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Sample records for noninvasive apparatus reduced

  1. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  2. A Study of Maglev Vehicle Dynamics Using a Reduced-Scale Vehicle Model Experiment Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Erimitsu; Watanabe, Ken; Hoshino, Hironori; Yonezu, Takenori; Nagai, Masao

    An experiment apparatus using a 1/12 scale model of a train car body was constructed to study the characteristics of vehicle dynamics of magnetically levitated high speed surface transport (Maglev) systems that differ from conventional railway systems. Consisting of six-axis parallel link motion bases to reproduce bogie motions, an aluminum car body, and secondary suspension units, this apparatus is expected to be useful in examinations of control methods to reduce vehicle vibrations and to generate data useful in eventually improving the precision of computer simulations. This report provides an overview of the Maglev vehicle model experiment apparatus and results of initial tests examining its fundamental characteristics.

  3. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  4. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimen

  5. Method and apparatus for spur-reduced digital sinusoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, George A. (Inventor); Flanagan, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A technique for reducing the spurious signal content in digital sinusoid synthesis is presented. Spur reduction is accomplished through dithering both amplitude and phase values prior to word-length reduction. The analytical approach developed for analog quantization is used to produce new bounds on spur performance in these dithered systems. Amplitude dithering allows output word-length reduction without introducing additional spurs. Effects of periodic dither similar to that produced by a pseudo-noise (PN) generator are analyzed. This phase dithering method provides a spur reduction of 6(M + 1) dB per phase bit when the dither consists of M uniform variates. While the spur reduction is at the expense of an increase in system noise, the noise power can be made white, making the power spectral density small. This technique permits the use of a smaller number of phase bits addressing sinusoid look-up tables, resulting in an exponential decrease in system complexity. Amplitude dithering allows the use of less complicated multipliers and narrower data paths in purely digital applications, as well as the use of coarse-resolution, highly-linear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's) to obtain spur performance limited by the DAC linearity rather than its resolution.

  6. Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

  7. Exploitation of a noninvasive small animal's heart rate measuring apparatus%小动物无创式心率监测仪的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳茹; 司伟; 易小林; 孟燕军; 范振中

    2012-01-01

    目的:研制一种无创测量小动物心率及存活时间的监测仪.方法:采用MB-6型鼠尾脉搏波传感器,无创伤状态下拾取鼠尾脉搏波信号,应用单片机对脉搏波信号进行识别,寻找出正确的心动周期,计算小动物的实时心率,并与对应的记忆示波器测量的数据进行统计分析.结果:监测仪和示波器所测大鼠心率分别为(370.0±45.3) min-1和(371.0±46.0) min-1,小鼠心率(598.4±78.0) min-1和(597.5±74.9) min-1,差异均无统计学意义(t大鼠=0.026,P=0.979;t小鼠=0.049,P=0.961).大、小鼠的两种测量数据的直线相关系数值皆为0.996.结论:该仪器可用于无创测量小动物心率及存活期.%Aim:To develop a noninvasive measuring apparatus in order to measure the heart rate and survival time of small animals. Methods:By using the MB-6-type tail pulse wave sensor,the pulse wave signals of small animals were obtained without hurting. Then by analyzing these signals with a microcontroller,and to acquire the right cardiac cycle,which can be used to calculate the real time heart rate. Furthermore, we contrasted the results with those obtained by the oscilloscope. Results: The heart rates of rats/mice measured by the apparatus and the oscilloscope were ( 370. 0 ± 45. 3 ) min -1/ (598.4±78.0) min-1 and ( 371. 0 ±46. 0 ) min-1/(597.5 ±74.9) min-1,respectively. There was no significant difference between the values measured by the two methods( t-rat = 0.026 ,P = 0. 979 ;t-mouse = 0. 049 ,P = 0. 961 ). Linear correlation analyses of the two data sets showed that the coefficients of correlation were both 0.996. Conclusion: The developed apparatus could hold promise for the application in measuring the heart rate noninvasively.

  8. Apparatus and method to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2016-11-22

    An apparatus to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface, including a metal layer configured for insertion between a surface interface between a CMC component and a metal component. The surface interface of the metal layer is compliant relative to asperities of the surface interface of the CMC component. A coefficient of friction between the surface interface of the CMC component and the metal component is about 1.0 or less at an operating temperature between about 300.degree. C. to about 325.degree. C. and a limiting temperature of the metal component.

  9. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Korchazhkina, Olga; Job, Deborah; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Crome, Peter

    2006-09-01

    There are unexplained links between human exposure to aluminium and the incidence, progression and aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. The null hypothesis which underlies any link is that there would be no Alzheimer's disease in the effective absence of a body burden of aluminium. To test this the latter would have to be reduced to and retained at a level that was commensurate with an Alzheimer's disease-free population. In the absence of recent human interference in the biogeochemical cycle of aluminium the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium has acted as a geochemical control of the biological availability of aluminium. This same mechanism might now be applied to both the removal of aluminium from the body and the reduced entry of aluminium into the body while ensuring that essential metals, such as iron, are unaffected. Based upon the premise that urinary aluminium is the best non-invasive estimate of body burden of aluminium patients with Alzheimer's disease were asked to drink 1.5 L of a silicic acid-rich mineral water each day for five days and, by comparison of their urinary excretion of aluminium pre-and post this simple procedure, the influence upon their body burden of aluminium was determined. Drinking the mineral water increased significantly (Paluminium (86.0 +/- 24.3 to 62.2 +/- 23.2 nmol/mmol creatinine). The latter was achieved without any significant (P>0.05) influence upon the urinary excretion of iron (20.7 +/- 9.5 to 21.7 +/- 13.8 nmol/mmol creatinine). The reduction in urinary aluminium supported the future longer-term use of silicic acid as non-invasive therapy for reducing the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke; Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1-2h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus.

  11. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke [Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akitsugu [Department of Animal Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga, 526‐0829 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuhiro, E-mail: osaru3@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1–2 h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. - Highlights: • The Golgi apparatus reversibly disassembles by low pH treatment. • The cis-Golgi disassembles quickly generating tubular structures. • Both anterograde and retrograde transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus are reduced. • Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO

  12. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeki Hamasaki

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  13. A new behavioural apparatus to reduce animal numbers in multiple types of spontaneous object recognition paradigms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen-Ali, K E; Eacott, M J; Easton, A

    2012-10-15

    Standard object recognition procedures assess animals' memory through their spontaneous exploration of novel objects or novel configurations of objects with other aspects of their environment. Such tasks are widely used in memory research, but also in pharmaceutical companies screening new drug treatments. However, behaviour in these tasks may be driven by influences other than novelty such as stress from handling which can subsequently influence performance. This extra-experimental variance means that large numbers of animals are required to maintain power. In addition, accumulation of data is time consuming as animals typically perform only one trial per day. The present study aimed to explore how effectively recognition memory could be tested with a new continual trials apparatus which allows for multiple trials within a session and reduced handling stress through combining features of delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition tasks. In this apparatus Lister hooded rats displayed performance significantly above chance levels in object recognition tasks (Experiments 1 and 2) and in tasks of object-location (Experiment 3) and object-in-context memory (Experiment 4) with data from only five animals or fewer per experimental group. The findings indicated that the results were comparable to those of previous reports in the literature and maintained statistical power whilst using less than a third of the number of animals typically used in spontaneous recognition paradigms. Overall, the results highlight the potential benefit of the continual trials apparatus to reduce the number of animals used in recognition memory tasks.

  14. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in healthy humans reduces sympathetic nerve activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, JA; Mary, DA; Witte, KK; Greenwood, JP; Deuchars, SA; Deuchars, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is currently used to treat refractory epilepsy and is being investigated as a potential therapy for a range of conditions, including heart failure, tinnitus, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. However, the invasive nature and expense limits the use of VNS in patient populations and hinders the exploration of the mechanisms involved. Objective: We investigated a non-invasive method of VNS through electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagu...

  15. A noninvasive mechanical treatment to reduce the visible appearance of cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubal, Paul J; Busuito, Michael J; Freeman, D Carl; Placzek, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Cellulite is a cosmetic condition of subcutaneous fat herniation through fibrous connective tissue that results in a dimpled appearance of the skin. Occurring in approximately 85% to 90% of all women worldwide, cellulite has been well studied. The result has been the development of a plethora of treatment protocols yielding little to no success. We describe a noninvasive mechanical treatment for women with cellulite, evaluating the safety and effectiveness of a technique that utilizes a unique patented device for the reduction of the visible appearance of cellulite.

  16. In vitro axial preload application during spine flexibility testing: towards reduced apparatus-related artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripton, P A; Bruehlmann, S B; Orr, T E; Oxland, T R; Nolte, L P

    2000-12-01

    Presently, there is little consensus about how, or even if, axial preload should be incorporated in spine flexibility tests in order to simulate the compressive loads naturally present in vivo. Some preload application methods are suspected of producing unwanted "artefact" forces as the specimen rotates and, in doing so, influencing the resulting kinematics. The objective of this study was to quantitatively compare four distinct types of preload which have roots in contemporary experimental practice. The specific quantities compared were the reaction moments and forces resulting at the intervertebral disc and specimen kinematics. The preload types incorporated increasing amounts of caudal constraint on the preload application vector ranging from an unconstrained dead-load arrangement to an apparatus that allowed the vector to follow rotations of the specimen. Six human cadaveric spine segments were tested (1-L1/L2, 3-L2/L3, 1-L3/L4 and 1-L4/L5). Pure moments were applied to the specimens with each of the four different types of compressive preload. Kinematic response was measured using an opto-electronic motion analysis system. A six-axis load cell was used to measure reaction forces and moments. Artefact reaction moments and shear forces were significantly affected by preload application method and magnitude. Unconstrained preload methods produced high artefact moments and low artefact shear forces while more constrained methods did the opposite. A mechanical trade-off is suggested by our results, whereby unwanted moment can only be prevented at the cost of shear force production. When comparing spine flexibility studies, caution should be exercised to ensure preload was applied in a similar manner for all studies. Unwanted moments or forces induced as a result of preload application method may render the comparison of two seemingly similar studies inappropriate.

  17. Noninvasive determination of absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient of human skin tissues in vivo with oblique-incidence reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Sun; Yu Wang; Xiaoli Mo; Jinghui Xie

    2008-01-01

    A spatial distribution of diffuse reflectance produced by obliquely incident light is not centered about the point of light entry. The value of shift in the center of diffuse reflectance is directly related to the absorption coefficient μa and the effective attenuation coefficient μeff. μa and the reduced scattering coefficient μ's of human skin tissues in vivo are measured by oblique-incidence reflectometry based on the two-source diffuse theory model. For ten Chinese volunteers aged 15-63 years, μa and μ's are noninvasively determined to be 0.029 - 0.075 and 0.52 - 0.97 mm-1, respectively.

  18. Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more effi...

  19. Noninvasive stimulation of prefrontal cortex strengthens existing episodic memories and reduces forgetting in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSandrini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory consolidation is a dynamic process. Reactivation of consolidated memories by a reminder triggers reconsolidation, a time-limited period during which existing memories can be modified (i.e. weakened or strengthened. Episodic memory refers to our ability to recall specific past events about what happened, including where and when. Difficulties in this form of long-term memory commonly occur in healthy aging. Because episodic memory is critical for daily life functioning, the development of effective interventions to reduce memory loss in elderly individuals is of great importance. A previous study in young adults showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC plays a causal role in strengthening of verbal episodic memories through reconsolidation. The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which facilitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC would strengthen existing episodic memories through reconsolidation in elderly individuals. On Day 1, older adults learned a list of 20 words. On Day 2 (24h later, they received a reminder or not, and after 10 minutes tDCS was applied over the left DLPFC. Memory recall was tested on Day 3 (48h later and Day 30 (1 month later. Surprisingly, anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC (i.e. with or without the reminder strengthened existing verbal episodic memories and reduced forgetting compared to sham stimulation. These results provide a framework for testing the hypothesis that facilitatory tDCS of prefrontal cortex might strengthen existing episodic memories and reduce memory loss in older adults with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

  20. Vibration anesthesia: a noninvasive method of reducing discomfort prior to dermatologic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin C; Comite, Stephen L; Balasubramanian, Suprina; Carver, Alan; Liu, Judy F

    2004-10-15

    In some dermatologic and cosmetic procedures, local anesthesia is not sufficient for relieving pain; often patients are averse to injections. We propose vibration anesthesia, the use of vibration delivered with commercially available inexpensive massagers to reduce discomfort. We find the analgesic effect of vibration helpful in minimizing pain in patients undergoing injections of botulinum toxin type A treatment for hyperhidrosis, injection of filler substances such as Restylane and Juvederm, laser therapy for leg veins, nail-fold injections, Q-switched laser treatment of tattoos, incision and drainage of abscesses, and cautery of facial warts, as well as facilitating anesthetic injections for needle-phobic patients. We expect that additional uses will be found as experience with this modality grows. Although the use of vibration anesthesia generally does not eliminate pain completely, it can serve to make the injection or procedure much more tolerable.

  1. Apparatus to reduce or eliminate combustor perimeter wall erosion in fluidized bed boilers or reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.E.

    1993-08-31

    A fluidized bed boiler or reactor is described comprising a housing, a reaction chamber within said housing, air distribution means within said reaction chamber, a plurality of water wall tubes approximately vertically disposed and arranged about the interior walls of said housing so as to define said reaction chamber, wherein the improvement comprises: providing at least a portion of the vertically disposed water wall tubes with an outward slope in the range between 2.5 to 10 such that the cross-section of the upper portion of said reaction chamber is smaller than the cross-section of the lower portion of said reaction chamber so as to reduce or eliminate erosion of said water wall tubes caused by impact from downward flowing solid particles.

  2. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  3. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system is disclosed with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  4. Resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana L. photosynthetic apparatus to UV-B is reduced by deficit of phytochromes B and A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, Aleksandra Yu; Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Shirshikova, Galina N; Zharmukhamedov, Sergey K; Kosobryukhov, Anatoly A; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2017-03-01

    The photosynthetic responses of 25-day-old Arabidopsis phyA phyB double mutant (DM) compared with the wild type (WT) to UV-B radiation (1Wm(-2), 30min) were investigated. UV-B irradiation led to reduction of photosystem 2 (PS-2) activity and the photosynthetic rate. In plants grown under both white and red light (λm - 660nm) the reduction was greater in DM plants compared to the WT. Without UV-B irradiation a decrease in PS-2 activity was observed in DM grown under RL only. It is assumed that the lower content of UV-absorbing pigments and carotenoids observed in DM may be one of the reasons of reduced PS-2 resistance to UV-B. Higher decrease in activities under UV in DM plants grown under RL compared to DM plants grown under white light is likely due to the lack of activity of cryptochromes in plants grown under red light. Rates of post-stress recovery of photosynthetic activity of DM compared with WT plants under white and red light of low intensity were studied. Almost complete recovery of the activity was found which was not observed under dark conditions and in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor, chloramphenicol. It is assumed that phytochrome system participates in stress-protective mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus to UV-radiation.

  5. Nanostructured zirconia decorated reduced graphene oxide based efficient biosensing platform for non-invasive oral cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suveen; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Maji, Sagar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2016-04-15

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of a non-invasive, label-free and an efficient biosensing platform for detection of the oral cancer biomarker (CYFRA-21-1). One step hydrothermal process was used for uniform decoration of nanostructured zirconia (average particle size 13 nm) on reduced graphene oxide (ZrO2-RGO) to avoid coagulation of the zirconia nanoparticles and to obtain enhanced electrochemical performance of ZrO2-RGO nanocomposite based biosensor. Further, ZrO2-RGO has been functionalized using 3-aminopropyl triethoxy saline (APTES) and electrophoretically deposited on the indium tin oxide coated glass substrate at a low DC potential.The APTES/ZrO2-RGO/ITO electrode exhibits improved heterogeneous electron transfer (more than two times) with respect to that of the APTES/ZrO2/ITO electrode indicating faster electron transfer kinetics. The -NH2 containing APTES/ZrO2-RGO/ITO platform is further biofunctionalized with anti-CYFRA-21-1. The structural and morphological investigations of the ZrO2-RGO based biosensing platform have been accomplished using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies. This immunosensor exhibits a wider linear detection range (2-22 ng mL(-1)), excellent sensitivity (0.756 µA mL ng(-1)) and a remarkable lower detection limit of 0.122 ng mL(-1). The observed results have been validated via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  6. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  7. A new diode laser acupuncture therapy apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwei; Huang, Zhen; Li, Dongyu; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2006-06-01

    Since the first laser-needles acupuncture apparatus was introduced in therapy, this kind of apparatus has been well used in laser biomedicine as its non-invasive, pain- free, non-bacterium, and safetool. The laser acupuncture apparatus in this paper is based on single-chip microcomputer and associated by semiconductor laser technology. The function like traditional moxibustion including reinforcing and reducing is implemented by applying chaos method to control the duty cycle of moxibustion signal, and the traditional lifting and thrusting of acupuncture is implemented by changing power output of the diode laser. The radiator element of diode laser is made and the drive circuit is designed. And chaos mathematic model is used to produce deterministic class stochastic signal to avoid the body adaptability. This function covers the shortages of continuous irradiation or that of simple disciplinary stimulate signal, which is controlled by some simple electronic circuit and become easily adjusted by human body. The realization of reinforcing and reducing of moxibustion is technological innovation in traditional acupuncture coming true in engineering.

  8. Noninvasive determination of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads by time-resolved reflectance measurements for functional near infra-red spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanifuji, T; Wang, L

    2014-01-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μ(a) and μ'(s)) of adult heads have been noninvasively determined by time-resolved reflectance measurements. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis was used to calculate time-resolved reflectance from realistic adult head models with brain grooves containing a non-scattering layer. In vivo time-resolved reflectances of human heads were measured by a system composed of a time-correlated single photon counter and a diode laser. By minimizing the objective functions that compare theoretical and experimental time resolved reflectances, μ(a) and μ'(s) of brain were determined. It became clear that time-resolved measurements have enough sensitivity to determine both μ(a) and μ'(s) for superficial tissues, gray matter and white matter, except μ(s) for white matter.

  9. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  10. 21 CFR 888.5890 - Noninvasive traction component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5890 Noninvasive traction component. (a... apparatus so that a therapeutic pulling force may be applied to the patient's body. (b)...

  11. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  12. Unilateral NMR: a Noninvasive Tool for Monitoring In Situ the Effectiveness of Intervention to Reduce the Capillary Raise of Water in an Ancient Deteriorated Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Di Tullio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Portable unilateral NMR was used to quantitatively map in a fully noninvasive way the moisture distribution in an ancient deteriorated wall painting before and after an intervention to reduce the capillary raise of water through the wall. Maps obtained at a depth of 0.5 cm clearly showed the path of the capillary raise and indicated that, after the intervention, the moisture level was reduced. Maps obtained by measuring the first layers of the wall painting were affected by the critical environmental conditions of the second hypogeous level of St. Clement Basilica, Rome, and by the presence of salts efflorescence and encrustations on the surface of the wall painting. The morphology and the elemental composition of salts investigated by SEM-EDS indicated that efflorescences and encrustations were mostly constituted of gypsum and calcite. The presence of these salts is explained with the presence of high concentration of carbon dioxide and sulphur-rich particles due to pollution which, along with the high-moisture level and the extremely feeble air circulation, cause recarbonation and sulphation processes on the plaster surface.

  13. Clinical application of focused ultrasound body contouring apparatus in non-invasive body contouring%聚焦超声减脂塑形机用于腹部减脂塑形的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂芳菲; 赵霞; 陈东明; 朱力; 马勇光

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨聚焦超声减脂塑形机用于腹部减脂塑形的安全性和有效性.方法 选取40例健康受试者,随机分为实验组和对照组,每组20例,按照单盲法实验原则.采用JCS-01型聚焦超声减脂塑形机对受试者的腹部区域做间隔7d的2次治疗.治疗时,固定治疗探头,操作仪器使治疗床按指定区域自行移动.对照组在治疗时调整器械无能量输出.在两次治疗前及治疗后第14天和第35天进行腹围测量、局部拍照以及安全性随访,第35天实验结束时调查受试者满意度.结果 40例受试者中失访1例,其余39例均未发生皮肤红斑、水肿或丘疹,实验室检查未发现有临床意义变化.在治疗后各时间点,实验组中腹围减少>0.5 cm的受试者,所占的比例均明显高于对照组(P<0.05).在第35天时两组的腹围减少差异最为显著,20例实验组的受试者中有19例的腹围减少0.83~6.33 cm,平均减少值约3.09 cm,总有效率为95%,受试者满意率为75%.结论 聚焦超声减脂塑形机具有较高安全性,用于腹部减脂塑形有一定效果.%Objective To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of focused ultrasound body contouring apparatus in abdominal fat reduction and body contouring.Methods Forty healthy subjeets were equally randomized into treatment group and control group,and received two treatments with the JCS-01 device (3H Medical Technology Co,Ltd,Beijing,China) in the abdominal region at one-week interval.During each treatment,the subject was placed on the treatment bed and the region of interest was spread with an acoustic coupling medium.Then the ultrasonic transducer was fixed,and the operator controlled the computerized system to move the bed in a designed regon.The control group would not receive any energy therapy during treatment time.Subjects were followed for 28 days after the last treatment (day 35).Abdominal circumference,regional photos and safety parameters were recorded at

  14. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  15. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  16. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  17. A Novel Portable Apparatus for Noninvasively Measuring Bone Density Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The bone loss associated with extended space missions in astronaut represents a serious health threat, both over the flight period and upon returning to...

  18. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  19. Near-infrared oxymeter prototype for noninvasive analysis of rat brain oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Francesco; Donini, Maurizio; Bandera, Andrea; Heidbreder, Christian; Salvatori, Giorgia; Rovati, Luigi

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive analysis of brain activities was studied in the attempt to overcome the major limitation of actual in vivo methodologies i.e. invasiveness. Optic fibre probes were used as optical head of a novel, highly sensitive near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (CW-NIR) instrument. This prototype was designed for non-invasive analysis of the two main forms of haemoglobin: oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb), chromophores present in biological tissues. It was tested in peripheral tissue (human gastrocnemius muscle) and then reset to perform measurement on rat brain. In animal studies, the optical head was firmly placed using stereotaxic apparatus upon the sagittal line of anaesthetised adult rat's head, without any surgery. Then pharmacological treatments with saline (300μl s.c.) amphetamine (2mg/kg) or nicotine (0.4mg/kg) were performed. Within 10-20 min amphetamine substantially increased HbO2 and reduced Hb control levels. Nicotine produced a rapid initial increase followed by a decrease of HbO2. In contrast to amphetamine, nicotine treatment also reduced Hb and blood volume. These results support the capacity of our CW-NIR prototype to measure non-invasively HbO2 and Hb levels in the rat brain, markers of the degree of tissue oxygenation, index of blood level then of the state of brain metabolism.

  20. Relativistic Quantum Noninvasive Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bednorz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Quantum weak, noninvasive measurements are defined in the framework of relativity. Invariance with respect to reference frame transformations of the results in different models is discussed. Surprisingly, the bare results of noninvasive measurements are invariant for certain class of models, but not the detection error. Consequently, any stationary quantum realism based on noninvasive measurements will break, at least spontaneously, relativistic invariance and correspondence principle at zero temperature.

  1. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  2. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  3. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  4. Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

  5. Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: Reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume’s 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomp...

  6. 无创助产技术降低会阴侧切率的效果分析%Analysis of the Effects of Noninvasive Midwifery Technique on Reducing Episiotomy Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮淑梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过与传统会阴保护接生法比较,探讨无创助产技术对会阴侧切率的影响。方法将2014年1~10月本院开展实施无创助产技术的1000名产妇设为观察组,回顾性分析选取2013年1~11月采用传统保护会阴法的1000名产妇为对照组。比较两组产妇会阴侧切率、会阴裂伤情况。结果观察组会阴侧切226例,侧切率为22.6%,对照组会阴侧切734例,侧切率为73.4%,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论无创助产技术有利于控制和降低会阴侧切率,保护会阴完整。%Objective To investigate the effect of noninvasive midwifery technique on episiotomy rate through comparison with traditional perineum protecting midwifery.MethodsA total of 1 000 puerperae received noninvasive midwifery in our hospital from 2014 Jan to Oct. 2014 were selected as the subjects of the observation group,and another 1 000 puerperae received traditional perineum protecting midwifery from 2013 Jan to Nov. 2013 were selected as the subjects of the control group in a retrospective analysis. The episiotomy rate and perineal laceration in puerperae of these two groups were compared. Results There were 226 cases of episiotomy in the observation group and the episiotomy rate was 22.6%,the case number of episiotomy in the control group was 734 and the episiotomy rate was 73.4%(P< 0.05).Conclusion Noninvasive midwifery technique is beneficial to controling and reducing the episiotomy rate and protecting perinaeum integrity,and thereby is worthy of clinical promotion and application.

  7. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  8. Light shielding apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  9. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  10. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  11. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  12. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  13. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  14. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  15. Noninvasive observations on eyes of cats after long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by topical application of prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, L Z; Srinivasan, B D; Baroody, R A; Schubert, H

    1983-03-01

    Daily or twice daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) application to cat eyes was shown to maintain a reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) for several months without causing substantial flare or cellular response. We report now on detailed ophthalmic examinations performed on these cats after 5-9 months of such treatment (ie, after 150 to 250 unilateral PGE2 applications; 100 micrograms/treatment per eye). A comparison of the treated and contralateral control eyes revealed no differences in the axial length of ocular compartments, in the biomicroscopic appearance of the lens, vitreous, retina, or optic nerve head, in the rate of light-induced pupillary constriction or in the wave form of the electroretinogram. The cell density of the corneal endothelium was not decreased, but the endothelial surface did contain a few small "dark spots." A slight iridial heterochromia was generally apparent. In three of the cats PGE2 application had a sialagogic effect that became a conditioned reflex. Cats tended to keep their lids closed after each treatment; lid closure was more prolonged in the PGE2-treated eye than in the contralateral eye that received the same volume (50 microliters) of vehicle solution. It is concluded that daily treatment with PGE2, in doses sufficient to cause a maintained reduction in IOP, does have some side effects. However, none of these side effects are of sufficient importance to exclude the use of eicosanoids as potential anti-glaucoma agents.

  16. Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2012-05-01

    The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

  17. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  18. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  19. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  20. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  1. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  2. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  3. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  4. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  5. The radon EDM apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

  6. Heat exchange apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  7. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  8. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  9. Solder dross removal apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  10. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  11. Near-infrared oxymeter biosensor prototype for non-invasive in vivo analysis of rat brain oxygenation: effects of drugs of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F.; Donini, M.; Bandera, A.; Congestri, F.; Formenti, F.; Sonntag, V.; Heidbreder, C.; Rovati, L.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive analysis of brain activities was studied in the attempt to overcome the major limitation of actual in vivo methodologies, i.e. invasiveness. Optic fibre probes were used as the optical head of a novel, highly sensitive near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (CW-NIR) instrument. This prototype was designed for non-invasive analysis of the two main forms of haemoglobin: oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb), chromophores present in biological tissues. It was tested in peripheral tissue (human gastrocnemius muscle) and then reset to perform the measurement on rat brain. In animal studies, the optical head was firmly placed using stereotaxic apparatus upon the sagittal line of the head of anaesthetized adult rats, without any surgery. Then pharmacological treatments with saline (300 µl s.c.) amphetamine (2 mg kg-1) or nicotine (0.4 mg kg-1) were performed. Within 10-20 min amphetamine substantially increased HbO2 and reduced Hb control levels. Nicotine produced a rapid initial increase followed by a decrease in HbO2. In contrast to amphetamine, nicotine treatment also reduced Hb and blood volume. These results support the capacity of our CW-NIR prototype to measure non-invasively HbO2 and Hb levels in the rat brain, that are markers of the degree of tissue oxygenation, thus providing an index of blood levels and therefore of brain metabolism.

  12. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-02-23

    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one or more signals from a neighboring node of the linear wireless sensor network; first amplifier circuitry configured to adjust an amplitude of a respective received signal in accordance with a weighting coefficient and invoke a desired phase to a carrier frequency of the received signal thereby forming a first amplified signal; and second amplifier circuitry configured to adjust a gain of the first amplified signal towards upstream and downstream neighbors of the linear wireless sensor in the linear wireless sensor network.

  13. Neutron detection apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Borek, III, Theodore T.

    2017-08-15

    An apparatus for neutron detection is provided. The apparatus comprises a sensor medium in electrical contact with an electrode arrangement conformed to collect radiation-generated charge from the sensor medium. The sensor medium comprises a borazine and/or a borazine-based polymer.

  14. Heat Treating Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  15. Spine immobilization apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  16. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Shevrin, E.

    2016-11-01

    The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  17. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  18. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  19. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  20. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  1. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  2. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffren, M. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  3. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  4. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  5. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  6. A portable X-ray diffraction apparatus for in situ analyses of masters' paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eveno, Myriam; Duran, Adrian; Castaing, Jacques [Palais du Louvre, Laboratoire du Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Paris (France)

    2010-09-15

    It is rare that the analyses of materials in paintings can be carried out by taking micro-samples. Valuable works of art are best studied in situ by non-invasive techniques. For that purpose, a portable X-ray diffraction and fluorescence apparatus has been designed and constructed at the C2RMF. This apparatus has been used for paintings of Rembrandt, Leonardo da Vinci, Van Gogh, Mantegna, etc. Results are given to illustrate the performance of X-ray diffraction, especially when X-ray fluorescence does not bring sufficient information to conclude. (orig.)

  7. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  8. Improvements to the APEX apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A number of technical issues led us to rework extensively the APEX apparatus in summer 1994. During the earlier runs, a significant fraction of the 432 silicon detector elements showed degraded resolution such that they had to be excluded from the final analysis in software. The effect of this is to reduce the efficiency of APEX and possibly also to introduce holes in the acceptance which, for some perhaps exotic scenarios, might reduce the acceptance to an unacceptably low level. Also, the energy thresholds below which it is not possible to generate timing information from the silicon detectors, were high enough that the low-energy acceptance of APEX was compromised to a significant extent. The origins of these difficulties were in part due to degraded performance of the silicon detectors themselves, problems with the silicon cooling systems and electronics problems. Both silicon arrays were disassembled and sub-standard detectors replaced, all detectors were also cleaned with the result that all detectors now performed at the specified values of leakage current. The silicon cooling systems were disassembled and rebuilt with the result that many small leaks were fixed. Defective electronics channels were repaired or replaced. The rotating target wheel was also improved with the installation of new bearings and a computer-controlled rotation and readout system. The rebuilt wheel can now run at speeds up to 900 rpm for weeks on end without breakdown. The target wheel and associated beam sweeping now work extremely well so that low-melting-point targets such as Pb and In can be used in quite intense beams without melting.

  9. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  10. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  12. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L [Wayland, MA

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  13. Apparatus and techniques for measuring bedload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, David Wellington

    1964-01-01

    The need for accurate determinations of the total sediment discharge of particles of bedload size has prompted this investigation of available and possible measuring apparatus and procedures. The accuracy of measurements of sediment discharge made with trap-type samplers is affected by the variability of sampler efficiency, by the oscillatory variation of bedload discharge, and by sampler placement. Equations that were developed for determining total discharge from measured bedioad discharge and measured suspended-sediment discharge are simplest if the bedload apparatus measures only the true bedload. Early bedload samplers are generally unsatisfactory. Recently developed or suggested apparatus include various improved samplers of the pressure-difference type, a pumping sampler, a magnetic sampler, acoustical instruments that measure the magnitude of the sound of particle collisions, an ultrasonic bedload sampler designed to measure and integrate electronically the concentration and velocity, and a tiltmeter designed to measure the total sediment discharge from the ground tilt that results from the passage of flow. All the pressure-difference samplers are improvements over early samplers, but none are void of the inherent shortcomings of trap-type apparatus; probably the Sphinx (Dutch) and VUV (Hungarian) samplers are the most satisfactory. The acoustical instruments are capable of measuring only the relative discharge. The ultrasonic sampler and the tiltmeter are not adequate without further development. Some new possible apparatus and means for measuring or aiding in measuring bedload discharge are small pit samplers, ultrasonic sounders, pressure transducers, and photography. A small pit sampler for measuring bedload discharge was designed to provide self-placement and portability ; however, its practicability and efficiency are undetermined. Exploratory films show that by using slowmotion photography the discharge of particles larger than about pea size can be

  14. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  15. Study on a New Type of Jet Pressurization Evaporation Expansion Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Boyi; Zhang Mingxin; Yang Li

    2001-01-01

    The volume expansion of the stuff (e. g. tobacco stem) is of great importance to an increase in the product quality and a decrease in the production cost. This paper puts forward the basic configuration and the expansion mechanism of a new type of jet pressurization evaporation expansion apparatus. By the thermodynamic calculation of the apparatus, we give variations in steam pressure on various cross sections of the flow system for the apparatus,manufacture a sample machine, and finish run tests of the machine. The test results show that the apparatus may make the relative increase in fill value of tobacco stem higher than 75%, and may cause the steam consumption required in the expansion process of each kilogram stem to reduced about 40% compared with conventional expansion apparatus. Additionally, the configuration of the apparatus is simple and small, its cost of manufacture is very low, and both its operation and maintenance are extremely convenient.

  16. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  17. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery.

  18. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca

  19. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  20. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Escallier, J.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Isaac, C. A.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Marone, A.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Parker, B.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seddon, D.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  1. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  2. Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

  3. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  4. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  5. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  6. Material transport method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Ramsey, Roswitha S.

    2000-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  7. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  8. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  9. Apparatus for assembly of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Lavin, Judith Maria; Resnick, Paul J.

    2017-09-12

    An apparatus including a carrier substrate configured to move a microelectronic device. The apparatus further includes a rotatable body configured to receive the microelectronic device. Additionally, the apparatus includes a second substrate configured to receive the microelectronic device from the rotatable body.

  10. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and the...

  11. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.A.M

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  12. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Riksta

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  13. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Riksta

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  14. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.A.M

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  15. [Intermediate care units and noninvasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heinrich F; Schönhofer, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2006-04-15

    Intermediate care units (IMC) have been introduced to provide optimal patient management according to disease severity and to bridge the gap between intensive care (ICU) and general wards. Most patients that are referred to an IMC need monitoring and intensive analgetic treatment. Over the past years noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and weaning have emerged as important new forms of active treatment in the IMC. Most studies that have been published so far demonstrate that an IMC improves patient outcome and lowers costs, although randomized controlled trials are missing. NIV reduces mortality, the need for intubation as well as ICU and hospital length of stay in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other disorders that cause respiratory failure. In many cases NIV can be performed in the IMC, a fact that reduces the number of ICU admissions, lowers costs and improves patient care. The high prevalence of pulmonary diseases and NIV emphasizes the importance of pneumologists as directors of both ICU and IMC.

  16. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  17. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  18. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  19. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  20. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2015-11-06

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  1. Microwave sterilization method and apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Vasilenko; Minuhin, V. V.; Podorozhnyak, A. A.; Trubaev, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Experience of industrially developed countries in utilization of microwave radiation has been analyzed. Apparatus for realization of microwave method of sterilization has been designed. A number of experiments for the estimation of bactericidal, sporacidal, and virusidal properties of microwave radiation action has been carried out in 3 to 13 cm wavelength band. B. Lycheniform shtumm G., B. Subtilis ATTC 6633, E. Coli ATTC 25922 and bacterial virus FX 174 were used as test microbes. Effect of...

  2. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James

    2017-03-07

    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  3. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  4. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  5. Systems, Apparatuses, and Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, III, Stanley S. (Inventor); Lundgren, Eric C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems, methods, and apparatus for increasing durability of adhesively bonded joints in a sandwich structure. Such systems, methods, and apparatus includes an first face sheet and an second face sheet as well as an insert structure, the insert structure having a first insert face sheet, a second insert face sheet, and an insert core material. In addition, sandwich core material is arranged between the first face sheet and the second face sheet. A primary bondline may be coupled to the face sheet(s) and the splice. Further, systems, methods, and apparatus of the present disclosure advantageously reduce the load, provide a redundant path, reduce structural fatigue, and/or increase fatigue life.

  6. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data...... need to replicate these results with further controlled studies and conduct basic research in order to clarify the mechanism of action....

  7. 应用品管圈实施无创接生技术降低会阴切开率%Applications QCC implementation of noninvasive delivery techniques to reduce episiotomy rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂平; 王坤昌; 周秀荣; 周萍萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨应用品管圈实施无创接生技术对会阴切开率的影响。方法:成立品管圈小组,活动开展前对影响会阴切开的要因进行分析,确定通过实施无创接生技术,降低会阴切开率为活动主题,制定并落实改进措施。结果:应用品管圈活动,实施无创接生,会阴切开率由活动前的62.71%降低到活动后的30.24%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:应用品管圈活动,实施无创接生技术,可有效降低产妇会阴切开率,提升助产服务质量,促进自然分娩。%Objective:To evaluate the impact of the implementation of quality control circle for non -invasive delivery techniques episiotomy rate.Methods:Founded QCC group activities before affecting episiotomy should cause analysis to determine through the implementation of non -invasive delivery tech-niques to reduce episiotomy rate theme,develop and implement improvement measures.Results:QCC activities,the implementation of non -invasive deliver-y,episiotomy rate of 62.71% before the event was reduced to 30.24% after the event,the difference was statistically significant(P <0.05).Conclusion:QCC activities,the implementation of non -invasive delivery techniques, can effectively reduce maternal episiotomy rate,improve midwifery service quality, and promote natural childbirth.

  8. The quantum X-ray radiology apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hilt, B; Prevot, G

    2000-01-01

    The paper entitled 'New Quantum Detection System for Very Low Dose X-ray Radiology', presented at the talk session, discusses the preliminary data obtained using a new quantum X-ray radiology system with a high-efficiency solid-state detector and highly sensitive electronics, making it possible to reduce significantly the dose administered to a patient in X-ray radiology examinations. The present paper focuses more on the technological aspects of the apparatus, such as the integration of the detector with the two Asics, and the computer system. Namely, it is shown how the computer system calibrates the detection system, acquires the data in real time, and controls the scan parameters and image filtering process.

  9. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  10. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  11. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  12. Assessment of lung function using a non-invasive oscillating gas-forcing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Lei; Clifton, David A; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D

    2013-10-01

    Conventional methods for monitoring lung function can require complex, or special, gas analysers, and may therefore not be practical in clinical areas such as the intensive care unit (ICU) or operating theatre. The system proposed in this article is a compact and non-invasive system for the measurement and monitoring of lung variables, such as alveolar volume, airway dead space, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast with conventional methods, the compact apparatus and non-invasive nature of the proposed method could eventually allow it to be used in the ICU, as well as in general clinical settings. We also propose a novel tidal ventilation model using a non-invasive oscillating gas-forcing technique, where both nitrous oxide and oxygen are used as indicator gases. Experimental results are obtained from healthy volunteers, and are compared with those obtained using a conventional continuous ventilation model. Our findings show that the proposed technique can be used to assess lung function, and has several advantages over conventional methods such as compact and portable apparatus, easy usage, and quick estimation of cardiopulmonary variables.

  13. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  14. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  15. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  16. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  17. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  18. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  19. Refrigerant recycling apparatus, method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J.P.; Gordon, R.F.

    1993-07-13

    A refrigerant recycling apparatus for recovery and purification of refrigerant is described comprising: (a) an input conduit system for connecting a refrigerant source to the refrigerant recycling apparatus; (b) a first disposable filter capable of removing moisture and particulates from the refrigerant, said disposable filter being located such that the filter is easily accessible for service; (c) a primary heat exchanger configured so as to provide heat to the refrigerant thereby causing the refrigerant to be vaporized; (d) a secondary heat exchanger for further heating of the refrigerant to further assist in vaporization of the refrigerant; (e) an expansion valve located prior in line to said primary and secondary heat exchangers for controlling the flow of the refrigerant and reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, thereby allowing the refrigerant to expand to a predominantly gaseous state; (f) a separator for removing oil from the refrigerant; (g) a compressor pump having a vacuum producing inlet and a pressure producing outlet, the pump being a hermetically sealed, lubricated-for-life positive displacement pump; (h) a condenser for cooling the refrigerant; (i) a second disposable filter for removing moisture, acids, and other particulates from the refrigerant passing there through, said disposable filter being located in an area easily accessible for servicing; (j) an interconnecting conduit system for interconnecting the input conduit system, the first and second disposable filters, the heat exchangers, the compressor pump, the condenser, the expansion valve, and the refrigerant source; (k) a moisture indicator located after the second disposable filter, for measuring the degree of moisture present within the refrigerant after the refrigerant has flowed through the second disposable filter.

  20. Non-invasive light observer

    CERN Document Server

    Morichetti, Francesco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Photonic technologies lack non-invasive monitoring tools to inspect the light inside optical waveguides. This is one of the main barriers to large scale of integration, even though photonic platforms are potentially ready to host several thousands of elements on a single chip. Here, we demonstrate non-invasive light observation in silicon photonics devices by exploiting photon interaction with intra-gap energy states localized at the waveguide surface. Light intensity is measured through a ContactLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP) that introduces no measurable extra-photon absorption and a phase perturbation as low as 0.2 mrad, comparable to thermal fluctuations of less than 3 mK. Multipoint light monitoring is demonstrated with a sensitivity of -30 dBm and a dynamic range of 40 dB. CLIPP technology is simple, inherently CMOS compatible, and scalable to hundreds of probing points per chip. This concept provides a viable way to real-time conditioning and feedback control of densely-integrated photonic syst...

  1. Design and performance of a cryogenic apparatus for magnetically trapping ultracold neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, P. R.; Coakley, K. J.; Doyle, J. M.; Huffer, C. R.; Mumm, H. P.; O'Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Seo, P.-N.; Yang, L.

    2014-11-01

    The cryogenic design and performance of an apparatus used to magnetically confine ultracold neutrons (UCN) is presented. The apparatus is part of an effort to measure the beta-decay lifetime of the free neutron and is comprised of a high-current superconducting magnetic trap that surrounds ∼21 l of isotopically pure 4He cooled to approximately 250 mK. A 0.89 nm neutron beam can enter the apparatus from one end of the magnetic trap and a light collection system allows visible light generated within the helium by decays to be transported to detectors at room temperature. Two cryocoolers are incorporated to reduce liquid helium consumption.

  2. Measuring elevated intracranial pressure through noninvasive methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Helena; Nissborg, Emelie; Bartek, Jiri;

    2013-01-01

    . This article is a review of the current literature on noninvasive methods for measuring and evaluating elevated ICP. The main focus is on studies that compare noninvasively measured ICP with invasively measured ICP. The aim is to provide an overview of the current state of the most common noninvasive...... is associated with certain risks. Intraparenchymal ICP monitoring methods are considered to be a safer alternative but can, in certain conditions, be imprecise due to zero drift and still require an invasive procedure. An accurate noninvasive method to measure elevated ICP would therefore be desirable...

  3. An elutriation apparatus for assessing settleability of combined sewer overflows (CSOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsalek, J; Krishnappan, B G; Exall, K; Rochfort, Q; Stephens, R P

    2006-01-01

    An elutriation apparatus was proposed for testing the settleability of combined sewer outflows (CSOs) and applied to 12 CSO samples. In this apparatus, solids settling is measured under dynamic conditions created by flow through a series of settling chambers of varying diameters and upward flow velocities. Such a procedure reproduces better turbulent settling in CSO tanks than the conventional settling columns, and facilitates testing coagulant additions under dynamic conditions. Among the limitations, one could name the relatively large size of the apparatus and samples (60 L), and inadequate handling of floatables. Settleability results obtained for the elutriation apparatus and a conventional settling column indicate large inter-event variation in CSO settleability. Under such circumstances, settling tanks need to be designed for "average" conditions and, within some limits, the differences in test results produced by various settleability testing apparatuses and procedures may be acceptable. Further development of the elutriation apparatus is under way, focusing on reducing flow velocities in the tubing connecting settling chambers and reducing the number of settling chambers employed. The first measure would reduce the risk of floc breakage in the connecting tubing and the second one would reduce the required sample size.

  4. Stationary Apparatus Would Apply Forces of Walking to Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, Jessica; Wood, John; Budinoff, Jason; Correia, Michael; Albrecht, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    A proposed apparatus would apply controlled cyclic forces to both feet for the purpose of preventing the loss of bone density in a human subject whose bones are not subjected daily to the mechanical loads of normal activity in normal Earth gravitation. The apparatus was conceived for use by astronauts on long missions in outer space; it could also be used by bedridden patients on Earth, including patients too weak to generate the necessary forces by their own efforts. The apparatus (see figure) would be a modified version of a bicycle-like exercise machine, called the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS), now aboard the International Space Station. Attached to each CEVIS pedal would be a computer-controlled stress/ vibration exciter connected to the heel portion of a special-purpose pedal. The user would wear custom shoes that would amount to standard bicycle shoes equipped with cleats for secure attachment of the balls of the feet to the special- purpose pedals. If possible, prior to use of the apparatus, the human subject would wear a portable network of recording accelerometers, while walking, jogging, and running. The information thus gathered would be fed to the computer, wherein it would be used to make the exciters apply forces and vibrations closely approximating the forces and vibrations experienced by that individual during normal exercise. It is anticipated that like the forces applied to bones during natural exercise, these artificial forces would stimulate the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), as needed to prevent or retard loss of bone mass. In addition to helping to prevent deterioration of bones, the apparatus could be used in treating a person already suffering from osteoporosis. For this purpose, the magnitude of the applied forces could be reduced, if necessary, to a level at which weak hip and leg bones would still be stimulated to produce osteoblasts without exposing them to the full stresses of walking and

  5. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-09-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  6. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  7. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  8. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  9. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  10. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  11. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  12. APPARATUS FOR LIQUID PHASE EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, T.R.; Lehman, H.R.; Rubin, B.

    1958-09-16

    operation is described. It comprises a tubular colunm having upper and lower enlarged terminal portions, and a constricted central section containing fluid dispersal packing. Pulsing means are coupled to the upper portion of the column. The inlet for the less dense phase is located above the inlet for the denser phase and both are positioned so that liquids enter the constricted packingfilled central section. The apparatos also includes an interfacing level control, and means fer sensing the level of the interface actuate apparatus for controlling the rate of flow of input or discharge. The outlet for the less dense phase is located in the upper packing free portion of the colunm and that of the denser phase in the lower portion.

  13. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  14. Method of and apparatus for modeling interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Kent G.

    2004-01-13

    A method and apparatus for modeling interactions can accurately model tribological and other properties and accommodate topological disruptions. Two portions of a problem space are represented, a first with a Lagrangian mesh and a second with an ALE mesh. The ALE and Lagrangian meshes are constructed so that each node on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh is in a known correspondence with adjacent nodes in the ALE mesh. The interaction can be predicted for a time interval. Material flow within the ALE mesh can accurately model complex interactions such as bifurcation. After prediction, nodes in the ALE mesh in correspondence with nodes on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh can be mapped so that they are once again adjacent to their corresponding Lagrangian mesh nodes. The ALE mesh can then be smoothed to reduce mesh distortion that might reduce the accuracy or efficiency of subsequent prediction steps. The process, from prediction through mapping and smoothing, can be repeated until a terminal condition is reached.

  15. Can noninvasive brain stimulation enhance function in the ageing brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallence, Ann-Maree; Goldsworthy, Mitchell R

    2014-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with cognitive and motor performance deficits and a reduced capacity for plasticity. Zimerman and colleagues (Zimerman M, Nitsch M, Giraux P, Gerloff C, Cohen LG, Hummel FC. Ann Neurol 73: 10-15, 2013) have recently shown that noninvasive brain stimulation can enhance behavioral improvements following training on a motor sequence task in older adults. The work is of high clinical importance given the rapidly growing ageing population and the accompanying costs to health systems globally.

  16. Non-invasive prediction of oesophageal varices in cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sambit Sen; William JH Griffiths

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive predictors of varices in cirrhosis would reduce the need for screening endoscopies. Platelet count and spleen size have been shown to be useful parameters, in mixed groups of cirrhotics with different aetiologies. We evaluated this in two homogeneous groups with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and alcohol.Non-invasive predictors appear promising in the former group, but less so in the latter group.

  17. Characteristics of a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, T. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2013-09-11

    Closed-cycle Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers have been developed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) with the aim of realizing a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers between 0.65 K and 25 K. The latest JT cryocooler at NMIJ/AIST consists of a {sup 3}He JT cooling circuit and a pulse tube mechanical refrigerator. The characteristics of the apparatus including a residual gas analysis of the JT cooling circuit are presented in this paper. Currently the initial cool-down is performed using a heat-exchange gas. It normally takes about 30 h to reduce the temperature from room temperature to 5 K at the thermometer comparison block of the apparatus. The correct timing of the removal of the heatexchange gas is important for the efficient operation of the apparatus. Incomplete removal of the heat-exchange gas induces excess heat load on the apparatus and thermal disturbances. Some examples of abrupt temperature bursts are discussed in this paper. Mechanical refrigerators generate cyclic mechanical vibrations, and precision resistance thermometers are usually very sensitive to a mechanical vibration. The measured vibration level of the developed apparatus is reported. The damage to the apparatus due to the magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011, and possible countermeasures in the case of future earthquakes are also discussed.

  18. Characteristics of a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, T.

    2013-09-01

    Closed-cycle Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers have been developed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) with the aim of realizing a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers between 0.65 K and 25 K. The latest JT cryocooler at NMIJ/AIST consists of a 3He JT cooling circuit and a pulse tube mechanical refrigerator. The characteristics of the apparatus including a residual gas analysis of the JT cooling circuit are presented in this paper. Currently the initial cool-down is performed using a heat-exchange gas. It normally takes about 30 h to reduce the temperature from room temperature to 5 K at the thermometer comparison block of the apparatus. The correct timing of the removal of the heatexchange gas is important for the efficient operation of the apparatus. Incomplete removal of the heat-exchange gas induces excess heat load on the apparatus and thermal disturbances. Some examples of abrupt temperature bursts are discussed in this paper. Mechanical refrigerators generate cyclic mechanical vibrations, and precision resistance thermometers are usually very sensitive to a mechanical vibration. The measured vibration level of the developed apparatus is reported. The damage to the apparatus due to the magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011, and possible countermeasures in the case of future earthquakes are also discussed.

  19. Versatile apparatus for thermoelectric characterization of oxides at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, Matthias; Fjeld, Harald; Norby, Truls; Finstad, Terje G

    2014-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is presented and characterized. The device can be used in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 1050 °C and in all common atmospheres, including oxidizing, reducing, humid, and inert. The apparatus is suitable for samples with different geometries (disk-, bar-shaped), allowing a complete thermoelectric characterization (including thermal conductivity) on a single sample. The Seebeck coefficient α can be measured in both sample directions (in-plane and cross-plane) simultaneously. Electrical conductivity is measured via the van der Pauw method. Perovskite-type CaMnO3 and the misfit cobalt oxide (Ca2CoO3)q(CoO2) are studied to demonstrate the temperature range and to investigate the variation of the electrical properties as a function of the measurement atmosphere.

  20. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles

  1. Manufacture of ultrasonic thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Yanagihara, Takao; Katoh, Chiaki; Hamada, Shozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes in the acid recovery evaporator and short tubes used in corrosion test, we have developed ultra sonic thickness measuring apparatus using immersion method with high resolution. This apparatus can measure and record tube thickness automatically with a personal computer. The results obtained by this apparatus are coincident with the results obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  2. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  3. Personal cooling apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

  4. Apparatuses in the manufacture of mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, J.; Moisala, T.

    1991-01-08

    In a process for manufacturing mineral wool, at the discharge section of the tapping spout to the spinning machine, at least one oxy-fuel burner is disposed. The burner is located at a predetermined distance and in a predetermined direction so that the discharge section of the tapping spout and a first portion of the tapping jet departing from the spout are heated by the burner flame, and the impulse of the burner is of such a size that the configuration and position of the tapping jet will remain unaffected. Employment of the apparatus of the invention will prevent molten mineral material in the spout jet from solidifying and accumulating on the tapping spout. This minimizes cleaning of the tapping spout, and an even and uniform spout jet will be continually led down towards the spinning wheels in the spinning machine, which results in a more uniform and even production in the spinning operation and a higher yield in the spinning process. Furthermore, because of the even, continuous jet of molten material, wear on the spinning wheels will be reduced and the working life of the spinning machine will be lengthened. 2 figs.

  5. Engine control apparatus for improved fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganoung, D.P.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes an apparatus for powering a vehicle. It comprises: a naturally-aspirated Otto cycle engine having a throttle valve device used to provide substantially all control of combustion air density for the engine, the Otto engine being of a type which in order to prevent misfire, requires intake air throttling over at least a major range of brake torque produced at a power output shaft of the engine and an intake mixture preparation system operative when the throttle valve device is at least effectively wide open to automatically use intake charge dilution to provide benefits of reducing brake specific fuel consumption of the engine and suppressing autoignition in the engine. The wide open throttle benefits being provided by the intake mixture preparation system over at least half of a range of operating speed of the engine output shaft required to satisfy all operating conditions of the vehicle, and a discrete-ratio gearbox which receives power from the engine power output shaft and which has a gearbox power output shaft that provides substantially all mechanical energy for powering the vehicle. All of the mechanical energy for powering the vehicle being transferred from the engine to propel the vehicle without a significant time delay, whereby the technological risk of a CVT is avoided.

  6. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    , but their low spatial resolution limits their validity ranges for the coefficients. To cover a wider range of coefficients, we use camera-based spectroscopic oblique incidence reflectometry. We develop a noninvasive technique for acquisition of apparent particle size distributions based on this approach. Our......Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...... technique is validated using stable oil-in-water emulsions with a wide range of known particle size distributions. We also measure the apparent particle size distributions of complex dairy products. These results show that our tool, in contrast to those based on fiber probes, can deal with a range...

  7. Noninvasive genomic detection of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsman, W; Morhenn, V; Palmer, T; Walls, L; Hata, T; Zalla, J; Scheinberg, R; Sofen, H; Mraz, S; Gross, K; Rabinovitz, H; Polsky, D; Chang, S

    2011-04-01

    Early detection and treatment of melanoma is important for optimal clinical outcome, leading to biopsy of pigmented lesions deemed suspicious for the disease. The vast majority of such lesions are benign. Thus, a more objective and accurate means for detection of melanoma is needed to identify lesions for excision. To provide proof-of-principle that epidermal genetic information retrieval (EGIR™; DermTech International, La Jolla, CA, U.S.A.), a method that noninvasively samples cells from stratum corneum by means of adhesive tape stripping, can be used to discern melanomas from naevi. Skin overlying pigmented lesions clinically suspicious for melanoma was harvested using EGIR. RNA isolated from the tapes was amplified and gene expression profiled. All lesions were removed for histopathological evaluation. Supervised analysis of the microarray data identified 312 genes differentially expressed between melanomas, naevi and normal skin specimens (Pclassifier that discriminates these skin lesions. Upon testing with an independent dataset, this classifier discerned in situ and invasive melanomas from naevi with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity, with an area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of 0·955. These results demonstrate that EGIR-harvested specimens can be used to detect melanoma accurately by means of a 17-gene genomic biomarker. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  9. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-06-02

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  10. Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all types and... apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements,...

  12. Management of critically ill patients receiving noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise RoseLawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation frequently present to emergency departments, and may remain for prolonged periods due to constrained critical care services. Emergency clinicians often do not receive the same education on management of mechanical ventilation or have similar exposure to these patients as do their critical care colleagues. The aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence on management of patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation in the emergency department including indications, clinical applications, monitoring priorities, and potential complications. Noninvasive ventilation is recommended for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Less evidence supports its use in asthma and other causes of acute respiratory failure. Use of noninvasive ventilation in the prehospital setting is relatively new, and some evidence suggests benefit. Monitoring priorities for noninvasive ventilation include response to treatment, respiratory and hemodynamic stability, noninvasive ventilation tolerance, detection of noninvasive ventilation failure, and identification of air leaks around the interface. Application of injurious ventilation increases patient morbidity and mortality. Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes based on determination of predicted body weight and control of plateau pressure has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and some evidence exists to suggest this strategy should be used in patients without lung injury. Monitoring of the invasively ventilated patient should focus on assessing response to mechanical ventilation and other interventions, and avoiding complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Several key aspects of management of noninvasive

  13. Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Ahdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i.e. β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau Protein, Apolipoprotein (Apo E4)) are markedly increased; 3) Chrysotile Asbestos is increased; 4) Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is moderately increased; 5) Al is moderately increased; 6) Hg is moderately increased; 7) Dopamine, Serotonin & GABA are significantly reduced (up to about 1/10 of normal); 8) Often viral infections (such as CMV, HHV-6, HPV-16, HPV-18, etc.), and Bacterial infections (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium TB, Borrelia Burgdorferi, etc.) coexist. Research by others on Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows that it is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, with about 70% of ASD patients also suffering from gastro-intestinal problems. While Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by formation of 1) Amyloid plaques, 2) Neurofibrillary tangles inside of neurons, and 3) Loss of connections between neurons. More than 90% of AD develops in people over the age of 65. These 3 characteristics often progressively worsen over time. Although Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer's disease are completely different diseases they have some similar biochemical changes. Eight examples of such measurement & analysis are shown for comparison. Most of Autism patients improved significantly by removing the source or preventing intake of Asbestos, TiO2, Al & Hg or enhancing urinary output

  14. Noninvasive ventilation in hypoxemic respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive ventilation (NIV refers to positive pressure ventilation delivered through a noninvasive interface (nasal mask, facemask, or nasal plugs etc. Over the past decade its use has become more common as its benefits are increasingly recognized. This review will focus on the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various conditions resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF, that is, non-hypercapnic patients having acute respiratory failure in the absence of a cardiac origin or underlying chronic pulmonary disease. Outcomes depend on the patient's diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Patients should be monitored closely for signs of noninvasive ventilation failure and promptly intubated before a crisis develops. The application of noninvasive ventilation by a trained and experienced team, with careful patient selection, should optimize patient outcomes.

  15. Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0002 Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma Betty J. Tsuei, MD; Dennis J. Hanseman, PhD...W. Gerlach, USAF, MC U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Center for the Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills March 2015...August 2012 – August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-2-6B14 5b

  16. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Fidelma; Bradley, Judy M; Piper, Amanda J

    2017-02-20

    Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the effect of non-invasive ventilation versus no non-invasive ventilation in people with cystic fibrosis for airway clearance, during sleep and during exercise. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials.Most recent search: 08 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset non-invasive ventilation to no non-invasive ventilation used for airway clearance or during sleep or exercise in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 191 participants. Seven trials evaluated single treatment sessions, one evaluated a two-week intervention, one evaluated a six-week intervention and one a three-month intervention. It is only possible to blind trials of airway clearance and overnight ventilatory support to the outcome assessors. In most of the trials we judged there was an unclear risk of bias with regards to blinding due to inadequate descriptions. The six-week trial was the only one judged to have a low risk of bias for all

  17. Portable lysis apparatus for rapid single-step DNA extraction of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Lee, E-H; Yoon, Y; Chua, B; Son, A

    2016-02-01

    To demonstrate and characterize a portable lysis apparatus for rapid single-step bacterial DNA extraction. Our portable lysis apparatus employed a novel design consisting of an annular piezo-element with perforated diaphragm. Using Bacillus subtilis as target bacteria, our portable lysis apparatus was able to achieve a normalized percent lysis as high as 66% within 30 s. This is comparable to that by microprobe ultrasonication and almost 7 times higher than that by conventional bead beating. The effect from adding glass beads was predictable. However, the results from the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were counter-intuitive because a further increase from 0·5 to 1% concentration reduced the lysis performance. The portable lysis apparatus is also at least 1·5-5 times more power efficient than microprobe ultrasonication. Our portable lysis apparatus is capable of rapidly extracting bacterial DNA and is more power efficient than microprobe ultrasonication. The addition of glass beads or SDS concentration (up to 0·5%) improves its performance. The portable lysis apparatus provides a standalone, rapid, low cost and power efficient way of obtaining genomic constituents prior to a variety of bioassays used in the field of environmental, biomedical and other applied microbiology. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Morphology of platelet Golgi apparatus and their significance after acute cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Xu, Dong; Tu, Ranran; Hu, Zhiping

    2013-08-15

    Blood samples were harvested from the antecubital vein of 20 fasting patients with acute cerebral infarction at 1, 7 and 15 days after onset to prepare blood platelet suspension. Fasting antecubital vein blood was collected from an additional 20 normal adults as controls. Under transmission tron microscope, platelet Golgi tubules and vesicles became significantly thickened, enlarged, and irregular after acute cerebral infarction. Alpha granules in platelets significantly reduced in number, especially 1 day after cerebral infarction. Under immunoelectron microscopy, a few alpha granules aggregated around Golgi tubules and vesicles after infarction. These results suggested that platelet Golgi apparatus displayed significant morphological changes, which were possibly associated with enhanced synthetic and secretory functions of activated platelets after acute cerebral infarction. This study used Golgi apparatus blocking agent Brefeldin A to block Golgi apparatus in an aim to study the effects of Golgi apparatus on CD40L expression on the surface of activated platelets. Flow cytometry revealed that CD40L expression on activated platelet surfaces decreased significantly when Golgi apparatus was blocked, which indicated that Golgi apparatus participated in the synthesis and transport of CD40L to the platelet surface.

  19. Morphology of platelet Golgi apparatus and their significance after acute cerebral infarction***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lu; Dong Xu; Ranran Tu; Zhiping Hu

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples were harvested from the antecubital vein of 20 fasting patients with acute cerebral infarction at 1, 7 and 15 days after onset to prepare blood platelet suspension. Fasting antecubital vein blood was col ected from an additional 20 normal adults as controls. Under transmission tron microscope, platelet Golgi tubules and vesicles became significantly thickened, enlarged, and irregular after acute cerebral infarction. Alpha granules in platelets significantly reduced in number, especial y 1 day after cerebral infarction. Under immunoelectron microscopy, a few alpha granules aggregated around Golgi tubules and vesicles after infarction. These results suggested that platelet Golgi apparatus displayed significant morphological changes, which were possibly associated with enhanced synthetic and secretory functions of activated platelets after acute cerebral infarction. This study used Golgi apparatus blocking agent Brefeldin A to block Golgi apparatus in an aim to study the effects of Golgi apparatus on CD40L expression on the surface of activated platelets. Flow cytometry revealed that CD40L expression on activated platelet surfaces decreased significantly when Golgi apparatus was blocked, which indicated that Golgi apparatus participated in the syn-thesis and transport of CD40L to the platelet surface.

  20. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  1. Apparatus and method for implementing power saving techniques when processing floating point values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Moon; Park, Sang Phill

    2017-10-03

    An apparatus and method are described for reducing power when reading and writing graphics data. For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises: a graphics processor unit (GPU) to process graphics data including floating point data; a set of registers, at least one of the registers of the set partitioned to store the floating point data; and encode/decode logic to reduce a number of binary 1 values being read from the at least one register by causing a specified set of bit positions within the floating point data to be read out as 0s rather than 1s.

  2. Method and apparatus for managing transactions with connected computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Phillips, Laurence R.; Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus that make use of existing computer and communication resources and that reduce the errors and delays common to complex transactions such as international shipping. The present invention comprises an agent-based collaborative work environment that assists geographically distributed commercial and government users in the management of complex transactions such as the transshipment of goods across the U.S.-Mexico border. Software agents can mediate the creation, validation and secure sharing of shipment information and regulatory documentation over the Internet, using the World-Wide Web to interface with human users.

  3. Design of neutral particle incident heating apparatus for large scale helical apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Fusion Science, construction of the large scale helical apparatus has been progressed favorably, and constructions of the heating apparatus as well as of electron resonance apparatus were begun in their orders under predetermined manner since 1994 fiscal year. And, on 1995 fiscal year, construction of neutral particle incident heating apparatus, leading heat apparatus, was begun under 3 years planning. The plasma heating study system adopted the study results developed in this institute through the large scale hydrogen negative ion source and also adopted thereafter development on nuclear fusion study by modifying the original specification set at the beginning of the research plan before 7 years. As a result, system design was changed from initial 125 KeV to 180 KeV in the beam energy and to execute 15 MW incidence using two sets beam lines, to begin its manufacturing. Here is described on its new design with reason of its modifications. (G.K.)

  4. Development of a spatial filtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicolle

    This thesis contains a discussion of the theoretical background for Fourier spatial filtering and a description of the design and construction of a portable in-class spatial filtering apparatus. A portable, in-class spatial filtering demonstration apparatus was designed and built. This apparatus uses liquid crystal display (LCD) panels from two projectors as the object and filter masks. The blue LCD panel from the first projector serves as the object mask, and the red panel from the second projector serves as the filter mask. The panels were extracted from their projectors and mounted onto aluminum blocks which are held in place by optical component mounts. Images are written to the LCD panels via custom open source software developed for this apparatus which writes independent monochromatic images to the video signal. The software has two monochromatic image windows, basic image manipulation tools, and two video feed input display windows. Two complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are positioned to record the reconstructed image of the object mask and the diffraction pattern created by the object mask. The object and filter mask can be digitally changed and the effects on the filtered image and diffraction pattern can be observed in real-time. The entire apparatus is assembled onto a rolling cart which allows it to be easily taken into classrooms.

  5. A novel noninvasive blood glucose monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchoff, Carl D; Shoukri, Kamal; Landau, Julian I; Buchert, Janusz M

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the precision and accuracy of a new advanced prototype of a noninvasive blood glucose monitor across a wide range of serum glucose concentrations. An advanced handheld noninvasive glucose monitor prototype was calibrated and tested using patients recruited by the General Research Center of the University of Connecticut Health Center. The monitor, developed by Infratec, uses principles of thermal emission spectroscopy. The noninvasive measurement of tympanic membrane glucose concentration was calibrated to the serum glucose concentration using 432 paired measurements from 20 subjects with insulin-requiring diabetes. This calibration was subsequently tested (results of power analyses) in a blind fashion with 126 paired measurements from six diabetic subjects who require insulin. In vivo measurements demonstrated the reproducibility of the methodology of the noninvasive glucose monitor. Based on the calibration model, predicted glucose concentrations for six subjects were as follows (for 126 data points): SD = 32 mg/dl, mean absolute relative error (%MARE) = 11.6, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87. Noninvasive glucose results were also compared with laboratory reference measurements using an error-in-variables method. Clark error grid analysis showed that 100% of the measurements fell within zones A and B (90% in zone A and 10% in zone B). The SD for all noninvasive measured concentrations was 27 mg/dl, %MARE was 8.6, and the correlation coefficient was r = 0.94. This first independent clinical study of an advanced noninvasive blood glucose prototype based on thermal emission in the mid-infrared spectral region has demonstrated glucose measurements with clinically acceptable accuracy but without the necessity of individual daily calibration.

  6. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  7. An inexpensive apparatus for toxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Pinto, R.W.; Santelli, J. [Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An inexpensive apparatus was fabricated to monitor and record changes in the motility patterns of small aquatic invertebrates, such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, during acute toxicity tests. Within hours of exposure to a range toxicant concentrations the motility patterns change in a way that predicts the EC50. The work to date suggests there is a correlation between the EC50 following a 60 hour exposure, and motility data collected within the first 40 minutes of the test. The apparatus may be useful to speed range finding tests and for shortening the duration of acute toxicity tests of an effluent or receiving water. The apparatus may also be used to quantify erratic swimming in surviving organisms when a test is terminated.

  8. Apparatus for the compact cooling of modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-07

    An apparatus for the compact cooling of modules. The apparatus includes a clip, a first cover plate coupled to a first side of the clip, a second cover plate coupled to a second side of the clip opposite to the first side of the clip, a first frame thermally coupled to the first cover plate, and a second frame thermally coupled to the second cover plate. Each of the first frame and the second frame may include a plurality of channels for passing coolant through the first frame and the second frame, respectively. Additionally, the apparatus may further include a filler for directing coolant through the plurality of channels, and for blocking coolant from flowing along the first side of the clip and the second side of the clip.

  9. Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.

  10. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  11. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  12. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1977-07-19

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures.

  13. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S.

    2007-02-20

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  14. Environmental testing of escape breathing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, J W

    1982-05-03

    A new generation of 60-minute self-contained breathing apparatus was being introduced into the underground coal mining industry for use as respiratory protection during fires and mine disasters. Little field experience existed from which to predict the survivability of this new life-support equipment. A series of environmental tests was proposed consisting of exposure to heat, cold, shock, and vibration. Treated and untreated apparatus were evaluated and compared by use on human subjects and a mechanical breathing simulator. Results are reported. After field data have been collected, information may be able to be correlated with environmental testing and used as a predictor of survivability.

  15. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David Steven [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  16. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  17. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  18. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells , and a device , external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  19. System, Apparatus, and Method for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Sr., Anthony D. (Inventor); Kohli, Rajiv (Inventor); Burns, Susan H. (Inventor); Damico, Stephen J. (Inventor); Gruber, David J. (Inventor); Hickey, Christopher J. (Inventor); Lee, David E. (Inventor); Robinson, Travis M. (Inventor); Smith, Jason T. (Inventor); Spehar, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for removal of orbital debris are provided. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a spacecraft control unit configured to guide and navigate the apparatus to a target. The apparatus also includes a dynamic object characterization unit configured to characterize movement, and a capture feature, of the target. The apparatus further includes a capture and release unit configured to capture a target and deorbit or release the target. The collection of these apparatuses is then employed as multiple, independent and individually operated vehicles launched from a single launch vehicle for the purpose of disposing of multiple debris objects.

  20. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  1. Flow characterization on a thin film spinning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Alonso A.

    In industrial milling operations that use comminution and wet-comminution techniques, the reduction of the particle size is usually achieved through crushing the sample with a material harder than the product. These methods are convenient when the required median particle size is above 400 um. However, to obtain post-milling particle distributions with 85% sub-micron particles (in number) is both energy intensive, and time consuming. For conventional milling machines, to have the required output in several ton/hr of a product, having a large number of particles in the micron or sub-micron sizes at an affordable rate is cumbersome. Here, a wet-comminution machine that has shown to achieve the aforementioned milestones in the laboratory scale is studied. However, when the machine is scaled to industrial processes, it was recorded that some of the product variables are difficult to scale. In these studies, we attempt to understand the mechanisms by which this machine operates in order to achieve successful scaling. The apparatus operates completely on fluid mechanics principles, it consists of two concentric cylinders, the inner cylinder that has a smaller radius than the outer, rotates while the larger is held stationary. The inner cylinder is also shorter in length than outer, hollow in the inside and has transversal holes where the shaft attaches to the apparatus. The apparatus can operate in batch condition, where the liquid volume is much less than the volume of the apparatus, typically 0.V3T,0.42VT and 0.54V T. In addition, the apparatus can operate with throughflow, which the upper plate covering the apparatus is reduced in radius. Two component Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to obtain even-time averaged statistics of the azimuthal and axial velocities, in the gap and underneath the impeller. Also, Flow Visualization using Kalliroscopic particles was performed as means of observing large scale structures in the gap. Moreover, single plane Particle

  2. Novel noninvasive techniques in management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadaf Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery, insulin remains as effective means of curing the diabetes. During the last decades, diabetes has become a life-threatening disease, because of this people initially goes for insulin injections but the inconvenience leads to the development of noninvasive techniques, which has recently replaced the insulin injection. These techniques overcome the barrier for the insulin treatment and ultimately control the glucose level of patient effectively than invasive technique. In these review, an attempt has been made to cover overall techniques available for diabetes treatment noninvasively. In an attempt of this, data has been collected, which includes insulin delivery via oral, nasal, pulmonary, rectal, buccal and ocular route. Along with these devices available in the market and under trials for diabetes treatment has also been covered. As this disease requires continuous treatment, it is advisable to go with noninvasive means of insulin delivery.

  3. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  4. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  5. Noninvasive Biomarkers of Liver Fibrosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind I. Fallatah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver diseases of differing etiologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Establishing accurate staging of liver disease is very important for enabling both therapeutic decisions and prognostic evaluations. A liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for assessing the stage of hepatic fibrosis, but it has many limitations. During the last decade, several noninvasive markers for assessing the stage of hepatic fibrosis have been developed. Some have been well validated and are comparable to liver biopsy. This paper will focus on the various noninvasive biochemical markers used to stage liver fibrosis.

  6. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    OpenAIRE

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  7. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  8. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  9. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anton

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  10. Apparatus for performing oil field laser operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2017-01-03

    A system, apparatus and methods for delivering high power laser energy to perform laser operations in oil fields and to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. A laser downhole assembly for the delivery of high power laser energy to surfaces and areas in a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics and a fluid path.

  11. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Height, Murray J [Somerville, MA; Howard, Jack B [Winchester, MA; Vandersande, John B [Newbury, MA

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  12. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the

  13. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  14. The Compartmental Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between structure and function of the Golgi apparatus are emerging from recent laboratory work on this cellular organelle which modifies proteins, sorts them, and packages them for delivery. The structure's three specialized compartments are explained through discussions of the glycosylation pathway, density-gradient experiments,…

  15. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, D.; Thullen, P.; Wollan, J.

    1980-09-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  16. Apparatus and method of navigating an instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, N.H.; Den Heeten, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus to be used with navigating an instrument in a vascular tree of a patient, comprises a patient's examination table, a C-arm, mounted to which is an X-ray source and an image recorder for registering first X-ray images of the patient, obtained by the use of the X-ray source, and a process

  17. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  18. Process and apparatus for producing coated particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ommen, J.R.; Ellis, N.; Yurteri, C.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process and apparatus for preparing coated particles, in particular a process for preparing particles that are coated with small particles using electrospraying. The coated particles produced according to the present invention find use for instance as catalysts or as

  19. SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF ISOLATED MITOTIC APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, Thomas; Baxandall, Jane

    1971-01-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein. PMID:5543404

  20. Noninvasive optical detection of carotenoid antioxidants in the human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Mohsen

    This dissertation develops laser Raman and fluorescence based spectroscopy for the noninvasive detection of medically important pigments in the human retina. Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently shown that the pigments lutein and zeaxanthin, located in the ˜1 mm diameter macular area of the retina, protect the eye from phototoxic blue light and/or oxidative damage. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) can detect and monitor macular pigments in intact human eyes quantitatively by recording the Raman scattered light originating from the highly specific stretching vibrations of the pigment molecules' conjugated carbon backbone. This dissertation develops RRS from a spatially averaged measuring approach to spatially resolved imaging. For this purpose, a filter-based Raman imaging setup with speckle-free illumination was constructed that permits detection of macular pigments at physiological concentrations with eye-safe laser excitation levels. Subsequently, RRS images would be obtained from the living human retina. The images demonstrate quantitative as well as micron-scale, spatially resolved RRS detection of the whole macular pigment distribution. The RRS images reveal important physiological details of a subject's macular pigment distribution such as the peaked pigment concentration in the center of the macula, and the rapidly dropping pigment concentration towards the periphery of the macula. As an alternative to direct RRS imaging of macular pigments, this dissertation explores an indirect imaging approach of macular pigments, based on excitation spectroscopy of lipofuscin. A dual-wavelength laser apparatus was constructed that excites the lipofuscin fluorescence at wavelengths inside and outside the spectral range of macular pigment absorption, and that allows one to image the fluorescence intensities in a large section of the retina centered on the macula. Measuring the lipofuscin fluorescence intensities inside and outside the macula area at the two

  1. Ceramide transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus is not vesicle-mediated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, JW; Babia, T; Klappe, K; Egea, G; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    Ceramide (Cer) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus was measured under conditions that block vesicle-mediated protein transfer. This was done either in intact cells by reducing the incubation temperature to 15 degrees C, or in streptolysin O-permeabilized cells by mani

  2. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  3. ABOUT THE BASICS OF HUMAN THINKING APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Mikhailovich AMIRBEGOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of our research is the integrity of the thinking apparatus of humans with its extremes, one of which is known to us as cause-effect materiality, denoted by the term ―brain‖, and the other extreme is unknown but is supposed as an immaterial cause of the motion needed to ―revitalize‖ the material extreme in response to revitalizing effects, reacting with changes the order and direction of which are realized by light streams (oscillation spectrum in the range of light waves and sounds of different tones (oscillation spectrum in the range of sound waves. But for realization of light streams and sound streams into images and words is needed not only information streams regulator (dominant factor, changing their vectors in the integrity of the human thinking apparatus, but also verifier of oscillations is needed which requires philosophical comprehension.While modeling the thinking apparatus of humans by dialectical method of reasoning, we had to abandon the conventional opinions about reality, matter, motion, and take on trust the opinions which have not been confirmed but are logically essential – a divine spark of Aristotle and permanent impacts taking the material world out of a cold death…, what led to the solution of the problem: as a result was found the second, immaterial extreme of the integrity of human thinking apparatus and the dominant factor focusing the flow of information in the CNS and having the significance of the status of the monarch. Actually, the proposed model of human thinking apparatus, which has no analogue, presents the novelty of the worldview which answers the question: what is thinking, why and how, and what is realized by us, our mortal body and immortal soul identifying our ―I‖.

  4. An extraordinary tabletop speed of light apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegna, Guido

    2017-09-01

    A compact, low-cost, pre-aligned apparatus of the modulation type is described. The apparatus allows accurate determination of the speed of light in free propagation with an accuracy on the order of one part in 104. Due to the 433.92 MHz radio frequency (rf) modulation of its laser diode, determination of the speed of light is possible within a sub-meter measuring base and in small volumes (some cm3) of transparent solids or liquids. No oscilloscope is necessary, while the required function generators, power supplies, and optical components are incorporated into the design of the apparatus and its receiver can slide along the optical bench while maintaining alignment with the laser beam. Measurement of the velocity factor of coaxial cables is also easily performed. The apparatus detects the phase difference between the rf modulation of the laser diode by further modulating the rf signal with an audio frequency signal; the phase difference between these signals is then observed as the loudness of the audio signal. In this way, the positions at which the minima of the audio signal are found determine where the rf signals are completely out of phase. This phase detection method yields a much increased sensitivity with respect to the display of coincidence of two signals of questionable arrival time and somewhat distorted shape on an oscilloscope. The displaying technique is also particularly suitable for large audiences as well as in unattended exhibits in museums and science centers. In addition, the apparatus can be set up in less than one minute.

  5. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  6. [Design of the Rolling Type Nasal Feeding Perfusion Apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong; Yang, Yonghuan; Hu, Huiqin; Luo, Hongjun; Feng, Yunhao; Hao, Xiali

    2015-09-01

    At present, the existing problem in nasal feeding perfusion apparatus is laborious and instability. Designing the rolling type perfusion apparatus by using a roller pump, the problem is solved. Compared with the traditional perfusion apparatus, the advantage lies in liquid carrying only need once and simulating human swallowing process. Through testing and verification, the apparatus can be used in nasal feeding perfusion for elderly or patients.

  7. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber and ...

  8. Method and apparatus for managing access to a memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBenedictis, Erik

    2017-08-01

    A method and apparatus for managing access to a memory of a computing system. A controller transforms a plurality of operations that represent a computing job into an operational memory layout that reduces a size of a selected portion of the memory that needs to be accessed to perform the computing job. The controller stores the operational memory layout in a plurality of memory cells within the selected portion of the memory. The controller controls a sequence by which a processor in the computing system accesses the memory to perform the computing job using the operational memory layout. The operational memory layout reduces an amount of energy consumed by the processor to perform the computing job.

  9. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors--II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In my previous article on apparatus named after physicists and physics teachers, I discussed five relatively common pieces of apparatus from the 1875-1910 era. Now I will go back to the 18th and early-19th centuries to discuss eponymous apparatus that we are still using in lecture demonstrations. [For Part I, see EJ912907.

  10. 21 CFR 870.5050 - Patient care suction apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient care suction apparatus. 870.5050 Section 870.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A patient care suction apparatus is a device used with an...

  11. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section....307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all... mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms used exclusively for...

  14. Monoascorbate free radical-dependent oxidation-reduction reactions of liver Golgi apparatus membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Placido; Sun, Iris; Crane, Frederick L; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2010-04-01

    Golgi apparatus from rat liver contain an ascorbate free radical oxidoreductase that oxidizes NADH at neutral pH with monodehydroascorbate as acceptor to generate a membrane potential. At pH 5.0, the reverse reaction occurs from NAD(+). The electron spin resonance signal of the ascorbate-free radical and its disappearance upon the addition of NADH (pH 7) or NAD(+) (pH 5.0) confirms monodehydroascorbate involvement. Location of monodehydroascorbate both external to and within Golgi apparatus compartments is suggested from energization provided by inward or outward flux of electrons across the Golgi apparatus membranes. The isolated membranes are sealed, oriented cytoplasmic side out and impermeable to NAD(+) and ascorbate. NAD(+) derived through the action of Golgi apparatus beta-NADP phosphohydrolase is simultaneously reduced to NADH with monodehydroascorbate present. The response of the NADH- (NAD(+)-) ascorbate free radical oxidoreductase system to pH in Golgi apparatus provides a simple regulatory mechanism to control vesicle acidification.

  15. Cryolipolysis for noninvasive body contouring: clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krueger N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nils Krueger,1 Sophia V Mai,2 Stefanie Luebberding,1 Neil S Sadick3 1Rosenpark Research, Darmstadt, Germany; 2Department of Dermatology, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Dermatology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In recent years, a number of modalities have become available for the noninvasive reduction of adipose tissue, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency, low-level laser, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Each technology employs a different mechanism of action to cause apoptosis or necrosis of the targeted adipocytes. Among these technologies, cryolipolysis has not only been commercially available for the longest time, but has also been best researched including in vitro and animal models and randomized controlled clinical trials in humans. The principle behind cryolipolysis exploits the premise that adipocytes are more susceptible to cooling than other skin cells. The precise application of cold temperatures triggers apoptosis of the adipocytes, which invokes an inflammatory response and leads to slow digestion by surrounding macrophages. In clinical studies, cryolipolysis was shown to reduce subcutaneous fat at the treatment site by up to 25% after one treatment. Improvements were seen in 86% of treated subjects. At 73%, the patient satisfaction rate is higher than with other technologies used for noninvasive lipolysis. Cryolipolysis has been proven to be a very safe method for body contouring, and is accomplished with only minimal discomfort. Expected side effects are temporary erythema, bruising, and transient numbness that usually resolve within 14 days after treatment. With a prevalence of 0.1%, the most common complaint is late-onset pain, occurring 2 weeks post-procedure, which resolves without intervention. Although no procedure has been accepted as the gold standard for noninvasive body contouring as yet, cryolipolysis is considered to be both safe and efficient with a

  16. Molecular Insights on the Transition of Non-invasive DCIS to Invasive ductal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dihua YU

    2009-01-01

    @@ More than 90% of breast cancer-related deaths are caused by metastasis not primary tumor. To effectively reduce cancer mortality, it is extremely im-portant to predict the risk of, and to intervene in, the critical transition from non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to life-threatening invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

  17. Apparatus and method for acoustic monitoring of steam quality and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-09-13

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively monitoring steam quality and flow and in pipes or conduits bearing flowing steam, are described. By measuring the acoustic vibrations generated in steam-carrying conduits by the flowing steam either by direct contact with the pipe or remotely thereto, converting the measured acoustic vibrations into a frequency spectrum characteristic of the natural resonance vibrations of the pipe, and monitoring the amplitude and/or the frequency of one or more chosen resonance frequencies, changes in the steam quality in the pipe are determined. The steam flow rate and the steam quality are inversely related, and changes in the steam flow rate are calculated from changes in the steam quality once suitable calibration curves are obtained.

  18. Ablation of premature ventricular complexes exclusively guided by three-dimensional noninvasive mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkapic, Damir; Neumann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Preprocedural detailed characterization of premature ventricular complexes before ablation, currently limited to the 12-lead electrocardiogram, may aid in planning and improve procedural outcomes. This article summarizes current published data on feasibility, accuracy, and impact on clinical outcomes of a novel, three-dimensional, noninvasive, single-beat mapping system (ECVUE, CardioInsight). ECVUE technology offers premature ventricular complex characterization and localization with clinically relevant accuracy and performance superior to the surface electrocardiogram. With its noninvasive and single beat advantages, ECVUE has the potential to simplify mapping, and reduce ablation and procedural time.

  19. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano Beja-Pereira; Rita Oliveira; Paulo C. Alves; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological...

  20. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  1. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  2. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura Katrina (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion.RTM., over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  3. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  4. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Talamonti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Tesi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on 'single proton tracking' method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 10{sup 5} events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  5. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  6. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  7. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  8. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thullen, P.; Weldon, D.; Wollan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The apparatus will be used to make measurements on conductors which must operate in fields up to 7.0 T and rates of field change up to 15 T/s. The magnet for this facility is wound of uninsulated, 15 strand Rutherford cable in which the strand is a 0.812 mm diameter, fully mixed matrix, Cu plus CuNi, multifilament NbTi conductor. The coil is wound in a bath cooled configuration with an overall current density of 7.8 kA/cm/sup 2/. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  9. Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

  10. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  11. 无创分娩经验%Noninvasive delivery experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of noninvasive delivery for reducing episiotomy rate.Methods:126 cases of vaginal delivery women from July to September 2013 were divided into the observation group and the control group, with 63 cases in each. The observation group were given noninvasive delivery technology,while the control group were given traditional delivery technology.The curative effect of two groups were compared.Results:The difference of perineum complete and episiotomy of two groups was statistically significant(P0.05).The bleeding was similar between the two groups,with no statistical significance(P>0.05).The difference of postpartum perineum wound healing and perineal pain after 3 days was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Noninvasive childbirth can reduce episiotomy rate and reduce the perineal pain postpartum.It is favorable for perineum wound healing and improving the quality of life.It makes maternal women no longer fear episiotomy,so that it reduces the rate of cesarean delivery.%目的:探讨无创分娩对于减少会阴侧切率的效果。方法:2013年7-9月收治经阴道分娩产妇126例,分成观察组和对照组,各63例。观察组采用无创分娩技术,对照组采用传统分娩技术。比较两组效果。结果:两组会阴完整、会阴侧切比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),会阴裂伤程度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),两组出血比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),产后3 d 会阴伤口愈合及会阴疼痛差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:无创分娩降低会阴侧切率,减轻会阴产后疼痛,有利会阴伤口愈合,改善产妇生活质量,使产妇不再惧怕侧切而行剖宫产,降低了剖宫产率。

  12. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  13. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  14. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  15. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  16. Method and apparatus for continuous electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack S.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting continuous separation of substances by electrophoresis are disclosed. The process involves electrophoretic separation combined with couette flow in a thin volume defined by opposing surfaces. By alternating the polarity of the applied potential and producing reciprocating short rotations of at least one of the surfaces relative to the other, small increments of separation accumulate to cause substantial, useful segregation of electrophoretically separable components in a continuous flow system.

  17. Membrane Traffic Within the Golgi Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Glick, Benjamin S; Nakano, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Newly synthesized secretory cargo molecules pass through the Golgi apparatus while resident Golgi proteins remain in the organelle. However, the pathways of membrane traffic within the Golgi are still uncertain. Most of the available data can be accommodated by the cisternal maturation model, which postulates that Golgi cisternae form de novo, carry the secretory cargoes forward, and ultimately disappear. The entry face of the Golgi receives material that has been exported from transitional E...

  18. The Prototype of GAMMA-400 Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Kheymits, M. D.; Runtso, M. F.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu. T.

    Scientific project GAMMA-400 (Gamma-Astronomy Multifunction Modules Apparatus) relates to the new generation of space observatories for investigation of cosmic γ-emission in the energy band from ∼20 MeV up to several TeV, electron/positron fluxes from ∼1 GeV up to ∼10 TeV and cosmic-ray nuclei fluxes with energies up to ∼1015 eV by means of GAMMA-400 gamma-telescope represents the core of the scientific complex. The investigation of gamma ray bursts in the energy band of 10 keV-15 MeV are possible too by means of KONUS-FG apparatus included in the complex. For γ-rays in the energy region from 10 to 100 GeV expected energy resolution changes from ∼3% to ∼1% and angular resolution from ∼0.1% to ∼ 0.01% respectively, γ/protons rejection factor is ∼5·105. The GAMMA-400 satellite will be launched at the beginning of the next decade on the high apogee orbit with following initial parameters: apogee altitude ∼300000 km, perigee altitude ∼500 km, rotation period ∼7 days, inclination to the equator plane 51.4°. The active functioning interval will be 7-10 years. The scientific complex will have next main technical parameters: total weight ∼4100 kg, power consumption ∼2000 W, information quote 100 GByte/day. During the project development, the prototype of apparatus was created for working-off of the main apparatus construction units in laboratory conditions. The main distinctive features of the prototype are presented.

  19. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  20. Twin-image elimination apparatus and method

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The twin-image elimination apparatus of the present invention comprises (a) a scanning light source for emitting a scanning light beam; (b) an interference device which converts the scanning light beam from the scanning light source into a spherical wave and a plane wave having temporal frequencies different from each other and combines the spherical and plane waves together; (c) a scanner for scanning an object with the combined light beam from the interference device; (d) a photodetector fo...

  1. January 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has expanded its role in the treatment of both chronic and acute respiratory failure. Its initial use in conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disease and tracheobronchomalacia, have been shown to improve quality of life and reduce mortality. Over the past 20 years studies have looked at using noninvasive ventilation in the management of acute respiratory failure from pulmonary edema, asthma and COPD exacerbations. During this month's journal club we reviewed 3 articles evaluating the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Gupta D, Nath A, Agarwal R, Behera D. A prospective randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute asthma. Respir Care. 2010;55(5:536-43. [PubMed] This was a small unblinded randomized controlled trial (RCT looking at the efficacy using noninvasive ventilation (NIV in acute asthma. A total of 53 patients were included and divided into 2 groups of 28 patients ...

  2. Ca(2+) signalling in the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Paola; Lissandron, Valentina; Capitanio, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio

    2011-08-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in lipid and protein post-translational modification and sorting. Morphologically the organelle is heterogeneous and it is possible to distinguish stacks of flat cysternae (cis- and medial Golgi), tubular-reticular networks and vesicles (trans-Golgi). These morphological differences parallel a distinct functionality with a selective distribution and complementary roles of the enzymes found in the different compartments. The Golgi apparatus has been also shown to be involved in Ca(2+) signalling: it is indeed endowed with Ca(2+) pumps, Ca(2+) release channels and Ca(2+) binding proteins and is thought to participate in determining the spatio-temporal complexity of the Ca(2+) signal within the cell, though this role is still poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the organelle is heterogeneous in terms of Ca(2+) handling and selective reduction of Ca(2+) concentration, both in vitro and in a genetic human disease, within one of its sub-compartment results in alterations of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway and of the entire Golgi morphology. In this paper we review the available information on the Ca(2+) toolkit within the Golgi, its heterogeneous distribution in the organelle sub-compartments and discuss the implications of these characteristics for the physiopathology of the Golgi apparatus.

  3. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.

  4. Sleep-related breathing disorders and non-invasive ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lax

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NPPV was originally used in patients with acute respiratory impairment or exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases, as an alternative to the endotracheal tube. Over the last thirty years NPPV has been also used at night in patients with stable chronic lung disease such as obstructive sleep apnea, the overlap syndrome (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disorders, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and in other conditions such as sleep disorders associated with congestive heart failure (Cheyne-Stokes respiration. In this no-systematic review we discuss the different types of NPPV, the specific conditions in which they can be used and the indications, recommendations and evidence supporting the efficacy of NPPV. Optimizing patient acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation treatment is challenging. The treatment of sleep-related disorders is a life-threatening condition. The optimal level of treatment should be determined in a sleep laboratory. Side effects directly affecting the patient’s adherence to treatment are known. The most common are nasopharyngeal symptoms including increased congestion and rhinorrhea; these effects are related to reduced humidity of inspired gas. Humidification of delivered gas may improve these symptoms.

  5. Noninvasive monitoring of salmonella infections in young mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olomu, Isoken N.; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    A recently developed bioluminescent assay was used to study the influence of age and inoculum size on the acute susceptibility of newborn and juvenile BALB/c mice to Salmonella gastrointestinal infection. Three strains of Salmonella were tagged by expression of the lux operon from Photohabdus luminescenes. Using a range of inoculum sizes varied over 6 orders of magnitude, mice aged 0-6 weeks were infected by oral inoculation. LIght emitted from the tagged bacteria and transmitted through mouse tissues was used to noninvasively monitor disease progression over 7 days. In neonatal mice there was evidence of gastrointestinal infection at 24 hours even with small inocular, and at 4-7 days, the patterns of photon emission and remained and healthy throughout the study period. Inoculation of neonates with tagged LB5000 and BJ66 resulted in severe gastrointestinal infections with low and intermediate sizes of inocula respectively. These strains are known to be of reduced virulence in adult mice. These age-related differences in susceptibility emphasize the need to define virulence in the context of age of the host, and implicate maturation of innate resistance factors in determining disease patterns. Identifying these host-factors and further defining the bacterial determinants of virulence in the neonatal host will be facilitated by this noninvasive study of infection using bioluminenscent methods.

  6. Modulation of untruthful responses with noninvasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley eFecteau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether noninvasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience, as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses. Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying noninvasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts.

  7. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjeev R Mehta; E Louise Thomas; Jimmy D Bell; Desmond G Johnston; Simon D Taylor-Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo 1H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis(e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  8. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  9. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  10. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome).

  12. Noninvasive methods of measuring bone blood perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dyke, J. P.; Aaron, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of bone blood flow and perfusion characteristics in a noninvasive and serial manner would be advantageous in assessing revascularization after trauma and the possible risk of avascular necrosis. Many disease states, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone neoplasms, result in disturbed bone perfusion. A causal link between bone perfusion and remodeling has shown its importance in sustained healing and regrowth following injury. Measurement of perfusion and permeability wi...

  13. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So CF

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chi-Fuk So,1 Kup-Sze Choi,1 Thomas KS Wong,2 Joanne WY Chung2,31Centre for Integrative Digital Health, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, 3Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong KongAbstract: The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed.Keywords: noninvasive, glucose monitoring, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose measurement

  14. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellone

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The term noninvasive ventilation (NIV encompasses two different modes of delivering positive airway pressure, namely continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP. The two modes are different since CPAP does not actively assist inspiration whereas bilevel-PAP does. Bilevel-PAP is a type of noninvasive ventilation that helps keep the upper airways of the lungs open by providing a flow of air delivered through a face mask. The air is pressurized by a machine, which delivers it to the face mask through long, plastic hosing. With bilevel-PAP, the doctor prescribes specific alternating pressures: a higher pressure is used to breathe in (inspiratory positive airway pressure and a lower pressure is used to breath out (expiratory positive airway pressure. Noninvasive ventilation has been shown to reduce the rate of tracheal intubation. The main indications are exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. This last is a common cause of respiratory failure with high incidence and high mortality rate. Clinical findings of ACPE are related to the increased extra-vascular water in the lungs and the resulting reduced lung compliance, increased airway resistance and elevated inspiratory muscle load which generates a depression in pleural pressure. These large pleural pressure swings are responsible for hemodynamic changes by increasing left ventricular afterload, myocardial transmural pressure, and venous return. These alterations can be detrimental to patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Under these circumstances, NIV, either by CPAP or bilevel-PAP, improves vital signs, gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics by reducing left ventricular afterload and preload. In the first randomized study which compared the effectiveness of CPAP plus medical treatment vs medical treatment alone, the CPAP group showed a significant decrease in its

  15. Apparatus and method for plasma processing of SRF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Peshl, J; Bašović, M; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vuškovića, L

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for plasma etching of the inner surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Accelerator SRF cavities are formed into a variable-diameter cylindrical structure made of bulk niobium, for resonant generation of the particle accelerating field. The etch rate non-uniformity due to depletion of the radicals has been overcome by the simultaneous movement of the gas flow inlet and the inner electrode. An effective shape of the inner electrode to reduce the plasma asymmetry for the coaxial cylindrical rf plasma reactor is determined and implemented in the cavity processing method. The processing was accomplished by moving axially the inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise way to establish segmented plasma columns. The test structure was a pillbox cavity made of steel of similar dimension to the standard SRF cavity. This was adopted to experimentally verify the plasma surface reaction on cylindrical structures with variable diameter using the segment...

  16. Method and apparatus for enhancing laser absorption sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A simple optomechanical method and apparatus is described for substantially reducing the amplitude of unwanted multiple interference fringes which often limit the sensitivities of tunable laser absorption spectrometers. An exterior cavity is defined by partially transmissible surfaces such as a laser exit plate, a detector input, etc. That cavity is spoiled by placing an oscillating plate in the laser beam. For tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region, a Brewster-plate spoiler allows the harmonic detection of absorptances of less than 10 to the -5 in a single laser scan. Improved operation is achieved without subtraction techniques, without complex laser frequency modulation, and without distortion of the molecular lineshape signal. The technique is applicable to tunable lasers operating from UV to IR wavelengths and in spectrometers which employ either short or long pathlengths, including the use of retroreflectors or multipass cells.

  17. Error correction method and apparatus for electronic timepieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. R.; Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting errors in an electronic digital timepiece that includes an oscillator which has a 2 in. frequency output, an n-stage frequency divider for reducing the oscillator output frequency to a time keeping frequency, and means for displaying the count of the time keeping frequency. In first and second embodiments of the invention the timepiece is synchronized with a time standard at the beginning of the period of time T. In the first embodiment of the invention the timepiece user observes E (the difference between the time standard and the timepiece time at the end of the period T) and then operates a switch to correct the time of the timepiece and to obtain a count for E. In the second embodiment of the invention, the user operates a switch at the beginning of T and at the end of T and a count for E is obtained electronically.

  18. Ultrastructural and Histochemical Characterization of the Zebra Mussel Adhesive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, Nikrooz

    Since their accidental introduction into the Great Lakes in mid- to late-1980s, the freshwater zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have colonized most lakes and waterways across eastern North America. Their rapid spread is partly attributed to their ability to tenaciously attach to hard substrates via an adhesive apparatus called the byssus, resulting in serious environmental and economic impacts. A detailed ultrastructural study of the byssus revealed a 10 nm adhesive layer at the attachment interface. Distributions of the main adhesive amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and its oxidizing (cross-linking) enzyme, catechol oxidase, were determined histochemically. It was found that, upon aging, DOPA levels remained high in the portion of the byssus closest to the interface, consistent with an adhesive role. In contrast, reduced levels of DOPA corresponded well with high levels of catechol oxidase in the load-bearing component of the byssus, presumably forming cross-links and increasing the cohesive strength.

  19. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  20. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  1. Inspection apparatus and replaceable door for a vacuum chamber of such an inspection apparatus and a method for operating an inspection apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Hoogenboom, J.P.; Zonnevylle, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    An inspection apparatus is provided comprising in combination at least an optical microscope and an ion- or electron microscope equipped with a source for emitting a primary beam of radiation to a sample in a sample holder. The apparatus may comprise a detector for detection of secondary radiation b

  2. Middle ear influence on otoacoustic emissions. I : Noninvasive investigation of the human transmission apparatus and comparison with model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avan, P; Buki, B; Maat, B; Dordain, M; Wit, HP

    2000-01-01

    Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) are generated within the cochlea in response to external sounds, and they can be acoustically detected in the external auditory meatus after backward propagation through the middle ear. In addition to being used to probe the cochlear mechanisms, they are expected

  3. Noninvasive ankle distraction: relationship between force, magnitude of distraction, and nerve conduction abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, P A; Watson, B V; Amendola, A; Brown, J D

    1996-02-01

    Seven healthy volunteers (14 ankles; four males, 3 females) with no history of ankle or foot pathology were placed in a modified beach chair position on an operating table for ankle distraction using a noninvasive ankle distractor. In-line traction of 0 to 225 N (50 lb) in 22.5-N (5-lb) increments was applied to the ankle. A direct lateral radiograph was obtained at each distraction force. The joint space was measured on the lateral radiographs using electronic microcalipers. Surface recordings of the superficial peroneal, deep peroneal dorsal digital cutaneous, and sural nerves were obtained. The ankle joint space increased progressively from an average 3.1 mm with no force applied to an average 4.2 mm with 225 N (50 lb) distraction force applied. The maximum joint distraction averaged 1.3 mm (range, 0.35 to 2.35 mm). The sensory amplitudes were diminished or absent with increasing time and force of distraction. The decreased amplitudes were most marked after 1 hour of distraction with 135 N (30 lb) or greater distraction force. This correlated with symptoms of paresthesias. The superficial and deep peroneal cutaneous nerves were affected to a much greater extent than the sural nerve. The amplitudes quickly returned to normal values with the weight being released from the ankle. The noninvasive ankle distractor safely increased ankle joint space by more than 1 mm. Distraction with 135 N (30 lb) or more for 1 hour is associated with reversible nerve conduction changes. Based on these findings, we recommend using the noninvasive ankle distraction apparatus for ankle arthroscopy, with up to 135 N (30 lb) of traction applied to the foot for up to 1 hour. Greater force, applied for longer periods, is associated with increasing nerve conduction abnormalities.

  4. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90

  5. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  6. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y. de F.; de Aquino, G. A.; Filho, J. G. D.

    2010-08-01

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through "air trap valves". In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the "air trap valves". The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where "air trap valves" are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test "air trap valves". The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  7. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y de F [CTH-DAEE-USP/FAAP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Aquino, G A de [SABESP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Filho, J G D, E-mail: yvone.lucca@gmail.co [Water Resources Department, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitaria-Barao Geraldo-Campinas, S.P., 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through 'air trap valves'. In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the 'air trap valves'. The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where 'air trap valves' are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test 'air trap valves'. The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  8. Cryogenic Active Magnetic Regenerator Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, A.; Roszmann, J.; Dikeos, J.; Rowe, A.

    2006-04-01

    An AMR Test Apparatus (AMRTA) used in experiments near room-temperature required a number of modifications to allow for testing at cryogenic temperatures and with a 5 T magnetic field. The impacts of parasitic heat leaks, frictional heat generation, and eddy current heating in the AMRTA are analyzed. A low temperature gas circulation (LTGC) system to control the operating temperature was developed. The LTGC consists of a GM cryocooler coupled to a compressor and helium circuit which circulates fluid through a set of heat exchangers and flexible transfer lines connected to the AMRTA. Design features are discussed as is some initial test data.

  9. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  10. Apparatus for cooling an electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Pepe; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shen, Xiaochun; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Salasoo, Lembit

    2013-07-16

    Provided is an apparatus, for example, for use with a rotating electric machine, that includes a housing. The housing can include a housing main portion and a housing end portion. The housing main portion can be configured to be disposed proximal to a body portion of a stator section of an electric machine. The housing main portion can define a main fluid channel that is configured to conduct fluid therethrough. The housing end portion can receive fluid from said main fluid channel and direct fluid into contact with a winding end portion of a conductive winding of the stator section.

  11. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  12. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  13. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  14. Fastening apparatus having shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnis, Darin N. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A releasable fastening apparatus is presented. The device includes a connecting member and a housing. The housing supports a gripping mechanism that is adapted to engage the connecting member. A triggering member is movable within the housing between a first position in which it constrains the gripping mechanism in locked engagement with the connecting member, and a second position in which the gripping mechanism is disengaged from the connecting member. A shaped memory alloy actuator is employed for translating the triggering member from its first to its second position. The actuator is designed to expand longitudinally when transitioned from a martensitic to an austenitic state.

  15. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  16. Apparatus for determining changes in limb volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Wu, V. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Measuring apparatus for determining changes in the volume of limbs or other boty extremities by determining the cross-sectional area of such limbs many comprise a transmitter including first and second transducers for positioning on the surface of the limb at a predetermined distance there between, and a receiver including a receiver crystal for positioning on the surface of the limb. The distance between the receiver crystal and the first and second transducers are represented by respective first and second chords of the cross-section of the limb and the predetermined distance between the first and second transducers is represented by a third chord of the limb cross section.

  17. GO-PROMTO illuminates protein membrane topologies of glycan biosynthetic enzymes in the Golgi apparatus of living tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Casper; Stenbæk, Anne; Bernard, Sophie; Hadi, Masood; Driouich, Azeddine; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is the main site of glycan biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Better understanding of the membrane topology of the proteins and enzymes involved can impart new mechanistic insights into these processes. Publically available bioinformatic tools provide highly variable predictions of membrane topologies for given proteins. Therefore we devised a non-invasive experimental method by which the membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins can be determined in the Golgi apparatus in living tissues. A Golgi marker was used to construct a series of reporters based on the principle of bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The reporters and proteins of interest were recombinantly fused to split halves of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transiently co-expressed with the reporters in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue. Output signals were binary, showing either the presence or absence of fluorescence with signal morphologies characteristic of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The method allows prompt and robust determinations of membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins and is termed GO-PROMTO (for GOlgi PROtein Membrane TOpology). We applied GO-PROMTO to examine the topologies of proteins involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides including xyloglucan and arabinan. The results suggest the existence of novel biosynthetic mechanisms involving transports of intermediates across Golgi membranes.

  18. GO-PROMTO illuminates protein membrane topologies of glycan biosynthetic enzymes in the Golgi apparatus of living tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Søgaard

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus is the main site of glycan biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Better understanding of the membrane topology of the proteins and enzymes involved can impart new mechanistic insights into these processes. Publically available bioinformatic tools provide highly variable predictions of membrane topologies for given proteins. Therefore we devised a non-invasive experimental method by which the membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins can be determined in the Golgi apparatus in living tissues. A Golgi marker was used to construct a series of reporters based on the principle of bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The reporters and proteins of interest were recombinantly fused to split halves of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP and transiently co-expressed with the reporters in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue. Output signals were binary, showing either the presence or absence of fluorescence with signal morphologies characteristic of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The method allows prompt and robust determinations of membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins and is termed GO-PROMTO (for GOlgi PROtein Membrane TOpology. We applied GO-PROMTO to examine the topologies of proteins involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides including xyloglucan and arabinan. The results suggest the existence of novel biosynthetic mechanisms involving transports of intermediates across Golgi membranes.

  19. Reduction in Golgi apparatus dimension in the absence of a residential protein, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Zuber, Christian; Pierce, Michael; Stanley, Pamela; Roth, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Various proteins are involved in the generation and maintenance of the membrane complex known as the Golgi apparatus. We have used mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines Lec4 and Lec4A lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V, MGAT5) activity and protein in the Golgi apparatus to study the effects of the absence of a single glycosyltransferase on the Golgi apparatus dimension. Quantification of immunofluorescence in serial confocal sections for Golgi α-mannosidase II and electron microscopic morphometry revealed a reduction in Golgi volume density up to 49 % in CHO Lec4 and CHO Lec4A cells compared to parental CHO cells. This reduction in Golgi volume density could be reversed by stable transfection of Lec4 cells with a cDNA encoding Mgat5. Inhibition of the synthesis of β1,6-branched N-glycans by swainsonine had no effect on Golgi volume density. In addition, no effect on Golgi volume density was observed in CHO Lec1 cells that contain enzymatically active GlcNAcT-V, but cannot synthesize β1,6-branched glycans due to an inactive GlcNAcT-I in their Golgi apparatus. These results indicate that it may be the absence of the GlcNAcT-V protein that is the determining factor in reducing Golgi volume density. No dimensional differences existed in cross-sectioned cisternal stacks between Lec4 and control CHO cells, but significantly reduced Golgi stack hits were observed in cross-sectioned Lec4 cells. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus dimensional change in Lec4 and Lec4A cells may be due to a compaction of the organelle.

  20. Apparatus and Methods Using Highly Optically Dispersive Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    of two-beam interferometers , such as, e.g., a Michelson interferometer , a Twyman-Green interferometer , and others known in the art. An alternative...guiding fiber . 20 32. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus is a spectroscopic interferometer . 33. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the...Zhimin et a!. "Enhancing the spectral sensitivity of interferometers using slow-light media". Optics Letters, vol. 32, No. 8, Apr. 15, 2007, pp. 915

  1. Specific organization of Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildanova, M S; Wang, W; Smirnova, E A

    2014-09-01

    Microtubules, actin filaments, and Golgi apparatus are connected both directly and indirectly, but it is manifested differently depending on the cell organization and specialization, and these connections are considered in many original studies and reviews. In this review we would like to discuss what underlies differences in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells: specific features of the microtubule cytoskeleton organization, the use of different cytoskeleton components for Golgi apparatus movement and maintenance of its integrity, or specific features of synthetic and secretory processes. We suppose that a dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in higher plant cells cannot be explained only by specific features of the microtubule system organization and by the absence of centrosome as an active center of their organization because the Golgi apparatus is organized similarly in the cells of other organisms that possess the centrosome and centrosomal microtubules. One of the key factors determining the Golgi apparatus state in plant cells is the functional uniformity or functional specialization of stacks. The functional specialization does not suggest the joining of the stacks to form a ribbon; therefore, the disperse state of the Golgi apparatus needs to be supported, but it also can exist "by default". We believe that the dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in plants is supported, on one hand, by dynamic connections of the Golgi apparatus stacks with the actin filament system and, on the other hand, with the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Atypical protein kinase C regulates primary dendrite specification of cerebellar Purkinje cells by localizing Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Koji; Kani, Shuichi; Shimizu, Takashi; Bae, Young-Ki; Abe, Takaya; Hibi, Masahiko

    2010-12-15

    Neurons have highly polarized structures that determine what parts of the soma elaborate the axon and dendrites. However, little is known about the mechanisms that establish neuronal polarity in vivo. Cerebellar Purkinje cells extend a single primary dendrite from the soma that ramifies into a highly branched dendritic arbor. We used the zebrafish cerebellum to investigate the mechanisms by which Purkinje cells acquire these characteristics. To examine dendritic morphogenesis in individual Purkinje cells, we marked the cell membrane using a Purkinje cell-specific promoter to drive membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins. We found that zebrafish Purkinje cells initially extend multiple neurites from the soma and subsequently retract all but one, which becomes the primary dendrite. In addition, the Golgi apparatus specifically locates to the root of the primary dendrite, and its localization is already established in immature Purkinje cells that have multiple neurites. Inhibiting secretory trafficking through the Golgi apparatus reduces dendritic growth, suggesting that the Golgi apparatus is involved in the dendritic morphogenesis. We also demonstrated that in a mutant of an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Prkci, Purkinje cells retain multiple primary dendrites and show disrupted localization of the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, a mosaic inhibition of Prkci in Purkinje cells recapitulates the aPKC mutant phenotype. These results suggest that the aPKC cell autonomously controls the Golgi localization and thereby regulates the specification of the primary dendrite of Purkinje cells.

  3. Method and apparatus for atomic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Dilano K.; de Andres Rodriquez, Pedro L.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for three dimensional imaging of the atomic environment of disordered adsorbate atoms are disclosed. The method includes detecting and measuring the intensity of a diffuse low energy electron diffraction pattern formed by directing a beam of low energy electrons against the surface of a crystal. Data corresponding to reconstructed amplitudes of a wave form is generated by operating on the intensity data. The data corresponding to the reconstructed amplitudes is capable of being displayed as a three dimensional image of an adsorbate atom. The apparatus includes a source of a beam of low energy electrons and a detector for detecting the intensity distribution of a DLEED pattern formed at the detector when the beam of low energy electrons is directed onto the surface of a crystal. A device responsive to the intensity distribution generates a signal corresponding to the distribution which represents a reconstructed amplitude of a wave form and is capable of being converted into a three dimensional image of the atomic environment of an adsorbate atom on the crystal surface.

  4. Performances of a portable electrospinning apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Groszkowski, Lukasz; Ye, Hua

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate that portable electrospinning devices can spin a wide range of polymers into submicron fibres and provide a mesh quality comparable to those produced with benchtop machines. We have designed a small, battery-operated electrospinning apparatus which enables control over the voltage and the flow rate of the polymer solution via a microcontroller. It can be used to electrospin a range of commonly used polymers including poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(p-dioxanone), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinyl acohol) and poly(vinyl butyral). Moreover, electrospun meshes are produced with a quality comparable to a benchtop machine. We also show that the portable apparatus is able to electrospray beads and microparticles. Finally, we highlight the potential of the device for wound healing applications by demonstrating the possibility of electrospinning onto pig and human skins. Portable electrospinning devices are still at an early stage of development but they could soon become an attractive alternative to benchtop machines, in particular for uses that require mobility and a higher degree of flexibility, such as for wound healing applications.

  5. Experiments with Coler magnetic current apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T.

    Experiments with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" (magnetic current apparatus) were conducted. The replica was built at the same institute at the Technical University of Berlin where the original was tested by Prof. Kloss in 1925. The details of the setup will be presented in this paper. The investigation of the Coler device was done with modern methods. The output was measured with a digital multi meter (DMM) and a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The results of the measurements will be presented. Did Coler convert vacuum fluctuations via magnetic, electric and acoustic resonance into electricity? There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field radiation energy. The magnetic moment of the electron is in part an energy exchange with the radiation field. The energy output of the Coler apparatus is measured. Furthermore the dynamics of the ferromagnetic magnets that Coler reported as the working principle of his device was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the spectroscopy mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The magnetic and acoustic resonance was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The connection between ZPE and magnetism will be discussed as well as the perspective of using magnetic systems as a means to convert vacuum fluctuations into usable electricity.

  6. Apparatus for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  7. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  8. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  9. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Marcella, James A [Rochester, MN; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  10. A Simple, Inexpensive Acoustic Levitation Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappe, R. Scott; Barbosa, Cinthya

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic levitation uses a resonant ultrasonic standing wave to suspend small objects; it is used in a variety of research disciplines, particularly in the study of phase transitions and materials susceptible to contamination, or as a stabilization mechanism in microgravity environments. The levitation equipment used for such research is quite costly; we wanted to develop a simple, inexpensive system to demonstrate this visually striking example of standing waves. A search of the literature produced only one article relevant to creating such an apparatus, but the authors' approach uses a test tube, which limits the access to the standing wave. Our apparatus, shown in Fig. 1, can levitate multiple small (1-2 mm) pieces of expanded polystyrene (Styrofoam) using components readily available to most instructors of introductory physics. Acoustic levitation occurs in small, stable equilibrium locations where the weight of the object is balanced by the acoustic radiation force created by an ultrasonic standing wave; these locations are slightly below the pressure nodes. The levitation process also creates a horizontal restoring force. Since the pressure nodes are also velocity antinodes, this transverse stability may be analogous to the effect of an upward air stream supporting a ball.

  11. Laboratory apparatus to evaluate microalgae production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. S. Gris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of microalgae for energy purposes and CO2 biomitigation continues to present a number of challenges, including the optimization of culture conditions. The application of experimental designs for microalgae cultivation is difficult, since experiments involving such microorganisms generally last days or weeks. This work proposes a multipurpose laboratory apparatus for the optimization of microalgae experimental conditions that simultaneously enables the evaluation of variables such as temperature, irradiance, photoperiod and CO2 concentration in the aeration stream, as well as variables related to the concentration of culture media nutrients. A case study is also presented in which temperature, concentration of f/2 medium sodium nitrate and the effects of incident light intensity on Nannochloropsis oculata lipid content are evaluated. Experiments were carried out following central composite designs, in batch cultivation within an airlift photobioreactor apparatus. The best experimental result was obtained at 21 ºC, 119 mg/L NaNO3 and 137 µE.m-2.s-1, corresponding to 41.8% lipids and 211.9 mg.L-1 final lipid concentrations.

  12. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  13. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = -0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  14. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Hakki, A H; Weinreich, D J; Iskandrian, A S

    1983-10-01

    This study determines whether a mathematical model can be used to assess noninvasively the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). The model was based on stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis of data obtained in 99 patients from clinical and nonhemodynamic exercise variables, or from radionuclide determination of left ventricular function at rest or during exercise, or both. The extent of CAD was assessed by a scoring system and by the number of diseased vessels. The variables selected by this method (Q-wave infarction, exercise LV ejection fraction, change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise, sex and diabetes mellitus) yielded a predictive accuracy of 82% for the identification of patients with extensive CAD (score greater than or equal to 35). Slightly better results were achieved by a subgroup of 77 patients who had adequate exercise end points (exercise heart rate greater than or equal to 120 beats/min, or angina or ST depression during exercise). In these patients, the predictive accuracy was 84%. The model also identified patients with "light" CAD (score less than or equal to 10) with a predictive accuracy of 82%. Thus, noninvasive assessment of the extent of CAD is possible with a stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis of clinical, electrocardiographic and left ventricular function assessed by radionuclide ventriculography at rest and during exercise. The scoring system was superior to the conventional method of classifying patients according to the number of diseased vessels.

  15. NON-INVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.

  16. Non-invasive Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    IWASAKI, Masaki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is aimed to remove the brain tissues that are indispensable for generating patient’s epileptic seizures. There are two purposes in the pre-operative evaluation: localization of the epileptogenic zone and localization of function. Surgery is planned to remove possible epileptogenic zone while preserving functional area. Since no single diagnostic modality is superior to others in identifying and localizing the epileptogenic zone, multiple non-invasive evaluations are performed to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone after concordance between evaluations. Essential components of non-invasive pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy include detailed clinical history, long-term video-electroencephalography monitoring, epilepsy-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological testing. However, a significant portion of drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with no or subtle MRI lesions or with ambiguous electro-clinical signs. Additional evaluations including fluoro-deoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetoencephalography and ictal single photon emission computed tomography can play critical roles in planning surgery. FDG-PET should be registered on three-dimensional MRI for better detection of focal cortical dysplasia. All diagnostic tools are complementary to each other in defining the epileptogenic zone, so that it is always important to reassess the data based on other results to pick up or confirm subtle abnormalities. PMID:27627857

  17. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring: how accurate is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mark J; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Morey, Timothy E

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating the accuracy of medical devices has traditionally been a blend of statistical analyses, at times without contextualizing the clinical application. There have been a number of recent publications on the accuracy of a continuous noninvasive hemoglobin measurement device, the Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-oximeter, focusing on the traditional statistical metrics of bias and precision. In this review, which contains material presented at the Innovations and Applications of Monitoring Perfusion, Oxygenation, and Ventilation (IAMPOV) Symposium at Yale University in 2012, we critically investigated these metrics as applied to the new technology, exploring what is required of a noninvasive hemoglobin monitor and whether the conventional statistics adequately answer our questions about clinical accuracy. We discuss the glucose error grid, well known in the glucose monitoring literature, and describe an analogous version for hemoglobin monitoring. This hemoglobin error grid can be used to evaluate the required clinical accuracy (±g/dL) of a hemoglobin measurement device to provide more conclusive evidence on whether to transfuse an individual patient. The important decision to transfuse a patient usually requires both an accurate hemoglobin measurement and a physiologic reason to elect transfusion. It is our opinion that the published accuracy data of the Masimo Radical-7 is not good enough to make the transfusion decision.

  18. Look at your process non-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyes, W. (TN Technologies, Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States)); Jean, R. (Epsilon Industrial, Inc. Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Gaining access to hazardous areas in process plants is a constant problem for instrument engineers. The area may contain hazardous chemicals, or may have dangerously high temperatures or pressures. An additional problem is the desire to avoid ports or other openings into process vessels, to improve safety and to minimize fugitive emissions. The answer of these types of problems is a sensor that is noninvasive or noncontacting in nature. A noncontacting sensor is one that might be mounted in a process vessel or through a port, but does not directly contact the process material. Among the range of noninvasive sensing techniques are those using microwave energy: microwave radar for level and guided microwave spectrometry (GMS) for composition. First introduced in the early 1980s for shipboard level measurement, the use of radar level has expanded to onshore tank farms, and then to process vessels. GMS, a relatively new application of microwave energy, is beginning to make inroads in a variety of online techniques for composition, water content and other process variables. The paper describes the technology and its applications.

  19. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  20. Insular Epilepsy: Semiology and Noninvasive Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Sami; Zerouali, Younes; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2017-07-01

    In this review, authors discuss the semiology and noninvasive investigations of insular epilepsy, an underrecognized type of epilepsy, which may mimic other focal epilepsies. In line with the various functions of the insula and its widespread network of connections, insular epilepsy may feature a variety of early ictal manifestations from somatosensory, visceral, olfactory, gustatory, or vestibular manifestations. Depending on propagation pathways, insular seizures may also include altered consciousness, dystonic posturing, complex motor behaviors, and even autonomic features. Considering the variability in seizure semiology, recognition of insular epilepsy may be challenging and confirmation by noninvasive tests is warranted although few studies have assessed their value. Detection of an insular lesion on MRI greatly facilitates the diagnosis. Scalp EEG findings in frontocentral and/or temporal derivations will generally allow lateralization of the seizure focus. Ictal single-photon computed tomography has moderate sensitivity, whereas positron emission tomography has lower sensitivity. Among newer techniques, magnetoencephalography is highly beneficial, whereas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy currently has limited value.

  1. NINJA: a noninvasive framework for internal computer security hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas G.; Thomson, Steve

    2004-07-01

    Vulnerabilities are a growing problem in both the commercial and government sector. The latest vulnerability information compiled by CERT/CC, for the year ending Dec. 31, 2002 reported 4129 vulnerabilities representing a 100% increase over the 2001 [1] (the 2003 report has not been published at the time of this writing). It doesn"t take long to realize that the growth rate of vulnerabilities greatly exceeds the rate at which the vulnerabilities can be fixed. It also doesn"t take long to realize that our nation"s networks are growing less secure at an accelerating rate. As organizations become aware of vulnerabilities they may initiate efforts to resolve them, but quickly realize that the size of the remediation project is greater than their current resources can handle. In addition, many IT tools that suggest solutions to the problems in reality only address "some" of the vulnerabilities leaving the organization unsecured and back to square one in searching for solutions. This paper proposes an auditing framework called NINJA (acronym for Network Investigation Notification Joint Architecture) for noninvasive daily scanning/auditing based on common security vulnerabilities that repeatedly occur in a network environment. This framework is used for performing regular audits in order to harden an organizations security infrastructure. The framework is based on the results obtained by the Network Security Assessment Team (NSAT) which emulates adversarial computer network operations for US Air Force organizations. Auditing is the most time consuming factor involved in securing an organization's network infrastructure. The framework discussed in this paper uses existing scripting technologies to maintain a security hardened system at a defined level of performance as specified by the computer security audit team. Mobile agents which were under development at the time of this writing are used at a minimum to improve the noninvasiveness of our scans. In general, noninvasive

  2. Development of a Test Apparatus for Measurement of Hydraulic Fluid Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt Jackson; Brian Koehler

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demand for nonrenewable resources,energy conservation is critical.Efficiency gains allow more work to be performed while maintaining or even decreasing the energy expended in the process.Reducing the energy consumed by a system results in favorable economic and environmental impact.An apparatus has been developed to measure hydraulic fluid efficiency in a stationary application.The system can be used to develop more efficient fluids,leading to increased work output or decreased energy consumption.

  3. Corrosion behavior of F82H exposed to high temperature pressurized water with a rotating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, A.; Kasada, R.; Nakajima, M.; Hirose, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Enoeda, M.; Konishi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the corrosion behavior of a reduced-activation ferritic martensitic steel F82H exposed to high temperature pressurized water for 28 and 100 h using a rotating disk apparatus at rotation speeds of 500 and 1000 rpm at a temperature of 573 K under a water pressure of 15 MPa with corrosion and/or flow-accelerated corrosion of F82H under the rotating condition.

  4. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value of these noninvasive diagnosis techniques, and it discusses the progress in clinical research and its limitations for noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  5. Recent Advances in Non-Invasive Delivery of Macromolecules using Nanoparticulate Carriers System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadab, Md; Haque, Shadabul; Sheshala, Ravi; Meng, Lim Wei; Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Ali, Javed

    2017-01-01

    The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects. Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles. This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.

  7. A Non-invasive Prenatal Diagnosis Method: Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Dundar Yenilmez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis for genetic diseases nowadays is still carried out by invasive procedures such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or cordocentesis. These techniques, however, accompanied with risk of fetal losses. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis tests based on the analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma have potential to be a safer alternative to invasive methods. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis has been a long-standing research theme in prenatal medicine. The discovery of cell-free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma in 1997 has opened new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. The measurement and detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum has led to clinical applications for the identification of fetal aneuploidies, pre-eclamptic pregnancies, noninvasive diagnosis of fetal Rhesus D genotype and some single gene disorders. The detection of fetal DNA sequences is a reality and could reduce the risk of invasive techniques for certain fetal disorders in the near future. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 317-334

  8. Guideline development and impact assessment for registration of medical, dental and veterinary x-ray apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, P.; Harrison, D. [NSW Environment Protection Authority, Lidcombe, NSW, (Australia). Radiation Control Centre; Moore, W. [NSW Environmental Protection Authority, Chatswood, NSW, (Australia). Economics and Environmental Reporting Branch

    1996-10-01

    Under the NSW Radiation Control Act 1990, radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes will be required to become registered. The inspection required prior to registration will be conducted by a Consulting Radiation Expert who has been accredited by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) as being competent in the field of quality assurance assessment of radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes. When regulating any activity in NSW, there is a requirement to undertake a regulatory impact statement of the proposed regulation. In addition, the introduction of any accompanying guideline requires a cost-benefit analysis. Costs may include enforcement, administrative and compliance activities. The calculation of benefit relies heavily on the improvement in apparatus performance (and hence dose reduction) that can be obtained with the introduction of a mandatory practice such as apparatus registration. This paper discusses the development of the registration guideline for NSW, including a summary of the public comments received. It further discusses the methodology and data used for the accompanying cost-benefit analysis. Information in this paper is presented in three parts: EPA field survey, cost analysis, and benefit analysis. For NSW it was estimated that the introduction of registration of these apparatus, over a two year period, would result in early replacement and repair costs (present values) to the medical industry of between $5.7 and $11.0 million, with an additional $2.5 million in EPA enforcement costs. The introduction of the proposed system of registration is expected to result in an estimated savings in quantifiable health detriment costs to NSW of between $11.8 and $17.7 million, and reduce the risk of radiation induced mortality. (authors). 4 refs., 11 tabs.

  9. PAQR10 and PAQR11 mediate Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ting; Ding, Qiurong; Huang, Heng; Xu, Daqian; Jiang, Yuhui; Zhou, Ben; Li, Zhenghu; Jiang, Xiaomeng; He, Jing; Liu, Weizhong; Zhang, Yixuan; Pan, Yi; Wang, Zhenzhen; Thomas, Walter G; Chen, Yan

    2012-04-01

    Ras plays a pivotal role in many cellular activities, and its subcellular compartmentalization provides spatial and temporal selectivity. Here we report a mode of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by two highly homologous proteins PAQR10 and PAQR11 of the progestin and AdipoQ receptors family. PAQR10 and PAQR11 are exclusively localized in the Golgi apparatus. Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 stimulates basal and EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation and increases the expression of ERK target genes in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 markedly elevates Golgi localization of HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B. PAQR10 and PAQR11 can also interact with HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B. The increased Ras protein at the Golgi apparatus by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 is in an active state. Consistently, knockdown of PAQR10 and PAQR11 reduces EGF-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and Ras activation at the Golgi apparatus. Intriguingly, PAQR10 and PAQR11 are able to interact with RasGRP1, a guanine nucleotide exchange protein of Ras, and increase Golgi localization of RasGRP1. The C1 domain of RasGRP1 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of RasGRP1 with PAQR10/PAQR11. The simulation of ERK phosphorylation by overexpressed PAQR10/PAQR11 is abrogated by downregulation of RasGRP1. Furthermore, differentiation of PC12 cells is significantly enhanced by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11. Collectively, this study uncovers a new paradigm of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by PAQR10 and PAQR11.

  10. PAQR10 and PAQR11 mediate Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Jin; Weizhong Liu; Yixuan Zhang; Yi Pan; Zhenzhen Wang; Walter G Thomas; Yan Chen; Qiurong Ding; Heng Huang; Daqian Xu; Yuhui Jiang; Ben Zhou; Zhenghu Li; Xiaomeng Jiang; Jing He

    2012-01-01

    Ras plays a pivotal role in many cellular activities,and its subcellular compartmentalization provides spatial and temporal selectivity.Here we report a mode of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by two highly homologous proteins PAQR10 and PAQR11 of the progestin and AdipoQ receptors family.PAQR10 and PAQR11 are exclusively localized in the Golgi apparatus.Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 stimulates basal and EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation and increases the expression of ERK target genes in a dose-dependent manner.Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 markedly elevates Golgi localization of HRas,NRas and KRas4A,but not KRas4B.PAQR10 and PAQR11 can also interact with HRas,NRas and KRas4A,but not KRas4B.The increased Ras protein at the Golgi apparatus by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 is in an active state.Consistently,knockdown of PAQR10 and PAQR11 reduces EGF-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and Ras activation at the Golgi apparatus.Intriguingly,PAQR10 and PAQR11 are able to interact with RasGRP1,a guanine nucleotide exchange protein of Ras,and increase Golgi localization of RasGRP1.The C1 domain of RasGRP1 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of RasGRP1 with PAQR10/PAQR11.The simulation of ERK phosphorylation by overexpressed PAQR10/PAQR11 is abrogated by downregulation of RasGRP1.Furthermore,differentiation of PC12 cells is significantly enhanced by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11.Collectively,this study uncovers a new paradigm of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by PAQR10 and PAQR11.

  11. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  12. Apparatus as Milestones in the History of Comparative Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Putney, R. Thompson

    1994-01-01

    Significant apparatus developments from the history of comparative psychology are reviewed, including the contemporary trend toward computer use in research with nonhuman animals. It is argued that milestone apparatus served not only to open new lines of inquiry but also to shape or delimit the nature of the answers that were obtained.

  13. Apparatus for the production of methane from organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, H.

    1980-07-23

    CH/sub 4/ is manufactured by fermentation of organic wastes in an apparatus comprising a fermentation container and a post-fermentation container. Both containers are connected via a conduit, and the gas formed is collected in the upper part of the fermentation container. Additional features and components of the apparatus are illustrated.

  14. 49 CFR 234.227 - Train detection apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.227 Train detection apparatus. (a) Train detection apparatus shall be maintained to detect a train or railcar in any part of a train detection circuit,...

  15. Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yang, Bin; Perry, Steven T.; Mazanec, Terry; Arora, Ravi; Daly, Francis P.; Long, Richard; Yuschak, Thomas D.; Neagle, Paul W.; Glass, Amanda

    2011-08-16

    Methods of oxidative dehydrogenation are described. Surprisingly, Pd and Au alloys of Pt have been discovered to be superior for oxidative dehydrogenation in microchannels. Methods of forming these catalysts via an electroless plating methodology are also described. An apparatus design that minimizes heat transfer to the apparatus' exterior is also described.

  16. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  17. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. 862.2485 Section 862.2485 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Instruments § 862.2485 Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. (a) Identification. An...

  18. An Apparatus for Growth of Small Crystals From Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Mico M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for crystal growth that was designed to study growth kinetics of small crystals from solutions and to obtain crystals of various substances. Describes the use of the apparatus in laboratory practical experiments in the field of crystal growth physics within the course "Solid State Physics". (JRH)

  19. Noninvasive imaging of oral premalignancy and malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Krasieva, T.; Jung, W.; You, J. S.; Chen, Z.; Osann, K.; Tromberg, B.

    2005-04-01

    Objectives: Early detection of cancer and its curable precursors remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Despite significant advances in treatment, oral cancer still results in 10,000 U.S. deaths annually, mainly due to the late detection of most oral lesions. Specific aim was to use a combination of non-invasive optical in vivo technologies to test a multi-modality approach to non-invasive diagnostics of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Methods: In the hamster cheek pouch model (120 hamsters), in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) mapped epithelial, subepithelial and vascular change throughout carcinogenesis in specific, marked sites. In vivo multi-wavelength multi-photon (MPM) and second harmonic generated (SHG) fluorescence techniques provided parallel data on surface and subsurface tissue structure, specifically collagen presence and structure, cellular presence, and vasculature. Images were diagnosed by 2 blinded, pre-standardized investigators using a standardized scale from 0-6 for all modalities. After sacrifice, histopathological sections were prepared and pathology evaluated on a scale of 0-6. ANOVA techniques compared imaging diagnostics with histopathology. 95% confidence limits of the sensitivity and specificity were established for the diagnostic capability of OCT/ODT+ MPM/SHG using ROC curves and kappa statistics. Results: Imaging data were reproducibly obtained with good accuracy. Carcinogenesis-related structural and vascular changes were clearly visible to tissue depths of 2mm. Sensitivity (OCT/ODT alone: 71-88%; OCT+MPM/SHG: 79-91%) and specificity (OCT alone: 62-83%;OCT+MPM/SHG: 67-90%) compared well with conventional techniques. Conclusions: OCT/ODT and MPM/SHG are promising non-invasive in vivo diagnostic modalities for oral dysplasia and malignancy. Supported by CRFA 30003, CCRP 00-01391V-20235, NIH (LAMMP) RR01192, DOE DE903-91ER 61227, NIH EB-00293 CA91717, NSF BES

  20. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  1. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  2. Pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.; George, E.V.; Miller, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1993-11-09

    A pulse compression and prepulse suppression apparatus (10) for time compressing the output of a laser (14). A pump pulse (46) is separated from a seed pulse (48) by a first polarized beam splitter (20) according to the orientation of a half wave plate (18). The seed pulse (48) is directed into an SBS oscillator (44) by two plane mirrors (22, 26) and a corner mirror (24), the corner mirror (24) being movable to adjust timing. The pump pulse (46) is directed into an SBS amplifier 34 wherein SBS occurs. The seed pulse (48), having been propagated from the SBS oscillator (44), is then directed through the SBS amplifier (34) wherein it sweeps the energy of the pump pulse (46) out of the SBS amplifier (34) and is simultaneously compressed, and the time compressed pump pulse (46) is emitted as a pulse output (52). A second polarized beam splitter (38) directs any undepleted pump pulse 58 away from the SBS oscillator (44).

  3. Structural health monitoring apparatus and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor (Inventor); Yu, Lingyu (Inventor); Bottai, Giola Santoni (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and methodology for structural health monitoring (SHM) in which smart devices interrogate structural components to predict failure, expedite needed repairs, and thus increase the useful life of those components. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are applied to or integrated with structural components and various data collected there from provide the ability to detect and locate cracking, corrosion, and disbanding through use of pitch-catch, pulse-echo, electro/mechanical impedance, and phased array technology. Stand alone hardware and an associated software program are provided that allow selection of multiple types of SHM investigations as well as multiple types of data analysis to perform a wholesome investigation of a structure.

  4. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2017-09-12

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil. A method includes contacting a pyrolysis oil with a deoxygenation catalyst in a first reactor at deoxygenation conditions to produce a first reactor effluent. The first reactor effluent has a first oxygen concentration and a first hydrogen concentration, based on hydrocarbons in the first reactor effluent, and the first reactor effluent includes an aromatic compound. The first reactor effluent is contacted with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a second reactor at conditions that deoxygenate the first reactor effluent while preserving the aromatic compound to produce a second reactor effluent. The second reactor effluent has a second oxygen concentration lower than the first oxygen concentration and a second hydrogen concentration that is equal to or lower than the first hydrogen concentration, where the second oxygen concentration and the second hydrogen concentration are based on the hydrocarbons in the second reactor effluent.

  5. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  6. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  7. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  8. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  9. The patellar extensor apparatus of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Healthcare, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The patellar extensor apparatus is composed of the quadriceps muscles that converge to a central tendon that inserts on and invests the patella. It continues by the patellar tendon to act on the tibial tuberosity and thereby extends the leg at the knee. The structure can be thought of as a chain with pathology able to occur at each level. Pathological processes are generally caused by the great force experienced at each level both chronically and acutely. The forces are, however, greatly modified by the particular geometries present at each level. The various pathological processes and factors that modify them are reviewed at each level, beginning with the quadriceps musculature and ending at the terminal point of action, the tibial tuberosity. (orig.)

  10. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Hector; Bickford, Dennis

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, John William; Bonnell, Leo; Robinson, Earl T.

    2010-03-03

    A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.

  12. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  13. Cross-complementation study of the flagellar type III export apparatus membrane protein FlhB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    Full Text Available The bacterial type III export apparatus is found in the flagellum and in the needle complex of some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the needle complex its function is to secrete effector proteins for infection into Eukaryotic cells. In the bacterial flagellum it exports specific proteins for the building of the flagellum during its assembly. The export apparatus is composed of about five membrane proteins and three soluble proteins. The mechanism of the export apparatus is not fully understood. The five membrane proteins are well conserved and essential. Here a cross-complementation assay was performed: substituting in the flagellar system of Salmonella one of these membrane proteins, FlhB, by the FlhB ortholog from Aquifex aeolicus (an evolutionary distant hyperthermophilic bacteria or a chimeric protein (AquSalFlhB made by the combination of the trans-membrane domain of A. aeolicus FlhB with the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB dramatically reduced numbers of flagella and motility. From cells expressing the chimeric AquSalFlhB protein, suppressor mutants with enhanced motility were isolated and the mutations were identified using whole genome sequencing. Gain-of-function mutations were found in the gene encoding FlhA, another membrane protein of the type III export apparatus. Also, mutations were identified in genes encoding 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase, ubiquinone/menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, which are required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. The mutations were shown by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography to reduce the quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane. Ubiquinone biosynthesis could be restored for the strain bearing a mutated gene for 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase by the addition of excess exogenous 4-hydroxybenzoate. Restoring the level of ubiquinone reduced flagella biogenesis with the AquSalFlhB chimera

  14. Cross-Complementation Study of the Flagellar Type III Export Apparatus Membrane Protein FlhB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial type III export apparatus is found in the flagellum and in the needle complex of some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the needle complex its function is to secrete effector proteins for infection into Eukaryotic cells. In the bacterial flagellum it exports specific proteins for the building of the flagellum during its assembly. The export apparatus is composed of about five membrane proteins and three soluble proteins. The mechanism of the export apparatus is not fully understood. The five membrane proteins are well conserved and essential. Here a cross-complementation assay was performed: substituting in the flagellar system of Salmonella one of these membrane proteins, FlhB, by the FlhB ortholog from Aquifex aeolicus (an evolutionary distant hyperthermophilic bacteria) or a chimeric protein (AquSalFlhB) made by the combination of the trans-membrane domain of A. aeolicus FlhB with the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB dramatically reduced numbers of flagella and motility. From cells expressing the chimeric AquSalFlhB protein, suppressor mutants with enhanced motility were isolated and the mutations were identified using whole genome sequencing. Gain-of-function mutations were found in the gene encoding FlhA, another membrane protein of the type III export apparatus. Also, mutations were identified in genes encoding 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase, ubiquinone/menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, which are required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. The mutations were shown by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography to reduce the quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane. Ubiquinone biosynthesis could be restored for the strain bearing a mutated gene for 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase by the addition of excess exogenous 4-hydroxybenzoate. Restoring the level of ubiquinone reduced flagella biogenesis with the AquSalFlhB chimera demonstrating that the

  15. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  16. Noninvasive Monitoring of Oxygen and Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Walsh, Brian K

    2017-06-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation is an essential part of pediatric respiratory care. Carbon dioxide, gas exchange monitoring, transcutaneous monitoring, near-infrared spectroscopy, pulse oximetry, and electrical impedance tomography are examined. Although some of these technologies have been utilized for decades, incorporation into mechanical ventilators and recently developed methods may provide important clinical insights in a broader patient range. Less mature technologies (electrical impedance tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy) have been of particular interest, since they offer easy bedside application and potential for improved care of children with respiratory failure and other disorders. This article provides an overview of the principles of operation, a survey of recent and relevant literature, and important technological limitations and future research directions. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Noninvasive evaluation of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R W

    1978-08-01

    Doppler ultrasound is the most simple, inexpensive, accurate and versatile of the available noninvasive screening techniques to assess peripheral vascular diseases. The four fundamental components of peripheral arterial evaluation with this technique are assessment of blood velocity signal, measurement of resting ankle pressure, determination of segmental leg blood pressures, and measurement of ankle pressure response to exercise or reactive hyperemia. Plethysmography permits graphic recording of pulse-wave morphology, determination of digit blood pressure, and pulsatile responses to compression maneuvers. These techniques are useful in objectively quantifying peripheral arterial occlusive disease, predicting the results of operative therapy, monitoring the success of arterial reconstruction during surgery, and following the physiologic status of the patient after surgery.

  18. Noninvasive fluid property measurements using acoustic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Michael; Chow, Humphrey; Chiao, James; Rose, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    The properties of a fluid are normally determined using invasive methods. These methods may lead to possibly contaminating or consuming the sample. When only very small amounts of a valuable sample exist, noninvasive measurement methods are preferred. The properties of fluids can then be used to deduce additional properties based on known relationships. In one case, the surface tension of a fluid may be used to determine the concentration of a fluid. The authors describe a measurement technique involving excitation of the surface of the fluid and the measurement of its response. An acoustic wave is used to both excite and monitor the surface of the liquid. This technique is used to determine the concentration of DMSO and water in solution, and the result determines the amount of fluid needed to deliver an accurate amount of solute in solution.

  19. Simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Graaff, Reindert; Thorpe, Suzannne R; Baynes, John W; Hartog, Jasper; Gans, Reinold; Smit, Andries

    2005-06-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. Several studies indicate that AGE accumulation in tissue may reflect the cumulative effect of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress over many years. Simple quantitation of AGE accumulation in tissue could provide a tool for assessing the risk of long-term complications. Because several AGEs exhibit autofluorescence, we developed a noninvasive autofluorescence reader (AFR). Skin autofluorescence measured with the AFR correlates with collagen-linked fluorescence and specific skin AGE levels from skin biopsy samples. Furthermore, skin autofluorescence correlates with long-term glycemic control and renal function, and preliminary results show correlations with the presence of long-term complications in diabetes. The AFR may be useful as a clinical tool for rapid assessment of risk for AGE-related long-term complications in diabetes and in other conditions associated with AGE accumulation.

  20. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s

  1. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arantxa Mas, Josep MasipCritical Care Department, Consorci Sanitari Integral (CSI, Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi and Hospital General de l’Hospitalet, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: After the institution of positive-pressure ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV through an interface substantially increased. The first technique was continuous positive airway pressure; but, after the introduction of pressure support ventilation at the end of the 20th century, this became the main modality. Both techniques, and some others that have been recently introduced and which integrate some technological innovations, have extensively demonstrated a faster improvement of acute respiratory failure in different patient populations, avoiding endotracheal intubation and facilitating the release of conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. In acute settings, NIV is currently the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation as well as for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and should be considered in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, in difficult weaning, and in the prevention of postextubation failure. Alternatively, it can also be used in the postoperative period and in cases of pneumonia and asthma or as a palliative treatment. NIV is currently used in a wide range of acute settings, such as critical care and emergency departments, hospital wards, palliative or pediatric units, and in pre-hospital care. It is also used as a home care therapy in patients with chronic pulmonary or sleep disorders. The appropriate selection of patients and the adaptation to the technique are the keys to success. This review essentially analyzes the evidence of benefits of NIV in different populations with acute respiratory failure and describes the main modalities, new devices, and some practical aspects of the use of this technique. Keywords

  2. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to...

  3. [The study of noninvasive ventilator impeller based on ANSYS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Pan; Xie, Haiming; Zhou, Yaxu

    2011-06-01

    An impeller plays a significant role in the non-invasive ventilator. This paper shows a model of impeller for noninvasive ventilator established with the software Solidworks. The model was studied for feasibility based on ANSYS. Then stress and strain of the impeller were discussed under the external loads. The results of the analysis provided verification for the reliable design of impellers.

  4. Method and apparatus for dynamic focusing of ultrasound energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.

    2002-01-01

    Method and system disclosed herein include noninvasively detecting, separating and destroying multiple masses (tumors, cysts, etc.) through a plurality of iterations from tissue (e.g., breast tissue). The method and system may open new frontiers with the implication of noninvasive treatment of masses in the biomedical area along with the expanding technology of acoustic surgery.

  5. Noninvasive dosimetry and monitoring of TTT using spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuele, G.; Molnar, F. E.; Yellachich, D.; Vitkin, E.; Perelman, L. T.; Palanker, D.

    2006-02-01

    Transpupillary thermo therapy (TTT) is a slow (60 seconds) photothermal treatment of the fundus with a near-infrared (780-810nm) laser irradiating a large spot (0.5- 1. mm) on the retina. Due to high variability in ocular tissue properties and the lack of immediately observable outcome of the therapy, a real-time dosimetry is highly desirable. We found that fundus spectroscopy and spectrally-resolved imaging allow for non-invasive real-time monitoring and dosimetry of TTT. A 795nm laser was applied in rabbit eyes for 60 seconds using a 0.86mm retinal spot diameter. The fundus was illuminated with a broadband polarized light, and its reflectance spectra were measured in parallel and cross-polarizations. The fundus was also imaged in selected spectral domains. At irradiances that do not create ophthalmoscopically visible lesions the fundus reflectance increases at the wavelengths corresponding to absorption of the oxygenated blood indicating the reduced concentration of blood in the choroid. Vasoconstrictive response of the choroidal and retinal vasculature during TTT was also directly observed using spectrally-resolved imaging. At irradiances that produce ophthalmoscopically visible lesions a rapid reduction of the fundus reflectance was observed within the first 5-10 seconds of the exposure even when the visible lesions developed only by the end of the 60 second exposure. No visible lesions were produced where the laser was terminated after detection of the reduced scattering but prior to appearance of the enhanced scattering.

  6. CORRECTION OF FEMUR DEFORMITIES BY ILIZAROV METHOD AND BY APPARATUS «ORTHO-SUV» BASED ON COMPUTER NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Solomin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of correction of femur deformations by Ilizarov method and with apparatus Orto-SuV working on the basis of computer navigation are analyzed. For elimination of difficult deformations in order to avoid multiple external fixator remounting with stage-by-stage radiological control it is expedient to use apparatus Orto-SUV. In order to elimination of moderate and simple deformations (except torsion as hexapods and traditional techniques can be a choice method. The use «Orto-SUV» apparatus allows to reduce time necessary for deformation correction and osteosynthesis term in 1,4–2,4 times (for average and severe deformations.

  7. Apparatus and method for pulsed laser deposition of materials on wires and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Felix E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed which allow uniform coatings to be applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on inner and outer surfaces of cylindrical objects, such as rods, pipes, tubes, and wires. The use of PLD makes this technique particularly suitable for complex multicomponent materials, such as superconducting ceramics. Rigid objects of any length, i.e., pipes up to a few meters, and with diameters from less than 1 centimeter to over 10 centimeters can be coated using this technique. Further, deposition is effected simultaneously onto an annular region of the pipe wall. This particular arrangement simplifies the apparatus, reduces film uniformity control difficulties, and can result in faster operation cycles. In addition, flexible wires of any length can be continuously coated using the disclosed invention.

  8. Method and apparatus for ion sequestration and a nanostructured metal phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Li, Xiaohong; Parker, Kent E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2010-04-06

    A nanostructured substance, a process for sequestration of ionic waste, and an ion-sequestration apparatus are disclosed in the specification. The nanostructured substance can comprise a Lewis acid transition metal bound to a phosphate, wherein the phosphate comprises a primary structural component of the substance and the Lewis acid transition metal is a reducing agent. The nanostructured substance has a Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area greater than or equal to approximately 100 m.sup.2/g, and a distribution coefficient for an analyte, K.sub.d, greater than or equal to approximately 5000 ml/g. The process can comprise contacting a fluid and a nanostructured metal phosphate. The apparatus can comprise a vessel and a nanostructured metal phosphate. The vessel defines a volume wherein a fluid contacts the nanostructured metal phosphate.

  9. Video Image Analysis of Turbulent Buoyant Jets Using a Novel Laboratory Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, T. J.; Colgan, R. E.; Ferencevych, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent buoyant jets play an important role in the transport of heat and mass in a variety of environmental settings on Earth. Naturally occurring examples include the discharges from high-temperature seafloor hydrothermal vents and from some types of subaerial volcanic eruptions. Anthropogenic examples include flows from industrial smokestacks and the flow from the damaged well after the Deepwater Horizon oil leak of 2010. Motivated by a desire to find non-invasive methods for measuring the volumetric flow rates of turbulent buoyant jets, we have constructed a laboratory apparatus that can generate these types of flows with easily adjustable nozzle velocities and fluid densities. The jet fluid comprises a variable mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, which can be injected at any angle with respect to the vertical into the quiescent surrounding air. To make the flow visible we seed the jet fluid with a water fog generated by an array of piezoelectric diaphragms oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies. The system can generate jets that have initial densities ranging from approximately 2-48% greater than the ambient air. We obtain independent estimates of the volumetric flow rates using well-calibrated rotameters, and collect video image sequences for analysis at frame rates up to 120 frames per second using a machine vision camera. We are using this apparatus to investigate several outstanding problems related to the physics of these flows and their analysis using video imagery. First, we are working to better constrain several theoretical parameters that describe the trajectory of these flows when their initial velocities are not parallel to the buoyancy force. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop well-calibrated methods for establishing volumetric flow rates using trajectory analysis. Second, we are working to refine optical plume velocimetry (OPV), a non-invasive technique for estimating flow rates using temporal cross-correlation of image

  10. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  11. Portable pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation

    CERN Document Server

    Avilov, E A; Kanunov, I M

    2001-01-01

    There are presented the data on development,investigation and application of a pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation.There are described circuit and design solutions for a 90 kV apparatus to be used in medical X-ray diagnostics and 200 kV apparatus to be applied for the researches of high-speed processes.There are demonstrated the advantages of using gas under pressure as insulating medium.There are presented basic output characteristics of the devices.

  12. Using intramyocardial electrograms combined with other noninvasive methods for monitoring acute rejection following human heart transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yi-xin; MENG Xu; SUN Ling-bo; HAN Jie; CHEN Yang-tian

    2009-01-01

    monitoring AR following heart transplantation. It is a continuous, safe and inexpensive method, and could reduce the need for EMB combined with other noninvasive methods, without reducing the detection of rejection.

  13. Method and apparatus for producing chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillie, P.W.; Ramras, D.M.

    1984-05-29

    A continuous method and apparatus are described for the efficient production of gaseous chlorine dioxide by the reaction between gaseous sulfur dioxide and an aqueous solution of a metallic chlorate. The chlorate solution and a highly concentrated sulfur dioxide gas are introduced into a packed columnar chamber at closely adjacent locations at the bottom of the chamber so as to flood the chamber and maximize both the contact area and contact time of the two reactants. Throughout the reaction the chamber is subjected to high vacuum imposed by an eductor which exhausts the chlorine dioxide gas and spent reactants. For use of the chlorine dioxide to produce potable water or treat foodstuffs, the chlorine dioxide and spent reactants are exhausted from the chamber separately by respective eductors substantially balanced with respect to each other to impose comparable vacuums upon the chamber. Because of the high efficency of the reaction, substantial heat is generated therefrom which is absorbed by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. The flow rate of the coolant and flow rate of the reactants into the chamber are porportional due to the dependency of the reactant flow rate on the coolant flow rate.

  14. Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

    2014-12-02

    Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

  15. Microwave Medical Treatment Apparatus and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); George, W. Rflfoul (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods, simulations, and apparatus are provided that may be utilized for medical treatments which are especially suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In a preferred embodiment, a plurality of separate microwave antennas are utilized to heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. By utilizing constructive and destructive interference of the microwave transmission, the energy can be deposited on the tissues to be necrosed while protecting other tissues such as the urethra. Saline injections to alter the conductivity of the tissues may also be used to further focus the energy deposits. A computer simulation is Provided that can be used to Predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of one or more catheters and the methods of applying microwave energy, a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  16. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  17. Sputtering process and apparatus for coating powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Kerns, John A.; Alford, Craig S.; McKernan, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  18. The centrosome-Golgi apparatus nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Rosa M

    2014-09-05

    A shared feature among all microtubule (MT)-dependent processes is the requirement for MTs to be organized in arrays of defined geometry. At a fundamental level, this is achieved by precisely controlling the timing and localization of the nucleation events that give rise to new MTs. To this end, MT nucleation is restricted to specific subcellular sites called MT-organizing centres. The primary MT-organizing centre in proliferating animal cells is the centrosome. However, the discovery of MT nucleation capacity of the Golgi apparatus (GA) has substantially changed our understanding of MT network organization in interphase cells. Interestingly, MT nucleation at the Golgi apparently relies on multiprotein complexes, similar to those present at the centrosome, that assemble at the cis-face of the organelle. In this process, AKAP450 plays a central role, acting as a scaffold to recruit other centrosomal proteins important for MT generation. MT arrays derived from either the centrosome or the GA differ in their geometry, probably reflecting their different, yet complementary, functions. Here, I review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MT nucleation at the GA and how Golgi- and centrosome-based MT arrays work in concert to ensure the formation of a pericentrosomal polarized continuous Golgi ribbon structure, a critical feature for cell polarity in mammalian cells. In addition, I comment on the important role of the Golgi-nucleated MTs in organizing specialized MT arrays that serve specific functions in terminally differentiated cells.

  19. The Golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    Cargo passage through the Golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. Although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the Golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. During the past decade the Golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly Aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. Here an overview of the most important findings in the field is provided. Golgi architecture and dynamics, as well as the novel cell biology tools that were developed in filamentous fungi in these studies, are addressed. An emphasis is placed on the central role the Golgi has as a crossroads in the endocytic and secretory-traffic pathways in hyphae. Finally the major advances that the A. nidulans Golgi biology has yielded so far regarding our understanding of key Golgi regulators, such as the Rab GTPases RabC(Rab6) and RabE(Rab11), the oligomeric transport protein particle, TRAPPII, and the Golgi guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf1, GeaA(GBF1/Gea1) and HypB(BIG/Sec7), are highlighted.

  20. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  1. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer therebetween. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  2. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  3. Contractile apparatus dysfunction early in thepathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus significantly increases the risk ofcardiovascular disease and heart failure in patients.Independent of hypertension and coronary arterydisease, diabetes is associated with a specific cardiomyopathy,known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM).Four decades of research in experimental animalmodels and advances in clinical imaging techniquessuggest that DCM is a progressive disease, beginningearly after the onset of type 1 and type 2 diabetes,ahead of left ventricular remodeling and overt diastolicdysfunction. Although the molecular pathogenesis ofearly DCM still remains largely unclear, activation ofprotein kinase C appears to be central in driving theoxidative stress dependent and independent pathwaysin the development of contractile dysfunction. Multiplesubcellular alterations to the cardiomyocyte are nowbeing highlighted as critical events in the early changesto the rate of force development, relaxation and stabilityunder pathophysiological stresses. These changes includeperturbed calcium handling, suppressed activity ofaerobic energy producing enzymes, altered transcriptionaland posttranslational modification of membrane andsarcomeric cytoskeletal proteins, reduced actin-myosincross-bridge cycling and dynamics, and changed myofilamentcalcium sensitivity. In this review, we will presentand discuss novel aspects of the molecular pathogenesisof early DCM, with a special focus on the sarcomericcontractile apparatus.

  4. Non-invasive bleaching of the human lens by femtosecond laser photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, L.; Eskildsen, Lars; Poel, Mike van der

    2010-01-01

    were susceptible to photobleaching by a non-invasive procedure and whether this would lead to optical rejuvenation of the lens. Methodology/Principal Findings: Nine human donor lenses were treated with an 800 nm infra-red femtosecond pulsed laser in a treatment zone measuring 1 x 1 x 0.52 mm. After...... laser treatment the age-induced yellow discoloration of the lens was markedly reduced and the transmission of light was increased corresponding to an optical rejuvenation of 3 to 7 years. Conclusions/Significance: The results demonstrate that the age-induced yellowing of the human lens can be bleached...... by a non-invasive procedure based on femtosecond laser photolysis. Cataract is a disease associated with old age. At the current technological stage, lens aging is delayed but with a treatment covering the entire lens volume complete optical rejuvenation is expected. Thus, femtosecond photolysis has...

  5. Noninvasive probes of mitochondrial molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthna; Claycomb, James

    2005-03-01

    We report on a noninvasive method of probing mitochondrial molecular motors using nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy. It has been found previously that enzymes in the plasma membrane, particularly H+ ATPase, result in a strong low frequency (less than 100 Hz) nonlinear harmonic response. In this study, we find evidence that molecular motors located in the inner membranes of mitochondria cause the generation of harmonics at relatively high frequencies (1 - 30 kHz). In particular, we find that potassium cyanide (KCN), a respiratory inhibitor that binds to cytochrome c oxidase and thus prevents transport of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane, suppresses the harmonic response. We observe this behavior in yeast (S. cerevisiae), a eucaryote that typically contains about 300 mitochondria, and B. indicas, a procaryote believed to be related to the ancient ancestor of mitochondria. Our current modeling efforts are focusing on a Brownian ratchet model of the F0 unit of ATP synthase, a remarkable molecular turbine driven by the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane.

  6. Where should noninvasive ventilation be delivered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas S

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of certain types of respiratory failure in acute-care hospitals. However, the optimal location for NIV has been a matter of debate. Some have argued that all patients begun on NIV in the acute-care setting should go to an intensive care unit (ICU), but this is impractical because ICU beds are often unavailable, and it may not be a sensible use of resources. Also, relatively few studies have examined the question of location for NIV. One problem is that various units' capabilities to deliver NIV differ substantially, even in the same hospital. Choosing the appropriate environment for NIV requires consideration of the patient's need for monitoring, the monitoring capabilities of the unit, including both technical and personnel resources (nursing and respiratory therapy), and the staff's skill and experience. In some hospitals NIV is begun most often in the emergency department, but is most often managed in an ICU. Step-down units are often good locations for NIV, but many institutions do not have step-down units. With ICU beds at a premium, many hospitals are forced to manage some NIV patients on general wards, which can be safely done with more stable patients if the ward is suitably monitored and experienced. When deciding where to locate the patient, clinicians must be familiar with the capabilities of the units in their facility and try to match the patient's need for monitoring and the unit's capabilities.

  7. Therapeutic Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalvez, Irene; Baror, Roey; Fried, Peter; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a looming public health crisis that currently lacks an effective treatment. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (NBS), particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), offers a promising alternative approach to pharmacological interventions for an increasing number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is summarize data from therapeutic trials of NBS in AD and other dementing illnesses. Despite the potential of NBS, there is limited theoretical framework and a lack of guidelines for its applications to AD. Several published clinical trials failed to report key parameters of the interventions thus limiting the utility of the study to assess efficacy and safety. Our review concludes with some suggestions for future studies aimed to advance research into NBS as a potential treatment for the symptoms and disabilities caused by AD and to enable comparison of results across trials. Ultimately, appropriately powered, and controlled, multi-site randomized clinical trials will be needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of NBS in AD.

  8. [Noncontact and noninvasive microwave biological measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, T; Kutsumi, Y; Tada, H; Kim, S S; Nakai, T; Miyabo, S; Hamada, T; Arai, I; Suzuki, T

    1990-01-01

    Without contact probes, the signals of small human body surface movements were obtained with microwave Doppler sensors using a two-phase interferometric method. The signals were then compared with mechanocardiographic records routinely obtained by contact transducers. Furthermore, this system was applied to patients wearing clothes. The study subjects consisted of 20 cardiac patients and 10 normal controls. 1. The microwave signals obtained in the cervical and precordial regions were similar to those of the mechanocardiographic recordings, such as the carotid pulse and jugular venous pulse tracings and the apexcardiogram. There was a significant correlation between left ventricular ejection time (LVET) obtained by microwave Doppler sensors and that by the carotid pulse tracing (r = 0.95). 2. The signals of the microwave Doppler sensor were obtained from the patients wearing clothes. The heart beat components were distinguished from respiratory motion and patients' movements using band-pass filters. These results suggest that this method is capable of evaluating cardiac function noninvasively and thus has a distinct advantage in the field of non-contact measurements.

  9. Noninvasive cardiac output determination using applanation tonometry-derived radial artery pulse contour analysis in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compton, Friederike; Wittrock, Marc; Schaefer, Juergen-Heiner

    2008-01-01

    Conventional thermodilution cardiac output (CO) monitoring is limited mainly to intensive care units and operating rooms because it requires the use of invasive techniques. To reduce the potential for complications and to broaden the applicability of hemodynamic monitoring, noninvasive methods...... for CO determination are being sought. Applanation tonometry allows noninvasive CO estimation through pulse contour analysis, but the method has not been evaluated in critically ill patients. We therefore performed noninvasive radial artery applanation tonometry in 49 critically ill medical intensive...... care unit patients and compared CO estimates to invasive CO measurements obtained using a pulmonary artery catheter or the PiCCO transpulmonary thermodilution system. One-hundred-sixteen measurements were performed, and patients were receiving vasopressor support during 78 measurements. When the data...

  10. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-02-14

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water or other cleaning liquids in the whole cleaning process, which makes them prominent well suited in for water-deficit environments such as deserts. In one embodiment, the solar panel cleaning apparatus comprises one or more rotatable brushes each having a rotational axis and a drive configured to move each of the one or more rotatable brushes in a direction that is not perpendicular to the rotational axis. The solar panel cleaning apparatus is may be configured such that the angle of the rotational axis of at least one of the one or more rotatable brushes is adjustable relative to the direction of travel.

  11. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  12. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  13. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  14. Formation and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in intracellular trafficking, protein and lipid modification, and polysaccharide synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is well known for its unique stacked structure, which is conserved among most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of biogenesis and maintenance of the structure, which are deeply related to ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport systems, have long been mysterious. Now having extremely powerful microscopic technologies developed for live-cell imaging, the plant Golgi apparatus provides an ideal system to resolve the question. The plant Golgi apparatus has unique features that are not conserved in other kingdoms, which will also give new insights into the Golgi functions in plant life. In this review, we will summarize the features of the plant Golgi apparatus and transport mechanisms around it, with a focus on recent advances in Golgi biogenesis by live imaging of plants cells.

  15. Improved apparatus for continuous culture of hydrogen-fixing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. F.; Litchfield, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Improved apparatus permits the continuous culture of Hydrogenomonas eutropha. System incorporates three essential subsystems - /1/ environmentally isolated culture vessel, /2/ analytical system with appropriate sensors and readout devices, /3/ control system with feedback responses to each analytical measurement.

  16. Simple homemade apparatus for harvesting uncultured magnetotactic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lins Ulysses

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple apparatus for harvesting uncultured magnetotactic microorganisms is described. This apparatus consists of a glass container with two openings. A large opening on the topside is used to introduce the sediment and water. The sediment and water are previously stored in loosely capped bottles previously tested for the presence of magnetotactic bacteria. The apparatus is exposed to a properly aligned magnetic field of a homemade coil and the bacteria are removed through the capillary end of the second opening of the container. Harvested bacteria can then be used to ultrastrucutral studies using electron spectroscopic imaging. Large numbers of magnetotactic bacteria consisting of cocci and rod-shaped cells were efficiently collected from different environments. This apparatus is useful for microbiological studies on uncultured magnetotactic bacteria, especially in molecular approaches for phylogenetic investigations that give information on the natural diversity of microbial communities.

  17. Immunochemical studies of 22S protein from isolated mitotic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1969-05-01

    Evidence is presented that the "22S protein" of mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs is not microtubule protein. An antibody preparation active against 22S protein is described, and immunochemical studies of the distribution of 22S protein in various cellular fractions and among morphological features of mitotic apparatus are reported. The protein is ubiquitous in the metaphase egg fractions that were tested but is not found in sperm flagella. It is immunologically distinct from proposed microtubule protein isolated from mitotic apparatus by the method of Sakai, and from proposed microtubule protein obtained after extraction with mild acid. It exists in nontubule material of isolated mitotic apparatus but is not detectable in microtubules.

  18. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  19. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, III, Lawrence C. (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  20. Method and apparatus for vibrating a substrate during material formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A [Richland, WA; Roger, Johnson N [Richland, WA; John, Munley T [Benton City, WA; Walter, Park R [Benton City, WA

    2008-10-21

    A method and apparatus for affecting the properties of a material include vibrating the material during its formation (i.e., "surface sifting"). The method includes the steps of providing a material formation device and applying a plurality of vibrations to the material during formation, which vibrations are oscillations having dissimilar, non-harmonic frequencies and at least two different directions. The apparatus includes a plurality of vibration sources that impart vibrations to the material.

  1. Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

  2. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY; Sugavanam, Krishnan [Mahopac, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Seebruck-Seeon, DE

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  3. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  4. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  5. Microwave/Sonic Apparatus Measures Flow and Density in Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, Kent A.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the rate of flow and the mass density of a liquid or slurry includes a special section of pipe instrumented with microwave and sonic sensors, and a computer that processes digitized readings taken by the sensors. The apparatus was conceived specifically for monitoring a flow of oil-well-drilling mud, but the basic principles of its design and operation are also applicable to monitoring flows of other liquids and slurries.

  6. Apparatus for laser slowing and cooling of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This is the final report for our DURIP grant entitled "Apparatus for Laser Slowing and cooling of Molecules". We have... cooling of a new molecular species, TlF. We have also successfully acquired and assembled the parts for a custom laser system, which produces long...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 09-10-2016 1-Sep-2012 31-Aug-2014 Final Report: Apparatus for laser slowing and cooling of molecules The views

  7. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Veit; Ayache, Samar S; Zouari, Hela G; Aoun-Sebaïti, Mehdi; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    The rehabilitation of neuropsychological sequels of cerebral stroke such as hemispatial neglect by noninvasive cortical stimulation (NICS) attracts increasing attention from the scientific community. The NICS techniques include primarily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). They are based on the concept of either reactivating a hypoactive cortical region affected by the stroke (the right hemisphere in case of neglect) or reducing cortical hyperactivity of the corresponding cortical region in the contralateral hemisphere (the left hemisphere). In the studies published to date on the topic of neglect rehabilitation, rTMS was used to inhibit the left parietal cortex and tDCS to either activate the right or inhibit the left parietal cortex. Sham-controlled NICS studies assessed short-term effects, whereas long-term effects were only assessed in noncontrolled rTMS studies. Further controlled studies of large series of patients are necessary to determine the best parameters of stimulation (including the optimal cortical target location) according to each subtype of neglect presentation and to the time course of stroke recovery. To date, even if there are serious therapeutic perspectives based on imaging data and experimental studies, the evidence is not compelling enough to recommend any particular NICS protocol to treat this disabling condition in clinical practice.

  8. Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Chi

    Full Text Available Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL. Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control, whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011 with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement.

  9. Ipsilateral motor pathways after stroke: implications for noninvasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynley V Bradnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In humans the two cerebral hemispheres have essential roles in controlling the upper limb. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the potential importance of ipsilateral descending pathways for functional recovery after stroke, and the use of noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS protocols of the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1. Conventionally NBS is used to suppress contralesional M1, and to attenuate transcallosal inhibition onto the ipsilesional M1. There has been little consideration of the fact that contralesional M1 suppression may also reduce excitability of ipsilateral descending pathways that may be important for paretic upper limb control for some patients. One such ipsilateral pathway is the cortico-reticulo-propriospinal pathway (CRPP. In this review we outline a neurophysiological model to explain how contralesional M1 may gain control of the paretic arm via the CRPP. We conclude that the relative importance of the CRPP for motor control in individual patients must be considered before using NBS to suppress contralesional M1. Neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical assessments can assist this decision making and facilitate the translation of NBS into the clinical setting.

  10. Evaluation of Fluid Responsiveness: Is Photoplethysmography a Noninvasive Alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Prag Antonsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Goal-directed fluid therapy reduces morbidity and mortality in various clinical settings. Respiratory variations in photoplethysmography are proposed as a noninvasive alternative to predict fluid responsiveness during mechanical ventilation. This paper aims to critically evaluate current data on the ability of photoplethysmography to predict fluid responsiveness. Method. Primary searches were performed in PubMed, Medline, and Embase on November 10, 2011. Results. 14 papers evaluating photoplethysmography and fluid responsiveness were found. Nine studies calculated areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for ΔPOP (>0.85 in four, 0.75–0.85 in one, and <0.75 in four studies and seven for PVI (values ranging from 0.54 to 0.98. Correlations between ΔPOP/PVI and ΔPP/other dynamic variables vary substantially. Conclusion. Although photoplethysmography is a promising technique, predictive values and correlations with other hemodynamic variables indicating fluid responsiveness vary substantially. Presently, it is not documented that photoplethysmography is adequately valid and reliable to be included in clinical practice for evaluation of fluid responsiveness.

  11. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.

  12. Diagnostic performance and costs of contingent screening models for trisomy 21 incorporating non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; O'Leary, Peter; Dickinson, Jan E; Suthers, Graeme K

    2017-08-01

    Contingent screening for trisomy 21 using non-invasive prenatal testing has the potential to reduce invasive diagnostic testing and increase the detection of trisomy 21. To describe the diagnostic and economic performance of prenatal screening models for trisomy 21 that use non-invasive prenatal testing as a contingent screen across a range of combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs from a public health system perspective. Using a hypothetical cohort of 300 000 pregnancies, we modelled the outcomes of 25 contingent non-invasive prenatal testing screening models and compared these to conventional screening, offering women with a high-risk (1 > 300) combined first trimester screening result an invasive test. The 25 models used a range of risk cut-offs. High-risk women were offered invasive testing. Intermediate-risk women were offered non-invasive prenatal testing. We report the cost of each model, detection rate, costs per diagnosis, invasive tests per diagnosis and the number of fetal losses per diagnosis. The cost per prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 using the conventional model was $51 876 compared to the contingent models which varied from $49 309-66 686. The number of diagnoses and cost per diagnosis increased as the intermediate-risk threshold was lowered. Results were sensitive to trisomy 21 incidence, uptake of testing and cost of non-invasive prenatal testing. Contingent non-invasive prenatal testing models using more sensitive combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs than conventional screening improved the detection rate of trisomy 21, reduced procedure-related fetal loss and could potentially be provided at a lower cost per diagnosis than conventional screening. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. MYB98 positively regulates a battery of synergid-expressed genes encoding filiform apparatus localized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwani, Jayson A; Rabiger, David S; Drews, Gary N

    2007-08-01

    The synergid cells within the female gametophyte are essential for reproduction in angiosperms. MYB98 encodes an R2R3-MYB protein required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation by the synergid cells. To test the predicted function of MYB98 as a transcriptional regulator, we determined its subcellular localization and examined its DNA binding properties. We show that MYB98 binds to a specific DNA sequence (TAAC) and that a MYB98-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to the nucleus, consistent with a role in transcriptional regulation. To identify genes regulated by MYB98, we tested previously identified synergid-expressed genes for reduced expression in myb98 female gametophytes and identified 16 such genes. We dissected the promoter of one of the downstream genes, DD11, and show that it contains a MYB98 binding site required for synergid expression, suggesting that DD11 is regulated directly by MYB98. To gain insight into the functions of the downstream genes, we chose five genes and determined the subcellular localization of the encoded proteins. We show that these five proteins are secreted into the filiform apparatus, suggesting that they play a role in either the formation or the function of this unique structure. Together, these data suggest that MYB98 functions as a transcriptional regulator in the synergid cells and activates the expression of genes required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation.

  14. Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surath Amarnath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Materials and Methods: Equipment consists of suction apparatus with adjustable pressure valve set to a pressure 125-150 mmHg. An electronic timer switch with a sequential working time of 5 min and a standby time of 3 min provides the required intermittent negative pressure. Readily available materials such as polyvinyl alcohol sponge, suction drains and steridrapes were used to provide an air tight wound cover. Results: A total of 90 cases underwent 262 NPWT applications from 2009 to 2014. This series, comprised of 30 open fractures, 21 post-operative and 39 chronic wounds. The wound healing rate in our study was comparable to other published studies using NPWT. Conclusion: The addition of electronic timer switch will convert a suction apparatus into NPWT machine, and the results are equally effective compared to more expensive counter parts. The use of indigenous dressing materials reduces the cost significantly.

  15. Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Surath; Reddy, Mettu Rami; Rao, Chayam Hanumantha; Surath, Harsha Vardan

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Equipment consists of suction apparatus with adjustable pressure valve set to a pressure 125-150 mmHg. An electronic timer switch with a sequential working time of 5 min and a standby time of 3 min provides the required intermittent negative pressure. Readily available materials such as polyvinyl alcohol sponge, suction drains and steridrapes were used to provide an air tight wound cover. A total of 90 cases underwent 262 NPWT applications from 2009 to 2014. This series, comprised of 30 open fractures, 21 post-operative and 39 chronic wounds. The wound healing rate in our study was comparable to other published studies using NPWT. The addition of electronic timer switch will convert a suction apparatus into NPWT machine, and the results are equally effective compared to more expensive counter parts. The use of indigenous dressing materials reduces the cost significantly.

  16. STUDY ON COMPUETD APPARATUS FOR EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingshun; MENG Fanhang; ZHU Shouzeng

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To make and study computed apparatus for external cardiac massage and observe its clinieal effect. Method The apparatus was made and was applied. Result The apparatus was effective. Conclusion The apparatus was a effective equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.”...

  18. A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Nahid; Taheri, Kimia Karimi; Narooei, Keivan; Taheri, Ali Karimi

    2017-01-16

    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney-Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the Ogden order 1 represents a stable behavior, although the fitting of experimental data and theoretical model was not satisfactory. However, the Ogden order 6 model was unstable in the simple tension mode and the Ogden order 5 and general exponential models presented accurate and stable results. In order to reduce the material parameters, the invariants model with four material parameters was investigated and this model presented the minimum error and stable behavior in all deformation modes. The ABAQUS Explicit solver was coupled with the VUMAT subroutine code of the invariants model to simulate the mechanical behavior of the central and terminal slips of the extensor apparatus during the passive finger flexion, which is important in the prediction of boutonniere deformity and chronic mallet finger injuries, respectively. Also, to evaluate the adequacy of constitutive models in simulations, the results of the Ogden order 5 were presented. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the better fittings of the invariants model compared with the Ogden model.

  19. Noninvasive Tests for Inflammatory Bowel Disease : A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Gea A.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often nonspecific and overlaps with functional gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms, signs, noninvasive tests, and test combinations that can assist the clinician

  20. Noninvasive diagnosis of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ran Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Because nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can progress towards cirrhosis even in children, early detection of hepatic fibrosis and accurate diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD are important. Although liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard of diagnosis, its clinical application is somewhat limited in children due to its invasiveness. Noninvasive diagnostic methods, including imaging studies, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, hepatic fibrosis, and noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores have recently been developed for diagnosing the spectrum of NAFLD, particularly the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Although data and validation are still lacking for these noninvasive modalities in the pediatric population, these methods may be applicable for pediatric NAFLD. Therefore, noninvasive imaging studies, biomarkers, and hepatic fibrosis scoring systems may be useful in the detection of hepatic steatosis and the prediction of hepatic fibrosis, even in children with NAFLD.

  1. Methods and apparatus for multi-parameter acoustic signature inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Samuel, Todd J.; Valencia, Juan D.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Tucker, Brian J.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Skorpik, James R.; Reid, Larry D.; Munley, John T.; Pappas, Richard A.; Wright, Bob W.; Panetta, Paul D.; Thompson, Jason S.

    2007-07-24

    A multiparameter acoustic signature inspection device and method are described for non-invasive inspection of containers. Dual acoustic signatures discriminate between various fluids and materials for identification of the same.

  2. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryuksel Emel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV in patients with unplanned extubation. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 ± 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 ± 7 monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Results:Eleven of the patients (74% were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91% and only one (9% was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26% had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Conclusions:Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions.

  3. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and 10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  4. Noninvasive ventilation in status asthmaticus in children: levels of evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Paula de Souza; Barreto,Sérgio Saldanha Menna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of available evidence to establish guidelines for the use of noninvasive ventilation for the management of status asthmaticus in children unresponsive to standard treatment. Methods Search, selection and analysis of all original articles on asthma and noninvasive ventilation in children, published until September 1, 2014 in all languages in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus and SciELO, located using the search terms: "a...

  5. Non-invasive Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography...

  6. Selective therapeutic hypothermia: A review of invasive and noninvasive techniques

    OpenAIRE

    David Straus; Vinay Prasad; Lorenzo Munoz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising treatment to prevent secondary neurologic injury. Clinical utility is limited by systemic complications of global hypothermia. Selective brain cooling remains a largely uninvestigated application. We review techniques of inducing selective brain cooling. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Strategies of inducing selective brain cooling were divided between non-invasive and invasive techniques. Non-invasive techniques were surface cooling and c...

  7. Noninvasive optical measurement of cerebral blood flow in mice using molecular dynamics analysis of indocyanine green.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyun Ku

    Full Text Available In preclinical studies of ischemic brain disorders, it is crucial to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF; however, this requires radiological techniques with heavy instrumentation or invasive procedures. Here, we propose a noninvasive and easy-to-use optical imaging technique for measuring CBF in experimental small animals. Mice were injected with indocyanine green (ICG via tail-vein catheterization. Time-series near-infrared fluorescence signals excited by 760 nm light-emitting diodes were imaged overhead by a charge-coupled device coupled with an 830 nm bandpass-filter. We calculated four CBF parameters including arrival time, rising time and mean transit time of a bolus and blood flow index based on time and intensity information of ICG fluorescence dynamics. CBF maps were generated using the parameters to estimate the status of CBF, and they dominantly represented intracerebral blood flows in mice even in the presence of an intact skull and scalp. We demonstrated that this noninvasive optical imaging technique successfully detected reduced local CBF during middle cerebral artery occlusion. We further showed that the proposed method is sufficiently sensitive to detect the differences between CBF status in mice anesthetized with either isoflurane or ketamine-xylazine, and monitor the dynamic changes in CBF after reperfusion during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The near-infrared optical imaging of ICG fluorescence combined with a time-series analysis of the molecular dynamics can be a useful noninvasive tool for preclinical studies of brain ischemia.

  8. Non-invasive monitoring of Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine efficacy using biophotonic imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz M Alam

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes infection of the nasopharynx represents a key step in the pathogenic cycle of this organism and a major focus for vaccine development, requiring robust models to facilitate the screening of potentially protective antigens. One antigen that may be an important target for vaccination is the chemokine protease, SpyCEP, which is cell surface-associated and plays a role in pathogenesis. Biophotonic imaging (BPI can non-invasively characterize the spatial location and abundance of bioluminescent bacteria in vivo. We have developed a bioluminescent derivative of a pharyngeal S. pyogenes strain by transformation of an emm75 clinical isolate with the luxABCDE operon. Evaluation of isogenic recombinant strains in vitro and in vivo confirmed that bioluminescence conferred a growth deficit that manifests as a fitness cost during infection. Notwithstanding this, bioluminescence expression permitted non-invasive longitudinal quantitation of S. pyogenes within the murine nasopharynx albeit with a detection limit corresponding to approximately 10(5 bacterial colony forming units (CFU in this region. Vaccination of mice with heat killed streptococci, or with SpyCEP led to a specific IgG response in the serum. BPI demonstrated that both vaccine candidates reduced S. pyogenes bioluminescence emission over the course of nasopharyngeal infection. The work suggests the potential for BPI to be used in the non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of potential S. pyogenes vaccines.

  9. New approach to neurorehabilitation: cranial nerve noninvasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Yuri P.; Tyler, Mitchel E.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Skinner, Kimberley L.

    2014-06-01

    Cranial Nerve NonInvasive NeuroModulation (CN-NINM) is a primary and complementary multi-targeted rehabilitation therapy that appears to initiate the recovery of multiple damaged or suppressed brain functions affected by neurological disorders. It is deployable as a simple, home-based device (portable neuromodulation stimulator, or PoNSTM) and training regimen following initial patient training in an outpatient clinic. It may be easily combined with many existing rehabilitation therapies, and may reduce or eliminate the need for more aggressive invasive procedures or possibly decrease total medication intake. CN-NINM uses sequenced patterns of electrical stimulation on the tongue. Our hypothesis is that CN-NINM induces neuroplasticity by noninvasive stimulation of two major cranial nerves: trigeminal (CN-V), and facial (CN-VII). This stimulation excites a natural flow of neural impulses to the brainstem (pons varolli and medulla), and cerebellum, to effect changes in the function of these targeted brain structures, extending to corresponding nuclei of the brainstem. CN-NINM represents a synthesis of a new noninvasive brain stimulation technique with applications in physical medicine, cognitive, and affective neurosciences. Our new stimulation method appears promising for treatment of a full spectrum of movement disorders, and for both attention and memory dysfunction associated with traumatic brain injury.

  10. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-10-01

    Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult.

  11. Saliva surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive optical detection of nasopharyngeal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueliang; Ge, Xiaosong; Xu, Zhihong; Zheng, Zuci; Huang, Wei; Hong, Quanxing; Lin, Duo

    2016-10-01

    The early cancer detection is of great significance to increase the patient's survival rate and reduce the risk of cancer development. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique, a rapid, convenient, nondestructive optical detection method, can provide a characteristic "fingerprint" information of target substances, even achieving single molecule detection. Its ultra-high detection sensitivity has made it become one of the most potential biochemical detection methods. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, contains the bio-markers which is capable of reflecting the systemic health condition of human, showing promising potential as an effect medium for disease monitoring. Compared with the serum samples, the collection and processing of saliva is safer, more convenient and noninvasive. Thus, saliva test is becoming the hotspot issues of the noninvasive cancer research field. This review highlights and analyzes current application progress within the field of SERS saliva test in cancer detection. Meanwhile, the primary research results of SERS saliva for the noninvasive differentiation of nasopharyngeal cancer, normal and rhinitis obtained by our group are shown.

  12. Utility of Transcutaneous Capnography for Optimization of Non-Invasive Ventilation Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajed, Prashant N; Gehrer, Simone; Pandey, Kamlesh V; Vaidya, Preyas J; Leuppi, Joerg D; Tamm, Michael; Strobel, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Nocturnal Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) is the treatment of choice in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous oxygen saturation measured with a pulse oximeter provides a surrogate measure of arterial oxygen saturation but does not completely reflect ventilation. Currently, Partial Pressure of Arterial (PaCO2) measured by arterial blood analysis is used for estimating the adequacy of ventilatory support and serves as the gold standard. To examine the safety, feasibility and utility of cutaneous capnography to re-titrate the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Twelve patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure prospectively underwent complete polysomnography and cutaneous capnography measurement on the ear lobe. Non-invasive ventilation pressures were adjusted with the aim of normalizing cutaneous carbon dioxide or at least reducing it by 10 to 15 mmHg. Sensor drift for cutaneous carbon dioxide of 0.7 mmHg per hour was integrated in the analysis. Mean baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide was 45.4 ± 6.5 mmHg and drift corrected awake value was 45.1 ± 8.3 mmHg. The correlation of baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide and the corrected awake cutaneous carbon dioxide with arterial blood gas values were 0.91 and 0.85 respectively. Inspiratory positive airway pressures were changed in nine patients (75%) and expiratory positive airway pressures in eight patients (66%). Epworth sleepiness score before and after the study showed no change in five patients, improvement in six patients and deterioration in one patient. Cutaneous capnography is feasible and permits the optimization of non-invasive ventilation pressure settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous cutaneous capnography might serve as an important additional tool to complement diurnal

  13. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  14. Factors significantly increasing or inhibiting early stages of malignant melanoma (M.M.) and non-invasive evaluation of new treatment by ingestion and external application of optimal doses of the most effective anti-M.M. substances: haritaki, cilantro, vitamin D3, nori, EPA with DHA, & application of special (+) solar energy stored paper, which reduced the M.M. active area & asbestos rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    Sterilizing the pre-cancer skin of malignant melanoma (M.M.) with 70% Isopropyl alcohol intensified malignancy & the malignant response extended to surrounding normal looking skin, while sterilizing with 80% (vodka) or 12% (plum wine) ethyl alcohol completely inhibited M.M. in the area (both effects lasted for about 90 minutes initially). Burnt food (bread, vegetables, meat, and fish), a variety of smoked & non-smoked fish-skin, many animal's skin, pepper, Vitamin C over 75 mg, mango, pineapple, coconut, almond, sugars, Saccharine & Aspartame, garlic, onion, etc & Electromagnetic field from cellular phones worsened M.M. & induced abnormal M.M. response of surrounding skin. We found the following factors inhibit early stage of M.M. significantly: 1) Increasing normal cell telomere, by taking 500 mg Haritaki, often reached between 400-1150 ng& gradually diminished, but the M.M. response was completely inhibited until normal cell telomeres are reduced to 150 ng, which takes 6-8 hours. More than 70 mg Vitamin C, Orange Juice, & other high Vitamin C containing substances shouldn't be taken because they completely inhibit the effects of Haritaki. 2) We found Chrysotile asbestos & Tremolite asbestos (% of the Chrysotile amount) coexist. A special Cilantro tablet was used to remove asbestos & some toxic metals. 3) Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has a maximum inhibiting effect on M.M. but 800 I.U. or higher promotes malignancy. 4) Noricontaining Iodine, etc., was used. 5) EPA 180 mm with DHA 120 mg was most effectively used after metastasis to the surrounding skin was eliminated. When we combined 1 Cilantro tablet & Vitamin D3 400 I.U. withsmall Nori pieces & EPA with DHA, the effect of complete inhibition of M.M. lasted 9-11 hours. When these anti-M.M.substances (Haritaki, Vitamin D3, Cilantro, Nori, EPA. with DHA) were taken together, the effect lasted 12-14 hoursand M.M. involvement in surrounding normal-looking skin disappeared rapidly & original dark brown or black are as

  15. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  16. The distribution of digenean metacercariae within bream (Abramis brama) gill apparatus: preferences, co-occurrence and interactions of parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolovs, M; Kanto, J; Jakubāne, I

    2017-05-24

    Species-specific microenvironmental preferences and interactions between parasite species have been the focus of many ecological studies. Here, we studied the distribution of ectoparasite species within the gill apparatus of bream (Abramis brama) from Lake Lubāns (Latvia) to establish whether digenean metacercariae: (1) prefer specific patches within the gill apparatus; (2) co-occur in the same patches with monogeneans and copepods within a host individual; and (3) interact with monogeneans and copepods. We recorded all parasites on gill arches of the same host species and used null models to analyse co-occurrences of digenean metacercariae, monogeneans and copepods. Zero-inflated mixture models were used to define the preferred patches of parasites. We found that digenean metacercariae (Bucephalus polymorphus) prefer specific patches of the gill apparatus to encyst, and shared these preferences with monogeneans and copepods, but did not interact with them. We concluded that digenean metacercariae have a species-specific microenvironmental preference to encyst in the gill apparatus and their occurrence (even in high numbers) does not reduce the success of attachment of monogeneans and copepods in the same gill patches.

  17. Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using the Novalis system for the management of pituitary adenomas close to the optic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Huang-I; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wei, Kuo-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nen; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Chen, Hsien-Chih; Hsu, Peng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Radiosurgery has been proven to be an effective treatment for residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas after surgery. However, it causes severe complications when the optic apparatus is irradiated over the tolerance dose. In this study, we analyzed the feasibility of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to treat pituitary tumors close to the optic apparatus. Thirty-four patients from June 2006 to June 2011 with recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas close to (<3 mm) the optic apparatus were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery. Three fractions with a total dose of 2100 cGy were applied to the tumors. Imaging, examination of vision, and estimation of hormone level were regularly performed before and after radiosurgery. The mean tumor volume before fractioned stereotactic radiosurgery was 5.06±3.08 cm3 (range: 0.82-12.69 cm3). After a mean follow up of 36.8±15.7 months (range: 16-72 months), tumor size was reduced in seven (20.6%) patients and remained the same in the other 27 (79.4%) patients. Vision was improved in one patient and remained stable in the rest. Only one patient developed transient post-treatment diplopia. This study suggests that fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery is safe for treating pituitary adenomas close to the optic apparatus. Studies with more patients and longer follow-up are required to draw definite conclusions.

  18. Apparatus and method for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus is introduced for the use of enhancing tissue repair in mammals. The apparatus includes a sleeve; an electrically conductive coil; a sleeve support; an electrical circuit configured to supply the coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss. When in use, the sleeve of the apparatus is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.5 gauss is generated on the mammalian body for an extended period of time so that the tissue is encouraged to be regenerated in the mammalian body part at a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate relative to regeneration without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  19. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  20. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.

  1. Apparatus comprising magnetically actuated valves and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thayne L.; Harper, Jason C.

    2016-07-12

    The present invention, in part, relates to an apparatus having a single-use, normally-closed fluidic valve that is initially maintained in the closed position by a valve element bonded to an adhesive coating. The valve is opened using a magnetic force. The valve element includes a magnetic material or metal. In some examples, the valve is opened by bringing a magnet in proximity to the valve element to provide a magnetic force that delaminates the valve element from the adhesive coating. In particular, the apparatus can be useful for on-chip amplification and/or detection of various targets, including biological targets and any amplifiable targets. Such apparatuses and methods are useful for in-field or real-time detection of targets, especially in limited resource settings.

  2. Apparatus and method for the electrolysis of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    2015-04-21

    An apparatus for the electrolytic splitting of water into hydrogen and/or oxygen, the apparatus comprising: (i) at least one lithographically-patternable substrate having a surface; (ii) a plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes embedded in said surface; (iii) at least one counter electrode in proximity to but not on said surface; (iv) means for collecting evolved hydrogen and/or oxygen gas; (v) electrical powering means for applying a voltage across said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode; and (vi) a container for holding an aqueous electrolyte and housing said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode. Electrolytic processes using the above electrolytic apparatus or functional mimics thereof are also described.

  3. High concentration of calcium ions in Golgi apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUESHAOBAI; M.ROBERTNICOUD; 等

    1994-01-01

    The interphase NIH3T3 cells were vitally fluorescentstained with calcium indicator fluo-3 and Glogi probe C6-NBD-ceramide,and then the single cells were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy(LSCFM) for subcellular distributions of Ca2+ and the location of Golgi apparatus.In these cells,the intracellular Ca2+ were found to be highly concentrated in the Golgi apparatus.The changes of distribution of cytosolic high Ca2+ region and the Golgi apparatus coincided with the cell cycle phase.In calcium free medium,when the plasma membrane of the cells which had been loaded with fluo-3/AM were permeated by digitonin,the fluorescence of the Golgi region decreased far less than that of the cytosol.Our results indicated that the Glogi lumen retained significantly high concentration of free calcium.

  4. Recognition and tethering of transport vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2017-02-23

    The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane. In this review we discuss our current understanding of how golgins and MTCs function together to mediate the specific recognition of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

  5. Growth of the Mammalian Golgi Apparatus during Interphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Alex T-W; Harrison, Rene E

    2016-09-15

    During the cell cycle, genetic materials and organelles are duplicated to ensure that there is sufficient cellular content for daughter cells. While Golgi growth in interphase has been observed in lower eukaryotes, the elaborate ribbon structure of the mammalian Golgi apparatus has made it challenging to monitor. Here we demonstrate the growth of the mammalian Golgi apparatus in its protein content and volume during interphase. Through ultrastructural analyses, physical growth of the Golgi apparatus was revealed to occur by cisternal elongation of the individual Golgi stacks. By examining the timing and regulation of Golgi growth, we established that Golgi growth starts after passage through the cell growth checkpoint at late G1 phase and continues in a manner highly correlated with cell size growth. Finally, by identifying S6 kinase 1 as a major player in Golgi growth, we revealed the coordination between cell size and Golgi growth via activation of the protein synthesis machinery in early interphase.

  6. Crosstalk of small GTPases at the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschieri, Francesco; Farhan, Hesso

    2012-01-01

    Small GTPases regulate a wide range of homeostatic processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics, organelle homeostasis, cell migration and vesicle trafficking, as well as in pathologic conditions such as carcinogenesis and metastatic spreading. Therefore, it is important to understand the regulation of small GTPase signaling, but this is complicated by the fact that crosstalk exists between different GTPase families and that we have to understand how they signal in time and space. The Golgi apparatus represents a hub for several signaling molecules and its importance in this field is constantly increasing. In this review we will discuss small GTPases signaling at the Golgi apparatus. Then, we will highlight recent work that contributed to a better understanding of crosstalk between different small GTPase families, with a special emphasis on their crosstalk at the Golgi apparatus. Finally, we will give a brief overview of available methods and tools to investigate spatio-temporal small GTPase crosstalk.

  7. Self-contained cryogenic gas sampling apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, G.J.; Motes, B.G.; Bird, S.K.; Kotter, D.K.

    1996-03-26

    Apparatus for obtaining a whole gas sample, is composed of: a sample vessel having an inlet for receiving a gas sample; a controllable valve mounted for controllably opening and closing the inlet; a valve control coupled to the valve for opening and closing the valve at selected times; a portable power source connected for supplying operating power to the valve control; and a cryogenic coolant in thermal communication with the vessel for cooling the interior of the vessel to cryogenic temperatures. A method is described for obtaining an air sample using the apparatus described above, by: placing the apparatus at a location at which the sample is to be obtained; operating the valve control to open the valve at a selected time and close the valve at a selected subsequent time; and between the selected times maintaining the vessel at a cryogenic temperature by heat exchange with the coolant. 3 figs.

  8. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuzawa, M., E-mail: chuzawa@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, A1 Bldg, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S. [Osaka University, A1 Bldg, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  9. Rejuvenecimiento periorbitario no invasivo Non-invasive periorbital rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Muñóz del Olmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cirujanos plásticos y médicos estéticos se esfuerzan por lograr resultados satisfactorios y estéticos que mejoren o suavicen el paso del tiempo a nivel facial, con un especial interés o énfasis en el área periorbitaria. Un gran número de pacientes consultan para mejorar esta zona, pero por diferentes motivos desean que los procedimientos que se les realicen sean poco invasivos y con resultados rápidos, permitiéndoles así incorporarse lo antes posible a sus actividades cotidianas. Es fundamental el conocimiento de las proporciones faciales y periorbitarias para lograr resultados naturales. El objetivo de la técnica que proponemos es lograr una bioestimulación local de la piel, restaurar los volúmenes y reducir las arrugas de expresión o dinámicas, consiguiendo así una apariencia relajada y juvenil en el paciente.Plastic surgeons and aesthetic doctors are making an effort to reach positive aesthetic results. Their aim is to soften the effects of age on facial features stressing in the periorbital area. Many patients come to improve their facial image on this area, but they are asking for non-invasive and fast procedures to keep on their daily life. It is indispensable the knowledge of facial and periorbital proportions to achieve a more natural effect. The aim of the technique exposed is to achieve a local bioestimulation on skin, to restore volumes and to reduce expression and dynamical wrinkles. The expected result is a relaxing, youthful appearance.

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE DESIGN OF THE CONICAL ROTARY- AND FILM APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Altayuly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. A new design of the conical rotary- and film apparatus for carrying out the process of dripping phosphatidic emulsion of vegetable oils, which are used in the oil industry and other industries that use the evaporation of moisture from the high-heat-labile concentrates. As a result of experimental studies we achieved the following. The conical rotary film apparatus perforated inner cavity of the rotor is divided into a supply and distribution of the original product and vapor removal zone with a barrier that hosts spheroconical insert shapes with reverse bend the conical portion, the top of which is directed towards the delivery of the original product. In the area of supply and distribution of starting material the perforations of the rotor have a slit shape. In the cavity of the rotor curved blades are mounted whose generators have the form of the curve. This curve is obtained by approximation of the polyline. The nozzle for inputting of starting mate-rial having tangentially formed holes on both ends is rotatably mounted in the central part of the conical body along its axis, one end of which is placed in the interior of the perforated rotor in the feeding zone and the distribution of the starting material, and the other one is placed in the chamber for a starting material, which is connected in series with the heater and the feeding pump for starting material. Scientific novelty of the innovative design of the device is to reduce the amplitude of the oscillation of the film rotary apparatus by re-ducing friction of particles suspension on the rotor blades, causing higher dynamic loads, ensure even distribution of starting material on the inner surface of the housing, as well as reduction of energy consumption.

  11. Noninvasive Hemodynamic Measurements During Neurosurgical Procedures in Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Patrick; Tzanova, Irene; Gööck, Tilman; Hagen, Frank; Schmidtmann, Irene; Engelhard, Kristin; Pestel, Gunther

    2017-07-01

    Neurosurgical procedures in sitting position need advanced cardiovascular monitoring. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to measure cardiac output (CO)/cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV), and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements for systolic (ABPsys), diastolic (ABPdiast) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are established monitoring technologies for these kind of procedures. A noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure and CO based on a modified Penaz technique (volume-clamp method) was introduced recently. In the present study the noninvasive blood pressure measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and the noninvasive CO monitoring to TEE measurements. Measurements of blood pressure and CO were performed in 35 patients before/after giving a fluid bolus and a change from supine to sitting position, start of surgery, and repositioning from sitting to supine at the end of surgery. Data pairs from the noninvasive device (Nexfin HD) versus arterial line measurements (ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) and versus TEE (CO, CI, SV) were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and percentage error. All parameters compared (CO, CI, SV, ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) showed a large bias and wide limits of agreement. Percentage error was above 30% for all parameters except ABPsys. The noninvasive device based on a modified Penaz technique cannot replace arterial blood pressure monitoring or TEE in anesthetized patients undergoing neurosurgery in sitting position.

  12. Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Hueber, Dennis; Rosenfeld, Warren; Maulik, Dev; Stubblefield, Phillip; Stankovic, Mikjan

    1999-04-01

    We have performed non-invasive, real-time optical mapping of the piglet brain during a subcortical injection of autologous blood. The time resolution of the optical maps is 192 ms, thus allowing us to generate a real-time video of the growing subcortical hematoma. The increased absorption at the site of blood injection is accompanied by a decreased absorption at the contralateral brain side. This contralateral decrease in the optical absorption and the corresponding time traces of the cerebral hemoglobin parameters are consistent with a reduced cerebral blood flow caused by the increased intracranial pressure.

  13. Apparatus for Measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron using a Cohabiting Atomic-Mercury Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Chouder, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Harris, P G; Heckel, B R; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kilvington, I; Lamoreaux, S K; May, D J; Pendlebury, J M; Richardson, J D; Shiers, D B; Smith, K F; van der Grinten, M

    2013-01-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  14. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  15. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  16. From Perceptual Apparatus to Immersive Field of Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    , or orchestrators of emotions, many of these apparatuses were meant to be vehicles for regaining the consciousness of the body and the environment. Apparatuses that expand into space complete this particular genealogy – space itself becoming a mediating and conductive device capable of engendering these embedding...... situations, Sloterdijk remarks. Situated within the field of trans-disciplinary collaborations, the oeuvre of Werner Ruhnau comes to the fore as paradigmatic for illustrating these aspects. The joint projects with philosopher, artist and educator Hugo Kükelhaus, or artists such as Yves Klein and Adolf Luther...

  17. Structure of reproductive apparatus of Gracilarial Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Di; ZHU JianYi; HE Yang; CHENG XiaoJie; ZHANG WenYan; ZHANG XueCheng

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive apparatus of GracilarialGracilariopsis lemaneiformis collected from Qingdao city were studied with a light and a transmission electron microscope. The special superficial arrangement of spermatangium for this species was clearly observed, and the ultrastructure of spermatangial development revealed the similar cytodynamic pattern followed by all the Giracilariaceae members developed from spermatangial mother cells to spermatangium. The female reproductive apparatus before fertilization was also observed and trichogyne was found protruding above the cortex, contrary to the earlier reports. Tetrasporangium was formed by an outer cortical cell and the tetraspores became spherical and expended after being released.

  18. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  19. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  20. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  1. Physical design of positronium time of flight spectroscopy apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-Pan; ZHANG Zi-Liang; QIN Xiu-Bo; YU Run-Sheng; WANG Bao-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Positronium time of flight spectroscopy(Ps-TOF)is an effective technique for porous material research.It has advantages over other techniques for analyzing the porosity and pore tortuosity of materials.This paper describes a design for Ps-TOF apparatus based on the Beijing intense slow positron beam,supplying a new material characterization technique.In order to improve the time resolution and increase the count rate of the apparatus,the detector system is optimized.For 3 eV o-Ps,the time broadening is 7.66 ns and the count rate is 3 cps after correction.

  2. Apparatus and method for the characterization of respirable aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Douglas K.; Hodges, Bradley W.; Bush, Jesse D.; Mishima, Jofu

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus for the characterization of respirable aerosols, including: a burn chamber configured to selectively contain a sample that is selectively heated to generate an aerosol; a heating assembly disposed within the burn chamber adjacent to the sample; and a sampling segment coupled to the burn chamber and configured to collect the aerosol such that it may be analyzed. The apparatus also includes an optional sight window disposed in a wall of the burn chamber such that the sample may be viewed during heating. Optionally, the sample includes one of a Lanthanide, an Actinide, and a Transition metal.

  3. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been designed and built for use in precise positioning and pressing of a microchip onto a substrate (which could, optionally, be another microchip) for the purpose of indium-bump bonding. The apparatus (see figure) includes the following: A stereomicroscope, A stage for precise positioning of the microchip in rotation angle (theta) about the nominally vertical pressing axis and in translation along two nominally horizontal coordinate axes (x and y), and An actuator system that causes a bonding tip to press the microchip against the substrate with a precisely controlled force. In operation, the microscope and the stage are used to position the microchip under the bonding tip and to align the indium bumps on the chip and the substrate, then the actuator system is used to apply a prescribed bonding force for a prescribed time. The improved apparatus supplants a partly similar prior apparatus that operated with less precision and repeatability, producing inconsistent and unreliable bonds. Results of the use of the prior apparatus included broken microchips, uneven bonds, and bonds characterized, variously, by overcompression or undercompression. In that apparatus, the bonding force was generated and controlled by use of a micrometer head positioned over the center of a spring-loaded scale, and the force was applied to the microchip via the scale, which was equipped for digital readout of the force. The inconsistency of results was attributed to the following causes: It was not possible to control the bonding force with sufficient precision or repeatability. Particularly troublesome was the inability to control the force at levels less than the weight of 150 g. Excessive compliance in the spring-loaded scale, combined with deviations from parallelarity of the substrate and bonding-tip surfaces, gave rise to nonuniformity in the pressure applied to the microchip, thereby generating excessive stresses and deformations in the microchip. In the

  4. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures.

  5. The sampling apparatus of volatile organic compounds for wood composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJun; ZHAOLin-bo; LIUYu

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, benzene, and toluene are the important volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood composites. A sampling apparatus of VOCs for wood composites was designed and manufactured by Northeast Forestry University in China.The concentration of VOCs derived from wood based materials, such as flooring, panel wall, finishing, and furniture can be sampled in a small stainless steel chambers. A protocol is also developed in this study to sample and measure the new and representative specimens. Preliminary research showed that the properties of the equipment have good stability. The sort and the amount of different components can be detected from it. The apparatus is practicable.

  6. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit

    2014-09-18

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  7. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries...

  8. Strategy that includes serial noninvasive leg tests for diagnosis of thromboembolic disease in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism based on data from PIOPED. Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, P D; Hull, R D; Pineo, G

    1995-10-23

    To estimate the percentage of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism in whom a noninvasive diagnosis or exclusion of thromboembolic disease might be safely made on the basis of ventilation-perfusion (VQ) lung scans, single noninvasive tests of the lower extremities, and, in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve, serial noninvasive tests of the lower extremities. Calculations were made among 662 patients who participated in the collaborative study Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) and who had blood gas values measured while breathing room air and who underwent pulmonary angiography. The diagnostic strategy recommends treatment in all patients with a high-probability VQ scan and no treatment in patients with nearly normal VQ scans. In patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans (intermediate- or low-probability scans), a single noninvasive leg test is recommended. It was assumed that 50% of patients with pulmonary embolism would show deep venous thrombosis with a single noninvasive leg test. If results are abnormal, treatment is indicated. If normal, serial noninvasive leg tests are recommended. Treatment can be withheld if results of serial tests are normal. In patients with poor cardiorespiratory reserve, pulmonary angiography is indicated. A single noninvasive leg test in patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans would show deep venous thrombosis and, therefore, eliminate the need for pulmonary angiography in 53 (11%) of 468 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 15%) who otherwise would require angiography. Serial noninvasive leg tests in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve who had a normal result of a single leg test would either show deep venous thrombosis or exclude it in 222 (47%) of 468 patients (95% CI, 43% to 52%). The need for pulmonary angiography, therefore, would be reduced from 468 (71%) of 662 (95% CI, 67% to 74%) if no noninvasive leg tests were performed to 415 (63%) of 662 (95% CI, 59

  9. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Eldin Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  10. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Farré

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support.

  11. Noninvasive screening tools for Down syndrome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Meagan Smith, Jeannie Visootsak Emory University, Department of Human Genetics, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Down syndrome is the leading cause of prenatal chromosome abnormalities, accounting for 53% of all reported chromosome conditions. Testing strategies, guidelines, and screening options have expanded from their conception in the 1970s, and now include such options as anatomical ultrasound, maternal serum screening, and noninvasive prenatal testing. This review summarizes all currently available noninvasive diagnostic techniques for the detection of Down syndrome. By understanding fully each technology and the possible alternatives, the physician will be able to provide their patients with all the information necessary to make an informed decision regarding their medical management. Keywords: Down syndrome, noninvasive screening, diagnostic techniques

  12. Noninvasive Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenoses Using Cardiac CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography (CCTA has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive “one-stop-shop” diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT, and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG, CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  13. Selective therapeutic hypothermia: A review of invasive and noninvasive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Straus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising treatment to prevent secondary neurologic injury. Clinical utility is limited by systemic complications of global hypothermia. Selective brain cooling remains a largely uninvestigated application. We review techniques of inducing selective brain cooling. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Strategies of inducing selective brain cooling were divided between non-invasive and invasive techniques. Non-invasive techniques were surface cooling and cooling via the upper airway. Invasive cooling methods include transvascular and compartmental (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid and intraventricular cooling methods to remove heat from the brain. CONCLUSION: Selective brain cooling may offer the best strategy for achieving hypothermic neuroprotection. Non-invasive strategies have proven disappointing in human trials. There is a paucity of human experiments using invasive methods of selective brain cooling. Further application of invasive cooling strategies is needed.

  14. Antiangiogenesis Therapy of Endometriosis Using PAMAM as a Gene Vector in a Noninvasive Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the characteristics and antiangiogenic effects of endostatin-loaded PAMAM on endometriosis in a noninvasive animal model. Materials and Methods. A noninvasive animal model was established by injecting adenovirus-GFP transfected endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells subcutaneously into nude mice. Endostatin-loaded PAMAM was prepared and identified by transmission electron microscopy. For in vitro studies, the DNA protection and cytotoxicity of PAMAM were investigated and compared with Lipofectamine 2000. For in vivo study, endostatin-loaded PAMAM was injected into the noninvasive model and evaluated by continuously observing the fluorescent lesion, lesion weight, microvessel density and VEGF immunostaining. Results. Compared with Lipofectamine 2000, PAMAM and HC PAMAM-ES group, MC PAMAM-ES group and LC PAMAM-ES group demonstrated a better stromal cells protective such that MC PAMAM-ES group of CCK8 was 0.617 ± 0.122 at 24 hr and 0.668 ± 0.143 at 48 hr and LC PAMAM-ES group of CCK8 was 0.499 ± 0.103 at 24 hr and 0.610 ± 0.080 at 48 hr in stromal cells (P<0.05 but similar cytotoxicity in glandular epithelial cells in vitro. After 16 hrs of digestion, DNA decreased slightly under the protection of PAMAM. Endostatin-loaded PAMAM of HD PAMAM-ES group and LD PAMAM-ES group inhibited the growth of the endometriotic lesion in vivo at days 15, 20, 25 and 30 detected by noninvasive observation after injecting one dose endostatin of various medicines into the endometrial lesion in each mouse on day 10 (P<0.05 and confirmed by lesion weight at day 30 with HD PAMAM-ES group being 0.0104 ± 0.0077 g and LD PAMAM-ES group being 0.0140 ± 0.0097 g (P<0.05. Immunohistochemistry results showed that endostatin-loaded PAMAM reduced the microvessel density 3.8 ± 2.4 especially in HD PAMAM-ES group in the lesion (P<0.05. Conclusion. Endostatin-loaded PAMAM inhibits the development of

  15. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases: Implementation in clinical practice and decisional algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Sebastiani

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C together with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases represent the major causes of progressive liver disease that can eventually evolve into cirrhosis and its end-stage complications, including decompensation, bleeding and liver cancer. Formation and accumulation of fibrosis in the liver is the common pathway that leads to an evolutive liver disease. Precise definition of liver fibrosis stage is essential for management of the patient in clinical practice since the presence of bridging fibrosis represents a strong indication for antiviral therapy for chronic viral hepatitis, while cirrhosis requires a specific follow-up including screening for esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver biopsy has always represented the standard of reference for assessment of hepatic fibrosis but it has some limitations being invasive, costly and prone to sampling errors. Recently, blood markers and instrumental methods have been proposed for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. However, there are still some doubts as to their implementation in clinical practice and a real consensus on how and when to use them is not still available. This is due to an unsatisfactory accuracy for some of them, and to an incomplete validation for others. Some studies suggest that performance of non-invasive methods for liver fibrosis assessment may increase when they re combined. Combination algorithms of non-invasive methods for assessing liver fibrosis may represent a rational and reliable approach to implement noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in clinical practice and to reduce rather than abolish liver biopsies.

  16. Systems, methods and apparatus for pattern matching in procedure development and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which, in some embodiments, a formal specification is pattern-matched from scenarios, the formal specification is analyzed, and flaws in the formal specification are corrected. The systems, methods and apparatus may include pattern-matching an equivalent formal model from an informal specification. Such a model can be analyzed for contradictions, conflicts, use of resources before the resources are available, competition for resources, and so forth. From such a formal model, an implementation can be automatically generated in a variety of notations. The approach can improve the resulting implementation, which, in some embodiments, is provably equivalent to the procedures described at the outset, which in turn can improve confidence that the system reflects the requirements, and in turn reduces system development time and reduces the amount of testing required of a new system. Moreover, in some embodiments, two or more implementations can be "reversed" to appropriate formal models, the models can be combined, and the resulting combination checked for conflicts. Then, the combined, error-free model can be used to generate a new (single) implementation that combines the functionality of the original separate implementations, and may be more likely to be correct.

  17. Etiske utfordringer med non-invasive prenatale tester (NIPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Hofmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyser av cellefritt DNA fra foster i gravide kvinners blod gir nye muligheter innen fosterdiagnostikk: Testene er bedre enn eksisterende tester, de reduserer risikoen og er billigere. Flere land har tatt i bruk disse testene, og Helsedirektoratet i Norge har mottatt søknad om å ta i bruk en test som erstatter tidlig ultralyd og blodprøver. Likevel nøler norske myndigheter. Hvorfor gjør de det? Ett av svarene er at non-invasive prenatale tester fører med seg en rekke faglige og moralske spørsmål og gir flere grunnleggende etiske utfordringer. Denne artikkelen gjennomgår et bredt knippe av de utfordringene som NIPT reiser. Hensikten er å synliggjøre hvorfor NIPT påkaller etisk refleksjon og å bidra til en åpen debatt og en transparent beslutningsprosess. Artikkelen identifiserer fem sentrale og konkrete spørsmål for vurderingen av NIPT.Nøkkelord: non-invasiv prenatal diagnostikk, testing, fravalg, foster, blodprøve, ekspressivisme, statsliberalt dilemma, dilemma, abort, retten til ikke å viteEnglish summary: Ethical challenges with non-invasive prenatal tests (NIPTNon-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT performed with the use of massively parallel sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA testing in maternal plasma gives extended possibilities in prenatal screening. The tests are claimed to be better than existing alternative tests, they reduce the risk, and it is claimed they are cheaper. They have been used in several countries since 2012, and the University Hospital of North Norway has applied to the Directorate of Health to replace first trimester ultrasound and plasma screening with NIPT. The Directorate of Health is reluctant to reply. Why is this? One of the answers may be that NIPT raises a series of professional and moral questions, and poses profound ethical challenges. This article reviews a series of the challenges with NIPT. The aim is to highlight why NIPT calls for ethical reflection and to contribute to an open debate

  18. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D

    2015-01-01

    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed.

  19. Systematic experimental exploration of bifurcations with noninvasive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D A W; Sieber, J

    2013-05-01

    We present a general method for systematically investigating the dynamics and bifurcations of a physical nonlinear experiment. In particular, we show how the odd-number limitation inherent in popular noninvasive control schemes, such as (Pyragas) time-delayed or washout-filtered feedback control, can be overcome for tracking equilibria or forced periodic orbits in experiments. To demonstrate the use of our noninvasive control, we trace out experimentally the resonance surface of a periodically forced mechanical nonlinear oscillator near the onset of instability, around two saddle-node bifurcations (folds) and a cusp bifurcation.

  20. Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy and Noninvasive Respiratory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribs, Angela

    2016-12-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by surfactant deficiency is major cause for neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity of preterm infants. Continuous positive airway pressure and other modes of noninvasive respiratory support and intubation and positive pressure ventilation with surfactant therapy are efficient therapies for RDS. Because continuous positive airway pressure can fail in severe surfactant deficiency, and because traditional surfactant therapy requires intubation and positive pressure ventilation, this entails a risk of lung injury. Several strategies to combine noninvasive respiratory therapy with minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. Available data suggest that those strategies may improve outcome of premature infants with RDS.

  1. Noninvasive Testing for Mucosal Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, Marisa; Beltrán, Belén; Nos, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Biomarkers have gained increasing attention for the diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy remains the gold standard for assessing disease activity. Biomarkers are rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive, and can be used in different stages of the disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Calprotectin and tests for C-reactive protein are used to assess the disease activity, predict relapse, and monitor treatment response. New noninvasive tests are being studied. This review discusses current evidence for these surrogate markers, their potential clinical applications, and limitations in disease management. We highlight recent advances in IBD biomarkers and future uses.

  2. Non-invasive bleaching of the human lens by femtosecond laser photolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Kessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, cataract is the leading cause of blindness and impaired vision. Cataract surgery is an attractive treatment option but it remains unavailable in sufficient quantity for the vast majority of the world population living in areas without access to specialized health care. Reducing blindness from cataract requires solutions that can be applied outside operating theatres. Cataract is a protein conformational disease characterized by accumulation of light absorbing, fluorescent and scattering protein aggregates. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these compounds were susceptible to photobleaching by a non-invasive procedure and whether this would lead to optical rejuvenation of the lens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine human donor lenses were treated with an 800 nm infra-red femtosecond pulsed laser in a treatment zone measuring 1x1x0.52 mm. After laser treatment the age-induced yellow discoloration of the lens was markedly reduced and the transmission of light was increased corresponding to an optical rejuvenation of 3 to 7 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that the age-induced yellowing of the human lens can be bleached by a non-invasive procedure based on femtosecond laser photolysis. Cataract is a disease associated with old age. At the current technological stage, lens aging is delayed but with a treatment covering the entire lens volume complete optical rejuvenation is expected. Thus, femtosecond photolysis has the potential clinical value of replacing invasive cataract surgery by a non-invasive treatment modality that can be placed in mobile units, thus breaking down many of the barriers impeding access to treatment in remote and poor regions of the world.

  3. New testing plausibilities of the danish triaxial apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Danish triaxial apparatus can test soil specimens with isotropic stress states. Isotropic stress produces isotropic yielding - the shear zone is distributed equally across the whole volume of a specimen. This prevents localized fracture cracking) and bulging. As the soil specimen remain intact...

  4. Use of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of scrap-material of a first group from magnetic pieces of scrap- material of a second group, wherein a mixture of pieces of scrap-material from the first group and from the second group is collectively transported with a conveyor to a separating

  5. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  6. Apparatus Measures Friction In Vacuum Or Pressurized Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Joseph R.

    1996-01-01

    Friction-testing apparatus in small test chamber contains special atmosphere, which could include vacuum or pressurized gas. Provides readings indicative of friction between pin specimen and plate specimen sliding under pin in reciprocating linear motion. Pin and plate specimens made of same or different material.

  7. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully.

  8. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  9. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  10. Development and application of spectacles frame parameter measurement apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Gary Ming Guo; Hu Hongzhi; Hu Jinquan

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the spectacles frame parameters has substantial effects on both the production and export of spectacles products. In fact, this measurement is the measurement of related three-dimensional trajectory.The working principles of the measurement apparatus developed based on capacitive grating technology are introduced in this paper. Capacitive grating technology is a precision length measurement method. Its advantages are small volume, low price, low production cost, and easy to obtain precise readings of the measured data. The measurement apparatus is composed of one industrial control computer, two microcontrollers and corresponding circuits. The system stability is guaranteed during the design of the circuit with the practical situation of its industry application taken into account. The software is divided into lower layer and upper layer. Each layer has different emphasis. The causes of system errors and the method of error elimination are also analyzed. The analysis of the data obtained from experiments and the operating results of prototype apparatus both indicate that the proposed measurement apparatus has achieved outstanding competitive technical level of same kind products in international market and thus has ideal implications for mass production.

  11. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenchen, John Eric; Ruiz, Carlos Leon

    1998-01-01

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand.

  12. Real-time self-networking radiation detector apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Edward; Lemley, James; Tsang, Thomas Y.; Milian, Laurence W.

    2007-06-12

    The present invention is for a radiation detector apparatus for detecting radiation sources present in cargo shipments. The invention includes the features of integrating a bubble detector sensitive to neutrons and a GPS system into a miniaturized package that can wirelessly signal the presence of radioactive material in shipping containers. The bubble density would be read out if such indicated a harmful source.

  13. Apparatus for Teaching Physics: A Versatile Projectile Motion Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigo, Robert B.; Korda, Anthony

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and use of a projectile motion apparatus to illustrate a variety of projective motion results typically discussed in an introductory course. They include independence of horizontal (constant speed) and vertical (constant acceleration) motions, parabolic path shape, and other types of motion. (JN)

  14. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-09-02

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  15. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2013-07-02

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  16. Coacervate droplets, proteinoid microspheres, and the genetic apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Differences between typical coacervate droplets and typical proteinoid microspheres are examined. It is pointed out that coacervate droplets are produced from polymers obtained from contemporary organisms. The microspheres considered are aggregates of proteinoid formed from monomeric amino acids under geologically relevant conditions. Aspects regarding the primordial sequence are discussed along with the origin of the genetic apparatus and the genetic code.

  17. Apparatus and method for motion tracking in brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus and method for motion tracking of a subject in medical brain imaging. The method comprises providing a light projector and a first camera; projecting a first pattern sequence (S1) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector, wherein the subject is positioned...

  18. Method and apparatus for imaging and documenting fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for imaging and documenting fingerprints. A fluorescent dye brought in intimate proximity with the lipid residues of a latent fingerprint is caused to fluoresce on exposure to light energy. The resulting fluorescing image may be recorded photographically.

  19. Fuel of the Bacterial Flagellar Type III Protein Export Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    The flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) across the cytoplasmic membrane as the energy sources and transports flagellar component proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal growing end of the growing structure to construct the bacterial flagellum beyond the cellular membranes. The flagellar type III export apparatus coordinates flagellar protein export with assembly by ordered export of substrates to parallel with their order of the assembly. The export apparatus is composed of a PMF-driven transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Since the ATPase complex is dispensable for flagellar protein export, PMF is the primary fuel for protein unfolding and translocation. Interestingly, the export gate complex can also use sodium motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane in addition to PMF when the ATPase complex does not work properly. Here, we describe experimental protocols, which have allowed us to identify the export substrate class and the primary fuel of the flagellar type III protein export apparatus in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

  20. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2004-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.