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Sample records for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  1. Basal nitric oxide production is not reduced in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, M; Carzaniga, G; Perilli, E; Jun, T; Scandale, G; Andreoni, S; Carotta, M

    1997-11-01

    Vascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity, disability and death in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Abnormalities in endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. By measuring hemodynamic responses to a NO synthase agonist or antagonist, previous studies have shown the presence of NO deficiency in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a method of assessing bioactive NO formation. However, direct biochemical evidence that this is the case, has not been produced. In vivo NO is metabolized into nitrate, an end breakdown product of NO, which can be used as an index of endogenous NO formation. To investigate further whether decreased basal synthesis of NO may be a major cause of endothelium-mediated vascular dysfunction in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of 15 patients were examined and compared with 13 normal controls. The results showed that in basal conditions plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were not reduced in diabetic patients compared with normal controls (37.3 +/- 14.7 versus 29.4 +/- 8.6 mumol/l). It was concluded that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, endothelium-derived basal NO formation is not impaired. This study, taken with previous observations, suggests that factors other than diminished basal NO production, such as reduced bioavailability of NO probably due to the augmented production of superoxide anion with subsequently increased inactivation of NO, contribute to the high incidence of vascular disease in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  2. Examination of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, D.S. [Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Vidal-Puig, A.; Moller, D.E. [Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, is under dominant negative regulation by insulin. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that mutations in the PEPCK gene promoter may impair the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production, thereby contributing to both the insulin resistance and increased rate of gluconeogenesis characteristic of NIDDM. The proximal PEPCK promoter region in 117 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 20 obese Pima Indians was amplified by PCR and analyzed with single strand conformation of polymorphism techniques. In addition, limited direct DNA sequencing was performed on the insulin response sequence and flanking regions. No DNA sequence polymorphisms were found in any patient. This result suggests that mutations in cis-acting PEPCK gene regulatory elements do not constitute a common cause of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The significance of genetic variation in promoter regions to human disease is discussed. 40 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Bone mineral density in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by dual photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.H.; Tsou, C.T.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China))

    1993-05-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in 38 male patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density was presented as g cm[sup -2]. The patients were distinguished according to the following three criteria: (1) blood sugar control was good or poor; (2) the duration of diabetes was long or short; (3) renal function was evaluated by effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) as good or poor. The results showed about half the cases of NIDDM had lower BMD. The patients with poor blood sugar control, longer disease duration and poor renal function had lower BMD. However, the difference between any two groups distinguished by the three criteria is not significant. We think that the causes of osteoporosis in patients with NIDDM may not be explained by only a single factor. (author).

  4. Glycemic effects of intensive caloric restriction and isocaloric refeeding in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R R; Scheaffer, L; Olefsky, J M

    1985-11-01

    To assess the effects of very low caloric (VLC) diets on glucose homeostasis in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 30 obese subjects with NIDDM were studied for 40 days while eating a 330 Cal/day diet, with a subgroup of 12 subjects further evaluated during 40 days of refeeding. All subjects successfully lost weight, with an average weight loss of 4.6 +/- 0.2 kg (+/- SEM) after 10 days, 7.1 +/- 0.3 kg after 20 days, and 10.5 +/- 0.4 kg after 40 days of VLC diet therapy. Thus, weight loss was steady and progressive throughout the diet period. In contrast, the majority (87%) of the reduction in mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels (297 +/- 13 to 158 +/- 10 mg/dl; P less than 0.001) occurred after 10 days of VLC diet therapy, with a further reduction in glucose levels to 138 +/- 9 mg/dl on day 40. The FPG response measured after 10 days of VLC diet was unrelated to the degree of obesity, rate or extent of weight loss, or prevailing insulin levels, but did correlate significantly with the initial FPG level (r = 0.37; P less than 0.05) and duration of diabetes (r = 0.42; P less than 0.05). After discontinuation of the VLC diet and refeeding of an isocaloric (weight maintenance) diet in 12 subjects, a variable increase in the FPG occurred, with an average increase of 80% after 40 days of refeeding. However, the mean FPG level after 40 days of refeeding was still markedly lower than that before VLC diet therapy (254 +/- 20 vs. 167 +/- 14 mg/dl; P less than 0.02) despite withdrawal of antidiabetic medication in all subjects. The basal hepatic glucose output (HGO) fell rapidly from 149 +/- 13 to 81 +/- 5 mg/M2 X min (P less than 0.001) after 10 days of VLC diet and rose from 67 +/- 4 to 88 +/- 7 mg/M2 X min (P less than 0.001) after 10 days of refeeding. Basal HGO demonstrated a highly significant positive correlation with FPG levels (r = 0.89; P less than 0.001) before and during both VLC diet therapy and refeeding. A significant correlation was also found between

  5. Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in Treating Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-yu; LI Meng; WANG Rui; LI Bin; GUO Ya-jing

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang (Hypoglycemic Anti-Deafness Capsule) in treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hearing loss. Methods Two hundred ninety six patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hearing loss were randomly assigned to a treatment group(n=164, 208 ears) and a control group(n=132,184 ears). Patients in the treatment group were treated with the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang and supplement herbal preparations as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine dialectical assessment, while control patients received glibenclamide and conventional treatments for deafness. Hearing, fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial blood glucose(PBG), 24 hour urine sugar, platelet function indices, blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LPO) levels, and symptom improvement were compared between the two groups. Results The rate of hearing improvement was 56.7% for the treatment group and 26.6% for the control. FBG, PBG and 24 hour urine sugar improved in both groups, but the last two were superior in the treatment group compared to the control. Symptoms improvement was also superior in the treatment group compared to the control. In patients receiving Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang treatment, platelet function indices, SOD and LPO were all improved, while only LOP improvement was noticed in control patients. No acute or long-term toxicity was demonstrated for the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in animal tests. The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang lowered blood glucose and serum triglycerides in a rat model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang is effective in improving hearing and diabetic indices in diabetic patients with deafness, without significant side effects.

  6. Diet and the Role of Altered Carbohydrate Absorption in the Treatment of Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas MS Wolever

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract has no clear role in the pathophysiology of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, but it may be an appropriate site for therapeutic intervention, specifically changes in diet, meal frequency and medications. Studies suggest that for patients with NIDDM, a calorie-restricted, high carbohydrate diet low in fat and rich in fibre may improve glycemic control, mitigate the risk of atherosclerosis and retard such diabetic complications as nephropathy and retinopathy. Increased meal frequency slows the rate of carbohydrate absorption, flattens blood insulin responses and reduces serum cholesterol. New therapeutic interventions, such as soluble fibre, low glycemic index foods or alpha glucosidase inhibitors, can further slow carbohydrate absorption and thus reduce secondary risks from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.

  7. Evaluation of Jump into Action: A Program to Reduce the Risk of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in School Children on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, J. David; Lira, Juanita; Kingery, Paul M.; Smith, D. W.; Lane, Dorothy; Goodway, Jackie

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated Jump into Action, a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-prevention program that encouraged students to eat well and exercise regularly to reduce NIDDM risks. Surveys of predominantly Hispanic fifth graders and their teachers at Texas-Mexico border schools indicated that the program increased NIDDM-prevention knowledge and…

  8. High density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: measurement of HDL turnover using tritiated HDL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golay, A.; Zech, L.; Shi, M.Z.; Chiou, Y.A.; Reaven, G.M.; Chen, Y.D.

    1987-09-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics were studied by injecting (/sup 3/H)apoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/HDL into 12 subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 12 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The results indicate that the mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apoA-I/HDL was significantly faster (0.63 +/- 0.07 (+/- SEM) vs. 0.39 +/- 0.02 1/day; P less than 0.001) and the apoA-I/HDL synthetic rate greater (29.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 22.9 +/- 1.3 mg/kg X day; P less than 0.02) in patients with NIDDM than in normal subjects. Furthermore, there were statistically significant inverse relationships between apoA-I/HDL FCR and plasma levels of both HDL cholesterol (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001) and apoA-I (r = -0.63; P less than 0.001). In addition, the increase in apoA-I/HDL FCR was directly related to fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.78; P less than 0.001) and insulin (r = 0.76; P less than 0.001) concentrations. These data support the view that the decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels commonly found in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes is due to an increase in the catabolic rate of apoA-I/HDL secondary to the defects in carbohydrate metabolism present in these patients.

  9. Type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes: new treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, B J

    1997-01-01

    Type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) is a common primary and secondary diagnosis in home care patients. This article describes the pathophysiology of NIDDM, the new drugs that have been released for treatment, and the nursing implications inherent in using these new medications.

  10. Effects of exercise training on glucose control, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, R M; Schteingart, D E

    1991-06-01

    Exercise training has potential benefits for patients with hyperlipidemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic, nonobese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia, exercise training alone increased insulin sensitivity, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These improvements did not occur when exercise training alone was given to similar patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In severely obese (X = 125 kg) subjects without diabetes melitus, a 600 calorie diet alone decreased glucose and insulin concentrations and improved glucose tolerance but did not increase insulin sensitivity. The addition of exercise training improved insulin sensitivity. Obese, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects on sulfonylurea therapy alone increased insulin levels but failed to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose levels. In contrast, the addition of exercise training to this medication resulted in improved insulin sensitivity and lowered glucose levels. We conclude that exercise training has major effects on lowering triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic subjects and can potentiate the effect of diet or drug therapy on glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  11. The evaluation of gallbladder function by quantitative radionuclide cholescintigraphy in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.H.; Tsou, C.T.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan))

    1993-10-01

    Twenty-nine patients (24 males, 5 females; aged 62.8 [+-] 10.1 years) with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without gallstones and impaired liver function were included in our study. The patients were categorized by blood sugar control and disease duration. Twelve normal controls (10 males, 2 females; aged 62.8 [+-] 12.4 years) were also studied for comparison. The gallbladder filling fraction (FF) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated. The results showed no significant difference between (1) NIDDM and normal controls in FF (69.1 [+-] 29.4 versus 67.5 [+-] 24.0%) and EF (45.0 [+-] 23.5 versus 54.8 [+-] 10.0%) by a t-test, (2) good and poor blood sugar control in FF (64.9 [+-] 30.9 versus 73.7 [+-] 26.4%) and EF (42.0 [+-] 25.4 versus 54.8 [+-] 10.0%) by a Mann-Whitney U test, (3) long and short disease durations in FF (70.9 [+-] 29.7 versus 67.9 [+-] 28.7%) and EF (37.9 [+-] 20.7 versus 50.0 [+-] 24.1%) by a Mann-Whitney U test. In conclusion, the results challenge some previous reports and warrant further research. (author).

  12. A Study of Factors Related to the Incidence of Cataract in Patients with Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Xia; Xiao Zhang; Haitao Xia

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors related to the development of cataract in patientswith non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM).Methods: 792 NIDDM patients received ophthalmologic examinations including visualacuity, external status of the eyes, slit lamp microscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Glucose,urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), urine acid (UA), N-acetyl-β2-D-glucosaminidase(NAG), β2-microglobulin(β2-MG) and serum albumin in blood were quantitativelytested. Glucose, pH value, protein, cells, cast and ketobodies in urine were assayed.Diagnosis of cataract was based on lens opacities classification system Ⅱ. Any patientmeeting "NⅡ", "CⅡ" or "PⅡ" level was diagnosed as cataract.Results: The incidence of cataract in this group of NIDDM was 62.37 % (494/792),which significantly related to the duration of the disease course, but not to the sex of thepatient. The occurrence rate of cataract in patients suffering from NIDDM of less thanfive years duration, from five to ten years, and more than ten years was 49.67 % (228/459), 71.84 % (125/174), and 88.68 % (141/159), respectively. The occurrence ofcataract in patients diagnosed of the disease from five to ten years and more than tenyears was much higher than that of those with the course of the disease less than fiveyears( P < 0.05 and P < 0. 001, respectively) . Rising concentrations of blood ureanitrogen, creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c(G-HbA1c), N-acetyl-β2-D-glucosaminidase(NAG) and β2-microglobulin(β2-MG) indicated malfunction of thekidneys, and the rate of cataract occurrence in these patients was higher.Conclusion: This study indicates that prolongation of the duration of non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, as well as poor blood glucose control,may accelerate the development of cataract.

  13. Codon 972 polymorphism in the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene, obesity, and risk of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigal, R.J.; Doria, A.; Warram, J.H.; Krolewski, A.S. [Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Because of the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 in insulin action, the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene is a candidate gene for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Modest associations between NIDDM and a GGG-AGG single base substitution (corresponding to a glycine-arginine amino acid substitution) in codon 972 of the gene have been found, but none reached statistical significance. To examine further how large a proportion of NIDDM cases could be caused by the mutation, we performed a stratified analysis combining the results from the 6 earlier studies and those from our panel of 192 unrelated NIDDM subjects and 104 healthy controls. In addition, we looked for a possibility that the codon 972 mutation plays a role only in the presence of certain conditions. Genomic DNA samples obtained from NIDDM cases and healthy controls were genotyped using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol modified for genomic DNA. The GGG{r_arrow}AGG substitution was found in 5.7% of the diabetic subjects (11 of 192) and 6.9% of the controls (7 of 104). The difference between groups was not statistically significant, and it was not different from the results of other studies. The Mantel-Haenszel summary odds ratio across all studies was 1.49 (P < 0.05; 95% confidence intervals, 1.01-2.2). This summary odds ratio is consistent with a small proportion of NIDDM cases ({approximately}3%) being caused by the mutation. Exploratory subgroup analyses on our panel suggested a clustering of NIDDM, the codon 972 mutation, and overweight, raising the hypothesis that the mutation may predispose to NIDDM only in the presence of excess body weight. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Antioxidant and inhibitory properties of Clerodendrum volubile leaf extracts on key enzymes relevant to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Adefegha

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The inhibitory properties of phenolic rich extracts on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, ACE, and Fe2+- and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in the pancreas could be attributed to the antioxidant properties of the extracts and their phenolic composition. The stronger action of the bound phenolic extract on α-glucosidase may provide the possible bioactivity at the brush border end of the intestinal wall. This study may thus suggest that leaves represent a functional food and nutraceutical in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  15. Sulfonylurea therapy improves glucose disposal without changing skeletal muscle GLUT4 levels in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Weinreb, J E; Rosen, A S

    1995-01-01

    A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus......, longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether changes in GLUT4 expression in muscle of NIDDM subjects could be responsible for changes in glucose disposal. The question is timely because recent studies in transgenic mice show that increasing GLUT4 expression can increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... in vivo and in vitro. Here we use a longitudinal design to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of therapy with the sulfonylurea gliclazide on glycemic control, glucose tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and GLUT4 expression in muscle of 10 obese NIDDM subjects. Subjects were on a weight...

  16. Nutritional composition of Stevia rebaudiana, a sweet herb, and its hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect on patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritu, Mathur; Nandini, Johri

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. India shelters the highest number of diabetics and is thus known as the 'Diabetes Capital of the World'. The chemical management of diabetes has side effects and hence the present study was undertaken to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect of Stevia rebaudiana in patients with type 2 diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Its nutritional composition and use as a sweetener substitute were also assessed. Chemical analysis of dried Stevia leaf powder revealed it to be a nutritious herb with a good iron and fibre content. Intervention trials in diabetics revealed that it significantly lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels. The serum triglycerides and VLDL-C levels were also significantly reduced. Hence it can be said that Stevia can safely be used as an anti-diabetic herb, as a sweetener substitute and may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with long-standing diabetes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime lung scintigraphy in the detection of subclinical lung injury in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, Burcu Esen; Gokcora, Nahide; Atasever, Tamer; Yetkin, Ilhan

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate subclinical pulmonary injury in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who showed normal chest radiograph and pulmonary function test results by using technetium-99 hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-HMPAO) scintigraphy and to investigate the relationship between Tc-99m-HMPAO lung uptake and duration of diabetes, glycemic control, and the presence of diabetes-related microvascular complications. A total of 40 patients with NIDDM (19 men, 21 women; age 56.5 ± 6.8 years; duration of diabetes: 13.1 ± 6.7 years) were included in this study. The pulmonary vascular damage was represented as lung/liver uptake ratios (L/L ratios) calculated by Tc-99m-HMPAO lung scintigraphy. Results were compared with those of age-matched controls. The L/L ratio was 0.36 ± 0.07 in normal controls and 0.51 ± 0.16 in patients with NIDDM. The L/L ratio was significantly higher in NIDDM patients than in the control group (P=0.002). No correlation was observed between L/L ratio and the presence of diabetic complications, glycemic control, and diabetes duration. Tc-99m-HMPAO lung scintigraphy is a sensitive and an objective method for the detection of subclinical lung injury in NIDDM patients. Tc-99m-HMPAO lung uptake serves as an indicator of pulmonary injury due to diabetes, regardless of diabetes age, glycemic control, and the presence of other diabetes-related microvascular complications.

  18. GLUT-4, tumour necrosis factor, essential fatty acids and daf-genes and their role in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, U N

    1999-04-01

    GLUT-4 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites and daf-genes seem to play an important and essential role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, and in the pathobiology of obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Daf-genes encode for proteins which are 35% identical to the human insulin receptor, a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) type signal and can also enhance the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD). On the other hand, EFAs and their metabolites can increase the cell membrane fluidity and thus, enhance the expression of GLUT-4 and insulin receptors. In addition, EFAs can suppress TNF-alpha production and secretion and thus, are capable of reversing insulin resistance. Melatonin has anti-oxidant actions similar to daf-16, TGF-beta and SOD. Hence, it is likely that there is a close interaction between GLUT-4, TNF-alpha, EFAs, daf-genes, melatonin and leptin that may have relevance to the development of insulin resistance, obesity, NIDDM, complications due to NIDDM, longevity and ageing.

  19. GLUT-4, tumor necrosis factor, essential fatty acids and daf-genes and their role in insulin resistance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, U N

    1999-01-01

    It is now believed that the GLUT-4 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites and daf-genes have an important role in the development of obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The protein encoded by daf-2 is 35% identical to the human insulin receptor, daf-7 codes a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) type signal and daf-16 can enhance superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression. EFAs and their metabolites can alter the cell membrane fluidity and enhance the expression of GLUT-4 and insulin receptors. EFAs can suppress TNF-alpha production and secretion, a mechanism that may have relevance to the role of these fatty acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity and NIDDM. Melatonin has anti-oxidant actions similar to daf-16, TGF-beta and SOD. Based on this evidence, it is proposed that GLUT-4, TNF-alpha, EFAs, daf-genes, melatonin and leptin interact with each other in ways which may have relevance to the development or abrogation of insulin resistance, obesity, NIDDM, complications due to NIDDM, longevity and ageing.

  20. Sequence variations of the pancreatic islet/liver glucose transporter (GLUT2) gene in Japanese subjects with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Atsushi; Tanizawa, Yukio; Matsutani, Akira [Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    To assess the genetic susceptibility to noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Japanese subjects, we investigated the role of GLUT2 gene defects in patients with NIDDM. When the allelic frequency of a simple tandem repeat polymorphism in the GLUT2 gene was compared, the allele with 155 base pairs was more common in NIDDM patients (n = 99) than in controls (n = 89; 5.1% v. 0.6%; P = 0.0118, by Fisher`s exact test), whereas this was not significant after the correction for multiple comparisons. To directly identify mutations, we then analyzed each of 11 exons by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 60 NIDDM patients. We found 2 missense mutations in exon 3: CCC{r_arrow}CTC (Pro{sup 68}{r_arrow}Leu) in 1 patient and ACT{r_arrow}ATT (Thr{sup 110}{r_arrow}Ile) in 3 patients, all in the heterozygous state. These mutations were found in 60 control subjects. To evaluate the significance of the Pro{sup 68}{r_arrow}Leu mutation, the family members of the proband were studied. The mutation did not appear to be associated with the disease or other clinical parameters including change in immunoreactive insulin/change in plasma glucose or oral glucose load. The other mutation (Thr{sup 110}{r_arrow}Ile) is known to be functionally insignificant. We identified 4 additional nucleotide changes, all of which appeared to be silent. We concluded that the mutations in the GLUT2 gene were not major determinants of genetic susceptibility to NIDDM in Japanese. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effect of treatment with candesartan or enalapril on subcutaneous small artery structure in hypertensive patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Sleiman, Intissar; Rodella, Luigi; Rezzani, Rita; Paiardi, Silvia; Bianchi, Rossella; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Boari, Gianluca E M; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Zani, Francesca; Miclini, Marco; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2005-04-01

    Structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries are associated with a worse clinical prognosis in hypertension and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, no data are presently available about the effects of antihypertensive therapy on vascular structure in hypertensive patients with NIDDM. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, and a highly selective angiotensin receptor blocker, candesartan cilexetil, on indices of subcutaneous small resistance artery structure in 15 patients with mild hypertension and NIDDM. Eight patients were treated with candesartan (8 to 16 mg per day) and 7 with enalapril (10 to 20 mg per day) for 1 year. Each patient underwent a biopsy of the subcutaneous fat from the gluteal region at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Small arteries were dissected and mounted on a micromyograph and the media-to-internal lumen ratio was evaluated; moreover, endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine was assessed. A similar blood pressure-lowering effect and a similar reduction of the media-to-lumen ratio of small arteries was observed with the 2 drugs. Vascular collagen content was reduced and metalloproteinase-9 was increased by candesartan, but not by enalapril. Changes of circulating indices of collagen turnover and circulating matrix metalloproteinase paralleled those of vascular collagen. The 2 drugs equally improved endothelial function. In conclusion, antihypertensive treatment with drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity is able to correct, at least in part, alterations in small resistance artery structure in hypertensive patients with NIDDM. Candesartan may be more effective than enalapril in reducing collagen content in the vasculature.

  2. Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Regimen Adherence in Self-Care of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    concept of self-efficacy, a derivative of social learning theory . According to Bandura (1989, p. 472), self-efficacy is concerned with: people’s belief in...of diabetes? Conceptual Framework Self-efficacy is a sense of "I can do." Self-Efficacy Theory grew out of Social Learning Theory in the late 1970s

  3. Diurnal variation of blood ketone bodies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients: the relationship to serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and free insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, E

    1990-01-01

    We examined whether the rise in ketone body concentration around midnight and in the early morning was due to the lack of free insulin (IRI) or excess of insulin counterregulatory hormones such as human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol and glucagon in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients and whether the monitoring of blood ketone body concentration was clinically useful as an index of metabolic control for deciding to increase or decrease the insulin dose in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Serum levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHBA), acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-OHBA/AcAc ratio before breakfast were significantly increased in insulin-treated NIDDM patients with well-controlled fasting plasma glucose levels and IDDM patients compared to those in normal subjects. Mirror image diurnal changes were found between serum concentrations of 3-OHBA and serum C-peptide or free IRI in normal subjects and NIDDM patients treated with diet alone or sulfonylurea during the 24-hour daily profiles. However, there were no correlations between 3-OHBA and free IRI in the NIDDM patients treated with insulin and IDDM patients who had a much larger increase in the mean concentration of serum 3-OHBA at 6 a.m. caused by a low concentration of free IRI. Counterregulatory hormones were not increased in IDDM patients compared to normal subjects in the early morning. Cortisol/free IRI and hGH/free IRI molar ratios were significantly increased in NIDDM and IDDM patients compared to normal subjects in the early morning, but glucagon/free IRI molar ratio was not changed between IDDM and normal subjects. In conclusion, the early morning rising of ketone body concentration in insulin-treated diabetic patients, particularly IDDM patients, is due to the absolute lack of free IRI and/or the relative lack of free IRI to the levels of hGH or cortisol, and the monitoring of 3-OHBA is clinically useful as a more sensitive index of metabolic

  4. Bromocriptine mesylate: Food and Drug Administration approved new approach in therapy of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Keche

    2010-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved bromocriptine mesylate, a quick release formulation, 0.8 mg tablets, as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine products were previously approved by the FDA for the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinson's disease. Bromocriptine is thought to act on circadian neuronal activities within the hypothalamus to reset abnormally elevated hypothalamic drive for increased plasma ...

  5. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF COMBINED TREATMENT OF NONINSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-gui; QU Hui-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of combined treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Methods: 30 cases of noninsulin dependent diabetes were treated by electroacupuncture (EA)of Tianzhu (天柱 BL 10), Dashu (大杼 BL 11), Fengmen (风门 BL 12), Jueyinshu (厥阴俞 BL 14), etc, massage at the acupoints along the Bladder Meridian, point injection of Vitamin B1, B6, B12 plus lidocaine at Neiguan (内关 PC 6) and Sanyinjiao (三阴交 SP 6, once every 3 days), cupping and physiotherapy comprehensively. The therapeutic effect was analyzed after 40 treatments. Results: After treatment, of the 30 cases, 23 (76.7%) experienced remarkable improvement in their symptoms and the rest 7 (23.3%) had improvement, with the total effective rate being 100%. Conclusion: The abovementioned combined treatment method works well in improving clinical symptoms of type Ⅱ DM patients.

  6. Bromocriptine mesylate: Food and Drug Administration approved new approach in therapy of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keche, Yogendra

    2010-04-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved bromocriptine mesylate, a quick release formulation, 0.8 mg tablets, as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine products were previously approved by the FDA for the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinson's disease. Bromocriptine is thought to act on circadian neuronal activities within the hypothalamus to reset abnormally elevated hypothalamic drive for increased plasma glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in fasting and postprandial states in insulin-resistant patients. Adverse events most commonly reported in clinical trials of bromocriptine included nausea, fatigue, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. These events lasted a median of 14 days and were more likely to occur during initial titration of the drug. Due to novel mechanism of action, single daily dose, and lower incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction and vascular events, bromocriptine may act as landmark in treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Analysis of the insulin receptor gene in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by denaturing gradient gel blots: A clinical research center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magre, J.; Goldfine, A.B.; Warram, J.H. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    We have used a new technique of denaturing gradient gel blotting to determine the prevalence of alterations in the intracellular domain of the insulin receptor in normal individuals and subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This method detects DNA sequence differences as restriction fragment melting polymorphisms (RFMP) and is sensitive to changes in sequence at both restriction sites and within the fragments themselves. Using restriction digests with AluI, HaeIII, HinfI, RsaI, Sau3A, and Sau96, 12 RFMPs were found to localize to the region of the {beta}-subunit of the insulin receptor gene. Using exon-specific probes, these RFMPs could be localized to specific regions surrounding individual exons, including exons, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 22. In general, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphisms was inversely related to their distance in the gene structure, although there was a {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} for recombination between exons 19 and 20. No difference in melting temperatures or allele frequency was observed between NIDDM patients and controls. These data indicate that the region of the insulin receptor gene coding for the intracellular portion of the {beta}-subunit is highly polymorphic and that polymorphisms surrounding specific exons can be identified by denaturing gradient gel blotting, but there is no evidence that variation at this locus contributes to NIDDM susceptibility in most individuals. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Inhibitory effect of dates-extract on α-Amylase and β-glucosidase enzymes relevant to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair

    2010-04-01

    the NIDDM treatment potential of DE. Keywords: Diabetes, dates-extract, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, enzyme inhibition Received: 4 April 2010 / Received in revised form: 9 June 2010, Accepted: 9 June 2010, Published online: 7 July 2010

  9. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970258 Relationship between non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and lipoprotein(a)in aged patients.CHI Jiamin(迟家敏), et al. Dept Endocrinol, BeijingHosp, Beijing, 100730. Chin J Geriatr 1997; 16(1): 39-42.

  10. Health beliefs and stress among non-insulin dependent diabetes outpatients in a rural teaching hospital in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantwa W Bopape

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the health beliefs and stress among non-insulin dependent diabetes out patients. Opsomming Die doel van die navorsing was om die oortuigings oor gesondheid en stres van buitepasiënte wat ly aan nie insulien afhanklike diabetes na te vors. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  11. A glimpse of the 'natural history' of established type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus from the spectrum of metabolic and hormonal responses to a mixed meal at the time of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, P A; Ollerton, R L; Luzio, S D; Ismail, I; Owens, D R

    1994-12-31

    The reported glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) responses to oral and intravenous glucose in subjects with Type 2 diabetes have not always been consistent. This may have resulted from variations in the method of glucose administration, the ethnic backgrounds of subjects, the diagnostic criteria applied, the duration of the disease or IRI assay methods. The use of a mixed meal rather than glucose has been shown to provide a more physiological stimulus to the pancreatic beta-cell due to both glucose and non-glucose secretagogues. We have analysed the metabolic and hormonal responses of 188 newly diagnosed Caucasian subjects with Type 2 diabetes and 38 non-diabetic subjects to a 500 kcal mixed meal. The diabetic subjects were stratified according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ( or = 15 mmol/l) and body mass index (BMI) ( or = 30 kg/m2). Increasing FPG was associated with higher peak glucose concentrations and increasing failure to achieve basal glucose levels by 4 h. Median fasting IRI concentrations were similar to those of normal subjects, but all diabetic subjects had reduced early-phase insulin secretion. Diabetic subjects with FPG 9 mmol/l had progressive falls in IRI AUC to below that of the normal subjects (P < 0.0001 for the trend). Peak IRI concentrations declined progressively with increasing FPG. Despite equivalent glucose exposure simple trends of increasing AUC, IRI with increasing BMI were statistically significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.02, P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively for each FPG group). Both fasting and AUC non-esterified fatty acid concentrations increased significantly with FPG regardless of BMI (P < 0.001 for the trends). These results using a more physiological mixed meal challenge in a large number of recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetic subjects demonstrate a marked and increasing loss of beta-cell secretory function with increasing fasting hyperglycaemia aggravated by insulin resistance with increasing obesity.

  12. Cardiovascular consequences of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Baan (Caroline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has NlDDM

  13. 辛伐他汀对2型糖尿病患者凝血及血管内皮炎性的影响%Anti-Inflammatory and Anticoagulant Effects of Simvastatin in Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤芹; 熊辉; 刘健群

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨他汀类药物对2型糖尿病(NIDDM)患者凝血功能及血管内皮炎性的影响.方法 113例NIDDM患者,其中观察组53例口服辛伐他汀合并阿司匹林.对照组60例仅口服阿司匹林.分别对两组在服用辛伐他汀8周前后采血检测空腹血糖(FPG)、血浆纤维蛋白原(Fg)、D-二聚体(D-dimer), C-反应蛋白(CRP)、甘油三酯(TG),总胆固醇(TC),高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL) 和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL).结果 观察组服用辛伐他汀8周后TC, TG,LDL和CRP较服药前均明显降低(P0.05).结论 他汀类药物能明显改善糖尿病患者血脂胆固醇水平及血管内皮炎性反应,对防治并发症具有临床指导意义.%Objective To study the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant effects of simvastatin in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM). Methods 113 patients were divided into two groups. 53 patients in study group were designed with an 8-week intervention period with simvastatin and aspirin. 60 patients in control groups had no intervention as normal with aspirin. We evaluated fasting plasma glucose, plasma fibrinogen level, D-dimer, and C-reactive protein (CRP) triglyceride(TG), total, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood samples drawn after fasting on day 0 and after 8 weeks. Results Significant reductions of total cholesterol(P0.05).Conclusion The results indicated that simvastatin reduces levels of TC , TG and inflammation markers in type 2 diabetic patients. These effects of treatment with statins could play a role in reducing vascular complications in patients with NIDDM.

  14. COMPARISON OF FRUCTOSAMINE AND GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN IN A NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the clinical value of frnctosamine assay for monitoring type II diabetic patients, correlation of frnctosamine with glycosylated hemoglobin was studied. 100 patients with type II diabetes mcllitus were compared with 100 normal subjects. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin and frnctosamine were measured in alt subjects. In the diabetic patients, a significant correlation was observed between fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (r = 0.64, p < 0.01 and scrum frnctosamine (r = 0.7, P < 0.01. Tlicrc was also a significant correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin and scrum frtictosmine (r = .94, I'<0.01. Frnctosamine, assay can be used as an index of diabetes control.

  15. High blood ketone body concentration in type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogaro, A; Crepaldi, C; Miola, M; Maran, A; Pengo, V; Tiengo, A; Del Prato, S

    1996-02-01

    To assess the metabolic disturbances, and, in particular, the occurrence of high blood ketone body concentration in post-absorptive Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients as compared to a matched normal population, a study was carried out in a group of 78 Type 2 diabetic outpatients matched for age and sex and in 78 normal individuals. In all subjects we measured HbA1c, and fasting levels of glucose, FFA, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, alanine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, growth hormone, cortisol, glucagon, free insulin, and C-peptide. Multistix strips were used for urine ketone determination. As expected HbA1c, and plasma glucose were higher in Type 2 diabetics. This was associated with multiple metabolic disturbances as shown by higher circulating concentrations of FFA, glycerol and gluconeogenic precursors. Similarly, blood levels of ketones (351 +/- 29 vs 159 +/- 15 umol/l; P growth hormone. Plasma glucagon levels were higher in Type 2 diabetics. Blood ketone body levels were directly correlated with both plasma glucose and FFA concentrations. These observations clearly show that Type 2 diabetes is a pathologic condition characterised by multiple metabolic disturbances which are fully apparent in the basal state. Furthermore, we emphasise that Type 2 diabetic patients, though not insulin deficient, may present a significant increase in their fasting levels of ketone bodies.

  16. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  17. Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism in the Angiotensin Ⅰ-Converting Enzyme Gene and Risk of Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Noninsulin-dependant Diabetes Mellitus among the Han Chinese Population:A Meta-analysis%血管紧张素Ⅰ转换酶基因插入/缺失多态性与中国汉族2型糖尿病人群肾病发病风险相关性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭少华; 陈婷; 李彩蓉; 陈勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价血管紧张素Ⅰ转换酶(ACE)基因插入/缺失(I/D)多态性与中国汉族2型糖尿病人群发生肾病风险的相关性.方法 由两名评价者独立采用计算机检索中国生物医学文献数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库和万方数据库中的ACE基因I/D多态性与糖尿病肾病(DN)的病例对照研究,检索时间范围均为1994-01-01-2011-03-10.对符合纳入标准的研究进行纳入研究质量及数据提取后,采用RevMan5.1.6软件进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入24项病例对照研究,共3 206例患者.Meta分析结果显示,中国汉族人群携带至少1个I等位基因可以降低38%的DN发生风险[OR=0.62,95%CI(0.52,0.75),P<0.00001];携带含有I等位基因的基因型能够使发生DN的风险降低45%[OR=0.55,95%CI(0.44,0.69),P<0.00001];携带含有D等位基因的基因型能够使发生DN的风险增加1.74倍[OR=1.74,95%CI(1.30,2.31),P=0.0002].敏感性分析表明结果稳健性均较好.结论 ACE基因I/D多态性与中国汉族2型糖尿病人群肾病易感性密切相关,D等位基因可能是易感基因,I等位基因可能是保护基因,但仍需进一步论证.%Objective To evaluate the relationship between the insertion/deletion ( I/D ) polymorphism in the angiotensin I - converting enzyme ( ACE ) gene and risk of the progression of diabetic nephropathy ( DN ) in noninsulin dependant diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM ) among the Han Chinese population. Methods Case - control studies of ACE gene I/D polymorphism and DN among the Han Chinese population that were published from January, 1994 to March, 2011 were indepently searched by two reviewers in databases including CNKI, CBM, VIP, and Wanfang. After having assessed the quality of these studies, we performed a meta - analysis using RevMan 5. 1. 6 software. Results A total of 24 case - control studies involving 3 206 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta - analysis showed that, in the NIDDM subjects

  18. Studies on the mechanism of insulin resistance in the liver from humans with noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Insulin action and binding in isolated hepatocytes, insulin receptor structure, and kinase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, J F; Ittoop, O; Pories, W J; Meelheim, D; Flickinger, E G; Thomas, F; Jenquin, M; Silverman, J F; Khazanie, P G; Sinha, M. K.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a method to isolate insulin-responsive human hepatocytes from an intraoperative liver biopsy to study insulin action and resistance in man. Hepatocytes from obese patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes were resistant to maximal insulin concentration, and those from obese controls to submaximal insulin concentration in comparison to nonobese controls. Insulin binding per cell number was similar in all groups. However, insulin binding per surface area was decreased in the...

  19. Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in aged noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with no history of cerebrovascular disease: evaluation by N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, M.; Nagamachi, S.; Inoue, K.; Morotomi, Y.; Nunoi, K.; Fujishima, M. (Higashi Hospital, (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using N-isopropyl-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT) in 16 aged patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, average age 72.8 years, average fasting plasma glucose 7.7 mmol/L), and 12 nondiabetic subjects (71.6 years, 5.3 mmol/L). None had any history of a cerebrovascular accident. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not differ between groups. Areas of hypoperfusion were observed in 14 diabetic patients (12 patients had multiple lesions) and in 6 nondiabetic subjects (3 had multiple lesions). Areas where radioactivity was greater than or equal to 65% of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region with normal cerebral blood flow (region of interest A, ROI-A), and areas where the count was greater than or equal to 45% were defined as brain tissue regions other than ventricles (ROI-B). The average ROI-A/B ratio of 16 slices was used as a semiquantitative indicator of normal cerebral blood flow throughout the entire brain. Mean ROI-A/B ratio was 49.6 +/- 1.7% in the diabetic group, significantly lower than the 57.9 +/- 1.6% at the nondiabetic group (p less than 0.005). The ratio was inversely correlated with SBP (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05), total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p less than 0.05), and atherogenic index (r = -0.64, p less than 0.01), and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05) in the diabetic, but not the nondiabetic group. These observations suggest that the age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow may be accelerated by a combination of hyperglycemia plus other risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  20. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Abel (Rajaratnam); H.A. Valkenburg (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India was assessed and its associations with body mass index and a family history of diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from inhabitants of two

  1. A novel Rad gene polymorphism combined with obesity increases risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 牛天华; 陈常忠; 李琼芳; 徐希平

    2004-01-01

    @@ The ras-associated diabetes (Rad) was initially identified by subtraction cloning from the skeletal muscle of humans with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).1 Rad mRNA expression is markedly increased in the skeletal muscle of type 2 DM patients compared with normal controls.

  2. BONE-DENSITY IN NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES-MELLITUS - THE ROTTERDAM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDAELE, PLA; STOLK, RP; BURGER, H; ALGRA, D; GROBBEE, DE; HOFMAN, A; BIRKENHAGER, JC; POLS, HAP

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation between noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and hip. Design: Population-based study with a cross-sectional survey, Setting: A district of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: 5931 residents (2481 men, 3450

  3. Delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in human and experimental diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cuartero, B; Rebollar, J L; Batlle, A; Enriquez de Salamanca, R

    1999-01-01

    The haem pathway is impaired in porphyrias and a frequent coexistence of diabetes mellitus and porphyria disease has been reported. We have therefore decided to investigate delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase, one of the more sensitive enzymes in the haem pathway, in both human diabetic patients and diabetic rats. We have studied 131 diabetes mellitus patients, 32 insulin dependent and 99 non-insulin dependent. The latter group was further subdivided according to treatment: diet alone (n = 24), diet plus oral hypoglycemic agents (n = 28) and diet plus insulin (n = 47). We have also performed similar studies in the rat model of diabetes mellitus, induced in 11 Wistar rats by streptozotocin. Control groups of both humans and animals were used. Erythrocytic aminolevulinate dehydratase activity was reduced in both insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients as compared to their controls (p glycosilated hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.05) and in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus to the glycemia (p < 0.01). In the diabetic rat, aminolevulinate dehydratase activity was diminished on both erythrocytes (p < 0.01) and hepatic tissue (p < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The decrease in activity of erythrocyte aminolevulinate dehydratase observed in diabetic patients, may represent an additional and useful parameter for the assessment of the severity of carbohydrate metabolism impairment.

  4. [Diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdi, M; Gerdes, V E A; Hoekstra, J B L; Meesters, E W

    2012-02-01

    Currently there are over 740,000 patients with diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands, and this number will increase further in the coming years. Approximately 90% of patients has type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder that is often associated with obesity, hypertension and increased cholesterol levels. Treatment of diabetes mellitus is essential to reduce the risk of severe complications with irreversible organ damage in the long-term. Gingivitis and periodontitis are more common in patients with diabetes mellitus and are now also considered as complications of diabetes. Collaboration among healthcare professionals is important for effective diabetes care.

  5. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930047 Relationship between diabetic cardiacautonomic disturbances and Q-Tc interval pro-longation and its clinical significance.XIANGMingzhu(向明珠),et al.Dept Med,1st PeopleHosp,Shashi,Hubei Prov,Shashi,434000.Chin J Endocrinol & Metabol 1992;8(3):149-151.Autonomic cardiovascular function tests andelectrocardiograms were performed in 61 pa-tients with diabetes mellitus.The result showedthat Q-Tc interval in diabetic patients with ab-

  6. Population genetics in minority children with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly emerging health threat in minority populations in the United States, with the African-American, Hispanic, and Native American populations at greatest risk. Clearly, environmental factors play a role in this disorder, but the ethnic predilection suggests a significant genetic component. Type 2 DM is a condition not well understood on a genetic basis. Familial clustering and ethnic variation have been documented. The populations of Africans living in diverse environments provide a unique opportunity to study type 2 DM as the mechanism is becoming more clear.

  7. Disturbances of Haemostasis in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Fattah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with disturbances in haemostasis that could contribute to the development of thrombotic complications.The present study was undertaken to determine the behavior of coagulation variables and fibrinolytic system in diabetes mellitus. Forty five diabetic patients and forty five matched controls were evaluated by doing the following haemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, coagulation factors assay II, VII, IX, & plasma fibrinogen, ADP-induced platelet aggregation, protein C, a2- antiplasmin, PAI and FDPs. Generally diabetic patients have high levels of fibrinogen, a2- antiplasmin, & PAI and lower level of protein C. Other haemostatic parameters did not show statistically significant difference between diabetic patients and control group. Significantally elevated levels of PAI, a2- antiplasmin together with low protein C level in diabetic patients may result in the disturbance of haemostatic balance favoring thrombotic events. Conclusion: High levels of plasma fibrinogen, a2A- antiplasmin with low plasma protein C activity could lead to a prothrombotic tendency in insulin dependent diabetic patients. Moreover, in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients, the above mentioned parameters together with high levels of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and plasminogen activator inhibitor may increase the risk of thrombotic complications. Obesity can be considered as an additional risk factor for development of thrombosis in diabetic patients.

  8. HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE AND THE INCIDENCE OF NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES-MELLITUS - FINDINGS IN A 11.5 YEAR FOLLOW-UP-STUDY IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STOLK, RP; VANSPLUNDER, IP; SCHOUTEN, JSAG; WITTEMAN, JCM; HOFMAN, A; GROBBEE, DE

    To examine the contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to the development of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, a prospective follow-up study was performed of a cohort, initially examined in a population survey on cardiovascular risk factors. The survey was conducted from 1975 to 1978 in

  9. Investigation of major factors of familial noninsulin-dependent diabetes in the second generation%家族性2型糖尿病子女发病主要因素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯少健; 胡荣捷; 李海建

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解家族性2型糖尿病(ND)子女的发病情况,探讨其发病特征,为早期预防提供依据。方法:调查采取问卷式,分期进行。一期调查对象为我院所属医疗体系中明确诊断ND的老年患者(一代),二期为其子女(二代)。终期收取资料完整的调查表一代为243份,二代为644份。结果:资料分析显示肥胖(BMI>25)是ND的独立危险因素,第二代肥胖体型出现早,肥胖程度严重,与第一代同年龄段比较,发病年龄提前3~4年(P<0.01)。结论:第二代ND患者发病年龄提前,肥胖是导致糖尿病遗传基因提前表达的重要促进因素。导致肥胖的原因是缺乏预防意识及不良膳食、生活方式的影响,是可控因素。认为BMI可做为早期预防家族性ND的最直观的监控指标。保持体重在正常范围,可有效推迟发病年龄、降低发病率。%Objective:To find out the causes of familial noninsulin-dependent diabetes(ND) in the second generation and to explore the features of this disease and give ways for prevention.Methods:Answer table was adopted and carried out by different stages.Investigated objects of stage 1 were definitely diagnosed ND(the first generation),objects of stage 2 were their children(the second generation).The returned intact tables from the first generation and the second generation were 243 and 644 respectively.Results:Data showed that obsity(BMI>25) was an independent and dangerous factor of ND.The second generation became fatter at a younger age and was more serious,they got ND 3~4 years earlier than their elders.Conclusion:ND patients in the second generation become younger and obsity is the main accelerating factor that causes earlier gene expression of diabetes.The major reasons for being fat are lack of preventive sense and the influence of unhealthy dinners and life styles,of them are controllable factors.Authors consider that the occurrence of this disease can be

  10. diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950257 Report of a case of glucagonoma misdiag-nosed as“eczema”and“hepatic angioma”for three yearsand review of literature.DAI Weixin(戴为信),et al.PUMC Hosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1995;34(3):190-192.Glucagonoma is a rare pancreatic tumor,necrolyticmigratory erythema is its distinctive feature and it isoften associated with diabetes mellitus,weight loss.anemia,hypoaminoacidemia,glossitis and stomatitis.

  11. Vascular calcification of the lower extremities demonstrated by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in a patient with diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju, l (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    The femoral vessels are sometimes visualized on bone scintigraphy. This is almost always caused by calcification of the femoral artery associated with atherosclerotic changes of the arterial wall. Vascular calcification is frequently seen in the elderly and in diabetics. A 78 year old woman was admitted for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this patient with diabetes mellitus, tibial arteries as well as femoral arteries were visualized onTc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in contrast with visualization of femoral artery alone observed in the elderly.

  12. Lixisenatide, a novel GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    Lixisenatide, under development by sanofi-aventis, is a novel human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; non-insulin dependent diabetes). The structure of lixisenatide, based on exendin-4(1-39) modified C-terminally with six Lys...... residues, is able to withstand physiological degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. In vitro, lixisenatide bound to human GLP-1R with a greater affinity than native human GLP-1 (7-36 amide). In various in vitro and in vivo models of T2DM, lixisenatide improved glycemic measures and demonstrated promising...

  13. Nephrotoxicity of contrast media in patients with diabetes mellitus; A comparative urographic and angiographic study with iohexol and metrizoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billstroem, A.; Hietala, S.O.; Lithner, F.; Merikanto, J.; Wirell, M.; Wirell, S. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    A double-blind urographic and angiographic study was done with the ionic contrast medium meglumine metrizoate and the non-ionic iohexol in 90 patients with diabetes mellitus. Twenty patients were insulin dependent, and 70 non-insulin dependent diabetics. Diabetic patients with decreased as well as normal renal function prior to the examination sustained a reversible and small increase in the plasma creatinine level postexamination. The small increase caused by meglumine metrizoate was significantly higher than the increase caused by iohexol. There was also a significantly higher increase in plasma creatinine among the patients with diabetic nephropathy compared with those without nephropathy. (orig.).

  14. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nessim Dayan, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    ¿Qué es la diabetes?/¿Cuantos tipos o formas de diabetes existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la diabetes?/¿cuál es la causa de la diabetes?/¿Quién tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes?/¿Cómo se diagnostica la diabetes?/¿Cuál es el tratamiento de la diabetes?/¿Cuándo y cómo se controlan los niveles de glicemia?/¿Cuáles son las complicaciones de la diabetes?/Recomendaciones actuales y futuro de la diabetes.

  15. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005179 The association of LMNA1908C/T polymorphism with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in diabetic patients. SU Ben-li (苏本利), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 2nd Affili Hosp, Dalian Med Univ, Dalian 116027. Chin J Diabetes, 2005;13(1) :27-30. Objective: To study the association of LMhlA 1908 C/T polymorphism with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods:

  16. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008395 Evaluating the feature of hypoglycemia detected by continuous glucose monitoring system during temporary continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 2 diabetes patients. LI Ming(李鸣), et al.Shanghai Diabet Clin Center, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200233. Natl Med J China 2008;88(24):1679-1682.

  17. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008025 Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ agonists improves arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. YU Jie(于婕), et al. Dept Cardiovasc Med, Peking Univ 3rd Hosp, Beijing 100083. Chin Cir J 2007;22(6):418-422. Objective Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in diabetic patients, and it may be assessed by measurement of pulse wave velocity(PWV).

  18. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008256 Role of heparanase in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy rats.TANG Lin(唐琳),et al.Dept Nephrol,1st Affili Hosp,Zhengzhou Univ,Zhengzhou 450052.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(4):277-281.Objective To observe the expression of heparanase (HPA)in kidney of diabetic nephropathy(DN)rats and to investigate the role of HPA in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in DN rats.Methods DM rat models induced

  19. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010297 Effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid on diabetic nephropathy rats.LUO Zhifeng(罗志锋),et al.Dept Nephrol,Xinqiao Hosp,3rd Milit Med Univ,Chongqing 400037.Chin J Nephrol 2010;26(5):358-363. Objective To investigate the effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) on the renal pathogenesis of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and its mechanism.Methods

  20. [Diabetes mellitus in teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus during infancy childhood or adolescence does not differ from adult diabetes mellitus in terms of basic principles nor therapeutic treatment methods but the characteristics patients have during those ages signify that diabetes has a special repercussion and becomes harder to treat in patients during those ages.

  1. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920537 The urinary activity of N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase and diabetic nephropa-thy. XU Dashun (徐大顺), et al. Shanghai 1stPeople Hosp, 200085. Shanghai Med J 1992;15(8): 439-442. Urinary activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosa-minidase (NAG) and NAG: Creatinine(NAGI)in 24-hour urine and NAG-I in a single random

  2. Pharmacogenomics in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Dawed, Adem Y.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the multifactorial aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as the multiple subtypes of monogenic diabetes mellitus. In this Review, we discuss the existing pharmacogenetic evidence in both monogenic diabetes mellitus and T2DM....... We highlight mechanistic insights from the study of adverse effects and the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The identification of extreme sulfonylurea sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus owing to heterozygous mutations in HNF1A represents a clear example of how pharmacogenetics can direct...... future pharmacogenomic findings could provide insights into treatment response in diabetes mellitus that, in addition to other areas of human genetics, facilitates drug discovery and drug development for T2DM....

  3. Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, L; de Conty, I T

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence data for diabetes mellitus obtained from a household interview of a random sample of the general population by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the years 1975-1986. Details of the prevalence rate by sex and age were analyzed for the years 1981, 1984, 1985, and 1986 and for the urban and rural population in 1985. The mean prevalence rate of known cases of diabetes showed a tendency to increase from 3.1% in 1975 to 5.1% in 1986. Prevalence rates adjusted for age and sex showed an increase in the mean prevalence for 1986 compared with that of 1981. The prevalence rate was significantly higher for the rural population for the age-group 45-64 yr old and for the urban population for the age-group greater than or equal to 65 yr. The prevalence rate compares with that of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. On the basis of the prevalence data, approximately 90% of the diabetic population is non-insulin dependent and 10% are insulin dependent. Major risk factors thought to explain the increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are increasing longevity of the Puerto Rican population, genetic predisposition, obesity, and changes in life-styles. In conclusion, Puerto Ricans, as other Hispanic Americans, have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the white American population.

  4. Long-term effects of fluoxetine on glycemic control in obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Bjerre, U; Bak, J F

    1995-01-01

    Fluoxetine (F) is a specific serotonin-reuptake inhibitor that has been shown to promote weight loss and improve glycemic control in obese diabetic patients. To study its long-term metabolic effect, 40 obese patients with non-insulin -dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or impaired glucose...... tolerance (IGT) were included in a 12-month, randomized, placebo controlled study. Patients were assigned to receive either 60 mg F or placebo (P) daily in conjunction with a 5.0-MJ/d diet (> 50% carbohydrate). Both groups showed a significant weight loss, with a nadir after 6 months without group...

  5. Lav fødselsvaegt er associeret med ikke-insulinkraevende diabetes mellitus hos diskordante monozygote og dizygote tvillingepar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O;

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is unknown whether this association may be due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it may be due to a coincid......Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is unknown whether this association may be due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it may be due...... to a coincidence between the putative "NIDDM susceptibility genotype" and a genetically determined low weight at birth. We traced original midwife birthweight record determinations in a group of monozygotic (n = 14 pairs) and dizygotic (n = 14 pairs) twins who phenotypically appeared discordant for NIDDM at a mean...... age of 67 and 64 years respectively. Birthweights were lower in the NIDDM twins compared with both their identical and non-identical non-diabetic co-twins respectively (p

  6. Uso de la metformina en la diabetes mellitus tipo II Use of metformin to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana Salazar ÁLvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Metformina es una biguanida eficaz en el control metabólico de la diabetes mellitus tipo II, no insulinodependiente cuando el control dietético falla. Dada su probada eficacia y actual accesibilidad en el mercado de medicamentos en Cuba, para ser utilizada a nivel primario de atención no solo en pacientes sintomáticos sino en la población en riesgo, se presenta este artículo cuyo propósito es actualizar a los especialistas de Medicina General Integral y Medicina Interna acerca de aspectos de interés relacionados con este medicamento, como: interacciones medicamentosas, enfermedades concomitantes, la biotransformación de la droga y los posibles efectos adversos que se pueden asociar a su uso. Se presentan consideraciones finales acerca del uso de esta droga.Metformin is an effective biguanide for the metabolic control of non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus when the dietary control fails. Given its proven efficacy and present accessibility in the pharmaceutical market in Cuba -to be used at primary health care not only in symptomatic patients but in the population at risk-this article was presented to update the knowledge of the Family Medicine and Internal Medicine specialists about interesting aspects related to this drug, i.e, drug interactions, concomitant diseases, drug biotransformation and the possible adverse effects associated to its use. Final remarks on the use of this drug were stated.

  7. Themenheft 24 "Diabetes mellitus"

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Bei etwa 5 % der Bevölkerung in Deutschland ist ein Diabetes mellitus, die sog. Zuckerkrankheit, diagnostiziert worden, rund 90 % davon haben einen Typ 2-Diabetes, der vorwiegend im höheren Lebensalter auftritt. 5 % der Diabeteskranken leiden am insulinpflichtigen Typ 1-Diabetes, der sich vorwiegend im Kindes- und Jugendalter manifestiert. Weitere Diabetesformen sind eher selten. Außerdem gibt es viele Menschen mit einem unentdeckten Diabetes.

  8. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Jeong Kim; Dai-Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect i...

  9. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes.

  10. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiwani, Aliya; Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), perinatal complications and long-term morbidity is gaining increased attention. However, the global burden of GDM and the existing responses are not fully understood. We aimed to assess country prevalence and to summarize...

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  12. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  13. Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi I Abourawi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common medical complication of pregnancy and it carries a significant risk to the foetus and the mother. Congenital malformations and perinatal morbidity remain common compared with the offspring of non diabetic pregnancies. Diabetic mothers are at risk of progression of micro-vascular diabetic complications as well as early pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios and premature labour. Glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is critical and the benefit may result in a viable, healthy offspring. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM which manifests for the first time during pregnancy is common and on the increase, its proper management will reduce the risk of neonatal macrosomia and hypoglycaemia. Post-partum evaluation of glucose tolerance and appropriate counselling in women with GDM may help decrease the high risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes in the long-term. The article will briefly review the changes in the carbohydrate metabolism that characterise normal pregnancy and will focus on a practical approach to the care of patients with pre-existing diabetes as well as GDM.

  14. The study of the structural features of the lymphocytes in patients with diabetes using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbovskaya, Olga V.; Khairullin, Radik M.; Kostishko, Boris B.; Pchelintseva, Ekaterina S.; Krasnikova, Ekaterina S.; Fomin, Aleksandr A.; Skaptsov, Aleksandr A.

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of morphological and biophysical parameters of the cell membrane of live lymphocytes in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and healthy donors using atomic force microscopy have been presented. It is found that lymphocytes from patients with diabetes are characterized by a decrease in volume and cell surface roughness compared to normal lymphocytes. An increase in the Young's modulus of lymphocytes in patients with diabetes more than 3 times compared to normal rates has been shown. Increased stiffening of lymphocyte cytolemma in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus leads to a decrease in its adhesive properties, unlike lymphocytes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Maintaining adequate blood glucose levels in GDM reduces morbidity for both mother and baby. There is a lack of uniform strategies for screening and diagnosing GDM globally. This review covers the latest update in the diagnosis and management of GDM. The initial treatment of GDM consists of diet and exercise. If these measures fail to achieve ...

  16. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  17. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  18. Energy Therapies and Diabetes Mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana W. Guthrie; Maureen Gamble

    2001-01-01

    Energy Therapies and Diabetes Mellitus Diana W. Guthrie , PhD, FAAN, CDE and Maureen Gamble , BSN, MA, CHTP/I, CCAP, RM Abstract In Brief People with diabetes require multiple interventions to reach their glycemic goals...

  19. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  20. Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Montagnani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporotic fractures are major causes of mortality and morbidity in older subjects. Recent reports have revealed close association between fracture risk and DM types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of these diseases in the elderly and examine certain etiopathogenetic aspects of DM associated osteoporosis, which could be useful in management of diabetic patients. Materials and methods: We searched the Embase and PubMed databases using diabetes, osteoporosis, and bone mineral density (BMD as search terms and 1989-2009 as publication dates. Discussion: The risk of fractures seems to be increased in both types of DM although DM2 seems to be associated with normal-high BMDs compared with the normal population. This apparent paradox could reflect greater bone frailty in diabetic patients that are unrelated to adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, deposition of advanced glycosylation end products in collagen, reduced serum IGF-1 levels, hypercalciuria, renal failure, microangiopathy, and/or inflammation. Diabetic patients’ propensity to fall and multiple comorbidities might also explain their higher fracture rates. The effects of drugs that inhibit bone resorption in diabetic patients are probably similar to those obtained in nondiabetics although there is little information on this issue. In general, effective treatment of diabetes has positive effects on bone metabolism. Metformin acts directly on bone tissue, reducing AGE accumulation, and insulin has direct effects on osteoclast activity. In contrast, the thiazolidinediones seem to have negative effects since they orient mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation toward adipose rather than bone tissue. Incretin therapy is a newer approach that appears to modify interactions between nutrition and bone turnover (e.g., postprandial suppression of bone resorption. Conclusions: Better understanding of how

  1. Correlation between Glycated Hemoglobin and Triglyceride Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syeda; Naveed, Shabnam; Ali, Zeeshan; Ahmad, Syed Masroor; Asadullah Khan, Raad; Raj, Honey; Shariff, Shoaib; Rupareliya, Chintan; Zahra, Fatima; Khan, Saba

    2017-06-13

    Dyslipidemia is quite prevalent in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Maintaining tight glycemic along with lipid control plays an essential role in preventing micro- and macro-vascular complications associated with diabetes. The main purpose of the study was to highlight the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and triglyceride levels. This may in turn help in predicting the triglyceride status of type 2 diabetics and therefore identifying patients at increased risk from cardiovascular events. Hypertriglyceridemia is one of the common risk factors for coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Careful monitoring of the blood glucose level can be used to predict lipid status and can prevent most of the complications associated with the disease. This is a cross-sectional study using data collected from the outpatient diabetic clinic of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) Karachi, Pakistan. Patients of age 18 years and above were recruited from the clinic. A total of consenting 509 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled over a period of 11 months.  For statistical analysis, SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0 ( IBM Corp, Armonk, New York) was used and Chi-square and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to find the association between triglyceride and HbA1c. The HbA1c was dichotomized into four groups on the basis of cut-off. Chi-square was used for association between HbA1c with various cut-off values and high triglyceride levels. Odds-ratio and its 95% confidence interval were calculated to estimate the level of risk between high triglyceride levels and HbA1c groups. The p-value levels at p level and can be one of the predictors of cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. A Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses multivariate methods on actual data from 267 patients with noninsulin- dependent (Type 2 diabetes mellitus in order to see how the various risk factors can affect the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The approach succeeds in identifying preliminary risk factors such as smoking for males, although the females had higher fasting blood glucose at diagnosis. Not surprisingly, hypertension is common among patients of both sexes and it has an association with proteinuria in female patients in the sample.

  3. Diabetes Mellitus and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Durmuş

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass. Studies on the presence of a generalized osteoporosis related to diabetes mellitus (DM are few and controversial. Factors associated with osteoporosis diabetes in which may account for the patogenesis of diabetic bone loss have been studied. This article will review the relevant litarature relating to diabetes and osteoporosis including cellular and animal models. These studies include vascular and neuropathic mechanism, poor glisemic control, abnormalities of calcium and vitamin D metabolism and hypercalciuria with secondary increase in parathyroid hormone secretion, the role of insülin and insülin like growth factor I. It appears that there is a great deal of variability in the bone mineral density and fracture rates in both type I and type II DM. This may reflect multiple factors such as the population, age, duration of diabetes and insülin use. There is need for further longitudinal studies, including the incidence and risk factors for osteoporosis in DM.

  4. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.

  5. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from...... for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  6. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  7. Mitochondrial and Morphologic Alterations in Native Human Corneal Endothelial Cells Associated With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Benjamin T; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Skeie, Jessica M; Burckart, Kimberlee A; Schmidt, Gregory A; Reed, Cynthia R; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Kruse, Friedrich E; Greiner, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    To characterize changes in the energy-producing metabolic activity and morphologic ultrastructure of corneal endothelial cells associated with diabetes mellitus. Transplant suitable corneoscleral tissue was obtained from donors aged 50 to 75 years. We assayed 3-mm punches of endothelium-Descemet membrane for mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis activity using extracellular flux analysis of oxygen and pH, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy was used to assess qualitative and quantitative ultrastructural changes in corneal endothelial cells and associated Descemet membrane. For purposes of analysis, samples were divided into four groups based on a medical history of diabetes regardless of type: (1) nondiabetic, (2) noninsulin-dependent diabetic, (3) insulin-dependent diabetic, and (4) insulin-dependent diabetic with specified complications due to diabetes (advanced diabetic). In total, 229 corneas from 159 donors were analyzed. Insulin-dependent diabetic samples with complications due to diabetes displayed the lowest spare respiratory values compared to all other groups (P ≤ 0.002). The remaining mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis metrics did not differ significantly among groups. Compared to nondiabetic controls, the endothelium from advanced diabetic samples had alterations in mitochondrial morphology, pronounced Golgi bodies associated with abundant vesicles, accumulation of lysosomal bodies/autophagosomes, and focal production of abnormal long-spacing collagen. Extracellular flux analysis suggests that corneal endothelial cells of donors with advanced diabetes have impaired mitochondrial function. Metabolic findings are supported by observed differences in mitochondrial morphology of advanced diabetic samples but not controls. Additional studies are needed to determine the precise mechanism(s) by which mitochondria become impaired in diabetic corneal endothelial cells.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Mark B; Gabbe, Steven G

    2011-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders, which result in varying degrees of maternal hyperglycemia and pregnancy-associated risk. The frequency of GDM is rising globally and may also increase further as less-stringent criteria for the diagnosis are potentially adopted. The additional burden placed on the health care system by increasing cases of GDM requires consideration of diagnostic approaches and currently used treatment strategies. Debate continues to surround both the diagnosis and treatment of GDM despite several recent large-scale studies addressing these controversial issues. As many now have come to reassess their approach to the management of GDM, we provide information in this review to help guide this process. The goal for each health care practitioner should continue to be to provide optimum care for women discovered to have carbohydrate intolerance during pregnancy.

  9. Association of polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting enzyme gene with gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Parul; Agarwal, Nutan; Das, Nibhriti; Dalal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous genes have been reported in relation with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the findings were not consistently replicated across populations, or there have been no detailed studies on them. Previous literatures suggested that, out of all angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms, only ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has a strong association with GDM in Asian Indian women. Aim: This study was devoted to evaluate the association of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ACE A240T, C1237T, G2350A and I/D with GDM and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: This study recruited 105 GDM cases, 119 Type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects and 120 controls. PCR-RFLP was used for identifying genotypes of ACE A240T, C1237T and G2350A and PCR was performed in the case of ACE I/D. Results: Significant associations of ACE SNP's, C1237T, and G2350A with GDM were observed. Haplotype analysis revealed the remarkably significant evidence of association with SNP combination ACE A240T, C1237T, G2350A, and I/D with GDM patients (P = 0.024). Individuals possessing haplotype “TTAI” (frequency 30% in GDM and 0 in controls) derived from these SNPs had 185 fold increased risk of developing GDM (95% of confidence interval: 11.13–3102.15), which was highest when compared with other 15 haplotypes. Conclusion: Shorter-range haplotypes were also significant, but the only consistently associated alleles were found to be in ACE C1237T, G2350A, and I/D. These results suggested that the variant in close proximity to ACE C1237T, G2350A and/or I/D modulates susceptibility to GDM and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Indian women. PMID:26958520

  10. Gastrointestinal complications of diabetes mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babu Krishnan Shithu Babu Jessica Walker Adrian B Walker Joseph M Pappachan

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually every organ system in the body and the degree of organ involvement depends on the duration and severity of the disease,and other co-morbidities.Gastrointestinal(GI...

  11. [Gestational Diabetes Mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Hana

    2016-01-01

    is taken over by specialist centres. The early and appropriate treatment of gestational diabetes demonstrably reduces the risk of complications. The base for therapy is formed by regimen-related measures: the therapeutic diet and increased physical activity. The best results of the dietary therapy are achieved with foods low on glycemic index and glycemic load that can also act as efficient prevention of GDM and subsequent development of T2DM. A small number of cases require adding of pharmacological therapy: insulin and newly also metformin. Metformin is the drug of choice primarily in obese patients, however in almost half of the cases insulin must be added. Medication, in particular with insulin, must be introduced carefully, following re-education and elimination of dietary mistakes. The aim of the treatment is not only to achieve normoglycemia, but also to improve, or at least to not further worsen insulin resistance. Insulin resistance alone without diabetes, e.g. due to obesity or a great weight gain, may lead to macrosomia and epigenetic changes. In this regard, the prevention within the whole population of pregnant women needs to be improved and the vicious circle of the causation of metabolic disorders among the population needs to be broken.Key words: recommended procedure - epigenetic changes - gestation diabetes mellitus - macrosomia - screening.

  12. Long-term effects of fluoxetine on glycemic control in obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Bjerre, U; Bak, J F;

    1995-01-01

    Fluoxetine (F) is a specific serotonin-reuptake inhibitor that has been shown to promote weight loss and improve glycemic control in obese diabetic patients. To study its long-term metabolic effect, 40 obese patients with non-insulin -dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or impaired glucose...... tolerance (IGT) were included in a 12-month, randomized, placebo controlled study. Patients were assigned to receive either 60 mg F or placebo (P) daily in conjunction with a 5.0-MJ/d diet (> 50% carbohydrate). Both groups showed a significant weight loss, with a nadir after 6 months without group...... differences (mean +/- SD: F, 10.1 +/- 10.0 kg; P, 9.4 +/- 11.5 kg). Fifteen patients from the F group and 14 from the P group completed the 12-month study without weight loss differences. Glycemic regulation improved along with the weight loss, but with a larger decline in plasma C-peptide and fasting glucose...

  13. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham; Saedi[1; Mohammad; Reza; Gheini[2; Firoozeh; Faiz[3; Mohammad; Ali; Arami[4

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications.In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings.

  14. Diabetes Mellitus amp Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KusumaNeela Bolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes Mellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Elham; Gheini, Mohammad Reza; Faiz, Firoozeh; Arami, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications. In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings. PMID:27660698

  16. [Diabetes mellitus and pancreas cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrha, Jan; Škrha, Pavel; Frič, Přemysl

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer establish both-side relationship, one disease may have influence a development of the other. Pathogenic mechanisms sharing their relationship are overviewed. Early diagnosis may contribute to better prognosis of the patients with malign tumor. The treatment by antidiabetic drugs offer to diabetic patients different risks of pancreatic cancer but lots of data are still lacking.

  17. [Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliz, Monika; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies confirm correlation between periodontitis and systemic diseases such as: arteriosclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, diseases of the respiratory system, kidney diseases, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, premature birth and low birth weight. The interaction between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus is described, based on the literature.

  18. Erythropoietin and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2015-10-25

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a 30.4 kDa growth factor and cytokine that governs cell proliferation, immune modulation, metabolic homeostasis, vascular function, and cytoprotection. EPO is under investigation for the treatment of variety of diseases, but appears especially suited for the treatment of disorders of metabolism that include diabetes mellitus (DM). DM and the complications of this disease impact a significant portion of the global population leading to disability and death with currently limited therapeutic options. In addition to its utility for the treatment of anemia, EPO can improve cardiac function, reduce fatigue, and improve cognition in patients with DM as well as regulate cellular energy metabolism, obesity, tissue repair and regeneration, apoptosis, and autophagy in experimental models of DM. Yet, EPO can have adverse effects that involve the vasculature system and unchecked cellular proliferation. Critical to the cytoprotective capacity and the potential for a positive clinical outcome with EPO are the control of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, Wnt signaling, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and AMP activated protein kinase. Therapeutic strategies that can specifically target and control EPO and its signaling pathways hold great promise for the development of new and effective clinical treatments for DM and the complications of this disorder.

  19. Erythropoietin and diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth; Maiese

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin(EPO) is a 30.4 k Da growth factor and cytokine that governs cell proliferation, immune modulation, metabolic homeostasis, vascular function, and cytoprotection. EPO is under investigation for the treatment of variety of diseases, but appears especially suited for the treatment of disorders of metabolism that include diabetes mellitus(DM). DM and the com-plications of this disease impact a significant portion of the global population leading to disability and death with currently limited therapeutic options. In addition to its utility for the treatment of anemia, EPO can improve cardiac function, reduce fatigue, and improve cognition in patients with DM as well as regulate cellular energy metabolism, obesity, tissue repair and regeneration, apoptosis, and autophagy in experimental models of DM. Yet, EPO can have adverse effects that involve the vasculature system and unchecked cellular proliferation. Critical to the cytoprotective capacity and the potential for a positive clinical outcome with EPO are the control of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, Wnt signaling, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1(Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and AMP activated protein kinase. Therapeutic strategies that can specifically target and control EPO and its signaling pathways hold great promise for the development of new and effective clinical treatments for DM and the complications of this disorder.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and the skin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Adriana Lucia; Miot, Helio Amante; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Several dermatoses are routinely associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with chronic disease. This relationship can be easily proven in some skin disorders, but it is not so clear in others. Dermatoses such necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans and others are discussed in this text, with an emphasis on proven link with the diabetes or not, disease identification and treatment strategy used to control those dermatoses and diabetes. PMID:28225950

  1. Dementia and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia and Diabetes mellitus (DM are major health problems nowadays. DM leads to a significant cognitive decline and increases the risk of dementia, mostly Alzheimer's Disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD by 50-100% and 100-150%, respectively. Amyloid beta (Abeta, the main pathogenic factor in AD development, is eliminated by advanced glycation end products (AGEs and degraded by insulin degrading enzyme (IDE for which it competes with insulin. Insulin stimulates secretion of Abeta and promotes brain inflammation. DM I and II cause slowing down of mental speed, lowering of mental flexibility and DM II learning and memory disturbances. DM acts both directly by hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia and by the blood vessel changes. Hyperglycaemia changes synapse plasticity and leads to cognitive decline. AGEs disrupt the neuron function and bonding to Abeta increases its aggregability. Glycation of tau protein promotes production of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT, the main intracellular pathogenic factor in AD. AGE2 in DM causes pathological angiogenesis and apoptosis of neurons. AGE receptor (RAGE is also the specific Abeta receptor with which it produces reactive oxygen species that has, as a result, disruption of mitochondrial function and reduction of neuronal energy resources. Insulinoresistance is linked with the dysexecutive syndrome, and hyperinsulinaemia increases the risk of AD especially by enhancing phosphorylation of tau protein and formation of NFT. Application of insulin showed improvement of memory, behaviour and affect in AD patients. Good glycoregulation emerged as an important factor in dementia prevention, and a better insight in relations of DM and brain function will lead to new potential dementia therapies. .

  2. Animales de experimentación como modelos de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Laboratory animals in endocrinology. Biomodels of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Hugués Hernandorena

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que los modelos animales utilizados en las investigaciones sobre la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2, ayudan al estudio de los mecanismos patogénicos que conducen a la presentación de esta enfermedad, acompañada de severa o moderada hiperglucemia, intolerancia a la glucosa y otras alteraciones metabólicas relacionadas con la misma, y dan la oportunidad de explorar nuevos tratamientos y formas de prevenir estos cuadros morbosos. Se brindó información detallada sobre los biomodelos de la DM2, a partir de una revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema, que comprendió los que se originan espontáneamente y los que se logran de forma inducida. Se expusieron los factores ambientales que influyen sobre los mismos, y se describieron aquellos en los que se pueden presentar complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus no insulinodependiente. Se concluyó que estos biomodelos contribuyen al estudio de los mecanismos que originan esa afección y son de gran utilidad para los investigadores de esta rama de la Endocrinología, aunque no constituyan un reflejo exacto de esta enfermedad en el hombre.It is known that the animal models used in the research of type 2 diabetes mellitus help to study the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the presentation of this disease, accompanied of severe or moderate hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance and other metabolic alterations related to it, and give the opportunity to explore new treatments and ways of preventing these morbid clinical pictures. Detailed information is given on the biomodels of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on a bibliographic review made on this topic that included those which are spontaneously originated and the ones obtained in an induced way. The environmental factors influencing on them are explained and the biomodels that may present chronic complications of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus are also described. It was concluded that these biomodels contribute to the study of the

  3. PSEUDOSCLERODERMAL SYNDROME IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin thicking simulating scleroderma is not rare in diabetes mellitus (about 2% among patients with diabetes mellitus, however it is not well known to rheumatologists and endocrinologists. The basis of the syndrome are the abnormalities of collagen and glycosaminoglycans metabolism accompanying by the acid mucopolysaccharides accumulation in the deep part of the reticular dermis. Three cases of pseudosclerodrma in patients with long-standing complicated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are presented. The main clinical manifestations of pseudoscleroderma were marked cutaneous induration of the neck, body and proximal parts of extremities liked that of scleredema of Buschke ( 2 patients, and primary paraarticular induration leaded to the flexion contractures liked that of paraneoplastic scleroderma ( I patient. Possible mechanisms of development, clinical and morphological peculiarities and treatment for this syndrome are discussed.

  4. Baroreceptor sensitivity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowaiye, Olumide Olatubosun; Jankowska, Ewa Anita; Ponikowska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of increasing incidence and prevalence. Arterial baroreceptors are stretch-sensitive receptors, which in a reflex manner are involved in the homeostatic control of arterial blood pressure. Diabetic subjects have depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), although the exact pathomechanisms are unclear. In this review, we discuss the features, clinicaland prognostic implications of reduced BRS for diabetic patients and the potential involvement of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and atherosclerosis. Finally, we demonstrate evidence on interventions (e.g. pioglitazone, alpha-lipoic acid, leptin, fluvastatin, physicaltraining etc.) which could improve BRS and ameliorate cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  5. Expression of insulin receptor spliced variants and their functional correlates in muscle from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Bjørbaek, C; Vestergaard, H;

    1993-01-01

    Due to alternative splicing of exon 11 of the receptor gene, the human insulin receptor exists in two forms, that have distinct tissue-specific expression and are functionally different. Needle biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis muscle from 20 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes...... mellitus (NIDDM) and 20 normal control subjects were analyzed for the relative expression of insulin receptor mRNA variants in a novel assay using fluorescence-labeled primers and subsequent analysis on an automated DNA sequencer. In subgroups of patients and control subjects, insulin binding and tyrosine...... kinase activity were examined in wheat germ agglutinin-purified insulin receptors isolated from muscle biopsies. Moreover, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was studied by means of the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. No difference in the relative expression of spliced variants...

  6. Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Straka, Michal; Straka-Trapezanlidis, Michaela

    2007-01-01

    There is general agreement that there is a significant relationship between diabetes and periodontitis. Many studies have shown a high prevalence of periodontitis in diabetic patients. In addition a higher prevalence and more aggressive periodontitis are found in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. The duration of having diabetes is an important factor that affects the progression and severity of periodontitis. Alterations in the host response in diabetics to existing periodontal pa...

  7. Hemorheological Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young I.; Mooney, Michael P.; Cho, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to review hemorheological disorders in diabetes mellitus. Several key hemorheological parameters, such as whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and aggregation, are examined in the context of elevated blood glucose level in diabetes. The erythrocyte deformability is reduced, whereas its aggregation increases, both of which make whole blood more viscous compared to healthy individuals. The present paper explains how the increased blood viscosit...

  8. Rheumatological manifestations in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, Angela; Cerinic, Marco Matucci; De Giorgio, Francesca; Minari, Chiara; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Rheumatological manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus may be classified in: non articular, articular and bone conditions. Among non articular conditions, diabetic cheiroarthropathy, frequent in type I diabetes, the most important disorder related to limited joint mobility, results in stiff skin and joint contractures. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, flexor tenosynovitis, and Duputryen's and Peyronie's diseases are also linked to limited joint mobility. Diffuse skeletal hyperostosis, due to calcification at entheses, is frequent and early, particularly in type 2 diabetes. Neuropathies cause some non articular conditions, mainly neuropathic arthritis, a destructive bone and joint condition more common in type I diabetes. Algodistrophy, shoulder-hand and entrapment syndromes are also frequent. Mononeuropathy causes diabetic amyotrophy, characterised by painless muscle weakness. Among muscle conditions, diabetic muscle infarction is a rare, sometimes severe, condition. Among articular conditions, osteoarthritis is frequent and early in diabetes, in which also chondrocalcinosis and gout occur. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and diabetes I have a common genetic background and the presence of diabetes gives to RA an unfavourable prognosis. Among bone conditions, osteopenia and osteoporosis may occur early in type 1 diabetes. Contrarily, in type 2 diabetes, bone mineral density is similar or, sometimes, higher than in non diabetic subjects, probably due to hyperinsulinemia.

  9. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  10. Studies on childhood diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Bruining

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis consists of a number of collaborative studies aimed at the improvement of the diagnosis and care of children with diabetes mellitus. For the reader, who is not familiar with medical problems, a brief account is given of the clinical "behavior" of the disease ( 1) . It is perh

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  12. Brain MRI of diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Tsukaguchi, Isao (Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 2,566 patients without DM were studied on brain MRI. The results taught us that the incidence of cerebral atrophy was significantly higher in DM patients than in controls. Unexpectedly, the incidence of cerebral infarction showed no significant difference between the two groups. (author).

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...

  14. Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harinarayan, Chittari Venkata

    2014-01-01

    .... Both forms of immunity, namely adaptive and innate, are regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. The immune-modulatory properties of vitamin D suggest that it could play a potential therapeutic role in prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM...

  15. Glukagonomsyndrom uden diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Vestergaard, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    without diabetes. Glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by glucagon overproduction, diabetes, depression, deep venous thrombosis and necrolytic migrating erythema. Glucagonoma is frequently diagnosed late which increases the risk of metastases. It is important not to rule out glucagonoma in patients...... with a relevant clinical picture but without diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-17...

  16. Rare types of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, B; Mihai, Cătălina; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Lăcătuşu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and induced by a large number of etiopathogenic conditions. Beside type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which account for almost 90% of all cases, practitioners may encounter patients with more infrequent forms of diabetes, as those induced by mutations of a single gene, atypical immune disorders or neonatal diabetes. Monogenic diabetes is represented by genetic disorders in the structure of the beta-cell (the MODY syndromes and the mutations of mitochondrial DNA) or in the insulin's action (type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, leprechaunism, lipodystrophies). The rare forms of immune diabetes are determined by antibodies against insulin or insulin receptor or appear as a component of the "stiff man syndrome". Neonatal diabetes is induced by mutations in genes that control beta-cell development and function and may have a transient or permanent nature. Knowledge of the uncommon forms of diabetes mellitus enables physicians to apply the optimal treatment, to estimate the evolution of the patient and to apply a complete family screening in order to diagnose all other blood relatives as soon as possible.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Brian L; Oates, Thomas W

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Over 200 articles have been published in the English literature over the past 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of diabetes and periodontitis and different clinical criteria applied to prevalence, extent, and severity of periodontal diseases, levels of glycemic control, and complications associated with diabetes. This article provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research published in English over the past 20 years, with reference to certain "classic" articles published prior to that time. This article describes current diagnostic and classification criteria for diabetes and answers the following questions: 1) Does diabetes affect the risk of periodontitis, and does the level of metabolic control of diabetes have an impact on this relationship? 2) Do periodontal diseases affect the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus or the metabolic control of diabetes? 3) What are the mechanisms by which these two diseases interrelate? and 4) How do people with diabetes and periodontal disease respond to periodontal treatment? Diabetes increases the risk of periodontal diseases, and biologically plausible mechanisms have been demonstrated in abundance. Less clear is the impact of periodontal diseases on glycemic control of diabetes and the mechanisms through which this occurs. Inflammatory periodontal diseases may increase insulin resistance in a way similar to obesity, thereby aggravating glycemic control. Further research is needed to clarify this aspect of the relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes.

  18. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J; Rhodes, J M; Kølendorf, K

    1982-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from the healthy individuals. Phagocytosis of Candida albicans was decreased in the monocytes from the patients, whereas pinocytosis of acridine and phagocytosis of latex and sheep red blood cells were normal. The chemotactic response towards casein was enhanced. The possible consequences of these findings for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed.

  19. Entrapment neuropathies in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Eugenia; Morelli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) with a wide clinical spectrum that encompasses generalized to focal and multifocal forms. Entrapment neuropathies (EN), which are focal forms, are so frequent at any stage of the diabetic disease, that they may be considered a neurophysiological hallmark of peripheral nerve involvement in DM. Indeed, EN may be the earliest neurophysiological abnormalities in DM, particularly in the upper limbs, even in the absence of a generalized polyneuropathy, or it may be superimposed on a generalized diabetic neuropathy. This remarkable frequency of EN in diabetes is underlain by a peculiar pathophysiological background. Due to the metabolic alterations consequent to abnormal glucose metabolism, the peripheral nerves show both functional impairment and structural changes, even in the preclinical stage, making them more prone to entrapment in anatomically constrained channels. This review discusses the most common and relevant EN encountered in diabetic patient in their epidemiological, pathophysiological and diagnostic features. PMID:27660694

  20. Pancreatic disorders and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisterfeld, R; Ehehalt, F; Saeger, H D; Solimena, M

    2008-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease among patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis, disorders of the exocrine pancreas. Different clinical features of diabetes are associated with these two conditions: hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance are the prevailing diabetic traits in pancreatic cancer, whereas reduced islet cell mass and impaired insulin secretion are typically observed in chronic pancreatitis. Whether or not a causal relationship exists between diabetes and pancreatic carcinoma is an intriguing but unanswered question. Diabetes often precedes pancreatic cancer and is thus regarded as a potential risk factor for malignancy. Conversely, pancreatic cancer may secrete diabetogenic factors. Given these findings, there is increasing interest in whether close monitoring of the glycemic profile may aid early detection of pancreatic tumor lesions.

  1. Entrapment neuropathies in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugenia; Rota[1; Nicola; Morelli[1

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) with a wide clinical spectrum that encompasses generalized to focal and multifocal forms. Entrapment neuropathies (EN), which are focal forms,are so frequent at any stage of the diabetic disease, that they may be considered a neurophysiological hallmark of peripheral nerve involvement in DM. Indeed, EN may be the earliest neurophysiological abnormalities in DM,particularly in the upper limbs, even in the absence of a generalized polyneuropathy, or it may be superimposed on a generalized diabetic neuropathy. This remarkable frequency of EN in diabetes is underlain by a peculiar pathophysiological background. Due to the metabolic alterations consequent to abnormal glucose metabolism, the peripheral nerves show both functional impairment and structural changes, even in the preclinical stage, making them more prone to entrapment in anatomically constrained channels. This review discusses the most common and relevant EN encountered in diabetic patient in their epidemiological, pathophysiological and diagnostic features.

  2. Diabetes mellitus and electrolyte disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamis, George; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Barkas, Fotios; Elisaf, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic patients frequently develop a constellation of electrolyte disorders. These disturbances are particularly common in decompensated diabetics, especially in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. These patients are markedly potassium-, magnesium- and phosphate-depleted. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to both hypo- and hyper-natremia reflecting the coexistence of hyperglycemia-related mechanisms, which tend to change serum sodium to opposite directions. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in diabetic individuals is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Impaired renal function, potassium-sparing drugs, hypertonicity and insulin deficiency are also involved in the development of hyperkalemia. This article provides an overview of the electrolyte disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. This insight should pave the way for pathophysiology-directed therapy, thus contributing to the avoidance of the several deleterious effects associated with electrolyte disorders and their treatment. PMID:25325058

  3. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Radhika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of diabetes with an emphasis on periodontal disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders and pre-term birth. Dental considerations for management of these patients and recent advances in the dental field with respect to diabetes are also highlighted.

  4. The History of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been recognised since antiquity. The first description that resembles the features of the disease is found in Ebers papyrus (1550 BC. The term ";diabetes"; was first coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Galen described it as a disease specific to the kidneys because of a weakness in their retentive faculties. Word mellitus was added by Thomas Willis in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians, Chinese and Japanese. He later noticed that some urine samples were sweet (diabetes mellitus whereas others were tasteless (diabetes insipidus. Later Cullen and John Rollo confirmed these two types. It was only in 1776 that Dobson firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. Claude Bernard discovered in 1857 that liver releases a substance i.e. glycogen which affects blood sugar level. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski in 1889. In 1909, Jean De Meyer named glucose lowering hormone as insulin whose existence was hypothetical at that time. Banting and Macleod got Noble prize for isolating insulin in 1923. Discovery of insulin for the treatment of diabetes represents one of the major humanitarian and scientific milestones of the 20th century. Oral hypoglycemic drugs were introduced later. Today researchers are working on insulin patch, implantable pump, insulin-sensitizers, pancreatic or islet cell transplantation and oral insulin solution.

  5. Glukagonomsyndrom uden diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Vestergaard, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    without diabetes. Glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by glucagon overproduction, diabetes, depression, deep venous thrombosis and necrolytic migrating erythema. Glucagonoma is frequently diagnosed late which increases the risk of metastases. It is important not to rule out glucagonoma in patients......A patient developed depression, weight loss, ulcers and a migrating, denuded erythematous skin area. Punch biopsy revealed necrolytic migrating erythema. Computerised tomography and endoscopic ultrasound showed a solid tumour of the pancreas. A blood sample showed an increased level of glucagon...... with a relevant clinical picture but without diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-17...

  6. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar; Department of Cardioscience, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, UAEAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in the presence of intensive glycemic control. Substantial clinical and experimental evidence suggest that both diabetes and insulin resistance cause a combination of endothelial dysfunctions, which may diminish the anti-atherogenic role of the vascular endothelium. Both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction appear to precede the development of overt hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in patients with diabetes or insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction may be a critical early target for preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria is now considered to be an atherosclerotic risk factor and predicts future cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients, in elderly patients, as well as in the general population. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature cardiovascular mortality for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as for patients with essential hypertension. A complete biochemical understanding of the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia causes vascular functional and structural changes associated with the diabetic milieu still eludes us. In recent years, the numerous biochemical and metabolic pathways postulated to have a causal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease have been distilled into several unifying hypotheses. The role of chronic hyperglycemia in the development of diabetic microvascular complications and in neuropathy has been clearly established. However, the biochemical or cellular links between elevated blood glucose levels, and the vascular lesions remain

  7. Evaluation of auditory brain-stem evoked response in middle: Aged type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal hearing subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debadatta Mahallik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is commonly metabolic disorders of carbohydrate in which blood glucose levels are abnormally high due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency. In addition, it is characterized by abnormal metabolism of fat, protein resulting from insulin deficit or insulin action, or both. There are two broad categories of DM are designated as type 1 and type 2. Type 2 diabetes is due to predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency noninsulin-dependent DM. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than insulin-dependent DM. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess, if there is any abnormality in neural conduction in auditory brain-stem pathway in type 2 DM patients having normal hearing sensitivity when compared to age-matched healthy populations. Materials and Methods: This study included middle - aged 25 subjects having normal hearing with diabetes type 2 mellitus. All were submitted to the full audiological history taking, otological examination, basic audiological evaluation and auditory brain-stem response audiometry which was recorded in both ears, followed by calculation of the absolute latencies of wave I, III and V, as well as interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, I-V. Results: Type 2 DM patients showed significant prolonged absolute latencies of I, III (P = 0.001 and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V in left ear (P = 0.001 and absolute latencies of I, V (P = 0.001, interpeak latencies III-V was statistically significant in right ear. Conclusions: The prolonged absolute latencies and interpeak latencies suggests abnormal neural firing synchronization or in the transmission in the auditory pathways in normal hearing type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  8. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; Jovanovic, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between the...

  9. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Annunziata Lapolla, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Domenico FedeleDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Padova University, ItalyAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is on the increase and, if not diagnosed, managed and treated adequately, can have unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Several studies have shown that glycemic values considered as adequate in the past when monitoring GDM failed to contain these adverse outcomes and randomized trials are need...

  10. Diabetes mellitus: An endodontic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishipati Vinayak Kalyan Chakravarthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disease, characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. In patients with DM, several aspects of the immune system are compromised and wound healing is impaired. Studies indicate increased prevalence, severity of periapical lesions and a decreased success rate of endodontic treatment in diabetics, suggesting that diabetes may serve as a disease modifier of periapical lesions. A reciprocal relationship exists between glycaemic control and chronic periapical lesions. Treating infections of pulp and periodontium will improve glycaemic control and help in healing of lesions similar to non-diabetics. To provide competent care to patients with DM, dental clinicians must understand the disease, its treatment, and its impact on the patients′ ability to undergo and respond to endodontic treatment. This review article is a detailed assessment of the literature on DM and its implication on pulp and periapical diseases, and their treatment outcome.

  11. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  12. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  13. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per; Hansen, Klavs; Gæde, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster......The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...

  14. Prevalence and clinical characterization of Japanese diabetes mellitus with an A-to-G mutation at nucleotide 3243 of the mitochondrial tRNA{sup Leu (UUR)} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odawara, Masato; Sasaki, Kayoko; Yamashita, Kamejiro [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    An A-to-G mutation at nucleotide position 3243 of the mitochondrial genome has been associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with deafness. We investigated the prevalence of this mutation in Japanese patients with IDDM, NIDDM, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and in nondiabetic control individuals, and we identified it in 3 of 300 patients with NIDDM or IGT (1.0%). None of these individuals had significant sensorineural hearing loss. None of the 94 IDDM or the 115 nondiabetic control subjects was positive for this mutation. Oral glucose tolerance test revealed that a 57-yr-old male with this mutation was rather hyperinsulinemic in the fasting state. The insulin secretion in this patient decreased with age; he did not complain of any hearing disorder, although audiometry revealed a slight elevation of hearing threshold at high frequencies. In conclusion, we found that a mitochondrial gene mutation at nucleotide position 3243 was present in about 1% of NIDDM patients including those patients with IGT. The subtype of diabetes mellitus with this mutation may have a clinical profile similar to that found in patients with NIDDM commonly seen in outpatient clinics. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 78 FR 12821 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2011-0368] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  17. 75 FR 80889 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  18. 76 FR 55460 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  19. 77 FR 64181 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...

  20. 78 FR 7855 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  1. 78 FR 60014 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  2. 78 FR 50140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 12819 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  4. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the...

  5. Psycho-social Issues among Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psycho-social Issues among Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus: Experience from ... assessed as well as their knowledge and attitudes towards diabetes mellitus. ... adolescents with diabetes mellitus, indicating the need to assist the patients ...

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent development of overt diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P

    1998-01-01

    of diabetes: a high fasting glucose level at diagnosis of GDM, a delivery more than 3 weeks before term, and an abnormal OGTT 2 months postpartum. Low insulin secretion at diagnosis of GDM was also an independent risk factor. The presence of ICA and GAD-autoantibodies in pregnancy was associated with later...... of women with GDM. However, previous studies, in populations quite different from a Danish population, have shown that women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus later in life. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of women with previous GDM with respect...... population) 2-11 years after pregnancy. Abnormal glucose tolerance was found in 34.4% of the women (3.7% IDDM, 13.7% NIDDM, 17% IGT) in contrast to a control group where none had diabetes and 5.3% had IGT. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors for later development...

  7. Hypoglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a serious acute complication of diabetes treatment. Recognizing the risk factors and taking steps to prevent low blood glucose should be a part of self-management education for all people taking glucose-lowering medications. It is important for home care clinicians to evaluate their patient's understanding of hypoglycemia and the appropriate treatment options.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a dual threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ahmet Afşin; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Jahangir, Eiman

    2016-07-01

    The following is a review of the current concepts on the relationship between hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus with a focus on the epidemiology and cardiovascular prognostic implications of coexistent HTN and diabetes mellitus, shared mechanisms underlying both conditions and pathophysiology of increased risk of cardiovascular disease, treatment of HTN in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and effects of anti-diabetic medications on blood pressure (BP). Diabetes mellitus and HTN often coexist in the same individual. They share numerous risk factors and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, most important of which are insulin resistance and inappropriate activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recently updated guidelines recommend a BP goal of 140/90 mmHg in most individuals with diabetes mellitus. A new class of anti-diabetic medications, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, has shown favorable effects on BP. HTN affects the majority of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Coexistence of diabetes mellitus and HTN, especially if BP is not well controlled, dramatically increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. BP control is an essential part of management of patients with diabetes mellitus, because it is one of the most effective ways to prevent vascular complications and death.

  9. Periodontitis and risk of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit; Jadhav, Varsha

    2011-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with varying degrees of systemic and oral complications. The periodontium is also a target for diabetic damage. Diabetes is a pandemic in both developed and developing countries. In recent years, a link between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus has been postulated. The oral cavity serves as a continuous source of infectious agents that could further worsen the diabetic status of the patient and serve as an important risk factor deterioration of diabetes mellitus. The present review highlights the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. The potential mechanisms involved in the deterioration of diabetic status and periodontal disease are also discussed. © 2011 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alan

    2002-06-01

    Numerous vitamins, herbs, supplements, and other agents are readily available for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Many of these products have little evidence-based medical support to prove the efficacy of these supplements. The physician must be aware that their patients are using these products and must be knowledgeable about their side effects and drug-herb interactions. Our patients have tremendous access to medical information in the lay literature and on the internet. They are using this information to gain access to various diet therapies. Numerous fad diets consisting of various combinations of protein, carbohydrate, and fat are widely publicized but not grounded in evidence. Liquid diets and supplements are readily available and widely used by the public with little long-term beneficial effects on obese patients. Other alternative methods, such as hypnotherapy, acupuncture, biofeedback, and electrogalvanic therapy, have become widely available and seem to have little adverse reaction, but whose benefits remain to be proved. The physician must recognize the widespread use of these products and work with patients and alternative practitioners to deliver comprehensive quality care. Physicians who become comfortable with these products should consider their judicious use while monitoring for side effects and drug interaction. It is hoped that with further evidence-based study many of these products and techniques will enter mainstream medicine.

  11. Diabetes Mellitus do Tipo MODY

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carolina Soares Viana de [UNIFESP; Furuzawa, Gilberto K. [UNIFESP; Reis, André Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that close to 5% of the individuals classified as having type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and about 10% of those considered type 1 DM (previously categorized as juvenile type) are actual carriers of a MODY mutation. In this form of DM, there is evident co-segregation of some mutations and the advent of hyperglycemia, this fact having been reproduced by the study of several families of different populations. Its main characteristic is being one of the few causes of DM in which the...

  12. 18-FDG in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, Y. (Dept. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, UAE Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)); Itoh, M. (Cyclotron and Radioisotope Centre, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Watabe, H. (Cyclotron and Radioisotope Centre, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Ghista, D.N. (Dept. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, UAE Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates))

    1993-06-01

    The intravenous glucose tolerance test, IVGTT, has been used to evaluate patients in whom abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes mellitus are suspected. IVGTT, if analyzed using 'minimal models', or discrete-time methods, provides information on the sensitivity of glucose disappearance to insulin and on pancreatic sensitivity to glucose, information that cannot be obtained from direct analysis of the dynamic response alone. In a preliminary study, data obtained by intravenously injecting 18-FDG in four subjects was analyzed using a discrete-time model. The experimental details, the results and their implications will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. Vitamin D and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Turhan İyidir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Experimental evidence also supported the idea that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of DM. Additionally, it has been reported that vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of developing DM in long term period. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the immune system and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D may also have a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 89-94

  14. OBESIDAD, DIABETES MELLITUS Y POBREZA

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Saldívar González, Atenógenes H.; Vázquez Nava, Francisco; Martínez Perales, Gerardo Manuel

    2014-01-01

    En este breve comunicado se analiza y discute la evolución de dos graves problemas de salud pública, que aquejan a la población a nivel mundial y a México como país; y que además, ocupan los primeros lugares en prevalencia. La Obesidad y la Diabetes Mellitus, son vistas como una pandemia; que insertadas en un contexto económico, social y cultural, condicionan el futuro de nuestra nación; por lo que, se considera la importancia que revisten estas enfermedades en la salud de los mexicanos.Palab...

  15. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  16. [Nutritional therapy in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeller, M

    1993-03-01

    Most aspects of the nutritional therapy of diabetes mellitus apply equally to IDDM and NIDDM patients and are also appropriate for people with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. A restriction of energy, a reduction of saturated fatty acids as well as of alcoholic drinks and simple sugars are the most important measures. This modification of nutritional intake together with increased fibre consumption is not only appropriate to avoid hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients but has also its benefits in patients presenting with the metabolic syndrome (possible reduction of hyperinsulinaemia, hypertension and hyperlipoproteinaemia). Diabetic patients should have regular screening for microalbuminuria. At first signs of an early stage of nephropathy patients should be advised to restrict their protein intake. About 50% of daily energy intake should be derived from carbohydrates and fat intake should be no more than 35% of total energy (saturated fatty acids less than 10% of energy). Carbohydrate exchange units are usually not necessary in NIDDM patients. In addition diabetes specialty foods are not an essential part of the nutritional therapy. The success of the nutritional therapy in diabetic patients is substantially dependent upon qualified counselling and education of the patients by the physician (as far as possible with the assistance of a dietitian).

  17. Pattern of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects individuals of all ages and socioeconomic status. Skin is affected by the acute metabolic derangements as well as by chronic degenerative complications of diabetes. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus. To analyze the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders among diabetic patients from this region of Western Himalayas. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and having skin lesions, either attending the diabetic clinic or admitted in medical wards were included in this study. Results: The common skin disorders were: x0 erosis (44%, diabetic dermopathy (36%, skin tags (32%, cutaneous infections (31%, and seborrheic keratosis (30%. Conclusion: Skin is involved in diabetes quite often and the manifestations are numerous. High prevalence of xerosis in our diabetic population is perhaps due to cold and dry climatic conditions in the region for most of the time in the year.

  18. [Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shinichi

    2015-12-01

    Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus is a secondary change in hyperglycemia. Even if hyperlipidemia was not present, dyslipidemia will be present, especially as the increase of remnant. Usually this dyslipidemia is improved by a good control of hyperglycemia. In the pathogenesis the various factors relate to the lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, by insulin action (hyperinsulinemia or insulinopenia), adipokines, or hyperglycemia itself. The every changes of lipoprotein metabolism could be occurred in diabetes mellitus, and those are related to the increase of atherogenic lipoproteins. We should recognize the mechanism of lipids/lipoprotein metabolism in diabetes mellitus and approach to prevent the atherosclerotic diseases in diabetes.

  19. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio NEGRATO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia, MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results 7This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  20. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda; Jovanovič, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes-related complications.

  1. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  2. Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Overview(Series "Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus" (1))

    OpenAIRE

    岩本, 安彦; IWAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with its etiology involving both genetic and environmental factors. In 1999, the Japan Diabetes Society proposed a new classification and diagnostic criteria for diabetes. Diabetes and related disorders of glycemia are now classified into 4 types: 1) Type 1,2) Type2, 3) hyperglycemia due to other specific mechanism or diseases, and 4) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a destruction of ...

  3. Estudios de intervención dirigidos a disminuir el riesgo de padecer diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Intervention studies aimed at lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valenciaga Rodríguez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de intervención en población de riesgo, dirigidos a disminuir la frecuencia de la aparición de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM 2, son considerados orientadores para el enfoque del trabajo con esos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar los resultados de investigaciones dirigidas a disminuir el riesgo de padecer DM 2. Los sujetos estudiados presentaban alguna de las siguientes condiciones: glucosa alterada en ayunas (GAA o tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA, antecedente personal de diabetes gestacional y síndrome metabólico. Se citan, entre otros, DPP (diabetes prevention program, DPS (diabetes prevention study, STOP-NIDDM (study to prevent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hiperglucemia en ayunas, DAISI (dutch acarbose intervention trial, Da Quing (estudio chino, TRIPOD (troglitazone In the prevention of diabetes, intervención, XENDOS (xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects, WOSCOPS (west of scotland coronary prevention study, EDIT (early diabetes intervención trial, NAVIGATOR (nateglinide and valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research, DREAM (diabetes reduction assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone medication. Estos consistían en cambios de estilo de vida (fundamentalmente ejercicios físicos sistemáticos y orientaciones nutricionales y/o intervenciones terapéuticas. Se concluye que en personas con 25 o más años de edad de ambos sexos, con riesgo de padecer DM 2, la adopción de un estilo de vida saludable logra disminuir el riesgo de padecer el síndrome diabético. En sujetos con alto riesgo de DM 2, los fármacos que reportan mejores y más consistentes resultados son el metformin y la acarbosa. Otros como la nateglidina, rosiglitazona, ramipril y valsartan, se están investigando actualmente.Intervention studies on population at risk aimed at lowering the frequency of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2 are considered as guiding lines for the work

  4. [Diabetes mellitus: definition, classification and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus comprises of a group of heterogeneous disorders, which have an increase in blood glucose concentrations in common. The current classifications for diabetes mellitus type 1-4 are described and the main features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are compared to allow for better discrimination between these diabetes types. Furthermore, the criteria for the correct biochemical diagnosis during fasting and oral glucose tolerance tests as well as the use of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are summarized. These data form the basis of the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the clinical praxis of diabetes treatment.

  5. Operative Revaskularisation bei Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausmann H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Patienten mit KHK und Diabetes mellitus haben sowohl bei interventioneller als auch bei chirurgischer Koronarrevaskularisation ein erhöhtes Mortalitätsrisiko. Allerdings ist nach chirurgischer Revaskularisation vor allem die Rate an notwendigen Reinterventionen wesentlich geringer als nach PTCA. Gegenwärtig liegen keine Ergebnisse über den Langzeitverlauf nach Stentimplantation vor. Außerdem ist das Risiko für einen Diabetiker mit KHK, nach einer Bypassoperation an einem Myokardinfarkt zu versterben, deutlich geringer als nach PTCA. Die Bypassoperation mit Sternotomie trägt allerdings bei Diabetikern ein erhöhtes Risiko für die Entwicklung einer postoperativen Mediastinitis, vor allem dann, wenn bei "totaler arterieller" Revaskularisation beide Aa. mammariae verwendet werden. Deshalb sollte bei Diabetikern zur chirurgischen Revaskularisation die A. mammaria nur einseitig genutzt werden. Prä- und perioperativ ist auf eine besonders sorgfältige Blutzuckereinstellung zu achten. Verkalkungen der herznahen Gefäße, wie z. B. der Aorta ascendens und der Karotiden, müssen präoperativ abgeklärt werden. Die Operation ist möglichst schonend durchzuführen, die Wundfläche sollte minimiert werden. Reexplorationen sind unbedingt zu vermeiden. Bei Beachtung dieser Richtlinien sind auch bei Patienten mit KHK und Diabetes mellitus sehr gute chirurgische Revaskularisationsergebnisse zu erreichen.

  6. Tratamiento nutricional de la diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Candela, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un síndrome de alteración del metabolismo caracterizado por presentar hiperglucemia, como consecuencia de deficiencias en la secrección de insulina (diabetes tipo 1) o en su acción (diabetes tipo 2). Los criterios diagnós

  7. Diabetic Retinopathy: Clinical Findings and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Murray McGavin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic abnormality in which there is a failure to utilise glucose and hence a state of hyperglycaemia can occur. If hyperglycaemia continues uncontrolled over time, it will lead to significant and widespread pathological changes, including involvement of the retina, brain and kidney.In industrialised countries, approximately 1% of the population is diabetic, and at least another 1% are undiagnosed diabetics. Insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM, accounts for approximately 10-15% of cases, the remainder being maturity onset or non-insulin dependent diabetics (NIDDM. Diabetes mellitus is an international public health problem with estimated prevalences ranging from 2.0% to 11.7% in studied populations across the world.

  8. Terapia celular no diabetes mellitus Cell therapy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Voltarelli

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão são discutidas várias alternativas de regeneração do conjunto de células produtoras de insulina do pâncreas, usando células-tronco embrionárias do cordão umbilical e adultas, e o trabalho que está sendo realizado em nosso grupo de pesquisas utilizando imunossupressão em altas doses combinada com a infusão de células-tronco hematopoéticas autólogas em diabete do tipo 1 recém-diagnosticado.In this review, we discuss several alternatives for the regeneration of the pool of insulin-producing cells by the pancreas using embryonic, cord blood or adult stem cells and the work being carried out by our research group using high dose immunosuppression with autologous hematopoietic stem cells in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  9. 75 FR 25919 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... exemptions from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... years; understands diabetes management and monitoring; and has stable control of his diabetes mellitus...; understands diabetes management and monitoring; and has stable control of his diabetes mellitus using...

  10. Potential Effects of Nichi Glucan as a Food Supplement for Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperlipidemia: Preliminary Findings from the Study on Three Patients from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta Glucan food supplements have been reported to be of benefit in diabetes and hyperlipidemia. We report a pilot study of the effects of Nichi Glucan, 1, 3-1, 6 Beta Glucan food supplement, in lowering the blood glucose and lipid levels in three patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM from India. These patients had increased blood glucose and lipid levels inspite of routine antidiabetic and lipid level lowering medications. Each of the participants took 1.5 g of Nichi Glucan per day with food for two months along with their routine medications. The relevant parameters to assess glycemic status and lipid levels were calculated at the baseline and at the end of two months. After two months of continuous consumption, in one patient, the HbA1c decreased from 9.1% to 7.8%, and the glycemic target of HbA1c <6.5% laid down by the International Diabetes Federation was reached in two patients. Lipid levels also decreased significantly. Based on our findings, Nichi Glucan food supplement can be considered along with routine medications in patients with Type II diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Further studies are needed to validate the results.

  11. Awareness and knowledge about diabetes mellitus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and knowledge about diabetes mellitus and hypertension amongst ... and their risk factors through health educational programs over a three year period ... SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis, and the level of statistical ...

  12. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Lapolla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Annunziata Lapolla, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Domenico FedeleDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Padova University, ItalyAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is on the increase and, if not diagnosed, managed and treated adequately, can have unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Several studies have shown that glycemic values considered as adequate in the past when monitoring GDM failed to contain these adverse outcomes and randomized trials are needed to ascertain whether these targets should be lowered. Dietary restrictions remain the mainstay of GDM management and suitable physical exercise can help too. The use of rapid-acting insulin analogues (lispro and aspart are novel treatments for improving metabolic control by reducing postprandial glycemia, while long-acting insulin analogues need to be evaluated by further studies for safety in clinical use before they can be prescribed. Numerous studies have found glyburide and metformin safe in women with GDM but more randomized controlled trials are needed, with a long-term follow-up of mother and child, to confirm these results.Keywords: gestational diabetes, glucose management, obstetric management, maternal complications, fetal complications

  13. Telomere attrition and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yoshiaki; Takubo, Kaiyo; Aida, Junko; Araki, Atsushi; Ito, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by dysfunction of various organs. Recent studies have shown a close relationship between DM and telomere attrition in leukocytes. In patients with DM or impaired glucose tolerance, excessive oxidative stress induces damage to telomeres and shortens their length. Furthermore, it is suggested that telomere length is a good surrogate marker for mortality and diabetic complications in DM patients. We recently found that telomere length in pancreatic β-cells is also shortened in DM patients, potentially leading to an impaired capacity for proliferation and insulin secretion, and accelerated cell death. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length has also been reported in patients with obesity or insulin resistance, both of which are frequently associated with type 2 DM. In an animal model, it has been shown that telomere attrition in adipose tissue induces insulin resistance. Taken together, the available data suggest that hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and telomere attrition in pancreatic β-cells and adipocytes create a vicious cycle that underlies the pathophysiology of type 2 DM. Inhibition of telomere attrition in various organs, including pancreatic β-cells, could be a new approach for preventing the progression of DM and its complications.

  14. Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Subarna Dhoj Thapa; Shiva Raj K.C.; Santosh Gautam; Deepika Gyawali

    2017-01-01

    Background: In type 2 diabetes mellitus lipid abnormalities are very common and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.  This study was conducted to find association of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at KISTMCTH. All the necessary data of patient with type 2 diabetes in the period between December 2016 and May 2017 were studied.Results: Out of 199 patients with diabetes mellitus 30.7% had total cholesterol...

  15. Periodontal pathogens and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, A P; Chhun, N; Tanner, A C R; Craig, R G; Lee, M J; Moore, A F; Norman, R G

    2008-04-01

    In previous cross-sectional or case-control studies, clinical periodontal disease has been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. To test the hypothesis that, in comparison with women who do not develop gestational diabetes mellitus, those who do develop it will have had a greater exposure to clinical and other periodontal parameters, we measured clinical, bacteriological (in plaque and cervico-vaginal samples), immunological, and inflammatory mediator parameters 7 weeks before the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 265 predominantly Hispanic (83%) women in New York. Twenty-two cases of gestational diabetes mellitus emerged from the cohort (8.3%). When the cases were compared with healthy control individuals, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (p=0.004), vaginal levels of Tannerella forsythia (p=0.01), serum C-reactive protein (p=0.01), and prior gestational diabetes mellitus (p=0.006) emerged as risk factors, even though the clinical periodontal disease failed to reach statistical significance (50% in those with gestational diabetes mellitus vs. 37.3% in the healthy group; p=0.38).

  16. The Comorbidity of Diabetes Mellitus and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Katon, Wayne J.

    2008-01-01

    Several factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and an aging population, contribute to epidemic rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression frequently occurs comorbidly with diabetes although it is unrecognized and untreated in approximately two thirds of patients with both conditions. The course of depression in patients with both diabetes and depression is chronic and severe. Up to 80% of patients with diabetes and depression will experience a relapse of depressive symptoms over ...

  17. Management of diabetes mellitus in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Muili

    Diabetes is a global health problem, with a challenging epidemiology. It is one of the major health problems affecting countries around the world, particularly the UK (World Health Organization [WHO], 2006; Department of Health [DH], 2006b). It is also a growing public health threat in the US (Mokdad et al, 2001). As a result, diabetes has become an important public health issue, prompting the WHO and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) to adopt the theme 'Diabetes for Everyone' for World Diabetes Day 2006. In 2007, on World Diabetes Day, the United Nations also launched its 'Living with Diabetes at School' campaign, in response to the growing diabetes 'epidemics' (Diabetes UK, 2007). This article provides an overview of diabetes mellitus and its acute- and long-term management, including definition, aetiology, pathophysiology, classification, signs, symptoms and complications. The role of the nurse in providing patient-centred care for people with diabetes is emphasized.

  18. A Case Report of Paralytic Patient Associated with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-woo Kim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This report aimed to study of paralytic patient associated with Diabetes Mellitus. Methods : Diabetes Mellitus has one of the highest death rate, because of it induces various complications. Especially paralytic patients who associated with diabetes mellitus are slow in recovery and easy to induce many complications. So control of the diabetes mellitus is the most important thing to treatment. We observed and treated with Cheunhwasangamibang and acupunture. Results : The paralytic patient with Diabetes Mellitus was treatment with Cheunhwasangamibang and improvement was seen. Conclusions : Results in this case support a role for Cheunhwasangamibang in controlling Diabetes Mellitus

  19. Diabetic myonecrosis: An underreported complication of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Kumar Choudhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic myonecrosis is an underreported complication of long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus which is usually self-limiting and responds well to conservative management. Patients frequently have microvascular complications, and although short-term prognosis is good, the long-term prognosis is poor. We report four cases of diabetic myonecrosis admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

  20. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarry-Horn, Jill L.; Evans, Barbara J.; Kerrigan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and adolescents has been increasing at an alarming rate. Early recognition and intervention can delay the onset of type 2 DM and prevent the long-term complications. School nurses have an essential role in implementing the American Diabetes Association (ADA)…

  1. Gastroparesis in diabetes mellitus: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Corina; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Demian, Luiza; Brisc, Ciprian; Vatca, Liliana; Magheru, Sorina

    2005-03-01

    To investigate diabetic gastro-paresis, a complication of diabetes mellitus and its determinants. A group of 36 patients with diabetes and 20 healthy controls, with comparable age and sex ratio were investigated with an established ultrasonographic method. A mixed test meal of 400 kcal was given. Antral fasting and postprandial area, postprandial distension and emptying time were assessed. Glucose control was estimated by the measurement of fasting and postprandial glucose as well as by assessing HbA1c. Antral area was nonsignificantly larger in diabetes mellitus. Postprandial antral area and postprandial antral distension were higher in diabetes than in the controls. The prevalence of gastroparesis was 52.7%, without differences between the two types of diabetes: 53.8% in type I and 52.2% in type II diabetes mellitus. Gastroparesis was associated with poor short and long time control of blood glucose and with positive parasympathetic tests. Gastroparesis did not correlate with symptoms. Gastroparesis is a real complication in diabetes mellitus and can be documented using an ultrasonographic method. Poor glucose control and autonomic neuropathy are associated with gastroparesis.

  2. Changing trends in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify any changing trends in the incidence and caesarean section (CS) rate of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over a 10- year period, between 1999 and 2008. Although the incidence of pre-gestational DM has not significantly changed over the course of the last 10 years, there is an obvious rising trend in the incidence of GDM. Despite an increase in the overall CS rate during this time period, a parallel increase in the CS rate has not been observed among women whose pregnancies are complicated either by gestational or by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD).

  3. Oral Manifestations and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskari, Awatif Y.; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y.; Al-Sudairy, Salem

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported in the literature with few reports about oral complications. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus and to stimulate research on the subject. It treats in depth some of the complications such as periodontal disease, fungal infection and salivary dysfunction while other complications are mentioned briefly. PMID:21969888

  4. 9.1.Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930241 The relationship between GLUT/Bg1Ⅱ,Xba Ⅰ RFLP and Chinese non—insulin—de-pendent diabetes mellitus.SUN Duoqi (孙多奇),et al.Dept Endocrinol,6th People’sHosp,Shanghai,200233.Chin J Endocrinol &Metabol 1993;9(1):5—7.Digestion of human genomic DNA with re-striction enzyme Bgl Ⅱ,Xba Ⅰ revealed a twoallele polymorphism with a human HepG 2 glu-cose transporter probe.Bands of 7.8 Kb (B1 al-lele),6.2 Kb (B2 allele) and 6.3 Kb (X1allele),6.0 Kb (X2 allele) were observed.Thegenotype frequencies were investigated in twogroups of Shanghai Chinese and San FranciscoChinese and their subgroups.The frequencies ofBIBI,B1B2 and B2B2 were 82%,17%,1% re-spectively among 92 Shanghai Chinese controls,and 78%,21%,1% respectively among 156

  5. KNOWLEDGE OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Fahim; Afridi, Ayesha Khan; Rahim, Fawad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Sheema; Shabbier, Ghulam; Rahman, Sadiq Ur

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 +/- 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 +/- 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivell, Silvia; Gomis, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs and burden of the disease are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Two major groups of diabetes mellitus have been defined, type 1, or immune-based, and type 2. In recent years, other subgroups have been described in-between these major groups. Correct classification of the disease is crucial in order to ascribe the most efficient preventive, diagnostic and treatment strategies for each patient. In the present review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and clinical classification of what is currently known as autoimmune diabetes. In addition, the other groups of diabetes mellitus will be regarded in relation to their pathogenesis and potential autoimmunity features.

  7. Managing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Samuel; Nissen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is a common problem in the diabetic population with estimates suggesting a prevalence exceeding 60%. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with high rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. These two pathologies share overlapping risk factors, importantly central obesity. Treatment of hypertension is unequivocally beneficial and improves all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and microvascular outcomes including nephropathy and retinopathy. Although controversial, current guidelines recommend a target blood pressure in the diabetic population of diabetes. Management of blood pressure in patients with diabetes includes both lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapies. This article reviews the evidence for management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and provides a recommended treatment strategy based on the available data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asia: Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Fatema; Ejaz, Kiran

    2016-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, is defined by the American Diabetes Association as "diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes". WHO has further classified the period of diagnosis as Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The former term is applicable in the early period of gestation and GDM is detected after 24 weeks. Irrespective of the guidelines followed, the presence of Diabetes Mellitus during pregnancy, has to be taken seriously as it is an important metabolic derangement and can prove to be harmful for the mother and dangerous for the foetus. The rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the world along with obesity, is a major contributing factor for GDM. The trend of this rise is more steep in the low and middle income countries thus proportionately increasing the risk for GDM. South Asia falls in this bracket and the responsible factors have to be identified and corrected. Management should begin from primordial prevention for which education is a key factor. Every woman should be taught the way to follow a healthy life style. Identification of the contributing factors and universal screening facilities for all pregnant women living in both rural and urban areas, should be given prime importance. On detecting Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy or GDM, monitoring and health care facilities should be provided. This review provides some available figures of GDM in South Asia, the risk factors in this population and the steps for prevention.

  9. Sino-orbital Aspergillosis in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sino-orbital aspergillosis in a 61-year-old male with uncontrolled non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus presented with three months history of left ear pain, left side headache with mucopurulent nasal discharge and one week history of progressive swelling and pain with difficulty in opening of the left eye and sudden loss of vision. In spite of surgical debridement and medical management with amphotericin B and itraconazole his visual outcome was poor and the infection was unabated at one month follow up.

  10. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Positive Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Gregory E.; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Murray D. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relative benefits of screening for type two diabetes mellitus in women with a previous pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. Recent studies suggest that women who experience GDM are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 10–20 years of their index pregnancy. If considered as a stand-alone indicator of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, GDM is a poor diagnostic test. Most women do not develop GDM during pregnancy a...

  11. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South-East Nigeria. ... of micro and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. ... can be instituted to reduce the risk of macro and microvascular complications.

  12. 78 FR 63295 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... individuals for exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  13. 76 FR 21792 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  14. 78 FR 24795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  15. 78 FR 65034 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  16. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  17. 75 FR 34206 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  18. 75 FR 63536 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  19. 77 FR 33554 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  20. 78 FR 56988 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications...

  1. 78 FR 63280 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  2. 78 FR 64267 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... individuals for exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the Transportation... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  3. 77 FR 74271 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  4. 78 FR 63285 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  5. 77 FR 27842 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications...

  6. 77 FR 33551 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  7. 78 FR 63298 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... individuals for exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  8. 78 FR 50486 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  9. 78 FR 20381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  10. Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (WS 331-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Medical Service Specialty Standard Committee of Mi

    2012-01-01

    The criteria provide the screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus and it should be applied to all medical institutions and health care practitioners for gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis in China.

  11. Klinefelter's syndrome accompanied by diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, K; Niwa, T; Ohkubo, M; Ohba, M; Shikano, M; Watanabe, Y

    1992-07-01

    The first case of Klinefelter's syndrome accompanied by diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus is reported. A 41-year-old man admitted for hyperosmolar diabetic coma with a past history of diabetes insipidus was diagnosed as having Klinefelter's syndrome by endocrinological examination and sex chromosome analysis. In this case, glucose tolerance test was normalized half a year later and blood glucose was well controlled with diet therapy alone.

  12. Diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis: differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspriello, S D; Zizzi, A; Tirabassi, G; Buldreghini, E; Biscotti, T; Faloia, E; Stramazzotti, D; Boscaro, M; Piemontese, M

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies have appeared about diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis, few have compared periodontitis inflammatory markers between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and information regarding this issue is scarce and contradictory. We evaluated the levels of plasma C-reactive protein and of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid in two groups of subjects affected by T1DM and T2DM, in order to identify possible differences between the two classes in the inflammatory mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis. Plasma C-reactive protein and gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in periodontitis patients affected by type 1 (P-T1DM, n = 24) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM, n = 24). Gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in P-T1DM subjects were significantly higher than in P-T2DM subjects. In P-T1DM subjects, we found significant negative correlations between the duration of diabetes mellitus and IL-1β and between the duration of diabetes mellitus and TNF-α. This study shows that IL-1β and TNF-α levels in periodontitis patients with T1DM are affected by the duration of diabetes mellitus. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Circulating microRNAs as novel biomarkers for diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, C; Regazzi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells that is insufficient to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. Autoimmune destruction of β cells results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, whereas conditions that reduce insulin sensitivity and negatively affect β-cell activities result in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Without proper management, patients with diabetes mellitus develop serious complications that reduce their quality of life and life expectancy. Biomarkers for ...

  14. A Case Report of Paralytic Patient Associated with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives : This report aimed to study of paralytic patient associated with Diabetes Mellitus. Methods : Diabetes Mellitus has one of the highest death rate, because of it induces various complications. Especially paralytic patients who associated with diabetes mellitus are slow in recovery and easy to induce many complications. So control of the diabetes mellitus is the most important thing to treatment. We observed and treated with Cheunhwasangamibang and acupunture. Results : The pa...

  15. Diabetes Mellitus and Colorectal Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Alejandro; Diaz, Yaritza; Perez, Cynthia M.; Garau, Maria; Baron, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have provided evidence for an association between obesity, physical inactivity, and western diet as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Few studies directly address the association between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and the risk of colorectal lesions at specific anatomic locations. Methods 2,663 subjects with a previous history of adenoma(s) and removal of all current adenomas at study entry were followed for a mean time of three years across three different chemoprevention clinical trials. The primary endpoint was colorectal adenoma recurrence and number of lesions during the treatment phase; the secondary endpoints were presence of advanced colorectal neoplasia (CRN) and location of CRN. Using log linear regression, the effect of DM status on the relative risk (RR) of CRN recurrence, advanced CRN, and location of CRN was assessed. Results DM status was not significantly associated with incidence of colorectal adenomas, incidence of advanced colorectal lesions, or left-sided colorectal neoplastic lesions. Subjects with DM had a marginally increased risk of right-sided (p= 0.06) colorectal adenomas and a significant increased risk of multiple right-sided adenomas (p=0.03) in the unadjusted model; this association was not significant after adjusting for age and other potential confounders (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.85–1.76). Conclusion We did not observe a statistically significant increased risk in CRN recurrence for overall neoplasia, advanced neoplasia or location of neoplasia in individuals with DM compared to non-DM individuals. However, given the patterns observed in this investigation, future studies with longer follow-up time and longer DM exposure, incorporating objective measurements of type 2 DM might help elucidate the risk of CRN among individuals with DM. PMID:23560242

  16. MANIFESTASI RONTGENOGRAFI DIABETES MELLITUS DI RONGGA MULUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trelia Boel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common disease, described as a systemic disease of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a realtive or absolute deficiency of insulum. This condition is characterized by hyperglyecemia, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, pruritis, and weight loss. Diabetes mellitus in itself does not cause periodontal disease, however diabetes or patients with an increased blood glucose concentration (>200mg/dl tend to gave increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Patient with diabetics above 50 years old (3 cases radiographically can be seen as alveolar bone loss in maxilla and mandible. Alveolar bone loss is seen larger in the posterior maxilla region. The vascular alteration in diabetics may enhance the susceptibility of periodontium to become periodontitis and serve as an etiology factor in pathologic bone resorption.

  17. A link between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, A.; Petrovski, B.E; Petrovski, G.

    2016-01-01

    and the Danish National Patient Register. Results A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period 1996–2012 were included. The overall incidence rates of new-onset glaucoma were 0.07 and 0.36 per 1,000 person-years for the reference population and for diabetes mellitus, respectively. Patients treated with anti-diabetic......Purpose To determine the effect of anti-diabetic medication on glaucoma. Furthermore, to investigate if diabetic comorbidities and concomitant medications are associated with glaucoma in patients treated with anti-diabetic medication. Methods Retrospective nationwide cohort study, spanning a 16......-year follow-up period. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication and anti-diabetic drugs. Comorbidities with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were identified using the ICD-10 classification...

  18. 75 FR 28677 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... exemptions from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... management and monitoring; and has stable control of his diabetes mellitus using insulin, and is able...

  19. 75 FR 38598 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  20. 76 FR 32012 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the...

  1. 77 FR 20874 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  2. 76 FR 71112 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  3. 76 FR 34127 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  4. 76 FR 71111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control.'' (49 CFR...

  5. 77 FR 20876 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of...

  6. 78 FR 65754 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus to Operate in Interstate Commerce as Directed by the Transportation Act...

  7. 75 FR 28684 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus to Operate in Interstate Commerce as Directed by the Transportation Act...

  8. 75 FR 38597 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles... Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus to Operate in Interstate Commerce as Directed by the Transportation Act...

  9. 78 FR 37273 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  10. 75 FR 52809 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  11. 77 FR 40941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent...

  12. 76 FR 44650 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  13. 77 FR 75493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA... Congress on the Feasibility of a Program to Qualify Individuals with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus...

  14. 76 FR 40439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  15. 76 FR 78718 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 36333 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  17. 76 FR 9867 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  18. 78 FR 32704 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...) \\1\\. The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  19. 76 FR 32015 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  20. 78 FR 16758 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  1. 77 FR 10607 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). ] Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  2. 77 FR 17111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of...

  3. 77 FR 70529 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA... Congress on the Feasibility of a Program to Qualify Individuals with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus...

  4. 76 FR 78722 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  5. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. ] SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  6. 77 FR 61655 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of final... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  7. 78 FR 22599 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... 52441).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  8. 76 FR 9854 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  9. 77 FR 27841 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  10. 76 FR 17478 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  11. 75 FR 52813 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of...

  12. 77 FR 75492 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA... Congress on the Feasibility of a Program to Qualify Individuals with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus...

  13. 78 FR 7852 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  14. 78 FR 37272 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT ACTION: Notice of final... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus...

  15. 76 FR 64165 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. ] SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  16. 76 FR 78725 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  17. 77 FR 56258 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  18. 78 FR 68139 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  19. 77 FR 10612 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  20. 76 FR 5243 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  1. 75 FR 70077 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  2. 77 FR 29446 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  3. 77 FR 5870 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  4. 77 FR 13686 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  5. 77 FR 63411 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  6. 75 FR 59788 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent...

  7. 77 FR 17116 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  8. 77 FR 46791 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  9. 76 FR 9862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  10. 77 FR 13685 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  11. 75 FR 36775 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  12. 75 FR 42477 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  13. 77 FR 33264 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently...

  14. 75 FR 65056 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  15. 78 FR 26107 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  16. 76 FR 7625 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  17. 76 FR 78720 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described...

  18. 76 FR 66120 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  19. 77 FR 5873 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  20. 76 FR 25769 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...)\\1\\. The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  1. 76 FR 79756 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and...

  2. 77 FR 536 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  3. 76 FR 1496 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  4. 76 FR 79759 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  5. 78 FR 50482 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent...

  6. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the...

  7. 77 FR 59447 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...

  8. 78 FR 26422 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  9. 75 FR 77952 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3))....

  10. 76 FR 34130 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of...

  11. EFFECT OF PROTEINURIA IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Sultana Khatoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy is a dreaded complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, in the early stages, also known as incipient nephropathy, it can be detected by presence of proteinuria. The aim of our study is to know the occurrence of proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to note its associations with the duration of diabetes since diagnosis and also the various macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in Princess Esra Hospital/DCMS - Hyderabad. A total of one hundred randomly selected diabetic patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were selected for the study. All patients were evaluated in detail along with the testing for proteinuria with dipsticks (Micral. RESULTS The overall occurrence of proteinuria was 38%. The occurrence of proteinuria showed a direct relationship with increasing age (p=0.053 and increasing duration of diabetes since diagnosis. An HbA1c value above 7% is associated with 50% or higher incidence of proteinuria (p=0.018. Patients with a body mass index of more than 25 kg/m2 have significant increase in the incidence of proteinuria (p=0.027. The incidence of proteinuria is significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy (p=0.073, peripheral neuropathy (p=0.009, ischaemic heart disease (p=0.011 and hypertension (p=0.001. Proteinuria is inversely associated with HDL (p=0.089. CONCLUSION The occurrence of proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients of Hyderabad was quite high. During the evaluation of diabetic patients, the possibility of proteinuria and its correlation with various complications of diabetes mellitus should be kept in mind.

  12. Diabetes mellitus e antipsicóticos atípicos Diabetes mellitus and atypical antipsychotics

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Pacientes esquizofrênicos têm maior risco para desenvolvimento de transtorno hiperglicêmico e o uso de antipsicóticos parece ampliar o risco de desenvolvimento de diabetes mellitus. O presente trabalho é uma revisão da literatura acerca da relação entre antipsicóticos atípicos e risco de desenvolvimento de diabetes mellitus. A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada por meio dos bancos de dados Medline e Webofscience enfocando os seguintes tópicos: "Hyperglycemia", "Diabetes Mellitus", "Antipsyc...

  13. Increased admissions for diabetes mellitus after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; O'Halloran, Emily; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M

    2016-12-01

    Currently, limited long-term data on hyperglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in burn patients are available and the data that do exist are primarily related to paediatric severe burns. The aim of this study was to assess if burn is associated with increased post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalized for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Crude admission rates and summed length of stay for diabetes mellitus were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had 2.21 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-1.56) as many admissions and almost three times the number of days in hospital with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis (IRR, 95% CI: 2.94, 2.12-4.09) than the uninjured cohort. Admission rates were significantly elevated for those burned during childhood (diabetes mellitus in the burn cohort provide evidence that burns have longer term effects on blood glucose and insulin regulation after wound healing. The first five years after burn discharge appears to be a critical period with significantly elevated incident admissions for diabetes mellitus during this time. Results would suggest prolonged clinical management after discharge and or wound healing to minimise post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetes insipidus: main aspects and comparative analysis with diabetes mellitus
    Diabetes insipidus: principais aspectos e análise comparativa com diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Lúcia Abreu Rabelo; Danielly Mesquita Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by the excess of sugar in the blood and urine. The two most common types of diabetes are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, both presenting glycemic regulation-damage caused by insulin. Nevertheless, there is another type of diabetes that is less known but not less important, the diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by a problem with the synthesis, secretion or action of the ADH (anti-diuretic hormone...

  15. Size of pancreas in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a study based on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ju Won; Yoon, Soon Min; Yoon, Mi Jin; Song, Moon Gab; Kim, Yoon Suk; Yoon, Young Kyu [Eulji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Se June [Incheon-Christian Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate changes of pancreatic size with aging in control subjects and in non-insulin- dependent diabetic patients. Two groups of non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients were examined; one had been treated with an oral hypoglycemic agent(n=59), and the other with insulin(n=56). The CT findings of 175 patients without clinical evidence of pancreatic disease were included as a normal control. In control subjects, pancreatic size and age correlated. The pancreas was smaller in non-insulin-dependent diabetics than in control subjects and smaller in insulin- treated non-insulin-dependent diabetics than in non-insulin treated patients. The pancreas was smaller in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients than in control subjects within the same age range.

  16. Diarrea en el paciente con diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jainer Méndez-Flórez; Laura García-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad de gran prevalencia a nivel mundial que conlleva a muchas complicaciones, de las cuales las gastrointestinales son las mayormente olvidadas por el personal médico. Hasta el 22% de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus pueden tener diarrea y la causa de ello es multifactorial, pues incluye la neuropatía, efectos adversos de la terapia antidiabética, el aumento de la miocrobiota intestinal, entre otras. El tratamiento más efectivo es el control estricto de l...

  17. Diarrea en el paciente con diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainer Méndez-Flórez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad de gran prevalencia a nivel mundial que conlleva a muchas complicaciones, de las cuales las gastrointestinales son las mayormente olvidadas por el personal médico. Hasta el 22% de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus pueden tener diarrea y la causa de ello es multifactorial, pues incluye la neuropatía, efectos adversos de la terapia antidiabética, el aumento de la miocrobiota intestinal, entre otras. El tratamiento más efectivo es el control estricto de la glucemia; sin embargo, algunos medicamentos han sido utilizados con algún tipo de beneficio en estos pacientes.

  18. [Surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Muciño-Bermejo, María Jimena

    2014-01-01

    Sustained remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus and significantly improved hyperlipidemia and arterial hypertension, control has been achieves in both lean and obese patient after bariatric surgery procedures or other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. It has been demonstrated that the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery in these patients derives not only in reducing weight and caloric intake, but also endocrine changes resulting from surgical manifestation gastrointestinal tract. In this article we review the clinical outcomes of such interventions (collectively called "metabolic surgery") and the perspectives on the role that these surgeries play in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....

  20. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....

  1. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....

  2. Diabetes mellitus neonatal en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ruiz-Salazar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus neonatal es un raro desorden metabólico usualmente desarrollado en las primeras 6 semanas de vida, secundario a un grupo de mutaciones y defectos del desarrollo pancreático que puede desembocar en una catástrofe clínica si no se identifica tempranamente; se divide en una variante transitoria y una permanente, siendo la primera la más frecuente, con cerca de un 60% de los casos. El manejo inicial de ambas variantes es la insulinoterapia intensiva, que en la variante transitoria puede suspenderse usualmente en los primeros meses de vida. El síndrome de disregulación inmunológica, poliendocrinopatía y enteropatía ligada a X (IPEX por sus siglas en inglés, es una causa extremadamente rara de la variante permanente, casi siempre mortal, caracterizada por un inmunocompromiso severo, enteropatía, diabetes y dermatitis. En el estudio se describen 4 casos de diabetes mellitus neonatal diagnosticados en el Hospital Nacional de Niños de San José, Costa Rica: 2 correspondientes a una diabetes mellitus neonatal transitoria, 2 a una diabetes mellitus neonatal permanente y 1 de ellos correspondiente a un síndrome de IPEX.

  3. Genetic Counseling for Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephanie A.; Maloney, Kristin L.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2014-01-01

    Most diabetes is polygenic in etiology, with (type 1 diabetes, T1DM) or without (type 2 diabetes, T2DM) an autoimmune basis. Genetic counseling for diabetes generally focuses on providing empiric risk information based on family history and/or the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on pregnancy outcome. An estimated one to five percent of diabetes is monogenic in nature, e.g., maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), with molecular testing and etiology-based treatment available. However, recent studies show that most monogenic diabetes is misdiagnosed as T1DM or T2DM. While efforts are underway to increase the rate of diagnosis in the diabetes clinic, genetic counselors and clinical geneticists are in a prime position to identify monogenic cases through targeted questions during a family history combined with working in conjunction with diabetes professionals to diagnose and assure proper treatment and familial risk assessment for individuals with monogenic diabetes. PMID:25045596

  4. [Acatalasemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz; Káplár, Miklós

    2015-03-08

    The catalase enzyme decomposes the toxic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. Hydrogen peroxide is a highly reactive small molecule and its excessive concentration may cause significant damages to proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and lipids. Acatalasemia refers to inherited deficiency of the catalase enzyme. In this review the authors discuss the possible role of the human catalase enzyme, the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide, and the phenomenon of hydrogen peroxide paradox. In addition, they review data obtained from Hungarian acatalasemic patients indicating an increased frequency of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in female patients, and an early onset of type 2 diabetes in these patients. There are 10 catalase gene variants which appear to be responsible for decreased blood catalase activity in acatalasemic patients with type 2 diabetes. It is assumed that low levels of blood catalase may cause an increased concentration of hydrogen peroxide which may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balamurugan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium are the common organisms in mold endophthalmitis. We report a case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes. While diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis, we did not find any reported case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a case of diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with granulomatous uveitis masquerading as noninfectious uveitis with a very good response to steroids. The characteristic clinical features were established late in the clinical course associated with poor outcome. This case highlights the significance of uncontrolled diabetes as a risk factor for Fusarium endophthalmitis and also the presentation of endophthalmitis as a masquerade syndrome. The clinician should have high index of suspicion as these cases have poor outcomes.

  6. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, S; Khodifad, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium are the common organisms in mold endophthalmitis. We report a case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes. While diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis, we did not find any reported case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a case of diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with granulomatous uveitis masquerading as noninfectious uveitis with a very good response to steroids. The characteristic clinical features were established late in the clinical course associated with poor outcome. This case highlights the significance of uncontrolled diabetes as a risk factor for Fusarium endophthalmitis and also the presentation of endophthalmitis as a masquerade syndrome. The clinician should have high index of suspicion as these cases have poor outcomes.

  7. Manifestações musculoesqueléticas em diabetes mellitus Musculoskeletal disorders in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Barreto Gameiro Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus está associado a uma grande variedade de manifestações musculoesqueléticas. Muitas delas são subclínicas e correlacionadas com tempo de evolução e controle inadequado da doença, e devem ser reconhecidas e adequadamente tratadas, pois sua abordagem melhora a qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Nesta revisão são discutidas as principais manifestações musculoesqueléticas encontradas em diabetes mellitus.Diabetes mellitus is associated with a great variety of musculoskeletal manifestations, many of which are subclinical and correlated with disease duration and its inadequate control. They should be recognized and treated properly, because their management improves the patients' quality of life. This review discusses the major musculoskeletal manifestations found in diabetes mellitus.

  8. A study on the cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    The cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are varied. We conducted a study of fifty patients having diabetes mellitus coming from the department of dermatology and medicine. The commonest cutaneous feature of diabetes were pyodermas seen in 40% patients, dermatophytosis seen in 36% patients, pruritis diabetic thick skin seen in 20 % patients, diabetic dermopathy seen in 16% patients, diabetic bulla and rubeosis seen in 8% patients each and meralgia paraesthetica and diabetic foot seen...

  9. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Penghua; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with its high morbidity and mortality becomes an important health problem. The multifactorial etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is relative to many gene and molecule alterations, and increased insulin resistance. Besides these, however, there are still other predisposing and risk factors accounting for type 2 diabetes mellitus not to be identified and recognized. Emerging evidence indicated that defects in galanin function played a crucial role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Galanin homeostasis is tightly relative to insulin resistance and is regulated by blood glucose. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinism, enhanced plasma galanin levels and decreased galanin receptor activities are some of the characters of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The discrepancy between high insulin level and low glucose handling is named as insulin resistance. Similarly, the discrepancy between high galanin level and low glucose handling may be denominated as galanin resistance too. In this review, the characteristic milestones of type 2 diabetes mellitus were condensed as two analogical conceptual models, obesity-hyper-insulin-insulin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity-hyper-galanin-galanin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus. Both galanin resistance and insulin resistance are correlative with each other. Conceptualizing the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance may inspire a new concept to deepen our knowledge about pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, eventually leading to novel preventive and therapeutic interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasing health concern throughout the world. DM is categorized as either type 1 (DM-1) or type 2 (DM-2), where DM-1 represents a lack of insulin production, and DM-2 is characterized by a relative lack of insulin (i.e., decreased sensitivity to the effect of insulin...

  12. Lixisenatide for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an increasing health problem worldwide. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are an expanding drug class that target several of the pathophysiological traits of T2DM. Lixisenatide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist in development for once...

  13. Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qin-feng; QI Li-zhen; LI Sheng; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by abnormally elevated blood sugar because the pancreas does not release adequate insulin and/or the insulin does not work fully. In TCM, DM results from weak constitution and yin deficiency and dryness heat,belonging to the categories of"Xiaoke" and "Xiaodan".

  14. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  15. Glucose-homeostase bij diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, Hessel Rienk

    1988-01-01

    In dit proefschrift worden enige aspecten van de glucosehomeostase bij type I (insuline afhankelijke) diabetes mellitus behandeld. Deze aspecten betreffen onder meer: het effect van verschillende glucosespiegels op de glucosebehoefte bij lage (±10 mE/m²/min) en verhoogde (30 mE/m²/min)

  16. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  17. [Diabetes mellitus: simple classification and corresponding treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, S; Diamant, M; Eekhoffen, E M W; Heine, R J

    2006-05-06

    The classification of diabetes mellitus is not always straightforward but is of clinical importance in view of the differences in treatment, prognosis and inheritance. In young patients with acute signs ofhyperglycaemia and a low bodymass index (BMI), diabetes type 1 is the evident diagnosis, and insulin therapy should be initiated as quickly as possible. Deafness in patients with mild symptoms and a highly positive family history suggests the presence of a mitochondrial or maternally inherited type of diabetes: maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD). In the absence of deafness, maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) should be suspected in the same group of patients. In case of a non-acute presentation of hyperglycaemia without an evident family history of diabetes, the BMI can be helpful in the next steps of the diagnostic process. In practice, the proposed flow chart can readily be applied for the classification and treatment of patients with hyperglycaemia.

  18. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent conditionaffecting about 347 million people worldwide. Inaddition to its numerous clinical implications, DM alsoexerts a negative effect on patient's sleep quality.Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemiccontrol regarded as corner stone in DM managementand also lead to many deleterious effects causing aprofound impact on health related quality of life. Thisarticle outlines various factors leading to impaired sleepquality among diabetics and delineates how individualfactor influences sleep. The article also discussespotential interventions and lifestyle changes to promotehealthy sleep among diabetics.

  19. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzger, Boyd E; Gabbe, Steven G; Persson, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    . In this review, we provide details regarding some points that were considered by the IADPSG Consensus Panel but not published and address the following issues: 1) what should be the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 2) were appropriate outcomes and odds ratios used to define diagnostic thresholds......The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study showed significant perinatal risks at levels of maternal hyperglycemia below values that are diagnostic for diabetes. A Consensus Panel of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) reviewed HAPO Study...

  20. Antioxidant role of zinc in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2015-03-15

    Chronic hyperglycemia statue noticed in diabetes mellitus favors the manifestation of oxidative stress by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species and/or by reducing the antioxidant defense system activity. Zinc plays an important role in antioxidant defense in type 2 diabetic patients by notably acting as a cofactor of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, by modulating the glutathione metabolism and metallothionein expression, by competing with iron and copper in the cell membrane and by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase enzyme. Zinc also improves the oxidative stress in these patients by reducing chronic hyperglycemia. It indeed promotes phosphorylation of insulin receptors by enhancing transport of glucose into cells. However, several studies reveal changes in zinc metabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and controversies remain regarding the effect of zinc supplementation in the improvement of oxidative stress in these patients. Faced with the serious challenge of the metabolic disorders related to oxidative stress in diabetes along with the importance of antioxidant nutrients in the control of this disease, new studies may contribute to improve our understanding of the role played by zinc against oxidative stress and its connection with type 2 diabetes mellitus prognosis. This could serve as a prelude to the development of prevention strategies and treatment of disorders associated with this chronic disease.

  1. Relation between diabetes mellitus and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to verify if there is any relation between diabetes mellitus and male infertility. Methods: the spermograms of 43 non-diabetic subjects and 12 diabetic patients (type 1 and 2 aged 20-60 years were compared. Spermiological findings in diabetic patients were compared with those of normal individuals of the same age. Serum testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulant hormone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin were assayed in diabetic patients. Rresults: Six diabetic patients (four type 1 and two type 2 presented chronic complications attributed to neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. No difference was observed in the semen characteristics (odor, color, viscosity and pH between the control group and the diabetic patients. There were no differences between seminal concentrations and percentage of motile spermatozoa during the first hour of observation in the two groups (p < 0.05. Impotence was reported by four diabetic patients (33.3%. Erectile failure was associated with diabetic microangiopathy and neuropathy. There were no controls with impotence. No significant hormonal changes were found in the diabetic patients. Cconclusions: The present results suggest that neuropathy and vascular insufficiency  may be  implicated in sexual dysfunction in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, without significantly affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  2. Patients' Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus in a Nigerian City

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2011-04-13

    Apr 13, 2011 ... Purpose: To assess the knowledge of diabetes mellitus among diabetes patients and to identify knowledge .... known diabetic with either type 1 or 2 .... among four options is highest in carbohydrate ... treat low blood glucose.

  3. Auditory Temporal Resolution in Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction “Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar and abnormalities in insulin secretion and action” (American Diabetes Association). Previous literature has reported connection between diabetes mellitus and hearing impairment. There is a dearth of literature on auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Objective The main objective of the present study was to assess auditory temporal resolution a...

  4. 76 FR 22941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its...

  5. 76 FR 37882 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its...

  6. 78 FR 19798 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its...

  7. 76 FR 22940 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its...

  8. Plasma Renin Activity in Diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyo, Heui Jung; Park Jung Sik; Kim, Sung Kwon; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    To evaluate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in diabetes mellitus, basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and its response to intravenous furosemide were determined in 40 diabetic subjects. The diabetics were divided into 4 groups according to the presence of nephropathy and/or hypertension. Uncomplicated diabetics (Group I) were taken as control group and the results of the other groups were compared to this group. In diabetics with nephropathy alone (Group II), and with nephropathy and hypertension (Group III), basal PRA values were 0.63+-0.59 ng/ml/hr., and 0.79+-0.62 ng/ml/hr., respectively, both significantly lower than control group. (1.53+-1.09 ng/ml/hr.). (p<0.05) In both of the above groups, the responses to intravenous furosemide tended to be blunted. On the other hand, in diabetics, with hypertension only (Group IV), the basal and stimulated PRA were not significantly different from control. Above results suggests that nephropathy may be one of the factors which suppress renin activity in diabetes mellitus

  9. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India

    OpenAIRE

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes...

  10. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  11. Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian; Nellans, Frank P; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential for great impact on U.S. health care, especially for chronic disease patients requiring long-term care and management. The act was designed to improve insurance coverage, health care access, and quality of care for all Americans, which will assist patients with diabetes mellitus in acquiring routine monitoring and diabetes-related complication screening for better health management and outcomes. There is great potential for patients with diabetes to benefit from the new policy mandating health insurance coverage and plan improvement, Medicaid expansion, minimum coverage guarantees, and free preventative care. However, policy variability among states and ACA implementation present challenges to people with diabetes in understanding and optimizing ACA impact. This paper aims to select the most influential components of the ACA as relates to people with diabetes and discuss how the ACA may improve health care for this vulnerable population.

  12. Risikostratificering af patienter med diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Peter; Glintborg, Dorte; Andries, Alin

    2008-01-01

    with diabetes mellitus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included patients with diabetes from the catchment areas of four diabetes out-patient clinics in southern Denmark. Patients were risk-stratified to 3 follow-up levels (level 1 - follow-up only by their GP, level 2 - intensified follow-up by GP and/or shared care...... schemes, level 3 - follow-up only in out-patient clinics). The results were subsequently compared with the patients' actual follow-up status. RESULTS: A total of 647 patients (563 type 2 diabetes and 84 type 1 diabetes) were included from 15 GPs. Among these, 139 were stratified to level 1, 409 to level 2...

  13. Statins and risk of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statins are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, which reduces HMG-CoA to mevalonate, the precursor of cholesterol via squalene. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase results in a decrease in cholesterol production. Since 1987, when the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA approved lovastatin for clinical use,(1 statins have been widely used for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease (CHD, which is associated with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. Statins are also used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, since this carries a high risk of CHD. Statins have several adverse effects, to which must now be added new onset diabetes. In 2012 the FDA issued a warning about the risk of newly developed diabetes mellitus in older persons, such that statin labels now include information on glycemic effects, including diabetes and increases in hemoglobin A1c or fasting plasma glucose.(2 According to the results of a recent meta-analysis involving 13,966 40+-year patients newly treated with statins between 1 January 1977 and 31 March 2011, a moderate but significant increase was found in the risk of new onset diabetes within the first two years of using regular higher potency statins (rosuvastatin >10 mg, atorvastatin >20 mg, and simvastatin >40 mg, compared with lower potency drugs. Therefore these investigators caution clinicians regarding the use of higher potency statins in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.(2 The use of a new drug carries a “built-in time-bomb”, because nothing is known about its side effects, except for those revealed by animal tests and limited clinical trials. Even a multicenter clinical trial cannot be expected to reveal all possible adverse reactions associated with a new drug. As an illustration, in patients without diabetes mellitus, more than 345 000 cases were needed to detect an increase in fasting

  14. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  15. Gait parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that results in sensorimotor alterations. These changes affect balance and walking and predispose affected patients to falls. The aim of this review was to identify studies in the recent literature that assess gait parameters and aspects involved in walking. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases were searched using the following combination of keywords: diabetic neuropathies x gait; diabetes mellitus x gait, and diabetic foot x gait. After the application of selection criteria, 15 articles were retrieved, summarized, discussed, and are included in this review. Diabetic neuropathy was found to lead to deficits in step amplitude, gait velocity and gait cadence on flat surfaces, without sudden changes in direction or stops, and to balance and coordination deficits on inclined and uneven terrain. Diabetic neuropathies also increase plantar pressure rates and lead to difficulties in the terminal stance phase and pre-swing phase due to changes in triceps surae activation. Thus, the next initial contact occurs in an inadequate manner, with the forefoot and without absorption of shocks.

  16. 77 FR 43901 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes exemption program, based on...

  17. 77 FR 43417 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes exemption program, based on...

  18. 78 FR 24303 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... commercial motor vehicle if that person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  19. 77 FR 25227 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes exemption program, based on...

  20. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children and adolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescents is unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases among children. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistent forms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestations and complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents. Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  1. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tramontano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/L specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment.

  2. Fundamentos biomoleculares de la diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiana Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad endocrina con importantes implicaciones a nivel sistémico, como: angiopatía, neuropatía, retinopatía y nefropatía, entre otras. Estas  complicaciones tienen su origen en eventos biomoleculares desencadenados por la hiperglicemia.  La presente revisión de tema trata sobre la estructura y síntesis de la insulina en las células β del páncreas; los eventos moleculares y bioquímicos que activan su secreción como respuesta a una alta concentración de glucosa en sangre; la cascada de señalización generada por la unión de la insulina a su receptor sobre células diana; y las alteraciones metabólicas que los diferentes tipos de diabetes mellitus producen.

  3. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patient’s sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among...

  4. 9.ENDOCRINOLOGY 9.1.Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920052 The evaluation of apolipoprotein AIand B determination type Ⅱ diabetes melli-tus.YANG Xiangjiu (杨香玖),et al.Dept InternMed,2nd Affil Hosp,Hubei Med Coll.Wuhan ChinJ Endocrinoi & Metabol 1991; 7 (3): 140-142.The significance of serum apolipoprotein(Apo) AI and B measurements in the prediction ofdiabetes mellitus associated with coronary heart

  5. Spices in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications.

  6. Diabetes mellitus hacia una perspectiva social

    OpenAIRE

    Concepción López Ramón; María Isabel Ávalos García

    2013-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus es considerada actualmente como una enfermedad social, no solo por su elevada frecuencia, sino también por el costo económico que representa para los gobiernos y las familias de las personas que la padecen. En los últimos años se ha suscitado un enorme interés científico y académico en torno a los aspectos psicosociales y de la calidad de vida en las personas con enfermedades crónicas, especialmente con diabetes. Para los investigadores de esta enfermedad, la aproximación...

  7. Antioxidant role of zinc in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz; Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira; Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia statue noticed in diabetes mellitus favors the manifestation of oxidative stress by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species and/or by reducing the antioxidant defense system activity. Zinc plays an important role in antioxidant defense in type 2 diabetic patients by notably acting as a cofactor of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, by modulating the glutathione metabolism and metallothionein expression, by competing with iron and copper in the cell membrane and by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephosphate-oxidase enzyme. Zinc also improves theoxidative stress in these patients by reducing chronichyperglycemia. It indeed promotes phosphorylation ofinsulin receptors by enhancing transport of glucose intocells. However, several studies reveal changes in zincmetabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitusand controversies remain regarding the effect of zincsupplementation in the improvement of oxidative stressin these patients. Faced with the serious challengeof the metabolic disorders related to oxidative stressin diabetes along with the importance of antioxidantnutrients in the control of this disease, new studies maycontribute to improve our understanding of the roleplayed by zinc against oxidative stress and its connectionwith type 2 diabetes mellitus prognosis. This could serveas a prelude to the development of prevention strategiesand treatment of disorders associated with this chronicdisease.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Brian L; Rose, Louis F

    2008-09-01

    THE PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periodontal diseases are inflammatory conditions that were once thought to have manifestations localized to the oral cavity alone, and were therefore considered the concern of only dentists and other oral health professionals. Emerging evidence has changed this view and now suggests that periodontal diseases may play a role in numerous conditions that impact systemic well-being, including diabetes mellitus. This review examines the relationships that exist between periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus, with a focus on potential common pathophysiologic pathways including those associated with inflammation, altered host responses, and insulin resistance. Periodontal inflammation is associated with an elevated systemic inflammatory state and an increased risk of major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke, adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia, low birth weight, and preterm birth, and altered glycemic control in people with diabetes. Intervention trials suggest that periodontal therapy, which decreases the intraoral bacterial bioburden and reduces periodontal inflammation, can have a significant impact on systemic inflammatory status. Evidence suggests that periodontal therapy is associated with improved glycemic control in many patients with both diabetes and periodontal diseases. Recognition of the bilateral relationships between oral and systemic health will challenge physicians and dentists to work together closely in the future when managing patients with diabetes and periodontal disease.

  9. [Association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan-xin

    2007-02-18

    This paper focused on the relationship between periodontitis and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is an abundance of evidence that diabetes mellitus play important etiological roles in periodontal diseases. In addition, periodontal diseases have powerful and multiple influences on the occurrence and severity of systemic conditions and diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and pregnancy complications. The relationship of periodontitis and diabetes has been supported by sufficient evidences in the past twenty years: (1) diabetes is an independent risk factor of chronic periodontitis; (2) metabolic control will improve the prognosis of chronic periodontitis; (3) the treatment of chronic periodontitis will improve the metabolic level. Our recent investigation on periodontal status in the families of type 2 diabetes mellitus further confirmed the relationship. It was showed that the periodontal index such as probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL) and numbers of tooth loss in diabetes family members were significantly higher than non-diabetes family members, while no difference of periodontal parameters was found between well control family members and non diabetes family members. In the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and its complications, the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptors were to be recognized as important factors. The distributions of AGEs and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) are highly consistent in various tissues. One study in our laboratory demonstrated that RAGE was strongly expressed in gingival tissues gathered from T2DM patients with periodontitis compared with systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients, the expression of RAGE was positively correlated with the expression of TNF-alpha, indicating that AGE-RAGE pathway was involved in the development of periodontitis in T2DM patients. It is known that inflammation could induce the prediabetic status characterized by

  10. 76 FR 20358 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Mellitus Interagency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... . Dated: April 4, 2011. Sanford Garfield, Executive Secretary, DMICC, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee; Notice of Workshop The Diabetes...

  11. Insulin biosynthesis and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permutt, A; Chirgwin, J; Giddings, S; Kakita, K; Rotwein, P

    1981-10-01

    This review reports the use of recombinant DNA techniques in the study of the structure and regulation of expression of insulin genes in man and experimental animals. Insulin biosynthesis by pancreatic islet cells is predominantly regulated by change in plasma glucose concentration. Using a cell-free protein synthesizing system as an assay of functional proinsulin messenger RNA (mRNA), and hybridization analysis with a cloned DNA complementary to proinsulin mRNA, it has been determined that through changes in proinsulin mRNA levels. Insulin genes of the rat, chicken and human have been isolated and sequenced. The 5' ends of the genes have similar sequences suggesting areas important for regulation of transcription. There are two non-allelic insulin genes in the rat, but only one in chickens and humans. Intervening sequences, areas of DNA transcribed into precursor mRNA but which do not appear in mature mRNA, have been described within insulin genes. The insulin gene resides on chromosome 11 of humans as determined by DNA hybridization analysis of mouse human hybrid cells. The structure of the insulin gene in genomic DNA of humans has been analyzed in diabetics and non-diabetics. Insertions of DNA between 1500 and 3400 base pairs have been detected near the transcription initiation site in 65% of type II diabetics, and 25-30% of non-diabetics (this difference is significant at the p less than 0.001 level). Limitation of these insertions to this potential promotor region of the insulin gene suggests that they may alter gene expression in type II diabetes. These insertions of DNA may prove to be useful genetic markers for diabetes.

  12. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W.G.; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L.R.

    1964-03-12

    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Novel Directions for Diabetes Mellitus Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Wang, Shaohui

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus impacts almost 200 million individuals worldwide and leads to debilitating complications. New avenues of drug discovery must target the underlying cellular processes of oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation that can mediate multi-system pathology during diabetes mellitus. Areas Covered We examine novel directions for drug discovery that involve the β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor nicotinamide, the cytokine erythropoietin, the NAD+-dependent protein histone deacetylase SIRT1, the serine/threonine-protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the wingless pathway. Implications for the targeting of these pathways that oversee gluconeogenic genes, insulin signaling and resistance, fatty acid beta-oxidation, inflammation, and cellular survival are presented. Expert Opinion Nicotinamide, erythropoietin, and the downstram pathways of SIRT1, mTOR, forkhead transcription factors, and wingless signaling offer exciting prospects for novel directions of drug discovery for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Future investigations must dissect the complex relationship and fine modulation of these pathways for the successful translation of robust reparative and regenerative strategies against diabetes mellitus and the complications of this disorder. PMID:23092114

  14. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Al-awar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans.

  15. Obesity and metabolic surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Raab; R. A. Weiner; Frenken, M.; K. Rett; Weiner, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity surgery is an effective method for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. This type of diabetes can be completely resolved in 78.1% of diabetic patients and can be improved or resolved in 86.6% of diabetic patients. But little is known about bariatric surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: We report of 6 female obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 who had bariatric surgery. Two of them underwent Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RNYGB), one of them had sleev...

  16. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...... Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (P...

  17. Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Boggia, José; Liu, Yanping; Asayama, Kei; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (Phypertensives tended to be higher than in normotensives (hazard rate [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–3.97; P=0.059), similar to untreated stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 1.07; CI, 0.58–1.98; P=0.82), but less than stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.29–0.99; P=0.048). In contrast, cardiovascular risk was not significantly different in antihypertensive-treated diabetic-masked hypertensives, as compared with the normotensive comparator group (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.54–2.35; P=0.75), stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 0.91; CI, 0.49–1.69; P=0.76), and stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.65; CI, 0.35–1.20; P=0.17). In the untreated diabetic-masked hypertensive population, mean conventional systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 129.2±8.0/76.0±7.3 mm Hg, and mean daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure 141.5±9.1/83.7±6.5 mm Hg. In conclusion, masked hypertension occurred in 29% of untreated diabetics, had comparable cardiovascular risk as stage 1 hypertension, and would require considerable reduction in conventional blood pressure to reach daytime ambulatory treatment goal. Importantly, many hypertensive diabetics when receiving antihypertensive therapy can present with normalized conventional and elevated ambulatory blood pressure that mimics masked hypertension. PMID:23478096

  18. A pilot study of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients using non‐mydriatic retinography and telemedicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CASTRO, MCR; VLEMING, EN; TEUS, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To asses whether the use of non‐mydriatic retinography and telemedicine is an adequate method of screening DR in diabetic population Methods We included all patients suffering from type I, type 2 noninsulin dependant and type 2...

  19. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yu-mei; YANG Hui-xia

    2012-01-01

    One of the most frequent medical complications of pregnancy is diabetes,and its incidence is increasing every year.A portion of pregnant women with diabetes have overt diabetes whereas the major portion have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM),which accounts for approximately 80%-90% of diabetes in pregnancy.

  1. Diabetes Mellitus como causa de perda auditiva Diabetes mellitus as etiological factor of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clícia Adriana S. Maia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os pacientes com diabetes mellitus freqüentemente apresentam sintomas como tontura, zumbidos e hipoacusia. Via de regra, a perda auditiva é do tipo sensorioneural, confundindo-se, por vezes, com presbiacusia, principalmente por ocorrer em pacientes acima dos 40 anos de idade. A angiopatia e a neuropatia causadas pelo diabetes mellitus têm sido considerados importantes fatores responsáveis pelas manifestações vestibulococleares nesses pacientes. Porém, existe controvérsia no que se refere à etiopatogênese da perda auditiva, sendo que parte dos autores advoga que ela ocorre devido à neuropatia, outra parte à angiopatia, e outra, ainda, à associação das duas. Porém há também os que entendem que o diabetes mellitus e a perda auditiva poderiam ser partes integrantes de uma síndrome genética e não dependentes entre si. Realizamos uma extensa revisão bibliográfica procurando analisar se há relação "causa e efeito" entre o diabetes mellitus e a perda auditiva. Pudemos observar que, apesar do grande número de estudos realizados, a controvérsia ainda é grande, sendo que novas perspectivas, como no campo da genética, estão sendo estudadas, mostrando que novos rumos podem ser tomados para se chegar à conclusão do tema.Patients with diabetes mellitus often show symptoms such as dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing impairment. In general, hearing loss is sensorineural, which is sometimes confused with presbycusis, mainly because it develops in patients older than 40 years of age. Angiopathy and neuropathy caused by diabetes mellitus have been considered important factors for the vestibular-cochlear disorders found in these patients. However, there is controversy regarding the etiopathogenesis of hearing loss, as some researchers support that it develops due to neuropathy, others say it is due to angiopathy, or even a combination of both. Yet, some researchers believe diabetes mellitus and hearing loss are part of a genetic

  2. Pulmonary functions in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A reduction in lung capacity has been reported previously among diabetics. According to WHO estimates, Pakistan is currently eighth in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and will become fourth by the year 2025 with over 15 million individuals. This study was designed to see the impairment of lung functions on spirometry in DM patients. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the pulmonary functions tests of Pakistani patients with DM. Materials and Methods: Between January to July 2004, 128 subjects who were never-smokers and had no acute or chronic pulmonary disease were recruited. Sixty-four of these subjects had DM and 64 were healthy matched controls. All underwent screening with detailed history, anthropometry, lipid profile, and spirometric measurements at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Results: The mean age of diabetics and matched control were 54.3±9 and 54.0±8 (P<0.87 years, respectively. Diabetes patients showed a significant reduction in the forced vital capacity (FVC [mean difference (95% CI - 0.36 (-0.64, -0.07 P<0.01], forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 [- 0.25(-0.50, -0.003 P<0.04], and slow vital capacity (SVC [- 0.28(-0.54, -0.01 P<0.04], relative to nondiabetic controls. There was no significant difference noted in the forced expiratory ratio and maximum mid-expiratory flow between the groups. There was also a significant higher level of triglycerides noted among diabetics (P<0.001. Conclusion: Diabetic patients showed impaired lung function independent of smoking. This reduced lung function is likely to be a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Nuevas estrategias terapéuticas en diabetes mellitus tipo 1 New therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, M. (Miguel); Príncipe, R.M. (R.M.); Escalada, J.; Prósper, F; J. Salvador

    2008-01-01

    El principal determinante del riesgo de complicaciones derivadas de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 se debe a los altos niveles de glucosa en sangre mantenidos durante largo tiempo. Para conseguir un beneficio terapéutico en pacientes con diabetes mellitus es necesario desarrollar tratamientos que permitan de manera segura, efectiva y estable mantener la normoglucemia. Lamentablemente, el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 mediante el aporte exógeno de insulina no es capaz de conseguir ni...

  4. Retinoid Metabolism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoid acid is a metabolite of vitamin A and functions as an important factor in cell survival, differentiation and death. Most previous studies on retinoid metabolism have focused on its association with cancer, hematologic and dermatologic disorders. Given the special concern over the recent increase in the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, the role of retinoid metabolism on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in the human body is of marked importance. Therefore, in this issue, we review the literature on the association of retinoid metabolism with glucose tolerance, with regard to insulin secretion, pancreatic autoimmunity, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. Further, we tried to assess the possibility of using retinoids as a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes.

  5. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Goblan AS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Al-Goblan,1 Mohammed A Al-Alfi,1 Muhammad Z Khan2 1Diabetes Center, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Buraidah, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Sulaiman AlRajhi Colleges, Al Bukairiyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, obesity, insulin resistance

  6. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  7. CHROMIUM STATUS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Fasting serum chromium, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacytglycerot and blood sugar were determined in fifty two diabetic patients with no other organic diseases anil compared with those obtained from a control group including fourty two healthy volunteers matched for age, sex ami body mass irutex (BMI. Fasting serum chromium and HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in patients than in controls (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 respectively, but the mean triacytglycerot concentration was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<002. Mean total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol values were not significantly different in the two groups. Mean intake of energy, proteins, fats and chromium, estimated by the 24 hr dietary recall method were not significantly different in the two groups. We demonstrated that despite an adequate intake of chromium, the fasting serum chromium was lower in diabetic patients than in control subjects. Chromium deficiency in diabetic patients may act as a contributing factor in aggravating the disease's complications.

  8. Nutritional therapy for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, S L

    1995-05-01

    Dietary therapy affects diabetes management in the dog and cat directly through control of blood glucose and indirectly through control of obesity and lipid abnormalities. Caloric intake, the feeding schedule, food form, macronutrient composition of the diet, and the presence of any concurrent problems must all be considered when planning the dietary regime. Generally, the healthy diabetic dog or cat should be fed a diet with increased fiber and moderate carbohydrate in a quantity sufficient to attain and maintain optimal body weight; whenever possible, the daily food allotment should be divided into multiple small meals that are fed through the day and evening when the physiologic effects of administered insulin are present. Once established, the dietary regime should be kept constant from day to day. Following these guidelines will help minimize postprandial hyperglycemia and may lead to a decreased exogenous insulin requirement. However, if a concurrent disorder has dietary requirements that conflict with those for the diabetic pet, nutritional management of the other disorder should usually take precedence.

  9. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Diabetes Mellitus in the Transplanted Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil ePeev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. New onset diabetes mellitus after transplant (NODAT has been described in approximately 30 percent of non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients many years post transplantation. DM in patients with kidney transplantation constitutes a major comorbidity, and has significant impact on the patients and allografts’ outcome. In addition to the major comorbidity and mortality that result from cardiovascular and other DM complications, long standing DM after kidney transplant has significant pathological injury to the allograft, which results in lowering the allografts and the patients’ survivals. In spite of the cumulative body of data on diabetic nephropathy (DN in the native kidney, there has been very limited data on the DN in the transplanted kidney. In this review, we will shed the light on the risk factors that lead to the development of NODAT. We will also describe the impact of DM on the transplanted kidney, and the outcome of kidney transplant recipients with NODAT. Additionally, we will present the most acceptable data on management of NODAT.

  11. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, C F; Okonji, M M O; Odongo, I S O

    2002-02-01

    Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.

  12. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system. AIM: of the study was to evaluate presence and prevalence of common dermatoses in patients. 250 cases of D.M. with various cutaneous manifestations attending in and outpatient department of Dr. D. Y. Patil medical hospital were evaluated. Detailed history was taken as per proforma and patient investigated. Maximum incidence was seen between 40-70 yrs. of age and in middle class. Fungal infection constituted highest number which included dermatophytosis, candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor. No cutaneous reactions to therapy for diabetes were encountered in the present study.

  13. Screening strategies for gestational diabetes mellitus at the Aga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening strategies for gestational diabetes mellitus at the Aga Khan University ... both strategies and the prevalence of risk factors for gestational diabetes. ... significant for fasting glucose levels (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.06, ...

  14. Original Research Article Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among Registered Nurses in. Benin City ... term complications of diabetes with 86.9%, 86.4% of the respondents .... hypoglycaemia and recognition of microvascular and macrovascular complications, diet and.

  15. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of containing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the women affected.

  16. Clinical and biochemical profile of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Punyakrit Deb Barma; Salam Ranabir; Lallan Prasad; Thangjam Premchand Singh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent form of diabetes worldwide. In western countries majority of the cases are obese. The scenario may be different in certain parts of India. Various studies have reported a high prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus with a body mass index < 19 kg/m 2 . Materials and Methods: We evaluated 100 cases of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (62 males and 38 females). Results and Conclusion: The mean duration of diabetes was 51.7 months (rang...

  17. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis--cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, L J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis are two distinct diseases encountered commonly in small animal practice. Whilst the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are usually unmistakeable, a firm diagnosis of pancreatitis can prove more elusive, as clinical signs are often variable. Over the past 10 to 15 years, despite the fact that the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are remarkably consistent, it has become more apparent that the underlying pathology of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats is heterogeneous, with exocrine pancreatic inflammation accompanying diabetes mellitus in a number of cases. However, the question remains as to whether the diabetes mellitus causes the pancreatitis or whether, conversely, the pancreatitis leads to diabetes mellitus--as there is evidence to support both scenarios. The concurrence of diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis has clinical implications for case management as such cases may follow a more difficult clinical course, with their glycaemic control being "brittle" as a result of variation in the degree of pancreatic inflammation. Problems may also arise if abdominal pain or vomiting lead to anorexia. In addition, diabetic cases with pancreatitis are at risk of developing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the following months to years, which can complicate their management further.

  18. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoangelos, K.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Raptis, A. E.; Tsiotra, P.; Lambadiari, V.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS), and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI). Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0). One year later (T1), the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006 diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (r sp = −0.247, P = 0.023). There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (r sp = −0.220, P = 0.043). Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:25722989

  19. Apoptosis of beta cells in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rachakatla; Saraswati, Mudigonda; Kumar, Kishore G; Rani, Surekha H

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Apoptosis in beta cells has been observed in response to diverse stimuli, such as glucose, cytokines, free fatty acids, leptin, and sulfonylureas, leading to the activation of polyol, hexosamine, and diacylglycerol/protein kinase-C (DAG/PKC) pathways that mediate oxidative and nitrosative stress causing the release of different cytokines. Cytokines induce the expression of Fas and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by activating the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κb, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) in the β cells in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Cytokines produced in beta cells also induce proapoptotic members of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The genetic alterations in apoptosis signaling machinery and the pathogenesis of diabetes include Fas, FasL, Akt, caspases, calpain-10, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). The other gene products that are involved in diabetes are nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2), small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), and Kruppel-like zinc finger protein Gli-similar 3 (GLIS3). The gene products having antiapoptotic nature are Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in type I and type II diabetes. Further studies on the apoptotic genes and gene products in diabetics may be helpful in pharmacogenomics and individualized treatment along with antioxidants targeting apoptosis in diabetes.

  20. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  1. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Functional Hypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atmaca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effect of blood sugar regulation and vitamin D levels on calcium metabolism and parathormone levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Method: We included 132 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to our outpatient clinic for regular check up between August 2013 and October 2013. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, creatinine, parathormone, 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD], spot urinary calcium and creatinine levels were studied for each patient. Results: Vitamin D levels were below 30 ng/mL in 96.9% (n=128 and below 20 ng/mL in 78.7% (n=102 of the patients included in the study. Patients with impaired blood sugar regulation (HbA1c >10% had lower levels of PTH, albumin and 25(OHD levels and higher phosphorus levels compared to patients with HbA1c levels below 10% (p=0.018, p=0.043, p=0.002, p=0.01, respectively. The rates of functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL in patients with vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL were 63.2% and 59.6%, respectively. Among the diabetic patients with vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL, magnesium levels were significantly lower in those with functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL compared to those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (p=0.015. Comparative statistical analysis of patients with HbA1c levels above and below 10% demonstrated higher proportion of patients with functional hypoparathyroidism in the group with impaired blood sugar regulation (p=0.035 for patients with vitamin levels below 30 ng/mL, and p=0.031 for patients with vitamin levels below 20 ng/mL. Discussion: Impaired blood sugar regulation leads to functional hypoparathyroidism with secondary hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as was previously described for subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Computed tomographical evaluation of diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hara, Shigeko; Arizono, Kenji; Katori, Hideyuki; Yamada, Akira; Mimura, Nobuhide [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan). Kidney Center; Hagura, Ryoko

    1996-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy can be regarded mainly as a type of microangiopathy, but is a disease that may also include aspects of macroangiopathy. This is especially true of renal disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), which is characterized not only by diabetic glomerulosclerosis, but also by atherosclerosis. We performed morphological studies on the kidney, using computed tomography (CT), focusing on such points as: abdominal aortic calcifications at the level of kidney, calcifications in the renal artery, and wedge-shaped defects on the renal surface. We noted that these findings became more prominent in NIDDM patients during end-stage renal failure than during normal renal function, and were significantly more common in those two NIDDM groups than in age-matched nondiabetic patients without hypertension, hyperlipidemia or gout. NIDDM patients exhibited these features more frequently than IDDM patients. (author)

  3. Rheumatic manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiedz-Odrobina, Dorota; Kay, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    DM is associated with various musculoskeletal manifestations. The strength of this relationship varies among the various musculoskeletal disorders; the associations are based mostly on epidemiologic data. For most of these conditions, definitive pathophysiologic correlates are lacking.Hand and shoulder disorders occur more frequently than other musculoskeletal manifestations of DM. Recognition of the association between DM and shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, and stenosing flexor tenosynovitis facilitates their correct diagnosis in the setting of DM and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment, which may include optimizing glycemic control. Conversely, awareness and identification of the characteristic musculoskeletal manifestations of DM may facilitate earlier diagnosis of DM and initiation of glucose-lowering therapy to retard the development of diabetic complications.Much less has been published about the musculoskeletal complications of DM than about its micro- and macrovascular complications. Prospective case-control cohort studies are needed to establish the true prevalence of musculoskeletal complications of DM and the metabolic syndrome, especially in this era of tighter glycemic control.The potential relationship between DM and the development of OA needs to be clarified in large, prospective, case-control cohort studies. The effect on musculoskeletal manifestations of various therapeutic regimens to manage DM should be studied prospectively. Treatment regimens for some musculoskeletal conditions associated with DM, such as DISH, should be studied in larger prospective, randomized,controlled clinical trials.At the molecular level, further studies are warranted to clarify the potential contribution of AGEs and adipokines to the development of OA and diabetic musculoskeletal syndromes, such as shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, and LJM. Identification of such molecular targets for therapy would promote the development of

  4. Indicators of glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-07-25

    Recently, it has become clear that mild abnormal glucose tolerance increases the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications, and so the definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been changed. Therefore, in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus, even stricter glycemic control than before is required to reduce the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications. Strict glycemic control cannot be attained without an indicator of glycemic control; this review proposes a reliable indicator. The gold standard indicator of glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus is hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); however, we have demonstrated that HbA1c does not reflect glycemic control accurately during pregnancy because of iron deficiency. It has also become clear that glycated albumin, another indicator of glycemic control, is not influenced by iron deficiency and therefore might be a better indicator of glycemic control in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. However, large-population epidemiological studies are necessary in order to confirm our proposal. Here, we outline the most recent findings about the indicators of glycemic control during pregnancy including fructosamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

  5. Diabetes Mellitus in Outpatients in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries and these will experience the greatest increase in cases of diabetes over the next 22 years. Objective. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus among outpatients of Debre Berhan Referral Hospital. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015 among 385 patients. Random quota sampling technique was used to get individual patients and risk factors assessment. Patients diabetes status was ascertained by World Health Organization Diabetes Mellitus Diagnostic Criteria. The collected data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed and Chi-square test was applied to test any association between dependent and independent variable. Result. Out of the total 385 study patients, 368 have participated in the study yielding a response rate of 95.3%. Concerning clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus, 13.3% of patients reported thirst, 14.4% of patients declared polyurea, and 14.9% of patients ascertained unexplained weight loss. The statistically significant associated factors of diabetes mellitus were hypertensive history, obesity, the number of parities, and smoking history. Conclusion. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among outpatients in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital was 0.34% and several clinical and behavioral factors contribute to the occurrence of diabetes mellitus which impose initiation of preventive, promotive, and curative strategies.

  6. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aleksandrovich Sklyanik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an analysis of clinical and experimental studies related to post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM – a specific complication after solid organ transplantation.A search of the databases eLibrary, PubMed and Scopus using the keywords «posttransplantation diabetes mellitus», «new onset diabetes after transplantation», «transplantation» and «immunosuppression» yielded in 523 results, including four from Russian literature (one original research manuscript. The analysis included original research, reviews, meta-analyses and monographs published not before 2005 in Russian and English. A total of 60 relevant original researches and reviews were included in this review.Diagnostic criteria, disease risk factors and potential pathogenic mechanisms were all considered. The mechanisms of the diabetogenic effect of modern immunosuppressive drugs were analysed. The principles of pre- and post-transplantation screening for PTDM and optimal management strategies for patients with PTDM are presented. The current controversial issues concerning the various aspects of PTDM are discussed.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Eran; Hod, Moshe

    2015-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM is about 2-5% of normal pregnancies and depends of the prevalence of same population to type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is associated with adverse outcome for the mother, the fetus, neonate, child and adult offspring of the diabetic mother. Detection of GDM lies on screening, followed as necessary by diagnostic measures. Screening can either be selective, based upon risk stratification or universal. Timely testing enables the obstetrician to assess glucose tolerance in the presence of the insulin-resistant state of pregnancy and permits treatment to begin before excessive fetal growth has occurred. Once a diagnosis of GDM was made close perinatal surveillance is warranted. The goal of treatment is reducing fetal-maternal morbidity and mortality related with GDM. The exact glucose values needed are still not absolutely proved. The decision whether and when to induce delivery depends on gestational age, estimated fetal weight, maternal glycemic control and bishop score. Future research is needed regarding prevention of GDM, treatment goals and effectiveness of interventions, guidelines for pregnancy care and prevention of long term metabolic sequel for both the infant and the mother.

  8. STUDY OF SERUM TESTOSTERONE IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad Kathula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes Mellitus is not a disease, but can be considered as a metabolic syndrome in which not only the sugar metabolism is impaired, but also is said to have profound effects or influence on other metabolic disorders. Almost, all the metabolic pathways will be affected in this dreadful disease. It’s a slow poison, which starts showing its effects as the time progresses. One of the commonest complaint seen in the diabetes patients is the loss of libido or derangement in the sexual physiology. The most common complaints include the erectile dysfunction and mood elevations. The patients also complain of stressfulness. These symptoms point out towards a common source i.e. decrease in the testosterone levels. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand the relations of total serum testosterone seen in diabetes mellitus patients. This may help the physicians, operating surgeons, and also anaesthetists to understand the plethora of metabolic disturbances seen in the diabetes mellitus and take necessary steps to correct such conditions and also take necessary preventive members that may result in catastrophe. METHODS This study is a cross-sectional study done in Government Medical College, Nizamabad. One hundred known diabetic patients who attended the Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad, were identified. The fasting levels of postprandial level and HbA1c were detected. The total testosterone level was identified. The incidence of low testosterone (<300 ng/dL was checked. The different levels of glucose (Fasting, postprandial and HbA1c was compared to the amount of serum total testosterone. Finally, the time since the diabetes was known to the patients were correlated to the levels of testosterone. RESULT In the present study, the incidence of the low total testosterone was found to be in 39 percent of the diabetics. In the present study, there is a positive correlation between the total testosterone

  9. [Diabetes type 2 and Alzheimer disease - one or two diseases? Mechanisms of association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Małgorzata

    2013-07-23

    Some epidemiological data and pathophysiological evidence suggest similarities and connection of two amyloidoses: diabetes mellitus type 2, (DM2) (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). What they have in common is insulin resistance, neurodegeneration, development and progression of dementia, and the fact that in the course of both diseases fibrillar aggregates of specific proteins are accumulated in affected organs. What is more, experimental evidence also supports the hypothesis that small prefibrillar aggregates that emerge prior to the appearance of mature fibrils are responsible for a key step in development and cytotoxicity of both diseases. They also have similar pathogenic effects. Both peptides possess the common receptor AMY3. More and more evidence is accumulating that key cell regulation processes are similar for both diseases as well. The question is raised: can Alzheimer be a new form of diabetes disease?

  10. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D

    2017-01-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM ...

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or first recogni

  12. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-08-30

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or first

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or first recogni

  15. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Diabetes Mellitus: An Unusual Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Ozhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a multisystemic disease. It may manifest as abnormalities of the nervous tissue, bones, soft tissue, or skin. Autoimmune disease associated with NF1 can be seen. Diabetes mellitus is rarely seen in association with NF1. Here, we report a case with established NF1 who also had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

  16. New-onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker; Hansen, Jesper Melchior;

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in a prospective study of 97 nondiabetic uremic patients.......This study aimed to investigate the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in a prospective study of 97 nondiabetic uremic patients....

  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging as a new clinical problem within pediatric practice. Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents around the world in all ethnicities, even if the prevalence of obesity is not increasing any more. The majority of young people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in specific ethnic subgroups such as African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Clinicians should be aware of the frequent mild or asymptomatic manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in childhood. Therefore, a screening seems meaningful especially in high risk groups such as children and adolescents with obesity, relatives with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and clinical features of insulin resistance (hypertension, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or acanthosis nigricans). Treatment of choice is lifestyle intervention followed by pharmacological treatment (e.g., metformin). New drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors or glucagon like peptide 1 mimetics are in the pipeline for treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, recent reports indicate a high dropout of the medical care system of adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus suggesting that management of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus requires some remodeling of current healthcare practices. PMID:24379917

  18. De grondslagen van de behandeling van diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, Jakob

    1948-01-01

    The object of this study was to trace which results were reached with the treatment of 394 diabetes mellitus patients and which factors were important for the results. As material for our research were used the data of the diabetes mellitus patients treated between 1930 and 1944 in the clinic for

  19. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2014-06-10

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  20. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation.

  1. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss.

  2. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  3. Fundamentos biomoleculares de la diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad endocrina con importantes implicaciones a nivel sistémico, como: angiopatía, neuropatía, retinopatía y nefropatía, entre otras. Estas  complicaciones tienen su origen en eventos biomoleculares desencadenados por la hiperglicemia.  La presente revisión de tema trata sobre la estructura y síntesis de la insulina en las células β del páncreas; los eventos moleculares y bioquímicos que activan su secreción como respuesta a una alta concentración de glucosa e...

  4. NUEVOS FÁRMACOS EN DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Aylwin H., Carmen Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Por más de 60 años se dispuso solo de tres grupos farmacológicos para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus (DM): la insulina, la metformina y las sulfonilureas. Sin embargo, en los últimos años y como consecuencia de los avances en el conocimiento de la patogenia de la DM2 se han desarrollado nuevos fármacos con novedosos mecanismos de acción y con diferentes perfiles de seguridad, entre ellos los compuestos con efecto incretina y los glucosúricos que actúan en los trastornos a nivel intest...

  5. STATINS AND THE RISK OF DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Randomized controlled trials have clearly demonstrated the efficacy of statins in reduction of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol level by 25-50% from the baseline. Statins may increase the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM in long-term therapy and use of high doses. Diabetogenic action is statins class effect and does not depend on their hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. However, the use of statins in patients with DM is obligatory. The statins diabetogenic  risk is exaggerated and we will continue to treat our patients with statins.

  6. Kost, diabetes mellitus og parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for diabetes mellitus (DM) og parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost, DM og marginal parodontitis (MP). Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning...... for udviklingen af henholdsvis DM og parodontal inflammation bør tandlæger også rådgive om kost for derigennem at styrke behandlingen af patienter med MP og DM....

  7. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mayores costarricenses

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Brenes-Camacho; Luis Rosero-Bixby

    2007-01-01

    El propósito del artículo es describir la prevalencia de la diabetes mellitus (DM) entre los adultos mayores costarricenses. Se analiza la magnitud de la prevalencia, los problemas de medición de la misma, así como los factores asociados con la enfermedad, la enfermedad controlada, y el tener niveles altos de hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C) entre la población sin diagnóstico previo de DM. Una cuarta parte de los adultos mayores de Costa Rica padecen de DM y cerca de la mitad de los que la pad...

  8. Linkage Between Periodontal Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    and the presence of bacteria in the periodontal pockets, which, as the result of daily procedures, may spread after penetration of the vasculature, are possible mediators of systemic consequences. This chapter deals with the possible association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus which is believed......The past decades have significantly widened the perspectives of the chronic oral infectious disease known as periodontitis. The disease is regarded as a bacterial infection resulting in low-grade inflammation of the periodontal tissues, and both the associated release of pro-inflammatory mediators...

  9. Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Yassin, Zaitun; Hamid, Tengku-Aizan

    2012-08-15

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice). Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause

  10. Risikostratificering af patienter med diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Peter; Glintborg, Dorte; Andries, Alin

    2008-01-01

    with diabetes mellitus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included patients with diabetes from the catchment areas of four diabetes out-patient clinics in southern Denmark. Patients were risk-stratified to 3 follow-up levels (level 1 - follow-up only by their GP, level 2 - intensified follow-up by GP and/or shared care...... schemes, level 3 - follow-up only in out-patient clinics). The results were subsequently compared with the patients' actual follow-up status. RESULTS: A total of 647 patients (563 type 2 diabetes and 84 type 1 diabetes) were included from 15 GPs. Among these, 139 were stratified to level 1, 409 to level 2...... and 99 to level 3. A total of 444 patients were actually being followed by their GP, 129 in shared care and 74 in out-patient clinics. The frequency of out-patient and shared care control varied from 13% to 39% between the four centres. CONCLUSION: Patients generally had a higher risk profile than...

  11. Diabetes mellitus, part 1: physiology and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Muralitharan

    In part 1 of this 2-part article the author discusses the physiology and complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic and progressive disorder which affects all ages of the population. The number of people diagnosed with diabetes is approximately 1.8 million and an estimated further 1 million are undiagnosed (Department of Health, 2005). In the UK, 1-2% of the population have diabetes and among school children this is approximately 2 in 1000 (Watkins, 1996). There are two main types of diabetes--type 1 and type 2 (Porth, 2005). The aetiology of DM is unknown; however, genetic and environmental factors have been linked to its development. Type 1 results from the loss of insulin production in the beta cells of the pancreas, and type 2 from a lack of serum insulin or poor uptake of glucose into the cells. Diabetes causes disease in many organs in the body, which may be life-threatening if untreated. Complications such as heart disease, vascular disease, renal failure and blindness (Roberts, 2005) have all been reported. The increased prevalence may be caused by factors such as environmental aspects, diet, an ageing population and low levels of physical exercise.

  12. 76 FR 69795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... diabetes in 1970 because several risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of... exempting these applicants from the diabetes standard in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of final...

  13. Diabetes mellitus and sudden cardiac death: what are the data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Daniel W; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has long been linked to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the magnitude of this association, and the mechanism accounting for this phenomenon, have not been precisely defined. In this review, we evaluate the epidemiological data pertaining to the association between diabetes mellitus and sudden cardiac death and discuss various proposed mechanisms that may account for this relationship. Potential factors contributing to the increased risk of sudden cardiac death observed in patients with diabetes mellitus include silent myocardial ischemia, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, abnormal cardiac repolarization, hypoglycemia, a hypercoaguable state secondary to diabetes mellitus, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and impaired respiratory response to hypoxia and hypercapnea. We conclude that diabetes mellitus does appear to be associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although this increased risk is relatively modest, given the large number of diabetic patients worldwide, the absolute number of sudden cardiac deaths attributable to diabetes mellitus remains significant. Little evidence exists to support any specific mechanism(s) accounting for this association. Further investigation into the pathophysiology of sudden cardiac death in diabetes mellitus may yield improved risk stratification tools as well as identify novel therapeutic targets.

  14. Anterior uveitis and diabetes mellitus: immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, I; Famà, F; Salmeri, G

    1995-01-01

    The association between anterior uveitis (AU) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has always been known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of this association and to consider a possible role of the cell-mediated immune system. During the years 1989-1992, 196 diabetics (66 patients affected by type I DM and 130 by type II DM) were studied. The study of the lymphocytic subsets and the measurement of the circulating immunocomplexes and autoantibodies (ANA, AMA, ADNA, ASMA, APCA) were carried out, and the results were compared with those of a control group. The results underline the correlation between AU and type I DM. Many immunological reactions could play a crucial role: the high levels of CD8 subsets found could be an expression of the unstable lymphocytic equilibrium.

  15. [McCune-Albright syndrome associated with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, M; Hamza, N; Lamine, F; Jabeur, S; Yazidi, M; Ftouhi, B; Slimane, H

    2012-03-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) consists of the triad of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cutaneous pigmentation, and multiple endocrine abnormalities. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is not included in MAS. We report the case of an 18-year-old girl who presented with McCune-Albright syndrome. The diagnosis was made by the presence of precocious puberty at the age of 6 years, cutaneous pigmentation, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and phosphate diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus developed at the age of 16 years. We discuss this case, the relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus and MAS, with a literature review.

  16. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. A CLINICAL STUDY OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojjada Dhanunjaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Of all the non - tuberculosis complications associated with disease, Diabetes Mellitus exerts, the most adverse influence on the course of pulmonary tuberculosis. The combined diagnosis was invariably fatal before Specific anti tuberculous and anti - diabetic drugs were available. As per new diabetes guidelines, every diabetic patient should be under gone screening for Pulmonary Tuberculosis. We conducted a clinical study of 60 Patients with Diabetes and Pulmonary Tuberculosis. For establishment of Diagnosis Ch est X – ray and Sputum for AFB were done for pulmonary tuberculosis and both blood & Urine Sugar were done for Diabetes Mellitus.

  18. A study on the cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are varied. We conducted a study of fifty patients having diabetes mellitus coming from the department of dermatology and medicine. The commonest cutaneous feature of diabetes were pyodermas seen in 40% patients, dermatophytosis seen in 36% patients, pruritis diabetic thick skin seen in 20 % patients, diabetic dermopathy seen in 16% patients, diabetic bulla and rubeosis seen in 8% patients each and meralgia paraesthetica and diabetic foot seen in 4% patients each. About the associations of diabetes mellitus, achrchordons were seen in 8% patients, vitiligo and perforating dermatoses were seen in 6% patients each, granuloma annulare, eruptive xanthomas, acanthosis nigricans, necrobiosis lipoidica and oral lichen planus were seen in 4 % patients each and xanthelasma was seen in 2% patients.

  19. The dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantle, J P

    1988-11-01

    The most important dietary goal for individuals with type I diabetes mellitus is the establishment of a regular meal pattern with consistent day-to-day caloric and carbohydrate intake. Ideally, the diet should contain 55 to 60 per cent of total calories as carbohydrate, less than 30 per cent of calories as fat, less than 10 per cent of calories as saturated fat, and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. The best tool for helping type I individuals achieve these objectives is the Exchange Lists for Meal Planning. A second important dietary goal in type I diabetes is to avoid weight gain during intensive treatment programs. The most important dietary and therapeutic goal in obese persons with type II diabetes is weight loss. Unfortunately, no dietary method, whether initiated by self-help groups like TOPS, physicians, or other health care professionals, has been demonstrated to be effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss. Nevertheless, some individual patients will be successful, and it therefore is appropriate to attempt weight reduction with a balanced diet moderately restricted in calories. A reduction of 500 calories per day below the weight maintenance level is reasonable and can be expected to produce weight loss of about 1 lb per week. For those type II diabetic patients who are not able to lose weight and are at least twice their ideal body weight, gastric reduction surgery could be considered. The Glycemic Index of Foods is a new concept that has not been evaluated adequately. Recent evidence suggests that differences among foods are reduced when the foods are combined in a meal and thus raises questions about the utility of glycemic indexing. The longstanding restriction on the use of sucrose in the diabetic diet is without scientific basis. Recognizing this, the American Diabetes Association recently sanctioned consumption of modest amounts of sucrose in the diabetic diet. Although conclusive evidence is not yet available that high fiber diets

  20. Association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for periodontitis. However, it is possible that periodontitis induces a systemic inflammatory process which could initiate and propagate an insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2 in pregnant women. Methods: The sample consisted of studying 20 pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, 20 women with GDM and 40 pregnant women without any endocrinopathy. Periodontal examination included analysis of bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of four or more teeth with at least one site with PD ≥ 4 mm and CAL ≥ 3 mm with BOP associated in the same site. Results: Results demonstrated an association between GDM and high maternal age, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The prevalence of periodontitis observed was 55%, 40% and 42,5% for women with DM 1 or DM 2 (p=0,360, with GDM (p=0,853 and in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The sample showed high prevalence of periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference between pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, women with GDM or pregnant women in the control group.

  1. Oral Manifestations and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Maskari, Awatif Y.; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y; Al-Sudairy, Salem

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported in the literature with few reports about oral complications. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus and to stimulate research on the subject. It treats in depth some of the complications such as...

  2. A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwami’s classification and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

  3. Recent Research Trends in Korean Medicine Treatment of Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Han-sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the directions of Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus. Methods : We reviewed the 52 studies about diabetes mellitus which had been published from 2000 to 2007. We selected those studies from the search engine of the web site of five journals. Those were the Journal of Korean Oriental Medical Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology, the Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Internal Medicine and the Journal of Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Results : 1. The types of diabetes mellitus model in studies were the model used Alloxan(2cases, the model used Streptozotocin(41cases, NOD mice(1case, ob/ob mice(1case, db/db mice(5cases and rats fed highfat diet(2cases. 2. The types of method in studies were pharmacopuncture(8cases, herbal medcine(47case and both pharmacopuncture and herbal medcine(3cases. the types of materials in studies were single herb(24cases, multiple herbs(32cases and both single and multiple herbs(4cases. 3. The types of evaluation criteria in studies were glucose, pancreas, liver, kidney, serum lipid, oxidative stress, nervous system, vascular system and immunity. Conclusions : There have been reported many studies of diabetes mellitus in Korean Medicine. It requires to study further types of diabetes mellitus, kinds of herbs and complications of diabetes mellitus for Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus was covered the ground.

  4. Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Núñez, Sara; Valenzuela-Suazo, Sandra; Cid-Henríquez, Patricia

    2017-04-06

    determine the prevalence of Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile and its relation with the variables: Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Average of diabetics with metabolic control in 2011-2013; Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus; and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program. cross-sectional descriptive study with ecological components that uses documentary sources of the Ministry of Health. It was established that there is correlation between the Universal Effective Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and the independent variables; it was applied the Pearson Coefficient, being significant at the 0.05 level. in Chile Universal Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (HbA1cdesafio e oportunidade em saúde. determinar la prevalencia de la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en Chile y su relación con las variables: Cobertura de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, Promedio de diabéticos con control metabólico en 2011-2013, Tasa de Mortalidad por Diabetes Mellitus y Porcentaje de participación de enfermeros en el Programa de Salud Cardiovascular. estudio descriptivo transversal con componentes ecológicos, utilizando fuentes documentales del Ministerio de Salud. Se estableció que existe correlación entre la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 y las variables independientes, aplicando el Coeficiente de Pearson, siendo significativa al nivel 0,05. en Chile la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (HbA1c<7% en población estimada) es menor que 20%; esta se relaciona con la Tasa de Mortalidad por Diabetes Mellitus y con el Porcentaje de participación de enfermeras en el Programa de Salud Cardiovascular, que es significativa al nivel 0,01. la prevalencia de Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 es baja; sin embargo algunas regiones se destacan en la cobertura y en el control metabólico de pacientes que

  5. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Bertelsen, C A

    1992-01-01

    -insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup......-treated gestational diabetes mellitus have a considerably increased risk of later having diabetes. Follow-up investigations are therefore important, especially in those women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus in whom the identified predictive factors are present.......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...

  6. ATP-dependent potassium channels and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Dianne Heloisa; Alcazar, Larissa Pontes; Arakaki, Priscila Akemi; Martins, Laysa Toschi; Agustini, Bruna Carla; de Moraes Rego, Fabiane Gomes; Frigeri, Henrique Ravanhol

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem, which affects a millions worldwide. Most diabetes cases are classified as type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is highly associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes is considered a multifactorial disorder, with both environmental and genetic factors contributing to its development. An important issue linked with diabetes development is the failure of the insulin releasing mechanism involving abnormal activity of the ATP-dependent potassium channel, KATP. This channel is a transmembrane protein encoded by the KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes. Furthermore, polymorphisms in these genes have been linked to type 2 diabetes because of the role of KATP in insulin release. While several genetic variations have been reported to be associated with this disease, the E23K polymorphism is most commonly associated with this pathology, as well as to obesity. Here, we review the molecular genetics of the potassium channel and discusses its most described polymorphisms and their associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Non-insulin management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates a substantial number of pregnancies. There is consensus that in patients of GDM, excellent blood glucose control, with diet and, when necessary, oral hypoglycemics and insulin results in improved perinatal outcomes, and appreciably reduces the probability of serious neonatal morbidity compared with routine prenatal care. Goals of metabolic management of a pregnancy complicated with GDM have to balance the needs of a healthy pregnancy with the requirements to control glucose level. Medical nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of therapy for women with GDM. Surveillance with daily self-monitoring of blood glucose has been found to help guide management in a much better way than blood glucose checking in labs and clinics, which tends to be less frequent. Historically, insulin has been the therapeutic agent of choice for controlling hyperglycemia in pregnant women. However, difficulty in medication administration with multiple daily injections, potential for hypoglycemia, and increase in appetite and weight make this therapeutic option cumbersome for many pregnant patients. Use of oral hypogycemic agents (OHAs in pregnancy has opened new vistas for GDM management. At present, there is a growing acceptance of glyburide (glibenclamide use as the primary therapy for GDM. Glyburide and metformin have been found to be safe, effective and economical for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Insulin, however, still has an important role to play in GDM. GDM is a window of opportunity, which needs to be seized, for prevention of diabetes in future life. Goal of our educational programs should be not only to improve pregnancy outcomes but also to promote healthy lifestyle changes for the mother that will last long after delivery. Team effort on part of obstetricians and endocrinologists is required to make " the diabetes capital of the world" into " the diabetes care capital of the world".

  8. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-06-26

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  9. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702

  10. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ying Wu; E Xiao; Dana T Graves

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  11. Periodontitis as a possible early sign of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Kosho, Madeline X F; Poland, Dennis C. W.; Gerdes, Victor E A; Loos, Bruno G

    2017-01-01

    Objective The early diagnosis of (pre)diabetes mellitus is essential for the prevention of diabetes complications. It has been suggested that gum disease (periodontitis) might be an early complication of diabetes and may be a useful risk indicator for diabetes screening. Therefore, a dental office could be a good location for screening for (pre)diabetes in patients with periodontitis using a validated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dry spot analysis. Research design and methods A total of 313 in...

  12. [Diabetes and rheumatism: is diabetes mellitus also an inflammatory disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, S; Schumm-Draeger, P-M

    2011-11-01

    New studies have demonstrated similarities in the complex pathomechanisms of diabetes mellitus type 1 (T₁D) and rheumatic diseases and in particular rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Common HLA gene complex characteristics and polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a special role in both disorders. The metabolic syndrome, associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T₂D), often shows criteria of a subclinical chronic inflammation. New forms of therapy with monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 have improved the management of patients with RA. Cytokine-induced inflammation also seems to be important in the pathogenesis and progression of T₁D and T₂D. Whether a therapy with the same monoclonal antibodies established in RA could also be successful in diabetes still has to be investigated in further studies. Both RA and T₁D are autoimmune disorders and show a cumulative incidence with further autoimmune diseases.

  13. Otoneurologic findings in Type 1 Diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaele Rigon; Angela Garcia Rossi; Pedro Luiz Cóser

    2007-01-01

    Alterações metabólicas, como acontecem no Diabetes mellitus, têm sido mencionadas no desenvolvimento e manutenção das queixas relacionadas ao aparelho vestibular e auditivo. OBJETIVO: Investigar o aparelho vestibular em uma população de indivíduos portadores de Diabetes mellitus Tipo 1. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 19 indivíduos, sendo 10 do gênero feminino (52,6%) e 9 do gênero masculino (47,3%), com idades variando de 8 a 25 anos, com diagnóstico médico de Diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Pa...

  14. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  15. Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Cheema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans.

  16. Preventive pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neeraj; Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Ajish, T P

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades certain demographic changes have been observed worldwide, which have led to an increase in the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular disease are major contributors to this disease burden leading to rising morbidity and mortality. It is worrisome to see that type 2 diabetes with its micro- and macrovascular complications is occurring in younger populations where it was hitherto unseen. Prevention appears to be an important strategy to reduce the burden of disease. Along with inculcating healthy lifestyle habits across populations, it may be suitable to use preventive pharmacotherapy in those with pre-diabetes and / or other risk factors like obesity, hypertension, and on the like. Metformin, alpha glucosidase inhibitors like acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose, and pioglitazone have all been used with success. The issues of compliance and adverse effects during long-term use have tempered the use of these drugs. The best approach would be to motivate the patient for effective lifestyle changes, and pharmacological management if the lifestyle changes are not successful in achieving their goals.

  17. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.

  18. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  19. Rehabilitation of tendon problems in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, Jonathan; Gaida, Jamie E.; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Zwerver, Johannes; Anthony, Joseph S.; Scott, Alex; Ackermann, PW; Hart, DA

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is crucial in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. However, individuals with diabetes have a heightened risk of musculoskeletal problems, including tendon pathologies. Diabetes has a significant impact on the function of tendons due to the accumulation of

  20. 77 FR 59450 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Applicants The Agency established the current requirement for diabetes in 1970 because several risk studies... from the diabetes requirement in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of safety equal to... [FMCSA Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus...

  1. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Shanmugam

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients is very high (21.5 % with subclinical hypothyroidism is being most common. Screening of thyroid dysfunction should be done in all diabetic patients especially in patients with poor diabetic control. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3629-3633

  2. Rehabilitation of tendon problems in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, Jonathan; Gaida, Jamie E.; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Zwerver, Johannes; Anthony, Joseph S.; Scott, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is crucial in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. However, individuals with diabetes have a heightened risk of musculoskeletal problems, including tendon pathologies. Diabetes has a significant impact on the function of tendons due to the accumulation of ad

  3. Rehabilitation of tendon problems in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, Jonathan; Gaida, Jamie E.; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Zwerver, Johannes; Anthony, Joseph S.; Scott, Alex; Ackermann, PW; Hart, DA

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is crucial in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. However, individuals with diabetes have a heightened risk of musculoskeletal problems, including tendon pathologies. Diabetes has a significant impact on the function of tendons due to the accumulation of ad

  4. Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness: A case of Wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Nasrollah; Bashardoust, Bahman; Zakeri, Anahita; Salehifar, Azita; Tavosi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, progressive optic atrophy, and deafness. A 19-year-old female patient, a known case of diabetes mellitus type I from six years before, presented with progressive vision loss since four years earlier. On fundoscopic examination, she had bilateral optic atrophy without diabetic retinopathy. The patient also had diabetes insipidus, neurosensory deafness, and neurogenic bladder. WS should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus who present with optic atrophy, and it is necessary to perform a hearing test as well as collecting 24-h urine output.

  5. MRI of the brain in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Y. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Nomurak, M. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Medicine; Tanaka, H. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yamamoto, H. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yamamoto, T. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Tsukaguchi, I, [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Nakamura, H. [Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1994-02-01

    We studied the MRI appearances of the brain in 159 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 2566 age-matched individuals without DM (controls). The images were reviewed for cerebral infarcts, hemorrhage, atrophy and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Cerebral atrophy was significantly more frequent in patients with DM than in controls (P > 0.005) from the sixth to the eighth decade. The frequency of atrophy was 41.2% in the 6th decade, 60.0 % in the 7th and 92.3 % in the 8th decade in DM, and 19.8 %, 38.9 % and 56.8 % respectively in controls. Unexpectedly, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidences of cerebrovascular diseases at any age. (orig.)

  6. Pathomechanismen der Atherosklerose bei Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulac K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Die epidemiologischen Daten weisen darauf hin, daß die Prävalenz des Diabetes mellitus in den nächsten Jahrzehnten ansteigen wird, und damit im Zusammenhang auch die vaskulären Komplikationen zunehmen werden. Die akzelerierte Atherosklerose bei Diabetikern ist durch die über weite Strecken des Tages vorliegende Hyperglykämie, die Dyslipidämie, das Auftreten von erhöhten Werten von asymmetrischem Dimethylarginin und "advanced glycation end products" mitbestimmt. All diese Mechanismen induzieren die Bildung und Freisetzung von Zytokinen, Chemokinen, Adhäsionsmolekülen, freien Sauerstoffradikalen und aktivierten Gerinnungsfaktoren, die über die zu Beginn vorliegende endotheliale Dysfunktion in eine akzelerierte und progrediente Atherosklerose mit allen vaskulären Problemen münden.

  7. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes mellitus in childhood cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rauf, F

    2012-02-03

    Since 1984, five patients in the cystic fibrosis (CF) clinic at Cork Regional Hospital have developed diabetes mellitus (DM) and were treated with Insulin. None had received systemic corticosteroids but two had high calorie naso-gastric feeding regimes. Two died from lung disease. A fifteen year old boy developed bilateral cataracts. In nine other paediatric CF clinics in the Republic of Ireland (total: 420 patients), three patients have DM, two receiving Insulin. Abnormal glucose tolerance is becoming more common in CF as patients survive longer. The possible role of corticosteroid treatment and intensive carbohydrate feeding regimes in development of glucose intolerance must be considered. DM in CF differs from the usual childhood DM. Regular screening and early Insulin supplementation may be beneficial.

  9. A gastroplastia em manga (sleeve gastrectomy e o diabetes mellitus Sleeve gastrectomy and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ciro Andriani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O tipo 2 da diabete mellitus é muito frequente entre os pacientes de obesidade morbida. Ja foi provado cientificamente que o bypass gástrico pode curá-lo. Existem poucos relatos de que a gastroplastia em manga apresenta resultado promissores na cura desta forma de diabete. OBJETIVO: Apresentar resultados da glicemia em pacientes operados com a gastroplastia em manga mostrando sua possibilidade de controlar o dibetes. MÉTODO: Um estudo prospectivo envolvendo 15 pacientes foi realizado nos quais as dosagens sericas da glicose foram medidas no pré e pós-operatório. Para que houvesse homogeneidade da amostra, critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram estabelecidos com base nos pacientes com IMC de 35 a 40. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a técnica cirurgica de gastroplastia em manga. O seguimento se deu em atendimento ambulatorial. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes foram operados pela técnica referida e seus níveis glicêmicos computados no pré, pós-operatório e no seguimento. CONCLUSÃO: A gastroplastia em manga cura o diabetes mellitus mostrando queda logo após a operação e mantendo-a ao longo do seguimento.BACKGROUND: The type 2 diabetes mellitus is very frequent among morbid obese patients. It has already been proven that the gastric bypass surgery may cures diabetes mellitus. There are few related studies to sleeve gastroplasty and diabetes. However, promising results exist. AIM: To analyse the glicemic results in patients submmitted to sleeve gastroplasty. METHODS: A 11 months prospective study on 15 patients was dome measuring their glycemic levels pre and postoperatively. The basic inclusion criteria was body mass index (BMI between 35 and 40 kg/m². All patients were operated by sleeve gastroplasty. RESULTS: All 15 patients lowered their glycemic level on their imidiate postoperative period and some achieved normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: The sleeve gastroplasty cures diabetes by lowering the plasma glucose and have

  10. Latest data on metabolic diseases: Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Mitrou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With such a high cost in money and human lives, diabetes mellitus (DM is a major challenge for health care systems and an obstacle to sustainable economic growth. The pathophysiological disorders of diabetes include, besides the defect in pancreatic insulin secretion and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues (liver, muscle and adipose tissue, increased lipolysis, increased glucagon secretion, impaired secretion and action of incretin hormones, increased glucose resorption by the kidney and defects in the central nervous system. The therapeutic intervention must be timely and personalized. Lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, smoking cessation are the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment should begin with metformin unless there is a contraindication (eg renal failure or intolerance (eg, gastrointestinal disorders. If HbA1c remains off target a second or a third treatment may be added, orally (glitazone, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, sulfonylurea or by injection (GLP-1 agonist or basal insulin. On failure to achieve glycemic target combinations of injectable treatments (combination of agonist GLP-1 with basal insulin, intensified insulin therapy or in some cases insulin mixtures are recommended. New treatments (weekly administered GLP-1 analogs, combination of a basal insulin / GLP-1 in one injection, SGLT-2 inhibitors, long acting basal insulins in combination with the old tried treatments (e.g. metformin, pioglitazone, inhibitors DPP-4 can contribute to human-centered and individualized management of patients with diabetes. The cardiovascular safety of antidiabetic treatment should be considered. There is a need for early diagnosis and treatment of glucose metabolism disorders during pregnancy (before 24 to 28 weeks of gestation in women at high risk for developing gestational diabetes.

  11. Optimizing postpartum care for the patient with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Noelle G; Niznik, Charlotte M; Yee, Lynn M

    2017-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus poses well-established risks to both the mother and infant. As >50% of women with gestational diabetes mellitus will develop type 2 diabetes mellitus in their lifetime, performing postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing is paramount to initiation of appropriate lifestyle interventions and pharmacologic therapy. Nonetheless, test completion among women with gestational diabetes mellitus is estimated to be literacy. Data suggest our current health services infrastructure loses patients in the postpartum gap between pregnancy-focused care and primary care. Previous studies have suggested strategies to promote oral glucose tolerance testing completion to identify type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on existing evidence, we propose best practices for the postpartum care of women with gestational diabetes mellitus: (1) enhanced patient support for identifying long-term health care providers, (2) patient-centered medical home utilization when possible, (3) patient and provider test reminders, and (4) formalized obstetrician-primary care provider hand offs using the Situation Background Assessment Recommendation (SBAR) mnemonic. These strategies deserve future investigation to solidify a multilevel approach for identifying and preventing the continuum of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  13. Newer Approaches In The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

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    Kamlesh Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a public health problem worldwide. The most effective anti-diabetic drugs currently available include insulin and newer insulin preparations, sulphonylureas, biguanides, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, alpha- glucosidase inhibitors, incretins, guargum and glucomannan. However, the future therapies will need to focus on those patents who do not respond well to these treatments and who account for 50% of the health care costs of diabetes mellitus. Drug development for diabetes mellitus has been directed at improving currently available drugs and findings new compounds. In this review article, we will review the role of future new chemical entities able to target the metabolic disorder. Some of these new anti-diabetic treatment strategies may in the future not only control symptoms and modify the natural course of diabetes, but also potentially prevent or cure the disease.

  14. Is there a tendency for thrombosis in gestational diabetes mellitus?

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    Suheyla Gorar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate tendency to develop thrombosis in GDM similar to diabetes mellitus; but more comprehensive studies with larger sample size are needed to determine the relationship between GDM and hemostasis.

  15. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus at secondary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of gestational diabetes mellitus at secondary health care level: a survey of ... It is amenable to risk reduction measures and if properly managed, ... the Medical Doctors and Nurses have poor knowledge and practice concerning ...

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA DIABETES MELLITUS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP

    2016-03-01

    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health education is a combination of activities aimed at facilitating changes in behaviour and adoption of practices that should decrease the risk of disease and illness, ... by many clinicians in the management of people with Diabetes mellitus.

  18. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... the contribution of risk factors such as age, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), ... Methods: Fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) levels were obtained from a total of ...

  19. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in a South African population: Prevalence, comparison of diagnostic criteria and the role of risk factors. ... Methods. This was a prospective cohort observational study carried out at a level 1 clinic in ...

  20. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell ... The traditional approach to the management of T2DM is lifestyle change, diet, ... Physiologically, fasting glucose is controlled by endogenous basal.

  1. Diabetes mellitus type 2: a new indication for hypercortisolism screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Ivanovna Volkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current review discusses novel data concerning prevalence of Cushing syndrome without characteristic clinical signs among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also provide detailed analysis of difficulties in diagnostics and management of this condition

  2. The effect of oxygenated water in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne S. Handajani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To examine those claims, i.e the effects of oxygenated water on hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus (DM.Methods In this clinical trial, 108 subjects of Diabetes Mellitus were recruited. Each group was divided randomly into 2 subgroups. One subgroup was given oxygenated water and the other subgroup was given non-oxygenated water for 2 period of intervention, 45 days and 90 days. Measured variables were, blood sugar and malondialdehyde (MDA.Results The study showed that oxygenated water could reduce post-prandial glucose in DM subjects. DM subjects with normal nutritional states, also had greater tendency of MDA reduction after consuming oxygenated water for 45 days. Most of subjects felt healthier after consuming oxygenated water.Conclusion The consumption of oxygenated water could improve the healing process for patients with diabetes mellitus. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 102-7Key words: oxygenated water, diabetes mellitus, MDA, free radicals

  3. Fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between specific types of fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Nationwide birth cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): All pregnancies resulting in a live-born singleton child in Denmark from 1995 to 2003....... INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus identified from redeemed prescriptions for insulin until 2013. RESULT(S): The study included 565,116 singleton pregnancies. A total of 14,985 children were conceived by ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination......, and 8,490 children were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. During the follow-up period, 2,011 (0.4%) children developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. The primary analyses showed no association between fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus...

  4. Influence of diabetes mellitus on heart failure risk and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Belle Eric

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim is to summarize and discuss the recent literature linking diabetes mellitus with heart failure, and to address the issue of the optimal treatment for diabetic patients with heart failure. The studies linking diabetes mellitus (DM with heart failure (HF The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in heart failure populations is close to 20% compared with 4 to 6% in control populations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of heart failure in diabetics; moreover, in diabetic populations, poor glycemic control has been associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Various mechanisms may link diabetes mellitus to heart failure: firstly, associated comorbidities such as hypertension may play a role; secondly, diabetes accelerates the development of coronary atherosclerosis; thirdly, experimental and clinical studies support the existence of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy related to microangiopathy, metabolic factors or myocardial fibrosis. Subgroup analyses of randomized trials demonstrate that diabetes is also an important prognostic factor in heart failure. In addition, it has been suggested that the deleterious impact of diabetes may be especially marked in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Treatment of heart failure in diabetic patients The knowledge of the diabetic status may help to define the optimal therapeutic strategy for heart failure patients. Cornerstone treatments such as ACE inhibitors or beta-blockers appear to be uniformly beneficial in diabetic and non diabetic populations. However, in ischemic cardiomyopathy, the choice of the revascularization technique may differ according to diabetic status. Finally, clinical studies are needed to determine whether improved metabolic control might favorably influence the outcome of diabetic heart failure patients.

  5. Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Persons with and without HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2012-01-01

    In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we assessed the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population, and evaluated the impact of risk factors for DM in HIV-infected individuals.......In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we assessed the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population, and evaluated the impact of risk factors for DM in HIV-infected individuals....

  6. Sulphonylurea monotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Schroll, Jeppe B; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial.......Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial....

  7. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus in Puducherry, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Dharamvir Ranjan; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Rekha, R; Yamuna, T V; Basu, Mausumi

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an emerging global health problem. It is a chronic, noncommunicable, and expensive public health disease. To determine the prevalence and the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus among the adult population of Puducherry, South India. This was a population-based cross-sectional study carried out during 1(st) May 2007-30(th) November 2007 in the rural and urban field practice area of Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of 1370 adult 20 years of age and above. Main outcome measures were the assessment of the prevalence of prevalence and correlates of diabetes among the adult population. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family and individual sociodemographic variables. Height, weight, waist, and hip circumference, blood pressure was measured and venous blood was also collected to measure fasting blood glucose, blood cholesterol. Overall, 8.47% study subjects were diagnosed as diabetic. The univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the important correlates of diabetes mellitus were age, blood cholesterol, and family history of diabetes. The findings were found to be statistically significant. In our study we observed that adults having increased age, hypercholesterolemia, and family history of diabetes mellitus are more likely to develop diabetes mellitus.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus in Puducherry, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharamvir Ranjan Bharati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diabetes mellitus is an emerging global health problem. It is a chronic, noncommunicable, and expensive public health disease. Aims and Objectives : To determine the prevalence and the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus among the adult population of Puducherry, South India. Materials and Methods : This was a population-based cross-sectional study carried out during 1 st May 2007-30 th November 2007 in the rural and urban field practice area of Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of 1370 adult 20 years of age and above. Main outcome measures were the assessment of the prevalence of prevalence and correlates of diabetes among the adult population. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family and individual sociodemographic variables. Height, weight, waist, and hip circumference, blood pressure was measured and venous blood was also collected to measure fasting blood glucose, blood cholesterol. Results : Overall, 8.47% study subjects were diagnosed as diabetic. The univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the important correlates of diabetes mellitus were age, blood cholesterol, and family history of diabetes. The findings were found to be statistically significant. Conclusions : In our study we observed that adults having increased age, hypercholesterolemia, and family history of diabetes mellitus are more likely to develop diabetes mellitus.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Elgradechi, Aldjia

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear “normal” and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting. PMID:24251192

  10. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis: programmatic management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Satyanarayana, S.; Lin, Y.; Zachariah, R.; Lönnroth, K.; Kapur, A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In August 2011, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease launched the Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to guide policy makers and implementers in combatting the epidemics of both diseases. Progress has been made, and includes identifying how best to undertake bidirectional screening for both diseases, how to provide optimal treatment and care for patients with dual disease and the most suitable framework for monitoring and evaluation. Key programmatic challenges include the following: whether screening should be directed at all patients or targeted at those with high-risk characteristics; the most suitable technologies for diagnosing TB and diabetes in routine settings; the best time to screen TB patients for DM; how to provide an integrated, coordinated approach to case management; and finally, how to persuade non-communicable disease programmes to adopt a cohort analysis approach, preferably using electronic medical records, for monitoring and evaluation. The link between DM and TB and the implementation of the collaborative framework for care and control have the potential to stimulate and strengthen the scale-up of non-communicable disease care and prevention programmes, which may help in reducing not only the global burden of DM but also the global burden of TB. PMID:26162352

  11. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

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    P G Sundararaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml (P < 0.001. However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.

  12. Peripheral nervous system involvement in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease often affecting peripheral nervous system. This include diabetic autonomous neuropathy that can endanger the patient's life. Timely detection of complications of diabetes mellitus as well as its adequate therapy can improve prognosis of the disease. The possibilities of Milgamma and Tiogamma for pathogenic therapy in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy are considered in this paper. Gabagamma can be effectively relieve neuropathic pain and used together with other drugs that normalize nerve tissue metabolism.

  13. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Samreen

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has been associated with depression. Depression is more common in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to those without. Both micro- and macro vascular diabetic complications are associated with depression and have shown to increase the risk of mood disorder. Further, poor glycemic control in T2DM patients could lead to more complications of diabetes and such patients are more likely to develop depression. More research is needed in this area to determine the exact relationship between depression and T2DM and to unfold the mystery of mechanism behind this.

  14. Attenuating type 2 diabetes with postpartum interventionsfollowing gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes shouldbe screened during and after the postpartum periodbecause of a high risk for developing type 2 diabetesmellitus. Although differences exist between guidelinespracticed throughout various parts of the world, allrecommend the use of cutoffs for fasting and/or postloadplasma glucose to diagnose diabetes or prediabetes.The use of these glycemic parameters couldbe optimized when a trend is observed, rather thanconsidering them as isolated values at various timepoints. As the presence of insulin resistance and betacelldysfunction start before glycemic changes areevident, the estimation of insulin sensitivity and beta-cellfunction by Homeostatic Model Assessment is suggestedfor women who have additional risk factors for diabetes,such as obesity. Disease-modifying lifestyle interventionshould be the first-line strategy to prevent or delay theonset of diabetes in women with a history of gestationaldiabetes mellitus. Intensive lifestyle interventionsare designed to decrease caloric intake and increasephysical activity in order to reduce body weight and fat,which will in turn reduce insulin resistance. This articlealso reviews unique problems of postpartum women,which should be considered when designing andimplementing an intervention. Innovative "out of thebox" thinking is appreciated, as continued adherenceto a program is a challenge to both the women and thehealth care personnel who deal with them.

  15. Hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus: epidemiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Brian M

    2014-12-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a frequent adverse effect of treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin and sulphonylureas. Fear of hypoglycaemia alters self-management of diabetes mellitus and prevents optimal glycaemic control. Mild (self-treated) and severe (requiring help) hypoglycaemia episodes are more common in type 1 diabetes mellitus but people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus are also exposed to frequent hypoglycaemic events, many of which occur during sleep. Hypoglycaemia can disrupt many everyday activities such as driving, work performance and leisure pursuits. In addition to accidents and physical injury, the morbidity of hypoglycaemia involves the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Whereas coma and seizures are well-recognized neurological sequelae of hypoglycaemia, much interest is currently focused on the potential for hypoglycaemia to cause dangerous and life-threatening cardiac complications, such as arrhythmias and myocardial ischaemia, and whether recurrent severe hypoglycaemia can cause permanent cognitive impairment or promote cognitive decline and accelerate the onset of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people with diabetes mellitus. Prevention of hypoglycaemia is an important part of diabetes mellitus management and strategies include patient education, glucose monitoring, appropriate adjustment of diet and medications in relation to everyday circumstances including physical exercise, and the application of new technologies such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring, modified insulin pumps and the artificial pancreas.

  16. Arterial Calcification in Diabetes Mellitus: Preclinical Models and Translational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabley, John N; Towler, Dwight A

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus increasingly afflicts our aging and dysmetabolic population. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the antecedent metabolic syndrome represent the vast majority of the disease burden-increasingly prevalent in children and older adults. However, type 1 diabetes mellitus is also advancing in preadolescent children. As such, a crushing wave of cardiometabolic disease burden now faces our society. Arteriosclerotic calcification is increased in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and type 1 diabetes mellitus-impairing conduit vessel compliance and function, thereby increasing the risk for dementia, stroke, heart attack, limb ischemia, renal insufficiency, and lower extremity amputation. Preclinical models of these dysmetabolic settings have provided insights into the pathobiology of arterial calcification. Osteochondrogenic morphogens in the BMP-Wnt signaling relay and transcriptional regulatory programs driven by Msx and Runx gene families are entrained to innate immune responses-responses activated by the dysmetabolic state-to direct arterial matrix deposition and mineralization. Recent studies implicate the endothelial-mesenchymal transition in contributing to the phenotypic drift of mineralizing vascular progenitors. In this brief overview, we discuss preclinical disease models that provide mechanistic insights-and point to challenges and opportunities to translate these insights into new therapeutic strategies for our patients afflicted with diabetes mellitus and its arteriosclerotic complications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Balsamo Gardim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To gather current information about the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on children's cardiac autonomic behavior.DATA SOURCES: The search of articles was conducted on PubMed, Ibecs, Medline, Cochrane, Lilacs, SciELO and PEDro databases using the MeSH terms: "autonomic nervous system", "diabetes mellitus", "child", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "sympathetic nervous system" and "parasympathetic nervous system", and their respective versions in Portuguese (DeCS. Articles published from January 2003 to February 2013 that enrolled children with 9-12 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included in the review.DATA SYNTHESIS: The electronic search resulted in four articles that approached the heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, showing that, in general, these children present decreased global heart rate variability and vagal activity. The practice of physical activity promoted benefits for these individuals.CONCLUSIONS: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus present changes on autonomic modulation, indicating the need for early attention to avoid future complications in this group.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan. A narrative review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Rajdeep Das

    2012-01-01

    Background: The medical ramification of fasting among patients with diabetes is largely unknown; the purpose of the review is to find out how diabetes mellitus is managed during the month of Ramadan.

    Methods: Literature published on diabetes management during the month of Ramadan in the Middle-East are aimed at getting a global picture of this condition at a time when diabetes is having an adverse effect on h...

  19. Adolescents’ knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Al-Hussaini; Seham Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in Kuwait. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and the knowledge of diabetes in adolescent about the disease which, will be of a great help to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and its complications. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was done to evaluate the general knowledge of diabetes. The survey was introduced randomly to the students of 30 secondary public and private schools in Kuwait. The question...

  20. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  1. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar; Rashmi Rekha Kumari; Manish Kumar; Sanjiv Kumar; Asit Chakrabarti

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in c...

  2. Oral health status of diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity has always been thought to be a risk factor for diabetes; however, some studies in India have reported that even lean people are prone to diabetes. We conducted this study to see if this holds true for this part of the country. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM in Manipur. Materials and Methods: All recently diagnosed type 2 DM patients, within a period of 24 weeks, who attended the endocrine clinic of RIMS from Jan to Dec 2012 are included in the study. Exclusion criteria are patients with chronic diseases. Results: Out of the 181 recently diagnosed diabetics 3.9% had a BMI of <19 kg/m 2 of which five are females (5.4% of female patients and two are males (2.2% of male patients. Mean age of Lean diabetics is 54.86 ± 15.32, mean fasting glucose is 212 ± 105.5 mg% and mean postprandial glucose is 351.57 ± 167.79 mg%. DM complications were observed in 28.6% of the Lean diabetics. Conclusion: Our study shows a low prevalence rate of Lean DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM.

  5. Diabetes in Combat: Effect of Military Deployment on Diabetes Mellitus in Air Force Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS MEMORANDUM FOR SGOM5E ATTN: LT COL IRENE FOLARON...on Diabetes Mellitus in Air Force Personnel presented at/published to American Diabetes Association, Orlando, FL, 1 April 2017 & San Antonio...Military Deployment on Diabetes Mellitus in Active Duty Air Force Personnel 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Diabetes in Combat: E

  6. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morran, Michael P; Vonberg, Andrew; Khadra, Anmar; Pietropaolo, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease arising through a complex interaction of both genetic and immunologic factors. Similar to the majority of autoimmune diseases, T1DM usually has a relapsing remitting disease course with autoantibody and T cellular responses to islet autoantigens, which precede the clinical onset of the disease process. The immunological diagnosis of autoimmune diseases relies primarily on the detection of autoantibodies in the serum of T1DM patients. Although their pathogenic significance remains uncertain, they have the practical advantage of serving as surrogate biomarkers for predicting the clinical onset of T1DM. Type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease with a small number of genes having large effects (i.e. HLA), and a large number of genes having small effects. Risk of T1DM progression is conferred by specific HLA DR/DQ alleles [e.g., DRB1*03-DQB1*0201 (DR3) or DRB1*04-DQB1*0302 (DR4)]. In addition, HLA alleles such as DQB1*0602 are associated with dominant protection from T1DM in multiple populations. A discordance rate of greater than 50% between monozygotic twins indicates a potential involvement of environmental factors on disease development. Viral infections may play a role in the chain of events leading to disease, albeit conclusive evidence linking infections with T1DM remains to be firmly established. Two syndromes have been described in which an immune-mediated form of diabetes occurs as the result of a single gene defect. These syndromes are termed autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS-I) or autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), and X-linked poyendocrinopathy, immune dysfunction and diarrhea (XPID). These two syndromes are unique models to understand the mechanisms involved in the loss of tolerance to self-antigens in autoimmune diabetes and its associated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. A growing number of animal models of these diseases have greatly helped

  7. Does emotional stress cause type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans; Kupper, Nina; Adriaanse, Marcel C

    2010-01-01

    , nephropathy, and neuropathy. The exact causes of type 2 diabetes are still not clear. Since the 17th century, it has been suggested that emotional stress plays a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. So far, review studies have mainly focused on depression as a risk factor for the development...... of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet, chronic emotional stress is an established risk factor for the development of depression. The present review provides an overview of mainly prospective epidemiological studies that have investigated the associations between different forms of emotional stress...... and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results of longitudinal studies suggest that not only depression but also general emotional stress and anxiety, sleeping problems, anger, and hostility are associated with an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Conflicting results were found...

  8. Cuidados de Enfermería en la Diabetes Mellitus Lada

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Velicia, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus es una enfermedad crónica producida por una alteración del metabolismo de la glucosa que se caracteriza por la presencia de concentraciones elevadas de glucosa en sangre, lo que se conoce como hiperglucemia. Es el trastorno endocrino crónico más prevalente. Se conocen diferentes formas de Diabetes Mellitus según su etiología: Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1, Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, Diabetes Mellitus gestacional y otros tipos de Diabetes Mellitus como son la t...

  9. Comparative aspects of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M

    2002-11-29

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in cats and dogs. Its incidence is increasing, possibly due to an increase in obesity in both species. Different types of diabetes have been identified in pet animals. The classification of diabetic dogs and cats is modeled after the human classification but especially in the diabetic dogs, many aspects are different. The diabetic cat, however, resembles type 2 diabetic human patients more closely. The clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and histologic findings are described for both dog and cat and possible etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Diabetes mellitus en el anciano, un problema frecuente Diabetes mellitus present in elderly, a common problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelys Yanes Quesada

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de diabetes mellitus en la población anciana es un problema de salud frecuente en la atención primaria. Es por ello que en el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar algunos elementos importantes de este tema. Esta entidad se presenta habitualmente en estos pacientes, oligosintomática o de manera atípica, y los objetivos terapéuticos dependen de la situación funcional del enfermo. En relación con el tratamiento no farmacológico, la educación, la dieta y el ejercicio físico constituyen los pilares básicos; y respecto a la terapéutica farmacológica, se deben evitar las sulfonilureas de acción prolongada y de gran potencia. Las biguanidas pueden ser usadas para mejorar la sensibilidad a la insulina, y los inhibidores de la alfa glucosidasa son los medicamentos de elección cuando predomina la hiperglucemia posprandial. Las tiazolidinedionas deben ser usadas con precaución en pacientes con riesgo cardiovascular, y el uso de insulina está indicado en circunstancias especiales. Siempre se debe tener presente el tratamiento de la comorbilidad, para así tratar integralmente al anciano con diabetes mellitus.Presence of diabetes mellitus in elderlies is a common health problem in primary care. Thus, the aim of present paper is to review some significant elements of this matter. This entity is habitually present in these patients in a olisymptomatic way of in a atypical form, and therapeutic objectives depend on functional status of patient. With regard to non-pharmacological treatment, the education, diet, and physical exercise are the main basis; and regarding the pharmacological therapeutics, sulfonylurea of lengthy action and very potent must to be avoided. Biguanides may be used to improve insulin-sensitivity, and a-glycosidase inhibitors are the choice drugs when there is a predominance of postprandial hyperglycemia. The thiazolidinediones must to be used with precaution in patients presenting with cardiovascular risk, and

  11. Alimentos funcionais no manejo da diabetes mellitus = Functional foods in the management of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Zaparolli, Marília Rizzon

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analisar o conhecimento e o consumo de alimentos funcionais que auxiliam no controle da Diabetes mellitus em pacientes de um hospital público de Curitiba PR Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal e quantitativo, realizado com pacientes diabéticos hospitalizados (Hospital de Clínicas/UFPR), no período de dezembro de 2011 a março de 2012. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado um questionário, através do qual se obteve informações sobre o conhecimento de alimentos fu...

  12. Undergraduate physiotherapy students’ knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus: Implications for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steyl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes  mellitus  is  a  growing  public  health  concern  and its prevalence is  escalating  exponentially,  with  a  high  frequency  of morbidity, premature mortality, disability and loss of productivity.  Since health education has  become  an  important  part  of  medical  care physiotherapy  students  are potentially  well  suited  to  assist  with  the combat  of  this  disease.    The  study aimed  to  determine  the  knowledge of  diabetes  mellitus  and  its  risk  factors  of undergraduate physiotherapy students  in  the  Western  Cape.  The  study  incorporated  a  quantitative, cross-sectional design.  Three hundred and thirty eight (338 students completed the structured, self-administered questionnaire consisting of three sections, namely  socio-demographic information, diabetes mellitus risk factors and the validated 24-item diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (dKQ-24. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed  and the alpha level was set at p < 0.05.  overall, 60.7% of the study sample had adequate knowledge of diabetes mellitus (≥ 75% correct answers, while 32.5% and 6.8% had marginal (≥60 ≤ 74% correct answers and inadequate knowledge (<59% correct answers respectively. Seven of the nine diabetes mellitus risk factors could readily be identified by 89.7% of the participants.  Smoking (64.8% and high blood pressure (69.0% were not readily identified as common diabetes mellitus risk factors. Significant associations with diabetes risk factors were found for gender and year of study. The study has reinforced the need for continuous education of physiotherapy students regarding diabetes mellitus and its risk factors, as inadequate knowledge of diabetes mellitus could influence the effectiveness of patient education and therefore have dangerous consequences for the patient diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus : prevention of macrovascular complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwisse-Pasterkamp, Susanne H; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects a rapidly increasing number of patients. Most patients with Type 2 diabetes will develop vascular complications. This may be microvascular disease, such as nephropathy, retinopathy or polyneuropathy, and also macrovascular disease, such as coronary

  14. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of dementia - The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, A; Stolk, RP; van Harskamp, F; Pols, HAP; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the risk of dementia and AD. Background: Both dementia and diabetes are frequent disorders in elderly people. Methods: Prospective population-based cohort study among 6,370 elderly subjects. At baseline study participants were exam

  15. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the proposed inverse relationship between breast feeding and incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All Danish diabetic men born in Copenhagen during 1959-1964 and/or residing there for the first year of life (n = 119) were identified and a search made...

  16. Routine monitoring of diabetes mellitus in adults at primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TANJA KEMP, MB ChB, MMed (Int Med), Cert Endocrinology & Metabolism (SA) Phys ... levels in people with diabetes are generally 1 - 2 hours after the beginning of a meal. ... Glycaemic targets for control in type 1 diabetes mellitus*. ADA3.

  17. Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Use in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan, E

    2016-11-01

    Tight metabolic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) reduces incidence and delays progression of micro-vascular complications. Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant barrier to achieving optimal diabetes control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems refine insulin delivery with programmable basal rates and mealtime bolusing

  18. Cardiovascular burden of diabetes mellitus: a review | Dodiyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Diabetes mellitus affects the heart in four main ways; autonomic neuropathy, more severe ... In type 2 diabetes autonomic dysfunction impairs exercise tolerance, reduces response in heart rate and blood pressure thus blunting the ... on the increase in Africa even as the continent adopts a more westernised lifestyle.

  19. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, G.A.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    We report a 62-year-old man with documented type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, who presented with a rapid deterioration in renal function. The sudden decrease in renal function in this well-controlled diabetic patient prompted us to consider a nondiabetic and nonhypertensive cause. The urina

  20. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and atopic diseases in children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease .... resulting in b-cell apoptosis and diabetes. ROS, reactive ... IL-12 are associated with islet cell destruction22,23, and Th2 ... age- and sex-matched controls, and did not find a.