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Sample records for noninvasive spectroscopic diagnosis

  1. Noninvasive spectroscopic diagnosis of superficial ocular lesions and corneal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gritz, D.C.; Storey-Held, K. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    1994-02-01

    The potential of a rapid noninvasive diagnostic system to detect tissue abnormalities on the surface of the eye has been investigated. The optical scatter signal from lesions and normal areas on the conjunctival sclera of the human eye were measured in vivo. It is possible to distinguish nonpigmented pingueculas from other lesions. The ability of the system to detect malignancies could not be tested because none of the measured and biopsied lesions were malignant. Optical scatter and fluorescence spectra of bacterial and fungal suspensions, and corneal irritations were also collected. Both scattering and fluorescence show potential for diagnosing corneal infections.

  2. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  3. Ultrafast Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in Heterostructure Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ARL-TR-7618 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Ultrafast Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in...US Army Research Laboratory Ultrafast Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in Heterostructure Devices by Blair C...Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in Heterostructure Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephanie; Young, Elizabeth; Bowns, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application. Techniques for analysis of cell-free DNA including digital PCR, next-generation sequencing and relative haplotype dosage have been used most often for assay development. Analysis of circulating fetal cells in the maternal blood is still being investigated as a viable alternative and more recently transcervical trophoblast cells. Studies exploring ethical and social issues are generally positive but raise concerns around the routinization of prenatal testing. Further work is necessary to make testing available to all patients with a pregnancy at risk of a single gene disorder, and it remains to be seen if the development of more powerful technologies such as isolation and analysis of single cells will shift the emphasis of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. As testing becomes possible for a wider range of conditions, more ethical questions will become relevant.

  5. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value of these noninvasive diagnosis techniques, and it discusses the progress in clinical research and its limitations for noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  6. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value o...

  7. New trend in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Carrera, P; Lampasona, V; Galbiati, S

    2015-12-07

    The presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma represents a source of genetic material which can be obtained non-invasively. To date, the translation of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis from research into clinical practice has been rather fragmented, and despite the advances in improving the analytical sensitivity of methods, distinguishing between fetal and maternal sequences remains very challenging. Thus, the field of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases has yet to attain a routine application in clinical diagnostics. On the contrary, fetal sex determination in pregnancies at high risk of sex-linked disorders, tests for fetal RHD genotyping and non-invasive assessment of chromosomal aneuploidies are now available worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Efficacy of noninvasive modalities of diagnosis of thrombophlebitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, R.W.; Klatte, E.C.; Park, H.M.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Bendick, P.J.; Dilley, R.S.; Glover, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    In a blind prospective study of 158 limbs, Doppler ultrasound, pneumoplethysmography, and radionuclide venography (RNV) using 99 mTc-MAA were compared to phlebography as methods of detecting thrombophlebitis. All three noninvasive modalities were very insensitive to isolated thrombus below the knee. In patients with extension of thrombus above the knee and isolated thrombus in the deep veins of the upper limb, Doppler ultrasound had a sensitivity of 81% and RNV had a sensitivity of 77%. All of the noninvasive modalities were found to be dependent on venous occlusion. Overall, pneumoplethysmography had a sensitivity of 28% and specificity of 96%, compared with 56% and 91%, respectively, for Doppler ultrasound and 51% and 84% for RNV. Based on these findings, phlebography would still seem to be the modality of choice in the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis

  10. An integrated spectroscopic approach for the non-invasive study of modern art materials and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, F.; Miliani, C.; Clementi, C.; Kahrim, K.; Presciutti, F.; Vagnini, M.; Manuali, V.; Daveri, A.; Cartechini, L.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2010-09-01

    A non-invasive study has been carried out on 18 paintings by Alberto Burri (1915-1995), one of Italy’s most important contemporary painters. The study aims to demonstrate the appropriate and suitable use of portable non-invasive instrumentation for the characterization of materials and techniques found in works dating from 1948 to 1975 belonging to the Albizzini Collection. Sampling of any kind has been forbidden, in order to maintain the integrity of the paintings. Furthermore, the material heterogeneity of each single artwork could potentially result in a poorly representative sampling campaign. Therefore, a non-invasive and in situ analytical approach has been deemed mandatory, notwithstanding the complexity of modern materials and challenging data interpretation. It is the non-invasive nature of the study that has allowed for the acquisition of vast spectral data (a total of about 650 spectra including XRF, mid and near FTIR, micro-Raman and UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopies). In order to better handle and to extrapolate the most meaningful information from these data, a statistical multivariate analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA), has been applied to the spectral results. In particular, the possibility of combining elemental and molecular information has been explored by uniting XRF and infrared spectra in one PCA dataset. The combination of complementary spectroscopic techniques has allowed for the characterization of both inorganic and organic pigments, extenders, fillers, and binders employed by Alberto Burri.

  11. Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Chulhong; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has increasingly become important in axillary staging of breast cancer patients since SLN biopsy alleviates the postoperative complications of previously practiced axillary lymph node dissections. Nevertheless, the procedures of SLN biopsy using blue dye and radioactive substance are still intraoperative, and the latter methods are also ionizing. In this pilot study, we have proposed noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic photoacoustic (PA) SLN mapping using gold nanorods as lymph node tracers in a rat model. Gold nanorods have biocompatibility, high optical absorption, and easily tuned surface plasmon resonance peak wavelength.

  12. Noninvasive diagnosis of allograft vascular disease after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bacal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive values of noninvasive tests for the detection of allograft vascular disease. METHODS: We studied 39 patients with mean ages of 48±13 years and a follow-up period of 86±13 months. The diagnosis of allograft vascular disease was made by cine-coronary arteriography, and it was considered as positive if lesions existed that caused > or = 50% obstruction of the lumen. Patients underwent 24h Holter monitoring, thallium scintigraphy, a treadmill stress test, and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined in percentages for each method, as compared with the cine-coronary arteriography results. RESULTS: Allograft vascular disease was found in 15 (38% patients. The Holter test showed 15.4% sensitivity, 95.5% specificity. For the treadmill stress test, sensitivity was 10%, specificity was 100%. When thallium scintigraphy was used, sensitivity was 40%, specificity 95.8%. On echocardiography with dobutamine, we found a 63.6% sensitivity, 91.3% specificity. When the dobutamine echocardiogram was associated with scintigraphy, sensitivity was 71.4%, specificity was 87%. CONCLUSION: In this group of patients, the combination of two noninvasive methods (dobutamine echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy may be a good alternative for the detection of allograft vascular disease in asymptomatic patients with normal ventricular function.

  13. Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Arsenic Contamination in Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhu Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the abilities of pre-processing, feature selection and machine-learning methods for the spectroscopic diagnosis of soil arsenic contamination. The spectral data were pre-processed by using Savitzky-Golay smoothing, first and second derivatives, multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, and mean centering. Principle component analysis (PCA and the RELIEF algorithm were used to extract spectral features. Machine-learning methods, including random forests (RF, artificial neural network (ANN, radial basis function- and linear function- based support vector machine (RBF- and LF-SVM were employed for establishing diagnosis models. The model accuracies were evaluated and compared by using overall accuracies (OAs. The statistical significance of the difference between models was evaluated by using McNemar’s test (Z value. The results showed that the OAs varied with the different combinations of pre-processing, feature selection, and classification methods. Feature selection methods could improve the modeling efficiencies and diagnosis accuracies, and RELIEF often outperformed PCA. The optimal models established by RF (OA = 86%, ANN (OA = 89%, RBF- (OA = 89% and LF-SVM (OA = 87% had no statistical difference in diagnosis accuracies (Z < 1.96, p < 0.05. These results indicated that it was feasible to diagnose soil arsenic contamination using reflectance spectroscopy. The appropriate combination of multivariate methods was important to improve diagnosis accuracies.

  14. Urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Emily; Nisenblat, Vicki; Farquhar, Cindy; Fraser, Ian; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2015-12-23

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis which is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the 'gold standard' diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no simple non-invasive or minimally-invasive tests available in clinical practice that accurately diagnoses endometriosis. 1. To provide summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of urinary biomarkers for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis compared to surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.2. To assess the diagnostic utility of biomarkers that could differentiate ovarian endometrioma from other ovarian masses.Urinary biomarkers were evaluated as replacement tests for surgical diagnosis and as triage tests to inform decisions to undertake surgery for endometriosis. The searches were not restricted to particular study design, language or publication dates. We searched the following databases to 20 April - 31 July 2015: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP and ClinicalTrials.gov (trial register). MEDION, DARE, and PubMed were also searched to identify reviews and guidelines as reference sources of potentially relevant studies. Recently published papers not yet indexed in the major databases were also sought. The search strategy incorporated words in the title, abstract, text words across the record and the medical subject headings (MeSH) and was modified for each database. Published peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size were considered, which included prospectively collected samples from any population of reproductive-aged women suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: ovarian, peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). We included studies comparing the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more urinary biomarkers with surgical visualisation of endometriotic lesions. Two

  15. Endometrial biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devashana; Hull, M Louise; Fraser, Ian; Miller, Laura; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Johnson, Neil; Nisenblat, Vicki

    2016-04-20

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, which is a costly, chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests available in clinical practice that accurately diagnose endometriosis. This is the first diagnostic test accuracy review of endometrial biomarkers for endometriosis that utilises Cochrane methodologies, providing an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the endometrial biomarkers for pelvic endometriosis, using a surgical diagnosis as the reference standard. We evaluated the tests as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests to inform decisions to undertake surgery for endometriosis. We did not restrict the searches to particular study designs, language or publication dates. To identify trials, we searched the following databases: CENTRAL (2015, July), MEDLINE (inception to May 2015), EMBASE (inception to May 2015), CINAHL (inception to April 2015), PsycINFO (inception to April 2015), Web of Science (inception to April 2015), LILACS (inception to April 2015), OAIster (inception to April 2015), TRIP (inception to April 2015) and ClinicalTrials.gov (inception to April 2015). We searched DARE and PubMed databases up to April 2015 to identify reviews and guidelines as sources of references to potentially relevant studies. We also performed searches for papers recently published and not yet indexed in the major databases. The search strategies incorporated words in the title, abstract, text words across the record and the medical subject headings (MeSH). We considered published peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size that included prospectively collected samples from any population of reproductive-aged women suspected of having one or more of the following target

  16. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, E.Z.; Chiu, R.W.; Sun, H; Akolekar, R.; Chan, K.C.; Leung, T.Y.; Jiang, P.; Zheng, Y.W.; Lun, F.M.; Chan, L.Y.; Jin, Y.; Go, A.T.; Lau, E.T; To, W.W.; Leung, W.C.; Tang, R.Y.; Au-Yeung, S.K.; Lam, H.; Kung, Y.Y.; Zhang, X.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Minekawa, R.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.; Oudejans, C.B.; Lau, T.K.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Lo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due

  17. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  18. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal nucleated erythrocytes were separated from peripheral blood of 17 healthy pregnant women using small magnetically activated cell sorting columns (MiniMACS) following density gradient centrifug...

  19. Current approaches on non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: Prenatal genomics, transcriptomics, personalized fetal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Günel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in molecular genetics improved our knowledge on fetal genome and physiology. Novel scientific innovations in prenatal diagnosis have accelerated in the last decade changing our vision immensely. Data obtained from fetal genomic studies brought new insights to fetal medicine and by the advances in fetal DNA and RNA sequencing technology novel treatment strategies has evolved. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis found ground in genetics and the results are widely studied in scientific arena. When Lo and colleges proved fetal genetic material can be extracted from maternal plasma and fetal DNA can be isolated from maternal serum, the gate to many exciting discoveries was open. Microarray technology and advances in sequencing helped fetal diagnosis as well as other areas of medicine. Today it is a very crucial prerequisite for physicians practicing prenatal diagnosis to have a profound knowledge in genetics. Prevailing practical use and application of fetal genomic tests in maternal and fetal medicine mandates obstetricians to update their knowledge in genetics. The purpose of this review is to assist physicians to understand and update their knowledge in fetal genetic testing from maternal blood, individualized prenatal counseling and advancements on the subject by sharing our experiences as İstanbul University Fetal Nucleic Acid Research Group.

  20. In vivo, noninvasive functional measurements of bone sarcoma using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Hannah M.; Hoang, Bang H.; Geller, David; Yang, Rui; Gorlick, Richard; Berger, Jeremy; Tingling, Janet; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathon; Roblyer, Darren

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) is an emerging near-infrared imaging technique that noninvasively measures quantitative functional information in thick tissue. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using DOSI to measure optical contrast from bone sarcomas. These tumors are rare and pose technical and practical challenges for DOSI measurements due to the varied anatomic locations and tissue depths of presentation. Six subjects were enrolled in the study. One subject was unable to be measured due to tissue contact sensitivity. For the five remaining subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, optical properties, and quantitative tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids from tumor and contralateral normal tissues were assessed. Statistical differences between tumor and contralateral normal tissue were found in chromophore concentrations and optical properties for four subjects. Low signal-to-noise was encountered during several subject's measurements, suggesting increased detector sensitivity will help to optimize DOSI for this patient population going forward. This study demonstrates that DOSI is capable of measuring optical properties and obtaining functional information in bone sarcomas. In the future, DOSI may provide a means to stratify treatment groups and monitor chemotherapy response for this disease.

  1. Urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Emily; Nisenblat, Vicki; Farquhar, Cindy; Fraser, Ian; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2015-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis which is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the 'gold standard' diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no simple non-invasive

  2. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally invasive

  3. Sensitive Monogenic Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis by Targeted Haplotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Carlo; Geeven, Geert; de Wit, Elzo; Verstegen, Marjon J A M; Jansen, Rumo P.M.; van Kranenburg, Melissa; de Bruijn, Ewart; Pulit, Sara L.; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Shahsavari, Zahra; Omrani, Davood; Zeinali, Fatemeh; Najmabadi, Hossein; Katsila, Theodora; Vrettou, Christina; Patrinos, George P.; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Splinter, Erik; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; Kheradmand Kia, Sima; Te Meerman, Gerard J; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; de Laat, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood encompasses a small percentage of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA), an easily accessible source for determination of fetal disease status in risk families through non-invasive procedures. In case of monogenic heritable disease, background

  4. The findings of noninvasive cardiovascular diagnosis with multihelical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fed'kyiv, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The patients aged of 25-82 underwent the multihelical computed tomography, 508 of them with coronary artery disease and 109 are under control. The findings of MHCT-analysis of the coronary arteries at their atherosclerotic involvement were presented with the use of quantitative assessment of coronary artery calcinosis according to Agatston's technique and noninvasive MHCT-coronagraphy.

  5. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  6. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can

  7. Endometrial biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Devashana; Hull, M. Louise; Fraser, Ian; Miller, Laura; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Johnson, Neil; Nisenblat, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, which is a costly, chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests

  8. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally

  9. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S; Mol, Ben Willem J; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-05-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally invasive tests available in clinical practice to accurately diagnose endometriosis. Although other reviews have assessed the ability of blood tests to diagnose endometriosis, this is the first review to use Cochrane methods, providing an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. To evaluate blood biomarkers as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests to inform decisions on surgery for endometriosis. Specific objectives include:1. To provide summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of blood biomarkers for the diagnosis of peritoneal, ovarian and deep infiltrating pelvic endometriosis, compared to surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.2. To assess the diagnostic utility of biomarkers that could differentiate ovarian endometrioma from other ovarian masses. We did not restrict the searches to particular study designs, language or publication dates. We searched CENTRAL to July 2015, MEDLINE and EMBASE to May 2015, as well as these databases to 20 April 2015: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, DARE and PubMed. We considered published, peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size, including prospectively collected samples from any population of reproductive-aged women suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: ovarian, peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). We included studies comparing the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more blood biomarkers with the findings of surgical visualisation of endometriotic lesions. Two authors independently collected and performed a quality assessment of data from each study. For each diagnostic test

  10. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-02-26

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can be used to accurately diagnose endometriosis are available in clinical practice. This is the first review of diagnostic test accuracy of imaging tests for endometriosis that uses Cochrane methods to provide an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. • To provide estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) versus surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.• To describe performance of imaging tests for mapping of deep endometriotic lesions in the pelvis at specific anatomical sites.Imaging tests were evaluated as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests that would assist decision making regarding diagnostic surgery for endometriosis. We searched the following databases to 20 April 2015: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDION, DARE, and PubMed. Searches were not restricted to a particular study design or language nor to specific publication dates. The search strategy incorporated words in the title, abstracts, text words across the record and medical subject headings (MeSH). We considered published peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies and randomised controlled trials of any size that included prospectively recruited women of reproductive age suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: endometrioma, pelvic endometriosis, DIE or endometriotic lesions at specific intrapelvic anatomical locations. We included studies that compared the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more imaging modalities versus findings of surgical

  11. First Trimester Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis: A Computational Intelligence Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neocleous, Andreas C; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Schizas, Christos N

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential value of using machine learning techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN) schemes for the noninvasive estimation, at 11-13 weeks of gestation, the risk for euploidy, trisomy 21 (T21), and other chromosomal aneuploidies (O.C.A.), from suitable sonographic, biochemical markers, and other relevant data. A database(1) (1)The dataset can become available for academic purposes by communicating directly with the authors.

  12. Noninvasive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Yu; Chen, Jie; Xia, Chun-Chao; Cao, Li-Kun; Duan, Ting; Song, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and a major public health problem worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process at molecular, cellular, and histologic levels with key alterations that can be revealed by noninvasive imaging modalities. Therefore, imaging techniques play pivotal roles in the detection, characterization, staging, surveillance, and prognosis evaluation of HCC. Currently, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for screening and surveillance purposes. While based on conclusive enhancement patterns comprising arterial phase hyperenhancement and portal venous and/or delayed phase wash-out, contrast enhanced dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the diagnostic tools for HCC without requirements for histopathologic confirmation. Functional MRI techniques, including diffusion-weighted imaging, MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography, show promise in providing further important information regarding tumor biological behaviors. In addition, evaluation of tumor imaging characteristics, including nodule size, margin, number, vascular invasion, and growth patterns, allows preoperative prediction of tumor microvascular invasion and patient prognosis. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art and recent advances in the comprehensive noninvasive imaging evaluation of HCC. We also provide the basic key concepts of HCC development and an overview of the current practice guidelines. PMID:29904242

  13. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Ozawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  14. Recent research findings on non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Qiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of liver fibrosis and dynamic monitoring of relevant changes have great implications for the treatment and prognosis improvement of chronic liver diseases. So far, liver biopsy remains the “golden standard” for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis. However, due to its inherent limitations, a great effort has been made to develop more accurate non-invasive diagnostic methods, including serum fibrosis markers and mathematical models, ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, ultrasonic elastography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine. The advantages and disadvantages of relevant methods are discussed. Furthermore, proper selection of the non-invasive diagnostic methods for clinical application and the means for mutual verification are analyzed. As for the future direction, it is expected to employ the above methods for combined analysis and comprehensive assessment, in order to enhance the clinical value of non-invasive liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  15. Optical sensor technology for a noninvasive medical blood diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraitl, Jens; Ewald, Hartmut; Gehring, Hartmut

    2007-02-01

    NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) and is used for a measurement of blood components. The fact that the absorption-coefficients μ a and scattering-coefficients μ s for blood differ at difference wavelengths has been exploited and is used for calculation of the optical absorbability characteristics of human blood yielding information on blood components like hemoglobin and oxygen saturation. The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a measurement of these parameters. A newly developed PMD device has been introduced. The non-invasive in-vivo multi-spectral method is based on the radiation of monochromatic light, emitted by laser diodes, through an area of skin on the finger. Deferrals between the proportions of hemoglobin and plasma in the intravasal volume should be detected photo-electrically by signal-analytic evaluation of the signals. The computed nonlinear coefficients are used for the measurement and calculation of the relative hemoglobin concentration change. Results with this photometric method to measure changes in the hemoglobin concentration were demonstrated during measurements with a hemodynamic model and healthy subjects. The PMD is suitable for non-invasive continuous online monitoring of one or more biologic constituent values. The objective of this development is to reduce the dependence on measurement techniques which require that a sample of blood be withdrawn from the patient for in-vitro analysis. Any invasive method used on the patient to obtain blood is accompanied by problems of inconvenience, stress, and discomfort. The patient is also exposed to the normal risks of infection associated with such invasive methods.

  16. [Clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with non-invasive breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnijć, Zoran; Brkljacić, Boris; Drinković, Ivan; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Krajina, Zdenko; Margaritoni, Marko; Strnad, Marija; Sarcević, Bozena; Tomić, Snjezana; Zic, Rado

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Early diagnosis and more effective treatment of invasive breast cancer resulted in significant mortality reduction, improvement of survival and the quality of life of the patients. The management od non-invasive breast cancer, on the contrary, is still controversial and the problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients come to evidence. In the following text a multidisciplinary team of experts brings the first consensus guidelines aimed to standardize and optimize the criteria and management in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of non-invasive breast cancer patients in the Republic of Croatia.

  17. Noninvasive diagnosis of chronic kidney diseases using urinary proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwy, Justyna; Zürbig, Petra; Argilés, Angel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of its invasive nature and risks, kidney biopsy is currently required for precise diagnosis of many chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Here, we explored the hypothesis that analysis of the urinary proteome can discriminate different types of CKD irrespective of the underlying me...

  18. Non-Invasive Markers for Early Diagnosis and Determination of the Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Wijck, Kim; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Degraeuwe, Pieter L.; Mulder, Twan L.; Van der Zee, David C.; Brouwers, Hens A. A.; Verhoeven, Bas H.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; Kramer, Boris W.; Buurman, Wim A.; Heineman, Erik

    Objectives: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. Methods:

  19. Non-invasive markers for early diagnosis and determination of the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, G.; Derikx, J.P.; Wijck, K. van; Zimmermann, L.J.; Degraeuwe, P.L.J.; Mulder, T.L.; Zee, D.C. van der; Brouwers, H.A.A.; Verhoeven, B.H.; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Kramer, B.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Heineman, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. METHODS:

  20. Noninvasive diagnosis of thrombus in the heart and large vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Morooka, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Hideo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of two dimensional echocardiography (2-D echocardiography) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of thrombi in the cardiac cavity and large vessels was studied by comparing them with the findings of invasive methods. Among 56 subjects with mitral stenosis, left atrial thrombi were noted in 12 cases (16 regions) by CT and 8 cases (9 regions) by 2-D echocardiography. In 16 subjects who underwent operations, one false negative case by CT and 3 false negative and one false positive cases by 2-D echocardiography were found. In 80 subjects with myocardial infarction 2-D echocardiography, CT and left ventriculography (LVG) were performed at approximately the same time. Thrombi were detected in 10 subjects (12.5%) by 2-D echocardiography, in 15 (18.8%) by CT and in 14 (17.5%) by LVG. Although mural thrombi in abdominal aortic aneurysm were detected very easily, thin thrombi surrounding the false lumen of the dissecting aneurysm were not detected ultrasonographically. These thrombi were only detected by the enhanced CT. Our results show the usefulness of both methods for detecting thrombi in the heart and large vessels. CT can distinguish the thrombi more clearly than 2-D echocardiography, but 2-D echocardiography is performed more easily, safely and economically than CT. (author)

  1. Noninvasive optical diagnosis of low back pain with the aid of Chinese cupping procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nanxi; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a complex disease that can be cause by a variety of reasons. Now LBP has become a very common and severe disease among kinds of occupational groups with showing a younger trend. The traditional diagnosis relies on complicated imaging modalities and other dangerous and invasive methods. Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is noninvasive and convenient, and has been successful used in point-of-care diagnosis. Here, we attempt to explore NIRS's application in in low back pain diagnosis and the effect of aid-use of Chinese cupping procedure. 13 LBP patients and 13 healthy subjects participated in NIRS measurements of concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) at the middle of the lumbar spine. It was showed that there was significant differences (p < 0.001) between healthy subjects and LBP patients after cupping procedure, while insignificant before cupping. Moreover, it was found that healthy subjects showed stronger responses to cupping procedure than LBP patients, with prominently higher concentration of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. It indicates the potential of NIRS in noninvasive, measurable and straightforward monitoring/therapeutic effect evaluation of LBP with bedside and point-of-care monitoring capability.

  2. A new CFD based non-invasive method for functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinzhou; Zheng, Minwen; Wen, Didi; Li, Yabing; Xie, Songyun

    2018-03-22

    Accurate functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis is vital for decision making in coronary revascularization. With recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fractional flow reserve (FFR) can be derived non-invasively from coronary computed tomography angiography images (FFR CT ) for functional measurement of stenosis. However, the accuracy of FFR CT is limited due to the approximate modeling approach of maximal hyperemia conditions. To overcome this problem, a new CFD based non-invasive method is proposed. Instead of modeling maximal hyperemia condition, a series of boundary conditions are specified and those simulated results are combined to provide a pressure-flow curve for a stenosis. Then, functional diagnosis of stenosis is assessed based on parameters derived from the obtained pressure-flow curve. The proposed method is applied to both idealized and patient-specific models, and validated with invasive FFR in six patients. Results show that additional hemodynamic information about the flow resistances of a stenosis is provided, which cannot be directly obtained from anatomy information. Parameters derived from the simulated pressure-flow curve show a linear and significant correlations with invasive FFR (r > 0.95, P < 0.05). The proposed method can assess flow resistances by the pressure-flow curve derived parameters without modeling of maximal hyperemia condition, which is a new promising approach for non-invasive functional assessment of coronary stenosis.

  3. Noninvasive differential diagnosis of dental periapical lesions in cone-beam CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Kazunori, E-mail: kazokada@sfsu.edu [Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States); Rysavy, Steven [Biomedical and Health Informatics Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Flores, Arturo [Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Linguraru, Marius George [Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 and Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: This paper proposes a novel application of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to an everyday clinical dental challenge: the noninvasive differential diagnosis of periapical lesions between periapical cysts and granulomas. A histological biopsy is the most reliable method currently available for this differential diagnosis; however, this invasive procedure prevents the lesions from healing noninvasively despite a report that they may heal without surgical treatment. A CAD using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool which helps to avoid potentially unnecessary surgery and to investigate the unknown healing process and rate for the lesions. Methods: The proposed semiautomatic solution combines graph-based random walks segmentation with machine learning-based boosted classifiers and offers a robust clinical tool with minimal user interaction. As part of this CAD framework, the authors provide two novel technical contributions: (1) probabilistic extension of the random walks segmentation with likelihood ratio test and (2) LDA-AdaBoost: a new integration of weighted linear discriminant analysis to AdaBoost. Results: A dataset of 28 CBCT scans is used to validate the approach and compare it with other popular segmentation and classification methods. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method with 94.1% correct classification rate and an improvement of the performance by comparison with the Simon’s state-of-the-art method by 17.6%. The authors also compare classification performances with two independent ground-truth sets from the histopathology and CBCT diagnoses provided by endodontic experts. Conclusions: Experimental results of the authors show that the proposed CAD system behaves in clearer agreement with the CBCT ground-truth than with histopathology, supporting the Simon’s conjecture that CBCT diagnosis can be as accurate as histopathology for differentiating the periapical lesions.

  4. Noninvasive differential diagnosis of dental periapical lesions in cone-beam CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Rysavy, Steven; Flores, Arturo; Linguraru, Marius George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper proposes a novel application of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to an everyday clinical dental challenge: the noninvasive differential diagnosis of periapical lesions between periapical cysts and granulomas. A histological biopsy is the most reliable method currently available for this differential diagnosis; however, this invasive procedure prevents the lesions from healing noninvasively despite a report that they may heal without surgical treatment. A CAD using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool which helps to avoid potentially unnecessary surgery and to investigate the unknown healing process and rate for the lesions. Methods: The proposed semiautomatic solution combines graph-based random walks segmentation with machine learning-based boosted classifiers and offers a robust clinical tool with minimal user interaction. As part of this CAD framework, the authors provide two novel technical contributions: (1) probabilistic extension of the random walks segmentation with likelihood ratio test and (2) LDA-AdaBoost: a new integration of weighted linear discriminant analysis to AdaBoost. Results: A dataset of 28 CBCT scans is used to validate the approach and compare it with other popular segmentation and classification methods. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method with 94.1% correct classification rate and an improvement of the performance by comparison with the Simon’s state-of-the-art method by 17.6%. The authors also compare classification performances with two independent ground-truth sets from the histopathology and CBCT diagnoses provided by endodontic experts. Conclusions: Experimental results of the authors show that the proposed CAD system behaves in clearer agreement with the CBCT ground-truth than with histopathology, supporting the Simon’s conjecture that CBCT diagnosis can be as accurate as histopathology for differentiating the periapical lesions

  5. Noninvasive differential diagnosis of dental periapical lesions in cone-beam CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazunori; Rysavy, Steven; Flores, Arturo; Linguraru, Marius George

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel application of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to an everyday clinical dental challenge: the noninvasive differential diagnosis of periapical lesions between periapical cysts and granulomas. A histological biopsy is the most reliable method currently available for this differential diagnosis; however, this invasive procedure prevents the lesions from healing noninvasively despite a report that they may heal without surgical treatment. A CAD using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool which helps to avoid potentially unnecessary surgery and to investigate the unknown healing process and rate for the lesions. The proposed semiautomatic solution combines graph-based random walks segmentation with machine learning-based boosted classifiers and offers a robust clinical tool with minimal user interaction. As part of this CAD framework, the authors provide two novel technical contributions: (1) probabilistic extension of the random walks segmentation with likelihood ratio test and (2) LDA-AdaBoost: a new integration of weighted linear discriminant analysis to AdaBoost. A dataset of 28 CBCT scans is used to validate the approach and compare it with other popular segmentation and classification methods. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method with 94.1% correct classification rate and an improvement of the performance by comparison with the Simon's state-of-the-art method by 17.6%. The authors also compare classification performances with two independent ground-truth sets from the histopathology and CBCT diagnoses provided by endodontic experts. Experimental results of the authors show that the proposed CAD system behaves in clearer agreement with the CBCT ground-truth than with histopathology, supporting the Simon's conjecture that CBCT diagnosis can be as accurate as histopathology for differentiating the periapical lesions.

  6. Biomarkers identified by urinary metabonomics for noninvasive diagnosis of nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maoqing; Yang, Xue; Ren, Lihong; Li, Songtao; He, Xuan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Lin, Liqun; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-09-05

    Nutritional rickets is a worldwide public health problem; however, the current diagnostic methods retain shortcomings for accurate diagnosis of nutritional rickets. To identify urinary biomarkers associated with nutritional rickets and establish a noninvasive diagnosis method, urinary metabonomics analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with nutritional rickets in 200 children with or without nutritional rickets. The pathophysiological changes and pathogenesis of nutritional rickets were illustrated by the identified biomarkers. By urinary metabolic profiling, 31 biomarkers of nutritional rickets were identified and five candidate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis were screened and identified by quantitative analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. Urinary levels of five candidate biomarkers were measured using mass spectrometry or commercial kits. In the validation step, the combination of phosphate and sebacic acid was able to give a noninvasive and accurate diagnostic with high sensitivity (94.0%) and specificity (71.2%). Furthermore, on the basis of the pathway analysis of biomarkers, our urinary metabonomics analysis gives new insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of nutritional rickets.

  7. Application of magnetic resonance elastography as a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Minglei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis, but its limitations have been widely acknowledged. The non-invasive detection methods are needed in clinical practice, and at present, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE is a hot research topic. This article reviews the advances in the clinical application of MRE in related fields, and studies have shown that MRE has a high diagnostic value due to its high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as high as 0.95. Compared with serological and other imaging diagnostic methods, MRE can determine fibrosis stage more accurately and has good reproducibility and objectivity. MRE can be widely applied in all patients except those with hemochromatosis, with special advantages in the diagnosis for patients with obesity and ascites, and can make up for the disadvantages of other methods. This article points out that MRE may become the best non-invasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis, especially advanced fibrosis.

  8. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu K.; Yuen, Tony; Jiang, Peiyong; Pina, Christian; Chan, K. C. Allen; Khattab, Ahmed; Liao, Gary J. W.; Yau, Mabel; Kim, Se-Min; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition that arises from mutations in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes for the steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. To prevent genital ambiguity in affected female fetuses, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone must begin on or before gestational week 9. Currently used chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis provide genetic results at approximately 14 weeks of gestation at the earliest. This means that mothers who want to undergo prenatal dexamethasone treatment will be unnecessarily treating seven of eight fetuses (males and three of four unaffected females), emphasizing the desirability of earlier genetic diagnosis in utero. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a noninvasive method for early prenatal diagnosis of fetuses at risk for CAH. Patients: Fourteen families, each with a proband affected by phenotypically classical CAH, were recruited. Design: Cell-free fetal DNA was obtained from 3.6 mL of maternal plasma. Using hybridization probes designed to capture a 6-Mb region flanking CYP21A2, targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed to analyze genomic DNA samples from parents and proband to determine parental haplotypes. Plasma DNA from pregnant mothers also underwent targeted MPS to deduce fetal inheritance of parental haplotypes. Results: In all 14 families, the fetal CAH status was correctly deduced by targeted MPS of DNA in maternal plasma, as early as 5 weeks 6 days of gestation. Conclusions: MPS on 3.6 mL plasma from pregnant mothers could potentially provide the diagnosis of CAH, noninvasively, before the ninth week of gestation. Only affected female fetuses will thus be treated. Our strategy represents a generic approach for noninvasive prenatal testing for an array of autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:24606108

  9. Performance of Noninvasive Assessment in the Diagnosis of Right Heart Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Joanna M; El-Dabh, Ashraf; Marshell, Ramey; Chatterjee, Arka; Smith, Michelle G; Tresler, Margaret; Kirklin, James K; Acharya, Deepak; Rajapreyar, Indranee N; Tallaj, José A; Pamboukian, Salpy V

    2018-06-01

    Right heart failure (RHF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is associated with poor outcomes. Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) defines RHF as elevated right atrial pressure (RAP) plus venous congestion. The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic performance of the noninvasive INTERMACS criteria using RAP as the gold standard. We analyzed 108 patients with LVAD who underwent 341 right heart catheterizations (RHC) between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2013. Physical exam, echocardiography, and laboratory data at the time of RHC were collected. Conventional two-by-two tables were used and missing data were excluded. The noninvasive INTERMACS definition of RHF is 32% sensitive (95% CI, 0.21-0.44) and 97% specific (95% CI, 0.95-0.99) for identifying elevated RAP. Clinical assessment failed to identify two-thirds of LVAD patients with RAP > 16 mm Hg. More than half of patients with elevated RAP did not have venous congestion, which may represent a physiologic opportunity to mitigate the progression of disease before end-organ damage occurs. One-quarter of patients who met the noninvasive definition of RHF did not actually have elevated RAP, potentially exposing patients to unnecessary therapies. In practice, if any component of the INTERMACS definition is present or equivocal, our data suggest RHC is warranted to establish the diagnosis.

  10. Noninvasive measurements of cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolites in dilated cardiomyopathy by using 31P spectroscopic chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, A.; Rzanny, R.; Heyne, J.-P.; Reichenbach, J.R.; Kaiser, W.A.; Leder, U.

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is accompanied by an impaired cardiac energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic ratios in patients with DCM compared to controls by using spectroscopic two-dimensional chemical shift imaging (2D-CSI). Twenty volunteers and 15 patients with severe symptoms (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF 30%) of DCM were investigated. Cardiac 31 P MR 2D-CSI measurements (voxel size: 40 x 40 x 100 mm 3 ) were performed with a 1.5 T whole-body scanner. Measurement time ranged from 15 min to 30 min. Peak areas and ratios of different metabolites were evaluated, including high-energy phosphates (PCr, ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and phosphodiesters (PDE). In addition, we evaluated how PCr/ATP ratios correlate with LVEF as an established prognostic factor of heart failure. The PCr/γ-ATP ratio was significantly decreased in patients with moderate and severe DCM and showed a linear correlation with reduced LVEFs. PDE/ATP ratios were significantly increased only in patients with severe DCM as compared to volunteers. Applying 31 P MRS with commonly-available 2D-CSI sequences is a valuable technique to evaluate DCM by determining PCr/ATP ratios noninvasively. In addition to reduced PCr/ATP ratios observed in patients suffering from DCM, significantly-increased PDE/ATP ratios were found in patients with severe DCM. (orig.)

  11. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnosis and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2013-03-01

    Circulatory shock can lead to death or severe complications, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, diagnosis and management of circulatory shock are guided by blood pressure and heart rate. However, these variables have poor specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value. Early goal-directed therapy in septic shock patients, using central venous catheterization (CVC), reduced mortality from 46.5% to 30%. However, CVC is invasive and complication-prone. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of peripheral and central venous oxygenation. In this work we used a medical grade optoacoustic system for noninvasive, ultrasound image-guided measurement of central and peripheral venous oxygenation. Venous oxygenation during shock declines more rapidly in the periphery than centrally. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary [peripheral] and internal jugular vein [central] was performed using the Vivid e (GE Healthcare). We built an optoacoustic interface incorporating an optoacoustic transducer and a standard ultrasound imaging probe. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured continuously in healthy volunteers. To simulate shock-induced changes in central and peripheral oxygenation, we induced peripheral vasoconstriction in the upper extremity by using a cooling blanket. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured before (baseline) and after cooling and after rewarming. During the entire experiment, central venous oxygenation was relatively stable, while peripheral venous oxygenation decreased by 5-10% due to cooling and recovered after rewarming. The obtained data indicate that noninvasive, optoacoustic measurements of central and peripheral venous oxygenation may be used for diagnosis and management of circulatory shock with high sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  13. Breath analysis as a potential and non-invasive frontier in disease diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Cavaco, Carina; Taunk, Khushman; Rapole, Srikanth; Dhakne, Rahul; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu; Câmara, José S

    2015-01-09

    Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs), oncologic (ODs), neurodegenerative (NDDs), chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB) that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction) coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc.) allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  14. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia by Tooth Germ Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsche, S; Jüngert, J; Faschingbauer, F; Mommsen, H; Goecke, T; Schwanitz, K; Stepan, H; Schneider, H

    2015-08-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a potentially life-threatening heritable disorder, may be recognized already in utero by characteristic features such as oligodontia and mandibular hypoplasia. As therapeutic options and prognosis depend on the time point of diagnosis, early recognition was attempted during routine prenatal ultrasound examinations. Fetuses of nine pregnant women (one triplet and eight singleton pregnancies) with family histories of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia were investigated by sonography between the 20th and 24th week of gestation. In 4 male and 2 female fetuses reduced amounts of tooth germs were detected, whereas 5 fetal subjects showed the normal amount. Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation revealed mandibular hypoplasia in 5 of the 6 fetuses with oligodontia. Molecular genetic analysis and/or clinical findings after birth confirmed the prenatal sonographic diagnosis in each subject. In subjects with a family history of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, the diagnosis of this rare condition can be established noninvasively by sonography in the second trimester of pregnancy. Early recognition of the disorder may help to prevent dangerous hyperthermic episodes in infancy and may allow timely therapeutic interventions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA. It may be noninvasive (NI or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA.

  16. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Joshi, Rohan; Kuhel, William I.; Tabbara, Sana O.; Rezaei, M. Katayoon; Hoda, Rana S.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA). It may be noninvasive (NI) or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA. PMID:25972908

  17. 201thallium myocardial scintigraphy. A non-invasive method for diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyst Madsen, J.; Utne, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with the isotope 201 thallium is a new non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. This article presents the results of scintigraphy in four persons with presumably healthy hearts and 12 with ischaemic heart disease. In addition, some foreign works are reviewed. The method possesses only slightly greater nosographical sensitivity than the exercise ECG alone but can be employed to advantage if the results of the exercise ECG are inconclusive e.g. on account of bundle branch block, digoxin therapy etc. Another, although somewhat more special indication, is employment prior to and after coronary artery by-pass operation with subsequent control of the result. (authors)

  18. Non-invasive imaging technics for diagnosis in children with surgical abdominal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Koonosuke; Sato, Yutaka; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Kim, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Misao

    1984-01-01

    The usefullness of non-invasive imaging technics namely CT and ultrasonography was evaluated in pediatric surgical abdominal diseases, under the categoly of A) inflammatory masses (10), B) biliary abnormalities (6), C) neoplasms (12), and D) blunt abdominal traumas (8), which were experienced at St. Marianna University Hospital from April 1978 to January 1982. According to the results of the clinical study, the plan of useful diagnostic approaches in each group by means of several imaging technics was outlined. In group A and B, ultrasonography is usually suffice for diagnosis and therapy planning, whereas in group C and D, in addition to the ultrasound, CT is sometimes required for evaluating the involvement of vascular structures and sorrounding vital structures in cases of neoplasm, and coexisting injuries in the traumas. (author)

  19. Noninvasive analysis of volatile biomarkers in human emanations for health and early disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita; Kato, Hisato; Masuda, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Early disease diagnosis is crucial for human healthcare and successful therapy. Since any changes in homeostatic balance can alter human emanations, the components of breath exhalations and skin emissions may be diagnostic biomarkers for various diseases and metabolic disorders. Since hundreds of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from the human body, analysis of these VOCs may be a noninvasive, painless, and easy diagnostic tool. Sampling and preconcentration by sorbent tubes/traps and solid-phase microextraction, in combination with GC or GC-MS, are usually used to analyze VOCs. In addition, GC-MS-olfactometry is useful for simultaneous analysis of odorants and odor quality. Direct MS techniques are also useful for the online real-time detection of VOCs. This review focuses on recent developments in sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in human odors and/or emanations, and discusses future use of VOC analysis.

  20. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-05

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm(-1) and 1545 cm(-1), respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using cell-free fetal DNA technology: applications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alison; Bostanci, A; Wright, C F

    2010-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA and RNA circulating in maternal blood can be used for the early non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of an increasing number of genetic conditions, both for pregnancy management and to aid reproductive decision-making. Here we present a brief review of the scientific and clinical status of the technology, and an overview of key ethical, legal and social issues raised by the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA for NIPD. We suggest that the less invasive nature of the technology brings some distinctive issues into focus, such as the possibility of broader uptake of prenatal diagnosis and access to the technology directly by the consumer via the internet, which have not been emphasised in previous work in this area. We also revisit significant issues that are familiar from previous debates about prenatal testing. Since the technology seems to transect existing distinctions between screening and diagnostic tests, there are important implications for the form and process involved in obtaining informed consent or choice. This analysis forms part of the work undertaken by a multidisciplinary group of experts which made recommendations about the implementation of this technology within the UK National Health Service. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Detection of Methylated Circulating DNA as Noninvasive Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Isabella Wai Yin; Shin, Vivian Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, breast cancer is the most common female cancer, and is induced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic risk factors. Despite the advancement of imaging techniques, invasive sampling of breast epithelial cells is the only definitive diagnostic procedure for patients with breast cancer. To date, molecular biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the screening and early detection of breast cancer are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the detection of methylated circulating cell-free DNA in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer may be a promising quantitative and noninvasive method for cancer diagnosis. Methylation detection based on a multi-gene panel, rather than on the methylation status of a single gene, may be used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening. In this review, the results of 14 relevant studies, investigating the efficacy of cell-free DNA methylation screening for breast cancer diagnosis, have been summarized. The genetic risk factors for breast cancer, the methods used for breast cancer detection, and the techniques and limitations related to the detection of cell-free DNA methylation status, have also been reviewed and discussed. From this review, we conclude that the analysis of peripheral blood or other samples to detect differentially methylated cell-free DNA is a promising technique for use in clinical settings, and may improve the sensitivity of screening for both, early detection and disease relapse, and thus improve the future prognosis of patients with breast cancer. PMID:28382090

  3. Supportive Noninvasive Tool for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using a Thermographic Camera as Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Garduño-Ramón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading disease in incidence and mortality among women in developing countries. The opportune diagnosis of this disease strengthens the survival index. Mammography application is limited by age and periodicity. Temperature is a physical magnitude that can be measured by using multiple sensing techniques. IR (infrared thermography using commercial cameras is gaining relevance in industrial and medical applications because it is a non-invasive and non-intrusive technology. Asymmetrical temperature in certain human body zones is associated with cancer. In this paper, an IR thermographic sensor is applied for breast cancer detection. This work includes an automatic breast segmentation methodology, to spot the hottest regions in thermograms using the morphological watershed operator to help the experts locate the tumor. A protocol for thermogram acquisition considering the required time to achieve a thermal stabilization is also proposed. Breast thermograms are evaluated as thermal matrices, instead of gray scale or false color images, increasing the certainty of the provided diagnosis. The proposed tool was validated using the Database for Mastology Research and tested in a voluntary group of 454 women of different ages and cancer stages with good results, leading to the possibility of being used as a supportive tool to detect breast cancer and angiogenesis cases.

  4. Depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy for noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard Alan

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx account for more than 7,500 deaths each year in the United States alone. Major advances have been made in the management of oral cancer through the combined use of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, improving the quality of life for many patients; however, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often occurs at a late stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective, noninvasive methods for early diagnosis of oral neoplasia are needed. Here a method is presented to noninvasively evaluate oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy (DSOS). A ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe was developed to enable preferential targeting of different depth regions in the oral mucosa. Clinical studies of the diagnostic performance of DSOS in 157 subjects were carried out in collaboration with the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. An overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 89% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue relative to histopathology. Based on these results a compact, portable version of the clinical DSOS device with real-time automated diagnostic capability was developed. The portable device was tested in 47 subjects and a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue. The diagnostic potential of multimodal platforms incorporating DSOS was explored through two pilot studies. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with widefield imaging was carried out in 29 oral cancer patients, resulting in a combined sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 69%. Widefield imaging and spectroscopy performed slightly better in combination than each method performed independently. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with the optical contrast agents 2-NBDG, EGF-Alexa 647, and proflavine was carried out in resected tissue

  5. Combination of the non-invasive tests for the diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Prentice, Lucy; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Farquhar, Cindy; Hull, M Louise; Johnson, Neil

    2016-07-13

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests available in clinical practice to accurately diagnose endometriosis. This review assessed the diagnostic accuracy of combinations of different non-invasive testing modalities for endometriosis and provided a summary of all the reviews in the non-invasive tests for endometriosis series. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of any combination of non-invasive tests for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis (peritoneal and/or ovarian or deep infiltrating) compared to surgical diagnosis as a reference standard. The combined tests were evaluated as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and triage tests to assist decision-making to undertake diagnostic surgery for endometriosis. We did not restrict the searches to particular study designs, language or publication dates. We searched CENTRAL to July 2015, MEDLINE and EMBASE to May 2015, as well as the following databases to April 2015: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, DARE and PubMed. We considered published, peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size, including prospectively collected samples from any population of women of reproductive age suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: ovarian, peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). We included studies comparing the diagnostic test accuracy of a combination of several testing modalities with the findings of surgical visualisation of endometriotic lesions. Three review authors independently collected and performed a quality assessment of the data from each study by using the QUADAS-2 tool. For each test, the data were classified as positive or negative for the surgical detection of

  6. DWI-MRI: Single, Informative, and Noninvasive Technique for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhousseiny I. Ibrahiem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate diffusion weighted image-MRI (DWI as a single diagnostic noninvasive MRI technique for prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis. Material and Methods. A prospective study was conducted between July 2008 and July 2009. Candidates patients were equal or more than 40 years old, with suspicious digital rectal examination (more than clinical T2 or PSA >4 ng/mL. Informed consent was signed. DWI-MRI was performed at 1.5 T with a body coil combined with a spine coil in consecutive 100 cases. The histopathology of biopsies has been used as reference standard. Two examiners were evaluating MRI and TRUS, both of them were blinded regarding pathological findings. Accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were statistically analyzed. Results. Based on pathological diagnosis: group A (cancerous; 75 cases and group B (non-cancerous; 25 cases. Mean age was 65.3 and 62.8 years in groups A and B, respectively. Mean PSA was 30.7 and 9.2 ng/mL in groups A and B, respectively. Sensitivity of DWI was 58.3% while specificity was 83.8%. Accuracy of lesion detection was 52.4–77.8% (<0.05. Moreover, DWI at ADC value 1.2×10−3 mL/sec could determine 82.4% of true positive cases (<0.05. ADC values were lower with Gleason score ≥7 (<0.05. Conclusion. DWI could represent a non invasive single diagnostic tool not only in detection and localization but also in prediction of Gleason score whenever DWI is used prior to invasive TRUS biopsy. Furthermore, targeted single biopsy could be planned after DWI to minimize patient morbidity by invasive techniques.

  7. Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Histological Synovitis for Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Da Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the correlation between matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 3 and histological synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. Serum MMP-3 of 62 patients with active RA was detected by ELISA. Serial synovial tissue sections from all RA patients, 13 osteoarthritis, and 10 orthopedic arthropathies patients were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically for MMP-3, CD3, CD20, CD38, CD68, and CD15. Results. The percentage of lining MMP3+ cells was significantly higher in RA patients especially with high grade synovitis and it was significantly correlated with Krenn’s synovitis score r=0.574, P<0.001 and sublining inflammatory cells. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the association of the percentage of lining MMP3+ cells with activation of synovial stroma, sublining CD68+ macrophages, and CD15+ neutrophils was stronger than other histological indicators. The percentage of lining MMP3+ cells was significantly correlated with serum MMP-3 in RA r=0.656, P<0.001. Serum MMP-3 was higher in RA patients with high grade synovitis than that of low grade synovitis and significantly correlated with synovitis score and activation of synovial stroma subscore (all P<0.05. Conclusion. Serum MMP-3 may be an alternative noninvasive biomarker of histological synovitis and RA diagnosis.

  8. Markers for the non-invasive diagnosis of mesothelioma: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, S.; Schaake, E.; Koffijberg, H.; Burgers, J. A.; de Mol, B. A. J. M.; Moons, K. G. M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous markers have been evaluated to facilitate the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of mesothelioma. The purpose of this study was to conduct a structured review of the diagnostic performance of non-invasive marker tests for the detection of mesothelioma in patients with suspected

  9. Markers for the non-invasive diagnosis of mesothelioma : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, S.; Schaake, E.; Koffijberg, H.; Burgers, J. A.; De Mol, B. A J M; Moons, K.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous markers have been evaluated to facilitate the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of mesothelioma. The purpose of this study was to conduct a structured review of the diagnostic performance of non-invasive marker tests for the detection of mesothelioma in patients with suspected

  10. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  11. Comparison of noninvasive sample collection procedures for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: vidasnino@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: melo@mono.icb.ufmg.br; ltituassu@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The dogs are the main reservoir of the visceral leishmaniasis etiological agent Leishmania chagasi and these animals have to be systematically monitored. The aim of present work was to standardize a method for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis using DNA samples obtained by a noninvasive ways. Two kind of samples were compared: conjunctival swab and blood. The samples were analyzed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) associated with the hybridization of {sup 32}P labeled DNA probes. An in vitro test was carried out using cotton swabs seeded with L. chagasi parasites at different cell numbers. After that, the PCR and hybridization sensitivity was evaluated in two groups of 23 seropositive dogs. Conjunctival swabs and 1,0 mL of blood were collected from each animal. 90 {mu}L of these blood were spotted onto filter paper and the remaining used to prepare the buffy coat. The DNA purification from cotton swabs was carried out through the phenol-chloroform (group 1) or boiling (group 2). The Wizard kit was used to DNA extraction from buffy coat. The filters were treated according to Dialab protocol. The analysis of the seeded samples showed that the PCR was able to identify until ten parasites while the following hybridization of the PCR products allows the detection of until one parasite. The PCR positivity for the conjunctival swabs were 73.9% and 52.2% respectively to the groups 1 and 2. For buffy coat the positivities were 43.5% and 56.5% respectively. The filters presented the lowest positivity. The hybridization step was not accomplished yet for these samples. (author)

  12. Noninvasive clinical model for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in overweight and morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvulescu, I; Gheorghe, L; Csiki, I; Becheanu, G; Dumbravă, M; Fica, S; Martin, S; Sarbu, A; Gheorghe, C; Diculescu, M; Copăescu, C

    2012-01-01

    Liver biopsy, an invasive method, is the gold standard for differentiate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from other stages of fatty liver disease. A noninvasive test to diagnose NASH and disease severity before surgery and also for monitoring disease status after bariatric surgery (BS) will be an important medical challenge. To create a noninvasive biomarkers model for the diagnosis of NASH in overweight, obese and morbidly obese patients (MOP). Sixty patients (mean BMI= 47.81kg/m2) were admitted after exclusion of other causes of liver disease. Liver biopsies were obtained at the time of the bariatric surgery or by percutaneous liver biopsy and graded using Kleiner score. Continuous variables were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum test and for prediction of NASH we used logistic regression. Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), HOMA-R, hs-CRP, M30, M65, leptine and adiponectine levels remained independent predictors for NASH (p less than 0.02). Using AUC analysis, we established the following cutoff levels being indicative of NASH: BMI ė 47 kg/m2, ALT ė 32 IU/mL, AST ė 25 IU/mL, ALP ė 85 IU/mL, HOMA-IR ė 4, M65 ė 389 U/L. Adiponectine less than 13.5 mg/L. A NASH-score, calculated as the sum of these 7 parameters, at a cutoff level of 4 points, can accurately predict NASH (sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 93.94% and AUC of 0.9576). We propose a noninvasive model for NASH diagnosis in MOP that should be validated prospectively. Using this noninvasive score, NASH would be predicted without the risks of liver biopsy. Celsius.

  13. Determination of drug content in semisolid formulations by non-invasive spectroscopic methods: FTIR - ATR, - PAS, - Raman and PDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotter, B; Hein, J; Neubert, R H H; Faubel, W; Heissler, St

    2010-01-01

    This study elucidates the potential use of photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), FTIR photoacoustic (FTIR-PAS), FT Raman, and FTIR-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy as analytical tools for investigating the drug content in semisolid formulations. Regarding the analytical parameters, this study demonstrates the photothermal beam deflection to be definitely comparable to well established spectroscopic methods for this purpose. The correlation coefficients range from 0.990 to 0.999. Likewise, repeatability and limit of detection are comparable.

  14. Combination of the non-invasive tests for the diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Prentice, Lucy; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Farquhar, Cindy; Hull, M. Louise; Johnson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests

  15. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-09-11

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  16. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham; Incitti, Roberto; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  17. New Infrared spectroscopic methods for tumor diagnosis and medicinal plants analytics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzei, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work was done to verify the feasibility of infrared spectroscopy as a method for tumor diagnosis and medicinal plants analysis. The method of IR imaging has been successfully used for the diagnosis of prostate-, bladder- and oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as for localization of different ingredients of plant roots. All measurements have been done with a resolution down to 1,2 µm. As a non-invasive method, IR imaging can be used for qualitative analysis of 2-dimensional chemical structures and distribution of these substances in plant roots. It was found that IR imaging can be used for detecting cancer-affected areas in tissue-samples. For more profound results, IR-imaging has to be combined with chemometric evaluation methods like multi- and univariate data analysis. Measurements applying that combination of methods allow the identification of cancer-affected areas of tissue-samples of prostate-, bladder- and oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as an illustration of the local distribution of components like carbon-hydrates, proteins, lipids, amides and nucleic acids in samples from Urtica dioica, Phytolacca americana, Levisticum officinale, Primula veris, Cimicifuga racemosa and Gentiana lutea. All research was done by using state of the art technology for IR-imaging and image processing. It was found that IR-imaging can be used for localizing dissolved substances in roots of medical plants with a high resolution down to 1,2 µm. This work shows that different species of Polygala can be identified using FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Future developments of more sophisticated and powerful detectors will help to establish IR-imaging as an objective technology for diagnostics of cancer as well as a method in the field of research on medical plants and botany in general. (author) [de

  18. A blinded prospective study comparing four current noninvasive approaches in the differential diagnosis of medical versus surgical jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, K.W.; Snodgrass, P.J.; Swonder, J.E.; Mahoney, S.; Burt, R.; Cockerill, E.M.; Lumeng, L.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluation, ultrasound, computed tomography, and technetium 99m-HIDA or -PIPIDA biliary scans in distinguishing between intrahepatic and extrahepatic jaundice. A final diagnosis was established in each of the 50 patients who completed the study, among whom 29 had intrahepatic cholestasis and 21 had extrahepatic obstruction. In the diagnosis of extrahepatic obstruction, the sensitivities of clinical evaluation, ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine biliary scan were 95%, 55%, 63%, and 41%, respectively; the specificities were 76%, 93%, 93%, and 88%; and the overall accuracies were 84%, 78%, 81%, and 68%. These data support the conclusion that when the clinical evaluation is carefully performed, it is the single most effective noninvasive means of detecting extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a jaundiced patient. Although ultrasound, computed tomography, and radionuclide biliary scan are less sensitive, they are highly reliable if they indicate that extrahepatic obstruction is present. A flow chart of invasive and noninvasive approaches for evaluation of the jaundiced patient is presented

  19. Diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension: imaging, non-invasive markers of fibrosis and liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopet, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of ‘cirrhosis’ is evolving and it is now clear that compensated and decompensated cirrhosis are completely different in terms of prognosis. Furthermore, the term ‘advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD)’ better reflects the continuum of histological changes occurring in the liver, which continue to progress even after cirrhosis has developed, and might regress after removing the etiological factor causing the liver disease. In compensated ACLD, portal hypertension marks the progression to a stage with higher risk of clinical complication and requires an appropriate evaluation and treatment. Invasive tests to diagnose cirrhosis (liver biopsy) and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement and endoscopy) remain of crucial importance in several difficult clinical scenarios, but their need can be reduced by using different non-invasive tests in standard cases. Among non-invasive tests, the accepted use, major limitations and major benefits of serum markers of fibrosis, elastography and imaging methods are summarized in the present review. PMID:28533906

  20. FT-IR spectroscopic studies of protein secondary structures for breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamancheva, I; Simonova, D.; Milev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Roughly 14 million new cancer cases and 8 million cancer deaths have occurred worldwide in 2012. At least 30 % of all cancer cases and 40 % of the cancer deaths should be avoided by improving the early detection. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has shown many advantages as a tool for the detection of cancer over the traditional methods such as histopathological analysis, X-ray transmission, ultrasonic and computer tomography techniques. With the aim to establish the FT-IR spectroscopy as an alternative method for the diagnosis of human cancers, we have made several studies to examine in details the spectroscopic properties of normal and carcinomatous tissues. Human breast tissues were obtained immediately after surgical breast resection with the informed patient's consent. In our studies we made extensive use of Fourier self-deconvolution, second-order derivatization, difference spectra, curve-fitting procedures and quantitative determinations according to Beer's law. Cancer is a multi-step process. Characteristic differences in both the frequencies and the intensity ratios of several bands have been revealed. Considerable differences have been found in the spectral patterns. The most important and informative region in the mid-IR for determination of protein secondary structure is the amide I and amide II region. The bands between 1730 and 1600 cm -1 are highly sensitive to conformational changes. Considerable changes were observed in the A1735/A1652 absorbance ratio, which provides a measure for the content of a- helix and P-sheet domains. Our investigations have shown that the major biomarker peaks are in the amide I and amide II regions. In the so called 'fingerprint region' many molecular constituents such as lipids, phospholipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, carbohydrates and metabolites may overlap and the quantitative interpretation is impossible. The spectrum may therefore reflect only the average biochemical composition.; key words

  1. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  2. Semiotics of lesions of the cerebral venous collectors on application of noninvasive techniques of x-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, S.E.; Abalmasov, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The study included application of a complex of the noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MR tomography, MR venography, duplex scanning of the internal jugular veins, and transcranial Doppler sonography. The authors provide a detailed description of the semiotics of the MR signs of cerebral venous collector lesion in patients with thrombosis, extravasal compression, aneurysms, and development anomalies. Present the quantitative ultrasound parameters of hemodynamics in the efferent vessels of the brain accessible to inspections describe the effect of spontaneous echo-opacification in the internal jugular veins, which is assumed to be a predictor of thrombosis. Intravenous injection of magnevist resulted in an appreciable refinement of visualization of small dural sinuses at MR venography thereby allowing for the diagnosis of their thrombosis. It is suggested that the use of the entire complex of the X-ray modalities under consideration may lead to a more complete and noninvasive evaluation of the nature of cerebral venous insufficiency and of the degree of hemodynamic significance. Moreover, this will make it possible to outline approaches to therapeutic or surgical correction of the disease [ru

  3. [Semiotics of lesions of the cerebral venous collectors on application of noninvasive techniques of x-ray diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, S; Abalmasov, V

    2001-01-01

    The study included application of a complex of the noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MR tomography, MR venography, duplex scanning of the internal jugular veins, and transcranial Doppler sonography. The authors provide a detailed description of the semiotics of the MR signs of cerebral venous collector lesion in patients with thrombosis, extravasal compression, aneurysms, and developmental anomalies. Present the quantitative ultrasound parameters of hemodynamics in the efferent vessels of the brain accessible to inspections describe the effect of spontaneous echo-opacification in the internal jugular veins, which is assumed to be a predictor of thrombosis. Intravenous injection of magnevist resulted in an appreciable refinement of visualization of small dural sinuses at MR venography thereby allowing for the diagnosis of their thrombosis. It is suggested that the use of the entire complex of the x-ray modalities under consideration may lead to a more complete and noninvasive evaluation of the nature of cerebral venous insufficiency and of the degree of hemodynamic significance. Moreover, this will make it possible to outline approaches to therapeutic or surgical correction of the disease.

  4. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha, E-mail: sudha.srivastava@jiit.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307,Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-04-13

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer’s method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  5. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for cystic fibrosis: detection of paternal mutations, exploration of patient preferences and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Melissa; Twiss, Philip; Verhoef, Talitha I; Drury, Suzanne; McKay, Fiona; Mason, Sarah; Jenkins, Lucy; Morris, Stephen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-10-01

    We aim to develop non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) for cystic fibrosis (CF) and determine costs and implications for implementation. A next-generation sequencing assay was developed to detect ten common CF mutations for exclusion of the paternal mutation in maternal plasma. Using uptake data from a study exploring views on NIPD for CF, total test-related costs were estimated for the current care pathway and compared with those incorporating NIPD. The assay reliably predicted mutation status in all control and maternal plasma samples. Of carrier or affected adults with CF (n = 142) surveyed, only 43.5% reported willingness to have invasive testing for CF with 94.4% saying they would have NIPD. Using these potential uptake data, the incremental costs of NIPD over invasive testing per 100 pregnancies at risk of CF are £9025 for paternal mutation exclusion, and £26,510 for direct diagnosis. We have developed NIPD for risk stratification in around a third of CF families. There are economic implications due to potential increased test demand to inform postnatal management rather than to inform decisions around termination of an affected pregnancy. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis in asymptomatic dogs by the KDNA PCR-hybridization assay using noninvasive samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: rleite2005@gmail.com; Ferreira, Sydney de Almeida; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Parasitologia], e-mail: saninoalmeida@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the asymptomatic dogs may transmit the parasite to sand flies vectors. The VL epidemiological control in Brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, insecticide treatment and systematic treatment of human cases. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis is important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Serological tests are used for screening of dogs. However, these techniques present limitations. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an attractive alternative to the diagnosis in this context; but non-invasive samplings have great importance because they are simpler, painless and less resisted by dog-owners. This study aimed at evaluating conjunctival swab (CS) for canine VL diagnosis. In this methodology a sterile cotton swab is used to sampling the dog conjunctiva in both eyes. Thirty asymptomatic seropositive dogs were used. The samples were analyzed by the kDNA PCR-hybridization procedure in which the PCR products are hybridized with cloned kDNA mini-circles labeled with {sup 32}P[]dCTP. In addition, blood (B) was collected from each animal. L. chagasi was identified in 90% of CS samples and 13,6% of B samples. The high sensitivity obtained with asymptomatic dogs, in which the diagnosis is more difficult due the low number of parasites in the samples, allow concluding that the conjunctival swab associated to the kDNA PCR-hybridization assay provides a valuable alternative tool for the direct diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. (author)

  7. Diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis in asymptomatic dogs by the KDNA PCR-hybridization assay using noninvasive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de; Ferreira, Sydney de Almeida; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de

    2009-01-01

    The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the asymptomatic dogs may transmit the parasite to sand flies vectors. The VL epidemiological control in Brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, insecticide treatment and systematic treatment of human cases. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis is important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Serological tests are used for screening of dogs. However, these techniques present limitations. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an attractive alternative to the diagnosis in this context; but non-invasive samplings have great importance because they are simpler, painless and less resisted by dog-owners. This study aimed at evaluating conjunctival swab (CS) for canine VL diagnosis. In this methodology a sterile cotton swab is used to sampling the dog conjunctiva in both eyes. Thirty asymptomatic seropositive dogs were used. The samples were analyzed by the kDNA PCR-hybridization procedure in which the PCR products are hybridized with cloned kDNA mini-circles labeled with 32 P[]dCTP. In addition, blood (B) was collected from each animal. L. chagasi was identified in 90% of CS samples and 13,6% of B samples. The high sensitivity obtained with asymptomatic dogs, in which the diagnosis is more difficult due the low number of parasites in the samples, allow concluding that the conjunctival swab associated to the kDNA PCR-hybridization assay provides a valuable alternative tool for the direct diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. (author)

  8. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification as a Fast Noninvasive Method of Helicobacter pylori Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Farideh; Abiri, Ramin; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Navabi, Jafar; Alvandi, Amirhooshang

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is etiologically associated with some important health problems such as gastric cancer. Because of the high clinical importance of H. pylori infection, development of a noninvasive test for the detection of H. pylori is desirable. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeted ureC of H. pylori was evaluated on 100 stool specimens and compared with a stool antigen test. Culture and rapid urease test were considered as gold standards. The overall detection rate of the fecal antigen test and LAMP was 58% and 82%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the fecal antigen test and LAMP was 500 and 10 H. pylori cells/g and 10 fg DNA/reaction, which is equal to six H. pylori genome. LAMP technique has been characterized by high sensitivity and low detection limit for the detection of H. pylori in stool specimen. Clinical diagnostic performance of LAMP was better than the stool antigen test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization and noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer with serum surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoxin; Li, Linfang; Zeng, Qiuyao; Zhang, Yanjiao; Guo, Zhouyi; Liu, Zhiming; Jin, Mei; Su, Chengkang; Lin, Lin; Xu, Junfa; Liu, Songhao

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to characterize and classify serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra between bladder cancer patients and normal volunteers by genetic algorithms (GAs) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA). Two group serum SERS spectra excited with nanoparticles are collected from healthy volunteers (n = 36) and bladder cancer patients (n = 55). Six diagnostic Raman bands in the regions of 481-486, 682-687, 1018-1034, 1313-1323, 1450-1459 and 1582-1587 cm-1 related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids are picked out with the GAs and LDA. By the diagnostic models built with the identified six Raman bands, the improved diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% were acquired for classifying bladder cancer patients from normal serum SERS spectra. The results are superior to the sensitivity of 74.6% and specificity of 97.2% obtained with principal component analysis by the same serum SERS spectra dataset. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed the efficiency of diagnostic algorithm based on GA-LDA technique. This exploratory work demonstrates that the serum SERS associated with GA-LDA technique has enormous potential to characterize and non-invasively detect bladder cancer through peripheral blood.

  10. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  11. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m 2 . Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction

  12. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira, E-mail: fborelli@cardiol.br; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R. [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m{sup 2}. Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyom Lue

    Full Text Available There continues to be a significant clinical need for rapid and reliable intraoperative margin assessment during cancer surgery. Here we describe a portable, quantitative, optical fiber probe-based, spectroscopic tissue scanner designed for intraoperative diagnostic imaging of surgical margins, which we tested in a proof of concept study in human tissue for breast cancer diagnosis. The tissue scanner combines both diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS, and has hyperspectral imaging capability, acquiring full DRS and IFS spectra for each scanned image pixel. Modeling of the DRS and IFS spectra yields quantitative parameters that reflect the metabolic, biochemical and morphological state of tissue, which are translated into disease diagnosis. The tissue scanner has high spatial resolution (0.25 mm over a wide field of view (10 cm × 10 cm, and both high spectral resolution (2 nm and high spectral contrast, readily distinguishing tissues with widely varying optical properties (bone, skeletal muscle, fat and connective tissue. Tissue-simulating phantom experiments confirm that the tissue scanner can quantitatively measure spectral parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration, in a physiologically relevant range with a high degree of accuracy (<5% error. Finally, studies using human breast tissues showed that the tissue scanner can detect small foci of breast cancer in a background of normal breast tissue. This tissue scanner is simpler in design, images a larger field of view at higher resolution and provides a more physically meaningful tissue diagnosis than other spectroscopic imaging systems currently reported in literatures. We believe this spectroscopic tissue scanner can provide real-time, comprehensive diagnostic imaging of surgical margins in excised tissues, overcoming the sampling limitation in current histopathology margin assessment. As such it is a significant step in the development of a

  14. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease Using 12-Lead High-Frequency Electrocardiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A noninvasive, sensitive method of diagnosing certain pathological conditions of the human heart involves computational processing of digitized electrocardiographic (ECG) signals acquired from a patient at all 12 conventional ECG electrode positions. In the processing, attention is focused on low-amplitude, high-frequency components of those portions of the ECG signals known in the art as QRS complexes. The unique contribution of this method lies in the utilization of signal features and combinations of signal features from various combinations of electrode positions, not reported previously, that have been found to be helpful in diagnosing coronary artery disease and such related pathological conditions as myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. The electronic hardware and software used to acquire the QRS complexes and perform some preliminary analyses of their high-frequency components were summarized in Real-Time, High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph (MSC- 23154), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 7 (July 2003), pp. 26-28. To recapitulate, signals from standard electrocardiograph electrodes are preamplified, then digitized at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz, then analyzed by the software that detects R waves and QRS complexes and analyzes them from several perspectives. The software includes provisions for averaging signals over multiple beats and for special-purpose nonrecursive digital filters with specific low- and high-frequency cutoffs. These filters, applied to the averaged signal, effect a band-pass operation in the frequency range from 150 to 250 Hz. The output of the bandpass filter is the desired high-frequency QRS signal. Further processing is then performed in real time to obtain the beat-to-beat root mean square (RMS) voltage amplitude of the filtered signal, certain variations of the RMS voltage, and such standard measures as the heart rate and R-R interval at any given time. A key signal feature analyzed in the present

  15. A noninvasive method for coronary artery diseases diagnosis using a clinically-interpretable fuzzy rule-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Marateb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart diseases/coronary artery diseases (CHDs/CAD, the most common form of cardiovascular disease (CVD, are a major cause for death and disability in developing/developed countries. CAD risk factors could be detected by physicians to prevent the CAD occurrence in the near future. Invasive coronary angiography, a current diagnosis method, is costly and associated with morbidity and mortality in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to design a computer-based noninvasive CAD diagnosis system with clinically interpretable rules. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Cleveland CAD dataset from the University of California UCI (Irvine was used. The interval-scale variables were discretized, with cut points taken from the literature. A fuzzy rule-based system was then formulated based on a neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC whose learning procedure was speeded up by the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm. Two feature selection (FS methods, multiple logistic regression (MLR and sequential FS, were used to reduce the required attributes. The performance of the NFC (without/with FS was then assessed in a hold-out validation framework. Further cross-validation was performed on the best classifier. Results: In this dataset, 16 complete attributes along with the binary CHD diagnosis (gold standard for 272 subjects (68% male were analyzed. MLR + NFC showed the best performance. Its overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, type I error (α and statistical power were 79%, 89%, 84%, 0.1 and 79%, respectively. The selected features were "age and ST/heart rate slope categories," "exercise-induced angina status," fluoroscopy, and thallium-201 stress scintigraphy results. Conclusion: The proposed method showed "substantial agreement" with the gold standard. This algorithm is thus, a promising tool for screening CAD patients.

  16. Usefulness of percutaneous elastography by acoustic radiation force impulse for the non-invasive diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Julio Llamoza-Torres

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the accuracy of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Materials and methods: We present an observational, single-center study that included patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis in the period between October 2012 and September 2015 who underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS and were classified according to the standard and Rosemont criteria. The same group of patients was assessed by the ARFI technology using ACUSON S2000™ equipment with Virtual Touch™ Quantification software for the assessment of pancreatic stiffness by obtaining the shear wave velocity (SWV in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and nonparametric correlation methods. Diagnostic accuracy was obtained by analyzing receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results: A total of thirty-three patients were studied (45.5% women; mean age was 58.3 ± 11.8 years. Seventeen with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and sixteen classified as normal according to standard criteria. A significant difference was detected between the means of SWV in pancreatic body of patients without (SWV: 1.27 m/s and with chronic pancreatitis (SWV 1.57 m/s, p = 0.037. The area under the ROC curve was 71.3% (95% CI 0.532-0.895 and the accuracy of ARFI for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis was 69.7% for a SWV of 1.4 m/s in the pancreatic body. The SWV means in head (r = 0.421, p < 0.05 and body (r = 0.455, p < 0.05 of the pancreas showed a significant correlation with the number of EUS criteria for chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: Quantification of pancreatic stiffness with ARFI elastography technique has proven to be useful for the non-invasive diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.

  17. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  18. Dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging: a valuable method in the noninvasive diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijkman, Paul R M; Kuijpers, Dirkjan A; Blom, Bernadette M; van Herpen, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the clinical applicability of dobutamine stress magnetic resonance imaging (DS-MRI) for the detection of myocardial ischemia and myocardial viability. One hundred patients with suspected coronary artery disease and inconclusive exercise electrocardiography or significant repolarization abnormalities on the resting ECG underwent breath hold DS-MRI (1 Tesla), 4 days after cessation of anti-ischemic medication. Three left ventricular short axis planes were imaged at increasing doses of dobutamine. Recovery of wall thickening in a previously diminished or non contracting segment at low dose dobutamine was considered proof of viability. Development of hypo-, a- or dyskinesia at higher doses of dobutamine was taken to indicate ischemia. If the DS-MRI test was positive for ischemia, coronary angiography was performed. If indicated, this was followed by revascularization. If DS-MRI did not demonstrate ischemia, neither angiography nor revascularization were carried out. Ninety five DS-MRI investigations were available for diagnosis. Forty two patients had DS-MRI scans positive for ischemia and subsequently coronary angiography assessment of the clinical applicability of DS-MRI for the detection of myocardial ischemia was performed. One patient was false-positive. All 53 patients with non-ischemic DS-MRI scans had follow-up for 11-23 months (mean 17 months). One patient died suddenly 2 weeks after the MRI-test. The other 52 patients did not experience any coronary event nor sudden cardiac death. The predictive value of a positive (for ischemia) DS-MRI test is 98% and the predictive value of a negative DS-MRI test is also 98%.

  19. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Koester

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy. Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1 identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2 isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8, non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5, and non-ovulatory control (n = 5 cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  20. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  1. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods.

  2. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods. PMID:22453293

  3. Diagnosis of non-exudative (DRY) age related macular degeneration by non-invasive photon-correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Franz Ii; Ott, Maria; Munteanu, Mihnea

    2016-01-01

    Photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy) allows the non-invasively reveal of local dynamics and local heterogeneities of macromolecular systems. The capability of this technique to diagnose the retinal pathologies by in-vivo investigations of spatial anomalies of retinas displaying non-exudative senile macular degeneration was evaluated. Further, the potential use of the technique for the diagnosis of the macular degeneration was analyzed and displayed by the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC). The maculae and the peripheral retina of 73 normal eyes and of 26 eyes afflicted by an early stage of non-exudative senile macular degeneration were characterized by time-correlation functions and analyzed in terms of characteristic decay times and apparent size distributions. The characteristics of the obtained time-correlation functions of the eyes afflicted with nonexudative macular degeneration and of normal eyes differed significantly, which could be referred to a significant change of the nano- and microstructure of the investigated pathologic maculas. Photon-correlation spectroscopy is able to assess the macromolecular and microstructural aberrations in the macula afflicted by non-exudative, senile macular degeneration. It has been demonstrated that macromolecules of this disease show a characteristic abnormal behavior in the macula.

  4. Optical spectroscopic characteristics of lactate and mitochondrion as new biomarkers in cancer diagnosis: understanding Warburg effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-H.; Ni, X. H.; Pu, Yang; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R.; Wang, W. B.; Masilamani, V.; Rizwan, A.; Alfano, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis even under normoxia and mostly under hypoxia. Warburg proposed this effect of altered metabolism in cells more than 80 years ago. It is considered as a hallmark of cancer. Optical spectroscopy can be used to explore this effect. Pathophysiological studies indicate that mitochondria of cancer cells are enlarged and increased in number. Warburg observed that cancer cells tend to convert most glucose to lactate regardless of the presence of oxygen. Previous observations show increased lactate in breast cancer lines. The focus of this study is to investigate the relative content changes of lactate and mitochondria in human cancerous and normal breast tissue samples using optical spectroscopic techniques. The optical spectra were obtained from 30 cancerous and 25 normal breast tissue samples and five model components (Tryptophan, fat, collagen, lactate and mitochondrion) using fluorescence, Stokes shift and Raman spectroscopy. The basic biochemical component analysis model (BBCA) and a set of algorithm were used to analyze the spectra. Our analyses of fluorescence spectra showed a 14 percent increase in lactate content and 2.5 times increase in mitochondria number in cancerous breast tissue as compared with normal tissue. Our findings indicate that optical spectroscopic techniques may be used to understand Warburg effect. Lactate and mitochondrion content changes in tumors examined using optical spectroscopy may be used as a prognostic molecular marker in clinic applications.

  5. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Quantification of Liver Fat Using a New Quantitative Ultrasound Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven C; Heba, Elhamy; Wolfson, Tanya; Ang, Brandon; Gamst, Anthony; Han, Aiguo; Erdman, John W; O'Brien, William D; Andre, Michael P; Sirlin, Claude B; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Liver biopsy analysis is the standard method used to diagnose nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Advanced magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive procedure that can accurately diagnose and quantify steatosis, but is expensive. Conventional ultrasound is more accessible but identifies steatosis with low levels of sensitivity, specificity, and quantitative accuracy, and results vary among technicians. A new quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique can identify steatosis in animal models. We assessed the accuracy of QUS in the diagnosis and quantification of hepatic steatosis, comparing findings with those from magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) analysis as a reference. We performed a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of adults (N = 204) with NAFLD (MRI-PDFF, ≥5%) and without NAFLD (controls). Subjects underwent MRI-PDFF and QUS analyses of the liver on the same day at the University of California, San Diego, from February 2012 through March 2014. QUS parameters and backscatter coefficient (BSC) values were calculated. Patients were assigned randomly to training (n = 102; mean age, 51 ± 17 y; mean body mass index, 31 ± 7 kg/m(2)) and validation (n = 102; mean age, 49 ± 17 y; body mass index, 30 ± 6 kg/m(2)) groups; 69% of patients in each group had NAFLD. BSC (range, 0.00005-0.25 1/cm-sr) correlated with MRI-PDFF (Spearman ρ = 0.80; P hepatic steatosis, based on a cross-sectional analysis that used MRI-PDFF as the reference. With further validation, QUS could be an inexpensive, widely available method to screen the general or at-risk population for NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Value of five noninvasive diagnostic techniques and their combinations in diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI, FIB-4, Forns index, S index, and FibroScan with the degree of liver fibrosis, the diagnostic value of these techniques used alone or in combination, and the clinical value of these noninvasive techniques in the assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 91 patients with pathologically confirmed CHB who visited General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and underwent liver biopsy from January 2009 to April 2015. According to the Scheuer pathological stage and liver fibrosis stage (S, the patients were divided into non-liver fibrosis group (a liver fibrosis stage of S0, 32 patients, mild liver fibrosis group (a liver fibrosis stage of <S2, 30 patients, and marked liver fibrosis group (a liver fibrosis stage of ≥S2, 29 patients. The APRI, FIB-4, Forns index, and S index were calculated, and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan. An analysis of variance was used for the comparison of normally distributed continuous data between three groups, and the Dunnett t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups. The Spearman correlation analysis was also performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC were used to evaluate the value of these noninvasive techniques in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Results There were significant differences in age, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and platelet count between the three groups (F=3.552, 4.035, 4.374, and 5.992, all P<0.05, and there were significant differences in these parameters between the non-liver fibrosis group and the mild and marked liver fibrosis groups (P<0.05. There were significant differences in APRI, FIB-4, Forns index, S index, and FibroScan between the three groups (F

  7. Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Excited-State Aromaticity: Capturing Electronic Structures and Conformations upon Aromaticity Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juwon; Sung, Young Mo; Hong, Yongseok; Kim, Dongho

    2018-03-06

    Aromaticity, the special energetic stability derived from cyclic [4 n + 2]π-conjugated electronic structures, has been the topic of intense interest in chemistry because it plays a critical role in rationalizing molecular stability, reactivity, and physical/chemical properties. Recently, the pioneering work by Colin Baird on aromaticity reversal, postulating that aromatic (antiaromatic) character in the ground state reverses to antiaromatic (aromatic) character in the lowest excited triplet state, has attracted much scientific attention. The completely reversed aromaticity in the excited state provides direct insight into understanding the photophysical/chemical properties of photoactive materials. In turn, the application of aromatic molecules to photoactive materials has led to numerous studies revealing this aromaticity reversal. However, most studies of excited-state aromaticity have been based on the theoretical point of view. The experimental evaluation of aromaticity in the excited state is still challenging and strenuous because the assessment of (anti)aromaticity with conventional magnetic, energetic, and geometric indices is difficult in the excited state, which practically restricts the extension and application of the concept of excited-state aromaticity. Time-resolved optical spectroscopies can provide a new and alternative avenue to evaluate excited-state aromaticity experimentally while observing changes in the molecular features in the excited states. Time-resolved optical spectroscopies take advantage of ultrafast laser pulses to achieve high time resolution, making them suitable for monitoring ultrafast changes in the excited states of molecular systems. This can provide valuable information for understanding the aromaticity reversal. This Account presents recent breakthroughs in the experimental assessment of excited-state aromaticity and the verification of aromaticity reversal with time-resolved optical spectroscopic measurements. To

  8. Droplet digital PCR combined with minisequencing, a new approach to analyze fetal DNA from maternal blood: application to the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhant, Lucie; Anselem, Olivia; Fradin, Mélanie; Becker, Pierre Hadrien; Beugnet, Caroline; Deburgrave, Nathalie; Tafuri, Gilles; Letourneur, Franck; Goffinet, François; Allach El Khattabi, Laïla; Leturcq, France; Bienvenu, Thierry; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Nectoux, Juliette

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is generally detected by abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings in the third trimester of pregnancy and then confirmed by molecular genetic testing of fetal genomic DNA obtained by aspiration of amniotic fluid. This invasive procedure presents a small but significant risk for both the fetus and mother. Therefore, non-invasive procedures using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma have been developed for the detection of the fetal achondroplasia mutations. To determine whether the fetus carries the de novo mis-sense genetic mutation at nucleotide 1138 in FGFR3 gene involved in >99% of achondroplasia cases, we developed two independent methods: digital-droplet PCR combined with minisequencing, which are very sensitive methods allowing detection of rare alleles. We collected 26 plasmatic samples from women carrying fetus at risk of achondroplasia and diagnosed to date a total of five affected fetuses in maternal blood. The sensitivity and specificity of our test are respectively 100% [95% confidence interval, 56.6-100%] and 100% [95% confidence interval, 84.5-100%]. This novel, original strategy for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia is suitable for implementation in routine clinical testing and allows considering extending the applications of these technologies in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of many other monogenic diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia: next-generation sequencing allows for a safer, more accurate, and comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Lyn S; Mason, Sarah; Barrett, Angela N; McKay, Fiona; Lench, Nicholas; Daley, Rebecca; Jenkins, Lucy A

    2015-07-01

    Accurate prenatal diagnosis of genetic conditions can be challenging and usually requires invasive testing. Here, we demonstrate the potential of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood to transform prenatal diagnosis of monogenic disorders. Analysis of cell-free DNA using a PCR and restriction enzyme digest (PCR-RED) was compared with a novel NGS assay in pregnancies at risk of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia. PCR-RED was performed in 72 cases and was correct in 88.6%, inconclusive in 7% with one false negative. NGS was performed in 47 cases and was accurate in 96.2% with no inconclusives. Both approaches were used in 27 cases, with NGS giving the correct result in the two cases inconclusive with PCR-RED. NGS provides an accurate, flexible approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of de novo and paternally inherited mutations. It is more sensitive than PCR-RED and is ideal when screening a gene with multiple potential pathogenic mutations. These findings highlight the value of NGS in the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for other monogenic disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  11. Non-invasive diagnosis of sweat gland dysplasia using optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy in a family with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, M; Gauglitz, G G; Giehl, K; Braun-Falco, M; Schwaiger, H; Schauber, J; Ruzicka, T; Berneburg, M; von Braunmühl, T

    2016-04-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is an inherited syndrome, which originates mainly from genetic alteration of the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene. It regularly affects the adnexa of the skin which results in a characteristic phenotype of the patients including hypo- or anhidrosis leading to severe disturbances in the regulation of body temperature. To prevent the development of the symptoms in early childhood promising therapeutic approaches are currently under clinical investigation. In this context, timely diagnosis of this genetic syndrome is crucial. The purpose of our study was the investigation of modern non-invasive imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in the immediate diagnosis of AED. We examined a 3-year-old boy with the suspicion for an AED syndrome and his family members with RCM and OCT to document presence and characteristic features of sweat glands in comparison to non-affected individuals. The patient and the affected brother showed significantly reduced sweat glands in the imaging compared to the controls. The genetic analysis revealed a mutation of the EDA gene for hemizygosity previously associated with AED and the mother was revealed as the conductor of the genetic alteration. With the help of non-invasive imaging, we were able to detect sweat gland dysplasia in the affected family members without performing a biopsy which led us to the diagnosis of an AED. The application of modern dermatological imaging techniques might serve as valuable supplementary tools in the immediate, non-invasive diagnosis of genetic syndromes especially in newborns when early therapeutic approaches are planned. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Utilization of glutamate/creatine ratios for proton spectroscopic diagnosis of meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazany, Saman; Hesselink, John R.; Healy, John F.; Imbesi, Steven G.

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the potential of metabolites other than alanine to diagnose intracranial meningiomas on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Using a 1.5-T MR system the lesions were initially identified on FLAIR, and T1- and T2-weighted images. Employing standard point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) for single voxel proton MRS (TR 1500 ms, TE 30 ms, 128 acquisitions, voxel size 2 x 2 x 2 cm, acquisition time 3.12 min), MR spectra were obtained from 5 patients with meningiomas, from 20 with other intracranial lesions, and from 4 normal controls. Peak heights of nine resonances, including lipid, lactate, alanine, NAA (N-acetylaspartate), β/γ-Glx (glutamate + glutamine), creatine, choline, myo-inositol, and α-Glx/glutathione, were measured in all spectra. The relative quantity of each metabolite was measured as the ratio of its peak height to the peak height of creatine. Relative quantities of α-Glx/glutathione, β/γ-Glx, and total Glx/glutathione were significantly elevated in meningiomas compared to the 20 other intracranial lesions and the normal control brains. Alanine was found in four of five meningiomas, but lactate partially masked the alanine in three meningiomas. None of the other lesions or control brains showed an alanine peak. The one meningioma with no alanine and the three others with lactate had elevated Glx. While alanine is a relatively unique marker for meningioma, our results support the hypothesis that the combination of glutamate/creatine ratios and alanine on proton MRS is more specific and reliable for the diagnosis of meningiomas than alanine alone. (orig.)

  13. Utilization of glutamate/creatine ratios for proton spectroscopic diagnosis of meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazany, Saman [University of California, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R.; Healy, John F.; Imbesi, Steven G. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Our purpose was to determine the potential of metabolites other than alanine to diagnose intracranial meningiomas on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Using a 1.5-T MR system the lesions were initially identified on FLAIR, and T1- and T2-weighted images. Employing standard point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) for single voxel proton MRS (TR 1500 ms, TE 30 ms, 128 acquisitions, voxel size 2 x 2 x 2 cm, acquisition time 3.12 min), MR spectra were obtained from 5 patients with meningiomas, from 20 with other intracranial lesions, and from 4 normal controls. Peak heights of nine resonances, including lipid, lactate, alanine, NAA (N-acetylaspartate), {beta}/{gamma}-Glx (glutamate + glutamine), creatine, choline, myo-inositol, and {alpha}-Glx/glutathione, were measured in all spectra. The relative quantity of each metabolite was measured as the ratio of its peak height to the peak height of creatine. Relative quantities of {alpha}-Glx/glutathione, {beta}/{gamma}-Glx, and total Glx/glutathione were significantly elevated in meningiomas compared to the 20 other intracranial lesions and the normal control brains. Alanine was found in four of five meningiomas, but lactate partially masked the alanine in three meningiomas. None of the other lesions or control brains showed an alanine peak. The one meningioma with no alanine and the three others with lactate had elevated Glx. While alanine is a relatively unique marker for meningioma, our results support the hypothesis that the combination of glutamate/creatine ratios and alanine on proton MRS is more specific and reliable for the diagnosis of meningiomas than alanine alone. (orig.)

  14. New aids for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia: dysmorphic features, charts of fetal size and molecular confirmation using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitty, L. S.; Griffin, D. R.; Meaney, C.; Barrett, A.; Khalil, A.; Pajkrt, E.; Cole, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia by constructing charts of fetal size, defining frequency of sonographic features and exploring the role of non-invasive molecular diagnosis based on cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in maternal plasma. Data on fetuses with a confirmed

  15. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  16. Investigation of acetone, butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Öztürk, Önder; Akman, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether analysis of carbon dioxide, acetone and/or butanol present in human breath can be used as a simple and noninvasive diagnosis method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). For this purpose, overnight changes in the concentrations of these breath molecules were measured before and after sleep in 10 patients who underwent polysomnography and were diagnosed with OSAS, and were compared with the levels of these biomarkers determined after sleep in 10 healthy subjects. The concentrations of exhaled carbon dioxide were measured using external cavity laser-based off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, whereas the levels of exhaled acetone and butanol were determined using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We observed no significant changes in the levels of exhaled acetone and carbon dioxide in OSAS patients after sleep compared with pre-sleep values and compared with those in healthy control subjects. However, for the first time, to our knowledge, analyses of expired air showed an increased concentration of butanol after sleep compared with that before sleep and compared with that in healthy subjects. These results suggest that butanol can be established as a potential biomarker to enable the convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of OSAS in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Non-invasive diagnosis in cerebral ischemia by means of magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepgras, A.; Gueckel, F.; Laemmler, B.; Weigel, R.; Schmiedek, P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods are compared with transcranial Doppler sonography. There is a good correlation of the three methods in the changes in cerebral oxygen saturation and in blood velocity following acetazolamide stimulation of cerebral blood flow, except found in one patient with unilateral carotid artery occlusion. In this patient we found a decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity, revealed by a magnetic resonance technique designed to quantify CBV and CBF. We postulate a raised oxygen extraction as raised oxygen extraction as the cause of his changes in oxygen saturation. (orig.) [de

  18. Impact of gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance on the non-invasive diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, A; Galassi, M; Piscaglia, F; Romanini, L; Lucidi, V; Renzulli, M; Borghi, A; Grazioli, L; Golfieri, R; Bolondi, L

    2013-02-01

    Gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a 'hepatocyte-specific' contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR) in both the vascular and the hepatobiliary phases. To evaluate the contribution of the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA MR in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients under surveillance. Between 2008 and 2011, 48 consecutive small (10-30 mm) liver nodules were detected in 33 patients, who prospectively underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR and helical-computed tomography (CT) in a blind study. The diagnosis of HCC was established according to AASLD 2005 criteria. Of the 48 nodules, 38 (79%) were diagnosed as HCC, 24 (63%) of them based on AASLD non-invasive criteria, 11 diagnosed at histology and 3 during follow-up. The typical vascular pattern (arterial hypervascularisation and venous/late washout) was detected in 30 (79%) HCC nodules by MR, in 22 (58%) by CT and in 17 (45%) by CEUS. Hypointensity during the MR hepatobiliary phase was observed in all HCC nodules and in 3 nonmalignant nodules (sensitivity 100%, specificity 70%, positive predictive value 93%, negative predictive value 100%, positive likelihood ratio 3.33, negative likelihood ratio 0). Eight (21%) of the 38 HCC nodules, 7 of which lacked the typical vascular features at any of the imaging modalities, showed washout in the portal/venous phase and hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase at MRI, while this pattern was not detected in any nonmalignant lesion. Gadoxetic acid magnetic resonance may enhance the sensitivity of the non-invasive diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma nodules in cirrhotic patients under surveillance. Double hypointensity in the portal/venous and hepatobiliary phases could be considered a new magnetic resonance pattern, highly suggestive of hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A using COLD-PCR combined with HRM genotyping analysis from maternal serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Hada C; Martinez-Broca, Maria A; Rubio-Calvo, Amalia; Leon-Garcia, Cristina; Conde-Sanchez, Manuel; Costa, Alzenira; Navarro, Elena; Guerrero, Juan M

    2012-01-01

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a monogenic disorder characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance which is characterized by high risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma in all mutation carriers. Although this disorder is classified as a rare disease, the patients affected have a low life quality and a very expensive and continuous treatment. At present, MEN2A is diagnosed by gene sequencing after birth, thus trying to start an early treatment and by reduction of morbidity and mortality. We first evaluated the presence of MEN2A mutation (C634Y) in serum of 25 patients, previously diagnosed by sequencing in peripheral blood leucocytes, using HRM genotyping analysis. In a second step, we used a COLD-PCR approach followed by HRM genotyping analysis for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of a pregnant woman carrying a fetus with a C634Y mutation. HRM analysis revealed differences in melting curve shapes that correlated with patients diagnosed for MEN2A by gene sequencing analysis with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the pregnant woman carrying the fetus with the C634Y mutation revealed a melting curve shape in agreement with the positive controls in the COLD-PCR study. The mutation was confirmed by sequencing of the COLD-PCR amplification product. In conclusion, we have established a HRM analysis in serum samples as a new primary diagnosis method suitable for the detection of C634Y mutations in MEN2A patients. Simultaneously, we have applied the increase of sensitivity of COLD-PCR assay approach combined with HRM analysis for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of C634Y fetal mutations using pregnant women serum.

  20. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A using COLD-PCR combined with HRM genotyping analysis from maternal serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada C Macher

    Full Text Available The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A is a monogenic disorder characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance which is characterized by high risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma in all mutation carriers. Although this disorder is classified as a rare disease, the patients affected have a low life quality and a very expensive and continuous treatment. At present, MEN2A is diagnosed by gene sequencing after birth, thus trying to start an early treatment and by reduction of morbidity and mortality. We first evaluated the presence of MEN2A mutation (C634Y in serum of 25 patients, previously diagnosed by sequencing in peripheral blood leucocytes, using HRM genotyping analysis. In a second step, we used a COLD-PCR approach followed by HRM genotyping analysis for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of a pregnant woman carrying a fetus with a C634Y mutation. HRM analysis revealed differences in melting curve shapes that correlated with patients diagnosed for MEN2A by gene sequencing analysis with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the pregnant woman carrying the fetus with the C634Y mutation revealed a melting curve shape in agreement with the positive controls in the COLD-PCR study. The mutation was confirmed by sequencing of the COLD-PCR amplification product. In conclusion, we have established a HRM analysis in serum samples as a new primary diagnosis method suitable for the detection of C634Y mutations in MEN2A patients. Simultaneously, we have applied the increase of sensitivity of COLD-PCR assay approach combined with HRM analysis for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of C634Y fetal mutations using pregnant women serum.

  1. Association of low non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopic measurements during initial trauma resuscitation with future development of multiple organ dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, Bret A; Campons, Kevin M; Bozeman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) non-invasively monitors muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). It may provide a continuous noninvasive measurement to identify occult hypoperfusion, guide resuscitation, and predict the development of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) after severe trauma. We evaluated the correlation between initial StO2 and the development of MOD in multi-trauma patients. Patients presenting to our urban, academic, Level I Trauma Center/Emergency Department and meeting standardized trauma-team activation criteria were enrolled in this prospective trial. NIRS monitoring was initiated immediately on arrival with collection of StO2 at the thenar eminence and continued up to 24 hours for those admitted to the Trauma Intensive Care Unit (TICU). Standardized resuscitation laboratory measures and clinical evaluation tools were collected. The primary outcome was the association between initial StO2 and the development of MOD within the first 24 hours based on a MOD score of 6 or greater. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed; numeric means, multivariate regression and rank sum comparisons were utilized. Clinicians were blinded from the StO2 values. Over a 14 month period, 78 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 40.9 years (SD 18.2), 84.4% were male, 76.9% had a blunt trauma mechanism and mean injury severity score (ISS) was 18.5 (SD 12.9). Of the 78 patients, 26 (33.3%) developed MOD within the first 24 hours. The MOD patients had mean initial StO2 values of 53.3 (SD 10.3), significantly lower than those of non-MOD patients 61.1 (SD 10.0); P=0.002. The mean ISS among MOD patients was 29.9 (SD 11.5), significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 12.1 (SD 9.1) (P<0.0001). The mean shock index (SI) among MOD patients was 0.92 (SD 0.28), also significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 0.73 (SD 0.19) (P=0.0007). Lactate values were not significantly different between groups. Non-invasive, continuous StO2 near-infrared spectroscopy

  2. Non-invasive diagnosis of isolated chylopericardium using precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131I-triolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiseki, Yoshiki; Katsura, Tadahiko; Goto, Masakatsu; Kawanishi, Katsuyuki

    1982-01-01

    Chylopericardium is a rare disease and affects both sexes equally from neonate to adult. Usually, there are abnormal connections between the pericardial cavity and thoracic lymphatic systems. These connections are detected by (1) recovery of orally administered Sudan III from pericardial fluid, (2) evidence of radioactivity in the pericardial fluid by paracentesis after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein, and (3) lymphangiography. However, these method are technically difficult and invasive, thus sometimes dangerous for children. We employed precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein on a 9-year-old Japanese girl wth isolated chylopericardium before and after surgery. Abnormal connections and the back-ward flow to the pulmonary lymphatics were demonstrated by this method. This is an easy, non-invasive, reliable and safe method for detecting the abnormal connections of pericardial and lymphatic systems in children with chylopericardium. (author)

  3. Laser Raman detection of platelet as a non-invasive approach for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P; Wang, X H; Cheng, Y; Peng, J; Shen, A G; Hu, J M; Tian, Q; Shang, X L; Liu, Z C; Yao, X Q; Wang, J Z; Baek, S J; Park, A

    2011-01-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that puzzled many doctors. Reliable markers in easy-assembling samples are of considerable clinical diagnostic value. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed a new method that potentially allows early and differential diagnosis of AD from the platelet sample. Raman spectra of platelets isolated from different ages of AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls were collected and analyzed. Multilayer perceptron networks (MLP) classification method was used to classify spectra and establish the diagnostic models. For differential diagnosis, spectra of platelets isolated from AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD) mice were also discriminated. Two notable spectral differences at 740 and 1654 cm -1 were revealed in the mean spectrum of platelets isolated from AD transgenic mice and the controls. MLP displayed a powerful ability in the classifying of early, advanced AD and the control group, and in differential diagnosis of PD and advanced AD, as well as VD and advanced AD. The results suggest that platelet detecting by LRS coupled with MLP analysis appears to be an easy and accurate method for early and differential diagnosis of AD. This technique could be rapidly promoted from laboratory to the hospital

  4. Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test: a reliable non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, O. J.; Bosman, D. K.; van't Hoff, B. W.; Taminiau, J. A.; ten Kate, F. J.; van der Ende, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSA) test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in an academic medical centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 106 consecutive children who underwent gastroscopy were

  5. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Alexis; Burzio, Verónica; Landerer, Eduardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Gatica, Sebastian; Ávila, Rodolfo; López, Constanza; Villota, Claudio; de la Fuente, Rodrigo; Echenique, Javiera; Burzio, Luis O; Villegas, Jaime

    2012-12-18

    Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense) in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA) and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs) transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors revealed no expression of these mitochondrial transcripts. This assay

  6. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Alexis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. Methods The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. Results This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors

  7. Antenatal screening for aneuploidy--surveying the current situation and planning for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Ashley; Webster, Dianne; Taylor, Juliet; Mckay, Richard; McEwen, Alison; Sullivan, Jan; Pope-Couston, Rachel; Stone, Peter

    2016-01-29

    To gauge clinical opinion about the current system and possible changes as well as providing a forum for education about Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT). A series of workshops for doctors and midwives, supported by the National Screening Unit of the Ministry of Health and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, were held in the main centres of New Zealand. Following a brief education session, a structured evaluation of current screening and future possibilities was undertaken by questionnaire. One hundred and eight maternity carers participated in 5 workshops. Over 40% identified barriers to current screening. More than 60% would support NIPT in the first trimester. The majority of carers provided their own counselling support for women. The survey has shown general enthusiasm for the introduction of publically funded NIPT into prenatal screening in New Zealand. Barriers to utilisation of the current system have been identified and enhancements to screening performance with guidelines around conditions to be screened for would be supported.

  8. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  9. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvin, M E; Gersonde, I; Meinke, M; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2005-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar + laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm -1 , which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm 2 . It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group

  10. Wavelength-Modulated Differential Photoacoustic (WM-DPA) imaging: a high dynamic range modality towards noninvasive diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    This study explores wavelength-modulated differential photo-acoustic (WM-DPA) imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection via sensitive characterization of functional information such as hemoglobin oxygenation (sO2) levels. Well-known benchmarks of tumor formation such as angiogenesis and hypoxia can be addressed this way. While most conventional photo-acoustic imaging has almost entirely employed high-power pulsed lasers, frequency-domain photo-acoustic radar (FD-PAR) has seen significant development as an alternative technique. It employs a continuous wave laser source intensity-modulated and driven by frequency-swept waveforms. WM-DPA imaging utilizes chirp modulated laser beams at two distinct wavelengths for which absorption differences between oxy- and deoxygenated hemoglobin are minimum (isosbestic point, 805 nm) and maximum (680 nm) to simultaneously generate two signals detected using a standard commercial array transducer as well as a single-element transducer that scans the sample. Signal processing is performed using Lab View and Matlab software developed in-house. Minute changes in total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and oxygenation levels are detectable using this method since background absorption is suppressed due to the out-of-phase modulation of the laser sources while the difference between the two signals is amplified, thus allowing pre-malignant tumors to become identifiable. By regulating the signal amplitude ratio and phase shift the system can be tuned to applications like cancer screening, sO2 quantification and hypoxia monitoring in stroke patients. Experimental results presented demonstrate WM-DPA imaging of sheep blood phantoms in comparison to single-wavelength FD-PAR imaging. Future work includes the functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  11. Non-invasive Investigations for the Diagnosis of Fontan-Associated Liver Disease in Pediatric and Adult Fontan Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amyna Fidai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD is a serious complication related to the chronically elevated venous pressure and low cardiac output of this abnormal circulation. However, diagnostic markers for this condition are limited. We hypothesized that specific tests for fibrosis developed for other chronic liver diseases would identify a higher prevalence of FALD than ultrasound and standard laboratory tests and that identified abnormalities would correlate with time post-Fontan. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed 19 children (average age 8.4 ± 4.3 and 5.4 ± 4.1 years post-Fontan and 8 adults (average age 31.5 ± 8.9 and 21.1 ± 4 years post-Fontan using standard serum laboratory investigations assessing hepatic integrity and function, the FibroTest, liver ultrasound, and transient elastography (FibroScan. In adult Fontan patients, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were significantly increased, and white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly decreased in comparison to the pediatric cohort. International normalized ratio was mildly elevated in both children and adults. FibroTest results were suggestive of fibrosis regardless of time post-Fontan. FibroScan measurements were significantly correlated with time post-Fontan, but the incidence of ultrasound-detected liver abnormalities was variable. No cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were identified. Abnormalities suggestive of FALD occur in both children and adults post-Fontan. Select laboratory tests, and possibly ultrasound and FibroScan in some patients, appear to have the most promise for the non-invasive detection of FALD.

  12. Non-Invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis in Big Cats using the PGFM (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dehnhard

    Full Text Available Non-invasive monitoring of hormones using feces has become a vital tool for reproductive management and reliable pregnancy diagnosis in big cats. Previous studies described the PGF2α metabolite (PGFM as an indicator of pregnancy in various feline species. The present study aimed to standardize pregnancy detection in big cats like the tiger (Panthera tigris, jaguar (Panthera onca and lion (Panthera leo using fecal samples. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS were performed to identify PGFM in feces. An EIA developed against 9α,11α-dihydroxy-15-oxo-prost-5-en-1-oic acid-BSA was used to assay PGFM in fecal samples of the Bengal tiger, Asiatic lion and jaguar. The PGFM levels increased after 9 weeks of pregnancy and remained elevated until parturition. All animals showed elevated levels of PGFM in the last trimester of pregnancy, thus making PGFM a reliable tool for pregnancy diagnosis during this period that can be useful in captive breeding programs in these species.

  13. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of monogenic disorders: an optimized protocol using MEMO qPCR with miniSTR as internal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissart, Claire; Debant, Vanessa; Desgeorges, Marie; Bareil, Corinne; Raynal, Caroline; Toga, Caroline; Pritchard, Victoria; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Vincent, Marie-Claire

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of circulating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma is very promising for early diagnosis of monogenic diseases. However, this approach is not yet available for routine use and remains technically challenging because of the low concentration of cffDNA, which is swamped by the overwhelming maternal DNA. To make clinical applications more readily accessible, we propose a new approach based on mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotides (MEMO) PCR along with real-time PCR to selectively amplify from the maternal blood the paternally inherited fetal allele that is not present in the maternal genome. The first proof of concept of this strategy was displayed for cystic fibrosis by the accuracy of our detection of the p.Gly542* mutation used as the initial developmental model. Subsequently, a retrospective study of plasmas originating from two pregnant women carrying a fetus with private mutation confirmed the effectiveness of our method. We confirmed the presence of cffDNA in the studied samples by the identification of a tri-allelic DNA profile using a miniSTR kit. This new non-invasive prenatal diagnosis test offers numerous advantages over current methods: it is simple, cost effective, time efficient and does not require complex equipment or bioinformatics settings. Moreover, our assays for different private mutations demonstrate the viability of this approach in clinical settings for monogenic disorders.

  14. Implementing Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPD) in a National Health Service Laboratory; From Dominant to Recessive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne; Mason, Sarah; McKay, Fiona; Lo, Kitty; Boustred, Christopher; Jenkins, Lucy; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-01-01

    Our UK National Health Service regional genetics laboratory offers NIPD for autosomal dominant and de novo conditions (achondroplasia, thanataphoric dysplasia, Apert syndrome), paternal mutation exclusion for cystic fibrosis and a range of bespoke tests. NIPD avoids the risks associated with invasive testing, making prenatal diagnosis more accessible to families at high genetic risk. However, the challenge remains in offering definitive diagnosis for autosomal recessive diseases, which is complicated by the predominance of the maternal mutant allele in the cell-free DNA sample and thus requires a variety of different approaches. Validation and diagnostic implementation for NIPD of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is further complicated by presence of a pseudogene that requires a different approach. We have used an assay targeting approximately 6700 heterozygous SNPs around the CAH gene (CYP21A2) to construct the high-risk parental haplotypes and tested this approach in five cases, showing that inheritance of the parental alleles can be correctly identified using NIPD. We are evaluating various measures of the fetal fraction to help determine inheritance of parental mutations. We are currently exploring the utility of an NIPD multi-disorder panel for autosomal recessive disease, to make testing more widely applicable to families with a variety of serious genetic conditions.

  15. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean liver cancer study group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines compared with other guidelines and remaining issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Park, Joong Won

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed 'washout' in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis

  16. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean liver cancer study group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines compared with other guidelines and remaining issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Won [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed 'washout' in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  17. Comparison of different non-invasive screening methods in the diagnosis of stage T/sub 1/ breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartl, W; Euller, A; Pfersmann, C; Bernaschek, G; Breitenecker, G

    1984-10-01

    52 women with stage T/sub 1/ breast cancer were investigated by thermography, mammography and ultrasound and the results compared with the patients age, histological tumour type and the degree of malignancy. The best results were achieved by mammography (sensitivity: 85%). In tumours with a large amount of connective tissue (scirrhous or invasive lobular cancer) sensitivity rose to 94%, while in tumours with little connective tissue (solid, medullary, adenomatous and papillary) sensitivity decreased to 69%. The respective values for thermographic sensitivity were 44% and 77% and for ultrasound sensitivity in palpable tumours 85% and 65%, respectively. On mammography 3 carcinomas were not recognized, all three in younger patients; on thermography also three false negative results were obtained, but all in older patients. The sensitivity of thermography increases in parallel with increasing degree of tumour malignancy. Whilst ultrasound is a valuable aid for differential diagnosis in palpable tumours only, screening results can evidently be improved by a combination of thermography and mammography.

  18. A comparison of different non-invasive screening methods in the diagnosis of stage T1 breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Euller, A.; Pfersmann, C.; Bernaschek, G.; Breitenecker, G.

    1984-01-01

    52 women with stage T 1 breast cancer were investigated by thermography, mammography and ultrasound and the results compared with the patients age, histological tumour type and the degree of malignancy. The best results were achieved by mammography (sensitivity: 85%). In tumours with a large amount of connective tissue (scirrhous or invasive lobular cancer) sensitivity rose to 94%, whilst in tumours with little connective tissue (solid, medullary, adenomatous and papillary) sensitivity decreased to 69%. The respective values for thermographic sensitivity were 44% and 77% and for ultrasound sensitivity in palpable tumours 85% and 65%, respectively. On mammography 3 carcinomas were not recognized, all three in younger patients; on thermography also three false negative results were obtained, but all in older patients. The sensitivity of thermography increases in parallel with increasing degree of tumour malignancy. Whilst ultrasound is a valuable aid for differential diagnosis in palpable tumours only, screening results can evidently be improved by a combination of thermography and mammography. (Author)

  19. An advanced design of non-radioactive image capturing and management system for applications in non-invasive skin disorder diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Carol Y. B.; Luk, David C. K.; Zhou, Kany S. Y.; So, Bryan M. K.; Louie, Derek C. H.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the increasing incidences of malignant melanoma, there is a rising demand for assistive technologies for its early diagnosis and improving the survival rate. The commonly used visual screening method is with limited accuracy as the early phase of melanoma shares many clinical features with an atypical nevus, while conventional dermoscopes are not user-friendly in terms of setup time and operations. Therefore, the development of an intelligent and handy system to assist the accurate screening and long-term monitoring of melanocytic skin lesions is crucial for early diagnosis and prevention of melanoma. In this paper, an advanced design of non-invasive and non-radioactive dermoscopy system was reported. Computer-aided simulations were conducted for optimizing the optical design and uniform illumination distribution. Functional prototype and the software system were further developed, which could enable image capturing at 10x amplified and general modes, convenient data transmission, analysis of dermoscopic features (e.g., asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter and dermoscopic structure) for assisting the early detection of melanoma, extract patient information (e.g. code, lesion location) and integrate with dermoscopic images, thus further support long term monitoring of diagnostic analysis results. A clinical trial study was further conducted on 185 Chinese children (0-18 years old). The results showed that for all subjects, skin conditions diagnosed based on the developed system accurately confirmed the diagnoses by conventional clinical procedures. Besides, clinical analysis on dermoscopic features and a potential standard approach by the developed system to support identifying specific melanocytic patterns for dermoscopic examination in Chinese children were also reported.

  20. MR T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as a potential non-invasive and quantitative biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongye; Duan, Xiaohui; Yang, Zehong; Bai, Zhiqiang; Hu, Huijun; Shen, Jun; Wang, Chuan; Yan, Li

    2018-01-01

    To determine the role of quantitative tibial nerve T2 value in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). MR imaging and T2 mapping of the tibial nerve were performed in 22 diabetic patients with DPN, 20 diabetic patients without DPN and 20 healthy controls. Nerve T2 values were measured, and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic ability of T2 value to identify DPN. Nerve T2 value was 55.06 ± 4.05 ms, 48.91 ± 3.06 ms and 45.61 ± 1.86 ms in patients with DPN, patients without DPN and controls, respectively. Patients with DPN had significantly higher nerve T2 values than patients without DPN (P < 0.001). Nerve T2 values in patients without DPN were higher than in controls (P < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that T2 values had a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.8 %, specificity of 89.2 % and area under the curve of 0.922 for identifying patients with DPN from patients without DPN plus controls when the cutoff point was 51.34 ms. T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as an alternative, non-invasive quantitative parameter to assess DPN in diabetic patients. circle Tibial nerves in patients with DPN showed T2 hyperintensity and enlargement. (orig.)

  1. Urinary retinoic acid receptor-β2 gene promoter methylation and hyaluronidase activity as noninvasive tests for diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Sanaa; Zohny, Samir F; Shehata, Hanan Hussien; Hegazy, Marwa G A; Salem, Ahmed M; Esmat, Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the significance of urinary retinoic acid receptor-β2 (RAR-β2) gene promoter methylation and hyaluronidase activity in comparison with voided urine cytology (VUC) in diagnosis of bladder cancer. This study included 100 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer, 65 patients with benign urological disorders and 51 healthy volunteers. Urine supernatant was used for determining hyaluronidase activity by zymography while urine sediment was used for cytology and detection of methylated RAR-β2 gene promoter by methylation specific nested PCR. The sensitivity and specificity were 53% and 90.5% for VUC, 65% and 89.7% for percent methylation fraction of RAR-β2 gene promoter, and 89% and 90.5% for hyaluronidase activity; combination of the three parameters increased sensitivity to 95%. A significant association was observed between investigated markers and advanced grade tumor. Combined use of RAR-β2 gene promoter methylation, hyaluronidase activity and VUC is promising non-invasive tool for bladder cancer detection. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. MR T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as a potential non-invasive and quantitative biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Duan, Xiaohui; Yang, Zehong; Bai, Zhiqiang; Hu, Huijun; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Wang, Chuan; Yan, Li [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2018-03-15

    To determine the role of quantitative tibial nerve T2 value in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). MR imaging and T2 mapping of the tibial nerve were performed in 22 diabetic patients with DPN, 20 diabetic patients without DPN and 20 healthy controls. Nerve T2 values were measured, and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic ability of T2 value to identify DPN. Nerve T2 value was 55.06 ± 4.05 ms, 48.91 ± 3.06 ms and 45.61 ± 1.86 ms in patients with DPN, patients without DPN and controls, respectively. Patients with DPN had significantly higher nerve T2 values than patients without DPN (P < 0.001). Nerve T2 values in patients without DPN were higher than in controls (P < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that T2 values had a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.8 %, specificity of 89.2 % and area under the curve of 0.922 for identifying patients with DPN from patients without DPN plus controls when the cutoff point was 51.34 ms. T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as an alternative, non-invasive quantitative parameter to assess DPN in diabetic patients. circle Tibial nerves in patients with DPN showed T2 hyperintensity and enlargement. (orig.)

  3. Diagnosis and activity assessment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy: current perspectives on noninvasive testing with aberrantly glycosylated immunoglobulin A-related biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Suzuki,1 Hitoshi Suzuki,1 Yuko Makita,1 Akiko Takahata,1 Keiko Takahashi,1 Masahiro Muto,1 Yohei Sasaki,1 Atikemu Kelimu,1 Keiichi Matsuzaki,2 Hiroyuki Yanagawa,1 Keiko Okazaki,1 Yasuhiko Tomino1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Kyoto University Health Service, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig A nephropathy (IgAN is the most common form of glomerular disease worldwide and is associated with a poor prognosis. Thus, development of a curative treatment and strategies for early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. Pathological analysis of renal biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and assessment of disease activity; however, immediate and frequent assessment based on biopsy specimens is difficult. Therefore, a simple and safe alternative is desirable. On the other hand, it is now widely accepted that multi-hit steps, including production of aberrantly glycosylated serum IgA1 (first hit, and IgG or IgA autoantibodies that recognize glycan containing epitopes on glycosylated serum IgA1 (second hit and their subsequent immune complex formation (third hit and glomerular deposition (fourth hit, are required for continued progression of IgAN. Although the prognostic and predictive values of several markers have been discussed elsewhere, we recently developed a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic method by measuring serum levels of glycosylated serum IgA1 and related IgA immune complex. In addition, we confirmed a significant correlation between serum levels of these essential effector molecules and disease activity after treatment, suggesting that each can be considered as a practical surrogate marker of therapeutic effects in this slowly progressive disease. Such a noninvasive diagnostic and activity assessment method using these disease-oriented specific biomarkers may be useful in the early diagnosis of and intervention in IgAN, with

  4. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Methods Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 ‘training’ samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. Results An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). Conclusions AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. PMID:25614466

  5. Molecular Testing of Nodules with a Suspicious or Malignant Cytologic Diagnosis in the Setting of Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Kyle C; Eszlinger, Markus; Paschke, Ralf; Angell, Trevor E; Alexander, Erik K; Marqusee, Ellen; Nehs, Matthew A; Jo, Vickie Y; Lowe, Alarice; Vivero, Marina; Hollowell, Monica; Qian, Xiaohua; Wieczorek, Tad; French, Christopher A; Teot, Lisa A; Cibas, Edmund S; Lindeman, Neal I; Krane, Jeffrey F; Barletta, Justine A

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor characterized by frequent RAS mutations and an absence of the BRAF V600E mutation commonly seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). The ability to differentiate potential NIFTP/follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) from cPTC at the time of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can facilitate conservative management of NIFTP. The aim of the current study was to investigate how molecular testing may add to cytologic assessment in the pre-operative differentiation of potential NIFTP/FVPTC and cPTC. We had previously evaluated cytologists' ability to prospectively distinguish potential NIFTP/FVPTC from cPTC in a cohort of 56 consecutive FNAs diagnosed as malignant or suspicious for malignancy. We utilized this cohort to perform molecular analysis. Detected molecular abnormalities were stratified into two groups: (1) those supporting malignancy and (2) those supporting a diagnosis of potential NIFTP/FVPTC. The cytologists' characterization of cases and the detected molecular alterations were correlated with the final histologic diagnoses. Molecular testing was performed in 52 (93%) of the 56 cases. For the 37 cases cytologists favored to be cPTC, 31 (84%) had a molecular result that supported malignancy (28 BRAF V600E mutations, 2 NTRK1 fusions, 1 AGK-BRAF fusion). For the 8 cases that were favored to be NIFTP/FVPTC by cytologists, 7 (88%) had a molecular result that supported conservative management (1 NRAS mutation, 6 wild-type result). Seven cases were designated as cytomorphologically indeterminate for NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC, of which 6 (86%) had a molecular result that would have aided in the pre-operative assessment of potential NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC/malignancy. These included 3 BRAF V600E mutations in nodules that were cPTC on resection, an HRAS mutation, and a wild-type result in the 2 nodules that were NIFTP, and a TERT promoter

  6. Noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatin, J T; Gay, P C

    1999-08-01

    Noninvasive ventilation refers to the delivery of assisted ventilatory support without the use of an endotracheal tube. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can be delivered by using a volume-controlled ventilator, a pressure-controlled ventilator, a bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator, or a continuous positive airway pressure device. During the past decade, there has been a resurgence in the use of noninvasive ventilation, fueled by advances in technology and clinical trials evaluating its use. Several manufacturers produce portable devices that are simple to operate. This review describes the equipment, techniques, and complications associated with NPPV and also the indications for both short-term and long-term applications. NPPV clearly represents an important addition to the techniques available to manage patients with respiratory failure. Future clinical trials evaluating its many clinical applications will help to define populations of patients most apt to benefit from this type of treatment.

  7. A stepwise algorithm using an at-a-glance first-line test for the non-invasive diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; de Ledinghen, Victor; Leroy, Vincent; Anty, Rodolphe; Francque, Sven; Salmon, Dominique; Lannes, Adrien; Bertrais, Sandrine; Oberti, Frederic; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Calès, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are common, and are therefore mainly managed by non-hepatologists. These physicians lack access to the best non-invasive tests of liver fibrosis, and consequently cannot accurately determine the disease severity. Referral to a hepatologist is then needed. We aimed to implement an algorithm, comprising a new first-line test usable by all physicians, for the detection of advanced liver fibrosis in all CLD patients. Diagnostic study: 3754 CLD patients with liver biopsy were 2:1 randomized into derivation and validation sets. Prognostic study: longitudinal follow-up of 1275 CLD patients with baseline fibrosis tests. Diagnostic study: the easy liver fibrosis test (eLIFT), an "at-a-glance" sum of points attributed to age, gender, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), platelets and prothrombin time, was developed for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis. In the validation set, eLIFT and fibrosis-4 (FIB4) had the same sensitivity (78.0% vs. 76.6%, p=0.470) but eLIFT gave fewer false positive results, especially in patients ≥60years old (53.8% vs. 82.0%, ptest. FibroMeter with vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE) was the most accurate among the eight fibrosis tests evaluated. The sensitivity of the eLIFT-FM VCTE algorithm (first-line eLIFT, second-line FibroMeter VCTE ) was 76.1% for advanced fibrosis and 92.1% for cirrhosis. Prognostic study: patients diagnosed as having "no/mild fibrosis" by the algorithm had excellent liver-related prognosis with thus no need for referral to a hepatologist. The eLIFT-FM VCTE algorithm extends the detection of advanced liver fibrosis to all CLD patients and reduces unnecessary referrals of patients without significant CLD to hepatologists. Blood fibrosis tests and transient elastography accurately diagnose advanced liver fibrosis in the large population of patients having chronic liver disease, but these non-invasive tests are only currently available in specialized

  8. Noninvasive Urodynamic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of the world's population is increasing, and among male patients, complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are growing. Testing to diagnose LUTS and to differentiate between the various causes should be quick, easy, cheap, specific, not too bothersome for the patient, and noninvasive or minimally so. Urodynamic evaluation is the gold standard for diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO but presents some inconveniences such as embarrassment, pain, and dysuria; furthermore, 19% of cases experience urinary retention, macroscopic hematuria, or urinary tract infection. A greater number of resources in the diagnostic armamentarium could increase the opportunity for selecting less invasive tests. A number of groups have risen to this challenge and have formulated and developed ideas and technologies to improve noninvasive methods to diagnosis BOO. These techniques start with flowmetry, an increase in the interest of ultrasound, and finally the performance of urodynamic evaluation without a urethral catheter. Flowmetry is not sufficient for confirming a diagnosis of BOO. Ultrasound of the prostate and the bladder can help to assess BOO noninvasively in all men and can be useful for evaluating the value of BOO at assessment and during treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients in the future. The great advantages of noninvasive urodynamics are as follows: minimal discomfort, minimal risk of urinary tract infection, and low cost. This method can be repeated many times, permitting the evaluation of obstruction during clinical treatment. A urethral connector should be used to diagnose BOO, in evaluation for surgery, and in screening for treatment. In the future, noninvasive urodynamics can be used to identify patients with BOO to initiate early medical treatment and evaluate the results. This approach permits the possibility of performing surgery before detrusor damage occurs.

  9. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 'training' samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Incremental value of right atrial strain for early diagnosis of hemodynamic deterioration in pulmonary hypertension: a new noninvasive tool for a more comprehensive diagnostic paradigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinino, Cristina; Giubertoni, Ailia; Zanaboni, Jacopo; Gravellone, Miriam; Sola, Daniele; Rosso, Roberta; Ferrarotti, Lorena; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2017-11-01

    identify right atrial functional impairment before structural changes and may be implemented in a comprehensive, noninvasive right heart assessment for diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary hypertension patients.

  11. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  12. Automatic and objective oral cancer diagnosis by Raman spectroscopic detection of keratin with multivariate curve resolution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Hsiung; Shimada, Rintaro; Yabumoto, Sohshi; Okajima, Hajime; Ando, Masahiro; Chang, Chiou-Tzu; Lee, Li-Tzu; Wong, Yong-Kie; Chiou, Arthur; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an automatic and objective method for detecting human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues with Raman microspectroscopy. We measure 196 independent Raman spectra from 196 different points of one oral tissue sample and globally analyze these spectra using a Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) analysis. Discrimination of OSCC tissues is automatically and objectively made by spectral matching comparison of the MCR decomposed Raman spectra and the standard Raman spectrum of keratin, a well-established molecular marker of OSCC. We use a total of 24 tissue samples, 10 OSCC and 10 normal tissues from the same 10 patients, 3 OSCC and 1 normal tissues from different patients. Following the newly developed protocol presented here, we have been able to detect OSCC tissues with 77 to 92% sensitivity (depending on how to define positivity) and 100% specificity. The present approach lends itself to a reliable clinical diagnosis of OSCC substantiated by the “molecular fingerprint” of keratin.

  13. Spectroscopic diagnosis of plasma in atmospheric pressure negative pulsed gas-liquid discharge with nozzle-cylinder electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, SUN; Zhan, TAO; Zhipeng, ZHU; Dong, WANG; Wenjun, PAN

    2018-05-01

    The plasma characteristics of a gas-liquid phase discharge reactor were investigated by optical and electrical methods. The nozzle-cylinder electrode in the discharge reactor was supplied with a negative nanosecond pulsed generator. The optical emission spectrum diagnosis revealed that OH (A2∑+ → X2Π, 306–309 nm), N2 (C3Π→B3Πg, 337 nm), O (3p5p→3s5s0, 777.2 nm) and O (3p3p→3s3s0, 844.6 nm) were produced in the discharge plasma channels. The electron temperature (T e) was calculated from the emission relative intensity ratio between the atomic O 777.2 nm and 844.6 nm, and it increased with the applied voltage and the pulsed frequency and fell within the range of 0.5–0.8 eV. The gas temperature (T g) that was measured by Lifbase was in a range from 400 K to 600 K.

  14. Focal depth measurements of the vaginal wall: a new method to noninvasively quantify vaginal wall thickness in the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Maaike A.; Diedrich, Chantal M.; Ince, Can; Roovers, Jan-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if vaginal focal depth measurement could be a noninvasive method to quantify vaginal wall thickness. Postmenopausal women undergoing topical estrogen therapy because of vaginal atrophy (VA) were recruited. VA was diagnosed based on the presence of symptoms and

  15. Progress towards non-invasive diagnosis and follow-up of celiac disease in children : a prospective multicentre study to the usefulness of plasma I-FABP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Marlou P. M.; Mubarak, A; Riedl, R G; Ten Kate, F J W; Damoiseaux, J G M C; Buurman, Wim A.; Houwen, R H J; Vreugdenhil, A C E

    2017-01-01

    This prospective study investigates whether measurement of plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), a sensitive marker for small intestinal epithelial damage, improves non-invasive diagnosing of celiac disease (CD), and whether I-FABP levels are useful to evaluate mucosal healing in

  16. Exclusion and diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by a rapid ELISA D-dimer test and noninvasive imaging techniques within the context of a clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, J J; Pattynama, P M

    2000-01-01

    A negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test alone in out-patients with a low to moderate clinical probability (CP) on pulmonary embolism (PE) is predicted to safely exclude pulmonary embolism. The combination of a negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test and a low to moderate CP on PE followed by compression ultrasonography (CUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is safe and cost-effective as it reduces the need for noninvasive imaging techniques to about 50% to 60% of outpatients with suspected PE. A high probability ventilation-perfusion (VP) scan or a positive spiral CT consistent with PE and the detection of DVT by CUS are currently considered to be clear indications for anticoagulant treatment. Subsequent pulmonary angiography (PA) is the gold standard diagnostic strategy to exclude or diagnose PE in suspected outpatients with a negative CUS, a positive rapid ELISA D-dimer test, and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT to prevent overtreatment with anticoagulants. However, the willingness of clinicians and the availability of resources to perform PA is restricted, a fact that has provided an impetus for clinical investigators to search for alternative noninvasive strategies to exclude or detect venous thromboembolism (VTE). Serial CUS testing for the detection of DVT in patients with a low to moderate CP on PE and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT is predicted to be safe and will reduce the need for PA to less than 10% or even less than 5%. This noninvasive serial CUS strategy restricts the need for invasive PA to a minor group of patients (spiral CT and a high CP on PE. Prospective evaluations are warranted to implement and to validate the advantages and the disadvantages of the various combinations of noninvasive strategies and to compare serial CUS testing versus PA in randomized clinical management studies of outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

  17. A novel non-invasive detection method for the FGFR3 gene mutation in maternal plasma for a fetal achondroplasia diagnosis based on signal amplification by hemin-MOFs/PtNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Chao; Zhao, Yilin; Niu, Yazhen; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Yujie; Wu, Jing; He, Junlin

    2017-05-15

    The small amount of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) can be a useful biomarker for early non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of achondroplasia. In this study, a novel non-invasive electrochemical DNA sensor for ultrasensitive detecting FGFR3 mutation gene, a pathogenic gene of achondroplasia, based on biocatalytic signal materials and the biotin-streptavidin system are presented. Notably encapsulation of hemin in metal-organic frameworks-based materials (hemin-MOFs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were used to prepare hemin-MOFs/PtNPs composites via a one-beaker-one-step reduction. We utilized hemin-MOFs/PtNPs for signal amplification because the promising hemin-MOFs/PtNPs nanomaterial has remarkable ability of catalyze H 2 O 2 as well as excellent conductivity. To further amplify the electrochemical signal, reduced graphene oxide-tetraethylene pentamine (rGO-TEPA), gold nanoparticles and streptavidin were selected for modification of the electrode to enhance the conductivity and immobilize more biotin-modified capture probe (Bio-CP) through the high specificity and superior affinity between streptavidin and biotin. The electrochemical signal was primarily derived from the synergistic catalysis of H 2 O 2 by hemin and PtNPs and recorded by Chronoamperometry. Under the optimal conditions, this newly designed biosensor exhibited sensitive detection of FGFR3 from 0.1fM to 1nM with a low detection limit of 0.033fM (S/N=3). We proposed that this ultrasensitive biosensor is useful for the early non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease

  19. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS IN ELECTRONIC TEMPERATURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Où Nj désigne la densité des atomes X dans le niveau supérieur j (en cm-3), A(j → i) est la probabilité de transition radiative spontanée de j vers i ( en s-1 ) et hν est l'énergie du photon émis lors de la transition (en eV). En substituant maintenant l'équation (2) dans l'équation (1), on peut écrire comme équation : )1. 2(. )] 1.

  20. Early diagnosis of asthma in young children by using non-invasive biomarkers of airway inflammation and early lung function measurements: study protocol of a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kant, Kim DG; Klaassen, Ester MM; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Nijhuis, Annedien J; van Schayck, Onno CP; Dompeling, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. There are problems with the diagnosis of asthma in young children since the majority of the children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms is symptom free at 6 years, and does not have asthma. With the conventional diagnostic tools it is not possible to differentiate between preschool children with transient symptoms and children with asthma. The analysis of biomarkers of airway inflammation in exhaled breath is a non-invasive and promising technique to diagnose asthma and monitor inflammation in young children. Moreover, relatively new lung function tests (airway resistance using the interrupter technique) have become available for young children. The primary objective of the ADEM study (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study), is to develop a non-invasive instrument for an early asthma diagnosis in young children, using exhaled inflammatory markers and early lung function measurements. In addition, aetiological factors, including gene polymorphisms and gene expression profiles, in relation to the development of asthma are studied. Methods/design A prospective case-control study is started in 200 children with recurrent respiratory symptoms and 50 control subjects without respiratory symptoms. At 6 years, a definite diagnosis of asthma is made (primary outcome measure) on basis of lung function assessments and current respiratory symptoms ('golden standard'). From inclusion until the definite asthma diagnosis, repeated measurements of lung function tests and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath (condensate), blood and faeces are performed. The study is registered and ethically approved. Discussion This article describes the study protocol of the ADEM study. The new diagnostic techniques applied in this study could make an early diagnosis of asthma possible. An early and reliable asthma diagnosis at 2–3 years will have consequences for the management of

  1. Contribution of noninvasive imaging methods and angiography to diagnosis of chronic viscero-visceral arterial colateral circulations in stenosis of truncus coeliacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyi, A.; Kasuba, J.; Mistina, L.; Darmo, V.; Benko, M.; Pokorny, D.

    1989-01-01

    Stenosis and occlusion of truncus coeliacus represent the most frequent causes in the development of collateral blood circulation with caudiocranial flow through extended pancreatic-duodenal arcades. In a group of 32 patients with such mesenteric-coeliacal collateral circulation the arteriographic picture was evaluated. The differences and specific diagnostic contribution were evaluated of individual visualization methods for the demonstration of arteries. The noninvasive visualization methods are of exceptional significance in the examination of the abdominoretroperitoneal region by considerably decreasing the needs of invasive angiographic examination by the catheterization technique. This leads to a decrease in the number of diagnosed chronically developed viscerovisceral arterial collateral circulations of various etiologies. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography well depict morphological changes in the aorta diameter as well as of the unpaired viscelar arteries in the segment of their branching. The viscerovisceral arterial colateral circulations, however, may not be detected or at least not to a sufficient degree. They are represented in detail in the whole course only by selective arteriography. Attention is drawn to the supplementary role of arteriography within the framework of noninvasive visualization methods. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs

  2. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of radiogenic changes after radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations with implications for the differential diagnosis of radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boström, Jan; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R; Block, Wolfgang; Willinek, Winfried; Schild, Hans H; Träber, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of radionecrosis after radiosurgery is 5–20%. That radionecrosis after radiosurgery may be confused with a malignant tumor is a known phenomenon and problem. Three similarly treated patients with cAVM, 1 patient with symptomatic radionecrosis and 2 patients with normal post-radiation MRI changes, were selected and studied in detail with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). 2 cAVM were located in eloquent locations and were classified as Spetzler-Martin grade (SM) III such that interdisciplinary radiosurgery was recommended; a third patient with a left frontal SM II cAVM refused surgery. 1 patient was male, and 2 were female. The patient’s ages ranged from 38 to 62 years (median, 39 years). The nidus volume (= planning target volume = PTV) ranged from 2.75 to 6.89 ccm (median, 6.41 ccm). The single dose was 20 Gy at the isocenter of the PTV encompassing the 80 – 90% isodose. The median follow-up period was 20 months (range, 16 – 84 months). Toxicities were evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for adverse events version 3.0. No patient suffered a bleeding from cAVM during the study period. A complete nidus occlusion was shown in all patients with time-resolved MRA. All patients showed radiogenic MRI changes, 1 patient showed excessive radionecrosis. This patient was oligosymptomatic and under temporary corticoid therapy symptoms resolved completely. Following patterns associated with radionecrosis in the MRS studies were identified in our collective: • 2D spectroscopic imaging (2D-SI) revealed much lower concentrations of metabolites in the lesion as compared to contralateral healthy tissue in all patients. • Whereas regions with regular post-radiosurgery effects showed almost normal levels of Cho and a Cho/Cr ratio < 2.0, regions with radionecrosis were characterized by increased lipid levels and a Cho/Cr ratio > 2.0 in conjunction with decreased

  3. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-02

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (pprocessing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  4. New aids for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia: dysmorphic features, charts of fetal size and molecular confirmation using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, L S; Griffin, D R; Meaney, C; Barrett, A; Khalil, A; Pajkrt, E; Cole, T J

    2011-03-01

    To improve the prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia by constructing charts of fetal size, defining frequency of sonographic features and exploring the role of non-invasive molecular diagnosis based on cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in maternal plasma. Data on fetuses with a confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia were obtained from our databases, records reviewed, sonographic features and measurements determined and charts of fetal size constructed using the LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method and compared with charts used in normal pregnancies. Cases referred to our regional genetics laboratory for molecular diagnosis using cell-free fetal DNA were identified and results reviewed. Twenty-six cases were scanned in our unit. Fetal size charts showed that femur length was usually on or below the 3(rd) centile by 25 weeks' gestation, and always below the 3(rd) by 30 weeks. Head circumference was above the 50(th) centile, increasing to above the 95(th) when compared with normal for the majority of fetuses. The abdominal circumference was also increased but to a lesser extent. Commonly reported sonographic features were bowing of the femora, frontal bossing, short fingers, a small chest and polyhydramnios. Analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in six pregnancies confirmed the presence of the c.1138G > A mutation in the FGRF3 gene in four cases with achondroplasia, but not the two subsequently found to be growth restricted. These data should improve the accuracy of diagnosis of achondroplasia based on sonographic findings, and have implications for targeted molecular confirmation that can reliably and safely be carried out using cell-free fetal DNA. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Characterization of fetal cells from the maternal circulation by microarray gene expression analysis - Could the extravillous trophoblasts be a target for future cell-based non-invasive prenatal diagnosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatt, Lotte; Brinch, Marie; Singh, Ripudaman

    2014-01-01

    stem cell microarray analysis. Results: 39 genes were identified as candidates for unique fetal cell markers. More than half of these are genes known to be expressed in the placenta, especially in extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). Immunohistochemical staining of placental tissue confirmed CD105......Introduction: Circulating fetal cells in maternal blood provide a tool for risk-free, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, fetal cells in the maternal circulation are scarce, and to effectively isolate enough of them for reliable diagnostics, it is crucial to know which fetal cell type......(s) should be targeted. Materials and Methods: Fetal cells were enriched from maternal blood by magnetic-activated cell sorting using the endothelial cell marker CD105 and identified by XY fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression pattern was compared between fetal cells and maternal blood cells using...

  6. The influence of the noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) resection diagnosis on the false-positive thyroid cytology rate relates to quality assurance thresholds and the application of NIFTP criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohori, N Paul; Wolfe, Jenna; Carty, Sally E; Yip, Linwah; LeBeau, Shane O; Berg, Aaron N; Schoedel, Karen E; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Seethala, Raja R

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a newly defined entity and recent studies have suggested a decrease of a few percentage points in the rate of malignancy (ROM) for the positive-for-malignancy (PFM) cytology category as a result of NIFTP implementation. However, the distinction between a diagnosis of PFM and one of suspicious for malignancy (SFM) may depend on a variety of factors. In the current study, the authors investigated the ROM for the PFM and SFM diagnoses before and after histologic NIFTP reclassification. Cytology cases with PFM and SFM diagnoses and subsequent surgical resection specimens were searched in the files of the study institution from September 2008 to September 2016. The surgical pathology cases of noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were reexamined to determine whether they qualified for NIFTP. The distinct ROMs for the PFM and SFM cases were calculated accordingly. The authors' search identified 338 cases of PFM and 139 cases of SFM with a resection outcome. Before NIFTP reclassification, the PFM cases had a ROM of 99.4%; after NIFTP reclassification, the ROM was 99.1% (P = .6861). The ROM of the SFM cases decreased from 75.5% to 66.9% with NIFTP reclassification (P = .1402). One case in the PFM group and 6 cases in the SFM group could not be verified due to insufficient sampling. In the current large series, NIFTP reclassification did not appear to significantly alter the high ROM for the PFM diagnosis. The authors attribute this finding to a strict quality assurance policy, an emphasis on key cytologic criteria, and systematic application of the NIFTP criteria to follicular-patterned lesions. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:692-700. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Non-invasive diagnosis in cerebral ischemia by means of magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy; Nichtinvasive Diagnostik zerebraler Ischaemie mit Kernspintomographie und Nahe-Infrarotspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepgras, A. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Gueckel, F. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Laemmler, B. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Weigel, R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Schmiedek, P. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    1994-11-01

    We describe the non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods are compared with transcranial Doppler sonography. There is a good correlation of the three methods in the changes in cerebral oxygen saturation and in blood velocity following acetazolamide stimulation of cerebral blood flow, except found in one patient with unilateral carotid artery occlusion. In this patient we found a decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity, revealed by a magnetic resonance technique designed to quantify CBV and CBF. We postulate a raised oxygen extraction as raised oxygen extraction as the cause of his changes in oxygen saturation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Abschaetzung der zerebrovaskulaeren Reservekapazitaet unter Verwendung der Nahe-Infrarotspektroskopie und der Kernspintomographie zur nichtinvasiven klinischen Anwendung wird beschrieben. Beide Verfahren werden mit der transkraniellen Dopplersonographie verglichen. Bei Normalpersonen (n=3) zeigte sich eine gute Uebereinstimmung von Aenderungen der zerebralen Sauerstoffsaettigung mit Aenderungen der Blutflussgeschwindigkeit nach Acetazolamidstimulation der Hirndurchblutung. Diese Uebereinstimmung war bei einem Patienten mit kernspintomographisch nachgewiesener eingeschraenkter zerebrovaskulaerer Reservekapazitaet bei unilateralem Verschluss der A.carotis interna nicht gegeben. Dies wird auf eine pathologisch ehoehte Sauerstoffausschoepfung zurueeckgefuehrt. (orig.)

  8. Specificity of unenhanced CT for non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis: implications for the investigation of the natural history of incidental steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Hahn, Luke [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Gyu [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kyongtae T. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yu, Eun Sil [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    To determine a highly specific liver attenuation threshold at unenhanced CT for biopsy-proven moderate to severe hepatic steatosis ({>=}30% at histology). 315 asymptomatic adults (mean age {+-} SD, 31.5 {+-} 10.1 years; 207 men, 108 women) underwent same-day unenhanced liver CT and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Blinded to biopsy results, CT liver attenuation was measured using standard region-of-interest methodology. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of CT liver attenuation with patient age, gender, BMI, CT system, and hepatic fat and iron content. Thirty-nine subjects had moderate to severe steatosis and 276 had mild or no steatosis. A liver attenuation threshold of 48 HU was 100% specific (276/276) for moderate to severe steatosis, with no false-positives. Sensitivity, PPV and NPV at this HU threshold was 53.8%, 100% and 93.9%. Hepatic fat content was the overwhelming determinant of liver attenuation values, but CT system (P < 0.001), and hepatic iron (P = 0.035) also had a statistically significant independent association. Unenhanced CT liver attenuation alone is highly specific for moderate to severe hepatic steatosis, allowing for confident non-invasive identification of large retrospective/prospective cohorts for natural history evaluation of incidental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Low sensitivity, however, precludes effective population screening at this threshold. (orig.)

  9. Specificity of unenhanced CT for non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis: implications for the investigation of the natural history of incidental steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Hahn, Luke; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Yu, Eun Sil

    2012-01-01

    To determine a highly specific liver attenuation threshold at unenhanced CT for biopsy-proven moderate to severe hepatic steatosis (≥30% at histology). 315 asymptomatic adults (mean age ± SD, 31.5 ± 10.1 years; 207 men, 108 women) underwent same-day unenhanced liver CT and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Blinded to biopsy results, CT liver attenuation was measured using standard region-of-interest methodology. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of CT liver attenuation with patient age, gender, BMI, CT system, and hepatic fat and iron content. Thirty-nine subjects had moderate to severe steatosis and 276 had mild or no steatosis. A liver attenuation threshold of 48 HU was 100% specific (276/276) for moderate to severe steatosis, with no false-positives. Sensitivity, PPV and NPV at this HU threshold was 53.8%, 100% and 93.9%. Hepatic fat content was the overwhelming determinant of liver attenuation values, but CT system (P < 0.001), and hepatic iron (P = 0.035) also had a statistically significant independent association. Unenhanced CT liver attenuation alone is highly specific for moderate to severe hepatic steatosis, allowing for confident non-invasive identification of large retrospective/prospective cohorts for natural history evaluation of incidental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Low sensitivity, however, precludes effective population screening at this threshold. (orig.)

  10. Maternal serum protein profile and immune response protein subunits as markers for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21, 18, and 13

    KAUST Repository

    Narasimhan, Kothandaraman

    2013-02-01

    Objectives: To use proteomics to identify and characterize proteins in maternal serum from patients at high-risk for fetal trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13 on the basis of ultrasound and maternal serum triple tests. Methods: We performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis on 23 trisomy cases and 85 normal cases during the early second trimester of pregnancy. Protein profiling along with conventional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/Tandem mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to characterize proteins associated with each trisomy condition and later validated using Western blot. Results: Protein profiling approach using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass (SELDI-TOF/MS) spectrometry resulted in the identification of 37 unique hydrophobic proteomic features for three trisomy conditions. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight/Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and western blot, glyco proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein H, and serum carrier protein transthyretin were identified as potential maternal serum markers for fetal trisomy condition. The identified proteins showed differential expression at the subunit level. Conclusions: Maternal serum protein profiling using proteomics may allow non-invasive diagnostic testing for the most common trisomies and may complement ultrasound-based methods to more accurately determine pregnancies with fetal aneuploidies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Identifying wildlife reservoirs of neglected taeniid tapeworms: Non-invasive diagnosis of endemic Taenia serialis infection in a wild primate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Crease, India; Griffin, Randi H; Gomery, Megan A; Dorny, Pierre; Noh, John C; Handali, Sukwan; Chastain, Holly M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Nunn, Charles L; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the global distribution and public health consequences of Taenia tapeworms, the life cycles of taeniids infecting wildlife hosts remain largely undescribed. The larval stage of Taenia serialis commonly parasitizes rodents and lagomorphs, but has been reported in a wide range of hosts that includes geladas (Theropithecus gelada), primates endemic to Ethiopia. Geladas exhibit protuberant larval cysts indicative of advanced T. serialis infection that are associated with high mortality. However, non-protuberant larvae can develop in deep tissue or the abdominal cavity, leading to underestimates of prevalence based solely on observable cysts. We adapted a non-invasive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect circulating Taenia spp. antigen in dried gelada urine. Analysis revealed that this assay was highly accurate in detecting Taenia antigen, with 98.4% specificity, 98.5% sensitivity, and an area under the curve of 0.99. We used this assay to investigate the prevalence of T. serialis infection in a wild gelada population, finding that infection is substantially more widespread than the occurrence of visible T. serialis cysts (16.4% tested positive at least once, while only 6% of the same population exhibited cysts). We examined whether age or sex predicted T. serialis infection as indicated by external cysts and antigen presence. Contrary to the female-bias observed in many Taenia-host systems, we found no significant sex bias in either cyst presence or antigen presence. Age, on the other hand, predicted cyst presence (older individuals were more likely to show cysts) but not antigen presence. We interpret this finding to indicate that T. serialis may infect individuals early in life but only result in visible disease later in life. This is the first application of an antigen ELISA to the study of larval Taenia infection in wildlife, opening the doors to the identification and description of infection dynamics in reservoir

  12. Contribution of the ELFG test in algorithms of non-invasive markers towards the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Zarski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to determine the best algorithms for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients using all available parameters and tests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the database from our study of 507 patients with histologically proven CHC in which fibrosis was evaluated by liver biopsy (Metavir and tests: Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore®, Apri, ELFG, MP3, Forn's, hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1, MMP1, collagen IV and when possible Fibroscan™. For the first test we used 90% negative predictive value to exclude patients with F≤1, next an induction algorithm was applied giving the best tests with at least 80% positive predictive value for the diagnosis of F≥2. The algorithms were computed using the R Software C4.5 program to select the best tests and cut-offs. The algorithm was automatically induced without premises on the part of the investigators. We also examined the inter-observer variations after independent review of liver biopsies by two pathologists. A medico-economic analysis compared the screening strategies with liver biopsy. RESULTS: In "intention to diagnose" the best algorithms for F≥2 were Fibrometer ®, Fibrotest®, or Hepascore® in first intention with the ELFG score in second intention for indeterminate cases. The percentage of avoided biopsies varied between 50% (Fibrotest® or Fibrometer®+ELFG and 51% (Hepascore®+ELFG. In "per-analysis" Fibroscan™+ELFG avoided liver biopsy in 55% of cases. The diagnostic performance of these screening strategies was statistically superior to the usual combinations (Fibrometer® or Fibrotest®+Fibroscan™ and was cost effective. We note that the consensual review of liver biopsies between the two pathologists was mainly in favor of F1 (64-69%. CONCLUSION: The ELFG test could replace Fibroscan in most currently used algorithms for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis including for those patients

  13. The predictive values of three noninvasive indices in diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHUANG Xiaofang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the values of FibroTouch, FIB-4 index, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsA total of 148 patients with CHB who visited Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and underwent liver biopsy from September 2013 to May 2015 were enrolled and divided into groups according to fibrosis stage. All the patients underwent blood biochemical examination, routine blood tests, and FibroTouch measurement. Then FIB-4 and APRI were calculated, and liver stiffness was recorded. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to calculate the area under the ROC curve (AUC and determine the cut-off value, sensitivity, and specificity. Chi-square test was used for comparison between two groups, and the Pearson rank correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsFibroTouch, APRI, and FIB-4 were well correlated with fibrosis stage (r=0.628, 0.486, and 0482, respectively, all P<0.01. In the marked liver fibrosis (≥S2 group and liver cirrhosis (S4 group, FibroTouch had the best diagnostic performance, with AUCs of 0.84 and 0.93, respectively, followed by APRI, which had AUCs of 0.79 and 0.87, respectively; FIB-4 index had the worst diagnostic performance, with AUCs of 0.77 and 0.84, respectively. In patients with a fibrosis stage of ≥S2 or S4, FibroTouch had a better diagnostic value than APRI and FIB-4 (Z=21.589, P<0.001; Z=18.896, P<0.001; Z=11.192, P=0.001; Z=16.891, P<0.001, and APRI had a better diagnostic value than FIB-4 (Z=46.918, P<0.001; Z=35.334, P<0.001. ConclusionFibroTouch can accurately evaluate the presence of liver fibrosis and fibrosis degree and help most patients avoid invasive liver biopsy.

  14. Noninvasive ventilation in hypoxemic respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive ventilation (NIV refers to positive pressure ventilation delivered through a noninvasive interface (nasal mask, facemask, or nasal plugs etc. Over the past decade its use has become more common as its benefits are increasingly recognized. This review will focus on the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various conditions resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF, that is, non-hypercapnic patients having acute respiratory failure in the absence of a cardiac origin or underlying chronic pulmonary disease. Outcomes depend on the patient's diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Patients should be monitored closely for signs of noninvasive ventilation failure and promptly intubated before a crisis develops. The application of noninvasive ventilation by a trained and experienced team, with careful patient selection, should optimize patient outcomes.

  15. Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Melzer, J

    1976-01-01

    During the preparation of this compilation, many people contributed; the compilers wish to thank all of them. In particular they appreciate the efforts of V. Gilbertson, the manuscript typist, and those of K. C. Bregand, J. A. Kiley, and W. H. McPherson, who gave editorial assistance. They would like to thank Dr. J. R. Schwartz for his cooperation and encouragement. In addition, they extend their grati­ tude to Dr. L. Wilson of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, who gave the initial impetus to this project. v Contents I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Organization ofthe Spectroscopic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods of Production and Experimental Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Band Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...

  16. Spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Arroyo, R.

    1999-01-01

    This work is focused about the spectroscopic properties of a polymer material which consists of Polyacrylic acid (Paa) doped at different concentrations of Europium ions (Eu 3+ ). They show that to stay chemically joined with the polymer by a study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of 1 H, 13 C and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Ft-IR) they present changes in the intensity of signals, just as too when this material is irradiated at λ = 394 nm. In according with the results obtained experimentally in this type of materials it can say that is possible to unify chemically the polymer with this type of cations, as well as, varying the concentration of them, since that these are distributed homogeneously inside the matrix maintaining its optical properties. These materials can be obtained more quickly and easy in solid or liquid phase and they have the best conditions for to make a quantitative analysis. (Author)

  17. In vivo Microscopic Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Invulnerable to Skin Secretion Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joo Yong; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2018-01-18

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. However, the repeatability of such a method is susceptible to changes in skin condition, which is dependent on hand washing and drying due to the high absorption of infrared excitation light to the skin secretion products or water. In this paper, we present a method to meet the challenges of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose monitoring. By obtaining the microscopic spatial information of skin during the spectroscopy measurement, the skin region where the infrared spectra is insensitive to skin condition can be locally selected, which enables reliable prediction of the blood glucose level from the photoacoustic spectroscopy signals. Our raster-scan imaging showed that the skin condition for in vivo spectroscopic glucose monitoring had significant inhomogeneities and large variability in the probing area where the signal was acquired. However, the selective localization of the probing led to a reduction in the effects of variability due to the skin secretion product. Looking forward, this technology has broader applications not only in continuous glucose monitoring for diabetic patient care, but in forensic science, the diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores, and the discrimination of tumors extracted via biopsy.

  18. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  19. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtarevic, Amel; Ager, Clemens; Pienz, Martin; Klieber, Martin; Schwarz, Konrad; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Filipiak, Wojciech; Denz, Hubert; Fiegl, Michael; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Weiss, Wolfgang; Lukas, Peter; Jamnig, Herbert; Hackl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive...

  20. In Vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Suh, Tae Suk; Choi, Kyo Ho; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the spatial distribution of various proton metabolites in the human brain with use of water-suppressed in vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) technique. All of water-suppressed in vivo H MRSI were performed on 1.5 T whole-body MRI/MRS system using Stimulated Echo Acquisition Method (STEAM) Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) pulse sequence. T1-weighted MR images were used for CSI field of view (FOV; 24 cm). Voxel size of 1.5 cm 3 was designated from the periphery of the brain which was divided by 1024 X 16 X 16 data points. Metabolite images of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine/ phosphocreatine (Cr) + choline/phosphocholine (Cho), and complex of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) + glutamate (Glu) were obtained on the human brain. Our preliminary study suggests that in vivo H MRSI could provide the metabolite imaging to compensate for hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans on the basis of the metabolic informations on brain tissues. The unique ability of in vivo H MRSI to offer noninvasive information about tissue biochemistry in disease states will stimulate on clinical research and disease diagnosis

  1. : ventilators for noninvasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauroux , Brigitte; Leroux , Karl; Desmarais , Gilbert; Isabey , Daniel; Clément , Annick; Lofaso , Frédéric; Louis , Bruno

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of all the ventilators proposed for home noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in children in France. The ventilators (one volume-targeted, 12 pressure-targeted and four dual) were evaluated on a bench which simulated six different paediatric ventilatory patterns. For each ventilator, the quality of the inspiratory and expiratory trigger and the ability to reach and maintain the preset pre...

  2. Spectroscopic and chemometric exploration of food quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Kjær

    2002-01-01

    and multi-way chemometrics demonstrated the potential for screening of environmental contamination in complex food samples. Significant prediction models were established with correlation coefficients in the range from r = 0.69 to r = 0.97 for dioxin. Further development of the fluorescence measurements......The desire to develop non-invasive rapid measurements of essential quality parameters in foods is the motivation of this thesis. Due to the speed and noninvasive properties of spectroscopic techniques, they have potential as on-line or atline methods and can be employed in the food industry...... in order to control the quality of the end product and to continuously monitor the production. In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of the application of spectroscopy and chemometrics in rapid control of food quality are discussed and demonstrated by the examples in the eight included...

  3. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  4. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  5. Noninvasive physiologic assessment of coronary stenoses using cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Sun, Zhonghua; Fan, Zhanming

    2015-01-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive "one-stop-shop" diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  6. Noninvasive Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenoses Using Cardiac CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography (CCTA has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive “one-stop-shop” diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT, and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG, CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  7. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  8. Assessment of DNA damage and telomerase activity in exfoliated urinary cells as sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex-workers of a rubber tyres industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Delia; Casadio, Valentina; Bravaccini, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Maiello, Raffaele; Ciervo, Aureliano; Buresti, Giuliana; Zoli, Wainer; Calistri, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test), comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion) was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens.

  9. Assessment of DNA Damage and Telomerase Activity in Exfoliated Urinary Cells as Sensitive and Noninvasive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer in Ex-Workers of a Rubber Tyres Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test, comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens.

  10. New noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial ischemia of the left circumflex coronary artery using coronary flow reserve measurement by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Comparison with thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kohei; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hozumi, Takeshi; Otsuka, Ryo; Hirata, Kumiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of coronary flow reserve measurement in the left circumflex coronary artery by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to detect myocardial ischemia was compared with exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed in 110 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Color Doppler signals of the left circumflex coronary artery flow in the apical four-chamber view were identified, and the velocities at rest and during hyperemia recorded for calculation of coronary flow reserve by the pulsed Doppler method. All patients underwent SPECT within 1 week of the transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic study. Coronary flow reserve in the left circumflex coronary artery was measured in 79 (72%) of 110 patients. SPECT revealed reversible perfusion defect in the left circumflex coronary artery territories in 12 of 69 patients excluding those with multivessel disease. Coronary flow reserve <2.0 had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 96% for reversible perfusion defect detected by SPECT. Noninvasive coronary flow reserve measurement in the left circumflex coronary artery by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography can estimate myocardial ischemia in the left ventricular lateral regions. (author)

  11. Experimental mesenteric ischemia. Radioisotopic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, Carlos; Dallaglio, Juan; Sarra, Luis; Obiols, Eugenio; Rodriguez Santos, Emilio; Delgado, Eduardo; Castelleti, Luis

    1995-01-01

    A non-invasive radionuclide technique with 99-Tc-DMP for the early diagnosis of small bowel infarction due to mesenteric artery compression, was evaluated. The usefulness of 99-Tc-DMP and critical pressure of mesenteric artery were demonstrated. The diagnosis was performed before one hour had passed from the beginning of the ischemia

  12. Detrusor wall thickness compared to other non-invasive methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. ElSaied

    invasive tests. Abbreviations: ... obstruction, non-invasively in men with lower urinary tract symptoms, with an accuracy approaching that ..... gies such as infection or tumor [15]. .... diagnosis of infravesical obstruction in children: evaluation of blad-.

  13. Spectroscopic diagnostics of industrial plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.K.

    2004-01-01

    Plasmas play key role in modern industry and are being used for processing micro electronic circuits to the destruction of toxic waste. Characterization of industrial plasmas which includes both 'thermal plasmas' and non-equilibrium plasmas or 'cold plasmas' in industrial environment offers quite a challenge. Numerous diagnostic techniques have been developed for the measurement of these partially ionized plasma and/or particulate parameters. The 'simple' non-invasive spectroscopic methods for characterization of industrial plasmas will be discussed in detail in this paper. The excitation temperature in thermal (DC/RF) plasma jets has been determined using atomic Boltzmann technique. The central axis temperature of thermal plasma jets in a spray torch can be determined using modified atomic Boltzmann technique with out using Abel inversion. The Stark broadening of H β and Ar-I (430 nm) lines have been used to determine the electron number density in thermal plasma jets. In low-pressure non-equilibrium argon plasma, electron temperature has been measured using the Corona model from the ratio of line intensities of atomic and ionic transitions. (author)

  14. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  15. Molecular imaging of melanin distribution in vivo and quantitative differential diagnosis of human pigmented lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; Wei, Ming-Liang; Su, Yu-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Harmonic generation microscopy is a noninvasive repetitive imaging technique that provides real-time 3D microscopic images of human skin with a sub-femtoliter resolution and high penetration down to the reticular dermis. In this talk, we show that with a strong resonance effect, the third-harmonic-generation (THG) modality provides enhanced contrast on melanin and allows not only differential diagnosis of various pigmented skin lesions but also quantitative imaging for longterm tracking. This unique capability makes THG microscopy the only label-free technique capable of identifying the active melanocytes in human skin and to image their different dendriticity patterns. In this talk, we will review our recent efforts to in vivo image melanin distribution and quantitatively diagnose pigmented skin lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy. This talk will first cover the spectroscopic study on the melanin enhanced THG effect in human cells and the calibration strategy inside human skin for quantitative imaging. We will then review our recent clinical trials including: differential diagnosis capability study on pigmented skin tumors; as well as quantitative virtual biopsy study on pre- and post- treatment evaluation on melasma and solar lentigo. Our study indicates the unmatched capability of harmonic generation microscopy to perform virtual biopsy for noninvasive histopathological diagnosis of various pigmented skin tumors, as well as its unsurpassed capability to noninvasively reveal the pathological origin of different hyperpigmentary diseases on human face as well as to monitor the efficacy of laser depigmentation treatments. This work is sponsored by National Health Research Institutes.

  16. Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oates, T.W.H.; Wormeester, Herbert; Arwin, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of plasmon resonances at metal–dielectric interfaces of thin films are reviewed. We show how ellipsometry provides valuable non-invasive amplitude and phase information from which one can determine the effective dielectric functions, and how these

  17. Spectroscopic surveys of LAMOST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), a new type of reflecting Schmidt telescope, has been designed and produced in China. It marks a breakthrough for large scale spectroscopic survey observation in that both large aperture and wide field of view have been achieved. LAMOST has the highest spectrum acquisition rate, and from October 2011 to June 2014 it has obtained 4.13 million spectra of celestial objects, of which 3.78 million are spectra of stars, with the stellar parameters of 2.20 million stars included. (author)

  18. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  19. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  1. Principles of spectroscopic diagnostics of a plasma with oscillating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three types of main principles of spectroscopic diagnosis of the plasma with quasimonochromatic electric fields (QEF) are considered. Principles based on the effects intersectionally depending on the parameters of QEF and the plasma medium are considered. Occurrence of depressions or dips in the profiles of spectral lines is the most important effect among others. Principles based on the nonlinear theory of plasma and laser sattelites of spectral lines as well as laser-spectroscopic diagnosis of QEF in the plasma are considered

  2. Real-time non-invasive eyetracking and gaze-point determination for human-computer interaction and biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Monacos, S.; Lam, R.; Lebaw, C.; Bond, A.

    2004-01-01

    Eyetracking is one of the latest technologies that has shown potential in several areas including human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological problems in individuals.

  3. Non-invasive examination of multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerd, A.W. de.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a wide range of symptoms and, in many cases, by a highly erratic course. As a result diagnosis is often a problem. Two non-invasive examinations, Computer Tomography (CT scan) and the Evoked Response test (ER), are the subjects of this study which, according to available literature, both can play a role in the establishment of the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials have been performed and both methods demonstrated abnormalities of the central nervous system which were not suspected on clinical grounds; as a result both methods of examination can contribute to the early establishment of the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In addition the diagnosis can be determined with greater certainty when the findings of the CT-scan and the evoked response test are taken into consideration. (Auth.)

  4. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  5. Noninvasive diagnosis of intraamniotic infection: proteomic biomarkers in vaginal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Jane; Lapidus, Jodi A; Lu, Xinfang; Reddy, Ashok P; Jacob, Thomas; Dasari, Surendra; Eschenbach, David A; Gravett, Michael G; Nagalla, Srinivasa R

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed the vaginal fluid proteome to identify biomarkers of intraamniotic infection among women in preterm labor. Proteome analysis was performed on vaginal fluid specimens from women with preterm labor, using multidimensional liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and label-free quantification. Enzyme immunoassays were used to quantify candidate proteins. Classification accuracy for intraamniotic infection (positive amniotic fluid bacterial culture and/or interleukin-6 >2 ng/mL) was evaluated using receiver-operator characteristic curves obtained by logistic regression. Of 170 subjects, 30 (18%) had intraamniotic infection. Vaginal fluid proteome analysis revealed 338 unique proteins. Label-free quantification identified 15 proteins differentially expressed in intraamniotic infection, including acute-phase reactants, immune modulators, high-abundance amniotic fluid proteins and extracellular matrix-signaling factors; these findings were confirmed by enzyme immunoassay. A multi-analyte algorithm showed accurate classification of intraamniotic infection. Vaginal fluid proteome analyses identified proteins capable of discriminating between patients with and without intraamniotic infection. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive diagnosis of axillary node metastases with monoclonal antibody lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fig, L.M.; Von Moll, L.; Brown, R.; Harness, J.; Appleman, H.; Stevens, R.; Johnson, J.W.; Mudgett, E.; Colcher, D.; Schlom, J.; Lichter, A.; Wicha, M.; Wahl, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether 131-I labeled B72.3 monoclonal antibody, when injected subcutaneously in patients with known breast cancer, successfully detects lymph node metastases. Eleven women with biopsy-proven B72.3 antibody-reactive breast cancer (determined by immunoperoxidase staining) received subcutaneous injections of 500 μ Ci 131-I B72.3 in ipsilateral finger web spaces (or, in three cases, intralesional injections into the site of the breast tumor). The antibody is a IgGlk reactive with a high molecular weight antigen found on most breast carcinomas. Images of the axilla were obtained immediately after injection and serially to 72 hours. Nodal uptake was scored on a 0-3+ scale in a blinded fashion and correlated with pathologic findings from lymph node dissection

  7. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data...... using this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques as occipital nerve stimulation or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are recommended as first-line therapy in refractory cluster patients, but they are invasive and maybe associated with complications. Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation with an external...... device has been tried in cluster patients. Results from clinical practice and a single randomized clinical trial have been presented showing a reduction of the number of cluster attacks/week in the patients treated with the device. The rate of adverse events was low and most of them were mild. SUMMARY...

  8. Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and noninvasive prenatal diagnosis DNA fetal libre en el plasma materno y diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo DNA livre fetal em plasma materno e diagnóstico pré-natal não invasivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Silveira Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The noninvasive nature of the detection of fetal DNA in the maternal circulation represents the greatest advantage over the conventional methods of prenatal diagnosis. The applications of this methodology involve the detection of the fetal sex, and diagnosis, intra-uterine treatment, and evaluation of the prognosis of many diseases. Fetal cells detected in the maternal circulation have also been shown to be implicated in autoimmune diseases and to represent a potential source of stem cells. On the other hand, with the introduction of a technology that detects the fetal sex as early as at 6-8 weeks of gestation, there is the possibility of early abortion based on sex selection for social purposes. This implies an ethical discussion about the question. The introduction of new noninvasive techniques of prenatal diagnosis and the knowledge of the Nursing Team regarding new methodologies can be of great benefit to the mother and her children, and can help the Genetic Counseling of the families.La naturaleza no invasiva de la investigación del DNA fetal en la circulación materna representa una ventaja importante con relación a los métodos convencionales de diagnóstico prenatal. El uso de esta metodología implica la determinación del sexo fetal y el diagnóstico, el tratamiento intra-útero y la evaluación del pronóstico en muchas enfermedades. Las células fetales detectadas en la circulación maternal también pueden ser implicadas en enfermedades autoinmunes y representar una fuente potencial de células madre. Por otra parte, con la introducción de una tecnología que detecte el sexo fetal entre 6-8 semanas de gestación, existe la posibilidad de aborto precoz basada en la selección del sexo para los propósitos sociales. Esto implica una discusión ética previa sobre este problema. La introducción de nuevas técnicas no invasivas de diagnóstico prenatal y el conocimiento del Equipo de Enfermería con respecto a las nuevas metodolog

  9. The use of non-invasive fetal electrocardiography in diagnosing second-degree fetal atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor; Behar, Joachim A; Oster, Julien; Shulgin, Vyacheslav; Ostras, Oleksii; Andreotti, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Complete atrioventricular block in fetuses is known to be mostly associated with autoimmune disease and can be irreversible if no steroids treatment is provided. Conventional methods used in clinical practice for diagnosing fetal arrhythmia are limited since they do not reflect the primary electrophysiological conduction processes that take place in the myocardium. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram has the potential to better support fetal arrhythmias diagnosis through the continuous analysis of the beat to beat variation of the fetal heart rate and morphological analysis of the PQRST complex. We present two retrospective case reports on which atrioventricular block diagnosis could have been supported by the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The two cases comprised a 22-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 31 weeks and a 25-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 41 weeks. Both women were admitted to the Department of Maternal and Fetal Medicine at the Kyiv and Kharkiv municipal perinatal clinics. Patients were observed using standard fetal monitoring methods as well as the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiographic recordings were analyzed retrospectively, where it is possible to identify the presence of the atrioventricular block. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram as a supplementary method to diagnose of the fetal atrioventricular block. Combined with current fetal monitoring techniques, non-invasive fetal electrocardiography could support clinical decisions.

  10. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  11. Noninvasive Diagnostic Technique in Stenotic Coronary Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Vasilyev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the sensitivity and specificity of combined stress echocardiography (EchoCG using dipyri-damole and dobutamine in diagnosing and defining the extent of stenotic coronary lesions in coronary heart disease (CHD in a group of critically ill patients who are unable to perform a physical exercise.Materials and methods: the study included 57 male patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome who underwent stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in high doses in combination with dobutamine, as well as coronary angiography.Results: stress EchoCG could bring up to the diagnostic criteria in all the patients, of whom 9 patients were found at coronary angiography to have no coronary lesion, 34 and 14 patients had one- and many-vessel lesions, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of combined stress EchoCG were significantly higher than those of EchoCG used in the diagnosis of CHD.Conclusion: stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in combination with dobutamine is a highly informative safe noninvasive technique for diagnosing CHD, its helps to identify patients with atypical acute coronary syndrome and to form a group of patients to be subject to urgent coronarography and angiosurgical intervention. The pattern of segmental contractile disorders at the height of exercise during combined stress Echo-CG makes it possible to define the site of stenotic coronary atherosclerosis with 97.3% sensitivity and to diagnose many-vessel lesion with 100% sensitivity and 100%specificity.

  12. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights

  13. A convolutional neural network to filter artifacts in spectroscopic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbani, Saumya S; Schreibmann, Eduard; Maudsley, Andrew A; Cordova, James Scott; Soher, Brian J; Poptani, Harish; Verma, Gaurav; Barker, Peter B; Shim, Hyunsuk; Cooper, Lee A D

    2018-03-09

    Proton MRSI is a noninvasive modality capable of generating volumetric maps of in vivo tissue metabolism without the need for ionizing radiation or injected contrast agent. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging has been shown to be a viable imaging modality for studying several neuropathologies. However, a key hurdle in the routine clinical adoption of MRSI is the presence of spectral artifacts that can arise from a number of sources, possibly leading to false information. A deep learning model was developed that was capable of identifying and filtering out poor quality spectra. The core of the model used a tiled convolutional neural network that analyzed frequency-domain spectra to detect artifacts. When compared with a panel of MRS experts, our convolutional neural network achieved high sensitivity and specificity with an area under the curve of 0.95. A visualization scheme was implemented to better understand how the convolutional neural network made its judgement on single-voxel or multivoxel MRSI, and the convolutional neural network was embedded into a pipeline capable of producing whole-brain spectroscopic MRI volumes in real time. The fully automated method for assessment of spectral quality provides a valuable tool to support clinical MRSI or spectroscopic MRI studies for use in fields such as adaptive radiation therapy planning. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  15. Magnetic resonance of seminal vesicles: a noninvasive study of seminal way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocantos, J.A.; Rey Valzacchi, G.; Sinclair, M.E.; Loor Guadamud, G.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic resonance without endorectal coil is an excellent diagnostic tool for studying the entire route of seminal non-invasive way in a single step diagnosis. We call magnetic resonance of seminal vesicles, but includes both the study of the seminal vesicles as the channels of the seminal way. [es

  16. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  17. Simplifying Skin Disease Diagnosis with Topical Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, David C; Xu, Chenjie

    2018-05-01

    A new study published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering 1 documents a novel diagnostic technology that exploits topically applied nanotechnology to detect skin tissue biomarkers for diagnosis. This concept is demonstrated by noninvasively imaging connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA in abnormal scar cells, whole tissue, and animal models. In this commentary, we highlight the main findings and discuss their implications. Successful implementation in the clinic could give rise to self-applied, biopsy-free diagnostic technology and significantly reduce healthcare burden. Crucially, noninvasive visualization of disease biomarkers, mobile device signal acquisition, and Internet-enabled transmission could significantly transform the diagnosis of skin disease and other superficial tissues.

  18. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh

    2006-02-01

    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  19. Noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine and cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Amaal

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the currently available noninvasive neuromodulation devices for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Over the last decade, several noninvasive devices have undergone development and clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. Based on this body of work, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation, and noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation devices have been cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration and are available for clinical use for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Overall, these novel noninvasive devices appear to be safe, well tolerated, and have demonstrated promising results in clinical trials in both migraine and cluster headache. This narrative review will provide a summary and update of the proposed mechanisms of action, evidence, safety, and future directions of various currently available modalities of noninvasive neuromodulation for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache.

  20. Noninvasive Medical Tools for Evaluating Voiding Pattern in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwonsoo Chun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction is a common disease that contributes to a lower quality of life and has an increased prevalence in the elderly population. Noninvasive and objective methods such as uroflowmetry (UFM and voiding diaries (VDs are essential for exact diagnosis and effective treatment of this condition because patients with different causes of voiding dysfunction can complain of the same lower urinary tract symptoms. Further, different treatment options can be determined based on the diagnosis made from these symptoms. In order to improve the quality of UFM and VDs and to provide a convenient testing environment, several advances have been made by previous investigators. In this study, we investigate the history and technological mechanisms of UFM and VDs. We also aim to review UFM from the viewpoint of clinical and at-home uses, including the recently proposed toilet-shaped UFM and electronic VDs.

  1. Diagnóstico não invasivo da anemia fetal pela medida do pico de velocidade sistólica na dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Noninvasive fetal anemia diagnosis by middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity waveform measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Taveira

    2004-09-01

    systolic velocity peak was recorded and considered abnormal when its value was above 1.5 times the median for the corresponding gestational age. Hemocue® (B-Hemoglobin Photometer Hemocue AB; Angelholm, Sweden was the device used to measure fetal hemoglobin concentration. The relationship between middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity and cord blood hemoglobin was obtained by the chi2 test, considered significant at p<0.05. RESULTS: in thirty-three cases the cord blood hemoglobin concentration was below 10.0 g/dL. There was a strong correlation between the two measured variables (p<0.001. The middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity with values above 1.5 times the median was associated with cord blood hemoglobin concentration below 10 g/mL (p<0,001. The sensitivity of an increased middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity was 75.8% for the detection of a cord blood hemoglobin level of 10 g/dL or lower. CONCLUSION: the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity can be used as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of fetal anemia.

  2. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  3. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS IN ELECTRONIC TEMPERATURE OF PHOTOIONISE PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ferouani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we are interested in the diagnostics in electronic temperature of a plasma purely photoionized, based on the intensity ration of lines emitted by ions helium-like, which have an atomic number Z relatively small. We considered the three lines corresponding to the transitions starting from the excited levels 1s2l towards the fundamental level 1s2 1S0, like appropriate lines. More precisely, the line of resonance w due to the transition 1s2p 1P1 --- 1s2 1 S0, the line of intercombinaison (x,y 1s2p 3 P2,1 --- 1s2 1 S0  as well as prohibited line z due to the transition 1s2 3 S1 --- 1s2 1 S0. These lines appear clearly in the spectra of astrophysical plasmas. As helium-like ion, we chose two, the oxygen O6+ (Z=8 and neon Ne8+ (Z=10. We carried out calculations of the ration of lines intensity G=(z+x+y/w of O6+ and Ne8+  according to the electronic temperature in the range going from 105 to 107 K. We will see that, like it was shown by Gabriel and Jordan in 1969 [1], this intensity ration can be very sensitive to the temperature electronic and practically independent of the electronic density. Consequently, the ration G can be used to determine in a reliable way the electronic temperature of plasma observed [2].

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  5. NON-INVASIVE SPECTROSCOPIC ON-LINE METHODS TO MONITOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooker, M. H.; Berg, Rolf W.

    2003-01-01

    and Raman spectroscopy to monitor discrete molecular species at concentrations on the 0.1% level or lower. A brief introduction to the art of modern vibrational spectroscopy is given, mainly by means of a list of important references, followed by a specific example (the liquid-liquid system CO2-water...

  6. Computer tomographic diagnosis of echinococcosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, M.; Fretz, C.; Fuchs, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    The computer tomographic appearances and differential diagnosis in 22 patients with echinococcosis are described; of these, twelve were of the cystic and ten of the alveolar type. The computer tomographic appearances are characterised by the presence of daughter cysts (66%) within the sharply demarkated parasitic cyst of water density. In the absence of daughter cysts, a definite aetiological diagnosis cannot be made, although there is a tendency to clasification of the occassionally multiple echinococcus cysts. The computer tomographic appearances of advanced alveolar echinococcosis are characterised by partial collequative necrosis, with clacification around the necrotic areas (90%). The absence of CT evidence of partial necrosis and calsification of the pseudotumour makes it difficult to establish a specific diagnosis. The conclusive and non-invasive character of the procedure and its reproducibility makes computer tomography the method of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of echinococcosis.

  7. Biophotonics in diagnosis and modeling of tissue pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafetinides, A. A.; Makropoulou, M.; Drakaki, E.

    2008-12-01

    Biophotonics techniques are applied to several fields in medicine and biology. The laser based techniques, such as the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy and the optical coherence tomography (OCT), are of particular importance in dermatology, where the laser radiation could be directly applied to the tissue target (e.g. skin). In addition, OCT resolves architectural tissue properties that might be useful as tumour discrimination parameters for skin as well as for ocular non-invasive visualization. Skin and ocular tissues are complex multilayered and inhomogeneous organs with spatially varying optical properties. This fact complicates the quantitative analysis of the fluorescence and/or light scattering spectra, even from the same tissue sample. To overcome this problem, mathematical simulation is applied for the investigation of the human tissue optical properties, in the visible/infrared range of the spectrum, resulting in a better discrimination of several tissue pathologies. In this work, we present i) a general view on biophotonics applications in diagnosis of human diseases, ii) some specific results on laser spectroscopy techniques, as LIF measurements, applied in arterial and skin pathologies and iii) some experimental and theoretical results on ocular OCT measurements. Regarding the LIF spectroscopy, we examined the autofluorescence properties of several human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination. A nitrogen laser was used as an excitation source, emitting at 337 nm (ultraviolet excitation). Histopathology examination of the samples was also performed, after the laser spectroscopy measurements and the results from the spectroscopic and medical analysis were compared, to differentiate malignancies, e.g. basal cell carcinoma tissue (BCC), from normal skin tissue. Regarding the OCT technique, we correlated human data, obtained from patients undergoing OCT examination, with Monte Carlo simulated cornea and retina tissues

  8. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  9. Universal relation between spectroscopic constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.

  10. The VANDELS ESO spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome: A 13-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vičić

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome noninvasive screening methods are important for estimation of individual risks, in both, young population of woman and older mothers, while conventional and molecular cytogenetic methods are essential for definite diagnosis and proper genetic counseling.

  12. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  13. Noninvasive Sensor for Measuring Muscle Metabolism During Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B. R.; Yang, Y.; Lee, S. M. C.; Soyemi, O. O.; Wilson, C.; Hagan, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and lactate threshold (LT) are utilized to assess changes in aerobic capacity and the efficacy of exercise countermeasures in astronauts. During extravehicular activity (EVA), real-time knowledge of VO2 and relative work intensity can be used to monitor crew activity levels and organize tasks to reduce the cumulative effects of fatigue. Currently VO2 and LT are determined with complicated measurement techniques that require sampling of expired ventilatory gases, which may not be accurate in enclosed, oxygen-rich environments such as the EVA suit. The UMMS team has developed a novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) system which noninvasively, simultaneously and continuously measures muscle oxygen tension, oxygen saturation, pH (pHm), and hematocrit from a small sensor placed on the leg. This system is unique in that it allows accurate, absolute measurement of these parameters in the thigh muscle by correcting spectra for the interference from skin pigment and fat. These parameters can be used to estimate VO2 and LT. A preliminary evaluation of the system s capabilities was performed in the NASA JSC Exercise Physiology Lab.

  14. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  15. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  16. Elastography methods for the non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccarina, Davide; Rosselli, Matteo; Genesca, Joan; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2018-02-01

    The gold standard to assess the presence and severity of portal hypertension remains the hepatic vein pressure gradient, however the recent development of non-invasive assessment using elastography techniques offers valuable alternatives. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic accuracy and utility of such techniques in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Areas covered: A literature search focused on liver and spleen stiffness measurement with different elastographic techniques for the assessment of the presence and severity of portal hypertension and oesophageal varices in people with chronic liver disease. The combination of elastography with parameters such as platelet count and spleen size is also discussed. Expert commentary: Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension is a validated tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Baveno VI recommended the combination of transient elastography and platelet count for ruling out varices needing treatment in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease. Assessment of aetiology specific cut-offs for ruling in and ruling out clinically significant portal hypertension is an unmet clinical need. The incorporation of spleen stiffness measurements in non-invasive algorithms using validated software and improved measuring scales might enhance the non-invasive diagnosis of portal hypertension in the next 5 years.

  17. [A Case of Noninvasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast in a Male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yamato; Ishiba, Toshiyuki; Oda, Goshi; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Aburatani, Tomoki; Ogo, Taiichi; Nakashima, Yutaka; Baba, Hironobu; Hoshino, Naoaki; Nishioka, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Itoh, Takashi; Kirimura, Susumu; Kobayashi, Hirotoshi

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer in male is rare, accounting for 1%of all breast cancers.Among male breast cancers, noninvasive carcinoma is extremely rare.We experienced a case of noninvasive carcinoma of the breast in a male.A 72-year-old male was referred to our hospital with a chief complaint of the tumor and blood secretion from the left nipple.Mammography revealed a highdensity mass.Ultrasound examination revealed low echoic mass at the E area, and it measured 1.5 cm.Core needle biopsy failed to provide a definitive diagnosis, and we performed an excisional biopsy of the tumor.The pathological diagnosis was noninvasive ductal carcinoma.He underwent a mastectomy without sentinel lymph node biopsy because the resection margin was positive.The patient received no adjuvant therapy and the patient's postoperative course was uneventful for 1 year.As there have been few reports on male noninvasive ductal carcinoma, we do not have evidence for indication of the sentinel lymph nodes and postoperative adjuvant therapy such as tamoxifen.We may confuse the treatment policy.

  18. Endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging in patients with elevated serum prostate specific antigen with negative trus transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad Ganie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Prostatic biopsy directed with endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging findings in patients with elevated serum PSA and prior negative biopsy, improves the early diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma and accurate localization of prostate cancer within the gland.

  19. Non-invasive examination method for cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    CT is superior in the diagnosis of the characteristics and the region of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) to the examination with RI. The RI examination can only demonstrate the cerebrovascular diseases with large area disturbance of the cerebral cortex, that passed some days after the attack. Moreover, it is difficult to detect the small lesions or the lesions localized in the deep area such as the basal nucleus and the internal capsule by this method. A slight decrease and retardation in unilateral cerebral blood flow (under 20%, within 1.5 second) found by RI-angiography does not always indicate the side of the lesion of cerebrovascular diseases. It is expected that non-invasive examination method for CVD is improved more, and that more precise estimation method for regional cerebral circulation is developed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  20. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw [Moraga, CA; Cang, Hu [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Cangshan [Berkeley, CA; Wong, Chung M [San Gabriel, CA

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  1. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.; Vergo, N.; Salisbury, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed

  2. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, H.; Tominaga, Y.; Uchida, K.; Yamada, N.; Morimoto, T.; Yasue, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-two out of 31 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy before operation underwent non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands by computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy with 201 TlCl and /sup 99m/TcO 4+ , and/or ultrasonography. CT visualized 39 of 45 parathyroid glands (86.7%), weighing more than 500 mg. Scintigraphy with a subtraction method using a computer performed the diagnosis in 19 of 27 glands (70.4%). Ultrasonography detected 21 of 27 glands (77.8%). Image diagnosis was also useful in the postoperative follow-up study. The non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure is thus valuable for 1) definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 2) localization, and 3) diagnosis for effectiveness of conservative treatment

  3. Targeted, noninvasive blockade of cortical neuronal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Power, Chanikarn; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Livingstone, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a novel method to noninvasively modulate targeted brain areas through the temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via focused ultrasound, enabling focal delivery of a neuroactive substance. Ultrasound was used to locally disrupt the BBB in rat somatosensory cortex, and intravenous administration of GABA then produced a dose-dependent suppression of somatosensory-evoked potentials in response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. No suppression was observed 1-5 days afterwards or in control animals where the BBB was not disrupted. This method has several advantages over existing techniques: it is noninvasive; it is repeatable via additional GABA injections; multiple brain regions can be affected simultaneously; suppression magnitude can be titrated by GABA dose; and the method can be used with freely behaving subjects. We anticipate that the application of neuroactive substances in this way will be a useful tool for noninvasively mapping brain function, and potentially for surgical planning or novel therapies.

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, Jean-Louis; Samartzis, Peter C.; Stamataki, Katerina; Piel, Jean-Philippe; Katsoprinakis, George E.; Papadakis, Vassilis; Schimowski, Xavier; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Loppinet, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is an established technique, particularly useful for thickness measurements of thin films. It measures polarization rotation after a single reflection of a beam of light on the measured substrate at a given incidence angle. In this paper, we report the development of multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry where the light beam reflects multiple times on the sample. We have investigated both theoretically and experimentally the effect of sample reflectivity, number of reflections (passes), angles of incidence and detector dynamic range on ellipsometric observables tanΨ and cosΔ. The multiple pass approach provides increased sensitivity to small changes in Ψ and Δ, opening the way for single measurement determination of optical thickness T, refractive index n and absorption coefficient k of thin films, a significant improvement over the existing techniques. Based on our results, we discuss the strengths, the weaknesses and possible applications of this technique. - Highlights: • We present multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry (MPSE), a multi-pass approach to ellipsometry. • Different detectors, samples, angles of incidence and number of passes were tested. • N passes improve polarization ratio sensitivity to the power of N. • N reflections improve phase shift sensitivity by a factor of N. • MPSE can significantly improve thickness measurements in thin films

  6. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  7. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Value of noninvasive diagnostic procedures in cardiology: typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebeling, V.; Bubenheimer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Routine chest X-ray often yields poor information for diagnosis of heart disease. The diagnostic value of invasive procedures in cardiology is generally accepted. The patient's as well as the physician's risk of the examination, however, has to be considered. A high number of heart diseases, e.g. hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is mainly detected by noninvasive procedures such as auscultation, electrocardiography, phonomechanocardiography, echocardiography, physical manoeuvres, and pharmacological provocation tests. Typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  9. Newly Diagnosed Meniere's Disease: Clinical Course With Initiation of Noninvasive Treatment Including an Accounting of Vestibular Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbeih, Firas; Christov, Florian; Gluth, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    To describe the course of Meniere's disease with noninvasive treatment during the first few years after initial diagnosis. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with newly diagnosed definite Meniere's disease between 2013 and 2016 and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Patients received a written plan for low sodium, water therapy, and treatment with a diuretic and/or betahistine. Subjects were screened and treated for vestibular migraine as needed. Vertigo control and hearing status at most recent follow-up were assessed. Forty-four subjects had an average follow up of 24.3 months. Thirty-four percent had Meniere's disease and vestibular migraine, and 84% had unilateral Meniere's disease. Seventy-five percent had vertigo well controlled at most recent follow-up, with only noninvasive treatments. Age, gender, body mass index, presence of vestibular migraine, bilateral disease, and duration of follow-up did not predict noninvasive treatment failure. Worse hearing threshold at 250 Hz and lower pure tone average (PTA) at the time of diagnosis did predict failure. Fifty-two percent of ears had improved PTA at most recent visit, 20% had no change, and 28% were worse Conclusions: Encountering excellent vertigo control and stable hearing after a new diagnosis of Meniere's disease is possible with noninvasive treatments. Worse hearing status at diagnosis predicted treatment failure.

  10. Value of Noninvasive Electrophysiological Examination in Choice of Management of Children with Sinus Node Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nagornaya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the data about noninvasive electrophysiological examination and its application in pediatrics. The clinical case of observation of 15-year-old child who went in for sports for a long time, with sick sinus syndrome supposed in the beginning of diagnostic search, is resulted. The difficulties of differential diagnosis of this syndrome and vegetative dysfunction of sinus node are presented. The role of transesophageal pacing in making a diagnosis and solution of a question about necessity of artificial pacemaker implantation is shown.

  11. Raman Spectroscopic Imaging of the Whole Ciona intestinalis Embryo during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuru J.; Hotta, Kohji; Oka, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular composition and the distribution of bio-molecules play central roles in the specification of cell fates and morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Consequently, investigation of changes in the expression and distribution of bio-molecules, especially mRNAs and proteins, is an important challenge in developmental biology. Raman spectroscopic imaging, a non-invasive and label-free technique, allows simultaneous imaging of the intracellular composition and distribution of multiple bio-molecules. In this study, we explored the application of Raman spectroscopic imaging in the whole Ciona intestinalis embryo during development. Analysis of Raman spectra scattered from C. intestinalis embryos revealed a number of localized patterns of high Raman intensity within the embryo. Based on the observed distribution of bio-molecules, we succeeded in identifying the location and structure of differentiated muscle and endoderm within the whole embryo, up to the tailbud stage, in a label-free manner. Furthermore, during cell differentiation, we detected significant differences in cell state between muscle/endoderm daughter cells and daughter cells with other fates that had divided from the same mother cells; this was achieved by focusing on the Raman intensity of single Raman bands at 1002 or 1526 cm−1, respectively. This study reports the first application of Raman spectroscopic imaging to the study of identifying and characterizing differentiating tissues in a whole chordate embryo. Our results suggest that Raman spectroscopic imaging is a feasible label-free technique for investigating the developmental process of the whole embryo of C. intestinalis. PMID:23977129

  12. Noninvasive Quantification of Pancreatic Fat in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lingvay, Ildiko; Esser, Victoria; Legendre, Jaime L.; Price, Angela L.; Wertz, Kristen M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Zhang, Song; Unger, Roger H.; Szczepaniak, Lidia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a tool for non-invasive quantification of pancreatic triglyceride (TG) content and to measure the pancreatic TG content in a diverse human population with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and glucose control.

  13. Noninvasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A noninvasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present noninvasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45-degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (males and females) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the noninvasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, noninvasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Noninvasive imaging of experimental lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F; Thannickal, Victor J

    2015-07-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy.

  15. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfisterer, M.; Gordon, D.; Battler, A.; Ashburn, W.; Froelicher, V.; Kantonsspital Basel

    1979-01-01

    In order to compare the three non-invasive exercise tests Ecg, Thallium myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, the results of these tests in a consecutive series of 30 patients and 14 controls were analyzed. In all 88 symptom-limited exercise tests a significantly higher double product (heart rate x systolic blood pressure, mm Hg/min) was reached on a treadmill test (for Ecg and Thallium scintigraphy) as compared to the supine bicycle ergometer exercise (for radionuclide angiography): 243.1 +- 61.1 vs. 215.2 +- 46.5 x 10 2 (p [de

  16. Noninvasive Monitoring of Blood Glucose with Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rishikesh; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Valdez, Tulio A; Zhang, Chi; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-21

    The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. In the quest for better sensing approaches, optical technologies have surfaced as attractive candidates as researchers have sought to exploit the endogenous contrast of glucose, notably its absorption, scattering, and polarization properties. Vibrational spectroscopy, especially spontaneous Raman scattering, has exhibited substantial promise due to its exquisite molecular specificity and minimal interference of water in the spectral profiles acquired from the blood-tissue matrix. Yet, it has hitherto been challenging to leverage the Raman scattering signatures of glucose for prediction in all but the most basic studies and under the least demanding conditions. In this Account, we discuss the newly developed array of methodologies that address the key challenges in measuring blood glucose accurately using Raman spectroscopy and unlock new prospects for translation to sustained noninvasive measurements in people with diabetes. Owing to the weak intensity of spontaneous Raman scattering, recent research has focused on enhancement of signals from the blood constituents by designing novel excitation-collection geometries and tissue modulation methods while our attempts have led to the incorporation of nonimaging optical elements. Additionally, invoking mass transfer modeling into chemometric algorithms has

  17. A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-12-05

    Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing dataanalyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuitelement data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue

  18. A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Jampana, Nagaraju; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing dataanalyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuitelement data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue

  19. Treatment of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Eugene J.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M.; Holm, Lena W.; Côté, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. Best evidence synthesis. Objective. To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on noninvasive interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders. Summary of Background Data. No comprehensive systematic literature reviews have been published on interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders in the past decade. Methods. We systematically searched Medline and screened for relevance literature published from 1980 through 2006 on the use, effectiveness, and safety of noninvasive interventions for neck pain and associated disorders. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. Results. Of the 359 invasive and noninvasive intervention articles deemed relevant, 170 (47%) were accepted as scientifically admissible, and 139 of these related to noninvasive interventions (including health care utilization, costs, and safety). For whiplash-associated disorders, there is evidence that educational videos, mobilization, and exercises appear more beneficial than usual care or physical modalities. For other neck pain, the evidence suggests that manual and supervised exercise interventions, low-level laser therapy, and perhaps acupuncture are more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions; however, none of the active treatments was clearly superior to any other in either the short-or long-term. For both whiplash-associated disorders and other neck pain without radicular symptoms, interventions that focused on regaining function as soon as possible are relatively more effective than interventions that do not have such a focus. Conclusion. Our best evidence synthesis suggests that therapies involving manual therapy and exercise are more effective than alternative strategies for patients with neck pain; this was also true of therapies which include educational interventions

  20. Non-invasive in-situ investigations versus micro-sampling: a comparative study on a Renoirs painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliani, C.; Sgamellotti, A.; Universita degli Studi di Perugia . Centro di Eccellenza SMAArt; Scientific Methodologies applied to Archaeology and Art)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-technique in-situ non-invasive approach has been followed for the study of the materials used for a painting by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, ''A woman at her toilette''. The study was carried out using five portable spectroscopic techniques, namely X-ray fluorescence, mid-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy in absorption and emission. The painting was selected as a case study because it was examined in advance of the current investigation using conventional micro-sampling techniques. This provided the opportunity to evaluate potential and limitations of the non-invasive approach to the complex case of the modern painting. (orig.)

  1. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    A non-invasive study of some paintings containing areas of paint with a Prussian blue component has been conducted at the Statens Museum for Kunst. The in situ campaign has been carried out with a range of different spectroscopic portable techniques, provided by the MOLAB transnational access...... of the frame. Prussian blue is a hydrated iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) complex of variable composition depending on the manufacturing [1]. It has been reported that the method of preparation, as well as the use of white pigments or extenders to dilute the blue pigment, may be a factor contributing to its......, the current in situ campaign aimed at mapping and understanding the degradation of Prussian blue and lead white admixtures using non-invasive portable techniques. The presence of Prussian blue was detected, with the MOLAB analytical means, in all the exposed, faded areas, although the colour had turned pale...

  2. Mossbauer spectroscopic studies in ferroboron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi Kumar; Govindaraj, R.; Amarendra, G.

    2017-05-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopic studies have been carried out in a detailed manner on ferroboron in order to understand the local structure and magnetic properties of the system. Evolution of the local structure and magnetic properties of the amorphous and crystalline phases and their thermal stability have been addressed in a detailed manner in this study. Role of bonding between Fe 4s and/or 4p electrons with valence electrons of boron (2s,2p) in influencing the stability and magnetic properties of Fe-B system is elucidated.

  3. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  4. The diagnosis and assessment of venous disorders in the office and laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of venous disorders, particularly deep venous thrombosis, has not proved adequate. Venography is invasive, expensive, and thrombogenic, and these facts have encouraged the use of other techniques. Nevertheless, all three diagnostic methods (clinical, venographic, and noninvasive) are complementary. Because the noninvasive approach does not neglect the patient's history and physical examination, the results of noninvasive tests can be more easily interpreted and false-positive examinations avoided. The authors prefer the simple Doppler examinations, although they require great attention to detail and are not learned easily. Nevertheless, they are the basis of noninvasive assessment and should be thoroughly familiar to vascular diagnosticians

  5. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga...

  6. Captopril renal scan - a noninvasive screening test for renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Captopril renal scan is simple, noninvasive and cost-effective test for the initial diagnosis with the sensitivity of 98%. Renal scan with Tc-99m DTPA was performed on the suspected patient one hour after oral intake of 25 mg of captopril. Relative renal function, renogram curves and GFR for both the kidneys were calculated by computer software. Right kidney was small in size, showed relative renal function of 12% and the GFR was 9.64 ml/min. The left organ revealed relative function of 88% and the GFR was 72.12 ml/min. There was marked difference in renogram peaks. On baseline study, the right kidney showed marked improvement of renogram curve peak and the renal function improved to 23% while the GFR showed rise to 19 ml/min. In comparison with baseline findings, the right kidney, in response to ACE inhibitor showed deterioration of renogram peak, 47.8% deterioration of relative renal function and 49.2% fall in GFR. Major criteria for renovascular cause was fulfilled and the patient was labeled for having high probability for renal artery stenosis. Renal angiography, later on confirmed the diagnosis. (author)

  7. Factors predicting survival following noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysson, S; Vandenberghe, N; Philit, F; Vial, C; Petitjean, T; Bouhour, F; Bayle, J Y; Broussolle, E

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of respiratory muscles is a major predicting factor for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies show that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) can relieve symptoms of alveolar hypoventilation. However, factors predicting survival in ALS patients when treated with NIV need to be clarified. We conducted a retrospective study of 33 consecutive ALS patients receiving NIV. Ten patients had bulbar onset. We determined the median survivals from onset, diagnosis and initiation of NIV and factors predicting survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox proportional hazard models. The median initial and maximal total uses of NIV were 10 and 14 h/24h. The overall median survival from ALS onset was 34.2 months and worsened with increasing age and bulbar onset of the disease. The median survival from initiation of NIV was 8.4 months and was significantly poorer in patients with advanced age or with airway mucus accumulation. Survival from initiation of NIV was not influenced by respiratory parameters or bulbar symptoms. Advanced age at diagnosis and airway mucus accumulation represent poorer prognostic factors of ALS patients treated with NIV. NIV is a helpful treatment of sleep-disordered breathing, including patients with bulbar involvement. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano Beja-Pereira; Rita Oliveira; Paulo C. Alves; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological...

  9. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors diagnose anthrax, take ...

  10. An Outflow Boundary Condition Model for Noninvasive Prediction of Fractional Flow Reserve in Diseased Coronary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayssal, Iyad A; Moukalled, Fadl; Alam, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on a new boundary condition formulation to model the total coronary myocardial flow and resistance characteristics of the myocardial vascular bed for any specific patient when considered for noninvasive diagnosis of ischemia. The developed boundary condition model gives an implicit representation of the downstream truncated coronary bed. Further, it is based on incorporating patient-specific physiological parameters that can be noninvasively extracted to account for blood flow demand to the myocardium at rest and hyperemic conditions. The model is coupled to a steady three-dimensional (3D) collocated pressure-based finite volume flow solver and used to characterize the "functional significance" of a patient diseased coronary artery segment without the need for predicting the hemodynamics of the entire arterial system. Predictions generated with this boundary condition provide a deep understanding of the inherent challenges behind noninvasive image-based diagnostic techniques when applied to human diseased coronary arteries. The overall numerical method and formulated boundary condition model are validated via two computational-based procedures and benchmarked with available measured data. The newly developed boundary condition is used via a designed computational methodology to (a) confirm the need for incorporating patient-specific physiological parameters when modeling the downstream coronary resistance, (b) explain the discrepancies presented in the literature between measured and computed fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and (c) discuss the current limitations and future challenges in shifting to noninvasive assessment of ischemia.

  11. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Methane Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory.......A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory....

  12. Noninvasive Assessment of Excessive Erythrocytosis as a Screening Method for Chronic Mountain Sickness at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Kaetan J; Danz, David; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-06-01

    Vyas, Kaetan J., David Danz, Robert H. Gilman, Robert A. Wise, Fabiola León-Velarde, J. Jaime Miranda, and William Checkley. Noninvasive assessment of excessive erythrocytosis as a screening method for chronic mountain sickness at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:162-168, 2015.--Globally, over 140 million people are at risk of developing chronic mountain sickness, a common maladaptation to life at high altitude (>2500 meters above sea level). The diagnosis is contingent upon the identification of excessive erythrocytosis (EE). Current best practices to identify EE require a venous blood draw, which is cumbersome for large-scale surveillance. We evaluated two point-of-care biomarkers to screen for EE: noninvasive spot-check tests of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation (Pronto-7, Masimo Corporation). We conducted paired evaluations of total serum hemoglobin from a venous blood draw and noninvasive, spot-check testing of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation with the Pronto-7 in 382 adults aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru (3825 meters above sea level). We used the Bland-Altman method to measure agreement between the noninvasive hemoglobin assessment and the gold standard lab hemoglobin analyzer. Mean age was 58.8 years and 47% were male. The Pronto-7 test was unsuccessful in 21 (5%) participants. Limits of agreement between total hemoglobin measured via venous blood draw and the noninvasive, spot-check test ranged from -2.8 g/dL (95% CI -3.0 to -2.5) to 2.5 g/dL (95% CI 2.2 to 2.7), with a bias of -0.2 g/dL (95% CI -0.3 to -0.02) for the difference between total hemoglobin and noninvasive hemoglobin concentrations. Overall, the noninvasive spot-check test of total hemoglobin had a better area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to oxyhemoglobin saturation for the identification of EE as measured by a gold standard laboratory hemoglobin analyzer (0.96 vs. 0.82; p<0.001). Best cut-off values to screen for EE with

  13. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  14. Noninvasive dentistry: a dream or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, B H; Exterkate, R A M

    2015-01-01

    Various caries prevention and repair strategies are reviewed in this article ranging from the use of fluoride to nanohydroxyapatite particles. Several of the strategies which combine fluoride and calcium and phosphate treatments have both in vitro and in vivo data showing them to be efficacious if the surface integrity of the lesion is not breached. Once this has occurred, the rationale for cutting off the nutrient supplies to the pathogenic bacteria without the removal of the infected dentine, a noninvasive restorative technique, is discussed using existing clinical studies as examples. Finally two novel noninvasive restorative techniques using fluorohydroxyapatite crystals are described. The need for clinical data in support of emerging caries-preventive and restorative strategies is emphasized. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Non-invasive assessment of coronary calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jackqueline C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enable the noninvasive assessment of coronary calcification. The amount of coronary calcification, as detected by EBT, has a close relation with the amount of coronary atherosclerosis, which is the substrate for the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Calcification of the coronary arteries can be seen as a cumulative measure of life-time exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have shown that the amount of coronary calcification is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, coronary calcification is a promising method for non-invasive detection of asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing coronary heart disease. Whether measurement of coronary calcification also increases the predictive power of coronary events based on cardiovascular risk factors is topic of current research

  16. Spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis of a thin film composite membrane consisting of polysulfone on a porous α-alumina support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Wormeester, Herbert; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck E

    2012-02-01

    Exposure of a thin polymer film to a fluid can affect properties of the film such as the density and thickness. In particular in membrane technology, these changes can have important implications for membrane performance. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a convenient technique for in situ studies of thin films, because of its noninvasive character and very high precision. The applicability of spectroscopic ellipsometry is usually limited to samples with well-defined interfacial regions, whereas in typical composite membranes, often substantial and irregular intrusion of the thin film into the pores of a support exists. In this work, we provide a detailed characterization of a polished porous alumina membrane support, using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in combination with atomic force microscopy and mercury porosimetry. Two Spectroscopic ellipsometry optical models are presented that can adequately describe the surface roughness of the support. These models consider the surface roughness as a distinct layer in which the porosity gradually increases toward the outer ambient interface. The first model considers the porosity profile to be linear; the second model assumes an exponential profile. It is shown that the models can be extended to account for a composite membrane geometry, by deposition of a thin polysulfone film onto the support. The developed method facilitates practicability for in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of nonequilibrium systems, i.e., membranes under actual permeation conditions.

  17. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  18. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So CF

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chi-Fuk So,1 Kup-Sze Choi,1 Thomas KS Wong,2 Joanne WY Chung2,31Centre for Integrative Digital Health, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, 3Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong KongAbstract: The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed.Keywords: noninvasive, glucose monitoring, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose measurement

  19. The importance of optical methods for non-invasive measurements in the skin care industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2010-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are concerned with treating skin disease, as well as maintaining and promoting skin health. They are dealing with a unique tissue that defines our body in space. As such, skin provides not only the natural boundary with the environment inhibiting body dehydration as well as penetration of exogenous aggressors to the body, it is also ideally situated for optical measurements. A plurality of spectroscopic and imaging methods is being used to understand skin physiology and pathology and document the effects of topically applied products on the skin. The obvious advantage of such methods over traditional biopsy techniques is the ability to measure the cutaneous tissue in vivo and non-invasively. In this work, we will review such applications of various spectroscopy and imaging methods in skin research that is of interest the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Examples will be given on the importance of optical techniques in acquiring new insights about acne pathogenesis and infant skin development.

  20. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  1. Spectroscopic observations of AG Dra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Chun, H.

    1982-01-01

    During summer 1981, spectroscopic observations of AG Dra were performed at the Haute-Provence Observatory using the Marly spectrograph with a dispersion of 80 A mm -1 at the 120 cm telescope and using the Coude spectrograph of the 193 cm telescope with a dispersion of 40 A mm -1 . The actual outlook of the spectrum of AG Dra is very different from what it was in 1966 in the sense that only a few intense absorption lines remain, the heavy emission continuum masking the absorption spectrum, while on the 1966 plate, about 140 absorption lines have been measured. Numerous emission lines have been measured, most of them, present in 1981, could also be detected in 1966. They are due to H, HeI and HeII. (Auth.)

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  3. Vibrational spectroscopy in diagnosis and screening

    CERN Document Server

    Severcan, F

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the use of vibrational spectroscopic methods for diagnosis and screening. These applications range from diagnosis of disease states in humans, such as cancer, to rapid identification and screening of microorganisms. The growth in such types of studies has been possible thanks to advances in instrumentation and associated computational and mathematical tools for data processing and analysis. This volume of Advances in Biomedical Spectroscopy contains chapters from leading experts who discuss the latest advances in the application of Fourier

  4. Non-invasive investigation of the upper gastrointestinal tract using technetium - 99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T V [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1979-01-01

    The use of technetium - 99m in the non-invasive investigation of the upper gastrointestinal tract is discussed with particular reference to the evolution of a method of assessing gastric function or gastric acid secretion non-invasively and to the applications of this method in the investigation of surgical patients with disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The assessment of maximal acid output and the insulin response is described and the use of the test in the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia, hypo- and hyperchlorhydric states, gastric cancer, hiatus hernia and Barrett's oesophagus, coeliac disease, Meckel's diverticulum, and abdominal aortic aneurism outlined. The use of chemicals labelled with this tracer in hepatobilary scanning is briefly described.

  5. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  6. SARS - Diagnosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS - Diagnosis. Mainly by exclusion of known causes of atypical pneumonia; * X ray Chest; * PCR on body fluids- primers defined by WHO centres available from website.-ve result does not exclude SARS. * Sequencing of amplicons; * Viral Cultures – demanding; * Antibody tests.

  7. Radioisotopes for diagnosis in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, G.

    1980-01-01

    A lecture, held on the occasion of the meeting, organized by the Austrian Company for Urology and the Bavarian Union of Urologists. Kidney diagnosis with means of nuclear medicine technology, scintigraphy of skeleton and candula suprarenalis as well as radioimmunological hormone determination are characterized by a non-invasive, valuable extension of the convential nephrourological diagnosis under a relatively low rate of radioactive emission. In the field of kidney diagnosis the specification of the function of each kidney by means of renography, sequence-scintigraphy and clearance must be regarded as an important factor, especially for the measurement of the degree of kidney damages. Therefore, it is also of a great pre-operative value in context with the determination of the functional capacity of a kidney, the control of prae-, -intra - and postrenal diseases, urological emergencies and the period after kidney-transplantations. The Tc-perfusion can be used for the diagnosis of kidney arterio-stenosis. In the field of skeleton scintigraphy with Tc-marked phosphates a very sensitive method for the discovery of metastasis is available. It can be applied as a screeningstest to the determination of the stage and to the control of the progress concerning the prostata carcinoma. The candula suprarenalis scintigraphy guarantees the differentiation of hormon producing tumors of the adrenalin gland in context with the determination of ACTH, cortisol, aldosteron, estrogens and testosteron. (F.R.)

  8. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms

  9. Present rank of angiography within complex tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waigand, J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of noninvasive imaging methods with high diagnostic accuracy in the last decade has led to a new determination of the role of angiographic techniques in oncologic diagnosis. The disadvantages of angiography are discussed and the major indications in tumor diagnosis are delineated: preoperative vascular mapping, vascular involvement of the great vessels, CT and ultrasound equivocal, selective blood sampling and interventional procedures. The increasing importance of interventional radiology in oncology is emphasized. (author)

  10. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at superresolution: Overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Jeffrey; Klauser, Antoine; Lazeyras, François; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The notion of non-invasive, high-resolution spatial mapping of metabolite concentrations has long enticed the medical community. While magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is capable of achieving the requisite spatio-spectral localization, it has traditionally been encumbered by significant resolution constraints that have thus far undermined its clinical utility. To surpass these obstacles, research efforts have primarily focused on hardware enhancements or the development of accelerated acquisition strategies to improve the experimental sensitivity per unit time. Concomitantly, a number of innovative reconstruction techniques have emerged as alternatives to the standard inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT). While perhaps lesser known, these latter methods strive to effect commensurate resolution gains by exploiting known properties of the underlying MRSI signal in concert with advanced image and signal processing techniques. This review article aims to aggregate and provide an overview of the past few decades of so-called "superresolution" MRSI reconstruction methodologies, and to introduce readers to current state-of-the-art approaches. A number of perspectives are then offered as to the future of high-resolution MRSI, with a particular focus on translation into clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-invasive endodontic treatment of large periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Huiz Peeters

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most cases of large periapical radiolucent lesions of pulpal origin, we often encounter a dilemmatic situation, such as whether to either treat these cases endodontically or surgically. Development of techniques, instruments and root medicaments as well as the tendency toward minimally invasive treatment, all support dentists to treat those cases using the minimal invasive principle (i.e. endodontically instead of surgically. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report and discuss the managing of periapical lesions by endodontic no invasive treatment. Case management: The patient with large periapical lesions were treated with noninvasive endodontic treatment. After 6 months, patients in this report were asymptomatic and radiolucencies had disappeared. When the root canal treatment is done according to accepted clinical principles and under aseptic condition, including cleaning, shaping, abturating as well as proper diagnosis, the healing process of the infected area will occur. Conclusion: Some lesions, however, may not be treated conservatively and may require surgical treatment for total elimination of the lesions.

  12. MR Spectroscopy: Real-Time Quantification of in-vivo MR Spectroscopic data

    OpenAIRE

    Massé, Kunal

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has had an increasing success in biomedical research. This technique has the faculty of discerning several metabolites in human tissue non-invasively and thus offers a multitude of medical applications. In clinical routine, quantification plays a key role in the evaluation of the different chemical elements. The quantification of metabolites characterizing specific pathologies helps physicians establish the patient's diagnosis. E...

  13. Spectroscopic studies of copper enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, D.M.; Moog, R.; Zumft, W.; Koenig, S.H.; Scott, R.A.; Cote, C.E.; McGuirl, M.

    1986-01-01

    Several spectroscopic methods, including absorption, circular dichroism (CD), magnetic CD (MCD), X-ray absorption, resonance Raman, EPR, NMR, and quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, have been used to probe the structures of copper-containing amine oxidases, nitrite reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase. The basic goals are to determine the copper site structure, electronic properties, and to generate structure-reactivity correlations. Collectively, the results on the amine oxidases permit a detailed model for the Cu(II) sites in these enzymes to be constructed that, in turn, rationalizes the ligand-binding chemistry. Resonance Raman spectra of the phenylhydrazine and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine derivatives of bovine plasma amine oxidase and models for its organic cofactor, e.g. pyridoxal, methoxatin, are most consistent with methoxatin being the intrinsic cofactor. The structure of the Cu(I) forms of the amine oxidases have been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS); the copper coordination geometry is significantly different in the oxidized and reduced forms. Some anomalous properties of the amine oxidases in solution are explicable in terms of their reversible aggregation, which the authors have characterized via light scattering. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases display several novel spectral properties. The data suggest that new types of copper sites are present

  14. Noninvasive Dry Eye Assessment Using High-Technology Ophthalmic Examination Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Sakane, Yuri; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Zheng, Xiaodong; Goto, Tomoko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the number of dry eye cases has dramatically increased. Thus, it is important that easy screening, exact diagnoses, and suitable treatments be available. We developed 3 original and noninvasive assessments for this disorder. First, a DR-1 dry eye monitor was used to determine the tear meniscus height quantitatively by capturing a tear meniscus digital image that was analyzed by Meniscus Processor software. The DR-1 meniscus height value significantly correlated with the fluorescein meniscus height (r = 0.06, Bland-Altman analysis). At a cutoff value of 0.22 mm, sensitivity of the dry eye diagnosis was 84.1% with 90.9% specificity. Second, the Tear Stability Analysis System was used to quantitatively measure tear film stability using a topographic modeling system corneal shape analysis device. Tear film stability was objectively and quantitatively evaluated every second during sustained eye openings. The Tear Stability Analysis System is currently installed in an RT-7000 autorefractometer and topographer to automate the diagnosis of dry eye. Third, the Ocular Surface Thermographer uses ophthalmic thermography for diagnosis. The decrease in ocular surface temperature in dry eyes was significantly greater than that in normal eyes (P eye opening. Decreased corneal temperature correlated significantly with the tear film breakup time (r = 0.572; P dry eye, sensitivity was 0.83 and specificity was 0.80 after 10 seconds. This article describes the details and potential of these 3 noninvasive dry eye assessment systems.

  15. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  16. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  17. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  18. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  19. Real time elastography - a non-invasive diagnostic method of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Liana; Iacob, Speranta; Iacob, Razvan; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, Gabriel; Herlea, Vlad; Gheorghe, Cristian; Lupescu, Ioana; Popescu, Irinel

    2009-12-01

    Small nodules (under 3 cm) detected on ultrasound (US) in cirrhotics represent the most challenging category for noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate real-time sonoelastography as a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of small HCC nodules in cirrhotic patients. 42 cirrhotic patients with 58 nodules (1-3 cm) were evaluated with real-time elastography (Hitachi EUB-6500); the mean intensity of colors red, blue, green were measured using a semi-quantitative method. Analysis of histograms for each color of the sonoelastography images was performed for quantifying the elasticity of nodule tissue in comparison with the cirrhotic liver tissue. AUROC curves were constructed to define the best cut-off points to distinguish malignant features of the nodules. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. 595 sonoelastography images from 42 patients (25 men; 17 women) were analyzed. The mean age was 56.4 +/- 0.7 years and 69% patients were in Child-Pugh class A, 19% class B, 11% class C. For the mean intensity of green color AUROC=0.81, a cut-off value under 108.7 being diagnostic for HCC with a Sp=91.1%, Se=50%, PPV=92.1%, NPV=47.1%. Mean intensity of blue color proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool for HCC (AUROC=0.94); for a cut-off value greater than 128.9, Sp=92.2%, Se=78.9%, PPV=95.4%, NPV=68%. Independent predictive factors of HCC for a small nodule in cirrhotic patients were: blue color over 128.9 at sonoelastography and hypervascular appearance at Doppler US. US elastography is a promising method for the non-invasive diagnosis of early HCC. Blue color at elastography and hypervascular aspects are independent predictors of HCC.

  20. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilatory Support Begins During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R

    2017-12-01

    The goal of sleep doctors has been to titrate away apneas and hypopneas using noninvasive ventilation, a term that has become synonymous with continuous positive airway pressure and bilevel positive airway pressure at the lowest effective bilevel settings. It is now time to appreciate noninvasive ventilatory support as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation. This article discusses mechanisms of action, two paradigms, and ancillary techniques for noninvasive ventilatory support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Safe, accurate, prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia using ultrasound and free fetal DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitty, Lyn S.; Khalil, Asma; Barrett, Angela N.; Pajkrt, Eva; Griffin, David R.; Cole, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia by defining the change in fetal size across gestation and the frequency of sonographic features, and developing non-invasive molecular genetic diagnosis based on cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma. Fetuses with a confirmed

  2. Spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging of a tumefactive demyelinating lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M.; Meltzer, D.E.; Cha, S. [MRI Department, Department of Radiology, New York University Medical Center, Schwartz Building, Basement HCC, 530 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions can present with features similar, clinically and radiologically, to those of brain tumours. Proton MR spectroscopy has been increasingly used to characterize intracranial pathology. As the underlying pathophysiology of neoplasms is different from that of demyelinating disease, one may expect the metabolic composition of neoplasms to be significantly different from that of demyelinating lesions. We report a 49-year-old woman in whom the neurologic and radiologic findings were highly suggestive of a high-grade brain tumor, and the spectroscopic features were sufficiently similar to that of a tumor to convince the neurosurgeon to operate. This case emphasizes the need for caution when confronted with a patient who presents with a differential diagnosis of demyelinating lesion versus neoplasm. (orig.)

  3. Tissue preservation with mass spectroscopic analysis: Implications for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, O Morgan; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D

    2018-05-17

    Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins. Their nondestructive in vivo tissue sampling leads to a highly accurate and rapid cancer diagnosis with great precision between healthy and malignant tissue. This new tool has the potential to improve surgical margins and accelerate cancer diagnostics by analyzing biomolecular signatures of various tissues and diseases.

  4. CT Diagnosis of Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Libby

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 19-year-old male with no previous medical history presented with 7/10 non-radiating, constant, sharp, periumbilical pain associated with nausea, and four episodes of vomiting. He was seen at urgent care where his labs showed a WBC of 16,000/mcL. He was subsequently sent to the emergency department (ED for concern of appendicitis. Of note, his pain worsened with bumps during the drive to the ED. After arriving to the ED the pain migrated to the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography (CT revealed acute appendicitis and the patient was admitted to the surgery service and taken to the operating room (OR for an appendectomy. Significant findings: The CT abdomen/pelvis with IV contrast shows a dilated appendix (see red outline with thickened, hyperenhancing wall (see blue outline best visualized in the axial and coronal planes. Discussion: Appendicitis is a common diagnosis in the emergency department in patients presenting with abdominal pain, occurring most frequently in young adults with a peak incidence in those aged 10-19.1 Failure to quickly diagnose acute appendicitis can result in perforation rates as high as 80 percent.2 While the diagnosis of appendicitis can be made clinically, CT is a non-invasive modality that improves the detection of appendicitis with sensitivities of 88–100%, specificities of 91–99%, positive predictive values of 92–98%, negative predictive values of 95–100%, and accuracies of 94–98%.3-8 The major advantage of CT over both clinical exam and ultrasound is the ability of the radiologist to exclude acute appendicitis if the appendix appears normal. However, CT carries the risks associated with ionizing radiation. While previously there was some debate on the best choice for type of CT scan and use of IV and oral contrast, recent studies have shown that CT abdomen/pelvis with IV contrast alone is sufficient for diagnosis of appendicitis.9, 10

  5. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Karlas, Thomas; Neuschulz, Marie; Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patient...

  6. Non-invasive retinal imaging in mice with fluorescent Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein-Javaheri, Nima

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of the internal structures of the retina is critical for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of pathology as well as for medical research investigating the root causes of retinal degeneration. The aim of this thesis is to develop multi-modal non-invasive imaging technology for studying retinal degeneration and gene therapy in mice. We have constructed a FD-OCT prototype and combined it with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) to permit real time alignment of the retinal field of...

  7. Proceedings of Joint International Symposium on the role of noninvasive imaging modalities in clinical decision making of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, I.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains ten papers on the use of noninvasive imaging in clinical diagnosis and decision making. Topics include a cost analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in medical technology, diagnostic uses of MRI in chronic coronary artery disease, clinical applications of cine computed tomography, the use of PET as a clinical tool, and the use of echocardiography in coronary artery disease. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  8. [Domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic alveolar hypoventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J P; Robles, A M; Pereyra, M A; Abbona, H L; López, A M

    2000-01-01

    Effectiveness of treatment with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is analyzed in a group of patients with chronic alveolar hypoventilation of different etiologies. It was applied with two levels of pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. Criteria for evaluation were symptomatology and improvement in gas exchange. Data were analyzed by Student t tests. A total of 13 patients were included, mean age 55.7 range 20 to 76 years (5 male 8 female). Main diagnosis was tuberculosis in 6, four of them having had surgical procedure (thoracoplasty 2, frenicectomy 1 and neumonectomy 1), myopathy 3 (myasthenia gravis 1, muscular dystrophy 1 and diaphragmatic paralysis 1), obesity-hypoventilation syndrome 1, escoliosis 1, bronchiectasis 1 and cystic fibrosis 1. These last two patients were on waiting list for lung transplantation. At the moment of consultation, the symptoms were: dysnea 13/13 (100%), astenia 13/13 (100%), hypersomnolency 10/13 (77%), cephalea 9/13 (69%), leg edema 6/13 (46%), loss of memory 6/13 (46%). Regarding gas exchange, they showed hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Mean follow up was of 2.2 years (range 6 months to 4 years). Within the year, all 13 patients became less dyspneic. Astenia, hypersomnolency, cephalea, leg edema and memory loss disappeared. Improvement in gas exchange was: PaO2/FiO2 from 269 +/- 65.4 (basal) to 336.7 +/- 75.3 post-treatment (p = 0.0018). PaCO2 from 70.77 +/- 25.48 mmHg (basal) to 46.77 +/- 8.14 mmHg (p = 0.0013). Ventilatory support was discontinued en 5 patients: three because of pneumonia requiring intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation, two of them died and one is still with tracheostomy; One patient with bronchiectasis and one with cystic fibrosis were transplanted. The remaining eight patients are stable. In conclusion, chronic alveolar hypoventilation can be effectively treated with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. Long term improvement in symptomatology and arterial blood gases

  9. Non-invasive prenatal detection of achondroplasia using circulating fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Mee Jin; Kim, Shin Young; Kim, Hye Ok; Song, Mee Jin; Kim, Min Hyoung; Park, So Yeon; Yang, Jae Hyug; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2011-02-01

    To perform a reliable non-invasive detection of the fetal achondroplasia using maternal plasma. We developed a quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) method suitable for detection of the FGFR3 mutation (G1138A) causing achondroplasia. This method was applied in a non-invasive detection of the fetal achondroplasia using circulating fetal-DNA (cf-DNA) in maternal plasma. Maternal plasmas were obtained at 27 weeks of gestational age from women carrying an achondroplasia fetus or a normal fetus. Two percent or less achondroplasia DNA was reliably detected by QF-PCR. In a woman carrying a normal fetus, analysis of cf-DNA showed only one peak of the wild-type G allele. In a woman expected an achondroplasia fetus, analysis of cf-DNA showed the two peaks of wild-type G allele and mutant-type A allele and accurately detected the fetal achondroplasia. The non-invasive method using maternal plasma and QF-PCR may be useful for diagnosis of the fetal achondroplasia.

  10. Cell-free nucleic acids as noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-08-27

    Cell-free nucleic acids (CFNA) have been reported by several authors in blood, stool, and urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic biomarkers can be an indication of neoplastic colorectal epithelial cells, and can thus potentially be used as noninvasive tests for the detection of the disease in CRC patients and monitor their staging, without the need to use heavier and invasive tools. In a number of test-trials, these genetic tests have shown the advantage of non-invasiveness, making them well accepted by most of the patients, without major side effects. They have also shown a promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant and premalignant neoplasms. Moreover, costs for performing such tests are very low. Several studies reported and confirmed the proof of the principle for these genetic tests for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis; the main challenge of translating this approach from research to clinical laboratory is the validation from large and long-term randomized trials to prove sustainable high sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a review on the noninvasive genetics biomarkers for CRC detection described in the literature and the challenges that can be encountered for validation processes.

  11. Cell-free nucleic acids as noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free nucleic acids (CFNA) have been reported by several authors in blood, stool, and urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic biomarkers can be an indication of neoplastic colorectal epithelial cells, and can thus potentially be used as noninvasive tests for the detection of the disease in CRC patients and monitor their staging, without the need to use heavier and invasive tools. In a number of test-trials, these genetic tests have shown the advantage of non-invasiveness, making them well accepted by most of the patients, without major side effects. They have also shown a promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant and premalignant neoplasms. Moreover, costs for performing such tests are very low. Several studies reported and confirmed the proof of the principle for these genetic tests for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis; the main challenge of translating this approach from research to clinical laboratory is the validation from large and long-term randomized trials to prove sustainable high sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a review on the noninvasive genetics biomarkers for CRC detection described in the literature and the challenges that can be encountered for validation processes.

  12. Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, B.deB.

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of 23 Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na + distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na + ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of 23 Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na + is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T 2 . Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo 23 Na T 2 values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic 1 H and 23 Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25μs, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form

  13. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  14. A Pilot Study on the Noninvasive Evaluation of Intestinal Damage in Celiac Disease Using I-FABP and L-FABP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, Joep P. M.; Vreugdenhil, Atita C. E.; Van den Neucker, Anita M.; Grootjans, Joep; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Damoiseaux, Jan G. M. C.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; Heineman, Erik; Buurman, Wim A.

    Background and Goals: In the clinical management of celiac disease, new noninvasive tools for evaluation of intestinal damage are needed for diagnosis and for follow-up of diet effects. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) are potentially useful for this purpose as these arc small cytosolic proteins

  15. Noninvasive treatment alternative for intractable startle epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Klinkenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a treatment alternative for intractable, startle-provoked, epileptic seizures in four children aged between 8 and 14. Three of the four children had symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. They all suffered from intractable epilepsy precipitated by sudden sounds. The fact that seizures tended to occur with high frequency – more than one seizure a day – had a clear impact on daily life. Clinical seizure pattern demonstrated asymmetric tonic posturing in all four children. Three children experienced several seizure types including focal seizure onset. All children had focal neurological signs or learning disabilities or a combination of both. Our noninvasive treatment method using psychoeducational counseling and sound generators was applied in four children, resulting in a seizure frequency reduction of ≥50% in two of them.

  16. Ultrasonography for Noninvasive Assessment of Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-07-15

    Portal hypertension is a major pathophysiology in patients with cirrhosis. Portal pressure is the gold standard to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension, and radiological intervention is the only procedure for pressure measurement. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and noninvasive imaging modality available worldwide. B-mode imaging allows broad applications for patients to detect and characterize chronic liver diseases and focal hepatic lesions. The Doppler technique offers real-time observation of blood flow with qualitative and quantitative assessments, and the application of microbubble-based contrast agents has improved the detectability of peripheral blood flow. In addition, elastography for the liver and spleen covers a wider field beyond the original purpose of fibrosis assessment. These developments enhance the practical use of US in the evaluation of portal hemodynamic abnormalities. This article reviews the recent progress of US in the assessment of portal hypertension.

  17. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  18. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber...... and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only...... retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long...

  19. Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    Full Text Available The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC, especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using 'non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP' for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia.We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76% or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%. Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%.In total, 160 nodules (42% presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%. The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7-35% in AUS-A nodules and 28-49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5-24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23-39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies.After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs.

  20. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to...

  1. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brønfort, Gert; Haas, Mitchell; Evans, Roni L.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. Objectives: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. Search methods: We searched the

  2. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronfort, G.; Nilsson, N.; Haas, M.; Evans, R.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Assendelft, W. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the

  3. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...

  4. Aeroionic Diagnosis of Nutritional Disorders in the Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.I. Reshetilov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of air ions in the exhaled air in 310 patients with combined patho­logy of the digestive system. The data are presented on the new non-invasive method of diagnosis and individualization of a comprehensive treatment of patients, in particular diet therapy. There is substantiated the selection of food in accordance with the basic electrochemical characteristics. The prospects of ­using the method of aeroionic testing in the clinical practice as a technology for primary screening and non-invasive monitoring of treatment outcomes were evaluated.

  5. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  6. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  7. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  8. Techniques for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Meidert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since both, hypotension and hypertension, can potentially impair the function of vital organs such as heart, brain, or kidneys, monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a mainstay of hemodynamic monitoring in acutely or critically ill patients. Arterial BP can either be obtained invasively via an arterial catheter or non-invasively. Non-invasive BP measurement provides either intermittent or continuous readings. Most commonly, an occluding upper arm cuff is used for intermittent non-invasive monitoring. BP values are then obtained either manually (by auscultation of Korotkoff sounds or palpation or automatically (e.g., by oscillometry. For continuous non-invasive BP monitoring, the volume clamp method or arterial applanation tonometry can be used. Both techniques enable the arterial waveform and BP values to be obtained continuously. This article describes the different techniques for non-invasive BP measurement, their advantages and limitations, and their clinical applicability.

  9. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women.

  10. Utility of Gram staining for diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Ting; Chin, Szu-Ying; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Che-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Liu, Donald; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shih, Yi-Hsien

    2018-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis (MalF) mimics acne vulgaris and bacterial folliculitis in clinical presentations. The role of Gram staining in rapid diagnosis of MalF has not been well studied. In our study, 32 patients were included to investigate the utility of Gram staining for MalF diagnosis. The final diagnoses of MalF were determined according to clinical presentation, pathological result and treatment response to antifungal agents. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining are 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, Gram staining is a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and specific method for MalF diagnosis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gekas J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean Gekas,1,2 Sylvie Langlois,3 Vardit Ravitsky,4 François Audibert,5 David Gradus van den Berg,6 Hazar Haidar,4 François Rousseau2,7 1Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biology, CHU de Québec, Québec City, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 7Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada Abstract: Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. Keywords: prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, non-invasive prenatal testing, cell-free fetal DNA, informed consent, reproductive autonomy

  12. Exhaled breath condensate pH and hydrogen peroxide as non-invasive markers for asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaidy, Amina H.; Al-Samarai, Abdul-Gahni M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to estimate the predictive value of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and pH as non-invasive markers in asthma. Fifty patients with unstable, steroid naive atopic asthma were included in this study, 25 with persistent asthma. Asthma diagnosis was according to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured by computerized spirometry. The EBC H2O2 assay was carried out using the colorimetric assay. The study was conducted from January to December 2005 in the Asthma and Allergy Center, Tikrit, Iraq. The EBC H2O2 concentration was higher in the asthmatic group (0.91mol) as compared with the control (0.23 mol). There was inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and FEV1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. The mean EBC pH was lower in the asthmatic than the control group. There was a positive correlation between EBC pH and FEV 1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. There was an inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and pH for all asthmatic patients, intermittent, and persistent asthmatic group. Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH was a good non-invasive marker for asthma, whether it was with a persistent or intermittent course. (author)

  13. Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, M; Iwamoto, T; Fukasawa, R; Tani, M; Watanabe, M; Sakai, K

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a real-time THz imaging system based on the two-dimensional (2D) electro-optic (EO) sampling technique. Employing the 2D EO-sampling technique, we can obtain THz images using a CCD camera at a video rate of up to 30 frames per second. A spatial resolution of 1.4 mm was achieved. This resolution was reasonably close to the theoretical limit determined by diffraction. We observed not only static objects but also moving ones. To acquire spectroscopic information, time-domain images were collected. By processing these images on a computer, we can obtain spectroscopic images. Spectroscopy for silicon wafers was demonstrated

  14. Spectroscopic databases - A tool for structure elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksch, P [Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe, Gesellschaft fuer Wissenschaftlich-Technische Information mbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    1990-05-01

    Spectroscopic databases have developed to useful tools in the process of structure elucidation. Besides the conventional library searches, new intelligent programs have been added, that are able to predict structural features from measured spectra or to simulate for a given structure. The example of the C13NMR/IR database developed at BASF and available on STN is used to illustrate the present capabilities of online database. New developments in the field of spectrum simulation and methods for the prediction of complete structures from spectroscopic information are reviewed. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs.

  15. Noninvasive patient fixation for extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus; Pastyr, Otto; Rhein, Bernhard; Bahner, Malte L.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracy that can be achieved with a novel noninvasive patient fixation technique based on a body cast attached to a recently developed stereotactic body frame during fractionated extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one CT studies (≥ 20 slices, thickness: 3 mm) from 5 patients who were immobilized in a body cast attached to a stereotactic body frame for treatment of para medullary tumors in the thoracic or lumbar spine were evaluated with respect to setup accuracy. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made wrap-around body cast that extended from the neck to the thighs and a separate head mask, both made from Scotchcast. Each CT study was performed immediately before or after every second or third actual treatment fraction without repositioning the patient between CT and treatment. The stereotactic localization system was mounted and the isocenter as initially located stereo tactically was marked with fiducials for each CT study. Deviation of the treated isocenter as compared to the planned position was measured in all three dimensions. Results: The immobilization device can be easily handled, attached to and removed from the stereotactic frame and thus enables treatment of multiple patients with the same stereotactic frame each day. Mean patient movements of 1.6 mm ± 1.2 mm (laterolateral [LL]), 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), 2.3 mm ± 1.3 mm (transversal vectorial error [VE]) and < slice thickness = 3 mm (cranio caudal [CC]) were recorded for the targets in the thoracic spine and 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (LL), 1.2 mm ± 0.7 mm (AP), 1.8 mm ± 1.2 mm (VE), and < 3 mm (CC) for the lumbar spine. The worst case deviation was 3.9 mm for the first patient with the target in the thoracic spine (in the LL direction). Combining those numbers (mean transversal VE for both locations and maximum CC error of 3 mm), the mean three-dimensional vectorial patient movement and thus the mean overall

  16. Smartphone based non-invasive salivary glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-12-15

    The present work deals with the development of a non-invasive optical glucose biosensor using saliva samples and a smartphone. The sensor was fabricated with a simple methodology by immobilization of Glucose oxidase enzyme along with a pH responsive dye on a filter paper based strip. The strip changes color upon reaction with glucose present in saliva and the color changes were detected using a smartphone camera through RGB profiling. This standalone biosensor showed good sensitivity and low interference while operating within 20 s response time. We used various means for improvements such as the use of slope method instead of differential response; use of a responsive pH indicator and made numerous tweaks in the smartphone app. Calibration with spiked saliva samples with slopes for (R + G + B) pixels revealed an exponentially increasing calibration curve with a linear detection range of 50-540 mg/dL, sensitivity of 0.0012 pixels sec -1 /mg dL -1 and LOD of 24.6 mg/dL. The biosensor was clinically validated on both healthy and diabetic subjects divided into several categories based on sex, age, diabetic status etc. and correlation between blood and salivary glucose has been established for better standardization of the sensor. Correlation of 0.44 was obtained between blood and salivary glucose in healthy individuals whereas it was 0.64 and 0.94 in case of prediabetic and diabetic patients respectively. The developed biosensor has the potential to be used for mass diagnosis of diabetes especially in such areas where people remain prohibited from routine analysis due to high healthcare cost. Apart from that, a smartphone would be the only device the user needs for this measurement, along with a disposable low cost test strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics of pulsed laser deposition laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, Raj K.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of laser spectroscopic techniques used in the diagnostics of laser ablated plumes used for thin film deposition is given. An emerging laser spectroscopic imaging technique for the laser ablation material processing is discussed. (author)

  18. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja-Pereira, Albano; Oliveira, Rita; Alves, Paulo C; Schwartz, Michael K; Luikart, Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological advances continue to make noninvasive approaches among the most used and rapidly advancing areas in genetics. Here, we review recent advances in noninvasive genetics and how they allow us to address important research and management questions thanks to improved techniques for DNA extraction, preservation, amplification and data analysis. We show that many advances come from the fields of forensics, human health and domestic animal health science, and suggest that molecular ecologists explore literature from these fields. Finally, we discuss how the combination of advances in each step of a noninvasive genetics study, along with fruitful areas for future research, will continually increase the power and role of noninvasive genetics in molecular ecology and conservation genetics. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Veit; Zouari, Hela G; Ayache, Samar S; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Poststroke aphasia results from the lesion of cortical areas involved in the motor production of speech (Broca's aphasia) or in the semantic aspects of language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia). Such lesions produce an important reorganization of speech/language-specific brain networks due to an imbalance between cortical facilitation and inhibition. In fact, functional recovery is associated with changes in the excitability of the damaged neural structures and their connections. Two main mechanisms are involved in poststroke aphasia recovery: the recruitment of perilesional regions of the left hemisphere in case of small lesion and the acquisition of language processing ability in homotopic areas of the nondominant right hemisphere when left hemispheric language abilities are permanently lost. There is some evidence that noninvasive cortical stimulation, especially when combined with language therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can promote aphasia recovery. Cortical stimulation was mainly used to either increase perilesional excitability or reduce contralesional activity based on the concept of reciprocal inhibition and maladaptive plasticity. However, recent studies also showed some positive effects of the reinforcement of neural activities in the contralateral right hemisphere, based on the potential compensatory role of the nondominant hemisphere in stroke recovery.

  20. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  1. Postgraduate education in noninvasive laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Leos; Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratilova, Blanka

    2002-10-01

    Non-invasive lasertherapy became today an appreciated treatment method. To avoid its degradation, it is necessary that every physician, who indicates it, would pass out the basic course in these problems. So the error danger by its application would be reduced. As we have verified, in every country the education process is different; we don't consider this fact as right. In the Czech Republic the Radiobiologic Society of Czech Medical Society J. E. Purkynje in co-operation with the Institute of Further Physician's Education, having wide experiences in postgraduate education, organizes already five years such courses. The basic course has 20 lessons, in which the graduates are acquainted with physical base of laser, hygienic rulings for working with laser and biologic changes induced by low level laser in the tissue in vivo. A considerable attention is dedicated to clinical practice and practical education on clinical departments in the fields of dermatology, physiotherapy, stomatology and gynaecology. This course is completed with a lecture of the recent marketing in health service. Participants document their knowledge's in the closing test. Every physician can perfect his knowledge's in a continuation course. Our experiences proved that the education in phototherapy in Czech Republic is on high level in comparison with number of other countries.

  2. Noninvasive Remote Sensing Techniques for Infrastructures Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the potentialities of noninvasive remote sensing techniques used for detecting the conservation status of infrastructures. The applied remote sensing techniques are ground-based microwave radar interferometer and InfraRed Thermography (IRT to study a particular structure planned and made in the framework of the ISTIMES project (funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme. To exploit the effectiveness of the high-resolution remote sensing techniques applied we will use the high-frequency thermal camera to measure the structures oscillations by high-frequency analysis and ground-based microwave radar interferometer to measure the dynamic displacement of several points belonging to a large structure. The paper describes the preliminary research results and discusses on the future applicability and techniques developments for integrating high-frequency time series data of the thermal imagery and ground-based microwave radar interferometer data.

  3. Noninvasive testing of asymptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, P.L.; Singer, D.E.; Goldenheim, P.; Bernardo, J.; Mulley, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic strategy for asymptomatic patients with persistent bilateral bilar adenopathy often involves invasive procedures. The authors used Bayesian analysis to: (1) estimate the relative prevalences of diseases causing bilateral bilar adenopathy; (2) assess changes in the prevalence of disease by race, the presence of other clinical symptoms, and geography; and (3) determine the value of relevant noninvasive tests, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assay, gallium scan, and purified protein derivative (PPD), in order to assess when a strategy of watchful waiting is appropriate. The analysis indicated that the ACE assay, particularly when paired with the PPD, can identify many patients who might safely be managed without immediate invasive biopsy. Patients who are ACE+ and PPD- have an estimated probability of sarcoidosis of 0.95 or greater; patients who are ACE- and PPD+ have a probability of tuberculosis of 0.86 if black, 0.79 if white. In contrast, gallium scanning has no diagnostic role in this clinical situation. Bronchoscopic or mediastinoscopic biopsy has a limited role for patients who are ACE+ PPD- or ACE- PPD+ because of limited sensitivity. Patients who are both ACE- and PPD-, particularly if white, may have a high enough risk of lymphoma to consider invasive biopsy

  4. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eryuksel, Emel; Sait, Karakurt; Celikel, Turgay [Dept. of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Marmara Univ. Hospital, (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with unplanned extubation. A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 + - 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 + - 7) monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Eleven of the patients (74%) were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91%) and only one (9%) was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26%) had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions. (author)

  5. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryuksel, Emel; Karakurt Sait; Celikel, Turgay

    2009-01-01

    Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with unplanned extubation. A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 + - 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 + - 7) monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Eleven of the patients (74%) were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91%) and only one (9%) was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26%) had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions. (author)

  6. Surface Spectroscopic Signatures of Mechanical Deformation in HDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Shawn C; Stanley, Steven K; Hanson, Joshua J; Smith, Stacey J; Patterson, James E

    2018-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) has been extensively studied, both as a model for semi-crystalline polymers and because of its own industrial utility. During cold drawing, crystalline regions of HDPE are known to break up and align with the direction of tensile load. Structural changes due to deformation should also manifest at the surface of the polymer, but until now, a detailed molecular understanding of how the surface responds to mechanical deformation has been lacking. This work establishes a precedent for using vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy to investigate changes in the molecular-level structure of the surface of HDPE after cold drawing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to confirm that the observed surface behavior corresponds to the expected bulk response. Before tensile loading, the VSFG spectra indicate that there is significant variability in the surface structure and tilt of the methylene groups away from the surface normal. After deformation, the VSFG spectroscopic signatures are notably different. These changes suggest that hydrocarbon chains at the surface of visibly necked HDPE are aligned with the direction of loading, while the associated methylene groups are oriented with the local C 2 v symmetry axis roughly parallel to the surface normal. Small amounts of unaltered material are also found at the surface of necked HDPE, with the relative amount of unaltered material decreasing as the amount of deformation increases. Aspects of the nonresonant SFG response in the transition zone between necked and undeformed polymer provide additional insight into the deformation process and may provide the first indication of mechanical deformation. Nonlinear surface spectroscopy can thus be used as a noninvasive and nondestructive tool to probe the stress history of a HPDE sample in situations where X-ray techniques are not available or not applicable. Vibrational sum-frequency generation thus has great potential as a platform for

  7. Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.; Herter, M.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

    1983-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours can be very difficult despite numerous non-invasive diagnostic approaches, as is evident from two case reports presented here. The problem appears particularly intricate if two or more masses or space-occupying growths are present at the same time, the diagnostic aspects being different. In the first case, echinococcus alveolaris occurred simultaneously with a cavernous haemangioma and a focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). In the second case, FNH as a pendulating tumour was combined with a second focus in the superior part of the liver. These two examples are used as basis for discussing various diagnostic approaches, such as sonography, computed tomography and scintiscanning. (orig.) [de

  8. Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.; Herter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours can be very difficult despite numerous non-invasive diagnostic approaches, as is evident from two case reports presented here. The problem appears particularly intricate if two or more masses or space-occupying growths are present at the same time, the diagnostic aspects being different. In the first case, echinococcus alveolaris occurred simultaneously with a cavernous haemangioma and a focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). In the second case, FNH as a pendulating tumour was combined with a second focus in the superior part of the liver. These two examples are used as basis for discussing various diagnostic approaches, such as sonography, computed tomography and scintiscanning.

  9. Contribution of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cell blocks of metastatic supraclavicular lymph nodes to the diagnosis of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ying Tian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cell-block samples from US-guided FNA is a promising, relatively noninvasive technique to provide additional information in lung cancer diagnosis. Analysis of cell blocks allows for genetic analysis of the patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes metastasis.

  10. Spectroscopic, thermal and biological studies of coordination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic, thermal and biological studies of coordination compounds of sulfasalazine drug: Mn(II), Hg(II), Cr(III), ZrO(II), VO(II) and Y(III) transition metal ... The thermal decomposition of the complexes as well as thermodynamic parameters ( *}, *, * and *) were estimated using Coats–Redfern and ...

  11. 8th Czechoslovak spectroscopic conference. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Volume 3 of the conference proceedings contains abstracts of 17 invited papers, 101 poster presentations and 7 papers of instrument manufacturers, devoted to special spectroscopic techniques including X-ray microanalysis, X-ray spectral analysis, Moessbauer spectrometry, mass spectrometry, instrumental activation analysis and other instrumental radioanalytical methods, electron spectrometry, and techniques of environmental analysis. Sixty abstracts were inputted in INIS. (A.K.)

  12. Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XIX Additional Spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ian velocity curve that does justice to the measurements, but it cannot be expected to have much predictive power. Key words. Stars: late-type—stars: radial velocities—spectroscopic binaries—orbits. 0. Preamble. The 'Redman K stars' are a lot of seventh-magnitude K stars whose radial velocities were first observed by ...

  13. The VANDELS ESO public spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Fèvre, O. Le; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  14. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous o...

  15. Highlights of the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J.R.; Mészárosová, Hana; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Karlický, Marian; de Andrade, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2009), s. 54-57 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun istrumentation * spectroscope * corona * radio radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2009

  16. Differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Adra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding may be acute or chronic accounting for up to 30% of outpatient visits to gynecologists. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders associated with ovulatory dysfunction that results in menstrual irregularities. Prior to initiating treatment, the various causes (physiologic, pathologic, pharmacologic, or idiopathic of hyperprolactinemia must be elucidated. Prolactin is a stress hormone that increases in response to stressful conditions; therefore, while collecting samples it is necessary to reduce venipuncture stress. A thorough patient history and physical examination will help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. Imaging results must always be assessed along with a patient’s clinical history and biochemical parameters when a pituitary tumor is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the diagnosis of microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas in both initial assessment and follow-up. Several drugs may cause a significant increase in serum prolactin concentration. If clinically feasible, the drug should be discontinued; if this is not possible, it should be substituted with a drug of similar action that does not cause hyperprolactinemia. Prolactinomas are the most common cause of pituitary adenomas affecting women of fertile age leading to significant elevations in prolactin that warrant treatment. Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia may be observed in the presence of elevated serum prolactin levels and in the absence of any other recognized cause of increased prolactin secretion. Dopamine agonists are the mainstay of therapy in prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia because they normalize serum prolactin, effectively shrink prolactinomas and normalize gonadal function (i.e. menstruation.

  17. Artificial neural network aided non-invasive grading evaluation of hepatic fibrosis by duplex ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs are widely studied for evaluating diseases. This paper discusses the intelligence mode of an ANN in grading the diagnosis of liver fibrosis by duplex ultrasonogaphy. Methods 239 patients who were confirmed as having liver fibrosis or cirrhosis by ultrasound guided liver biopsy were investigated in this study. We quantified ultrasonographic parameters as significant parameters using a data optimization procedure applied to an ANN. 179 patients were typed at random as the training group; 60 additional patients were consequently enrolled as the validating group. Performance of the ANN was evaluated according to accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results 5 ultrasonographic parameters; i.e., the liver parenchyma, thickness of spleen, hepatic vein (HV waveform, hepatic artery pulsatile index (HAPI and HV damping index (HVDI, were enrolled as the input neurons in the ANN model. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ANN model for quantitative diagnosis of liver fibrosis were 95.0%, 85.0% and 88.3%, respectively. The Youden’s index (YI was 0.80. Conclusions The established ANN model had good sensitivity and specificity in quantitative diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis. Our study suggests that the ANN model based on duplex ultrasound may help non-invasive grading diagnosis of liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

  18. Noninvasive Ventilation Intolerance: Characteristics, Predictors, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinhua; Duan, Jun; Bai, Linfu; Zhou, Lintong

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) intolerance is one reason for NIV failure. However, the characteristics, predictors, and outcomes of NIV intolerance are unclear. A prospective observational study was performed in the respiratory intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Subjects with acute respiratory failure who used NIV were enrolled. Initially, continuous use of NIV was encouraged. However, if the subject could not tolerate NIV, it was used intermittently. NIV intolerance was defined as termination of NIV due to subject refusal to receive it because of discomfort, even after intermittent use was attempted. A total of 961 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of these, 50 subjects (5.2%) experienced NIV intolerance after a median 2.4 h of NIV support. Age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.963-0.996) and heart rate (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.006-1.030) measured before NIV were 2 independent risk factors of NIV intolerance. After 1-2 h of NIV, independent risk factors of NIV intolerance were heart rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.016-1.044) and breathing frequency (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.027-1.099). Intolerant subjects had no improvement in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or breathing frequency after the NIV intervention. Moreover, intolerant subjects had a higher intubation rate (44.0% vs 25.8%, P = .008) and higher mortality (34.0% vs 22.4%, P = .08). The three most common complaints were that NIV worsened subjects' distress (46%), that NIV resulted in dyspnea (26%), and that the flow or pressure of NIV was too strong to bear (16%). NIV intolerance worsened subjects' outcomes. Younger subjects with a high heart rate and breathing frequency may be more likely to experience NIV intolerance. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Non-invasive measurement of corneal hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, W F; Bauer, N J

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a confocal Raman spectroscopic technique for the noncontact assessment of corneal hydration in vivo in two legally blind subjects. A laser beam (632.8 nm; 15 mJ) was maintained on the cornea using a microscope objective lens (25x magnification, NA=0.5, f=10 mm) both for focusing the incident light as well as collecting the Raman backscattered light, in a 180 degrees backscatter configuration. An optical fiber, acting as the confocal pinhole for elimination of light from out-of-focus places, was coupled to a spectrometer that dispersed the collected light onto a sensitive array-detector for rapid spectral data acquisition over a range from 2,890 to 3,590 cm(-1). Raman spectra were recorded from the anterior 100 to 150 microm of the cornea over a period of time before and after topical application of a mild dehydrating solution. The ratio between the amplitudes of the signals at 3,400 cm(-1) (OH-vibrational mode of water) and 2,940 cm(-1) (CH-vibrational mode of proteins) was used as a measure of corneal hydration. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 25) Raman spectra were obtained from the human corneas using 15 mJ of laser light energy. Qualitative changes in the hydration of the anterior-most part of the corneas could be observed as a result of the dehydrating agent. Confocal Raman spectroscopy could potentially be applied clinically as a noncontact tool for the assessment of corneal hydration in vivo.

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...

  1. Noninvasive studies of human visual cortex using neuromagnetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.; George, J.S.; Supek, S.; Maclin, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The major goals of noninvasive studies of the human visual cortex are: to increase knowledge of the functional organization of cortical visual pathways; and to develop noninvasive clinical tests for the assessment of cortical function. Noninvasive techniques suitable for studies of the structure and function of human visual cortex include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), scalp recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). The primary challenge faced by noninvasive functional measures is to optimize the spatial and temporal resolution of the measurement and analytic techniques in order to effectively characterize the spatial and temporal variations in patterns of neuronal activity. In this paper we review the use of neuromagnetic techniques for this purpose. 8 refs., 3 figs

  2. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one

  3. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  4. Monitoring and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using noninvasive compressive sensing EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, F. C.; Labate, D.; Morabito, G.; Palamara, I.; Szu, H.

    2013-05-01

    The majority of elderly with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) receive care at home from caregivers. In contrast to standard tethered clinical settings, a wireless, real-time, body-area smartphone-based remote monitoring of electroencephalogram (EEG) can be extremely advantageous for home care of those patients. Such wearable tools pave the way to personalized medicine, for example giving the opportunity to control the progression of the disease and the effect of drugs. By applying Compressive Sensing (CS) techniques it is in principle possible to overcome the difficulty raised by smartphones spatial-temporal throughput rate bottleneck. Unfortunately, EEG and other physiological signals are often non-sparse. In this paper, it is instead shown that the EEG of AD patients becomes actually more compressible with the progression of the disease. EEG of Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI) subjects is also showing clear tendency to enhanced compressibility. This feature favor the use of CS techniques and ultimately the use of telemonitoring with wearable sensors.

  5. Hemodynamics of Aortic Stenosis and Implications for Non-invasive Diagnosis via Auscultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chi; Seo, Jung-Hee; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-11-01

    Aortic stenosis refers to the abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve and it is one of the most common valvular diseases. It is also known to generate ejection murmurs, which contain valuable disease-related information. However, an incomplete understanding of the flow mechanism(s) responsible for the murmur generation, as well as the effect of intervening tissue on murmur propagation has limited the diagnostic information can be extracted through cardiac auscultation. In this study, a canonical model of the aorta with stenosis is used, and a multiphysics computational modeling approach is employed to investigate the generation and propagation of the murmurs. First, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to explore the hemodynamics of the post-stenotic flow. Then, a high-order, linear viscoelastic wave solver is used to investigate the wave propagation in a modeled thorax. The results show that both the aortic jet and the secondary flow contribute significantly to the murmur generation. The murmur signals on the epidermal surface are measured and analyzed. The break frequencies obtained from the spectra of cases with different degrees of stenosis are found to follow a universal scaling. The implications of these results for cardiac auscultation are discussed. The authors would like to acknowledge support from NSF Grants IIS-1344772, CBET-1511200, and NSF XSEDE Grant TG-CTS100002.

  6. Noninvasive diagnosis of suspected severe pulmonary embolism. Trans-esophageal echocardiography vs spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruszczyk, P.; Torbicki, A.; Pacho, R.

    1998-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) and echocardiographic signs of right ventricular over-lead have worse prognosis and may be require aggressive therapy. Unequivocal confirmation of PE is required before thrombolysis or embolectomy. This study compares the value of trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and spiral CT (sCT) in direct visualization of pulmonary artery thrombo-emboli in patients with suspected PE and echocardiographic signs of right ventricular over-lead. Because of high prevalence of bilateral central pulmonary thrombo-emboli in patients with hemo-dynamically significant PE, both sCT and TEE allow its definitive confirmation in most cases. Thrombi reported by sCT distally to lobar arteries should be interpreted with caution. (author)

  7. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal Rhesus D: ready for Prime(r) Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, Diana W.; Avent, Neil D.; Costa, Jean-Marc; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Rhesus (Rh) D blood group incompatibility between the pregnant woman and her fetus is a significant problem due to the possibility of maternal alloimmunization and consequent hemolytic disease of the newborn. The RhD-negative blood group is found in 15% of whites, 3-5% of black Africans, and is rare

  8. Magnetic resonance tomography - a possibility for noninvasive meniscus diagnosis. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, F.; Koenig, H.; Sell, S.

    1989-01-01

    Meniscus tears were experimentally produced by surgery in 5 pigs. They were identified via MR tomography with the selected routine sequence (SE: TR 1600, TE 22/80msec, SD 3 mm) independent of position, orientation and severity. The best imaging was obtained between the 2nd and 8th weeks after the operation in the sagittal plane. Subsequently the contrast and with it simultaneously the delineation between intact fibrous cartilage and rupture cleft decreased; this could be observed in sequences weighted according to proton density and T2 in different degrees of intensity. Parallel to this a trial to induce degeneration in the meniscus tissue resulted 8 weeks after the operation in central, signal-intensive zones in the menisci. No success was achieved in trying to improve imaging of the pathological changes by means of intraarticular injections of Gd-DTPA; this was tried out at various points of time. Besides enabling the imaging of lesions of the fibrous cartilage as a matter of principle, MR tomography can also give limited information on the age of a meniscus tear. (orig.) [de

  9. NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER BY CROSS-POLARIZATION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY: CLINICAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Streltsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation examined the feasibility of cross-polarization optical cohe-rence tomography (CP OCT to detect early urinary bladder cancer (UBC. Studies were performed in 376 patients; 5290 images were obtained using an OCT 133-U optical coherence tomograph. To acquire and compare intrared-light scattering images in baseline and orthogonal polarizations is the basis of CP OCT; their analysis makes it possible to judge from the state of the epithelium/connective tissue system and to obtain information on changes in tissue depolarizing components, collagen in particular. The authors elaborated criteria as determinants of the nature of CP OCT changes in direct and orthogonal polarizations in health, inflammatory changes, and UBC at its early stage - urothelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ in flat suspected areas.

  10. NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER CANCER BY CROSS-POLARIZATION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY: A BLIND STATISTICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Streltsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether cross-polarization (CP optical coherence tomography (OCT could be used to detect early bladder cancer was ascertained; it was compared with traditional OCT within the framework of blind (closed clinical statistical studies. One hundred and sixteen patients with local nonexophytic (flat pathological processes of the bladder were examined; 360 CP OCT images were obtained and analyzed. The study used an OCT 1300-U CP optical coherence tomographer. CP OCT showed a high (94% sensitivity and a high (84% specificity in the identification of suspected nonexophytic areas in the urinary bladder.

  11. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and determination of fetal Rh status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Hahn, Sinuhe; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2008-01-01

    RhD blood group incompatibility between a pregnant woman and her fetus can result in maternal alloimmunization and consequent haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in subsequent pregnancies. The D-negative blood group is found in 15% of whites, 3-5% of black Africans, and is rare in Asians. Recent

  12. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R.H.; Chai, J.; Lang, J.H.; Hagman, W.H.; Umans, S.D.; Saarela, O.J.

    1997-01-14

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit. 28 figs.

  13. Non-invasive assessment of hepatic fat accumulation in chronic hepatitis C by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krssak, Martin; Hofer, Harald; Wrba, Fritz; Meyerspeer, Martin; Brehm, Attila; Lohninger, Alfred; Steindl-Munda, Petra; Moser, Ewald; Ferenci, Peter; Roden, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Liver biopsy is the standard method for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, but is invasive and carries some risk of morbidity. Aims and methods: Quantification of hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) with non-invasive single voxel 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 T was compared with histological grading and biochemical analysis of liver biopsies in 29 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Body mass index, indices of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment index, HOMA-IR), serum lipids and serum liver transaminases were also quantified. Results: HCL as assessed by 1 H MRS linearly correlated (r = 0.70, p 1 H MRS (r = 0.63, p 1 H MRS is a valid and useful method for quantification of HCL content in patients with chronic hepatitis C and can be easily applied to non-invasively monitoring of steatosis during repeated follow-up measurements in a clinical setting.

  14. Noninvasive non Doses Method for Risk Stratification of Breast Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Apollonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns a relevant issue that is a development of noninvasive method for screening diagnostics and risk stratification of breast diseases. The developed method and its embodiment use both the analysis of onco-epidemiologic tests and the iridoglyphical research.Widely used onco-epidemiologic tests only reflect the patient’s subjective perception of her own life history and sickness. Therefore to confirm the revealed factors, modern objective and safe methods are necessary.Iridoglyphical research may be considered as one of those methods, since it allows us to reveal changes in iris’ zones in real time. As these zones are functionally linked with intern organs and systems, in this case mammary glands, changes of iris’ zones may be used to assess risk groups for mammary gland disorders.The article presents results of research conducted using a prototype of the hardwaresoftware complex to provide screening diagnostics and risk stratification of mammary gland disorders.Research has been conducted using verified materials, provided by the Biomedical Engineering Faculty and the Scientific Biometry Research and Development Centre of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, the City of Moscow’s GUZ Clinical and Diagnostic Centre N°4 of the Western Administrative District and the First Mammology (Breast Care Centre of the Russian Federation’s Ministry of Health and Social Development.The information, obtained as a result of onco-epidemiological tests and iridoglyphical research, was used to develop a procedure of quantitative diagnostics aimed to assess mammary gland cancer risk groups. The procedure is based on Bayes conditional probability.The task of quantitative diagnostics may be formally divided into the differential assessment of three states. The first, D1, is the norm, which corresponds to the population group with a lack of risk factors or changes of the mammary glands. The second, D2, is the population group

  15. New Advances of Preimplantation and Prenatal Genetic Screening and Noninvasive Testing as a Potential Predictor of Health Status of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Milachich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or screening (PGS involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic cells and has become a routine clinical procedure in many IVF clinics worldwide, including recent development of comprehensive chromosome screening of all 23 pairs of chromosomes by microarrays for aneuploidy screening. The routine preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND require testing in an aggressive manner. These procedures may be invasive to the growing embryo and fetus and potentially could compromise the clinical outcome. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarize not only the new knowledge on preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis in humans, but also on the development of potential noninvasive embryo and fetal testing that might play an important role in the future.

  16. New Advances of Preimplantation and Prenatal Genetic Screening and Noninvasive Testing as a Potential Predictor of Health Status of Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic cells and has become a routine clinical procedure in many IVF clinics worldwide, including recent development of comprehensive chromosome screening of all 23 pairs of chromosomes by microarrays for aneuploidy screening. The routine preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) require testing in an aggressive manner. These procedures may be invasive to the growing embryo and fetus and potentially could compromise the clinical outcome. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarize not only the new knowledge on preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis in humans, but also on the development of potential noninvasive embryo and fetal testing that might play an important role in the future. PMID:24783200

  17. The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Hill, C.; Kochanov, R. V.; Tan, Y.; Bernath, P. F.; Birk, M.; Boudon, V.; Campargue, A.; Chance, K. V.; Drouin, B. J.; Flaud, J. -M.; Gamache, R. R.; Hodges, J. T.; Jacquemart, D.; Perevalov, V. I.; Perrin, A.; Shine, K. P.; Smith, M. -A. H.; Tennyson, J.; Toon, G. C.; Tran, H.; Tyuterev, V. G.; Barbe, A.; Császár, A. G.; Devi, V. M.; Furtenbacher, T.; Harrison, J. J.; Hartmann, J. -M.; Jolly, A.; Johnson, T. J.; Karman, T.; Kleiner, I.; Kyuberis, A. A.; Loos, J.; Lyulin, O. M.; Massie, S. T.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; Müller, H. S. P.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Polyansky, O. L.; Rey, M.; Rotger, M.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sung, K.; Starikova, E.; Tashkun, S. A.; Auwera, J. Vander; Wagner, G.; Wilzewski, J.; Wcisło, P.; Yu, S.; Zak, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the contents of the 2016 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic compilation. The new edition replaces the previous HITRAN edition of 2012 and its updates during the intervening years. The HITRAN molecular absorption compilation is comprised of five major components: the traditional line-by-line spectroscopic parameters required for high-resolution radiative-transfer codes, infrared absorption cross-sections for molecules not yet amenable to representation in a line-by-line form, collision-induced absorption data, aerosol indices of refraction, and general tables such as partition sums that apply globally to the data. The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additional absorption phenomena, added line-shape formalisms, and validity. Moreover, molecules, isotopologues, and perturbing gases have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth. Of considerable note, experimental IR cross-sections for almost 200 additional significant molecules have been added to the database.

  18. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  19. The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, L.S.; Gordon, I.E.; Barbe, A.; Benner, D.Chris; Bernath, P.F.; Birk, M.; Boudon, V.; Brown, L.R.; Campargue, A.; Champion, J.-P.; Chance, K.; Coudert, L.H.; Dana, V.; Devi, V.M.; Fally, S.; Flaud, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the 2008 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The new edition is the first official public release since the 2004 edition, although a number of crucial updates had been made available online since 2004. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative-transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e. spectra in which the individual lines are not resolved; individual line parameters and absorption cross-sections for bands in the ultraviolet; refractive indices of aerosols, tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for 42 molecules including many of their isotopologues.

  20. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) succesfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm 2 with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results. (orig.)

  1. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F. (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati (Italy))

    1981-07-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) successfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm/sup 2/ with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results.

  2. Noninvasive method for the assessment of dermal uptake of pesticides using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Angela; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2005-03-01

    Dermal absorption of pesticides is a primary exposure route for agricultural workers, but is not well characterized. Current measurement techniques are either invasive, such as tape-stripping, or require extensive sample preparation or analysis time, such as urinary metabolite monitoring or wipe sampling followed by gas chromatography analysis. We present the application of a noninvasive, spectroscopic approach for the measurement of pesticide absorption into skin. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was used to monitor directly the absorption of two pesticides--captan and azinphos-methyl--in ten volunteers over 20 min under occlusive conditions. We found substantial variability in absorption across subjects. Our results were comparable to those measured by the more traditional method of wipe-sampling followed by extraction and gas chromatography analysis. Multivariate data analysis, in the form of multivariate curve resolution (MCR), is a novel addition to this type of experiment, yielding time-resolved information unachievable by standard methods. These data are potentially more informative than the monitoring of blood or urinary metabolites because they can be acquired in essentially real-time, allowing observations of pesticide absorption on a rapid timescale rather than over hours or days.

  3. Spectroscopic diagnostics and measurements at Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannella, R.

    1994-01-01

    A concise review is presented of activity in the field spectroscopic diagnostic at JET during the latest few years. Together with a description of instruments, examples are given of the measurements conducted with these systems and some experimental result obtained with such activity are outlined. Emphasis is also given to the upgrading of existing apparatuses and the construction of new diagnostics ahead of the next experimental phase. 48 refs., 5 figs

  4. Altered metabolomic-genomic signature: A potential noninvasive biomarker of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Helen C; Dachet, Fabien; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Bagla, Shruti; Fuerst, Darren; Stanley, Jeffrey A; Galloway, Matthew P; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy. We compared high versus low or nonspiking regions in nine medically intractable epilepsy surgery patients by performing integrated metabolomic-genomic-histological analyses of electrically mapped human cortical regions using high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cDNA microarrays, and histological analysis. We found a highly consistent and predictive metabolite logistic regression model with reduced lactate and increased creatine plus phosphocreatine and choline, suggestive of a chronically altered metabolic state in epileptic brain regions. Linking gene expression, cellular, and histological differences to these key metabolites using a hierarchical clustering approach predicted altered metabolic vascular coupling in the affected regions. Consistently, these predictions were validated histologically, showing both neovascularization and newly discovered, millimeter-sized microlesions. Using a systems biology approach on electrically mapped human cortex provides new evidence for spatially segregated, metabolic derangements in both neurovascular and synaptic architecture in human epileptic brain regions that could be a noninvasively detectable biomarker of epilepsy. These findings both highlight the immense power of a systems biology approach and identify a potentially important role that magnetic resonance spectroscopy can play in the research and clinical management of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  5. Non-Invasive In Vivo Characterization of Breast Tumors Using Photon Migration Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Tromberg

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM is a noninvasive optical technique that utilizes intensity-modulated, near-infrared (NIR light to quantitatively measure optical properties in thick tissues. Optical properties (absorption, μa, and scattering, μs′, parameters derived from FDPM measurements can be used to construct low-resolution (0.5 to 1 cm functional images of tissue hemoglobin (total, oxy-, and deoxyforms, oxygen saturation, blood volume fraction, water content, fat content and cellular structure. Unlike conventional NIR transillumination, FDPM enables quantitative analysis of tissue absorption and scattering parameters in a single non-invasive measurement. The unique functional information provided by FDPM makes it well-suited to characterizing tumors in thick tissues. In order to test the sensitivity of FDPM for cancer diagnosis, we have initiated clinical studies to quantitatively determine normal and malignant breast tissue optical and physiological properties in human subjects. Measurements are performed using a non-invasive, multi-wavelength, diode-laser FDPM device optimized for clinical studies. Results show that ductal carcinomas (invasive and in situ and benign fibroadenomas exhibit 1.25 to 3-fold higher absorption than normal breast tissue. Within this group, absorption is greatest for measurements obtained from sites of invasive cancer. Optical scattering is approximately 20% greater in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal subjects due to differences in gland/cell proliferation and collagen/fat content. Spatial variations in tissue scattering reveal the loss of differentiation associated with breast disease progression. Overall, the metabolic demands of hormonal stimulation and tumor growth are detectable using photon migration techniques. Measurements provide quantitative optical property values that reflect changes in tissue perfusion, oxygen consumption, and cell/matrix development.

  6. Spectroscopic studies of the transplutonium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnall, W.T.; Conway, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    The challenging opportunity to develop insights into both atomic structure and the effects of bonding in compounds makes the study of actinide spectroscopy a particularly fruitful and exciting area of scientific endeavor. It is also the interpretation of f-element spectra that has stimulated the development of the most sophisticated theoretical modeling attempted for any elements in the periodic table. The unique nature of the spectra and the wealth of fine detail revealed make possible sensitive tests of both physical models and the results of Hartree-Fock type ab initio calculations. This paper focuses on the unique character of heavy actinide spectroscopy. It discusses how it differs from that of the lighter member of the series and what are the special properties that are manifested. Following the introduction, the paper covers the following: (1) the role of systematic studies and the relationships of heavy-actinide spectroscopy to ongoing spectroscopic investigations of the lighter members of the series; (2) atomic (free-ion) spectra which covers the present status of spectroscopic studies with transplutonium elements, and future needs and directions in atomic spectroscopy; (3) the spectra of actinide compounds which covers the present status and future directions of spectroscopic studies with compounds of the transplutonium elements; and other spectroscopies. 1 figure, 2 tables

  7. Spectroscopic methods for characterization of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Spectroscopic techniques have contributed immensely in the characterisation and speciation of materials relevant to a variety of applications. These techniques have time tested credentials and continue to expand into newer areas. In the field of nuclear fuel fabrication, atomic spectroscopic methods are used for monitoring the trace metallic constituents in the starting materials and end product, and for monitoring process pick up. The current status of atomic spectroscopic methods for the determination of trace metallic constituents in nuclear fuel materials will be briefly reviewed and new approaches will be described with a special emphasis on inductively coupled plasma techniques and ETV-ICP-AES hyphenated techniques. Special emphasis will also be given in highlighting the importance of chemical separation procedures for the optimum utilization of potential of ICP. The presentation will also include newer techniques like Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy, and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Imaging. PAS results on uranium and plutonium oxides will be described with a reference to the determination of U 4+ /U 6+ concentration in U 3 O 8 . EPR imaging techniques for speciation and their spatial distribution in solids will be described and its potential use for Gd 3+ containing UO 2 pellets (used for flux flattening) will be highlighted. (author)

  8. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  9. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 μm thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the

  10. A novel non-invasive diagnostic sampling technique for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Taslimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is important for chemotherapy and epidemiological studies. Common approaches for Leishmania detection involve the invasive collection of specimens for direct identification of amastigotes by microscopy and the culturing of promastigotes from infected tissues. Although these techniques are highly specific, they require highly skilled health workers and have the inherent risks of all invasive procedures, such as pain and risk of bacterial and fungal super-infection. Therefore, it is essential to reduce discomfort, potential infection and scarring caused by invasive diagnostic approaches especially for children. In this report, we present a novel non-invasive method, that is painless, rapid and user-friendly, using sequential tape strips for sampling and isolation of DNA from the surface of active and healed skin lesions of CL patients. A total of 119 patients suspected of suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis with different clinical manifestations were recruited and samples were collected both from their lesions and from uninfected areas. In addition, 15 fungal-infected lesions and 54 areas of healthy skin were examined. The duration of sampling is short (less than one minute and species identification by PCR is highly specific and sensitive. The sequential tape stripping sampling method is a sensitive, non-invasive and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic assays and it is suitable for field studies as well as for use in health care centers.

  11. Non-invasive optical detection of HBV based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zuci; Wang, Qiwen; Weng, Cuncheng; Lin, Xueliang; Lin, Yao; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-10-01

    An optical method of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for non-invasive detection of hepatitis B surface virus (HBV). Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an established serological marker that is routinely used for the diagnosis of acute or chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. Utilizing SERS to analyze blood serum for detecting HBV has not been reported in previous literature. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of serum samples: one group for 50 HBV patients and the other group for 50 healthy volunteers. Blood serum samples are collected from healthy control subjects and patients diagnosed with HBV. Furthermore, principal components analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to differentiate HBV patients from healthy volunteer and achieved sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 74.0%. This exploratory work demonstrates that SERS serum analysis combined with PCA-LDA has tremendous potential for the non-invasive detection of HBV.

  12. Chronic pelvic pain: how does noninvasive imaging compare with diagnostic laparoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlapur, Seema A; Daniels, Jane P; Khan, Khalid S

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) has an annual prevalence of 38/1000 in the UK, with coexisting pathologies often present. Diagnostic laparoscopy has long been the gold standard diagnostic test, but with up to 40% showing no abnormality, we explore the value of noninvasive imaging, such as pelvic ultrasound and MRI. A literature review from inception until January 2015 of the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Excerpta Medica database, and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe were performed to identify published studies assessing the usefulness of ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy in the diagnosis of CPP. Three studies (194 women) addressed their comparative performance in patients with endometriosis, showing the sensitivity of ultrasound ranged between 58 and 88.5%; MRI was 56-91.5% and in the one study using histology as its reference standard, the sensitivity of laparoscopy was 85.7%. Noninvasive imaging has the additional benefit of being well tolerated, safer, and cheaper than surgery. CPP, by nature of its multifactorial causation, can be difficult to manage and often requires a multidisciplinary team. Ultrasound and MRI may provide information about the presence or lack of abnormality, which would allow general practitioners or office gynaecologists to initiate treatment and think about surgery as a second-line investigative tool.

  13. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  14. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin; Schibli, Roger

    2017-01-01

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  15. Validation of Noninvasive MOEMS-Assisted Measurement System Based on CCD Sensor for Radial Pulse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanas Dauksevicius

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of wrist radial pulse is a noninvasive diagnostic method, which occupies a very important position in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is based on manual palpation and therefore relies largely on the practitioner’s subjective technical skills and judgment. Consequently, it lacks reliability and consistency, which limits practical applications in clinical medicine. Thus, quantifiable characterization of the wrist pulse diagnosis method is a prerequisite for its further development and widespread use. This paper reports application of a noninvasive CCD sensor-based hybrid measurement system for radial pulse signal analysis. First, artery wall deformations caused by the blood flow are calibrated with a laser triangulation displacement sensor, following by the measurement of the deformations with projection moiré method. Different input pressures and fluids of various viscosities are used in the assembled artificial blood flow system in order to test the performance of laser triangulation technique with detection sensitivity enhancement through microfabricated retroreflective optical element placed on a synthetic vascular graft. Subsequently, the applicability of double-exposure whole-field projection moiré technique for registration of blood flow pulses is considered: a computational model and representative example are provided, followed by in vitro experiment performed on a vascular graft with artificial skin atop, which validates the suitability of the technique for characterization of skin surface deformations caused by the radial pulsation.

  16. Non-invasive optical detection of esophagus cancer based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Duo; Huang, Lingling; Wu, Shanshan; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach was utilized for urine biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a label-free and non-invasive optical diagnostic method for esophagus cancer detection. SERS spectrums were acquired from 31 normal urine samples and 47 malignant esophagus cancer (EC) urine samples. Tentative assignments of urine SERS bands demonstrated esophagus cancer specific changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of urea and a decrease in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of normal compared with EC. The empirical algorithm integrated with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to identify some important urine SERS bands for differentiation between healthy subjects and EC urine. The empirical diagnostic approach based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 527 to 1002 cm-1 and 725 to 1002 cm-1 coupled with LDA yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 96.8%, respectively. The area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.954, which further evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity combined with LDA analysis. This work demonstrated that the urine SERS spectra associated with empirical algorithm has potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagus cancer.

  17. An alternative noninvasive technique for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms: stethoscope-guided compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Duyuler, Serkan; Kalayci, Süleyman; Türker, Pinar; Sahan, Ekrem; Maden, Orhan; Selçuk, Mehmet Timur

    2013-06-01

    latrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysm is a well-known vascular access site complication. Many invasive and noninvasive techniques have been proposed for the management of this relatively common complication. In this study, we aimed to evaluate efficiency and safety of stethoscope-guided compression as a novel noninvasive technique in the femoral pseudoaneurysm treatment. We prospectively included 29 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of femoral pseudoaneurysm who underwent coronary angiography. Patients with a clinical suspicion of femoral pseudoaneurysm were referred to colour Doppler ultrasound evaluation. The adult (large) side of the stethoscope was used to determine the location where the bruit was best heard. Then compression with the paediatric (small) side of the stethoscope was applied until the bruit could no longer be heard and compression was maintained for at least two sessions. Once the bruit disappeared, a 12-hour bed rest with external elastic compression was advised to the patients, in order to prevent disintegration of newly formed thrombosis. Mean pseudoaneurysm size was 1.7 +/- 0.4 cmx 3.0 +/- 0.9 cm and the mean duration of compression was 36.2 +/- 8.5 minutes.Twenty-six (89.6%) of these 29 patients were successfully treated with stethoscope-guided compression. In 18 patients (62%), the pseuodoaneurysms were successfully closed after 2 sessions of 15-minute compression. No severe complication was observed. Stethoscope-guided compression of femoral pseudoaneurysms is a safe and effective novel technique which requires less equipment and expertise than other contemporary methods.

  18. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  19. How noninvasive investigation has modified our therapeutic approach in vascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antignani PL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PL AntignaniItalian Society for Vascular InvestigationNoninvasive diagnostic methods have modified our therapeutic decision-making in several vascular diseases. In particular, many forms of surgical treatment, both endovascular and open, are performed based exclusively on evaluation with duplex scanning. The purpose of noninvasive ultrasound testing is to distinguish normal from pathological vessels, to classify a wide range of disease states, to assess the collateral circulation, and to do so in a safe and cost-effective manner. The primary aim is to identify patients who are at risk for acute and chronic vascular disease and who may require specific treatment. A secondary aim is to document progressive or recurrent disease in patients already known to be at risk. Of course, individual vascular laboratories must validate their own results against a suitable gold standard, and they have to guarantee the best quality and maximum accuracy.1     With regard to diseases of the carotid artery, color flow duplex scanning is the investigation of choice for diagnosis and measurement of carotid stenosis, provided that objective criteria are used and scanning is done by experienced operators. Several velocity criteria used to detect the presence and severity of carotid artery disease and the morphological evaluation of lesions allow us to have a specificity of 90% and a sensitivity of 99% when all categories of carotid disease are considered. On the basis of these criteria, we can identify the best therapeutic approach for specific pathological conditions.

  20. Urinary Cell-Free DNA Quantification as Non-Invasive Biomarker in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisuda, Antonin; Pazourkova, Eva; Soukup, Viktor; Horinek, Ales; Hrbáček, Jan; Capoun, Otakar; Svobodova, Iveta; Pospisilova, Sarka; Korabecna, Marie; Mares, Jaroslav; Hanuš, Tomáš; Babjuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of urinary cell-free DNA (ucfDNA) belongs to potential bladder cancer markers, but the reported results are inconsistent due to the use of various non-standardised methodologies. The aim of the study was to standardise the methodology for ucfDNA quantification as a potential non-invasive tumour biomarker. In total, 66 patients and 34 controls were enrolled into the study. Volumes of each urine portion (V) were recorded and ucfDNA concentrations (c) were measured using real-time PCR. Total amounts (TA) of ucfDNA were calculated and compared between patients and controls. Diagnostic accuracy of the TA of ucfDNA was determined. The calculation of TA of ucfDNA in the second urine portion was the most appropriate approach to ucfDNA quantification, as there was logarithmic dependence between the volume and the concentration of a urine portion (p = 0.0001). Using this methodology, we were able to discriminate between bladder cancer patients and subjects without bladder tumours (p = 0.0002) with area under the ROC curve of 0.725. Positive and negative predictive value of the test was 90 and 45%, respectively. Quantification of ucf DNA according to our modified method could provide a potential non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis of patients with bladder cancer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in Intensive Care Unit: Prevention, Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy has substantial prognostic implications in an intensive care unit, given its increased mortality risk and association with life-threatening complications. This report seeks to discuss diagnostic modalities that can be useful in accurately differentiating Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy from Acute Coronary Syndrome, and also briefly discuss prevention and management of this cardiomyopathy in an intensive care unit. For critically ill Takotsubo patients, intensive clinicians can consider establishment of diagnosis by specific electrocardiograph changes, distinctive marked release of cardiac enzymes, characteristic echocardiograph findings, as well as invasive coronary angiography or noninvasive cardiac magnetic imaging.

  2. Multiplex PCR from Menstrual Blood: A Non-Invasive Cost-Effective Approach to Reduce Diagnostic Dilemma for Genital Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Suman K; Basu, Analabha; Choudhury, Rajib Gon; Bhattacharya, Basudev; Chatterjee, Sidhartha; Bhattacharya, Chandra

    2018-03-16

    Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is a potent contributor to irreversible damage to the reproductive system and infertility in females. As no gold standard diagnostic tool is yet available, clinical suspicion and relatively insensitive approaches such as histopathology, laparoscopy and hysterosalpingogram are currently critical determinants in the diagnosis of GTB. Although a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay using endometrial tissue seems promising, sampling does require an invasive procedure. We hypothesized that menstrual blood may provide an alternate non-invasive source of samples for PCR-based GTB diagnosis. We enrolled 195 women with primary infertility in whom GTB was suspected. We obtained ethics committee approval from our institution and written informed consent from subjects. Endometrial tissue and menstrual blood was collected from the subjects and culture, histopathology, and multiplex PCR with both sample type was performed for each subject. The sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR was, respectively, 90.2 and 86.1% for menstrual blood, 95.8 and 84.3% for endometrial tissue, and 64.8 and 93.2% for histopathology staining. A strong clinical suspicion aided with multiplex PCR using menstrual blood may significantly reduce the diagnostic dilemma for GTB diagnosis in a non-invasive, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective manner.

  3. Noninvasive Hemodynamic Measurements During Neurosurgical Procedures in Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Patrick; Tzanova, Irene; Gööck, Tilman; Hagen, Frank; Schmidtmann, Irene; Engelhard, Kristin; Pestel, Gunther

    2017-07-01

    Neurosurgical procedures in sitting position need advanced cardiovascular monitoring. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to measure cardiac output (CO)/cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV), and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements for systolic (ABPsys), diastolic (ABPdiast) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are established monitoring technologies for these kind of procedures. A noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure and CO based on a modified Penaz technique (volume-clamp method) was introduced recently. In the present study the noninvasive blood pressure measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and the noninvasive CO monitoring to TEE measurements. Measurements of blood pressure and CO were performed in 35 patients before/after giving a fluid bolus and a change from supine to sitting position, start of surgery, and repositioning from sitting to supine at the end of surgery. Data pairs from the noninvasive device (Nexfin HD) versus arterial line measurements (ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) and versus TEE (CO, CI, SV) were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and percentage error. All parameters compared (CO, CI, SV, ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) showed a large bias and wide limits of agreement. Percentage error was above 30% for all parameters except ABPsys. The noninvasive device based on a modified Penaz technique cannot replace arterial blood pressure monitoring or TEE in anesthetized patients undergoing neurosurgery in sitting position.

  4. Evaluation of left ventricular function by invasive and noninvasive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusukawa, R [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-06-01

    Noninvasive methods in cardiology have progressed very rapidly in recent years. Cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography are the standard methods for evaluating of cardiac performance, however, they need expensive apparatus and are time-consuming, arduous procedures which do not permit to repeat frequently, and sometimes risky. In this article, the indices of pump and muscle function of the heart obtained by invasive methods were compared to those indices obtained by noninvasive methods, and correlation between two groups and usefulness and limitation were discussed. Systolic time intervals are convenient and repeatable measures of left ventricular performance in clinical cardiology. There are significant correlations of PEP/LVET with stroke volume, ejection fraction and mean circumferential shortening velocity. Although some limitations are present in application of this method to certain diseases, these measures are useful in the evaluation of left ventricular performance. Echocardiography has made an era of the noninvasive cardiology. Left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, mean circumferential shortening velocity and PSP/ESVI are accurately calculated by echocardiographic measurement. Nuclear cardiology is also accurate noninvasive method in evaluation of cardiac performance. With this tremendous growth in this field, it will make next era of noninvasive cardiology.

  5. Noninvasive external cardiac pacing for thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.D.; Warren, S.E.; Gervino, E.V.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in noninvasive external cardiac pacing have led to a technique with reliable electrical capture and tolerable patient discomfort. To assess the use of this modality of pacing in combination with thallium scintigraphy as a noninvasive pacing stress test, we applied simultaneous noninvasive cardiac pacing, hemodynamic monitoring, and thallium-201 scintigraphy in 14 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndromes. Two patients had normal coronary arteries, while the remaining 12 had significant coronary artery disease. Thallium scintigraphic responses to pacing were compared to routine exercise thallium stress testing in nine of these 14 patients. All patients were noninvasively paced to more than 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. Twelve patients demonstrated reversible thallium defects, which corresponded in 11 cases to significant lesions seen on coronary angiography. Of nine patients who underwent both pacing and exercise thallium stress tests, comparable maximal rate-pressure products were achieved. Moreover, thallium imaging at peak pacing and during delayed views did not differ significantly from exercise thallium scintigraphy. A limiting factor associated with the technique was local patient discomfort, which occurred to some degree in all patients. We conclude that noninvasive external cardiac pacing together with thallium scintigraphy is capable of detecting significant coronary artery disease and may be comparable to routine exercise thallium stress testing. This new modality of stress testing could be useful in patients unable to undergo the exercise required for standard exercise tolerance testing, particularly if improvements in the technology can be found to reduce further the local discomfort

  6. Raman spectroscopic studies on exfoliated cells of oral and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Arti; Sahu, Aditi; Shaikh, Rubina; Tyagi, Gunjan; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Visual inspection followed by biopsy is the standard procedure for cancer diagnosis. Due to invasive nature of the current diagnostic methods, patients are often non-compliant. Hence, it is necessary to explore less invasive and rapid methods for early detection. Exfoliative cytology is a simple, rapid, and less invasive technique. It is thus well accepted by patients and is suitable for routine applications in population screening programs. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been increasingly explored for disease diagnosis in the recent past. In vivo RS has previously shown promise in management of both oral and cervix cancers. In vivo applications require on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions. Hence, RS of less invasive samples like exfoliated cells has been explored, as this facilitates collection at multiple screening centers followed by analysis at a centralized facility. In the present study, efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of 15 normal and 29 abnormal oral exfoliated cells specimens and 28 normal and 38 abnormal cervix specimens were explored. Spectra were acquired by Raman microprobe (HE 785, Horiba-Jobin-Yvon, France) from several areas to span the pellet. Spectral acquisition parameters were: microscopic objective: 40X, power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s and average: 3. PCA and PC-LDA of pre-processed spectra was carried out on a 4-model system of normal and tumor of both cervix and oral specimens. Leave-one-out-cross-validation findings indicate 73 % correct classification. Findings suggest RS of exfoliated cells may serve as a patient-friendly, non-invasive, rapid and objective method for management of cervix and oral cancers.

  7. Non-invasive imaging of skin cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging using two photon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) using two photon microscopy as a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions is described. Skin contains fluorophores including elastin, keratin, collagen, FAD and NADH. This endogenous contrast allows tissue to be imaged without the addition of exogenous agents and allows the in vivo state of cells and tissues to be studied. A modified DermaInspect® multiphoton tomography system was used to excite autofluorescence at 760 nm in vivo and on freshly excised ex vivo tissue. This instrument simultaneously acquires fluorescence lifetime images in four spectral channels between 360-655 nm using time-correlated single photon counting and can also provide hyperspectral images. The multispectral fluorescence lifetime images were spatially segmented and binned to determine lifetimes for each cell by fitting to a double exponential lifetime model. A comparative analysis between the cellular lifetimes from different diagnoses demonstrates significant diagnostic potential.

  8. Non-invasive assessment of vessel morphology and function in tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Jugold, Manfred; Woenne, Eva C.; Brix, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    The switch to an angiogenic phenotype is an important precondition for tumor growth, invasion and spread. Since newly formed vessels are characterized by structural, functional and molecular abnormalities, they offer promising targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Previous studies indicate that MRI is valuable to assess vessel morphology and function. It can be used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and to improve delineation of proliferating areas within heterogeneous tumors. In addition, tracer kinetic analysis of contrast-enhanced image series allows the estimation of well-defined physiological parameters such as blood volume, blood flow and vessel permeability. Frequently, changes of these parameters during cytostatic, anti-angiogenic and radiation therapy precede tumor volume reduction. Moreover, target-specific MRI techniques can be used to elucidate the expression of angiogenic markers at the molecular level. This review summarizes strategies for non-invasive characterization of tumor vascularization by functional and molecular MRI, hereby introducing representative preclinical and clinical applications. (orig.)

  9. Non-invasive method for screening and early detection of breast tumors using thermal field analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Drosu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to general presentation of international and European evaluation regarding breast cancer incidence and mortality as well as recommendations for prevention, screening, detection and treatment.The past years international research development in biomedical engineering has put a particular emphasis on the thermography use in breast pathology diagnosis and its main advantages, such as: an early diagnose of the breast cancer, in that stage when the mammography or ultrasounds can not easily detect the changes of the tissue; a totally non-invasive interaction with human body; very low costs and possibilities for the women to do a self thermographic test.We also present some important results of our research within the field of breast tumor detection using the numerical analysis of the thermal inverse problem.

  10. Raman spectroscopy technology to monitor the carotenoids in skin of thalassemia patients: a novel non-invasive tool relating oxidative stress with iron burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Perrone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we approach the relationship between redox state and iron overload by noninvasive instrumental techniques. Intracardiac, liver iron and liver fibrosis have been monitored in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic transient elastography examinations. These measurements have been matched with a non-invasive, and yet unexplored in clinical practice, evaluation of body’s oxidative stress through measurement of antioxidant carotenoids in skin, by a spectroscopic method based on Raman technology (RRS. The global body’s antioxidant status results from a balance between the level of antioxidants in cells and body fluids, including blood, and pro-oxidant species endogenously produced or coming from external sources. On this basis, the level of skin carotenoids can be considered a biomarker of the entire antioxidant status. In our work the use of RRS method provided information on the redox state of thalassemia patients, which was correlated with the iron status of the patients. Due to the highly adverse effects of accumulated iron, the novel, simple, non-invasive RRS to monitor dermal carotenoids with high compliance of the patients may be a useful tool for the management of thalassemia patients.

  11. Outcomes of Noninvasively Treated Idiopathic Toe Walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Kerstin; Karch, Nataliia; Goede, Fabian; Vaske, Bernhard; von Lewinski, Gabriela; Noll, Yvonne; Thren, Anneke

    2018-03-01

    Idiopathic toe walking (ITW) causes a common problem in pediatric orthopaedics. In the literature, numerous treatment options have been reported, but consensus about the management of ITW is still missing. The aim of the current study was to evaluate conservative treatment with pyramidal insoles. A total of 193 patients underwent conservative treatment between January 2010 and June 2013. Mean age at the beginning of the treatment was 7.75 ± 0.23 years (range 2.0-17.0 years). For all patients, demographic data, comorbid diseases, passive range of motion (ROM), persistent toe walking, and performed operations were retrospectively evaluated. Following operative treatment was defined failure. Eight (4.15%) patients underwent Achilles tendon lengthening operation after mean therapy time of 2.72 years (range 0.1-7.0 years), 174 cases were treated successfully (90.16%). In 50 cases, toe walking suspended completely after mean therapy time of 2.83 years. In cases of failure, patients were older at diagnosis and at the beginning of the treatment. Mean passive ROM increased over the time. In cases of failure, ROM decreased from the first to the second examination. Conservative treatment of ITW using pyramidal insoles can be effective. Ankle dorsiflexion significantly improved in the patients who were successfully treated. Therapy should start early. A decrease of ROM under therapy should lead to critical revisal of individual therapy. Therapeutic, level IV: Case series.

  12. Noninvasive Strategy Based on Real-Time in Vivo Cataluminescence Monitoring for Clinical Breath Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Huang, Wanting; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2017-03-21

    The development of noninvasive methods for real-time in vivo analysis is of great significant, which provides powerful tools for medical research and clinical diagnosis. In the present work, we described a new strategy based on cataluminescence (CTL) for real-time in vivo clinical breath analysis. To illustrate such strategy, a homemade real-time CTL monitoring system characterized by coupling an online sampling device with a CTL sensor for sevoflurane (SVF) was designed, and a real-time in vivo method for the monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath was proposed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing the real exhaled breath samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by GC/MS. The measured data obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Subsequently, the method was applied to real-time monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath from rat models of the control group to investigate elimination pharmacokinetics. In order to further probe the potential of the method for clinical application, the elimination pharmacokinetics of SVF from rat models of control group, liver fibrosis group alcohol liver group, and nonalcoholic fatty liver group were monitored by the method. The raw data of pharmacokinetics of different groups were normalized and subsequently subjected to linear discriminant analysis (LDA). These data were transformed to canonical scores which were visualized as well-clustered with the classification accuracy of 100%, and the overall accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation procedure is 88%, thereby indicating the utility of the potential of the method for liver disease diagnosis. Our strategy undoubtedly opens up a new door for real-time clinical analysis in a pain-free and noninvasive way and also guides a promising development direction for CTL.

  13. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  14. Invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring of patients with cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, G C; Wo, C C; Demetriades, D; Bishop, M H; Shoemaker, W C

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen patients with hemodynamic instability from acute cerebrovascular accidents were evaluated shortly after arrival at the emergency department of a university-run county hospital with both invasive Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheter placement and a new, noninvasive, thoracic electrical bioimpedance device. Values were recorded and temporal patterns of survivors and nonsurvivors were described. Cardiac indices obtained simultaneously by the 2 techniques were compared. Of the 17 patients, 11 (65%) died. Survivors had higher values than nonsurvivors for mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation, delivery, and consumption at comparable times. Cardiac index values, as measured by invasive and noninvasive methods, were correlated. We concluded that hemodynamic monitoring in an acute care setting may recognize temporal circulatory patterns associated with outcome. Noninvasive electrical bioimpedance technology offers a new method for early hemodynamic evaluation. Further research in this area is warranted. PMID:9682626

  15. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Farré

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support.

  16. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa trademark MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs

  17. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of arthritis in a collagen-induced murine model with phosphatidylserine-binding near-infrared (NIR) dye

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Marion M; Gray, Brian D; Pak, Koon Y; Fong, Dunne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Development of non-invasive molecular imaging techniques that are based on cellular changes in inflammation has been of active interest for arthritis diagnosis. This technology will allow real-time detection of tissue damage and facilitate earlier treatment of the disease, thus representing an improvement over X-rays, which detect bone damage at the advanced stage. Tracing apoptosis, an event occurring in inflammation, has been a strategy used. PSVue 794 is a low-molecular-weight...

  18. Psychological as well as illness factors influence acceptance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS):A prospective population study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Naomi H; Landau, Sabine; Janssen, Anna; Lyall, Rebecca; Higginson, Irene; Burman, Rachel; McCrone, Paul; Sakel, Mohammed; Ellis, Catherine M; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Leigh, P Nigel; Goldstein, Laura H

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with acceptance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and gastrostomy in an exploratory population-based study. Seventy-eight people with ALS at least six months post-diagnosis, and 50 caregivers, were recruited from the South-East ALS Register. Baseline physical, cognitive and psychological measures were obtained. Three-monthly follow-ups monitored whether patients had accepted or refused NIV or gastrostomy. Following an intervention decision, pos...

  19. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  20. Are your Spectroscopic Data Being Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Wilzewski, Jonas

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopy is an established and indispensable tool in science, industry, agriculture, medicine, surveillance, etc.. The potential user of spectral data, which is not available in HITRAN or other databases, searches the spectroscopy publications. After finding the desired publication, the user very often encounters the following problems: 1) They cannot find the data described in the paper. There can be many reasons for this: nothing is provided in the paper itself or supplementary material; the authors are not responding to any requests; the web links provided in the paper have long been broken; etc. 2) The data is presented in a reduced form, for instance through the fitted spectroscopic constants. While this is a long-standing practice among spectroscopists, there are numerous serious problems with this practice, such as users getting different energy and intensity values because of different representations of the solution to the Hamiltonian, or even just despairing of trying to generate usable line lists from the published constants. Properly providing the data benefits not only users but also the authors of the spectroscopic research. We will show that this increases citations to the spectroscopy papers and visibility of the research groups. We will also address the quite common issue when researchers obtain the data, but do not feel that they have time, interest or resources to write an article describing it. There are modern tools that would allow one to make these data available to potential users and still get credit for it. However, this is a worst case scenario recommendation, i.e., publishing the data in a peer-reviewed journal is still the preferred way. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, et al. "The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database," JQSRT 113, 4-50 (2013).

  1. Vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. R. H.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Kendrick, J.; Scowen, I. J.

    2009-03-01

    Fluticasone propionate is a synthetic glucocorticoid with potent anti-inflammatory activity that has been used effectively in the treatment of chronic asthma. The present work reports a vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate and gives proposed molecular assignments on the basis of ab initio calculations using BLYP density functional theory with a 6-31G* basis set and vibrational frequencies predicted within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Several spectral features and band intensities are explained. This study generated a library of information that can be employed to aid the process monitoring of fluticasone propionate.

  2. Nuclear data for geophysical spectroscopic logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, J.S.; Hertzog, R.C.; Soran, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear geochemical analysis requires the quantitative measurement of elemental concentrations of trace elements, as well as major elements in widely varying concentrations. This requirement places extreme demands on the quality of the spectroscopic measurements, data rates, and relating observed γ-ray intensities to the original elemental concentration. The relationship between γ-ray intensities and elemental concentration is critically dependent on the specific reaction cross sections and their uncertainties. The elements of highest priority for subsurface geochemical analysis are considered with respect to the importance of competing reactions and the neutron energy regions that are most significant. (author)

  3. Laser spectroscopic analysis in atmospheric pollution research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3174 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Laser spectroscopic... Department and a CSIR National Laser Centre rental pool programme grant-holder, is involved in research into a novel method of monitoring atmospheric PAHs. The rental pool programme gives South African tertiary education institutions access to an array...

  4. Automated reliability assessment for spectroscopic redshift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Vibert, D.; Schmitt, A.; Surace, C.; Copin, Y.; Garilli, B.; Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Future large-scale surveys, such as the ESA Euclid mission, will produce a large set of galaxy redshifts (≥106) that will require fully automated data-processing pipelines to analyze the data, extract crucial information and ensure that all requirements are met. A fundamental element in these pipelines is to associate to each galaxy redshift measurement a quality, or reliability, estimate. Aim. In this work, we introduce a new approach to automate the spectroscopic redshift reliability assessment based on machine learning (ML) and characteristics of the redshift probability density function. Methods: We propose to rephrase the spectroscopic redshift estimation into a Bayesian framework, in order to incorporate all sources of information and uncertainties related to the redshift estimation process and produce a redshift posterior probability density function (PDF). To automate the assessment of a reliability flag, we exploit key features in the redshift posterior PDF and machine learning algorithms. Results: As a working example, public data from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey is exploited to present and test this new methodology. We first tried to reproduce the existing reliability flags using supervised classification in order to describe different types of redshift PDFs, but due to the subjective definition of these flags (classification accuracy 58%), we soon opted for a new homogeneous partitioning of the data into distinct clusters via unsupervised classification. After assessing the accuracy of the new clusters via resubstitution and test predictions (classification accuracy 98%), we projected unlabeled data from preliminary mock simulations for the Euclid space mission into this mapping to predict their redshift reliability labels. Conclusions: Through the development of a methodology in which a system can build its own experience to assess the quality of a parameter, we are able to set a preliminary basis of an automated reliability assessment for

  5. Optical properties of metals by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, E.T.; Inagaki, T.; Williams, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of spectroscopic ellipsometry for the accurate determination of the optical properties of liquid and solid metals is discussed and illustrated with previously published data for Li and Na. New data on liquid Sn and Hg from 0.6 to 3.7 eV are presented. Liquid Sn is Drude-like. The optical properties of Hg deviate from the Drude expressions, but simultaneous measurements of reflectance and ellipsometric parameters yield consistent results with no evidence for vectorial surface effects

  6. Emission spectroscopic 15N analysis 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The state of the art of emission spectroscopic 15 N analysis is demonstrated taking the NOI-6e 15 N analyzer as an example. The analyzer is equipped with a microcomputer to ensure a high operational comfort, computer control, and both data acquisition and data processing. In small amounts of nitrogen-containing substances (10 to 50 μg N 2 ) the 15 N abundance can be very quickly determined in standard discharge tubes or in aqueous ammonium salt solutions with a standard deviation less than 0.6 percent

  7. Capsule endoscopy for the diagnosis and follow up of crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Brodersen, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has revolutionized the diagnosis and monitoring of small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD). the procedure is patient friendly and noninvasive, and compared to cross-sectional imaging, CE allows a direct and detailed evaluation of the entire small bowel mucosa witha high sensitivit...

  8. In vivo Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma Subtype by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelman, M.; Wolberink, E.A.W.; Blokx, W.A.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging technique. Currently, RCM is mainly used for the diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Until now, it has not been possible to distinguish between subtypes of BCC using RCM.

  9. Review of invasive urodynamics and progress towards non-invasive measurements in the assessment of bladder outlet obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article defines the need for objective measurements to help diagnose the cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. It describes the conventional techniques available, mainly invasive, and then summarizes the emerging range of non-invasive measurement techniques. Methods: This is a narrative review derived form the clinical and scientific knowledge of the authors together with consideration of selected literature. Results: Consideration of measured bladder pressure urinary flow rate during voiding in an invasive pressure flow study is considered the gold standard for categorization of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. The diagnosis is currently made by plotting the detrusor pressure at maximum flow (p detQmax and maximum flow rate (Q max on the nomogram approved by the International Continence Society. This plot will categorize the void as obstructed, equivocal or unobstructed. The invasive and relatively complex nature of this investigation has led to a number of inventive techniques to categorize BOO either by measuring bladder pressure non-invasively or by providing a proxy measure such as bladder weight. Conclusion: Non-invasive methods of diagnosing BOO show great promise and a few have reached the stage of being commercially available. Further studies are however needed to validate the measurement technique and assess their worth in the assessment of men with LUTS.

  10. Cost Analysis of Noninvasive Helmet Ventilation Compared with Use of Noninvasive Face Mask in ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care unit (ICU costs have doubled since 2000, totalling 108 billion dollars per year. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has a prevalence of 10.4% and a 28-day mortality of 34.8%. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is used in up to 30% of cases. A recent randomized controlled trial by Patel et al. (2016 showed lower intubation rates and 90-day mortality when comparing helmet to face mask NIV in ARDS. The population in the Patel et al. trial was used for cost analysis in this study. Projections of cost savings showed a decrease in ICU costs by $2527 and hospital costs by $3103 per patient, along with a 43.3% absolute reduction in intubation rates. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent cost reductions. Projected annual cost savings, assuming the current prevalence of ARDS, were $237538 in ICU costs and $291682 in hospital costs. At a national level, using yearly incidence of ARDS cases in American ICUs, this represents $449 million in savings. Helmet NIV, compared to face mask NIV, in nonintubated patients with ARDS, reduces ICU and hospital direct-variable costs along with intubation rates, LOS, and mortality. A large-scale cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to validate the findings.

  11. Possibility of determination of the level of antioxidants in human body using spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, E; Gorbunova, E

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the processes of antioxidant defence against aggressive free radicals in human body were investigated theoretically; and the existing methods of diagnosis of oxidative stress and disturbance of antioxidant activity were reviewed. Also, the kinetics of free radical reactions in the oxidation of luminol and interaction antioxidants (such as chlorophyll in the multicomponent system of plant's leaves and ubiquinone) with the UV radiation were investigated experimentally by spectroscopic method. The results showed that this method is effective for recording the luminescence of antioxidants, free radicals, chemiluminescent reactions and fluorescence. In addition these results reveal new opportunities for the study of the antioxidant activity and antioxidant balance in a multicomponent system by allocating features of the individual components in spectral composition. A creation of quality control method for drugs, that are required for oxidative stress diagnosis, is a promising direction in the development of given work. (paper)

  12. Diagnosis and Change or Change and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammann, Cortlandt

    Organizational consultation is often viewed as a four-stage process: entry, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation. A fifth stage, preparation of organizations to conduct diagnosis and change, is frequently neglected. In the preparation stage, organizational consultants must deal with resistance by creating conditions for the consideration of the…

  13. Development of laser atomic spectroscopic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Ohr, Young Gie; Cha, Hyung Ki

    1990-06-01

    Some preliminary results on the resonant ionization spectroscopy for Na and Pb atoms are presents both in theory and in experiment. A single color multiphoton ionization process is theoretically analysed in detail, for the resonant and non-resonant cases, and several parameters determining the overall ionization rate are summarized. In particular, the AC stark shift, the line width and the non-linear coefficient of ionization rate are recalculated using the perturbation theory in resolvent approach. On the other hand, the fundamental equipments for spectroscopic experiments have been designed and manufactured, which include a Nd:YAG laser, a GIM-type dye laser, a vacuum system ionization cells, a heat pipe oven, and an ion current measuring system. The characteristics of the above equipments have also been examined. Using the spectroscopic data available, several ionization schemes are considered and the relative merits for ionization have been discussed. Moreover, the effects due to the buffer gas pressure, laser intensity, vapor density and electrode voltage have been investigated in detail. The experiments will be extended to multi-color processes with several resonances, and the ultimate goal is to develop a ultrasensitive analytical method for pollutive heavy metal atoms using the resonant ionization spectroscopy. (author)

  14. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging seemingly matured as a technology in the mid-2000s, with commercially successful instrumentation and reports in numerous applications. Recent developments, however, have transformed our understanding of the recorded data, provided capability for new instrumentation, and greatly enhanced the ability to extract more useful information in less time. These developments are summarized here in three broad areas— data recording, interpretation of recorded data, and information extraction—and their critical review is employed to project emerging trends. Overall, the convergence of selected components from hardware, theory, algorithms, and applications is one trend. Instead of similar, general-purpose instrumentation, another trend is likely to be diverse and application-targeted designs of instrumentation driven by emerging component technologies. The recent renaissance in both fundamental science and instrumentation will likely spur investigations at the confluence of conventional spectroscopic analyses and optical physics for improved data interpretation. While chemometrics has dominated data processing, a trend will likely lie in the development of signal processing algorithms to optimally extract spectral and spatial information prior to conventional chemometric analyses. Finally, the sum of these recent advances is likely to provide unprecedented capability in measurement and scientific insight, which will present new opportunities for the applied spectroscopist. PMID:23031693

  15. EPSILON AURIGAE: AN IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC ORBITAL SOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Lovegrove, Justin; Latham, David W.; Zajac, Joseph; Pera, Vivian E.; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2010-01-01

    A rare eclipse of the mysterious object ε Aurigae will occur in 2009-2011. We report an updated single-lined spectroscopic solution for the orbit of the primary star based on 20 years of monitoring at the CfA, combined with historical velocity observations dating back to 1897. There are 518 new CfA observations obtained between 1989 and 2009. Two solutions are presented. One uses the velocities outside the eclipse phases together with mid-times of previous eclipses, from photometry dating back to 1842, which provide the strongest constraint on the ephemeris. This yields a period of 9896.0 ± 1.6 days (27.0938 ± 0.0044 years) with a velocity semi-amplitude of 13.84 ± 0.23 km s -1 and an eccentricity of 0.227 ± 0.011. The middle of the current ongoing eclipse predicted by this combined fit is JD 2,455,413.8 ± 4.8, corresponding to 2010 August 5. If we use only the radial velocities, we find that the predicted middle of the current eclipse is nine months earlier. This would imply that the gravitating companion is not the same as the eclipsing object. Alternatively, the purely spectroscopic solution may be biased by perturbations in the velocities due to the short-period oscillations of the supergiant.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of pulsed-power plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Y.; Arad, R.; Dadusc, G.; Davara, G.; Duvall, R.E.; Fisher, V.; Foord, M.E.; Fruchtman, A.; Gregorian, L.; Krasik, Ya.

    1993-01-01

    Recently developed spectroscopic diagnostic techniques are used to investigate the plasma behavior in a Magnetically Insulated Ion Diode, a Plasma Opening Switch, and a gas-puffed Z-pinch. Measurements with relatively high spectral, temporal, and spatial resolutions are performed. The particle velocity and density distributions within a few tens of microns from the dielectric-anode surface are observed using laser spectroscopy. Collective fluctuating electric fields in the plasma are inferred from anisotropic Stark broadening. For the Plasma Opening Switch experiment, a novel gaseous plasma source was developed which is mounted inside the high-voltage inner conductor. The properties of this source, together with spectroscopic observations of the electron density and particle velocities of the injected plasma, are described. Emission line intensities and spectral profiles give the electron kinetic energies during the switch operation and the ion velocity distributions. Secondary plasma ejection from the electrodes is also studied. In the Z-pinch experiment, spectral emission-line profiles are studied during the implosion phase. Doppler line shifts and widths yield the radial velocity distributions for various charge states in various regions of the plasma. Effects of plasma ejection from the cathode are also studied

  17. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  18. The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, L.S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)]. E-mail: lrothman@cfa.harvard.edu; Jacquemart, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Barbe, A. [Universite de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, 51062 Reims (France)] (and others)

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the status of the 2004 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e., spectra in which the individual lines are unresolvable; individual line parameters and absorption cross-sections for bands in the ultra-violet; refractive indices of aerosols; tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for 39 molecules including many of their isotopologues. The format of the section of the database on individual line parameters of HITRAN has undergone the most extensive enhancement in almost two decades. It now lists the Einstein A-coefficients, statistical weights of the upper and lower levels of the transitions, a better system for the representation of quantum identifications, and enhanced referencing and uncertainty codes. In addition, there is a provision for making corrections to the broadening of line transitions due to line mixing.

  19. The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, L.S.; Jacquemart, D.; Barbe, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the 2004 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e., spectra in which the individual lines are unresolvable; individual line parameters and absorption cross-sections for bands in the ultra-violet; refractive indices of aerosols; tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for 39 molecules including many of their isotopologues. The format of the section of the database on individual line parameters of HITRAN has undergone the most extensive enhancement in almost two decades. It now lists the Einstein A-coefficients, statistical weights of the upper and lower levels of the transitions, a better system for the representation of quantum identifications, and enhanced referencing and uncertainty codes. In addition, there is a provision for making corrections to the broadening of line transitions due to line mixing

  20. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  1. Non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical activity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring physiological stress reactions through the quantification of plasma cortisol often involves physical restraint, which acts as a stressor itself. Here, we present the validation of a non-invasive method for assessing adrenocortical activity as an indicator of stress in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis). By conducting ...

  2. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood–brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for ...

  3. Direct numerical simulation of noninvasive channel healing in electrical field

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive channel healing is a new idea to repair the broken pipe wall, using external electric fields to drive iron particles to the destination. The repair can be done in the normal operation of the pipe flow without any shutdown of the pipeline

  4. Eggshell membranes as a noninvasive sampling for molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noninvasive sampling is of prime essential on conservation genetics and molecular ecology. It is particularly preferred to use in the genetic identification of individuals and genetic analysis. A simple and efficient sampling is described for molecular studies from eggshell membranes in an endemic population of Chinese ...

  5. Noninvasive molecular screening for oral precancer in Fanconi anemia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smetsers, Stephanie E.; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Wu, Thijs; Brink, Arjen; Buijze, Marijke; Deeg, Dorly J H; Soulier, Jean; Leemans, C. René; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.

    2015-01-01

    LOH at chromosome arms 3p, 9p, 11q, and 17p are wellestablished oncogenetic aberrations in oral precancerous lesions and promising biomarkers to monitor the development of oral cancer. Noninvasive LOH screening of brushed oral cells is a preferable method for precancer detection in patients at

  6. A noninvasive monitoring device for anesthetics in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Deborah M.; Fuentes, Juan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    A noninvasive device capable of recording both gill and lateral fin movements was assembled and used to analyze initial and post-treatment activity frequency (Hz) in fish exposed to anesthetics. Exposure of platy fish (Xiphosphorus maculatus) to saponins from quillaja bark (0.185 mM and 0.555 m...

  7. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  8. Comparison of non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael Tm; Murphy, Paul J; Blades, Kenneth J; Craig, Jennifer P

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of tear film stability is commonly used to give an indication of tear film quality but a number of non-invasive techniques exists within the clinical setting. This study sought to compare three non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques: instrument-mounted wide-field white light clinical interferometry, instrument-mounted keratoscopy and hand-held keratoscopy. Twenty-two subjects were recruited in a prospective, randomised, masked, cross-over study. Tear film break-up or thinning time was measured non-invasively by independent experienced examiners, with each of the three devices, in a randomised order, within an hour. Significant correlation was observed between instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements (p 0.05). Tear film stability values obtained from the hand-held device were significantly shorter and demonstrated narrower spread than the other two instruments (all p 0.05). Good clinical agreement exists between the instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements but not between the hand-held device and either of the instrument-mounted techniques. The results highlight the importance of specifying the instrument employed to record non-invasive tear film stability. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  9. The Role of Noninvasive Techniques in Stroke Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maxwell Bernad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have provided insight into understanding how neural connections are altered in consequence to cerebrovascular injury. The first part of this review will briefly survey some of the methodological issues and limitations related to noninvasive poststroke motor recovery studies. The second section will investigate some of the different neural mechanisms that underlie neurorehabilitation in stroke patients. The third part will explore our current understanding of motor memory processing, describe the neural structures that subserve motor memory consolidation, and discuss the current literature related to memory reconsolidation in healthy adults. Lastly, this paper will suggest the potential therapeutic applications of integrating noninvasive tools with memory consolidation and reconsolidation theories to enhance motor recovery. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate how noninvasive technologies have been utilized in the multidisciplinary field of clinical behavioral neuroscience and to highlight their potential to be employed as clinical tools to promote individualized motor recovery in stroke patients.

  10. Non-invasive technology to determine the haemoglobin level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Predonation haemoglobin (Hb) check has been done traditionally by the copper sulphate (CuSO4), or the haemocue haemoglobinometer methods. Both of these require a fingerprick of the donor to obtain capillary blood samples. It is thought that a non-invasive, but accurate method of Hb check will reduce ...

  11. Novel idea to monitor and measure blood hemoglobin noninvasively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring blood hematocrit noninvasively is reviewed in this paper. Although there is an inclination to measure the hematocrit by determining the bioelectrical impedance of the blood, in vitro experimental methods still remain practically inapplicable. The blood sample size is determined when blood samples are examined.

  12. Muscle perfusion and metabolic heterogeneity: insights from noninvasive imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled the study of local changes in perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as patterns of heterogeneity in these variables in humans. In this review, the principles of these techniques along with some recent findings...... on functional heterogeneity in human skeletal muscle will be presented....

  13. Noninvasive microbubble-based pressure measurements: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Michiel; Postema, M.A.B.; Bouakaz, Ayache; de Jong, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a noninvasive method to measure local hydrostatic pressures in fluid filled cavities. The method is based on the disappearance time of a gas bubble, as the disappearance time is related to the hydrostatic pressure. When a bubble shrinks, its response to ultrasound changes. From

  14. Genetic diversity of Przewalski's gazelle using noninvasive DNA and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... noninvasive DNA and its implications for conservation. Hairui Duo1,2 ... Wild Animal Species in China since 1989 (Wang and Xie,. 2004; Li, 2010) ..... highway traffic on diumal activity of the critically endangered. Przewalski's ...

  15. Noninvasive methods to measure airway inflammation: future considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnussen, H.; Holz, O.; Sterk, P. J.; Hargreave, F. E.

    2000-01-01

    This last contribution to the series focuses on open questions regarding: 1) methodological issues; and 2) the potential clinical application of the noninvasive methods such as induced sputum and the analysis of exhaled air for the assessment of airway inflammation. In addition their potential

  16. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  17. Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical marker of dyspnoea in congestive heart failure patients. ... University of Mauritius Research Journal ... score assessed by a 10 graded visual analogue scale in the control group (mean score = 1) and an increased from 1.6 to 6.4 in the heart failure patients.

  18. Use of noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongisto, Mari; Lassus, Johan; Tarvasmaki, Tuukka

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite scarce data, invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is widely recommended over non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for ventilatory support in cardiogenic shock (CS). We assessed the real-life use of different ventilation strategies in CS and their influence on outcome focusing on the...

  19. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  20. Pulmonary infiltrates in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: a diagnostic approach using non-invasive and bronchoscopic procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rano, A; Agusti, C; Jimenez, P; Angrill, J; Benito, N; Danes, C; Gonzalez, J; Rovira, M; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A; Torres, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent life threatening complication in immunocompromised patients, requiring early diagnosis and specific treatment. In the present study non-invasive and bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques were applied in patients with different non-HIV immunocompromised conditions to determine the aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates and to evaluate the impact of these methods on therapeutic decisions and outcome in this population.
METHODS—The non-invasive diagnostic methods included serological tests, blood antigen detection, and blood, nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), sputum and tracheobronchial aspirate (TBAS) cultures. Bronchoscopic techniques included fibrobronchial aspirate (FBAS), protected specimen brush (PSB), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Two hundred consecutive episodes of pulmonary infiltrates were prospectively evaluated during a 30 month period in 52 solid organ transplant recipients, 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, 68 patients with haematological malignancies, and 27 patients requiring chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs.
RESULTS—An aetiological diagnosis was obtained in 162 (81%) of the 200 patients. The aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates was infectious in 125 (77%) and non-infectious in 37 (23%); 38 (19%) remained undiagnosed. The main infectious aetiologies were bacterial (48/125, 24%), fungal (33/125, 17%), and viral (20/125, 10%), and the most frequent pathogens were Aspergillus fumigatus (n=29), Staphylococcus aureus (n=17), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12). Among the non-infectious aetiologies, pulmonary oedema (16/37, 43%) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (10/37, 27%) were the most common causes. Non-invasive techniques led to the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in 41% of the cases in which they were used; specifically, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 30/191 (16%); sputum cultures 27/88 (31%); NPW 9/50 (18

  1. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  2. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  3. Iterative estimation of the background in noisy spectroscopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.H.; Liu, L.G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Dong, T.K.; You, Z.; Xu, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an iterative filtering method to estimate the background of noisy spectroscopic data. The proposed method avoids the calculation of the average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the whole spectrum and the peak regions, and it can estimate the background efficiently, especially for spectroscopic data with the Compton continuum.

  4. Optical constants of graphene measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, J.W.; Calado, V.E.; Van de Sanden, M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A mechanically exfoliated graphene flake ( ? 150×380??m2) on a silicon wafer with 98 nm silicon dioxide on top was scanned with a spectroscopic ellipsometer with a focused spot ( ? 100×55??m2) at an angle of 55°. The spectroscopic ellipsometric data were analyzed with an optical model in which the

  5. Optical constants of graphene measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, J.W.; Calado, V.E.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A mechanically exfoliated graphene flake ( ~ 150×380 µm2) on a silicon wafer with 98 nm silicon dioxide on top was scanned with a spectroscopic ellipsometer with a focused spot ( ~ 100×55 µm2) at an angle of 55°. The spectroscopic ellipsometric data were analyzed with an optical model in which the

  6. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  7. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  8. Correlation Between Esophageal Varices and Lok Score as a Non-invasive Parameter in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Sungkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from gastro-esophageal varices is the most serious and life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Endoscopic surveillance of esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients is expensive and uncomfortable for the patients. Therefore, there is a particular need for non-invasive predictors for esophageal varices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate association of esophageal varices and Lok Score as non-invasive parameter in liver cirrhosis patients. This is a cross-sectional study of patients admitted at the Adam Malik hospital Medan between September to December 2014 with a diagnosis of cirrhosis based on clinical, biochemical examination, ultrasound, and gastroscopy. Lok Score was calculated for all patients, tabulated and analyzed. Among 76 patients with esophageal varices, 55.3% was due to hepatitis B virus (HBV. The majority of patients were Child C with only 13,2% being Child Pugh class A. Majority of the population had F2 esophageal varices (42.1%, F1 (32.9%, and F3 (25%. There is significance difference between Lok Score and grading of esophageal varices, in which Lok Score is higher in large esophageal varices compared with small esophageal varises (0.92 ± 0.14 vs. 0.70 ± 0.29; p = 0.001. Lok Score with cut-off point of > 0.9141 was highly predictive in the diagnosis large esophageal varices with a sensitivity of 74.5%, specificity of 72%, positive predictive value of 84%, negative predictive value 58%, and accuracy was 73.7%. Lok Score was significantly associated with esophageal varices. Lok Score is a good non-invasive predictor of large esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients.

  9. Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Abate, Alexandra; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Allam, Sahar; Allen, Steven W.; Ansari, Reza; Bailey, Stephen; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Beers, Timothy C.; Blanton, Michael R.; Brodwin, Mark; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brunner, Robert J.; Carrasco-Kind, Matias; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Colless, Matthew; Coupon, Jean; Cunha, Carlos E.; Frye, Brenda L.; Gawiser, Eric J.; Gehrels, Neil; Grady, Kevin; Hagen, Alex; Hall, Patrick B.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hirata, Christopher M.; Ho, Shirley; Huterer, Dragan; Ivezic, Zeljko; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Lahav, Ofer; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Matthews, Daniel J.; Miquel, Ramon; Moniez, Marc; Moos, H. W.; Moustakas, John; Papovich, Casey; Peacock, John A.; Rhodes, Jason; Ricol, Jean-Stepane; Sadeh, Iftach; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Stern, Daniel K.; Tyson, J. Anthony; Von der Linden, Anja; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Zentner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z's): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z's will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments. Hence, to achieve their full potential, imaging-based experiments will require large sets of objects with spectroscopically-determined redshifts, for two purposes: Training: Objects with known redshift are needed to map out the relationship between object color and z (or, equivalently, to determine empirically-calibrated templates describing the rest-frame spectra of the full range of galaxies, which may be used to predict the color-z relation). The ultimate goal of training is to minimize each moment of the distribution of differences between photometric redshift estimates and the true redshifts of objects, making the relationship between them as tight as possible. The larger and more complete our ''training set'' of spectroscopic redshifts is, the smaller the RMS photo-z errors should be, increasing the constraining power of imaging experiments; Requirements: Spectroscopic redshift measurements for ∼30,000 objects over >∼15 widely-separated regions, each at least ∼20 arcmin in diameter, and reaching the faintest objects used in a given experiment, will likely be necessary if photometric redshifts are to be trained and calibrated with conventional techniques. Larger, more complete samples (i.e., with longer exposure times) can improve photo

  10. THE SPECTROSCOPIC DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, S.; Matheson, T.; Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Challis, P.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Garnavich, P. M.; Jha, S. W.; Modjaz, M.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II λ6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ∼0 to ∼400 km s −1 day −1 considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B – V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II λ6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at ∼4700 Å and Δm 15 (B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the peak luminosity is not strongly dependent

  11. Thirty New Low-mass Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Hebb, Leslie; Liu, Michael C.; Reid, I. Neill; Collier Cameron, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    As part of our search for young M dwarfs within 25 pc, we acquired high-resolution spectra of 185 low-mass stars compiled by the NStars project that have strong X-ray emission. By cross-correlating these spectra with radial velocity standard stars, we are sensitive to finding multi-lined spectroscopic binaries. We find a low-mass spectroscopic binary fraction of 16% consisting of 27 SB2s, 2 SB3s, and 1 SB4, increasing the number of known low-mass spectroscopic binaries (SBs) by 50% and proving that strong X-ray emission is an extremely efficient way to find M-dwarf SBs. WASP photometry of 23 of these systems revealed two low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBs), bringing the count of known M-dwarf EBs to 15. BD-22 5866, the ESB4, was fully described in 2008 by Shkolnik et al. and CCDM J04404+3127 B consists of two mid-M stars orbiting each other every 2.048 days. WASP also provided rotation periods for 12 systems, and in the cases where the synchronization time scales are short, we used P rot to determine the true orbital parameters. For those with no P rot, we used differential radial velocities to set upper limits on orbital periods and semimajor axes. More than half of our sample has near-equal-mass components (q > 0.8). This is expected since our sample is biased toward tight orbits where saturated X-ray emission is due to tidal spin-up rather than stellar youth. Increasing the samples of M-dwarf SBs and EBs is extremely valuable in setting constraints on current theories of stellar multiplicity and evolution scenarios for low-mass multiple systems. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and by the WASP Consortium. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada

  12. The diagnosis and detection of urogenital cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Previously, histologic precision in the diagnosis of urologic cancers had, for some time, remained stable. More recently, variations in classifications of testis tumors, prostate cancer, and to some degree, bladder tumors, have been introduced. Most systems have in concurrence a desire or an attempt to infer better prognostic assessment in the overall results to treatment. With the advent of additional biological markers or direct enzymatic measurements, e.g., in prostate cancer, further improvements in identifying at risk populations, responses to treatment, and possible indications for variations in treatment, have ensued. These developments alone unquestionably mark the greatest area of change in the recent decade. The extent of disease assessment prior to definitive therapy, whether by arteriography, ultrasound, CAT scanning, or an occasional lymphangiography, has also influenced or modified treatment decisions. For continuing care and follow-up, several of these noninvasive techniques are now becoming included in the more standard approaches. Noninvasive techniques have been introduced for the therapy of renal tumors such as inducing infarction of the primary tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonic techniques have been particularly useful in assessing the size of pelvic tumors and response to treatment, even in detection of unexpected multiple primaries or metastatic extensions. Overall, the precision in urologic cancer, both for diagnostic and detection purposes, has been increased with these introductions

  13. Non-invasive method distinguishes chronic telogen effluvium from mild female pattern hair loss: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Caroline; Teixeira, Fernanda; Ferraro, Daniela A; Soares, Tania C B; Moraes, Aparecida M; Cintra, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    The distinction between chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is important because of their different prognosis and treatment. Non-invasive methods have been described to be useful in differentiating FPHL from CTE. This prospective study investigated the use of the washing method to differentiate CTE from mild FPHL. Twenty patients with CTE and 17 with FPHL were recruited and followed for 18 months. The diagnosis was established through clinical, laboratory, and histological studies. The patients were asked to abstain from washing their hair for 5 days and then shampoo and collect all hair shed in the process. Hair shafts were then counted and divided into two groups: up to 3 cm in length or longer. In the CTE group, the mean hair count was high (438), and in all cases, hairs comprised hairs, the higher was the density of terminal follicles seen histologically. The CTE group presented a greater number of patients with serum iron values <70 μg/dl. Ferritin levels ranged from 6.98 to 128.33, average of 66.65 (CTE), and 16.5-304.8, average of 114.97 ng/ml (FPHL), but no significant differences were found. The washing test can be useful to avoid biopsy procedures. Iron serum levels are possibly an additional parameter that may improve CTE diagnosis if combined with an earlier test. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Towards non-invasive diagnostic techniques for early detection of acute renal transplant rejection: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hollis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The kidney is a very important complicated filtering organ of the body. When the kidney reaches stage 5 chronic kidney disease, end stage renal failure, the preeminent therapy is renal transplantation. Although it is the best form of treatment, lack of kidney donors is still challenging. Therefore, all efforts should be employed to prolong the survival rate of the transplanted kidney. However, graft dysfunction (e.g., acute rejection is one of the serious barriers to long term kidney transplant survival. Currently, graft dysfunction’s gold standard of diagnosis is renal biopsy. Although renal biopsy is helpful, it is not preferred due to its invasive nature, high morbidity rates, and expensiveness. Therefore, noninvasive imaging techniques have become the subject of extensive research and interest, giving a strong promise to replace, or at least to decrease, biopsy usage in diagnosing graft dysfunction. This survey will discuss not only the current diagnosis and treatment of graft dysfunction but also the state-of-the-art imaging techniques in detecting acute renal transplant rejection.

  15. Noninvasive, optoacoustic detection and characterization of intra- and extracranial hematomas and cerebral hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrey; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Asokan, Vasantha; Agbor, Adaeze; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of intracranial hematomas is necessary to improve outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). CT and MRI can diagnose intracranial hematomas, but cannot be used until the patient arrives at a major healthcare facility, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Near infrared spectroscopy may suggest the presence of unilateral intracranial hematomas, but provides minimal information on hematoma type and location due to limitations associated with strong light scattering. We have used optoacoustics (which combines high endogenous optical contrast with the resolution of ultrasound) to diagnose hematomas and monitor cerebral oxygenation. We performed animal and clinical studies on detection and characterization of hematomas and on monitoring cerebral hypoxia by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Recently, we built a medical grade, multi-wavelength, OPO-based optoacoustic system tunable in the near infrared spectral range. We developed new patient interfaces for noninvasive, transcranial measurements in the transmission mode in the presence of dense hair and used it in patients with TBI. The optoacoustic system was capable of detecting and characterizing intra- and extracranial hematomas. SSS blood oxygenation was measured as well with the new interface. The obtained results indicate that the optoacoustic system in the transmission mode provides detection and characterization of hematomas in TBI patients, as well as cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring. The transmission mode approach can be used for optoacoustic brain imaging, tomography, and mapping in humans.

  16. Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Alice; Chester, Johanna; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Actinic keratosis represents the earliest manifestation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, an earlier diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Their diagnosis sometimes could represent a challenge even for expert dermatologists. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy and optical coherence tomography could help clinicians in diagnosis. PMID:29316678

  17. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

  19. Case study: in vivo stress diagnostics by spectroscopic determination of the cutaneous carotenoid antioxidant concentration in midwives depending on shift work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeter, H; Briese, V; Gerber, B; Darvin, M E; Lademann, J; Olbertz, D M

    2013-01-01

    Laser spectroscopic methods, for instance resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy, permit us for the first time to investigate the antioxidative status in human skin non-invasively by measurement of carotenoid concentration. The individual antioxidant concentration of the human skin is determined by the nutritional habits, on the one hand, and by stressors, such as shift work, on the other. Due to the disturbance of the circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion, shift work is associated with, inter alia, insomnia and gastrointestinal disorders. The study at hand was the first to determine the cutaneous antioxidant concentration of midwives using reflectance spectroscopy and to relate the results to shift work. Seven midwives took part in the study. An LED-based compact scanner system was used for non-invasive measurements of carotenoids in human skin. The measuring principle is based on reflection spectroscopy. The study at hand suggests that the cutaneous antioxidative status may be adversely affected by shift work. Despite numerous international strategies of programmes available which invite people to eat more healthily, there are only a few measures aiming at stress reduction and management. In this field the use of reflectance spectroscopic investigation methods could play an essential role in the future. (letter)

  20. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at zpast studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics.

  1. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscope Use in Electrocatalysis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Turid

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the electrocatalytic properties of an electrode and its ability to transfer electrons between the electrode and a metallic tip in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is investigated. The alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was used as a test reaction with four different metallic glasses, Ni78Si8B14, Ni70Mo20Si5B5, Ni58Co20Si10B12, and Ni25Co50Si15B10, as electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes were determined. The electrode surfaces were then investigated with an STM. A clear relationship between the catalytic activity of an electrode toward the OER and its tunneling characteristics was found. The use of a scanning tunneling spectroscope (STS) in electrocatalytic testing may increase the efficiency of the optimization of electrochemical processes.

  2. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscope Use in Electrocatalysis Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turid Knutsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the electrocatalytic properties of an electrode and its ability to transfer electrons between the electrode and a metallic tip in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM is investigated. The alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER was used as a test reaction with four different metallic glasses, Ni78Si8B14, Ni70Mo20Si5B5, Ni58Co20Si10B12, and Ni25Co50Si15B10, as electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes were determined. The electrode surfaces were then investigated with an STM. A clear relationship between the catalytic activity of an electrode toward the OER and its tunneling characteristics was found. The use of a scanning tunneling spectroscope (STS in electrocatalytic testing may increase the efficiency of the optimization of electrochemical processes.

  3. Statistical investigation of spectroscopic binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Yungelson, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A catalog of physical parameters of about 1000 spectroscopic binary stars (SB), based on the Batten catalog, its extensions, and newly published data has been compiled. Masses of stars' components (M 1 and M 2 ), mass ratios of components (q=M 1 /M 2 ) and orbital angular momenta are computed, wherever possible. It is probable that the initial mass function of the primaries is non-monotonic and is described only approximately by a power-law. A number of assumed 'initial' distributions of M 1 , q and the semiaxes of orbits were transformed with the aim of obtaining 'observed' distributions taking into account the observational selection due to the luminosities of the components, their radial velocities, inclinations of the orbits, and the effects of matter exchange between the components. (Auth.)

  4. Micron scale spectroscopic analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, David; Finlayson, Trevor; Prawer, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this proposal is the establishment of a facility which will enable complete micron scale spectroscopic analysis of any sample which can be imaged in the optical microscope. Current applications include studies of carbon fibres, diamond thin films, ceramics (zirconia and high T c superconductors), semiconductors, wood pulp, wool fibres, mineral inclusions, proteins, plant cells, polymers, fluoride glasses, and optical fibres. The range of interests crosses traditional discipline boundaries and augurs well for a truly interdisciplinary collaboration. Developments in instrumentation such as confocal imaging are planned to achieve sub-micron resolution, and advances in computer software and hardware will enable the aforementioned spectroscopies to be used to map molecular and crystalline phases on the surfaces of materials. Coupled with existing compositional microprobes (e.g. the proton microprobe) the possibilities for the development of new, powerful, hybrid imaging technologies appear to be excellent

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of oxidized solder surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jenn-Ming; Chang-Chien, Yu-Chien; Huang, Bo-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ting; Shie, Chi-Rung; Hsu, Chuang-Yao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → UV-visible spectroscopy is successfully used to evaluate the degree of discoloring of solders. → The surface oxides of solders can also be identified by UV-visible absorption spectra. → The discoloration of solder surface can be correlated with optical characterization of oxides. → A strategy against discoloring by alloying was also suggested. - Abstract: For further understanding of the discoloration of solder surfaces due to oxidation during the assembly and operation of electronic devices, UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses were applied to evaluate the degree of discoloring and identify the surface oxides. The decrease in reflectance of the oxidized solder surface is related to SnO whose absorption band is located within the visible region. A trace of P can effectively depress the discoloration of solders under both solid and semi-solid states through the suppression of SnO.

  6. Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-year research program for the development of novel XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is proposed. The new diagnostic system will use layered synthetic microstructures (LSM) coated, flat and curved surfaces as dispersive elements in spectrometers and narrow band XUV filter arrays. In the framework of the proposed program we will develop impurity monitors for poloidal and toroidal resolved measurements on PBX-M and Alcator C-Mod, imaging XUV spectrometers for electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements in the hot plasma core in TEXT or other similar tokamaks and plasma imaging devices in soft x-ray light for impurity behavior studies during RF heating on Phaedrus T and carbon pellet ablation in Alcator C-Mod. Recent results related to use of multilayer in XUV plasma spectroscopy are presented. We also discuss the latest results reviewed to q o and local poloidal field measurements using Zeeman polarimetry

  7. Application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, N.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading causes of death next to heart diseases, Half of all cancer cases occur in developing countries. The conventional histopathology is usually the most trustable gold standard for pre-cancer and cancer diagnosis. However, the applicability of this method is more or less restricted because of the requirement of removing human tissues and the difficulty of real time diagnosis. Recently, there has been increased interest in 'optical biopsy' system using tissue spectroscopy to establish the pathological changes. Among optical based methods, Raman spectroscopy is a unique vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of probing biomolecular structures and conformation of tissues, and has excelled in the early detection of pre-cancer and cancer in the number of organs with high diagnostic specificity. Raman spectroscopy offers certain distinct advantages over than other optical diagnostic techniques such as high spatial resolution, use of less harmful NIR radiation, less or no sample preparation, no influence of water bands which facilitates in vivo/in situ measurements. This makes Raman spectroscopy also very useful for biomedical applications. Several research groups have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in biomedical applications. The background and principle of these techniques will be discussed with some examples and discussions on how Raman spectroscopy can act as a promising technique for rapid in vivo diagnosis and detection of various cancers at the molecular level. (author)

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Robert L; Semidey, Michael J

    2015-03-15

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a heterogeneous group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint complex, and surrounding musculature and osseous components. TMD affects up to 15% of adults, with a peak incidence at 20 to 40 years of age. TMD is classified as intra-articular or extra-articular. Common symptoms include jaw pain or dysfunction, earache, headache, and facial pain. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial and includes biologic, environmental, social, emotional, and cognitive triggers. Diagnosis is most often based on history and physical examination. Diagnostic imaging may be beneficial when malocclusion or intra-articular abnormalities are suspected. Most patients improve with a combination of noninvasive therapies, including patient education, self-care, cognitive behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, physical therapy, and occlusal devices. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants are recommended initially, and benzodiazepines or antidepressants may be added for chronic cases. Referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon is indicated for refractory cases.

  9. CT diagnosis of simple renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanakawa, Seito; Yasunaga, Tadamasa; Tsuchigame, Tadatoshi; Kawano, Shoji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fukui, Koutaro.

    1987-01-01

    CT is indispensable in the evaluation of renal masses, providing noninvasive and clear transverse images. With wider clinical application of CT, renal cysts have been found more frequently. CT examinations on 500 patients, who underwent CT for the diagnosis of renal diseases except for renal cysts, have been reviewed and analysed. The incidence of renal cysts was 9.6 % without prediction for sexes, but the incidence and sizes of the cysts increased with the advancing age. The upper portion of the kidneys was more frequently involved, but there was no relationship between number, sex and age of the patients. Since renal cysts produce mass effect in the kidneys, understanding of the nature and incidence of the renal cysts is important in diagnosing renal mass lesions. (author)

  10. Lymphoscintigraphy in the diagnosis of extremity lymphedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Meifang; Lu Gang; Li Fang; Tian Jian

    1994-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy, using 99m Tc labeled antimony sulfur colloid and 99m Tc labeled dextran, was performed on 25 patients with swelling of upper or lower extremities for diagnosis of lymphedema. Five different lymphoscintigraphic patterns were identified, that is normal (4 cases), collaterals (2 cases), mixed (13 cases), dermal backflow (4 cases) and no backflow pattern (2 cases). Eight patients underwent operations for lympho-venous anastomoses on the involved extremity. The results indicate that lymphoscintigraphy has many advantages, such as simplicity and non-invasiveness, safety and reliability, being able to differentiate properties of extremity edema, to provide the information of morphologic changes and dynamically display lymphatic drainage and obstructive extent in the lymphatic system. The procedure is valuable for determination of the treatment modalities and the selection of patient for lymphatic microsurgery

  11. Serological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Fengmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological markers have the features of noninvasiveness and simple operation and thus have become a research hotspot in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. This article briefly introduces the role of the conventional serological marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in assisting the diagnosis and predicting the prognosis of HBV-related liver cancer, as well as the clinical value of new markers such as alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and abnormal prothrombin/des-γ-carboxy prothrombin. Based on literature review, the possibility of serum Golgi protein 73 used for laboratory auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma has been denied. The results of the author′s experiment suggest that serum GP73 measurement can be used as a laboratory diagnostic index for progressive liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.

  12. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Cong; Liu Cheng; Wang Ximing; Wang Daoping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning the treatment of splenic aneurysms. Methods: Eight cases with splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty four-slice spiral CT scans were performed. Intravenous contrast material was injected at 4 ml/s, and arterial and venous phase images were obtained. Subsequently, arterial phase images were analyzed and made for CT angiography. The diagnosis was made by using axial and reconstructive images. All of the patients were also performed Doppler color echocardiography. Results: All patients showed splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysms clearly with CT arterial phase images. Among them, six patients had splenic artery aneurysms, one had giant splenic artery aneurysms (GSAA) and one had splenic artery pseudoaneurysms. Ultrasound examination only diagnosed six of them. Conclusion: MDCT is a noninvasive and valuable method in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms and has high value in determination of treatment plan

  13. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Cong [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Institute, Road jing-wu No. 324, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China)], E-mail: suncong03@163.com; Liu Cheng; Wang Ximing; Wang Daoping [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Institute, Road jing-wu No. 324, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning the treatment of splenic aneurysms. Methods: Eight cases with splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty four-slice spiral CT scans were performed. Intravenous contrast material was injected at 4 ml/s, and arterial and venous phase images were obtained. Subsequently, arterial phase images were analyzed and made for CT angiography. The diagnosis was made by using axial and reconstructive images. All of the patients were also performed Doppler color echocardiography. Results: All patients showed splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysms clearly with CT arterial phase images. Among them, six patients had splenic artery aneurysms, one had giant splenic artery aneurysms (GSAA) and one had splenic artery pseudoaneurysms. Ultrasound examination only diagnosed six of them. Conclusion: MDCT is a noninvasive and valuable method in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms and has high value in determination of treatment plan.

  14. Comparison of PET and proton NMR imaging in the diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Jagust, W.J.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1985-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), medical personnel remain unable to make the diagnosis noninvasively, except by exclusion. The more recently developed technique of positron emission tomography (PET) has been used with a labeled glucose analogue, ( 18 F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), to noninvasively study glucose metabolism in dementia. Specific regional alterations, particularly in the temporal-parietal cortex, have been found. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is another powerful new technology that is beginning to be applied to dementia. The authors have compared the findings in PET studies using FDG with NMR imaging in two subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungavkar, S.A.; Joshi, V.; Patkar, D.P.; Lawande, M.; Gadani, S.; Shah-Mehta, N.

    2006-01-01

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. A spectroscopic approach toward depression diagnosis: local metabolism meets functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Colic, Lejla; Li, Meng; Safron, Adam; Biswal, B; Metzger, Coraline Danielle; Li, Shijia; Walter, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal anterior insula (AI) response and functional connectivity (FC) is associated with depression. In addition to clinical features, such as severity, AI FC and its metabolism further predicted therapeutic response. Abnormal FC between anterior cingulate and AI covaried with reduced glutamate level within cingulate cortex. Recently, deficient glial glutamate conversion was found in AI in major depression disorder (MDD). We therefore postulate a local glutamatergic mechanism in insula cortex of depressive patients, which is correlated with symptoms severity and itself influences AI's network connectivity in MDD. Twenty-five MDD patients and 25 healthy controls (HC) matched on age and sex underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans. To determine the role of local glutamate-glutamine complex (Glx) ratio on whole brain AI FC, we conducted regression analysis with Glx relative to creatine (Cr) ratio as factor of interest and age, sex, and voxel tissue composition as nuisance factors. We found that in MDD, but not in HC, AI Glx/Cr ratio correlated positively with AI FC to right supramarginal gyrus and negatively with AI FC toward left occipital cortex (p family wise error). AI Glx/Cr level was negatively correlated with HAMD score (p disintegration of insula toward low level and supramodal integration areas, in MDD. While causality cannot directly be inferred from such correlation, our finding helps to define a multilevel network of response-predicting regions based on local metabolism and connectivity strength.

  17. Noninvasive Computed Tomography–based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. Objectives: To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. Methods: We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. Conclusions: CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26052977

  18. Noninvasive Computed Tomography-based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2015-09-15

    Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas.

  19. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease using dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikamori, Taishiro; Doi, Yoshinori; Yonezawa, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Seo, Hiromi; Kawai, Kazuya; Yabe, Toshikazu; Ozawa, Toshio

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic value of dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy for the noninvasive identification of left main (LM) and triple vessel (TV) coronary artery disease (CAD) was evaluated in 615 consecutive patients with known or suspected CAD. One hundred thirty-nine patients had LM or TVCAD; the remaining 476 patients had limited CAD (double vessel CAD in 112, single vessel CAD in 235, insignificant lesions in 129). Patients with LM or TVCAD, compared to those with limited CAD, had a higher incidence of diffuse slow washout (58 vs 20%, p<0.0001), extensive fixed defects (21 vs 6%, p<0.0001) and extensive reversible defects (32 vs 8%, p<0.0001). During dipyridamole loading, the incidence of chest pain was higher (65 vs 41%, p<0.0001), and the magnitude of ST depression was greater (0.16±0.14 vs 0.04±0.07 mV, p<0.001) in patients with LM or TVCAD than in those with limited CAD. Stepwise discriminant analysis using scintigraphic imaging achieved a sensitivity of 69%, a specificity of 79%, and an accuracy of 77% for diagnosing patients with LM or TVCAD. After including clinical markers of ischemia during dipyridamole loading, multivariate analysis revealed an improved diagnosis with a sensitivity of 71%, a specificity of 85%, and an accuracy of 82%. These results clearly show the usefulness of scintigraphic imaging as well as the significance of careful assessment of clinical markers of ischemia during dipyridamole loading for the noninvasive identification of LM and TVCAD. (author)

  20. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao

    2016-01-01

    developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels......Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....