of R/t = 500, the semi angle j = 30o and the boundary condition BC2 (the clamped supporting edge). Taking into account all imperfection forms considered in [2] and different amplitudes expressed by the multiple of the shell thickness, sets of buckling parameters defining the capacity curve were determined. These parameters were determined by the methods proposed by Rotter in [3] and [4] where the method of determination of the exponent h by means of additional parameter k was presented. As a result of the performed analyses the standard capacity curves for all considered imperfection modes and amplitudes 0.5t, 1.0t, 1.5t
Buckling instability of circular double-layered graphene sheets.
Natsuki, Toshiaki; Shi, Jin-Xing; Ni, Qing-Qing
2012-04-04
In this paper, we study the buckling properties of circular double-layered graphene sheets (DLGSs), using plate theory. The two graphene layers are modeled as two individual sheets whose interactions are determined by the Lennard-Jones potential of the carbon-carbon bond. An analytical solution of coupled governing equations is proposed for predicting the buckling properties of circular DLGSs. Using the present theoretical approach, the influences of boundary conditions, plate sizes, and buckling-mode shapes on the buckling behaviors are investigated in detail. The buckling stability is significantly affected by the buckling-mode shapes. As a result of van der Waals interactions, the buckling stress of circular DLGSs is much larger for the anti-phase mode than for the in-phase mode. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd
Roy Choudhury, Raja; Roy Choudhury, Arundhati; Kanti Ghose, Mrinal
2013-01-01
A faster and accurate semianalytical formulation with a robust optimization solution for estimating the splice loss of graded-index fibers has been proposed. The semianalytical optimization of modal parameters has been carried out by Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained minimization suitable for functions which are uncertain, noisy, or even discontinuous. Instead of normally used Gaussian function, as the trial field for the fundamental mode of graded-index optical fiber a novel sinc...
Some applications of NASTRAN to the buckling of thin cylindrical shells with cutouts
Williams, J. G.; Starnes, J. H., Jr.
1972-01-01
The buckling of isotropic and waffle-stiffened circular cylinders with and without cutouts was studied using NASTRAN's Rigid Format 5 for the case of axial compressive loading. The results obtained for the cylinders without cutouts are compared with available reference solutions. The results for the isotropic cylinders containing a single circular cutout with selected radii are compared with available experimental data. For the waffle-stiffened cyclinder, the effect of two diametrically opposed rectangular cutouts was studied. A DMAP alter sequence was used to permit the necessary application of different prebuckling and buckling boundary conditions. Advantage was taken of available symmetry planes to formulate equivalent NASTRAN model segments which reduced the associated computational cost of performing the analyses. Limitations of the applicability of NASTRAN for the solution of problems with nonlinear characteristics are discussed.
Hilburger, Mark W.; Starnes, James H., Jr.
2004-01-01
The results of an experimental and numerical study of the effects of initial imperfections on the buckling response and failure of unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells are presented. The shells considered in the study have six different orthotropic or quasi-isotropic shell-wall laminates and two different shell-radius-to-thickness ratios. The numerical results include the effects of geometric shell-wall mid-surface imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform end loads, and the effects of elastic boundary conditions. Selected cylinder parameter uncertainties were also considered. Results that illustrate the effects of imperfections and uncertainties on the nonlinear response characteristics, buckling loads and failure the shells are presented. In addition, a common failure analysis is used to predict material failures in the shells.
Yield stress independent column buckling curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe
2017-01-01
Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...
Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Corrosion makes structures more vulnerable to buckling and yielding failures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. To estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required, since the actual corroded structures have ...
Buckling Pneumatic Linear Actuators Inspired by Muscle
Yang, Dian; Verma, Mohit Singh; So, Ju-Hee; Mosadegh, Bobak; Keplinger, Christoph; Lee, Benjamin; Khashai, Fatemeh; Lossner, Elton Garret; Suo, Zhigang; Whitesides, George McClelland
2016-01-01
The mechanical features of biological muscles are difficult to reproduce completely in synthetic systems. A new class of soft pneumatic structures (vacuum-actuated muscle-inspired pneumatic structures) is described that combines actuation by negative pressure (vacuum), with cooperative buckling of beams fabricated in a slab of elastomer, to achieve motion and demonstrate many features that are similar to that of mammalian muscle.
Critical Buckling Load on Large Spherical Shells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wedellsborg, B. W.
1962-01-01
Approximate evaluation for watertanks, hortonspheres, vapor containers, containment vessels for nuclear reactors, and so forth, has been computed, taking into account out-of-roundness and local flattened areas; graphs have been plotted giving critical buckling load as function of maximum radial...
Outcomes of scleral buckling using chandelier endoillumination.
Hu, Yuntao; Si, Shancheng; Xu, Ke; Chen, Huijin; Han, Liang; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhizhong
2017-09-01
To report the results and complications of scleral buckling for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using 25-gauge chandelier endoillumination. A total of 61 patients (61 eyes) with RRD were treated with scleral buckling. For the sclera buckling procedure, a 25-gauge chandelier was inserted through the pars plana for intra-ocular illumination, and retinal tears were identified and treated with episcleral cryotherapy under surgical microscope. On postoperative days 1, 3 and 7, the intra-ocular pressure was measured by a non-contact tonometer. On postoperative months 1 and 3, ultrasound biomicroscopy was used to examine the pars plana incision. In the surgical procedure, there was no lenticular or retinal damage due to the chandelier insertion. There was no conjunctival bleb formation at pars plana incision and no incidence of endophthalmitis after surgery. The mean intra-ocular pressure was 15.74 ± 2.98, 15.83 ± 2.76 and 16.14 ± 2.52 mmHg on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7, respectively. The one-time retinal reattachment rate was 93.4%. No visible vitreous incarceration was found in the incision of the pars plana. There was no complication found due to the chandelier insertion in early postoperative period. Chandelier endoillumination is a feasible method for retinal visualization under surgical microscope during scleral buckling. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Ren Tsai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A tracking problem, time-delay, uncertainty and stability analysis of a predictive control system are considered. The predictive control design is based on the input and output of neural plant model (NPM, and a recursive fuzzy predictive tracker has scaling factors which limit the value zone of measured data and cause the tuned parameters to converge to obtain a robust control performance. To improve the further control performance, the proposed random-local-optimization design (RLO for a model/controller uses offline initialization to obtain a near global optimal model/controller. Other issues are the considerations of modeling error, input-delay, sampling distortion, cost, greater flexibility, and highly reliable digital products of the model-based controller for the continuous-time (CT nonlinear system. They are solved by a recommended two-stage control design with the first-stage (offline RLO and second-stage (online adaptive steps. A theorizing method is then put forward to replace the sensitivity calculation, which reduces the calculation of Jacobin matrices of the back-propagation (BP method. Finally, the feedforward input of reference signals helps the digital fuzzy controller improve the control performance, and the technique works to control the CT systems precisely.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farong Kou
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to coordinate the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of energy regenerative suspension, this paper proposes a structure of a vehicle semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA. In light of the proposed concept, a specific energy regenerative scheme is designed and a mechanical properties test is carried out. Based on the test results, the parameter identification for the system model is conducted using a recursive least squares algorithm. On the basis of the system principle, the nonlinear model of the semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an EHA is built. Meanwhile, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control strategy of the system is designed. Then, the influence of the main parameters of the EHA on the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of the suspension is analyzed. Finally, the main parameters of the EHA are optimized via the genetic algorithm. The test results show that when a sinusoidal is input at the frequency of 2 Hz and the amplitude of 30 mm, the spring mass acceleration root meam square value of the optimized EHA semi-active energy regenerative suspension is reduced by 22.23% and the energy regenerative power RMS value is increased by 40.51%, which means that while meeting the requirements of vehicle ride comfort and driving safety, the energy regenerative performance is improved significantly.
Xu, Y; Li, N
2014-09-01
Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator-prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Y; Li, N
2014-01-01
Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator–prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework. (paper)
Progress on optimization of the nonlinear beam dynamics in the MEIC collider rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nosochkov, Y. M.; Cai, Y.; Sullivan, M.; Wang, M-H; Wienands, U.; Morozov, V. S.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Lin, F.; Pilat, F.; Zhang, Y.
2015-01-01
One of the key design features of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is a small beta function at the interaction point (IP) allowing one to achieve a high luminosity of up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The required strong beam focusing unavoidably causes large chromatic effects such as chromatic tune spread and beam smear at the IP, which need to be compensated. This paper reports recent progress in our development of a chromaticity correction scheme for the ion ring including optimization of dynamic aperture and momentum acceptance.
Progress on Optimization of the Nonlinear Beam Dynamics in the MEIC Collider Rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H.; Wienands, Uli
2015-09-01
One of the key design features of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is a small beta function at the interaction point (IP) allowing one to achieve a high luminosity of up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The required strong beam focusing unavoidably causes large chromatic effects such as chromatic tune spread and beam smear at the IP, which need to be compensated. This paper reports recent progress in our development of a chromaticity correction scheme for the ion ring including optimization of dynamic aperture and momentum acceptance.
Dutta, Samrat; Patchaikani, Prem Kumar; Behera, Laxmidhar
2016-07-01
This paper presents a single-network adaptive critic-based controller for continuous-time systems with unknown dynamics in a policy iteration (PI) framework. It is assumed that the unknown dynamics can be estimated using the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model with arbitrary precision. The successful implementation of a PI scheme depends on the effective learning of critic network parameters. Network parameters must stabilize the system in each iteration in addition to approximating the critic and the cost. It is found that the critic updates according to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formulation sometimes lead to the instability of the closed-loop systems. In the proposed work, a novel critic network parameter update scheme is adopted, which not only approximates the critic at current iteration but also provides feasible solutions that keep the policy stable in the next step of training by combining a Lyapunov-based linear matrix inequalities approach with PI. The critic modeling technique presented here is the first of its kind to address this issue. Though multiple literature exists discussing the convergence of PI, however, to the best of our knowledge, there exists no literature, which focuses on the effect of critic network parameters on the convergence. Computational complexity in the proposed algorithm is reduced to the order of (Fz)(n-1) , where n is the fuzzy state dimensionality and Fz is the number of fuzzy zones in the states space. A genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB is used for searching stable parameters while minimizing the training error. The proposed algorithm also provides a way to solve for the initial stable control policy in the PI scheme. The algorithm is validated through real-time experiment on a commercial robotic manipulator. Results show that the algorithm successfully finds stable critic network parameters in real time for a highly nonlinear system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Shilnikov, Kirill E.
2016-01-01
Numerical computation of the three dimensional problem of the freezing interface propagation during the cryosurgery coupled with the multi-objective optimization methods is used in order to improve the efficiency and safety of the cryosurgery operations performing. Prostate cancer treatment and cutaneous cryosurgery are considered. The heat transfer in soft tissue during the thermal exposure to low temperature is described by the Pennes bioheat model and is coupled with an enthalpy method for blurred phase change computations. The finite volume method combined with the control volume approximation of the heat fluxes is applied for the cryosurgery numerical modeling on the tumor tissue of a quite arbitrary shape. The flux relaxation approach is used for the stability improvement of the explicit finite difference schemes. The method of the additional heating elements mounting is studied as an approach to control the cellular necrosis front propagation. Whereas the undestucted tumor tissue and destucted healthy tissue volumes are considered as objective functions, the locations of additional heating elements in cutaneous cryosurgery and cryotips in prostate cancer cryotreatment are considered as objective variables in multi-objective problem. The quasi-gradient method is proposed for the searching of the Pareto front segments as the multi-objective optimization problem solutions.
Optimal pollution mitigation in Monterey Bay based on coastal radar data and nonlinear dynamics.
Coulliette, Chad; Lekien, Francois; Paduan, Jeffrey D; Haller, George; Marsden, Jerrold E
2007-09-15
High-frequency (HF) radar technology produces detailed velocity maps near the surface of estuaries and bays. The use of velocity data in environmental prediction, nonetheless, remains unexplored. In this paper, we uncover a striking flow structure in coastal radar observations of Monterey Bay, along the California coastline. This complex structure governs the spread of organic contaminants, such as agricultural runoff which is a typical source of pollution in the bay. We show that a HF radar-based pollution release scheme using this flow structure reduces the impact of pollution on the coastal environment in the bay. We predict the motion of the Lagrangian flow structures from finite-time Lyapunov exponents of the coastal HF velocity data. From this prediction, we obtain optimal release times, at which pollution leaves the bay most efficiently.
Corbetta, Matteo; Sbarufatti, Claudio; Giglio, Marco; Todd, Michael D.
2018-05-01
The present work critically analyzes the probabilistic definition of dynamic state-space models subject to Bayesian filters used for monitoring and predicting monotonic degradation processes. The study focuses on the selection of the random process, often called process noise, which is a key perturbation source in the evolution equation of particle filtering. Despite the large number of applications of particle filtering predicting structural degradation, the adequacy of the picked process noise has not been investigated. This paper reviews existing process noise models that are typically embedded in particle filters dedicated to monitoring and predicting structural damage caused by fatigue, which is monotonic in nature. The analysis emphasizes that existing formulations of the process noise can jeopardize the performance of the filter in terms of state estimation and remaining life prediction (i.e., damage prognosis). This paper subsequently proposes an optimal and unbiased process noise model and a list of requirements that the stochastic model must satisfy to guarantee high prognostic performance. These requirements are useful for future and further implementations of particle filtering for monotonic system dynamics. The validity of the new process noise formulation is assessed against experimental fatigue crack growth data from a full-scale aeronautical structure using dedicated performance metrics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. P. Kupenko
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We study a Dirichlet optimal control problem for a nonlinear elliptic anisotropic p-Laplace equation with control and state constraints. The matrix-valued coecients we take as controls and in the linear part of dierential operator we consider coecients to be unbounded skew-symmetric matrix. We show that, in spite of unboundedness of the non-linear dierential operator, the considered Dirichlet problem admits at least one weak solution and the corresponding OCP is well-possed and solvable.
Ansari, R.; Gholami, R.
2016-09-01
Considering the small scale effect together with the influences of transverse shear deformation, rotary inertia and the magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical coupling, the linear free vibration of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates with various edge supports in pre- and post-buckled states is investigated herein. It is assumed that the METE nanoplate is subjected to the external in-plane compressive loads in combination with magnetic, electric and thermal loads. The Mindlin plate theory, von Kármán hypothesis and the nonlocal theory are utilized to develop a size-dependent geometrically nonlinear plate model for describing the size-dependent linear and nonlinear mechanical characteristics of moderately thick METE rectangular nanoplates. The nonlinear governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton’s principle which are then discretized via the generalized differential quadrature method. The pseudo-arc length continuation approach is used to obtain the equilibrium postbuckling path of METE nanoplates. By the obtained postbuckling response, and taking a time-dependent small disturbance around the buckled configuration, and inserting them into the nonlinear governing equations, an eigenvalue problem is achieved from which the frequencies of pre- and post-buckled METE nanoplates can be calculated. The effects of nonlocal parameter, electric, magnetic and thermal loadings, length-to-thickness ratio and different boundary conditions on the free vibration response of METE rectangular nanoplates in the pre- and post-buckled states are highlighted.
Micro-buckling in the nanocomposite structure of biological materials
Su, Yewang; Ji, Baohua; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang
2012-10-01
Nanocomposite structure, consisting of hard mineral and soft protein, is the elementary building block of biological materials, where the mineral crystals are arranged in a staggered manner in protein matrix. This special alignment of mineral is supposed to be crucial to the structural stability of the biological materials under compressive load, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. In this study, we performed analytical analysis on the buckling strength of the nanocomposite structure by explicitly considering the staggered alignment of the mineral crystals, as well as the coordination among the minerals during the buckling deformation. Two local buckling modes of the nanostructure were identified, i.e., the symmetric mode and anti-symmetric mode. We showed that the symmetric mode often happens at large aspect ratio and large volume fraction of mineral, while the anti-symmetric happens at small aspect ratio and small volume fraction. In addition, we showed that because of the coordination of minerals with the help of their staggered alignment, the buckling strength of these two modes approached to that of the ideally continuous fiber reinforced composites at large aspect ratio given by Rosen's model, insensitive to the existing "gap"-like flaws between mineral tips. Furthermore, we identified a mechanism of buckling mode transition from local to global buckling with increase of aspect ratio, which was attributed to the biphasic dependence of the buckling strength on the aspect ratio. That is, for small aspect ratio, the local buckling strength is smaller than that of global buckling so that it dominates the buckling behavior of the nanocomposite; for comparatively larger aspect ratio, the local buckling strength is higher than that of global buckling so that the global buckling dominates the buckling behavior. We also found that the hierarchical structure can effectively enhance the buckling strength, particularly, this structural design enables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, H; Ye, D; Che, R S; Chen, G
2006-01-01
With the increasing need for higher accuracy measurement in computer vision, the precision of camera calibration is a more important factor. The objective of stereo camera calibration is to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera. We presented a high-accurate technique to calibrate binocular stereo vision system having been mounted the locations and attitudes, which was realized by combining nonlinear optimization method with accurate calibration points. The calibration points with accurate coordinates, were formed by an infrared LED moved with three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine, which can ensure indeterminacy of measurement is 1/30000. By using bilinear interpolation square-gray weighted centroid location algorithm, the imaging centers of the calibration points can be accurately determined. The accuracy of the calibration is measured in terms of the accuracy in the reconstructing calibration points through triangulation, the mean distance between reconstructing point and given calibration point is 0.039mm. The technique can satisfy the goals of measurement and camera accurate calibration
On the dynamic buckling of thin shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combescure, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Homan, R.
1986-10-01
The shells of a pool type reactor like Super Phenix 1 or the Super Phenix 2 project are relatively thin compared to the diameter. Normal loads and mainly seismic loads due to strong fluid-structure interaction and giving pressure of the same order then static collapse pressure. This is a main difficulty for a good and safe design of LMFBR. The paper describes the experimental results obtained at CEA-DEMT on the seismic buckling of structures filled with fluid. A general tendency is given on all experimental results. The experimental results are analysed by two simple models and the main results are explained. A strategy to design a structure against dynamic buckling is then presented. 7 refs
Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube
Moulton, D.E.
2011-03-01
A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the buckling of elastic rings by external confinement.
Hazel, Andrew L; Mullin, Tom
2017-05-13
We report the results of an experimental and numerical investigation into the buckling of thin elastic rings confined within containers of circular or regular polygonal cross section. The rings float on the surface of water held in the container and controlled removal of the fluid increases the confinement of the ring. The increased compressive forces can cause the ring to buckle into a variety of shapes. For the circular container, finite perturbations are required to induce buckling, whereas in polygonal containers the buckling occurs through a linear instability that is closely related to the canonical Euler column buckling. A model based on Kirchhoff-Love beam theory is developed and solved numerically, showing good agreement with the experiments and revealing that in polygons increasing the number of sides means that buckling occurs at reduced levels of confinement.This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.' © 2017 The Author(s).
Akbarov, Surkay
2013-01-01
This book investigates stability loss and buckling delamination problems of the viscoelastic composite materials and structural members made from these materials within the framework of the Three-Dimensional Linearized Theory of Stability (TDLTS). The investigation of stability loss problems is based on the study of an evolution of the initial infinitesimal imperfection in the structure of the material or of the structural members with time (for viscoelastic composites) or with external compressing forces (for elastic composites). This study is made within the scope of the Three-Dimensional Geometrically Non-Linear Theory of the Deformable Solid Body Mechanics. The solution to the corresponding boundary-value problems is presented in the series form in a small parameter which characterizes the degree of the initial imperfection. The boundary form perturbation technique is employed and nonlinear problems for the domains bounded by noncanonical surfaces are reduced to the same nonlinear problem for the correspo...
[Scleral buckling for inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachments].
Abdellaoui, M; Chraibi, F; Benatiya Andaloussi, I; Tahri, H
2014-10-01
To investigate the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic factors in cases of inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD) treated by scleral buckling surgery. A retrospective chart review was performed on 45 patients (45 eyes) with inferior RD with only inferior tears (4:00-8:00), who had been treated by scleral buckling surgery over a 6-year period from 2006 to 2011. The parameters studied included patient demographics, refractive status, time until consultation, clinical exam data, treatment modalities and functional and anatomic results. Forty-five cases were included in this study (45 eyes), with an average patient age of 44.5 years (14 to 75 years) and a slight male predominance (56%). Myopia was observed in 60%. Mean time until consultation was 3.5 months. Visual acuity on admission was less than 1/10 in 53.33%. Macular detachment was found in 80%. Causative lesions were holes in 26 eyes. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy was essentially stage B in 48.9%. Scleral buckling surgery was performed in all patients, with drainage of subretinal fluid in 37.8%. Retinal reattachment was obtained in 36 eyes (80%) with a final visual acuity greater than or equal to 1/10 in 71.11%. The mean follow-up in our study was 6.62 months. Inferior retinal detachment has a predilection for young myopes. The time until consultation is often long, and extraocular surgery, although difficult, exhibits documented efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdi Izadi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained different rehabilitation systems. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. Several retrofitting techniques such as addition masonry infill wall, application of buckling restrained braces and local modification of components has been studied in order to improve the overall seismic performance of such buildings. In response to many of the practical issues and economic considerations, engineers use often convergent unbuckling steel bracing frames as the lateral load resisting system during an earthquake.This kind of bracings increases the hardness and strength of concrete structures.The aim of the present study is the evaluation and comparison of seismic performance and retrofitting of an existing 7-storeys concrete structure with buckling restrained bracings and shear walls by nonlinear static procedure (NSP and accordance with cod-361. The results show that the buckling restrained bracing, decreased drift to acceptable levels and Structure behaves on the life safety of performance level.
A piezoelectric energy harvester for broadband rotational excitation using buckled beam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengqiu Xie
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a rotational energy harvester using a piezoelectric bistable buckled beam to harvest low-speed rotational energy. The proposed harvester consists of a piezoelectric buckled beam with a center magnet, and a rotary magnet pair with opposite magnetic poles mounted on a revolving host. The magnetic plucking is used to harvest the angular kinetic energy of the host. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is utilized to improve the vibration displacement and output voltage of the piezoelectric layer over a wide rotation frequency range. Theoretical simulation and experimental results show that the proposed energy harvester can yield a stable average output power ranging between 6.91-48.01 μW over a rotation frequency range of 1-14 Hz across a resistance load of 110 kΩ. Furthermore, dual attraction magnets were employed to overcome the suppression phenomenon at higher frequencies, which yields a broadband and flat frequency response over 6-14 Hz with the output power reaching 42.19-65.44 μW, demonstrating the great potential of the bistable buckled beam for wideband rotation motion energy harvesting.
A piezoelectric energy harvester for broadband rotational excitation using buckled beam
Xie, Zhengqiu; Kitio Kwuimy, C. A.; Wang, Zhiguo; Huang, Wenbin
2018-01-01
This paper proposes a rotational energy harvester using a piezoelectric bistable buckled beam to harvest low-speed rotational energy. The proposed harvester consists of a piezoelectric buckled beam with a center magnet, and a rotary magnet pair with opposite magnetic poles mounted on a revolving host. The magnetic plucking is used to harvest the angular kinetic energy of the host. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is utilized to improve the vibration displacement and output voltage of the piezoelectric layer over a wide rotation frequency range. Theoretical simulation and experimental results show that the proposed energy harvester can yield a stable average output power ranging between 6.91-48.01 μW over a rotation frequency range of 1-14 Hz across a resistance load of 110 kΩ. Furthermore, dual attraction magnets were employed to overcome the suppression phenomenon at higher frequencies, which yields a broadband and flat frequency response over 6-14 Hz with the output power reaching 42.19-65.44 μW, demonstrating the great potential of the bistable buckled beam for wideband rotation motion energy harvesting.
Model test based soil spring model and application in pipeline thermal buckling analysis
Gao, Xi-Feng; Liu, Run; Yan, Shu-Wang
2011-09-01
The buckling of submarine pipelines may occur due to the action of axial soil frictional force caused by relative movement of soil and pipeline, which is induced by the thermal and internal pressure. The likelihood of occurrence of this buckling phenomenon is largely determined by soil resistance. A series of large-scale model tests were carried out to facilitate the establishment of substantial data base for a variety of burial pipeline relationships. Based on the test data, nonlinear soil spring can be adopted to simulate the soil behavior during the pipeline movement. For uplift resistance, an ideal elasticity plasticity model is recommended in the case of H/D (depth-to-diameter ratio)>5 and an elasticity softened model is recommended in the case of H/D≤5. The soil resistance along the pipeline axial direction can be simulated by an ideal elasticity plasticity model. The numerical analyzing results show that the capacity of pipeline against thermal buckling decreases with its initial imperfection enlargement and increases with the burial depth enhancement.
Forming three-dimensional closed shapes from two-dimensional soft ribbons by controlled buckling
Aoki, Michio; Juang, Jia-Yang
2018-02-01
Conventional manufacturing techniques-moulding, machining and casting-exist to produce three-dimensional (3D) shapes. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to residential settings, where inexpensive and versatile tools are desirable. Moreover, those techniques are, in general, not adequate to process soft elastic materials. Here, we introduce a new concept of forming 3D closed hollow shapes from two-dimensional (2D) elastic ribbons by controlled buckling. We numerically and experimentally characterize how the profile and thickness of the ribbon determine its buckled shape. We find a 2D master profile with which various elliptical 3D shapes can be formed. More complex natural and artificial hollow shapes, such as strawberry, hourglass and wheel, can also be achieved via strategic design and pattern engraving on the ribbons. The nonlinear response of the post-buckling regime is rationalized through finite-element analysis, which shows good quantitative agreement with experiments. This robust fabrication should complement conventional techniques and provide a rich arena for future studies on the mechanics and new applications of elastic hollow structures.
Forming three-dimensional closed shapes from two-dimensional soft ribbons by controlled buckling.
Aoki, Michio; Juang, Jia-Yang
2018-02-01
Conventional manufacturing techniques-moulding, machining and casting-exist to produce three-dimensional (3D) shapes. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to residential settings, where inexpensive and versatile tools are desirable. Moreover, those techniques are, in general, not adequate to process soft elastic materials. Here, we introduce a new concept of forming 3D closed hollow shapes from two-dimensional (2D) elastic ribbons by controlled buckling. We numerically and experimentally characterize how the profile and thickness of the ribbon determine its buckled shape. We find a 2D master profile with which various elliptical 3D shapes can be formed. More complex natural and artificial hollow shapes, such as strawberry, hourglass and wheel, can also be achieved via strategic design and pattern engraving on the ribbons. The nonlinear response of the post-buckling regime is rationalized through finite-element analysis, which shows good quantitative agreement with experiments. This robust fabrication should complement conventional techniques and provide a rich arena for future studies on the mechanics and new applications of elastic hollow structures.
High-Fidelity Buckling Analysis of Composite Cylinders Using the STAGS Finite Element Code
Hilburger, Mark W.
2014-01-01
Results from previous shell buckling studies are presented that illustrate some of the unique and powerful capabilities in the STAGS finite element analysis code that have made it an indispensable tool in structures research at NASA over the past few decades. In particular, prototypical results from the development and validation of high-fidelity buckling simulations are presented for several unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells along with a discussion on the specific methods and user-defined subroutines in STAGS that are used to carry out the high-fidelity simulations. These simulations accurately account for the effects of geometric shell-wall imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and elastic boundary conditions. The analysis procedure uses a combination of nonlinear quasi-static and transient dynamic solution algorithms to predict the prebuckling and unstable collapse response characteristics of the cylinders. Finally, the use of high-fidelity models in the development of analysis-based shell-buckling knockdown (design) factors is demonstrated.
Consequences of Simultaneous Local and Overall Buckling in Stiffened Panels
Ghosh, Biswarup
2003-01-01
In this thesis improved expressions for elastic local plate buckling and overall panel buckling of uniaxially compressed T-stiffened panels are developed and validated with 55 ABAQUS eigenvalue buckling analyses of a wide range of typical panel geometries. These two expressions are equated to derive a new expression for the rigidity ratio (EIx/Db)CO that uniquely identifies Â¡Â°crossoverÂ¡Â± panels Â¨C those for which local and overall buckling stresses are the same. The new expression for (E...
Progressive buckling under both constant axial load and cyclic distortion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, G.; Acker, D.; Lebey, J.
1988-09-01
Thin structures submitted to compressive loads must be carefully designed to avoid any risk of ruin by buckling. The aim of this paper is, first, to evidence that the critical buckling load may be notably lowered when cyclic strains are added to the compressive load and, secondly, to propose a practical rule of prevention against the ruin due to the progressive buckling phenomenon. This rule is validated by the results of numerous tests related to the entire range of modes of buckling (i.e. from fully plastic to fully elastic). Practical cases of interest for its use could mainly be those where cyclic thermal stresses are involved
Anisotropic growth of buckling-driven wrinkles in graphene monolayer.
Liu, XiaoYi; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn
2015-02-13
We theoretically and numerically investigate the growth of buckling-driven wrinkles in graphene monolayers. It is found that the growth of buckling-driven wrinkles in a graphene monolayer is remarkably chirality- and size-dependent. In small sizes, the flexural response of a graphene sheet cannot be accurately described by the classical Euler regime, and the non-continuum effect leads to zigzag-along-preferred buckling. With the increase of size, the width/length ratio α of the compressed region plays an important role in the growth of buckling-driven wrinkles. When α buckling happens in armchair-along compression; when 0.5 buckling. When 1.0 buckling. When α > 3.0, the non-continuum effect and chiral bending stiffness can both be neglected, and the buckling in a graphene monolayer is isotropic. The chirality-along-preferred transition of compressed buckling in a graphene monolayer leads to an improved fundamental understanding of the dynamics mechanism of graphene-based nanodevices, especially for the nanodevices with high frequency response.
Eglitis, E.; Kalnins, K.; Ozolinsh, O.
2010-12-01
The buckling of imperfect composite cylinders under concentric and eccentric compression is investigated experimentally and numerically, with particular attention given to the imperfection sensitivity of the shells. A series of glass-fiber-reinforced plastic cylinders have been tested under different load eccentricities to validate the corresponding nonlinear numerical analyses performed in this study. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results was achieved through use of the ABAQUS/Explicit finite-element code and the introduction of initial imperfections. Both the experimental and the numerical results show that the knockdown factor increases as the loading eccentricity grows.
Çelik, Kayhan; Kurt, Erol; Uzun, Yunus
2017-07-01
In the present study, experimental and theoretical explorations on the buckling features of a wind energy harvester have been performed. The harvester consists of a piezoelectric layer, which has a certain stiffness and voltage conversion rate. A blade rotates on a shaft carrying a magnet and sweeps the tip of the layer causing a serial buckling effect resulting in energy generation. Since the modeling of the buckling under a magnetic strength includes nonlinear terms over displacements, one requires a detailed study on the characteristics of buckling phenomena. It has been proven that the piezoelectric beam having the magnet at its tip can produce regular and chaotic dynamics for different frequencies (i.e. the rotation speed). In addition, there exist a number of quasi-periodic regions on the parameter space. The overall result indicates that the large area of complicated dynamics requires a detailed study in order to stabilize the position and velocity of the layer tip, thereby a much stabilized energy conversion from mechanical to electrical can be obtained. The present survey on the dynamics of the harvester is a new study and is considered as a two-parameter diagram [i.e. the wind speed (frequency) and magnetic strength]. Mainly, single-, double-, triple- and quadruple-type phase space portraits have been observed and the ripples on the maximal and minimal values of the beam velocity have been observed for certain rotation speeds. These results can be used in order to stabilize the harvester in terms of the reduction of total harmonic distortion in the generated waveform.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xudong Yin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The authors propose to implement conditional non-linear optimal perturbation related to model parameters (CNOP-P through an ensemble-based approach. The approach was first used in our earlier study and is improved to be suitable for calculating CNOP-P. Idealised experiments using the Lorenz-63 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of the improved ensemble-based approach. The results show that the maximum prediction error after optimisation has been multiplied manifold compared with the initial-guess prediction error, and is extremely close to, or greater than, the maximum value of the exhaustive attack method (a million random samples. The calculation of CNOP-P by the ensemble-based approach is capable of maintaining a high accuracy over a long prediction time under different constraints and initial conditions. Further, the CNOP-P obtained by the approach is applied to sensitivity analysis of the Lorenz-63 model. The sensitivity analysis indicates that when the prediction time is set to 0.2 time units, the Lorenz-63 model becomes extremely insensitive to one parameter, which leaves the other two parameters to affect the uncertainty of the model. Finally, a serial of parameter estimation experiments are performed to verify sensitivity analysis. It is found that when the three parameters are estimated simultaneously, the insensitive parameter is estimated much worse, but the Lorenz-63 model can still generate a very good simulation thanks to the relatively accurate values of the other two parameters. When only two sensitive parameters are estimated simultaneously and the insensitive parameter is left to be non-optimised, the outcome is better than the case when the three parameters are estimated simultaneously. With the increase of prediction time and observation, however, the model sensitivity to the insensitive parameter increases accordingly and the insensitive parameter can also be estimated successfully.
Hariharan, M; Sindhu, R; Vijean, Vikneswaran; Yazid, Haniza; Nadarajaw, Thiyagar; Yaacob, Sazali; Polat, Kemal
2018-03-01
Infant cry signal carries several levels of information about the reason for crying (hunger, pain, sleepiness and discomfort) or the pathological status (asphyxia, deaf, jaundice, premature condition and autism, etc.) of an infant and therefore suited for early diagnosis. In this work, combination of wavelet packet based features and Improved Binary Dragonfly Optimization based feature selection method was proposed to classify the different types of infant cry signals. Cry signals from 2 different databases were utilized. First database contains 507 cry samples of normal (N), 340 cry samples of asphyxia (A), 879 cry samples of deaf (D), 350 cry samples of hungry (H) and 192 cry samples of pain (P). Second database contains 513 cry samples of jaundice (J), 531 samples of premature (Prem) and 45 samples of normal (N). Wavelet packet transform based energy and non-linear entropies (496 features), Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) based cepstral features (56 features), Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) were extracted (16 features). The combined feature set consists of 568 features. To overcome the curse of dimensionality issue, improved binary dragonfly optimization algorithm (IBDFO) was proposed to select the most salient attributes or features. Finally, Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) kernel classifier was used to classify the different types of infant cry signals using all the features and highly informative features as well. Several experiments of two-class and multi-class classification of cry signals were conducted. In binary or two-class experiments, maximum accuracy of 90.18% for H Vs P, 100% for A Vs N, 100% for D Vs N and 97.61% J Vs Prem was achieved using the features selected (only 204 features out of 568) by IBDFO. For the classification of multiple cry signals (multi-class problem), the selected features could differentiate between three classes (N, A & D) with the accuracy of 100% and seven classes with the accuracy of 97.62%. The experimental
Alghamdi, Amal Mohammed
2012-04-01
Clawpack, a conservation laws package implemented in Fortran, and its Python-based version, PyClaw, are existing tools providing nonlinear wave propagation solvers that use state of the art finite volume methods. Simulations using those tools can have extensive computational requirements to provide accurate results. Therefore, a number of tools, such as BearClaw and MPIClaw, have been developed based on Clawpack to achieve significant speedup by exploiting parallel architectures. However, none of them has been shown to scale on a large number of cores. Furthermore, these tools, implemented in Fortran, achieve parallelization by inserting parallelization logic and MPI standard routines throughout the serial code in a non modular manner. Our contribution in this thesis research is three-fold. First, we demonstrate an advantageous use case of Python in implementing easy-to-use modular extensible scalable scientific software tools by developing an implementation of a parallelization framework, PetClaw, for PyClaw using the well-known Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, PETSc, through its Python wrapper petsc4py. Second, we demonstrate the possibility of getting acceptable Python code performance when compared to Fortran performance after introducing a number of serial optimizations to the Python code including integrating Clawpack Fortran kernels into PyClaw for low-level computationally intensive parts of the code. As a result of those optimizations, the Python overhead in PetClaw for a shallow water application is only 12 percent when compared to the corresponding Fortran Clawpack application. Third, we provide a demonstration of PetClaw scalability on up to the entirety of Shaheen; a 16-rack Blue Gene/P IBM supercomputer that comprises 65,536 cores and located at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The PetClaw solver achieved above 0.98 weak scaling efficiency for an Euler application on the whole machine excluding the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welsch, Dominic Markus
2010-03-10
The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is planned as a major extension to the present facility of the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The HESR will provide antiprotons in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c for the internal target experiment PANDA. The demanding requirements of PANDA in terms of beam quality and luminosity together with a limited production rate of antiprotons call for a long beam life time and a minimum of beam loss. Therefore, an effective closed orbit correction and a sufficiently large dynamic aperture of the HESR are crucial. With this thesis I present my work on both of these topics. The expected misalignments of beam guiding magnets have been estimated and used to simulate the closed orbit in the HESR. A closed orbit correction scheme has been developed for different ion optical settings of the HESR and numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scheme. The proposed closed orbit correction method which uses the orbit response matrix has been benchmarked at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. A chromaticity correction scheme for the HESR consisting of sextupole magnets has been developed to reduce tune spread and thus to minimize the emittance growth caused by betatron resonances. The chromaticity correction scheme has been optimized through dynamic aperture calculations. The estimated field errors of the HESR dipole and quadrupole magnets have been included in the non-linear beam dynamics studies. Investigations concerning their optimization have been carried out. The ion optical settings of the HESR have been improved using dynamic aperture calculations and the technique of frequency map analysis. The related diffusion coefficient was also used to predict long-term stability based on short-term particle tracking. With a reasonable reduction of the quadrupole magnets field errors and a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raja Roy Choudhury
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A faster and accurate semianalytical formulation with a robust optimization solution for estimating the splice loss of graded-index fibers has been proposed. The semianalytical optimization of modal parameters has been carried out by Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained minimization suitable for functions which are uncertain, noisy, or even discontinuous. Instead of normally used Gaussian function, as the trial field for the fundamental mode of graded-index optical fiber a novel sinc function with exponentially and R-3/2 (R is the normalized radius of the optical fiber decaying trailing edge has been used. Due to inclusion of three parameters in the optimization of fundamental modal solution and application of an efficient optimization technique with simple analytical expressions for various modal parameters, the results are found to be accurate and computationally easier to find than the standard numerical method solution.
How tall can gelatin towers be? An introduction to elasticity and buckling
Taberlet, Nicolas; Ferrand, Jérémy; Camus, Élise; Lachaud, Léa; Plihon, Nicolas
2017-12-01
The stability of elastic towers is studied through simple hands-on experiments. Using gelatin-based stackable bricks, one can investigate the maximum height a simple structure can reach before collapsing. We show through experiments and by using the classical linear elastic theory that the main limitation to the height of such towers is the buckling of the elastic structures under their own weight. Moreover, the design and architecture of the towers can be optimized to greatly improve their resistance to self-buckling. To this aim, the maximum height of hollow and tapered towers is investigated. The experimental and theoretical developments presented in this paper can help students grasp the fundamental concepts in elasticity and mechanical stability.
Thermal Behavior of Cylindrical Buckling Restrained Braces at Elevated Temperatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elnaz Talebi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core’s surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.
Local buckling and crippling of composite stiffener sections
Bonanni, David L.; Johnson, Eric R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.
1988-01-01
Local buckling, postbuckling, and crippling (failure) of channel, zee, and I- and J-section stiffeners made of AS4/3502 graphite-epoxy unidirectional tape are studied by experiment and analysis. Thirty-six stiffener specimens were tested statically to failure in axial compression as intermediate length columns. Web width is 1.25 inches for all specimens, and the flange width-to-thickness ratio ranges from 7 to 28 for the specimens tested. The radius of the stiffener corners is either 0.125 or 0.250 inches. A sixteen-ply orthotropic layup, an eight-ply quasi-isotropic layup, and a sixteen-ply quasi-isotropic layup are examined. Geometrically nonlinear analyses of five specimens were performed with the STAGS finite element code. Analytical results are compared to experimental data. Inplane stresses from STAGS are used to conduct a plane stress failure analysis of these specimens. Also, the development of interlaminar stress equations from equilibrium for classical laminated plate theory is presented. An algorithm to compute high order displacement derivatives required by these equations based on the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is discussed.
Uncertainty modelling of critical column buckling for reinforced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Buckling is a critical issue for structural stability in structural design. In most of the buckling analyses, applied loads, structural and material properties are considered certain. However, in reality, these parameters are uncertain. Therefore, a prognostic solution is necessary and uncertainties have to be considered. Fuzzy logic ...
Elastic buckling analysis of corroded stiffened plates with irregular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
patterns, amount of corrosion loss and roughness of surface are investigated. Ratio of Euler stress of corroded stiffened plate over Euler stress of un-corroded stiffened plate is used to characterize the effects of corrosion on reduction of buckling strength. Results show that reduction of buckling strength is very sensitive to the ...
Buckling analysis of rectangular composite plates with rectangular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Int. J. Mech. Sci. 44: 1925–1945. Nemeth M P 1997 Buckling behavior of long symmetrically laminated plates subjected to shear and linearly varying edge loads. NASA TP-3659. Panda S K and Ramachandra L S 2010 Buckling of rectangular plates with various boundary conditions loaded by non-uniform inplane loads.
On the static buckling of an externally pressurized finite circular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The static buckling behaviour of an imperfect finite cylindrical shell, stressed by either a lateral or hydrostatic pressure, is here investigated by assuming that the imperfection can be regarded as the first term in the Fourier sine series expansion .The buckling modes are assumed to be in the shape of the imperfection which is ...
49 CFR 179.400-6 - Bursting and buckling pressure.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bursting and buckling pressure. 179.400-6 Section 179.400-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... and 107A) § 179.400-6 Bursting and buckling pressure. (a) [Reserved] (b) The outer jacket of the...
Post-buckling analysis of composite beams: A simple intuitive ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
post-buckling analysis of composite beams poses difficulty in selecting an accurate axial dis- placement ... endeavour of the present work is to propose an approximate closed-form expressions for eval- uating the ..... The post-buckling load expressions presented in table 3 also reveal the existence of quadratic. 0. 10. 20. 30.
Experimental investigations on buckling of cylindrical shells under ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
The present work thus differs from most of the earlier investigations. The mea- sured maximum imperfections δmax are of the order of ±3t (t = thickness). The buckling loads obtained experimentally are compared with the numerical buck- ling values obtained through finite element method (FEM). In the case of axial buckling ...
Buckling analysis of rectangular composite plates with rectangular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
various linearly varying in-plane compressive loading conditions. According to figure 4c and d, the reduction in buckling load is very fast when keeping the length of the cutout 'c' constant and increasing the width of the cutout 'd'. Furthermore, the reduction in buckling load is very slow when keeping the width of the cutout 'd' ...
A multiple buckling curve formulation for design of aluminium alloy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper refers to the overall stability design of aluminium structural elements. Buckling curves for members subjected to compression and members subjected to bending are dealt with. The formulation is based on probabilistic considerations of two random events, namely the elastic buckling of a perfect member and the ...
On the buckling of an elastic holey column
Johnson, Chris G; Jain, Utkarsh; Hazel, Andrew L; Pihler-Puzovic, Draga; Mullin, Tom
2017-01-01
We report the results of a numerical and theoretical study of buckling in elastic columns containing a line of holes. Buckling is a common failure mode of elastic columns under compression, found over scales ranging from metres in buildings and aircraft to tens of nanometers in DNA. This failure
Numerical simulation of lateral-torsional buckling of coped girders
Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Stark, J.W.B.; Abspoel, R.
2002-01-01
The lateral torsional buckling resistance of girders depends on the support conditions. In floor structures for buildings, coped girders are often used. A numerical model was developed to research the influence of copes on lateral buckling resistance. The model is successfully validated with tests.
Uncertainty modelling of critical column buckling for reinforced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Buckling is a critical issue for structural stability in structural design. ... This study investigates the material uncertainties on column design and proposes an uncertainty model for critical column buckling reinforced concrete buildings. ... Civil Engineering Department, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260, Turkey ...
Design Proposals for Torsional Buckling of Stiffeners.
1984-05-01
Buckling under Axial Loads.. 25 2.1 Development of the Strain Energy Equation. 25 2.2 Sign Convention.27 2.3 Development of the Virtual Work Equation...43 3.1 Development of the Strain Enengy Equation. 43 3.2 Development of the Virtual Work Equation.. 45 4. Model I -Generalized Analysis...development of the virtual work equation, a note should be said about the sign convention used here. Compression is held to be a positive stress and tension
Buckling and vibration of flexoelectric nanofilms subjected to mechanical loads
Liang, Xu; Yang, Wenjun; Hu, Shuling; Shen, Shengping
2016-03-01
Piezoelectric nanofilms (PNFs) are widely used in microelectromechanical systems, buckling commonly occurs when subjected to compressive mechanical loads in their applications. In this paper we comprehensively study the flexoelectric effect on the buckling and vibrational behaviors of PNFs. The results from the analytical solutions indicate the significance of the flexoelectricity. The critical buckling loads and natural frequency are enhanced by the flexoelectricity. Analytical results indicate that the critical buckling load is not only influenced by the thickness of the PNFs, but also by the in-plane aspect ratio. When the thickness of the PNFs is several micrometers, the critical buckling load predicted by the present model is much higher than the prediction by the classical piezoelectric plate model. And the natural frequency calculated by the current model is much higher than that obtained by the classical piezoelectricity plate theory when the thickness is several tens of nanometers.
Buckling and vibration of flexoelectric nanofilms subjected to mechanical loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Xu; Yang, Wenjun; Hu, Shuling; Shen, Shengping
2016-01-01
Piezoelectric nanofilms (PNFs) are widely used in microelectromechanical systems, buckling commonly occurs when subjected to compressive mechanical loads in their applications. In this paper we comprehensively study the flexoelectric effect on the buckling and vibrational behaviors of PNFs. The results from the analytical solutions indicate the significance of the flexoelectricity. The critical buckling loads and natural frequency are enhanced by the flexoelectricity. Analytical results indicate that the critical buckling load is not only influenced by the thickness of the PNFs, but also by the in-plane aspect ratio. When the thickness of the PNFs is several micrometers, the critical buckling load predicted by the present model is much higher than the prediction by the classical piezoelectric plate model. And the natural frequency calculated by the current model is much higher than that obtained by the classical piezoelectricity plate theory when the thickness is several tens of nanometers. (paper)
Buckling of a thin rod under cylindrical constraint
Miller, Jay; Su, Tianxiang; Wicks, Nathan; Pabon, Jahir; Bertoldi, Katia; Reis, Pedro
2013-03-01
We investigate the buckling and post-buckling behavior of a thin elastic rod, under cylindrical constraint, with distributed loading. Our precision model experiments consist of injecting a custom-fabricated rod into a transparent glass pipe. Under imposed velocity (leading to frictional axial loading), a portion of the initially straight rod first buckles into a sinusoidal mode and eventually undergoes a secondary instability into a helical configuration. The buckling and post-buckling behavior is found to be highly dependent on the system's geometry, namely the injected rod length and the aspect ratio of the rod to pipe diameter, as well as material parameters. We quantify the critical loads for this sequence of instabilities, contrast our results with numerical experiments and rationalize the observed behavior through scaling arguments.
Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser
2014-01-01
This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.
Gomeni, Roberto; Bressolle-Gomeni, Françoise; Fava, Maurizio
2016-10-01
Model-based approach is recognized as a tool to make drug development more productive and to better support regulatory and therapeutic decisions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel model-based methodology based on the response surface analysis and a nonlinear optimizer algorithm to maximize the clinical performances of drug treatments. The treatment response was described using a drug-disease model accounting for multiple components such as the dosage regimen, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a drug (including the mechanism and the rate of drug delivery), and the exposure-response relationship. Then, the clinical benefit of a treatment was defined as a function of the diseases and the clinical endpoints and was estimated as a function of the target pharmacodynamic endpoints used to evaluate the treatment effect. A case study is presented to illustrate how the treatment performances of paliperidone extended release (ER) and paliperidone long-acting injectable (LAI) can be improved. A convolution-based approach was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of ER and LAI paliperidone. The drug delivery properties and the dosage regimen maximizing the clinical benefit (defined as the target level of D2 receptor occupancy) were estimated using a nonlinear optimizer. The results of the analysis indicated that a substantial improvement in clinical benefit (from 15% to 27% for the optimization of the in vivo release and from ∼30% to ∼70% for the optimization of dosage regimen) was obtained when optimal strategies were deployed either for optimizing the in vivo drug delivery properties of ER formulations or for optimizing the dosage regimen of LAI formulations. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading
Fahnestock, Larry A.; Sause, Richard; Ricles, James M.; Lu, Le-Wu
2003-12-01
Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The buckling-restrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and time-history analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and used to evaluate the time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands on the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studies, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. The results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and time-history analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions. The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.
Frost heave and pipeline upheaval buckling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palmer, A. C. [University Engineering Department, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Williams, P. J. [Carleton Univ., Geotechnical Science Laboratories, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2003-10-01
The interaction between frost heave and upheaval buckling and the potential effect of these two phenomena on the safety of Arctic pipelines is discussed. When soils freeze, ice forms within the pores between the particles. If the surface is free to move, it heaves, because of the expansion that accompanies freezing. Upheaval buckling occurs in longitudinally constrained buried pipelines which can lead to large upward movements of a pipeline. The driving force for upheaval is the longitudinal compressive force induced by operation of the pipeline. While uniform vertical movement does not affect functionality, movements that induce curvature can overstress a pipeline to a dangerous extent. This paper examines the adverse interaction between the longitudinal variability of frost heave and the propensity of heave-induced overbends, and the conditions under which they might lead to upheaval. Results obtained suggest that discontinuities in frost heave can be sufficient to destabilize a high-pressure pipeline and induce upheaval, even when the original 'as-laid' profile is perfectly straight and level. The heave is most likely to occur in winter, with the upheaval following in the summer when the operating temperature is higher and the uplift resistance is reduced. 27 refs., 2 figs.
Endoilluminator-assisted scleral buckling: Our results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Varun Gogia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to evaluate the long-term surgical outcomes of endoillumination assisted scleral buckling (EASB in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Methods: Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with primary RRD and proliferative vitreoretinopathy ≤C2 where any preoperative break could not be localised, were included. All patients underwent 25 gauge endoilluminator assisted rhegma localisation. Successful break determination was followed by cryopexy and standard scleral buckling under surgical microscope. Anatomical and functional outcomes were evaluated at the end of 2 years. Results: At least one intraoperative break could be localized in 23 of 25 (92% eyes. Median age of these patients was 46 years (range: 17-72. Thirteen eyes (56.52% were phakic, 8 (34.78% were pseudophakic and 2 (8.6% were aphakic. Anatomical success (attachment of retina was achieved in 22 (95.63% of 23 eyes with EASB. All eyes remained attached at the end of 2 years. Significant improvement in mean visual acuity (VA was achieved at the end of follow-up (1.09 ± 0.46 log of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] compared with preoperative VA (1.77 ± 0.28 logMAR (P < 0.001. Conclusion: EASB can be considered an effective alternative to vitreoretinal surgery in simple retinal detachment cases with the added advantage of enhanced microscopic magnification and wide field illumination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruijiang Guo
1995-01-01
Full Text Available A finite element based sensitivity analysis procedure is developed for buckling and postbuckling of composite plates. This procedure is based on the direct differentiation approach combined with the reference volume concept. Linear elastic material model and nonlinear geometric relations are used. The sensitivity analysis technique results in a set of linear algebraic equations which are easy to solve. The procedure developed provides the sensitivity derivatives directly from the current load and responses by solving the set of linear equations. Numerical results are presented and are compared with those obtained using finite difference technique. The results show good agreement except at points near critical buckling load where discontinuities occur. The procedure is very efficient computationally.
Elastic Buckling Behaviour of General Multi-Layered Graphene Sheets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rong Ming Lin
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Elastic buckling behaviour of multi-layered graphene sheets is rigorously investigated. Van der Waals forces are modelled, to a first order approximation, as linear physical springs which connect the nodes between the layers. Critical buckling loads and their associated modes are established and analyzed under different boundary conditions, aspect ratios and compressive loading ratios in the case of graphene sheets compressed in two perpendicular directions. Various practically possible loading configurations are examined and their effect on buckling characteristics is assessed. To model more accurately the buckling behaviour of multi-layered graphene sheets, a physically more representative and realistic mixed boundary support concept is proposed and applied. For the fundamental buckling mode under mixed boundary support, the layers with different boundary supports deform similarly but non-identically, leading to resultant van der Waals bonding forces between the layers which in turn affect critical buckling load. Results are compared with existing known solutions to illustrate the excellent numerical accuracy of the proposed modelling approach. The buckling characteristics of graphene sheets presented in this paper form a comprehensive and wholesome study which can be used as potential structural design guideline when graphene sheets are employed for nano-scale sensing and actuation applications such as nano-electro-mechanical systems.
Buckling of Microtubules on a 2D Elastic Medium.
Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Afrin, Tanjina; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Sada, Kazuki; Kakugo, Akira
2015-11-24
We have demonstrated compression stress induced mechanical deformation of microtubules (MTs) on a two-dimensional elastic medium and investigated the role of compression strain, strain rate, and a MT-associated protein in the deformation of MTs. We show that MTs, supported on a two-dimensional substrate by a MT-associated protein kinesin, undergo buckling when they are subjected to compression stress. Compression strain strongly affects the extent of buckling, although compression rate has no substantial effect on the buckling of MTs. Most importantly, the density of kinesin is found to play the key role in determining the buckling mode of MTs. We have made a comparison between our experimental results and the 'elastic foundation model' that theoretically predicts the buckling behavior of MTs and its connection to MT-associated proteins. Taking into consideration the role of kinesin in altering the mechanical property of MTs, we are able to explain the buckling behavior of MTs by the elastic foundation model. This work will help understand the buckling mechanism of MTs and its connection to MT-associated proteins or surrounding medium, and consequently will aid in obtaining a meticulous scenario of the compression stress induced deformation of MTs in cells.
Graphene Structures at an Extreme Degree of Buckling
Mao, Youdong; Wang, Wei L.; Wei, Dongguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Sodroski, Joseph G.
2011-01-01
The distinctive properties of graphene sheets may be significantly influenced by the presence of corrugation structures. Our understanding of these graphene structures has been limited to the mesoscopic scale. Here we characterize ångstrom-scale periodic buckling structures in free-standing graphene bilayers produced by liquid-phase processing in the absence of specific substrates. Monochromated, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy with sub-ångstrom resolution revealed that the unit structures in the major buckling direction consist of only two and three unit cells of graphene’s honeycomb lattice, resulting in buckling wavelengths of 3.6 ± 0.5 and 6.4 ± 0.8 Å, respectively. The buckling shows a strong preference of chiral direction and spontaneously chooses the orientation of the lowest deformation energy, governed by simple geometry rules agreeing with Euler buckling theory. Unexpectedly, the overall buckled structures demonstrate geometric complexity with cascaded features. First-principles calculations suggest that significant anisotropic changes in the electronic structure of graphene are induced by the buckling. PMID:21222462
Assessment of Finite Element Approximations for Nonlinear Flexible Multibody Dynamics
1991-05-01
dynamics. Two nonlinear beam finite elements are consistently derived from virtual work principle using Bernoulli Euler and Timoshenko beam...and dynamic buckling. Equations of motion are derived for rigid central body with flexible appendage using virtual work principle. Virtual work principle
THICKNESS DEPENDENCE OF BUCKLING PATTERNS OF Ta FILMS SPUTTERED ON GLASS SUBSTRATES
YONG-JU ZHANG; SEN-JIANG YU; HONG ZHOU; MIAO-GEN CHEN; ZHI-WEI JIAO
2012-01-01
Tantalum (Ta) films deposited on glass substrates have been prepared by a direct current magnetron sputtering method, and buckling patterns induced by residual compressive stress are investigated in detail. When the film thickness increases, the buckling morphologies evolve from straight-sided buckle network to wavy or wormlike wrinkles gradually, and finally change into telephone cord buckles. The geometrical parameters of the buckling patterns are found to increase linearly with the film th...
Dynamic plastic buckling of rings and cylindrical shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, N.; Okawa, D.M.
1975-01-01
A theoretical analysis is developed to predict the dynamic plastic buckling of a long, impulsively loaded cylindrical shell. This theoretical work is used to examine various features of plastic buckling and to assess the importance of several approximations which previous authors have introduced in dynamic plastic buckling studies. In particular, the influence of a time-dependent circumferential membrane force, the sharpness of the peaks in the displacement and velocity amplification functions, the restrictions which are implicit when employing the Prandtl-Reuss equations in this class of problems, and the limitations due to elastic unloading are examined in some detail. (Auth.)
Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.
2000-01-01
Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum...
Evaluation of design safety factors for time-dependent buckling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.
1977-02-01
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code rules concerning time-dependent (creep) buckling for Class 1 nuclear components have recently been changed. Previous requirements for a factor of ten on service life have been replaced with a factor of safety of 1.5 on loading for load-controlled buckling. This report examines the supposed equivalence of the two rules from the standpoint of materials behavior--specifically, the secondary creep strain rate exponent. The comparison is made using results obtained numerically for an axially-loaded, cylindrical shell with varying secondary creep exponents. A computationally efficient scheme for analyzing creep buckling problems is also presented
Crucial effect of boundary conditions on the buckling of shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combescure, A.
1989-01-01
We want to show here that the boundary conditions can have a drastic effect on the prediction of buckling loads and that this influence can even be more drastic that the initial imperfection in some cases. This is a very important feature because the design rules in case of buckling take into account the effect of initial imperfections but do not consider the effect of unknown boundary conditions. We shall first give two examples showing this drastic effect and then develop a methodology to prevent the designer against over estimation of buckling loads due to a non conservative choice of boundary conditions
Buckled cantilevers for out-of-plane platforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnstone, R W; Ma, A H; Sameoto, D; Parameswaran, M; Leung, A M
2008-01-01
In this paper, we show how surface-micromachined buckled cantilevers can be used to construct out-of-plane structures. We include the relevant theory necessary to predict the height and angle of plates attached to buckled cantilevers, as well as the mechanical stresses involved in assembly. These platforms can be assembled to any angle between 0° and 90° with respect to the substrate by changing the attachment point and the amount of deflection. Example devices were fabricated using PolyMUMPs(TM) and assembled. Using these devices, the deflection of the buckled cantilevers was verified, as well as the placement for raised platforms
Topology optimization of hyperelastic structures using a level set method
Chen, Feifei; Wang, Yiqiang; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Y. F.
2017-12-01
Soft rubberlike materials, due to their inherent compliance, are finding widespread implementation in a variety of applications ranging from assistive wearable technologies to soft material robots. Structural design of such soft and rubbery materials necessitates the consideration of large nonlinear deformations and hyperelastic material models to accurately predict their mechanical behaviour. In this paper, we present an effective level set-based topology optimization method for the design of hyperelastic structures that undergo large deformations. The method incorporates both geometric and material nonlinearities where the strain and stress measures are defined within the total Lagrange framework and the hyperelasticity is characterized by the widely-adopted Mooney-Rivlin material model. A shape sensitivity analysis is carried out, in the strict sense of the material derivative, where the high-order terms involving the displacement gradient are retained to ensure the descent direction. As the design velocity enters into the shape derivative in terms of its gradient and divergence terms, we develop a discrete velocity selection strategy. The whole optimization implementation undergoes a two-step process, where the linear optimization is first performed and its optimized solution serves as the initial design for the subsequent nonlinear optimization. It turns out that this operation could efficiently alleviate the numerical instability and facilitate the optimization process. To demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, three compliance minimization problems are studied and their optimized solutions present significant mechanical benefits of incorporating the nonlinearities, in terms of remarkable enhancement in not only the structural stiffness but also the critical buckling load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haitao Che
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate a H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for nonlinear viscoelasticity equations based on H1-Galerkin method and expanded mixed element method. The existence and uniqueness of solutions to the numerical scheme are proved. A priori error estimation is derived for the unknown function, the gradient function, and the flux.
Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications
Jazar, Reza
2012-01-01
Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...
Evaluation of buckling on containment metallic vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveira, Renato Campos da; Mattar Neto, Miguel
2000-01-01
The buckling analysis represents one of the most important aspects of the structural projects of nuclear power plants containment metallic vessels and in this work the Case N-284-1 ASME Code is used for evaluation of those structures submitted to this failure mode. From the stress analysis, performed by using finite element method on discrete structures with shell elements, the procedure of the Code Case are applied to the evaluation of the containment metallic vessel of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant submitted to the own weight, seismic loads and uplift in case of accident. A study of pressure vessel reinforced by rings submit ed to the external pressure. Conclusions and commentaries are established based on the obtained results
Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BOUAZZA MOKHTAR
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.
Buckling of Bucket Foundations During Installation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren
the suction assisted installation process. In this thesis, the phenomenon of buckling of the bucket foundation during installation is investigated by means of Finite Element Analysis. The influence of boundary conditions on the bucket foundation is adressed as well as the effect of including the surrounding...... issues, it brings up the cost of energy mainly due to increased installation and maintenance costs. A very large part—up to 30–50% using current technology—of the installation cost origins from the expenses related to the installation of foundations. A new foundation concept—the bucket foundation......—has been proposed to reduce the foundation costs. The bucket foundation promises to be cheaper as it is both faster to install compared to current technology and it does not require heavy installation equipment. Since the bucket foundation is essentially a relatively thin shell structure subjected to both...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, He; Dong, Yao
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Eclat data mining algorithm is used to determine the possible predictors. • Support vector machine is converted into a ridge regularization problem. • Hard penalty selects the number of radial basis functions to simply the structure. • Glowworm swarm optimization is utilized to determine the optimal parameters. - Abstract: For a portion of the power which is generated by grid connected photovoltaic installations, an effective solar irradiation forecasting approach must be crucial to ensure the quality and the security of power grid. This paper develops and investigates a novel model to forecast 30 daily global solar radiation at four given locations of the United States. Eclat data mining algorithm is first presented to discover association rules between solar radiation and several meteorological factors laying a theoretical foundation for these correlative factors as input vectors. An effective and innovative intelligent optimization model based on nonlinear support vector machine and hard penalty function is proposed to forecast solar radiation by converting support vector machine into a regularization problem with ridge penalty, adding a hard penalty function to select the number of radial basis functions, and using glowworm swarm optimization algorithm to determine the optimal parameters of the model. In order to illustrate our validity of the proposed method, the datasets at four sites of the United States are split to into training data and test data, separately. The experiment results reveal that the proposed model delivers the best forecasting performances comparing with other competitors.
Uncertain Buckling Load and Reliability of Columns with Uncertain Properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.
Continuous and finite element methods are utilized to determine the buckling load of columns with material and geometrical uncertainties considering deterministic, stochastic and interval models for the bending rigidity of columns. When the bending rigidity field is assumed to be deterministic...... is performed using weighted intergrals. Then, the buckling load becomes a random variable. The sensitivity of the lower order moments of the buckling load with respect to the mesh size, the correlation length and coefficient of variation of the random field are examined. The reliability of columns designed....... for structural design, the lower bound is of crucial interest. The buckling load of fixed-free, simple-supported, pinned-fixed, fixed-fixed columns and a sample frame are calculated....
Track buckling prevention : theory, safety concepts, and applications
2013-03-31
This report is a part of the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Centers Track Stability Research Program for the Federal Railroad Administration on thermal buckling of continuous welded rail (CWR) track and its prevention. Presented in ...
Dynamic buckling of containments: The influence of damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, P.A.; Bennett, J.G.
1993-01-01
The seismic buckling capacities of representative thin, unstiffened elastic containment shells are investigated to evaluate the sensitivity of buckling to the damping level. The finite element method with transient time integration is utilized with both actual earthquake acceleration-time signals and artificial time histories generated from regulatory spectra. The dynamic response and subsequent buckling of the selected containment shells are found to be highly dependent on both damping level and the degree to which the input signal excites the fundamental shear-bending mode of the shell. Transient stresses and buckling levels for the two containment shells induced by the seismic inputs were reduced in the range of 12% to 111% by increasing the damping level from 1% to 4% of critical
Static and dynamic buckling of thin-walled plate structures
Kubiak, Tomasz
2013-01-01
This monograph deals with buckling and postbuckling behavior of thin plates and thin-walled structures with flat wall subjected to static and dynamic load. The investigations are carried out in elastic range. The basic assumption here is the thin plate theory. This method is used to determination the buckling load and postbuckling analysis of thin-walled structures subjected to static and dynamic load. The book introduces two methods for static and dynamic buckling investigation which allow for a wider understanding of the phenomenon. Two different methods also can allow uncoupling of the phenomena occurring at the same time and attempt to estimate their impact on the final result. A general mathematical model, adopted in proposed analytical-numerical method, enables the consideration of all types of stability loss i.e.local, global and interactive forms of buckling. The applied numerical-numerical method includes adjacent of walls, shear-lag phenomenon and a deplanation of cross-sections.
Thermo mechanical buckling analysis of carbon nanotubes on ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SWCNT) on Winkler foundation is reported. Non-local elasticity theory and differential transformation method are applied. Effects of. size of SWCNT; nonlocal parameter; Winkler modulus; boundary conditions and; temperature on buckling load are ...
Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.
2000-01-01
Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum......, but where subsequently the load starts to increase again, it is found that near the local load minimum, the buckling pattern switches back to a periodic type of pattern. The inelastic material behavior of the panel is described in terms of J(2) corner theory, which avoids the sometimes unrealistically high...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
2015-01-01
Non-trivial real world decision-making processes usually involve multiple parties having potentially conflicting interests over a set of issues. State-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) are well known to solve this class of complex real-world problems. In this paper, we...... compare the performance of state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to solve a non-linear multi-objective multi-issue optimisation problem found in Greenhouse climate control. The chosen algorithms in the study includes NSGAII, eNSGAII, eMOEA, PAES, PESAII and SPEAII. The performance...... of all aforementioned algorithms is assessed and compared using performance indicators to evaluate proximity, diversity and consistency. Our insights to this comparative study enhanced our understanding of MOEAs performance in order to solve a non-linear complex climate control problem. The empirical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Xie
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates with Simply Supported Edges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Megueni ABDELKADER
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Thermal buckling analyses of S-FGM are investigated by using first order shear deformation theory. Material properties are varied continuously in the thickness direction according to a sigmoid distribution. The thermal buckling behaviours under uniform, linear and sinusoidal temperature rise across the thickness are analyzed. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the classic plate theory (CPT.
Buckling Analysis of Woven Glass Epoxy Laminated Composite Plate
M Mohan Kumar
2013-01-01
Buckling behavior of laminated composite plates subjected to in-plane loads is an important consideration in the preliminary design of aircraft components. The sizing of many structural subcomponents of the aircraft structures is often determined by stability constraints. The objective of the current study is to understand the influence of the length-to-thickness ratio, the aspect ratio, the fiber orientation and the cut-out shapes on the buckling load for the glass epoxy laminated composit...
Vibration of mechanically-assembled 3D microstructures formed by compressive buckling
Wang, Heling; Ning, Xin; Li, Haibo; Luan, Haiwen; Xue, Yeguang; Yu, Xinge; Fan, Zhichao; Li, Luming; Rogers, John A.; Zhang, Yihui; Huang, Yonggang
2018-03-01
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) that rely on structural vibrations have many important applications, ranging from oscillators and actuators, to energy harvesters and vehicles for measurement of mechanical properties. Conventional MEMS, however, mostly utilize two-dimensional (2D) vibrational modes, thereby imposing certain limitations that are not present in 3D designs (e.g., multi-directional energy harvesting). 3D vibrational micro-platforms assembled through the techniques of controlled compressive buckling are promising because of their complex 3D architectures and the ability to tune their vibrational behavior (e.g., natural frequencies and modes) by reversibly changing their dimensions by deforming their soft, elastomeric substrates. A clear understanding of such strain-dependent vibration behavior is essential for their practical applications. Here, we present a study on the linear and nonlinear vibration of such 3D mesostructures through analytical modeling, finite element analysis (FEA) and experiment. An analytical solution is obtained for the vibration mode and linear natural frequency of a buckled ribbon, indicating a mode change as the static deflection amplitude increases. The model also yields a scaling law for linear natural frequency that can be extended to general, complex 3D geometries, as validated by FEA and experiment. In the regime of nonlinear vibration, FEA suggests that an increase of amplitude of external loading represents an effective means to enhance the bandwidth. The results also uncover a reduced nonlinearity of vibration as the static deflection amplitude of the 3D structures increases. The developed analytical model can be used in the development of new 3D vibrational micro-platforms, for example, to enable simultaneous measurement of diverse mechanical properties (density, modulus, viscosity etc.) of thin films and biomaterials.