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Sample records for nonimmune hydrops fetalis

  1. Non-immune hydrops fetalis

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    Murat Yurdakök

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF refers to hydrops in the absence of maternal circulating red-cell antibodies, and constitutes up to 90% of all described hydrops fetalis cases. One-third of hydropic fetuses are discovered incidentally during prenatal sonography in the first or second trimester of gestation. Although hydrops is a fetal condition, in many cases there are associated maternal findings, such as preeclampsia, polyhydramnios, and mirror syndrome (generalized maternal edema, that ‘mirrors’ the edema of the hydropic fetus and placenta. NIHF should be seen as a symptom or clinical phenotype rather than as a disorder, and considered as a non-specific, end-stage status of a wide variety of disorders. Numerous disorders including fetal disorders, maternal diseases (e.g., severe maternal anemia, diabetes and maternal indomethacin use and placental/cord abnormalities have been associated with NIHF. Despite extensive investigations, the etiology on NIHF may remain unknown in 15% to 25% of patients, even after an autopsy has been performed. Chromosomal abnormalities are the cause of NIHF in 25-70% of the cases. Therefore, fetal or neonatal chromosome analysis is indicated in all cases of NIHF. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are responsible for as many as 40% of cases of NIHF. Thoracic abnormalities increase intrathoracic pressure and can obstruct venous return to the heart, leading to peripheral venous congestion, or they may obstruct the lymphatic duct, resulting in lymphedema. Fetal anemia accounts for 10-27% of hydrops. To evaluate the risk of fetal anemia, Doppler measurement of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity should be performed in all hydropic fetuses after 16 weeks of gestation. Parvovirus B19 is the most common infectious agent associated with hydrops. Even in persistent severe anemia, the prognosis is generally good if the fetus is supported by intrauterine fetal transfusions. The development of hydrops

  2. Intrauterine infections with nonimmune hydrops fetalis

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    A. V. Kolobov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF may be due to congenital infections. This article examines the congenital infections associated with NIHF – parvovirus and syphilis. Particular attention is paid to data verification infection and specificity of morphological changes in the placenta.

  3. Thoracic Ganglioneuromas Resulting in Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis

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    Paul Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Most often, ganglioneuromas affect older pediatric and adult patients. They are typically slow growing tumors that remain clinically silent until they become large enough to cause symptoms by compression of adjacent structures. Case - We report a case of a 22-year-old Hispanic gravida 2 para 1 female patient who was found to have massive hydrops fetalis at 20 completed gestational weeks. Fetal echocardiography revealed a narrowed distal ductal arch and proximal descending aorta. Cesarean delivery was undertaken at 29 completed gestational weeks for refractory labor and nonreassuring fetal status. The neonate expired at 47 minutes of life despite aggressive resuscitation. At autopsy, multiple thoracic masses were found adjacent to a compressed proximal descending aorta. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of a ganglioneuroma, a rare type of neural crest tumor. Discussion - A variety of intrathoracic masses have previously been reported to cause hydrops fetalis including teratomas, fibrosarcomas, and lymphangiomas. To our knowledge, this case is the first description of hydrops fetalis caused by ganglioneuromas. We propose that multiple thoracic ganglioneuromas led to biventricular distal outflow tract obstruction and hydrops fetalis.

  4. Hennekam syndrome presenting as nonimmune hydrops fetalis, congenital chylothorax, and congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

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    Bellini, Carlo; Mazzella, Massimo; Arioni, Cesare; Campisi, Corradino; Taddei, Gioconda; Tomà, Paolo; Boccardo, Francesco; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Serra, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    We report a female infant with congenital lymphedema, facial anomalies, intestinal lymphangiectasia consistent with a diagnosis of Hennekam syndrome. At birth the patient presented with severe respiratory distress due to nonimmune hydrops fetalis, a congenital chylothorax (CC), and pulmonary

  5. Prenatal-Onset Niemann–Pick Type C Disease with Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis

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    Ozge Surmeli-Onay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick type C (NPC; OMIM 257219 disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the lysosomal/late endosomal system. This autosomal recessive disorder occurs in approximately 1/150,000 births. The broad clinical spectrum ranges from a prenatal severe presentation to an adult-onset chronic neurodegenerative disease. Data about prenatal presentation of NPC are limited. A female newborn was born at 342 weeks' gestation with a birth weight of 3070 g, and transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit because of nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF and respiratory distress. On admission, a physical examination revealed skin edema, mild respiratory distress, and abdominal distention due to massive ascites. Hepatosplenomegaly and cholestasis increased progressively and bleeding diathesis occurred. Results of an abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatosplenomegaly and segmental multicystic dysplastic left kidney. Foamy cells with a lysosomal phospholipid storage pattern compatible with NPC were found in the bone marrow smear. Cultured fibroblasts showed a strongly elevated filipin staining (classical NPC cellular phenotype, establishing the diagnosis of NPC. The infant died on the 52nd day of life because of respiratory distress due to lung involvement of NPC, massive ascites, and progressive liver failure. Results of an autopsy showed multiorgan storage disease involving the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, lungs, and brain. Here, we present a preterm infant with NIHF as a sign of severe prenatal-onset NPC and review the literature.

  6. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis.

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    BenHamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imene; Ouertani, Ines; Chammem, Maroua; Bezzine, Ahlem; BenTmime, Riadh; Attia, Leila; Mrad, Ridha; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis and arthrogryposis. We report a case of Gaucher's disease (type 2) diagnosed in a newborn who presented with Hydrops Fetalis.

  7. EPHB4 kinase-inactivating mutations cause autosomal dominant lymphatic-related hydrops fetalis

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    Martin-Almedina, S.; Martinez-Corral, I.; Holdhus, R.; Vicente, A.; Fotiou, E.; Lin, S.; Petersen, K.; Simpson, M.A.; Hoischen, A.; Gilissen, C.F.; Jeffery, H.; Atton, G.; Karapouliou, C.; Brice, G.; Gordon, K.; Wiseman, J.W.; Wedin, M.; Rockson, S.G.; Jeffery, S.; Mortimer, P.S.; Snyder, M.P.; Berland, S.; Mansour, S.; Makinen, T.; Ostergaard, P.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrops fetalis describes fluid accumulation in at least 2 fetal compartments, including abdominal cavities, pleura, and pericardium, or in body tissue. The majority of hydrops fetalis cases are nonimmune conditions that present with generalized edema of the fetus, and approximately 15% of these

  8. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Causing Hydrops Fetalis

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    Nilüfer Çetiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal heart failure and hydrops fetalis may occur due to systemic arteriovenous fistula because of increased cardiac output. Arteriovenous fistula of the central nervous system, liver, bone or vascular tumors such as sacrococcygeal teratoma were previously reported to be causes of intrauterine heart failure. However, coronary arteriovenous fistula was not reported as a cause of fetal heart failure previously. It is a rare pathology comprising 0.2–0.4% of all congenital heart diseases even during postnatal life. Some may remain asymptomatic for many years and diagnosed by auscultation of a continuous murmur during a routine examination, while a larger fistulous coronary artery opening to a low pressure cardiac chamber may cause ischemia of the affected myocardial region due to steal phenomenon and may present with cardiomyopathy or congestive heart failure during childhood. We herein report a neonate with coronary arteriovenous fistula between the left main coronary artery and the right ventricular apex, who presented with hydrops fetalis during the third trimester of pregnancy.

  9. Hydrops fetalis and pulmonary lymphangiectasia due to FOXC2 mutation: an autosomal dominant hereditary lymphedema syndrome with variable expression.

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    de Bruyn, Gwendolyn; Casaer, Alexandra; Devolder, Katrien; Van Acker, Geert; Logghe, Hilde; Devriendt, Koen; Cornette, Luc

    2012-03-01

    Non-immune hydrops fetalis may find its origin within genetically determined lymphedema syndromes, caused by mutations in FOXC2 and SOX-18. We describe a newborn girl, diagnosed with non-immune hydrops fetalis at a gestational age of 30 weeks. Family history revealed the presence of an autosomal dominant late-onset form of lymphedema of the lower limbs in her father, associated with an aberrant implantation of the eyelashes in some individuals. The newborn, hydropic girl suffered from severe pulmonary lymphangiectasia, resulting in terminal respiratory failure at the age of 3 months. Genetic analysis in both the father and the newborn girl demonstrated a heterozygous FOXC2 mutation, i.e., c.939C>A, p.Tyr313X. Her two older sisters are currently asymptomatic and the parents decided not to test them for the FOXC2 mutation. Patients with a mutation in the FOXC2 transcription factor usually show lower limb lymphedema with onset at or after puberty, together with distichiasis. However, the eye manifestations can be very mild and easily overlooked. The association between FOXC2 mutation and neonatal hydrops resulting in terminal respiratory failure is not reported so far. Therefore, in sporadic patients diagnosed with non-immune hydrops fetalis, lymphangiogenic genes should be systematically screened for mutations. In addition, all cases of fetal edema must prompt a thorough analysis of the familial pedigree, in order to detect familial patterns and to facilitate adequate antenatal counseling.

  10. Characterization of newborns with nonimmune hydrops fetalis admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit Caracterização dos recém-nascidos com hidropisia fetal não imune admitidos em uma unidade neonatal de terapia intensiva

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    Renata Suman Mascaretti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and characteristics of nonimmune hydrops fetalis in the newborn population. METHOD: A retrospective study of the period between 1996 and 2000, including all newborns with a prenatal or early neonatal diagnosis of nonimmune hydrops fetalis, based on clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation. The following were analyzed: prenatal follow-up, delivery type, gender, birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, nutritional classification, etiopathic diagnosis, length of hospital stay, mortality, and age at death. RESULTS: A total of 47 newborns with hydrops fetalis (0.42% of live births, 18 (38.3% with the immune form and 29 (61.7% with the nonimmune form, were selected for study. The incidence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis was 1 per 414 neonates. Data was obtained from 21 newborns, with the following characteristics: 19 (90.5% were suspected from prenatal diagnosis, 18 (85.7% were born by cesarean delivery, 15 (71.4% were female, and 10 (47.6% were asphyxiated. The average weight was 2665.9 g, and the average gestational age was 35 3/7 weeks; 14 (66.6% were preterm; 18 (85.0 % appropriate delivery time; and 3 (14.3% were large for gestational age. The etiopathic diagnosis was determined for 62%, which included cardiovascular (19.0%, infectious (9.5%, placental (4.8%, hematologic (4.7%, genitourinary (4.8%, and tumoral causes (4.8%, and there was a combination of causes in 9.5%. The etiology was classified as idiopathic in 38%. The length of hospital stay was 26.6 ± 23.6 days, and the mortality rate was 52.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of a suitable etiopathic diagnosis associated with prenatal detection of nonimmune hydrops fetalis can be an important step in reducing the neonatal mortality rate from this condition.OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência e caracterizar a população de recém-nascidos com hidropisia fetal não imune. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo

  11. Preservative Monitoring of a Greek Woman with Hydrops Fetalis due to Parvovirus B19 Infection

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    Zacharias Fasoulakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primate erythroparvovirus 1 (parvovirus B19 is a member of the Erythrovirus genus of the Parvoviridae family and it is one of the few members of the family known to be pathogenic in human. B19 infection is common and widespread with the virus being associated with numerous rheumatologic and haematologic manifestations. More specifically, maternal infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can cause severe anemia which may lead to nonimmune hydrops or fetal demise, as a result of fetal erythroid progenitor cells infection with shortened half-life of erythrocytes. We present a rare case reported in the Greek population, of subclinical transient reticulocytopenia due to B19 parvovirus infection, in an asymptomatic pregnant woman, without medical history of hemoglobinopathy, and with the presence of hydrops fetalis during the third trimester of her pregnancy.

  12. Digitalization of the mother in treating hydrops fetalis in monochorionic twin with Ebstein's anomaly. Case report.

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    Koike, T; Minakami, H; Shiraishi, H; Ogawa, S; Matsubara, S; Honma, Y; Sato, I

    1997-01-01

    Hydrops fetalis thought to be due to Ebstein's anomaly was seen at 22 weeks' gestation in one of two fetuses with a monochorionic placenta. Hydrops was treated with maternal digitalization and resolved by the 28th week of gestation. Hydrops did not recur while maternal digitalization continued. A clinical diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome required termination of the pregnancy at 33 weeks of gestation. The twin with Ebstein's anomaly died 22 hours after birth. The other twin survived and was normal at 19 months of age. Thus, administration of digitalis to the mother controlled hydrops fetalis in one fetus, and ultimately led to the survival of the healthy infant.

  13. Prognostic factors of hydrops fetalis with pleural effusion.

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    Nakayama, Atsushi; Oshiro, Makoto; Yamada, Yasumasa; Hattori, Tetsuo; Wakano, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Seiji; Kokubo, Minoru; Takemoto, Koji; Honda, Shigeru; Ieda, Kuniko; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Kouwaki, Masanori; Yokoi, Kyoko; Shinohara, Osamu; Kato, Takenori; Miyata, Masafumi; Tanaka, Taihei; Hayakawa, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Hydrops fetalis (HF) has a low survival rate, particularly in the case of preterm birth. In addition, the severity index of HF has not been fully investigated yet. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors of HF with pleural effusion. All live-born HF patients with pleural effusion, except for chromosomal abnormality or complex congenital heart disease, born from 2009 to 2013 in Aichi Prefecture in Japan were included. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal information was obtained from the medical records and was retrospectively analyzed. Forty-one HF patients with pleural effusion were included, and 28 patients (68%) survived. On multivariate logistic stepwise analysis, gestational birth week (OR, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52-0.96, P = 0.027) and standard deviation (SD) score of the birthweight (OR, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.01-2.99, P = 0.045) were significant factors for postnatal death. All patients with both ≥32 gestational weeks and pleural effusion. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Human parvovirus B19 infection and hydrops fetalis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rita CN Cubel

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded lung and liver tissue from 23 cases of non immune hydrops fetalis and five control cases, in which hydrops were due to syphilis (3 and genetic causes (2, were examined for the presence of human parvovirus B19 by DNA hybridisation. Using in situ hybridisation with a biotynilated probe one positive case was detected. Using 32P-labelled probes in a dot blot assay format, five further positives were obtained. These were all confirmed as positive by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Electron microscopy revealed virus in all these five positive cases. The six B19 DNA positive cases of hydrops fetalis were from 1974, 1980, 1982, 1987 and 1988, four of which occurred during the second half of the year, confirming the seasonality of the disease.

  15. Characterization of Hb Bart's Hydrops Fetalis Caused by - -SEA and a Large Novel α0-Thalassemia Deletion.

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    He, Sheng; Li, Jihui; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Shujie; Lin, Li; Zuo, Yangjin; Tian, Xiaoxian; Zheng, Chenguang; Qiu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Biyan

    2018-01-01

    Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis is the most severe and generally fatal clinical phenotype of α-thalassemia (α-thal), which is due to the deletion of all four functional α-globin genes of hemoglobin (Hb), resulting in no α-globin chain production (- -/- -). Homozygosity for the - - SEA (Southeast Asian) α-globin gene deletion is the main cause of the Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis in Asia, especially South China. Occasionally, other α 0 -thal deletions can also be found. In this study, we report a case with an atypical form of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis that was caused by - - SEA and a large novel α 0 -thal deletion (- - GX ) (Guangxi). The fetus with Hb Bart's in our study presented fetal hydrops features in early gestation which was different from that of traditional Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis with a homozygous - - SEA deletion. The early onset of fetal hydrops is attributed to the decreased formation of embryonic Hb Portland (ζ2γ2), which is proposed as a candidate for reactivation in cases of severe α-thal. Our findings indicated that it was important to characterize new or rare mutations, and highlighted the significance of using ultrasonography to identify signs of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis.

  16. A case of Hydrops fetalis due to Kell alloimmunization: A perinatal approach to a rare case

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    Arzu Akdag

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While the routine administration of Rhesus immunoglobulin has significantly reduced the incidence of this type of alloimmunization, maternal alloimmunization to other red cell antigens continues to contribute to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although the Kell antigen is found on the red cells of only 9% of the population, attention has increasingly been focused on Kell antibodies. Case Report: We present a case of fetal hydrops who was sonographically detected at 30th week of pregnancy. Antenatal tests for evaluation of fetal condition clearly showed the critical level of hemolytic disease but the baby was delivered prematurely due to fetal distress. The combination of anemia, reticulocytopenia, hydrops fetalis, and positive indirect Coombs test suggested Kell isoimmunization. The baby was treated by exchange transfusion with the Kell-negative packed red cell succesfully, and was discharged on postnatal 30th day. Conclusion: Here we describe a case of hydrops fetalis caused by Kell alloimmunization that was determined in postnatal period, and thus we plan to discuss the perinatal approach to the Kell immunization.

  17. Congenital yellow nail syndrome: a case report and its relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops.

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    Nanda, Arti; Al-Essa, Fahad H; El-Shafei, Wael M; Alsaleh, Qasem A

    2010-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by a triad of nail dystrophy, lymphedema, and pleural effusion. It is rare in children and congenital occurrence of YNS has been very rarely described. We report a 2-year-old Arab boy having congenital yellow nail syndrome with mild facial dysmorphism and bilateral conjunctival pigmentation born to consanguineous parents. One of his older siblings had died of nonimmune fetal hydrops (NIFH). The case supports the genetic basis of yellow nail syndrome with a possible relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prenatal control of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis: a two-year experience at a mainland Chinese hospital.

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    Liao, Can; Pan, Min; Han, Jin; Yang, Xin; Zhen, Li; Li, Jian; Li, Ru; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2015-03-01

    α-Thalassemia is a common inherited disease in southern China. The severest form is Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis, in which the affected fetuses almost always die in utero or shortly after birth, and the mothers are at high risk for severe morbidity. Therefore, this condition should be controlled, especially prenatally. In this study, we reported on a two-year experience in prenatal control of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis at a mainland Chinese hospital. Totally, 573 pregnancies at risk for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis were referred and different prenatal procedures were offered depending on the gestational age at presentation. One hundred fifty-two affected fetuses were diagnosed prenatally; among these, only half presented in early gestation, and were terminated in time. Although our prenatal program has successfully prevented the birth of children with severe thalassemia, it does not show a satisfactory outcome, considering the gestational age when an affected pregnancy is terminated.

  19. Neonatal Bartter syndrome and unilateral ectopic renal cyst as new renal causes of hydrops fetalis: two case reports and review of the literature.

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    Çetinkaya, Merih; Durmaz, Oguzhan; Büyükkale, Gökhan; Ozbek, Sibel; Acar, Deniz; Kilicaslan, Isin; Kavuncuoglu, Sultan

    2013-07-01

    Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is a challenging entity as it represents the end stage of several different disorders. Renal and genitourinary causes of NIHF are rare and include congenital renal malformations, tumors and ureter-urethra disorders. Herein, two NIHF cases with different renal causes were presented. The first case that had antenatal NIHF was diagnosed neonatal Bartter syndrome. The second case of NIHF with antenatal large cyst in the surrenal gland area required surgery and ectopic renal cyst was diagnosed. To our best of knowledge, these are the first reports of NIHF associated with neonatal Bartter syndrome and ectopic renal cyst in neonates. Although it may be coincidental, these cases suggest that both neonatal Bartter syndrome and unilateral ectopic renal cyst may cause NIHF development in neonates by several different mechanisms. Therefore, these two rare entities should be suspected in cases of NIHF with similar findings.

  20. Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.

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    Manoel Sarno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses.We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products.This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

  1. Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.

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    Sarno, Manoel; Sacramento, Gielson A; Khouri, Ricardo; do Rosário, Mateus S; Costa, Federico; Archanjo, Gracinda; Santos, Luciane A; Nery, Nivison; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ko, Albert I; de Almeida, Antonio R P

    2016-02-01

    The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

  2. Transaldolase deficiency: a new cause of hydrops fetalis and neonatal multi-organ disease.

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    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Verhoeven, Nanda M; Mention, Karine; Salomons, Gajja S; Sommelet, Danièle; Gonzales, Marie; Touati, Guy; de Lonlay, Pascale; Jakobs, Cornelis; Saudubray, Jean-Marie

    2006-11-01

    Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency is a newly recognized metabolic disease, which has been reported so far in 2 patients presenting with liver failure and cirrhosis. We report a new sibship of 4 infants born to the same consanguineous parents; all presented at birth or in the antenatal period with dysmorphic features, cutis laxa and hypertrichosis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, liver failure, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and genitourinary malformations. The clinical courses were variable: the first child died of liver failure at 4 months of age; the second pregnancy was medically terminated at 28 weeks gestation because of hydrops fetalis with oligohydramnios. The third child is doing well at age 7 with liver fibrosis and mild kidney failure. The fourth child is now 21 months old and has hepatosplenomegaly, mild anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Urine assessment of polyols showed elevations of erythritol, arabitol, and ribitol consistent with TALDO deficiency. TALDO activity was undetectable in the patients' tissues, and mutation in the TALDO1 gene was found in the 4 patients.

  3. Fetal Anemia and Hydrops Fetalis Associated with Homozygous Hb Constant Spring (HBA2: c.427T > C).

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    He, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Lou, Ji-Wu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) is a common nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) that results from a nucleotide substitution at the termination codon of the α2-globin gene. Homozygosity for Hb CS (α(CS)α/α(CS)α) is relatively rare, and generally characterized with mild hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. In this report we present a fetus with cardiomegaly, pericardial effusion, enlarged placenta and increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) at 24 weeks' gestation. Fetal blood sampling revealed the severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) level being 4.8 g/dL] and Hb H (β4) disease-like hematological findings with Hb Bart's (γ4) level of 17.9%. DNA sequencing of the α-globin genes found that both partners were Hb CS carriers and the fetus was an Hb CS homozygote. Therefore, this was a rare case of homozygous Hb CS which demonstrated an unusual and serious anemia and hydrops fetalis in utero.

  4. Infantile lethal variant of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome associated with hydrops fetalis

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    Terespolsky, D.; Siegel-Bartelt, J.; Weksberg, R. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Farrell, S.A. [Credit Valley Hospital, Mississauga (Canada)

    1995-11-20

    Simpson-Golabi Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia, minor facial anomalies, and variable visceral, skeletal, and neurological abnormalities. Since its first description by Simpson et al., a wide clinical range of cases has been reported. There is great variability in severity, ranging from a mild form associated with long-term survival to an early lethal form with multiple congenital anomalies and severe mental retardation. In 8 reported families, affected individuals died in infancy. Here we present 4 maternally related, male cousins with a severe variant of SGBS. One of these males was aborted therapeutically at 19 weeks of gestation following the detection of multicystic kidneys on ultrasound. The 3 liveborn males were hydropic at birth with a combination of craniofacial anomalies including macrocephaly; apparently low-set, posteriorly angulated ears; hypertelorism; short, broad nose with anteverted nares; large mouth with thin upper vermilion border; prominent philtrum; high-arched or cleft palate; short neck; redundant skin; hypoplastic nails; skeletal defects involving upper and lower limbs; gastrointestinal and genitourinary anomalies. All 3 patients were hypotonic and neurologically impaired from birth. With the exception of a trilobate left lung in one patient, the cardiorespiratory system was structurally normal. All patients died within the first 8 weeks of life of multiple complications including pneumonia and sepsis. Two SGBS kindreds, with moderate expression of the condition, have been mapped to Xq27. It is not known whether severe, familiar cases, such as ours, are genetically distinct from and map to another locus. Final resolution of the genetic basis of the phenotypic variability in SGBS must await cloning and mutation analysis of the SGBS gene(s). 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Prenatal management and perinatal outcome in giant placental chorioangioma complicated with hydrops fetalis, fetal anemia and maternal mirror syndrome

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    García-Díaz Lutgardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant placental chorioangiomas have been associated with a number of severe fetal complications and high perinatal mortality. Case presentation We report a case of giant chorioangioma with fetal hydrops, additionally complicated by severe anemia, mild cardiomegaly with hyperdinamic heart circulation and maternal mirror syndrome. Intrauterine blood transfusion and amniodrainage was performed at 29 weeks. Worsening of the fetal and maternal condition prompted us to proceed with delivery at 29 + 5 weeks. The newborn died 3 hours later due to pulmonary hypoplasia and hemodynamic failure. Maternal course was favourable, mirror syndrome resolved in the second day and the patient was discharged four days following delivery. Conclusions In the case described here, fetal condition got worse despite of the anemia correction and amniodrainage. Our outcome raises the issue whether additional intrauterine clinical intervention, as intersticial laser, should have been performed to stop further deterioration of the fetal condition when progressive severe hydrops develops.

  6. Hydrops Fetalis Associated with Compound Heterozygosity for Hb Zurich-Albisrieden (HBA2: C.178G > C) and the Southeast Asian (- -SEA/) Deletion.

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    Yang, Xin; Yan, Jin-Mei; Li, Jian; Xie, Xing-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Li, Yan; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Hb Zurich-Albisrieden [HBA2: c.178G > C; α59(E8)Gly→Arg (α2)] is a rare nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) that results from a nucleotide substitution at codon 59 of the α2-globin gene. In this report, we present a fetus with cardiomegaly, enlarged placenta and increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) at 25 weeks' gestation. Fetal blood sampling revealed the severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) level being 5.5 g/dL] and Hb H (β4) disease-like hematological findings with Hb Bart's (γ4) level of 30.7%. Molecular analysis of the family found that the father was an Hb Zurich-Albisrieden carrier, the mother heterozygous for the - - SEA α 0 -thal deletion, and the fetus was a compound heterozygote for Hb Zurich-Albisrieden and the - - SEA α 0 -thal deletion. Therefore, this was a rare case of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis associated with Hb Zurich Albisrieden.

  7. Hb H Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome Caused by Association of the - -(SEA) Deletion and Hb Constant Spring (HBA2: c.427T > C) Mutation in a Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng; Zheng, Chenguang; Meng, Dahua; Chen, Rongyu; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Xiaoxian; Chen, Shaoke

    2015-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS; HBA2: c.427T > C) is an unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant that results from a nucleotide substitution at the termination codon of the α2-globin gene. Compound heterozygosity for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) and Hb CS (- -(SEA)/α(CS)α) results in Hb H/Hb CS disease, which is generally characterized with mild hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. Here, we describe one case with Hb H/Hb CS disease that presented with fetal anemia and fetal hydrops, known as Hb H (β4) hydrops fetalis. This is the first report of fetal hydrops caused by association of the - -(SEA) deletion and the α(CS)α mutation. Our study highlights the significance of watchful observation using a serial ultrasound method and care of pregnant women who have fetuses found to carry Hb H/Hb CS disease during pregnancy, to guard against the occurrence of fetal hydrops.

  8. Non-immunological hydrops fetalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sugar level was 1,3 mmol/I, the total serum protein level was 24 g/l (normal ... protein production (e.g. in liver damage) or increased loss, as in the congenital .... worsening jaundice or disseminated intravascular coagulation immediately or ...

  9. Prevalência de anticorpos IgG antiparvovírus B19 em gestantes durante o atendimento pré-natal e casos de hidropisia fetal não imune atribuídos ao parvovírus B19, na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibody prevalence in pregnant women during antenatal follow-up and cases of non-immune hydropsis fetalis due to parvovirus B19, in the City of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Araujo da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de medir a prevalência de anticorpos IgG contra o parvovírus B19 em gestantes com até 24 semanas de idade gestacional e detectar a ocorrência de casos de hidropisia fetal não-imune atribuídos a esse vírus, coletamos 249 amostras de soro em uma maternidade de referência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, entre junho de 2003 e março de 2005. As gestantes foram acompanhadas até o termo da gestação, sendo detectados 17 casos de hidropisia fetal. Quatro casos foram atribuídos ao parvovírus B19 e dois destes ocorreram em gestantes residentes na zona oeste da cidade, em fevereiro de 2005. Resultados positivos para anticorpos IgG antiparvovírus B19 foram encontrados em 172 (71,6% gestantes (IC 95% 65,5-77,7%, sendo esta prevalência de anticorpos comparável à encontrada em outras cidades brasileiras. A única variável associada com aquisição prévia de anticorpos IgG foi número de gestações anteriores maior que um(p= 0,02, IC 95% 0,36-0,94.With the aim of measuring the prevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies during pregnancy up to 24 weeks of gestation and detecting cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis, 249 sera from pregnant women attending a reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, from June 2003 to November 2004 were collected. They were followed-up until the end of pregnancy, with 17 cases of fetal hydrops detected. Four cases were caused by parvovirus B19 and two of them occurred in pregnant women living in the western zone of the city, during February 2005. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies were found in 172 (71.6% pregnant women (CI 95% 65.5%-77.7%; this antibody prevalence is similar to results found for others Brazilian cities. The only variable associated with previous acquisition of IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19 was number of pregnancies greater than one (p= 0.02, CI 95% 0.36-0.94.

  10. Lesão vascular da placenta condicionando RCIU e hidropisia fetal não imune em gestação gemelar Placental vascular lesion as cause of IUGR and nonimmune fetal hydrops in twin pregnanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ricardo Gonçalves Baptista Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As lesões vasculares da placenta constituem um grupo de entidades distintas, mas inter-relacionadas, em que se incluem os corioangiomas e a corangiomatose multifocal difusa. O corioangioma é uma lesão nodular expansiva com incidência de cerca de 1%. A corangiomatose multifocal difusa é rara (0,2% e predominante em placentas em idade gestacional inferior a 32 semanas. Os autores apresentam um caso de gestação gemelar monocoriônica/biamniótica, no qual um dos fetos, à 26ª semana de gestação, apresentou quadro de restrição de crescimento intrauterino, hidropisia e anemia associado à formação tumoral da placenta com vascularização aumentada verificada pela doplervelocimetria. O estudo anatomopatológico da placenta permitiu o diagnóstico de corangiomatose multifocal difusa. Este raro caso de corioangiomatose multifocal difusa com forma de apresentação pré-natal mimetizando a de um corioangioma comprova que a detecção ultrassonográfica de um tumor da placenta com vascularização aumentada deve suscitar outras hipótese diagnóstica, além do corioangioma.Placenta vascular lesions are a group of distinct yet related entities that include chorangiomas and diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis. Chorangioma is an expansive nodular lesion with an incidence of about 1%. Diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis is rare (0.2% and mostly seen in placentas before the 32nd gestational week. The authors present a case of a monochorionic/biamniotic twin pregnancy, in which, at the 26th gestational week, one fetus developed intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, hydrops, and anemia associated with a tumor of the placenta with increased vascularization in the Doppler study. Pathological examination of the placenta diagnosed diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis. This rare case report of diffuse multifocal chorangiomatosis with prenatal manifestations resembling those of a chorangioma proves that prenatal ultrasound detection of a placenta tumor

  11. Mirror syndrome er en sjælden graviditetskomplikation karakteriseret ved ødemer og føtal hydrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiland, Signe; Cvetanovska, Eleonora; Bjerre, Anne Høyrup

    2017-01-01

    was performed without improvement of the condition. Since maternal symptoms worsened, a caesarean section was performed at 34 weeks with delivery of a live hydropic girl who died after 17 hours. Maternal symptoms decreased four days after delivery with full recovery two weeks post-partum.......We describe a case of mirror syndrome. A 41-year-old woman, para 4, was referred to hospital at 32 weeks of gestational age with excessive oedema. She developed oliguria, mild hypertension and proteinuria. Fetal ultrasound confirmed severe hydrops fetalis. Intrauterine pleural drainage...

  12. Caracterização dos recém-nascidos com hidropisia fetal não imune admitidos em uma unidade neonatal de terapia intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Mascaretti, Renata Suman; Falcão, Mário Cícero; Silva, Andrea M.; Vaz, Flávio Adolfo Costa; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and characteristics of nonimmune hydrops fetalis in the newborn population. METHOD: A retrospective study of the period between 1996 and 2000, including all newborns with a prenatal or early neonatal diagnosis of nonimmune hydrops fetalis, based on clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation. The following were analyzed: prenatal follow-up, delivery type, gender, birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, nutritiona...

  13. Severe anemia and hydrops in a neonate with parvovirus B19 infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia at the time of birth may cause some problem like asphyxia, heart failure shock or even death in a neonate. Different etiologies can be considered for this problem. Parvovirus B19, as a viral organism, can cause hydrops fetalis and neonatal anemia and consequent complications. We present here a case of newborn infant with severe anemia who had human parvovirus B19 infection.Case Presentation: A male newborn with gestational age of 36 week was born from a mother with poor prenatal care and history of contact with domestic animal. The neonate was very pale with Apgar score 2 at 1 min and received resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and repeated blood transfusion The hemoglobin level was significantly low. Analysis was made based on the clinical presentations. According to the case history, physical and laboratory findings, neonatal severe anemia induced by parvovirus B19 infection was suggested and Laboratory work up documented his infection with parovirus B19.Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus is the smallest single strand linear DNA virus in animal viruses, which is the only strain of parvovirus that is pathogenic in humans. Human parvovirus B19 may cross the placenta and result in fetal infection, morbidity and death. Parvovirus is an uncommon cause of neonatal anemia and hydrops fetalis so this etiology must be considered in differential diagnosis of anemia at birth.

  14. Acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prafulla K Maharana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute corneal hydrops is a condition characterized by stromal edema due to leakage of aqueous through a tear in descemet membrane. The patient presents with sudden onset decrease in vision, photophobia, and pain. Corneal thinning and ectasias combined with trivial trauma to the eye mostly by eye rubbing is considered as the underlying cause. With conservative approach self-resolution takes around 2 to 3 months. Surgical intervention is required in cases of non-resolution of corneal edema to avoid complications and for early visual rehabilitation. Intracameral injection of air or gas such as perflouropropane is the most common surgical procedure done. Recent investigative modality such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography is an extremely useful tool for diagnosis, surgical planning, and postoperative follow up. Resolution of hydrops may improve the contact lens tolerance and visual acuity but most cases require keratoplasty for visual rehabilitation.

  15. Thoracoamniotic shunting for fetal pleural effusion with hydropic change using a double-basket catheter: An insight into the preoperative determinants of shunting efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kido, Saki; Sato, Yuka; Murata, Masaharu; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Kato, Kiyoko

    2018-02-01

    Although the efficacy of thoracoamniotic shunting (TAS) for fetal hydrothorax is well-recognized, the coexistence of hydrops fetalis is still a clinical challenge. The preoperative determinants of shunting efficacy are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the perinatal and postnatal outcomes of hydrops fetalis with pleural effusion treated by TAS using a double-basket catheter, and to discuss the preoperative factors predictive of patients who will benefit from TAS. We conducted a retrospective study in hydropic fetuses with pleural effusion treated by TAS between 2007 and 2015. We extracted information regarding postnatal survival and pretherapeutic sonographic findings, including skin-edema thickness, pleural-effusion pocket size, and Doppler readings. Twelve subjects underwent TAS at a median gestational age of 29 +5 weeks (range, 25 +5 -33 +2 weeks). Skin edema disappeared or regressed in 7. Three experienced early neonatal death and the other 9 ultimately survived after a live birth at a median gestational age of 33 +4 weeks (range, 29 +1 -38 +2 weeks). All surviving children, except for 1, had a pretherapeutic pleural-effusion pocket greater than the precordial-edema thickness. All 3 children that died had precordial-edema thickness equal to or greater than the size of the pleural-effusion pocket. We achieved a high survival rate (75%) using the double-basket technique. A greater pretherapeutic width of skin edema compared with the pleural-effusion pocket is possibly suggestive of a treatment-resistant condition and subsequent poor postnatal outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E.; Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Keeser, D.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  17. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E. [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); Keeser, D. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innenstadtkliniken Medical Centre, Munich (Germany)

    2014-10-16

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  18. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Abstract. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly,.

  19. Umbilical vein draining into the inferior vena cava via the internal iliac vein, bypassing the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Stannard, M.W.; Texas Univ., Dallas, TX; Kolni, H.

    1991-01-01

    This is the third report of an anomalous umbilical vein draining ectopically in a left pelvic vein, probably the left internal iliac, and through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium. The anomaly was encountered in a newborn infant with nonimmune hydrops fetalis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, multiorgan failure and possibly Noonan Syndrome. (orig.)

  20. Umbilical vein draining into the inferior vena cava via the internal iliac vein, bypassing the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, G.; Stannard, M.W. (Children' s Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center); Kolni, H. (Methodist Hospital, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1991-05-01

    This is the third report of an anomalous umbilical vein draining ectopically in a left pelvic vein, probably the left internal iliac, and through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium. The anomaly was encountered in a newborn infant with nonimmune hydrops fetalis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, multiorgan failure and possibly Noonan Syndrome. (orig.).

  1. DNA flow cytometric analysis in variable types of hydropic placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Atabaki pasdar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differential diagnosis between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion, known as hydropic placentas is still a challenge for pathologists but it is very important for patient management. Objective: We analyzed the nuclear DNA content of various types of hydropic placentas by flowcytometry. Materials and Methods: DNA ploidy analysis was performed in 20 non-molar (hydropic and non-hydropic spontaneous abortions and 20 molar (complete and partial moles, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by flow cytometry. The criteria for selection were based on the histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Of 10 cases histologically diagnosed as complete hydatiform mole, 9 cases yielded diploid histograms, and 1 case was tetraploid. Of 10 partial hydatidiform moles, 8 were triploid and 2 were diploid. All of 20 cases diagnosed as spontaneous abortions (hydropic and non-hydropic yielded diploid histograms. Conclusion: These findings signify the importance of the combined use of conventional histology and ploidy analysis in the differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion.

  2. Spontaneous Corneal Hydrops in a Patient with a Corneal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Batawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report the case of a 77-year-old man with no history of keratoconus or other ectatic disorders who presented with corneal hydrops in the setting of a corneal ulcer. The risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment options of corneal hydrops are discussed. Method: This is an observational case report study. Results: A 77-year-old man presented with a 1-day history of severe pain, redness, mucous discharge and photophobia in the right eye. A slit-lamp examination of the right eye showed an area of focal corneal edema and protrusion. Within the area of edema and protrusion, there was an infiltrate with an overlying epithelial defect consistent with an infectious corneal ulcer. The Seidel test showed no leakage, so a clinical diagnosis of corneal hydrops associated with nonperforated corneal ulcer was made. With appropriate antibiotic treatment, the corneal ulcer and hydrops both resolved over a 1-month period. Conclusion: Corneal hydrops can occur in the setting of corneal infections.

  3. Differential Expression of p63 in Hydropic and Molar Gestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, S.; Kehar, S. I.; Shawana, S.; Aamir, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the differential expression of p63 in hydropic and molar gestation. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate and Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2006 to June 2013. Methodology: Ninety placental biopsies including 30 cases each of hydropic abortions, partial hydatidiform mole and complete hydatidiform mole were analyzed for morphological features and results of immunohistochemical staining. Results were described as frequency. Significance was determined using test of proportions with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Out of 30 cases of hydropic abortion, 6 were negative, 15 were weak, 4 were moderate and 5 showed strong degree of intensity for p63. Out of 30 cases of partial hydatidiform mole, 3 were negative, 2 showed weak, 4 showed moderate and 21 cases showed strong degree of intensity for p63. All 30 cases of complete hydatidiform mole strongly stained for p63. Conclusion: The intensity of staining of p63 was stronger in cases of molar pregnancy as compared to hydropic abortion. There was loss of p63 expression in cytotrophoblastic cells in all abortions. In limited resources settings, where facilities for PCR/FISH and DNA ploidy analysis is not available, the authors advocate p63 in routine clinical practice to provide the most refined diagnosis of hydatidiform moles. (author)

  4. Dengue infections in non-immune travellers to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, E; Rocklov, J; Wilder-Smith, A

    2013-02-01

    Dengue is the most frequent arboviral disease and is expanding geographically. Dengue is also increasingly being reported in travellers, in particular in travellers to Thailand. However, data to quantify the risk of travellers acquiring dengue when travelling to Thailand are lacking. Using mathematical modelling, we set out to estimate the risk of non-immune persons acquiring dengue when travelling to Thailand. The model is deterministic with stochastic parameters and assumes a Poisson distribution for the mosquitoes' biting rate and a Gamma distribution for the probability of acquiring dengue from an infected mosquito. From the force of infection we calculated the risk of dengue acquisition for travellers to Thailand arriving in a typical year (averaged over a 17-year period) in the high season of transmission. A traveller arriving in the high season of transmission and remaining for 7 days has a risk of acquiring dengue of 0·2% (95% CI 0·16-0·23), whereas the risk for travel of 15 and 30 days' duration is 0·46% (95% CI 0·41-0·50) and 0·81% (95% CI 0·76-0·87), respectively. Our data highlight that the risk of non-immune travellers acquiring dengue in Thailand is substantial. The incidence of 0·81% after a 1-month stay is similar to that reported in prospective seroconversion studies in Israeli travellers to Thailand, highlighting that our models are consistent with actual data. Risk estimates based on mathematical modelling offer more detailed information depending on various travel scenarios, and will help the travel medicine provider give better evidence-based advice for travellers to dengue-endemic countries.

  5. Changes in endolymphatic hydrops visualized by magnetic resonance imaging after sac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Cui, Yong-Hua; Hu, Ying; Mao, Zhong-Yao; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Pan, Chu; Liu, Ai-Guo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe changes in endolymphatic hydrops by using intratympanic injection of gadolinium and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after endolymphatic sac surgery in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease. Thirteen patients with unilateral Meniere's disease undergoing endolymphatic sac surgery were retrospectively and prospectively analyzed. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery or three-dimensional real inversion recovery MRI was performed 24 h after an intratympanic injection of gadolinium to grade the presence of endolymphatic hydrops. Among the 13 patients with hydrops confirmed by preoperative MRI, vestibular hydrops had no significant change in all patients; cochlear hydrops became negative in 2 patients, and remained unchanged in the other 11 patients after surgery. Definite vertigo attacks were substantially controlled in one patient and completely controlled in 12 patients during a follow-up period of 8-34 months after surgery. The hearing levels were improved in 3 patients, remained unchanged in 7 patients, and decreased in 3 patients. In conclusion, endolymphatic sac surgery does not always alleviate endolymphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease. Relief from vertigo cannot always be attributed to the remission of hydrops. A change in hearing levels cannot be explained by hydrops status alone.

  6. ELHnet: a convolutional neural network for classifying cochlear endolymphatic hydrops imaged with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, George S; Zhu, Michael H; Kim, Jinkyung; Raphael, Patrick; Applegate, Brian E; Oghalai, John S

    2017-10-01

    Detection of endolymphatic hydrops is important for diagnosing Meniere's disease, and can be performed non-invasively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in animal models as well as potentially in the clinic. Here, we developed ELHnet, a convolutional neural network to classify endolymphatic hydrops in a mouse model using learned features from OCT images of mice cochleae. We trained ELHnet on 2159 training and validation images from 17 mice, using only the image pixels and observer-determined labels of endolymphatic hydrops as the inputs. We tested ELHnet on 37 images from 37 mice that were previously not used, and found that the neural network correctly classified 34 of the 37 mice. This demonstrates an improvement in performance from previous work on computer-aided classification of endolymphatic hydrops. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first deep CNN designed for endolymphatic hydrops classification.

  7. Endolympathic hydrops in patients with vestibular schwannoma: visualization by non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ikeda, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Signal intensity of ipsilateral labyrinthine lymph fluid has been reported to increase in most cases with vestibular schwannoma (VS) on 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The purpose of this study was twofold, (1) to evaluate if endolymphatic space can be recognized in the patients with VS on non-contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR images and (2) to know if the vertigo in the patients with VS correlates to vestibular endolymphatic hydrops. From the introduction of 32-channel head coil at 3 T in May 2008 to June 2010, 15 cases with unilateral VS were identified in the radiology report database. The two cases without a significant signal increase on 3D FLAIR were excluded. Resting 13 cases were retrospectively analyzed in regard to the recognition of endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and vestibule and to the correlation between the patients' symptoms and endolymphatic hydrops. In all cases, vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. Cochlear endolymphatic space can be identified only in one case with significant hydrops. Vestibular hydrops was identified in four cases. Among these four cases, three had vertigo, and one had no vertigo. In those nine cases without hydrops, two had vertigo, and seven did not have vertigo. No significant correlation between vertigo and vestibular hydrops was found. Vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. In some patients with VS, vestibular hydrops is seen; however, endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibule might not be the only responsible cause of vertigo in the patients with VS. (orig.)

  8. Endolympathic hydrops in patients with vestibular schwannoma: visualization by non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeda, Mitsuru [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Signal intensity of ipsilateral labyrinthine lymph fluid has been reported to increase in most cases with vestibular schwannoma (VS) on 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The purpose of this study was twofold, (1) to evaluate if endolymphatic space can be recognized in the patients with VS on non-contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR images and (2) to know if the vertigo in the patients with VS correlates to vestibular endolymphatic hydrops. From the introduction of 32-channel head coil at 3 T in May 2008 to June 2010, 15 cases with unilateral VS were identified in the radiology report database. The two cases without a significant signal increase on 3D FLAIR were excluded. Resting 13 cases were retrospectively analyzed in regard to the recognition of endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and vestibule and to the correlation between the patients' symptoms and endolymphatic hydrops. In all cases, vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. Cochlear endolymphatic space can be identified only in one case with significant hydrops. Vestibular hydrops was identified in four cases. Among these four cases, three had vertigo, and one had no vertigo. In those nine cases without hydrops, two had vertigo, and seven did not have vertigo. No significant correlation between vertigo and vestibular hydrops was found. Vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. In some patients with VS, vestibular hydrops is seen; however, endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibule might not be the only responsible cause of vertigo in the patients with VS. (orig.)

  9. [Effects of electroacupuncture on cochlea morphology and expression of aquaporins in guinea pigs with endolymphatic hydrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyuan; Wang, Canjun; Ni, Fangying; Chen, Huade

    2015-06-01

    To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on cochlea morphology and expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in guinea pigs with endolymphatic hydrops, so as to explore the possible mechanism of EA on endolymphatic hydrops. Forty guinea pigs were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and an EA group, 10 guinea pigs in each one. Model of endolymphatic hydrops was established by using intraperitoneal injection of aldosterone. Guinea pigs in the blank group and model group were treated with identical immobilization as EA group but no treatment was given; guinea pigs in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 5 mg/kg, once a day for consecutive 10 days; guinea pigs in the EA group were treated with' EA at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Tinggong"(SI 19), once a day for consecutive 10 days. The serum ionic concentration in each group was tested by turbidimetric method; hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to measure the severity of cochlea hydrops; immunohistochemical method was used to observe the expression of AQP1 in the cochlea. (1) There was no endolymphatic hydrops in the blank group, moderate-severe endolymphatic hydrops in the model group and slight endolymphatic hydrops in the EA group and medication group. (2) The concentration of K+ and Ca2+ in the EA group was higher than that in the model group and medication group (all P0. 05). (3) The ratio of expression area of AQP1 in the model group was lower than that in the blank group (P0. 05). EA could relieve the endolymphatic hydrops in guinea pigs; the mechanism is likely to be related with up-regulating the expression of AQP1 in cochlea and ion concentration might be an important factor involved.

  10. Correlation between hearing loss and scala media area in guinea pigs with long-standing endolymphatic hydrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, Morgan E; Graham, Martin; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Megerian, Cliff A

    2003-01-01

    Histologic analysis of the hydropic and normal guinea pig cochleae was undertaken to assess a potential correlation between the magnitude of endolymphatic hydrops and hearing loss. It was hypothesized that a greater correlation than previously reported might be found by looking at long-standing endolymphatic hydrops and high-frequency range hearing. Surgically induced endolymphatic hydrops in guinea pigs is the most widely used animal model for the study of human Ménière's Disease and recapitulates both endolymphatic hydrops and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. A strong correlation between the magnitude of hydrops and severity of hearing loss has been reported in the human condition, but not in the animal model. Nine albino guinea pigs were each subjected to surgical obstruction of the endolymphatic sac and duct of the right ear. The left ears remained as internal histologic controls. Hearing was assessed from 2 kHz to 32 kHz by auditory brain stem response testing for 16 to 25 weeks after surgery. Histologic morphometry after the animals were killed was used to quantify both turn-specific and weighted overall hydrops. These measures were correlated with hearing loss in each animal at all tested frequencies. A statistically significant correlation between the magnitude of hydrops and the severity of hearing loss was observed for 2 kHz and 16 kHz. These frequencies correlated with both turn-specific hydrops and overall hydrops. However, turn-specific hydrops did not reliably correlate with the magnitude of hearing loss at anatomically appropriate frequency ranges. Where such a correlation did exist, it might well have been simply part of an expression of an overall correlation between hydrops and hearing loss. There may be a greater correlation between hydrops and hearing loss in guinea pigs with long-standing surgically induced hydrops than has previously been reported in animals with less advanced disease. These findings help to validate continued use of

  11. Hereditary deafness with hydrops and anomalous calcium phosphate deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, L.G.; Rouse, R.C.; Hawkins, J.E. Jr.; Kingsley, T.C.; Wright, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The temporal bones from a 58-year-old white woman who had had hereditary congenital deafness were examined with the techniques of microdissection and surface preparations followed by sectioning of the modiolus. There was bilateral, almost total sensorineural degeneration, which also involved the saccule. The degeneration of the distal processes of the cochlear neurons in the osseous spiral lamina was almost complete, whereas numerous ganglion cells and proximal processes remained in the modiolus and the internal auditory canal. Severe cochleo-saccular hydrops was present in the left ear with Reissner's membrane bulging into the horizontal canal. X-ray diffraction and electron probe analysis were used to study the abnormal crystalline deposits in both ears. On the left side the saccular otoconia were composed of calcite, but the utricular macula was covered by a crust of apatite spherulites. More apatite occurred around the maculae and in the scala media. The cupulae were composed of apatite and octacalcium phosphate. On the right side the utricular otoconia were of normal calcite, but there was a deposit of apatite on the macula sacculi. The upper part of the scala media was completely filled by a deposit of apatite and octacalcium phosphate

  12. Hereditary deafness with hydrops and anomalous calcium phosphate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, L.G.; Rouse, R.C.; Hawkins, J.E. Jr.; Kingsley, T.C.; Wright, C.G.

    1981-11-01

    The temporal bones from a 58-year-old white woman who had had hereditary congenital deafness were examined with the techniques of microdissection and surface preparations followed by sectioning of the modiolus. There was bilateral, almost total sensorineural degeneration, which also involved the saccule. The degeneration of the distal processes of the cochlear neurons in the osseous spiral lamina was almost complete, whereas numerous ganglion cells and proximal processes remained in the modiolus and the internal auditory canal. Severe cochleo-saccular hydrops was present in the left ear with Reissner's membrane bulging into the horizontal canal. X-ray diffraction and electron probe analysis were used to study the abnormal crystalline deposits in both ears. On the left side the saccular otoconia were composed of calcite, but the utricular macula was covered by a crust of apatite spherulites. More apatite occurred around the maculae and in the scala media. The cupulae were composed of apatite and octacalcium phosphate. On the right side the utricular otoconia were of normal calcite, but there was a deposit of apatite on the macula sacculi. The upper part of the scala media was completely filled by a deposit of apatite and octacalcium phosphate.

  13. Determinants of nonimmunization of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Child vaccination is perhaps the first line of defense to ensure a healthy society. Unfortunately, the coverage of child vaccination in Pakistan is poor resulting in unnecessary yet preventable deaths. This study investigated the determinants and reasons for not vaccinating children in Pakistan. The study used the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002 data. Demographic, distance to health facility, poverty status, literacy and education, and location of residence were used as determinants of nonimmunization of children. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables, and logistic regression analysis were done using the Stata 11.0. Almost 7.73% children in Pakistan were never immunized. More than 87.4% of these lived in the rural areas. Prevalence of nonimmunization was highest in Balochistan compared to other provinces. Large households appeared to have increased risk of a child not being vaccinated. Moreover, low literacy and education of the head of the household and the spouse was also associated with low vaccination coverage. Distance from the health facility was found to be another factor related to nonimmunization of children. Increase in per capita income significantly decreased the risk of missing vaccinations. Prevention and immunization programs should focus more on high-risk regions such as Balochistan and rural areas. Literacy, education, and economic status were among the other significant factors associated with low vaccination rates, which need a special focus in the public policy to achieve the target of a healthy society.

  14. Reasons for non-immunization of children in an urban, low income group in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Joseph L; Babbar, Harsh; Yadav, Sangita

    2002-07-01

    A study was undertaken on 500 children under the age of 5 years belonging to a low income group. All were attending the paediatrics outpatient department of a large teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Only 25% were found to have received complete primary immunization as per the National Immunization Schedule (bacille Calmette-Guérin at birth, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and oral poliovirus vaccine at 6,10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine at 9 months). The major reasons for non-immunization of the children were: migration to a native village (26.4%); domestic problems (9.6%); the immunization centre was located too far from their home (9.6%); and the child was unwell when the vaccination was due (9%). Twelve per cent of mothers could not give any reason for non-immunization. In addition to the migration of children to rural areas, the other significant finding was an indirect effect of intensive OPV administration as part of polio eradication initiative. The lack of awareness and fear of side effects constituted a small minority of reasons for non-immunization.

  15. Immune genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes in Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McTaggart Seanna J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding which parts of the genome have been most influenced by adaptive evolution remains an unsolved puzzle. Some evidence suggests that selection has the greatest impact on regions of the genome that interact with other evolving genomes, including loci that are involved in host-parasite co-evolutionary processes. In this study, we used a population genetic approach to test this hypothesis by comparing DNA sequences of 30 putative immune system genes in the crustacean Daphnia pulex with 24 non-immune system genes. Results In support of the hypothesis, results from a multilocus extension of the McDonald-Kreitman (MK test indicate that immune system genes as a class have experienced more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes. However, not all immune system genes show evidence of adaptive evolution. Additionally, we apply single locus MK tests and calculate population genetic parameters at all loci in order to characterize the mode of selection (directional versus balancing in the genes that show the greatest deviation from neutral evolution. Conclusions Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that immune system genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes, possibly as a result of host-parasite arms races. The results of these analyses highlight several candidate loci undergoing adaptive evolution that could be targeted in future studies.

  16. Nonimmune cells equipped with T-cell-receptor-like signaling for cancer cell ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Scheller, Leo; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The ability to engineer custom cell-contact-sensing output devices into human nonimmune cells would be useful for extending the applicability of cell-based cancer therapies and for avoiding risks associated with engineered immune cells. Here we have developed a new class of synthetic T-cell receptor-like signal-transduction device that functions efficiently in human nonimmune cells and triggers release of output molecules specifically upon sensing contact with a target cell. This device employs an interleukin signaling cascade, whose OFF/ON switching is controlled by biophysical segregation of a transmembrane signal-inhibitory protein from the sensor cell-target cell interface. We further show that designer nonimmune cells equipped with this device driving expression of a membrane-penetrator/prodrug-activating enzyme construct could specifically kill target cells in the presence of the prodrug, indicating its potential usefulness for target-cell-specific, cell-based enzyme-prodrug cancer therapy. Our study also contributes to the advancement of synthetic biology by extending available design principles to transmit extracellular information to cells.

  17. Placental transmission of human parvovirus 4 in newborns with hydrops, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-Yuan; Yang, Shiu-Ju; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2011-10-01

    In studying the epidemiology of parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in Taiwan, we detected DNA in plasma of 3 mothers and their newborns with hydrops. In 1 additional case, only the mother had PARV4 DNA. Our findings demonstrate that PARV4 can be transmitted through the placenta.

  18. Two-phase endolymphatic hydrops : A new dynamic guinea pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnebier, EA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    The classical guinea pig model for Meniere's disease, in which endolymphatic hydrops was achieved by destruction of the endolymphatic sac and obliteration of the endolymphatic duct, is a non-physiological profound model with shortcomings in relation to Meniere's disease as seen in patients. We

  19. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in two-phase endolymphatic hydrops in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, J; Segenhout, JM; Dunnebier, EA; Albers, FWJ; Blaauw, EH; Wit, HP

    1999-01-01

    Two-phase endolymphatic hydrops is a subtle experimental model for Meniere's disease. Chronic dysfunction of the endolymphatic sac, induced by dissection of the most distal part without causing damage to the intermediate part, is combined with increased endolymph production induced by administration

  20. Long-term outcome after fetal transfusion for hydrops associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène T. C.; de Haan, Timo R.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate neurodevelopmental status of children treated with intrauterine red blood cell and platelet transfusion for fetal hydrops caused by parvovirus B19. Maternal and neonatal records of all intrauterine transfusions for congenital parvovirus B19 infection in our center between 1997 and 2005

  1. Determinants of nonimmunization of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Murtaza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child vaccination is perhaps the first line of defense to ensure a healthy society. Unfortunately, the coverage of child vaccination in Pakistan is poor resulting in unnecessary yet preventable deaths. This study investigated the determinants and reasons for not vaccinating children in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study used the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002 data. Demographic, distance to health facility, poverty status, literacy and education, and location of residence were used as determinants of nonimmunization of children. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables, and logistic regression analysis were done using the Stata 11.0. Results: Almost 7.73% children in Pakistan were never immunized. More than 87.4% of these lived in the rural areas. Prevalence of nonimmunization was highest in Balochistan compared to other provinces. Large households appeared to have increased risk of a child not being vaccinated. Moreover, low literacy and education of the head of the household and the spouse was also associated with low vaccination coverage. Distance from the health facility was found to be another factor related to nonimmunization of children. Increase in per capita income significantly decreased the risk of missing vaccinations. Conclusions: Prevention and immunization programs should focus more on high-risk regions such as Balochistan and rural areas. Literacy, education, and economic status were among the other significant factors associated with low vaccination rates, which need a special focus in the public policy to achieve the target of a healthy society.

  2. Serum protein changes in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with various strains of Trichomonas gallinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1970-01-01

    Serum protein changes were studied in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with three different strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Strain I (nonvirulent) produced no change in the relative concentration of serum components. Strains II (oral canker) and III (Jones' Barn) produced decreases in albumin and alpha globulins, and increases in beta and gamma globulins between the 7th and 20th days post infection. Birds infected with strain II began to return to normal by the 20th day, while all those infected with strain III were dead between 10 and 14 days post infection. Two serum protein patterns resulted from infection of immune birds with the Jones' Barn strain. One showed no change in relative protein concentrations and no tissue invasion by the parasite while the other was similar to that seen in nonimmune birds infected with a strain producing oral canker. These also showed evidence of tissue invasion by the parasite. It was concluded that tissue invasion was necessary to evoke a quantitative change in serum protein concentrations.

  3. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Madhavi; Soumya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified) secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour) for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye). Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and rig...

  4. The effects of serial intravascular transfusions in ascitic/hydropic RhD-alloimmunized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, F J; Bonati, F; Gementi, P; Nicolini, U

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of serial intravascular transfusions on RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion by measuring multiple hematological/biochemical blood variables. Thirty-one singleton pregnancies were referred for management of RhD alloimmunization. Seven fetuses had hydrops on presentation and were transfused immediately. The remainder underwent weekly ultrasound examinations, and fetal blood sampling and transfusion were performed on development of ascites. In the 104 samples collected overall from the 31 fetuses, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, pseudocholinesterase (PCHE), creatine kinase, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured and compared with a reference range for non-anemic fetuses. The median gestational age at first transfusion was 26 (range, 18-34) weeks. There were three fetal losses after the first transfusion, two of which were due to procedure-related complications; one further loss occurred. At the first transfusion fetal hematocrit, pO2, total protein, PCHE, creatinine and urea concentrations were significantly decreased compared to reference data, while total and direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, amylase, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations were increased. In all surviving fetuses ascites/hydrops had disappeared by the second transfusion. Fetal pO2, total protein, AST, ALT and PCHE concentrations had normalized by the third transfusion. Correction of fetal anemia did not affect the other variables. RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion had a survival rate of 87%. Alterations of several biochemical fetal blood indices are present at the first sampling/transfusion, but most variables normalize with intravascular transfusions. Copyright 2005 ISUOG.

  5. Recurrent peripheral vestibulopathy: Is MRI useful for the diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops in clinical practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attye, Arnaud [University Hospital of Grenoble, IFR1, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); Inserm, U836, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences UMR-S836, Grenoble (France); University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Otolaryngology, Grenoble (France); CHU Grenoble, MR Unit, BP 217 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Dumas, G. [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Otolaryngology, Grenoble (France); Tropres, I.; Pietras, J. [Inserm, U836, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences UMR-S836, Grenoble (France); Roustit, M. [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Statistics, Grenoble (France); Karkas, A.; Schmerber, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences UMR-S836, Grenoble (France); University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Otolaryngology, Grenoble (France); Banciu, E. [University Hospital of Grenoble, IFR1, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); Lamalle, L. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences UMR-S836, Grenoble (France); CNRS, UMS 3552, Grenoble (France); Krainik, A. [University Hospital of Grenoble, IFR1, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); Inserm, U836, Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences UMR-S836, Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-15

    Recurrent peripheral vestibulopathy (RPV) is a public health problem, yet the aetiology remains unclear. Recent developments in MRI of endolymphatic hydrops (EH) allow for a better understanding of inner ear disorders. We intended to study the prevalence of EH in patients with RPV, in comparison to those with Meniere's disease (MD). MRI examinations were performed 4 hours after intravenous injection of gadoteric acid in 132 patients with RPV (n = 64) and MD (n = 68). Two radiologists retrospectively studied the prevalence and localization of EH in RPV and MD groups. Patients were graded based on the number and localization of hydrops, between 1 (EH in either cochlea or vestibule on one side) and 4 (EH in cochlea and vestibule on both ears). We identified EH in 31 out of 64 patients and in 61 out of 68 patients in the RPV and MD groups, respectively. There was a significant difference regarding the number of subjects with EH between the two groups (p ≤ 0.01), with a higher average number of hydrops localization in MD group (p ≤ 0.01). MRI may reveal EH in some cases among patients with RPV, suggesting a similar pathophysiological mechanism in comparison with MD. (orig.)

  6. The treatment of acute corneal hydrops by subtotal penetrating keratoplasty. Clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Loskutov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical case of acute hydrops treatment using subtotal penetrating keratoplasty (PK is presented. The diagnosis of acute hydrops was based on clinical and functional evaluations including optical coherent tomography (OCT. A part of diseased cornea was removed and examined under a light microscope. These studies revealed morphological changes in almost all corneal layers. OCT and histology demonstrated that PK was indicated to this patient. Recent literature data on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of acute hydrops are presented. This rare disease results from tears in the Descemet’s membrane that allow aqueous humor to enter the stroma. Current treatment is aimed to suppress corneal inflammation, restore endothelium and Descemet’s membrane integrity and drain stromal cysts to optimize cornea healing. In this case, subtotal PK was performed due to the significant corneal thinning and a high risk of its melting. «Material for corneal graft» (iLab, Moscow, Russia was used as a donor material.

  7. Recurrent peripheral vestibulopathy: Is MRI useful for the diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops in clinical practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attye, Arnaud; Dumas, G.; Tropres, I.; Pietras, J.; Roustit, M.; Karkas, A.; Schmerber, S.; Banciu, E.; Lamalle, L.; Krainik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent peripheral vestibulopathy (RPV) is a public health problem, yet the aetiology remains unclear. Recent developments in MRI of endolymphatic hydrops (EH) allow for a better understanding of inner ear disorders. We intended to study the prevalence of EH in patients with RPV, in comparison to those with Meniere's disease (MD). MRI examinations were performed 4 hours after intravenous injection of gadoteric acid in 132 patients with RPV (n = 64) and MD (n = 68). Two radiologists retrospectively studied the prevalence and localization of EH in RPV and MD groups. Patients were graded based on the number and localization of hydrops, between 1 (EH in either cochlea or vestibule on one side) and 4 (EH in cochlea and vestibule on both ears). We identified EH in 31 out of 64 patients and in 61 out of 68 patients in the RPV and MD groups, respectively. There was a significant difference regarding the number of subjects with EH between the two groups (p ≤ 0.01), with a higher average number of hydrops localization in MD group (p ≤ 0.01). MRI may reveal EH in some cases among patients with RPV, suggesting a similar pathophysiological mechanism in comparison with MD. (orig.)

  8. Adoptive transfer of natural antibodies to non-immunized chickens affects subsequent antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Klomp, M.E.V.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    To determine a regulatory function of natural antibodies in the immune response of chickens, pooled plasma obtained from non-immunized (naive) 15 months old hens was subjected to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen-affinity chromatography. Purified KLH-binding antibodies were adoptively

  9. Otolithic membrane damage in patients with endolymphatic hydrops and drop attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Audrey P; Lopez, Ivan A; Ishiyama, Gail; Ishiyama, Akira

    2012-12-01

    1. Evaluate the otolithic membrane in patients with endolymphatic hydrops (EH) and vestibular drop attacks (VDA) undergoing ablative labyrinthectomy. 2. Correlate intraoperative findings to archival temporal bone specimens of patients with EH. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. SPECIMEN SOURCE: 1. Patients undergoing labyrinthectomy for incapacitating Ménière's disease (MD), delayed EH, VDA, or acoustic neuroma (AN) between 2004 and 2011. 2. Archival temporal bone specimens of patients with MD. Ablative labyrinthectomy. Examination of the utricular otolithic membrane. The otolithic membrane of the utricle was evaluated intraoperatively in 28 patients undergoing labyrinthectomy. Seven (25%) had a history of VDA, 6 (21%) had delayed EH, 9 (32%) had MD, and 6 (21%) had AN. All patients with VDA showed evidence of a disrupted utricular otolithic membrane, whereas only 50% and 56% of patients with delayed EH and MD, respectively, demonstrated otolithic membrane disruption (p = 0.051). None of the patients with AN showed otolithic membrane disruption (p = 0.004). The mean thickness of the otolithic membrane in 5 archival temporal bone MD specimens was 11.45 micrometers versus 38 micrometers in normal specimens (p = 0.001). The otolithic membrane is consistently damaged in patients with VDA. In addition, there is a significantly higher incidence of otolithic membrane injury in patients with MD and delayed EH compared with patients without hydrops, suggesting that the underlying pathophysiology in VDA results from injury to the otolithic membrane of the saccule and utricle, resulting in free-floating otoliths and atrophy.

  10. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Madhavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye. Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and right eye showed corneal opacity with Descemet’s tear (status post hydrops. RESULT The patient was prescribed cycloplegics, hypertonic saline for left eye and was advised against scratching the eye and was given protective goggles and was told for close followup in conjunction with psychiatric management. CONCLUSION Impulse control disorders are relatively common psychiatric conditions, yet are poorly understood by clinicians, patients suffering from the disorder and public. And hence identification of this disorder and close observation of patient allows for avoiding complications such as progression of hydrops, perforation and infection.

  11. Corneal hydrops induced by Bell’s paralysis in a case of corneal ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokman Aslan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old male patient presented with suddenly decreased vision, itching, corneal edema and an inability to close the left eye. They had left Bell’s paralysis for two weeks and had used high diopter glasses for five years. The best corrected visual acuity was 0.4 in their right eye and counting fingers in the left eye. Biomicroscopic examination revealed thinning and steepening of the cornea in the right eye and anterior protrusion of the cornea, stromal edema and punctate disruption of the epithelium in the left eye. Topographic image of the right eye was consistent with keratoconus. Six months later, stromal edema gradually regressed and a corneal scar ensued. This case presentation emphasizes that Bell’s palsy may induce disease progression in a patient with preexisting corneal ectasia and results in corneal hydrops. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(3.000: 165-167

  12. Is otolithic vertigo accompanied by hearing loss caused by sacculocochlear endolymphatic hydrops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murofushi, Toshihisa; Komiyama, Sakurako; Hayashi, Yushi; Yoshimura, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Otolithic vertigo is sometimes accompanied by hearing loss. Otolithic vertigo accompanied by hearing loss seems to be caused by sacculocochlear endolymphatic hydrops. To clarify the lesion site and pathophysiology of otolithic vertigo (OV) accompanied by hearing loss. The clinical records of four patients (two men and two women) that had been diagnosed with OV accompanied by hearing loss according to pre-determined diagnostic criteria were reviewed. The patients' main symptoms involved a sensation of movement in the pitch plane. All of the patients had low frequency-dominant hearing loss and either exhibited decreased cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) or did not produce cVEMP. Two patients produced normal ocular VEMP (oVEMP). Caloric tests obtained normal results in all patients.

  13. Clinical characteristics of mirror syndrome: a comparison of 10 cases of mirror syndrome with non-mirror syndrome fetal hydrops cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Go; Aoki, Shigeru; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate clinical features of mirror syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 71 cases of fetal hydrops with or without mirror syndrome, and compared with respect to maternal age, the body mass index, the primipara rate, the gestational age at delivery, the timing of fetal hydrops onset, the severity of fetal edema, placental swelling, the laboratory data and the fetal mortality. The data are expressed as the medians. Mirror syndrome developed in 29% (10/35) of the cases with fetal hydrops. In mirror group, the onset time of fetal hydrops was significantly earlier (29 weeks versus 31 weeks, p = 0.011), and the severity of fetal hydrops (fetal edema/biparietal diameter) was significantly higher than non-mirror group (0.23 versus 0.16, p < 0.001). There was significantly higher serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (453,000 IU/L versus 80,000 IU/L, p < 0.001) and lower hemoglobin (8.9 g/dL versus 10.1 g/dL, p =0.002), hypoalbuminemia (2.3 mg/dL versus 2.7 mg/dL, p = 0.007), hyperuricemia (6.4 mg/dL versus 5.0 mg/dL, p = 0.043) in mirror group. Mirror syndrome is occurred frequently in early and severe fetal hydrops and cause hemodilution and elevation of serum hCG.

  14. HR 3 tesla MRI for the diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops and differential diagnosis of inner ear tumors. Demonstrated by two cases with similar symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, G.; Fahrendorf, D.; Niederstadt, T.; Nagelmann, N.; Heindel, W.; Vieth, V.; Luetkenhoener, B.; Boeckenfeld, Y.; Basel, T.

    2014-01-01

    The synchronous appearance of different inner ear pathologies with a nearly equivalent clinical manifestation such as Meniere's disease and vestibular schwannoma is very rare but leads to a relevant dilemma concerning therapy options. MRI is the method of choice to detect intralabyrinthine tumors. Since endolymphatic hydrops is considered the morphological equivalent of Meniere's disease, magnetic resonance imaging including hT2w-FLAIR sequences 4 h after i.v. administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) allows the diagnosis and grading of endolymphatic hydrops in vivo synchronous to diagnosis and monitoring of ILT. To this day, only a few cases of intralabyrinthine schwannoma could be shown to appear simultaneously with endolymphatic hydrops by MRI, but to our knowledge the dedicated distinction of endolymphatic space has not been previously demonstrated. The aim of this work was not only to detect the coincidence of endolymphatic hydrops and vestibular schwannoma, but also to differentiate tumor tissue from endolymphatic space by 3 Tesla MRI. This enables therapy options that are originally indicated for Meniere's disease. The aim of this work was to describe the feasibility and usefulness of endolymphatic hydrops MRI on intralabyrinthal tumors in a special case of intravestibular schwannoma to demonstrate the high clinical relevance and impact in therapeutic decision-making for the synchronous appearance of endolymphatic hydrops and intralabyrinthine tumors. Therefore, we present a typical case of Meniere's disease in contrast to a patient with an intralabyrinthine schwannoma and Meniere's-like symptoms. (orig.)

  15. Acute Corneal Hydrops Mimicking Infectious Keratitis as Initial Presentation of Keratoconus in a 10-Year-Old Child

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    Elise A. Slim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of acute hydrops in a 10-year-old child with advanced keratoconus. Case Presentation. A ten-year-old boy diagnosed as having right eye (RE infectious keratitis, not responding to antimicrobial therapy, was referred to our hospital. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was established one month prior to his presentation following an episode of acute corneal whitening, pain, and drop in visual acuity. Topical fortified antibiotics followed by topical antiviral therapy were used with no improvement. Slit lamp examination showed significant corneal protrusion with edema surrounding a rupture in Descemet’s membrane in the RE. The diagnosis of acute corneal hydrops from advanced keratoconus was highly suspected and confirmed with corneal topography. Conclusion. Although a relatively rare disease at the age of 10 years, keratoconus can be rapidly progressive in the pediatric group. Keratoconus should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive vision loss in this age group.

  16. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Hua-Feng Pan; Gui-Lan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after ...

  17. Ocular manifestations of Noonan syndrome in twin siblings: A case report of keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops

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    Anna Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular manifestations of Noonan syndrome (NS in a set of healthy 20-year-old African-American fraternal twins are reported with emphasis on a rare finding of keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops in one twin. Both the twins had learning disabilities and attended a special needs school. Evaluation included visual acuity assessment, tonometry and external eye, slit lamp and dilated fundus examinations, topography with Pentacam and external photographs. The first case was more remarkable as keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops was observed. The patient presented with severe cloudy vision that had worsened over a span of 1 month. It improved significantly on follow-up. The second case included a unique constellation of ocular pathology that highlights the diversity of NS manifestations even amongst twins. Conservative treatment of keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops in a NS patient helped largely resolve the patient′s condition. We report the diverse spectrum of ocular manifestations associated with this rare congenital disorder.

  18. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

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    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases and control group (40 cases, then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after surgery; when the drainage volume ≤ 20 mL, 24 h after surgery, removed the drainage tubes, to record the drainage days, total cases who occured subcutaneous hydrops and all adverse events after surgery. Results: Study group: the first 3 d of daily drainage volume declined quickly, and were accordingly less than that in control group; and ≤ 50 mL/24 h on the third day. Drainage total days median (4 d were less than that in control group (7 d; subcutaneous hydrops occurrence rate was only 2%, which wasgreatly lower than that in control group (14%, statistics difference had significance. Through the comparison between study group and control group, this surgical method improvement will not bring any surgical safety problems, such as hematoma, wound infection, skin flap necrosis and upper limb LOM etc. Only extended the surgical time slightly. While in control group, drainage tubes fell into the dead space or were blocked frequently, then induced hydrops; but in study group, due to the suture of latissimus dorsi leading edge and chestwall, dead space disappeared at this spot, drainage tube were not blocked any more. Conclusion: In mastectomy and axillary lymph dissection, due to axillary dissection, ligation might lead to open lymphatic tissue, added that suture fixed latissimus dorsi leading edge and skin flap leading to disappeared dead space, compared with traditional surgical method, this improved surgical method could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of hydrops

  19. Extreme Descemet's membrane rupture with hydrops in keratoconus: Clinical and histological manifestations

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    I-Ping Loh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the clinical and histological manifestations of an extreme Descemet's membrane rupture as a result of keratoconus. Observations: Using Periodic acid-Schiff assay to study a keratoconic cornea with an extreme rupture showed that the ruptured Descemet's membrane had retracted and folded into scrolls and ridges. The dimensions of the rupture were estimated to be 3.7mm2, and the central cornea was extremely thinned with a thickness of only 260μm. Stromal scarring and loosely packed lamellae were present anterior to the scrolls and ridges. Antibodies targetting the major components of Descemet's membrane, Laminin and type IV collagen, displayed intense labelling adjacent to the scrolls where the stroma was denuded and differential expression patterns lined the ridges. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed possible collagen deposition at the site of rupture. Conclusions and importance: The specific staining patterns of laminin and type IV collagen suggest these components have an important role in re-endothelisation of the cornea. This is the first known report of spatial resolution of the topography of the Descemet's membrane rupture established by environmental scanning electron microscopic image montage. Keywords: Keratoconus, Descemet's membrane, Descemet's tear, Hydrops, Corneae, Histology

  20. Chronological changes in the eighth cranial nerve compound action potential (CAP) in experimental endolymphatic hydrops: the effects of altering the polarity of click sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizono, Tetsuo; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Takafumi; Miyagi, Morimichi; Shiraishi, Kimio

    2009-02-01

    Using a guinea pig model of experimental endolymphatic hydrops, click sounds of altered polarity showed different latencies and amplitudes in hydropic compared with normal cochleae. Latency changes appeared as early as 1 week after endolymphatic obstruction. This method can help diagnose endolymphatic hydrops. The goal of the study was to develop an objective electrophysiological diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops were created surgically in guinea pigs. The latency and the amplitude of the eighth cranial nerve compound action potential (CAP) for click sounds of altered polarity were measured up to 8 weeks after the surgery. At early stages after surgery, the latency for condensation clicks became longer, and at later stages the latencies for both condensation and rarefaction became longer. The discrepancy in the latencies for rarefaction and condensation click sounds (rarefaction minus condensation) became larger by the first week after surgery, but no further discrepancy occurred thereafter. Compared with latency changes, amplitude changes in the CAP were rapid and progressive following surgery, suggesting ongoing damage to hair cells.

  1. The Results of Corneal Hydrops Treatment in Patients with Down Syndrome

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    V. K. Surkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the clinical cases of acute keratoconus in three patients with Down syndrome who underwent penetrating  keratoplasty. Acute keratoconus were diagnosed in patients by examination of medical history, biomicroscopy, corneal topography,optical coherence tomography. Acute keratoconus occurs suddenly due to the rupture of Descemet’s membrane in the zone of itsstretching, when chamber moisture seeps into the thickness of the stroma, causing its swelling and perforation. If untreated, theprocess continues for 3–5 months. Most researchers recommend keratoplasty during the cold period of the disease. However, withthe threat of perforation require urgent surgical intervention. There are two effective methods of surgical treatment: epikeratophakiaand penetrating keratoplasty. Patients underwent penetrating keratoplasty. The preference for this method was given in connectionwith the following factors: young age patients (under 40 years, relatively healthy transparent peripheral zone of the cornea, whichwas observed in our patients, genetically determined diseases — Down syndrome, the threat of corneal perforation in the centre, apenchant for rubbing his eye, low vision other eye and the desire to obtain speedy optical effect along with the treatment. All patientsafter penetrating keratoplasty had improvement of visual acuity with observation periods up to 1 year. Due to the relatively highincidence of keratoconus in patients with Down syndrome should focus the attention of ophthalmologists. Thus, difficulties in thediagnosis of ophthalmic pathology in patients with concomitant Down syndrome can cause errors in verification of diagnosis and hencewrong treatment selection. In case of hydrops of the cornea penetrating keratoplasty is the choice treatment and contributes to the preservation of the eye and visual functions.

  2. Hydrops associated with chondrodysplasia of the fetus in a miniature Scottish Highland cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Cabrera, L; McNabb, Bret R; Woods, Sarah E; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Busch, Rosie C

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old primiparous miniature Scottish Highland cow with an unknown breeding date was evaluated for suspected hydrops. CLINICAL FINDINGS Transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonographic examination identified a large amount of hypoechoic fluid within an enlarged uterus; the fetus could not be identified. Presence of a severely distended uterus and concerns regarding associated health risks to the cow led to the decision to induce labor. Although fluids were expelled, parturition did not progress further over the following 48 hours. Vaginal examination revealed a partially dilated cervix and an abnormally shaped fetus that was too large to pass vaginally. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Supportive care was provided to the cow, and a stillborn bull calf was delivered by cesarean section. Grossly evident chondrodystrophic dwarfism with hydrocephalus, compatible with so-called bulldog calf malformations, was confirmed by diagnostic imaging and histopathologic evaluation. The cow recovered from surgery uneventfully and was discharged from the hospital the following day. Genetic analysis of DNA from hair roots collected from the sire and dam confirmed both were carriers of an aggrecan-1 gene mutation (bulldog dwarfism1) previously associated with dwarfism and bulldog calf malformations in Dexter cattle. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bulldog calf malformations associated with an aggrecan-1 gene mutation in miniature Scottish Highland cattle, confirming that at least 1 genetic mutation associated with this condition is found in cattle breeds other than Dexter. The findings highlighted the clinical importance of testing for known genetic diseases in breeding cattle, particularly among miniature breeds.

  3. Endolymphatic hydrops in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: prevalence and clinical outcome after lumbar puncture. Preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Angelo; Cavaliere, Michele; Sicignano, Stefania; Falco, Pietro; Cautiero, Federico; De Simone, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) without any underlying pathology, presenting with (IIH) or without papilledema (IIHWOP). Headache, often on daily basis, is the most frequent symptom. Among audiovestibular symptoms, tinnitus and dizziness are commonly reported, while vertigo and hearing impairment are infrequent reports. Endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) is the typical histopathologic feature of Ménière disease, a condition featured by episodes of vertigo, dizziness, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Evidences suggest that ICP is transmitted to inner ear. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of ELH symptoms in IIH/IIHWOP and the relationship between the raised ICP and ELH. The prevalence of chronic headache and of ELH symptoms was investigated in a consecutive series of IIH/IIHWOP patients, and a standard audiometry with hearing threshold measurement (pure-tone average-PTA) was performed. Differences in chronic headache and ELH symptoms prevalence and changes of PTA threshold were calculated after ICP normalization by lumbar puncture (LP). Thirty-one patients (17 with IIH and 14 with IIHWOP) were included. Before LP, chronic headache was present in 93.5%. The percentages of patients reporting tinnitus, dizziness, vertigo, and aural fullness were 67.7, 77.4, 22.6, and 61.3%, respectively. Headache frequency as well as ELH symptoms and PTA significantly improved after LP. The improvement of PTA and of ELH symptoms observed after LP in this series of IIH/IIHWOP patients indicates that a raised ICP, a condition known to be involved in the progression and refractoriness of migraine pain, has also a role in ELH. We propose that intracranial hypertension may represent the shared pathogenetic step explaining the large epidemiological comorbidity between migraine and vestibular symptoms, at present conceptualized as "vestibular migraine."

  4. Characterization of neuronal cell death in the spiral ganglia of a mouse model of endolymphatic hydrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Maroun T; Zheng, Qing Y; Han, Fengchan; Zheng, Yuxi; Yu, Heping; Heaphy, John C; Megerian, Cliff A

    2013-04-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) in the Phex male mouse, a murine model of postnatal endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) undergo progressive deterioration reminiscent of human and other animal models of ELH with features suggesting apoptosis as an important mechanism. Histologic analysis of the mutant's cochlea demonstrates ELH by postnatal Day (P) 21 and SGN loss by P90. The SGN loss seems to occur in a consistent topographic pattern beginning at the cochlear apex. SGN were counted at P60, P90, and P120. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemical analyses of activated caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were performed on cochlear sections obtained from mutants and controls. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling assay (TUNEL) was carried out on 2 mutants and 2 controls. Corrected SGN counts in control mice were greater in the apical turn of the cochleae at P90 and P120, respectively (p < 0.01). Increased expression of activated caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 was seen in the mutant. At later time points, activated caspase expression gradually declined in the apical turns and increased in basal turns of the cochlea. Quantitative and semiquantitative PCR analysis confirmed increased expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 at P21 and P40. TUNEL staining demonstrated apoptosis at P90 in the apical and basal turns of the mutant cochleae. SGN degeneration in the Phex /Y mouse seems to mimic patterns observed in other animals with ELH. Apoptosis plays an important role in the degeneration of the SGN in the Phex male mouse.

  5. Acute Corneal Hydrops in Children with Primary Infantile Glaucoma: A Report of 31 Cases over 23 Years at the LVPEI.

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    Anil K Mandal

    Full Text Available Relatively little data exist regarding the outcomes of children with primary infantile glaucoma presenting with acute corneal hydrops. The aim of our study was to determine the surgical outcome of children of infantile glaucoma who presented with acute corneal hydrops.In total, 38 eyes of 31 consecutive children of infantile glaucoma presented with acute corneal hydrops who underwent primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy (CTT by a single surgeon from January 1990 to December 2012 at the LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI, a tertiary eye care centre in Southern India were enrolled in this retrospective study. Primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP control (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg under anaesthesia or IOP ≤ 21 mmHg without anaesthesia and clearance of corneal edema. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity (VA, corneal diameter, bleb appearance, intraoperative and postoperative complications.Mean age at presentation was 6.4 months (range, 2-11 months and seven eyes (23% had bilateral affliction. At presentation, all eyes (100% had moderate to severe degree of corneal edema with a mean preoperative IOP of 25.6 ±5.1 mmHg. Postoperatively, the IOP reduced to 12.0 ± 3.8 mmHg (difference = -13.6, 95% CI = -15.7 to -11.5, t = -13.18, p<0.0001, and the percentage reduction in IOP was 53.05%. Preoperatively 83% of the eyes were on antiglaucoma medication, and postoperatively 2 eyes (5.3% required 1 antiglaucoma medication for control of IOP. Preoperatively, corneal edema was present in all eyes and postoperatively it cleared in all of them. Significant myopic astigmatism was present in 28 eyes (74%, the commonest being compound myopic astigmatism (75% followed by simple myopic astigmatism (21%. Normal VA (best-corrected VA; BCVA ≥ 20/60 was achieved in 44.4% of the eyes and 22.2% eyes had low vision (BCVA, <20/60 to 20/400. Complete success (IOP control and clearance of corneal oedema was obtained in 94.7% eyes. There were no

  6. Low cost delivery of proteins bioencapsulated in plant cells to human non-immune or immune modulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuhong; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Hoffman, Brad E; Kamesh, Aditya; Jones, Noah T; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2016-02-01

    Targeted oral delivery of GFP fused with a GM1 receptor binding protein (CTB) or human cell penetrating peptide (PTD) or dendritic cell peptide (DCpep) was investigated. Presence of GFP(+) intact plant cells between villi of ileum confirm their protection in the digestive system from acids/enzymes. Efficient delivery of GFP to gut-epithelial cells by PTD or CTB and to M cells by all these fusion tags confirm uptake of GFP in the small intestine. PTD fusion delivered GFP more efficiently to most tissues or organs than the other two tags. GFP was efficiently delivered to the liver by all fusion tags, likely through the gut-liver axis. In confocal imaging studies of human cell lines using purified GFP fused with different tags, GFP signal of DCpep-GFP was only detected within dendritic cells. PTD-GFP was only detected within kidney or pancreatic cells but not in immune modulatory cells (macrophages, dendritic, T, B, or mast cells). In contrast, CTB-GFP was detected in all tested cell types, confirming ubiquitous presence of GM1 receptors. Such low-cost oral delivery of protein drugs to sera, immune system or non-immune cells should dramatically lower their cost by elimination of prohibitively expensive fermentation, protein purification cold storage/transportation and increase patient compliance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Malarone for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune Colombian soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Jaime; Toledo, Julia; Luzz, Magda; Gutierrez, Patricia; Berman, Jonathan; Duparc, Stephane

    2006-09-01

    Malarone was compared with placebo in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of prophylaxis of malaria in predominately Plasmodium vivax areas of Colombia. The study population consisted of 180 completely non-immune Colombian soldiers, male, average age 19 years, and average weight 63 kg. Twenty-four subjects were considered unevaluable because of compliance issues, including one Malarone subject (with no detectable drug levels) who became infected with P. vivax. Of the 97 evaluable subjects who received Malarone (250 mg atovaquone plus 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride) daily from 1 day before entering the endemic area to 7 days after leaving the endemic area, none became parasitemic. Of the 46 evaluable placebo subjects, 11 became infected with P. vivax and 2 became infected with Plasmodium falciparum. The protective efficacy of Malarone for all malaria and for P. vivax malaria was 100% (LL 95% CI = 63%) and 100% (LL 95% CI = 58%), respectively, and was 96% if the one case with undetectable blood levels was included. Malarone has high protective efficacy for P. vivax in Colombia.

  8. Characterization of Anti-Citrinin Specific ScFvs Selected from Non-Immunized Mouse Splenocytes by Eukaryotic Ribosome Display.

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    Haiwei Cheng

    Full Text Available Single chain variable fragments (scFvs against citrinin (CIT were selected from a scFv library constructed from the splenocytes of non-immunized mice by an improved eukaryotic ribosome display technology in this study. Bovine serum albumin (BSA/ CIT-BSA and ovalbumin (OVA/ CIT-OVA were used as the antigens to select specific anti-CIT scFvs. Eukaryotic in situ RT-PCR method was used to recover the selected mRNA after every affinity selection. After six rounds of ribosome display, expression vector pTIG-TRX carrying specific scFv DNAs were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 for protein expression. Thirteen positive clones were selected out of which three (designated 23, 68 and 109 showed high binding activity and specificity to CIT by indirect ELISA, while no clone showed binding activity with carrier proteins. The three scFvs showed high specificity to CIT and the cross reactivity with other mycotoxins was below 0.01% as determined by indirect competitive ELISA. These specific scFvs offer a potential novel immunoassay method for CIT residues. This study confirmed the effectiveness of the improved eukaryotic ribosome display system and could be used as a reference for the selection of scFvs specific to other small molecules using ribosome display.

  9. Selection of diethylstilbestrol-specific single-chain antibodies from a non-immunized mouse ribosome display library.

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    Yanan Sun

    Full Text Available Single chain variable fragments (scFvs against diethylstilbestrol (DES were selected from the splenocytes of non-immunized mice by ribosome display technology. A naive library was constructed and engineered to allow in vitro transcription and translation using an E. coli lysate system. Alternating selection in solution and immobilization in microtiter wells was used to pan mRNA-ribosome-antibody (ARM complexes. After seven rounds of ribosome display, the expression vector pTIG-TRX containing the selected specific scFv DNAs were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 for expression. Twenty-six positive clones were screened and five clones had high antibody affinity and specificity to DES as evidenced by indirect competitive ELISA. Sequence analysis showed that these five DES-specific scFvs had different amino acid sequences, but the CDRs were highly similar. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis was used to determine binding kinetics of one clone (30-1. The measured K(D was 3.79 µM. These results indicate that ribosome display technology can be used to efficiently isolate hapten-specific antibody (Ab fragments from a naive library; this study provides a methodological framework for the development of novel immunoassays for multiple environmental pollutants with low molecular weight detection using recombinant antibodies.

  10. [Successful treatment of fetal supraventricular tachycardia with a combination of digoxin and amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdú, J; Szabó, I; Német, J

    1996-10-06

    The supraventricular tachycardia is a life threatening state in the intrauterine life. It can cause non-immune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine death or complications during the delivery. The unexplained tachycardia can cause fetal distress and premature delivery. Usually the digoxin is the first drug of choice for transplacental cardioversion. If digitalisation does not achieve cardioversion, the second line antiarrhythmic drugs should be instituted. Amiodarone has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative after failure of digoxin-verapamil combination. We give a drug in standard therapeutic doses for four-five days and after it we determine whether it is effective or not. We should determine the newer therapy or termination of pregnancy. The transplacental administration of amiodarone may be dangerous because of fetal cretinism. Our case is the first in Hungary-in our best knowledge- and we suggest the amiodarone for transplacental therapy.

  11. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  12. Parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of acute myositis in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakirca, Mustafa; Karatoprak, Cumali; Ugurlu, Serdal; Zorlu, Mehmet; Kıskaç, Muharrem; Çetin, Güven

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection is often asymptomatic, but clinical expressions may include transient aplastic crisis, erythema infectiosum, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and chronic red cell aplasia. This virus has also been associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune connective tissue diseases; however, we could not identify any acute adult myositis case developed after a Parvovirus B19 infection in the literature. For this reason, we would like to present a rare case of acute myositis developed after Parvovirus B19 infection. In patients presenting with symptoms of fever, rash on the legs and myositis, viral infections such as Parvovirus B19 should be kept in mind. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. THE EFFECT OF NIMODIPINE ON COCHLEAR POTENTIALS AND NA+/K+-ATPASE ACTIVITY IN NORMAL AND HYDROPIC COCHLEAS OF THE ALBINO GUINEA-PIG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANBENTHEM, PPG; KLIS, SFL; ALBERS, FWJ; DEWILDT, DJ; VELDMAN, JE; HUIZING, EH; SMOORENBURG, GF

    1994-01-01

    In experimental endolymphatic hydrops (EEH) a decrease in the endocochlear potential (EP) has been reported and is thought to be due to decreased activity of the enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase in the stria vascularis. By stimulating Na+/K+-ATPase, the EP, and thereby cochlear function as a whole, might be

  14. Rare case of massive congenital bilateral chylothorax in a hydropic fetus with true mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonini, Giorgio; Poggi, Alice; Capucci, Roberta; Vesce, Fortunato; Patella, Alfredo; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Fetal congenital chylothorax is a rare condition that occurs sporadically or can be associated with abnormal karyotype or structural chromosomal anomalies. We report a unique case of fetal congenital bilateral chylothorax associated with mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX. A female fetus affected by massive bilateral hydrothorax and ascites was diagnosed at 34(+1) weeks of gestation. Previous ultrasonographic exams were completely normal. Immune causes of hydrops were excluded. Elective cesarean section was performed soon after bilateral thoracocentesis. The analysis of drained pleural fluid revealed its lymphatic nature. The fetal karyotyping, performed on chorionic villi at the 11th week, had shown mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX, later confirmed in the newborn's blood. We hypothesized that chylothorax may be part of the phenotypic spectrum of 47 XXX karyotype and we suggest an ultrasound follow-up of the fetus at closer intervals than the routine timing for this condition, even if it is not usually characterized by severe phenotypic features. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Slovenian recommendations for parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Osvald Avguštin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V causes a mild disease called erythema infectiosum, also known as the fifh disease that affects mostly children and young adults. The virus can be transferred to the fetus during pregnancy in 31 to 51 % of the cases and can cause severe anaemia, non-immune hydrops fetalis or fetal death due to inhibition of erythropoiesis. It also affects the heart muscle, central nervous system, bones, and most likely can cause a subsequent arrest in children’s neurological development. It is estimated that 25–45 % of pregnant women are seronegative with a high risk of infection during pregnancy. A B19V infection in pregnant women is determined by detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and in case of doubt, by using PCR method to detect viral DNA. Fetal infection with B19V is confirmed by detecting viral DNA in the amniotic fluid. In the case of either a suspected or confirmed fetal infection we monitor the fetus by ultrasound screening in a tertiary centre. We treat the fetus with an intrauterine transfusion at the first signs of anaemia or hydrops. To prevent fresh infections with B19V during pregnancy we should raise awareness amongst women and healthcare workers about the risks it poses for the fetus. The recommendations for management of women who are exposed to, are at risk of developing, or have developed B19V infection in pregnancy are published in this article.

  16. Congenital complete atrioventricular block. Report of one case and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz D, Alejandro; Serrano G, Ana; Guzman B, Monica; Ruz M, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Complete congenital atrioventricular block is a rare entity that has a high morbidity and mortality. Its real incidence remains unknown and a high suspicion index is needed for its diagnosis and consequently for its early intervention. It is observed in children of mothers having connective tissue autoimmune diseases, in particular systemic lupus erythematosus, when the condition is congenital. If it is post-natal, congenital cardiopathies are responsible in most cases. It may al so appear in. structurally normal hearts. The characteristic clinical finding is persistent bradycardia manifested since intrauterine life and affecting the circulatory fetal stability, going as far as to produce hydrops fetalis, a serious and lethal condition. After birth, it appears with bradycardia as well, that may or not unbalance the patient hemodynamics. Diagnosis is made upon clinical suspicion with fetal echocardiography and when post-natal, through electrocardiogram and maternal antibody type antiRo and antiLa. Pacemaker implantation is the definitive treatment that contributes to improve patient survival and prognosis. We present the case of a premature female patient with 31 weeks of gestation due to non-immune hydrops in who complete atrioventricuiar block secondary to maternal lupus erythematosus confirmed by frankly positive anti-nuclear antibodies and positive antiRo and antiLa antibodies was diagnosed, and that received inotropic support after pace maker implantation. She improved completely from her heart failure and was sent to other institution for conventional management of premature

  17. Modular Construction of Large Non-Immune Human Antibody Phage-Display Libraries from Variable Heavy and Light Chain Gene Cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Kyung; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and antibody-derived therapeutics have emerged as a rapidly growing class of biological drugs for the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity, infection, and neurological diseases. To support the development of human antibodies, various display techniques based on antibody gene repertoires have been constructed over the last two decades. In particular, scFv-antibody phage display has been extensively utilized to select lead antibodies against a variety of target antigens. To construct a scFv phage display that enables efficient antibody discovery, and optimization, it is desirable to develop a system that allows modular assembly of highly diverse variable heavy chain and light chain (Vκ and Vλ) repertoires. Here, we describe modular construction of large non-immune human antibody phage-display libraries built on variable gene cassettes from heavy chain and light chain repertoires (Vκ- and Vλ-light can be made into independent cassettes). We describe utility of such libraries in antibody discovery and optimization through chain shuffling.

  18. A Case of Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhagic Anemia-Induced Fetal Hydrops, Maternal Mirror Syndrome, and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin–Induced Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Jain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT can be a cause of severe fetal thrombocytopenia, with the common presentation being intracranial hemorrhage in the fetus, usually in the third trimester. A very unusual case of fetal anemia progressed to hydrops. This was further complicated by maternal Mirror syndrome and human chorionic gonadotropin–induced thyrotoxicosis. Without knowledge of etiology, and possibly due to associated cardiac dysfunction, fetal transfusion resulted in fetal demise. Subsequent testing revealed FNAIT as the cause of severe hemorrhagic anemia. In cases with fetal anemia without presence of red blood cell antibodies, FNAIT must be ruled out as a cause prior to performing fetal transfusion. Fetal heart may adapt differently to acute hemorrhagic anemia compared with a more subacute hemolytic anemia.

  19. Atovaquone-proguanil versus chloroquine-proguanil for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune travellers: a randomised, double-blind study. Malarone International Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgh, B; Clarke, P D; Camus, D; Nothdurft, H D; Overbosch, D; Günther, M; Joubert, I; Kain, K C; Shaw, D; Roskell, N S; Chulay, J D

    2000-12-02

    Chloroquine plus proguanil is widely used for malaria chemoprophylaxis despite low effectiveness in areas where multidrug-resistant malaria occurs. Studies have shown that atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is safe and effective for prevention of falciparum malaria in lifelong residents of malaria-endemic countries, but little is known about non-immune travellers. In a double-blind equivalence trial, 1083 participants travelling to a malaria-endemic area were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: atovaquone-proguanil plus placebos for chloroquine and proguanil, or chloroquine, proguanil, and placebo for atovaquone-proguanil. Follow-up was by telephone 7 and 60 days after travel and at a clinic at 28 days. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to a malaria circumsporozoite protein. Blood and serum samples of participants with a potential malaria diagnosis were tested in a reference laboratory. 7 days after travel, at least one adverse event was reported by 311 (61%) of 511 participants who received atovaquone-proguanil and 329 (64%) of 511 who received chloroquine-proguanil. People receiving atovaquone-proguanil had a lower frequency of treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse events (59 [12%] vs 100 [20%], p=0.001), and of treatment-related adverse events of moderate or severe intensity (37 [7%] vs 56 [11%], p=0.05). There were fewer treatment-related adverse events that caused prophylaxis to be discontinued in the atovaquone-proguanil group than in the chloroquine-proguanil group (one [0.2%] vs ten [2%], p=0.015). Overall the two preparations were similarly tolerated. However, significantly fewer adverse gastrointestinal events were observed in the atovaquone-proguanil group in than in the chloroquine-proguanil group.

  20. Non-immune binding of human IgG to M-related proteins confers resistance to phagocytosis of group A streptococci in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry S Courtney

    Full Text Available The non-immune binding of immunoglobulins by bacteria is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of infections. M-related proteins (Mrp are group A streptococcal (GAS receptors for immunoglobulins, but it is not known if this binding has any impact on virulence. To further investigate the binding of immunoglobulins to Mrp, we engineered mutants of an M type 4 strain of GAS by inactivating the genes for mrp, emm, enn, sof, and sfbX and tested these mutants in IgG-binding assays. Inactivation of mrp dramatically decreased the binding of human IgG, whereas inactivation of emm, enn, sof, and sfbx had only minor effects, indicating that Mrp is a major IgG-binding protein. Binding of human immunoglobulins to a purified, recombinant form of Mrp indicated that it selectively binds to the Fc domain of human IgG, but not IgA or IgM and that it preferentially bound subclasses IgG₁>IgG₄>IgG₂>IgG₃. Recombinant proteins encompassing different regions of Mrp were engineered and used to map its IgG-binding domain to its A-repeat region and a recombinant protein with 3 A-repeats was a better inhibitor of IgG binding than one with a single A-repeat. A GAS mutant expressing Mrp with an in-frame deletion of DNA encoding the A-repeats had a dramatically reduced ability to bind human IgG and to grow in human blood. Mrp exhibited host specificity in binding IgG; human IgG was the best inhibitor of the binding of IgG followed by pig, horse, monkey, and rabbit IgG. IgG from goat, mouse, rat, cow, donkey, chicken, and guinea pig were poor inhibitors of binding. These findings indicate that Mrp preferentially binds human IgG and that this binding contributes to the ability of GAS to resist phagocytosis and may be a factor in the restriction of GAS infections to the human host.

  1. Gold nanoparticles induced cloudy swelling to hydropic degeneration, cytoplasmic hyaline vacuolation, polymorphism, binucleation, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and necrosis in the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrar Bashir M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles (NPs can potentially cause adverse effects on organ, tissue, cellular, subcellular and protein levels due to their unusual physicochemical properties. Advances in nanotechnology have identified promising candidates for many biological and biomedical applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the particle-size, dose and exposure duration effects of gold nanoparticles (GNPs on the hepatic tissue in an attempt to cover and understand the toxicity and their potential therapeutic and diagnostic use. Methods A total of 70 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to GNPs received 50 or 100 ul of GNPs infusion of size (10, 20 and 50 nm for 3 or 7 days to investigate particle-size, dose and exposure duration effects of GNPs on the hepatic tissue. Results In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses has produced alterations in the hepatocytes, portal triads and the sinusoids. The alterations in the hepatocytes were mainly vacuolar to hydropic degeneration, cytopasmic hyaline vacuolation, polymorphism, binucleation, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and necrosis. Conclusions The hepatocytes swelling might be exhibited as a result of disturbances of membranes function that lead to massive influx of water and Na+ due to GNPs effects accompanied by leakage of lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes that lead to cytoplasmic degeneration and macromolecular crowding. Hydropic degeneration is a result of ion and fluid homestasis that lead to an increase of intracellular water. The vacuolated swelling of the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes of the GNPs treated rats might indicate acute and subacute liver injury induced by the GNPs. Binucleation represents a consequence of cell injury and is a sort of chromosomes hyperplasia which is usually seen in regenerating cells. The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured hepatocytes due to GNPs toxicity that became unable to deal

  2. MRI of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease: a case-controlled study with a simplified classification based on saccular morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attye, Arnaud; Krainik, Alexandre [Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, CS 10217-Grenoble Alpes University Hospital - SFR RMN Neurosciences, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IRMaGe, Grenoble (France); Eliezer, Michael [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Boudiaf, Naila [Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, CS 10217-Grenoble Alpes University Hospital - SFR RMN Neurosciences, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tropres, Irene [IRMaGe, Inserm US 17, CNRS UMS 3552, Grenoble (France); Chechin, David [Philips Healthcare, Paris (France); Schmerber, Sebastien; Dumas, Georges [Grenoble Alpes University Hospital, Department of Otology, Grenoble (France)

    2017-08-15

    Endolymphatic hydrops (EH) can be studied in patients by MRI. With the semi-quantitative grading system, previous imaging studies showed discrepancies in the occurrence and grading of EH in patients with Meniere's disease (MD). Here, we compared the inversion of the saccule to utricle area ratio (SURI) with the semi-quantitative method of grading conventionally used to diagnose MD. Imaging was carried out on a 3-T MRI scanner. We performed 3D-FLAIR sequences 4 h after a single intravenous dose of contrast agent. Two radiologists independently studied the morphology of the inner ear structures in the healthy subjects and MD patients. Each subject was then graded on the basis of the EH semi-quantitative analysis and on saccular morphology using axial and sagittal reference slices in the vestibule plane. Thirty healthy subjects and 30 MD patients had MRI scans. Using the semi-quantitative method, we found no significant difference in the number of subjects with EH between the two groups. SURI was found in 15 out of 30 MD patients and in none of the 30 healthy subjects. In three MD patients the saccule was not visible. SURI is currently the most specific criterion for imaging diagnosis of MD. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of the usefulness of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography in a guinea pig model of endolymphatic hydrops induced by surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Lee, Jang Woo; Cho, Jin-ho; Kim, Jeehyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has advanced significantly over the past two decades and is currently used extensively to monitor the internal structures of organs, particularly in ophthalmology and dermatology. We used ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) to decalcify the bony walls of the cochlea and investigated the inner structures by deep penetration of light into the cochlear tissue using OCT on a guinea pig model of endolymphatic hydrops (EH), induced by surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic duct. The structural and functional changes associated with EH were identified using OCT and auditory brainstem response tests, respectively. We also evaluated structural alterations in the cochlea using three-dimensional reconstruction of the OCT images, which clearly showed physical changes in the cochlear structures. Furthermore, we found significant anatomical variations in the EH model and conducted graphical analysis by strial atrophy for comparison. The physical changes included damage to and flattening of the organ of Corti-evidence of Reissner's membrane distention-and thinning of the lateral wall. These results indicate that observation of EDTA-decalcified cochlea using OCT is significant in examination of gradual changes in the cochlear structures that are otherwise not depicted by hematoxylin and eosin staining.

  4. Visualization of endolymphatic hydrops in meniere's disease after single-dose intravenous gadolinium-based contrast medium. Timing of optimal enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Kawai, Hisashi; Bokura, Kiminori; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in patients with Meniere's disease (MD) is now possible by heavily T 2 -weighted 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (h T 2 W-3D-FLAIR) obtained 4 hours after intravenous (IV) administration of single dose gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM). Although maximum enhancement has been reported 4 hours after contrast administration in healthy volunteers, the timing of optimal enhancement in patients with MD is not reported. We investigated if that optimal timing is earlier or later than 4 hours. We evaluated 10 consecutive patients with suspected MD whom we randomly divided into 2 groups. We obtained h T 2 W-3D-FLAIR before GBCM administration and 10 min, 3.5 hours, and 4 hours after GBCM administration in Group A and before and 10 min, 4 hours, and 4.5 hours after GBCM administration in Group B. We compared signal intensity ratio (SIR) values of the perilymph and pons between 3.5 and 4 hours in Group A and between 4 and 4.5 hours in Group B and evaluated grades of EH at 3.5 and 4 hours in Group A and at 4 and 4.5 hours in Group B. SIR values did not differ significantly between 3.5 and 4 hours in Group A and between 4 and 4.5 hours in Group B. However, SIR values at 4 hours were significantly higher in Group A than Group B. Grades of EH agreed between 3.5 and 4 hours in Group A and between 4 and 4.5 hours in Group B. The optimal timing of contrast enhancement in patients with suspected MD remains unclear, but evaluation of EH may be possible from 3.5 to 4.5 hours after contrast administration. (author)

  5. Relation between parvovirus B19 infection and fetal mortality and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Zahra; Esghaei, Maryam; Keyvani, Hossein; Shabani, Fateme; Sarmadi, Fateme; Mollaie, Hamidreza; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method. In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction. Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death.

  6. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies among pregnant women in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Iyanda; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Fagbami, Ademola Hezekiah

    2013-12-15

    Human parvovirus B19 causes a wide range of complications in pregnant women including abortion, severe fetal anemia, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and even intrauterine fetal death. However, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of the virus among pregnant women in southwestern Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 231 pregnant women and screened for antibodies to human parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG using an enzyme immunosorbent assay kits. Of the 231 women, 31 were in their first trimester, 146 were in their second trimester, and 54 were in their third trimester. Forty-five (20%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies, 10 (4%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies, and 176 (76%) had no detectable parvovirus B19 antibodies. Twenty-eight (19%) of the 146 pregnant women in their second trimester were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibody while three (2%) of the 146 were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibody. It is evident that there is a high prevalence of human parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in south-western Nigeria. This suggests that there is an active transmission of the virus in the community; it is therefore necessary to conduct more studies on the virus in pregnant women in Nigeria to ascertain its effect on the fetus.

  7. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in mediating autophagy in myositis skeletal muscle: A potential non-immune mechanism of muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Heather M.; Raben, Nina; Pistilli, Emidio; Francia, Dwight; Rawat, Rashmi; Getnet, Derese; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2011-01-01

    Objective Multinucleated cells are relatively resistant to classical apoptosis, and the factors initiating cell-death and damage in myositis are not well defined. We hypothesized that non-immune autophagic cell death may play a role in muscle fiber damage. Recent literature indicates that tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) may induce both NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells) activation and autophagic cell death in other systems. Here, we have investigated its role in cell death and pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo using myositis (human and mouse) muscle tissues. Methods Gene expression profiling indicated that expression of TRAIL and several autophagy markers was specifically upregulated in myositis muscle tissue; these results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We also analyzed TRAIL-induced cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) and NFκB activation in vitro in cultured cells. Results TRAIL was expressed predominantly in muscle fibers of myositis, but not in biopsies from normal or other dystrophic-diseased muscle. Autophagy markers were upregulated in human and mouse models of myositis. TRAIL expression was restricted to regenerating/atrophic areas of muscle fascicles, blood vessels, and infiltrating lymphocytes. TRAIL induced NFκB activation and IκB degradation in cultured cells that are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis but undergo autophagic cell death. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that TRAIL is expressed in myositis muscle and may mediate both activation of NFκB and autophagic cell death in myositis. Thus, this non-immune pathway may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in myositis. PMID:21769834

  8. Parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy and risks to the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2017-03-15

    Parvovirus B19 infects 1 to 5% of pregnant women, generally with normal pregnancy outcomes. During epidemics, the rate of infection is higher. Major congenital anomalies among offspring of infected mothers are rare, as the virus does not appear to be a significant teratogen. However, parvovirus B19 infection may cause significant fetal damage, and in rare cases, brain anomalies and neurodevelopmental insults, especially if infection occurs in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Parvovirus B19 is also an important cause of fetal loss, especially in the second half of pregnancy when spontaneous fetal loss from other causes is relatively rare. Parvovirus B19 infection may affect many fetal organs and can cause severe anemia, following fetal erythroid progenitor cells infection and apoptosis, especially in fetuses, that have shortened half-life of erythrocytes. Severe anemia may cause high output cardiac failure and nonimmune hydrops fetalis. In addition, parvovirus B19 may directly infect myocardial cells and produce myocarditis that further aggravates the cardiac failure. Intrauterine fetal transfusion is commonly used for the treatment of severe fetal anemia with survival rates of 75 to 90% and significant reduction of fetal morbidity. Only 66 cases were evaluated neurodevelopmentally, of which 10 (16%) had slight or severe neurodevelopmental problems. Because parvovirus B19 infection can cause severe fetal morbidity and mortality, it should be part of the routine work-up of pregnant women who have been exposed to the virus or of pregnancies with suspected fetal hydrops. Assessment for maternal infection during pregnancy is especially important during epidemics, when sero-conversion rates are high. Birth Defects Research 109:311-323, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Author's reply to "Letter to the editor on the article: Saccular measurements in routine MRI can predict hydrops in Menière's disease by Simon F et al."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, François; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Kania, Romain; Franc, Julie; Herman, Philippe; Hautefort, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    This is an answer to the Letter to the Editor regarding our previously published article « Saccular measurements in routine MRI can predict hydrops in Menière's disease ». We thank the authors for their interest in our article and their insightful comments. We would like to emphasise that our article was a preliminary study and to our knowledge the first published series establishing a correlation between measurements of saccular morphology in T2-weighed 3D CISS images and clinical definite Menière's disease. Therefore, we agree with the authors of the Letter that verifying reproducibility is paramount for the technique to be widely used. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the risk of artefacts reducing the reliability of saccular width measurements and to confirm the clinical implications. We recommend the use of saccular height measurements which have higher reliability. Also, the goal of the study was to present a possible radiological alternative to the more established methods of endolymphatic hydrops visualisation. If accessible, we agree that the latter techniques should be preferred, but we find that they are unfortunately too often unavailable in routine clinical practice to ENT physicians.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 21, No 1 (2015), Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis, Abstract PDF. E BenHamida, I Ayadi, I Ouertani, M Chammem, A Bezzine, R BenTmime, L Attia, R Mrad, Z Marrakchi. Vol 12, No 1 (2012), Periorbital edema as initial manifestation of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, Abstract PDF.

  11. Outcome for Fetuses with Prenatally Detected Congenital Heart Disease and Cardiac Arrhythmias in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Mou Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Outcome for fetuses with prenatally detected CHD remains poor, with the prognosis negatively influenced by the presence of complex heart defects as well as extracardiac and chromosomal anomalies. However, prognosis is good for fetuses with cardiac arrhythmia, except with long QT syndrome or hydrops fetalis.

  12. 76 FR 66727 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... this viral pathogen can cause transient aplastic crisis in individuals with high red cell turnover, pure red cell aplasia in immunosuppressed patients, and hydrops fetalis during pregnancy. In children, B19V most commonly causes erythema infectiosum, or fifth's disease. Infection can also cause...

  13. Three-dimensional colour Doppler of ductus venosus agenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was bilateral pleural effusion with generalised subcutaneous oedema suggestive of hydrops fetalis (Fig. 1B). Colour Doppler sonography revealed the umbilical vein draining into the portal sinus with non-visualisation of the DV, which would connect the portal sinus with the inferior vena cava (IVC) (Figs 1C and 1D). Hence ...

  14. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformations: Evolution and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shiu Chen

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: The outcomes of the prenatally detected CCAMs were good in our cases. If the CCAM is not complicated by hydrops fetalis, maintaining the pregnancy with continuing management seems to be a reasonable recommendation. Despite antenatal resolution of CCAM on ultrasound, postnatal examination with chest radiography and computed tomography scan is necessary.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscle tone (hypotonia), retracted (inverted) nipples, an abnormal distribution of fat, eyes that do not look in ... to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Infants with ... excess fluid builds up in the body before birth. Most babies with hydrops fetalis are stillborn or ...

  16. Comparison of the efficiency of antibody selection from semi-synthetic scFv and non-immune Fab phage display libraries against protein targets for rapid development of diagnostic immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Conrad E Z; Chan, Annie H Y; Lim, Angeline P C; Hanson, Brendon J

    2011-10-28

    Rapid development of diagnostic immunoassays against novel emerging or genetically modified pathogens in an emergency situation is dependent on the timely isolation of specific antibodies. Non-immune antibody phage display libraries are an efficient in vitro method for selecting monoclonal antibodies and hence ideal in these circumstances. Such libraries can be constructed from a variety of sources e.g. B cell cDNA or synthetically generated, and use a variety of antibody formats, typically scFv or Fab. However, antibody source and format can impact on the quality of antibodies generated and hence the effectiveness of this methodology for the timely production of antibodies. We have carried out a comparative screening of two antibody libraries, a semi-synthetic scFv library and a human-derived Fab library against the protective antigen toxin component of Bacillus anthracis and the epsilon toxin of Clostridium botulinum. We have shown that while the synthetic library produced a diverse collection of specific scFv-phage, these contained a high frequency of unnatural amber stops and glycosylation sites which limited their conversion to IgG, and also a high number which lost specificity when expressed as IgG. In contrast, these limitations were overcome by the use of a natural human library. Antibodies from both libraries could be used to develop sandwich ELISA assays with similar sensitivity. However, the ease and speed with which full-length IgG could be generated from the human-derived Fab library makes screening this type of library the preferable method for rapid antibody generation for diagnostic assay development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Joan; Mundle, William; Boucoiran, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the effects of parvovirus B19 on the pregnant woman and fetus, and discusses the management of women who are exposed to, who are at risk of developing, or who develop parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. The outcomes evaluated were maternal outcomes including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemia, and myocarditis, and fetal outcomes including spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, hydrops fetalis, stillbirth, and long-term effects. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on July 8, 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (MeSH terms "parvovirus" and "pregnancy") and key words (parvovirus, infection, pregnancy, hydrops). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions but results were limited to English or French language materials. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recommendations 1. Investigation for parvovirus B19 infection is recommended apart of the standard workup for fetal hydrops or intrauterine fetal death. (II-2A) 2. Routine screening for parvovirus immunity in low-risk pregnancies is not recommended. (II-2E) 3. Pregnant women who are exposed to, or who develop symptoms of, parvovirus B19 infection should be assessed to determine whether they are susceptible to infection (non-immune) or have a current infection by determining their parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M status. (II-2A) 4. If parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G is present and immunoglobulin M

  18. Loss of function mutations in EPHB4 are responsible for vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Alexandre; Ozanne, Augustin; Grondin, Cynthia; Saliou, Guillaume; Quevarec, Loic; Maurey, Helène; Aubourg, Patrick; Benachi, Alexandra; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Martinovic, Jelena; Sénat, Marie Victoire; Tawk, Marcel; Melki, Judith

    2018-04-01

    See Meschia (doi:10.1093/brain/awy066) for a scientific commentary on this article.Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools. Knockdown of ephb4 in zebrafish embryos leads to specific anomalies of dorsal cranial vessels including the dorsal longitudinal vein, which is the orthologue of the median prosencephalic vein and the embryonic precursor of the vein of Galen. This model allowed us to investigate EPHB4 loss-of-function mutations in this disease by the ability to rescue the brain vascular defect in knockdown zebrafish co-injected with wild-type, but not truncated EPHB4, mimicking the p.His191Alafs mutation. Our data showed that in both species, loss of function mutations of EPHB4 result in specific and similar brain vascular development anomalies. Recently, EPHB4 germline mutations have been reported in non-immune hydrops fetalis and in cutaneous capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation. Here, we show that EPHB4 mutations are also responsible for vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, indicating that heterozygous germline mutations of EPHB4 result in a large clinical spectrum. The identification of EPHB4 pathogenic mutations in patients presenting capillary malformation or vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation should lead to careful follow-up of pregnancy of carriers for early detection of anomaly of the cerebral vasculature in order to propose optimal neonatal care. Endovascular

  19. Detection of SEA-type α-thalassemia in embryo biopsies by digital PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Hsien Lee

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: The SEA-type deletion in cultured embryos can be sensitively diagnosed with the digital PCR procedure in clinics. The adoption of this robust PGD method could prevent the implantation of IVF embryos that are destined to develop Bart's hydrops fetalis in a timely manner. The results also help inform future development of a standard digital PCR procedure for cost-effective PGD of α-thalassemia in a standard IVF clinic.

  20. Analysis of the receptor-mediated B19V mechanism of internalization in the endothelial B19V infection and adenovirus-mediated reactivation of B19V in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzuto, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the causative agent of erythema infectiosum, hydrops fetalis, aplastic crises and polyarthritis. B19V displays a very narrow cell and tissue tropism with productive infection thought to be restricted exclusively to erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and fetal liver. However, over the last years increasing evidence for the presence of B19V DNA in other cell types and tissues such as synovial fibroblasts, tonsilles and skin as well as endothelial cells ...

  1. Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a mother with severe pre-eclampsia at 32 weeks' gestation and non-immune fetal hydrops without obvious cause. Since the. MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) was ... Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity .... [7] found MCA PSV of value in 9 women with chronic abruption, but in 5.

  2. Human Parvovirus B19 Utilizes Cellular DNA Replication Machinery for Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Zekun; Xiong, Min; Chen, Aaron Yun; Xu, Peng; Ganaie, Safder S; Badawi, Yomna; Kleiboeker, Steve; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Ye, Shui Qing; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) induces a DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest at late S phase, which facilitates viral DNA replication. However, it is not clear exactly which cellular factors are employed by this single-stranded DNA virus. Here, we used microarrays to systematically analyze the dynamic transcriptome of EPCs infected with B19V. We found that DNA metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and cell cycle arrest pathways were significantly regulated after B19V infection. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that most cellular DNA replication proteins were recruited to the centers of viral DNA replication, but not the DNA repair DNA polymerases. Our results suggest that DNA replication polymerase δ and polymerase α are responsible for B19V DNA replication by knocking down its expression in EPCs. We further showed that although RPA32 is essential for B19V DNA replication and the phosphorylated forms of RPA32 colocalized with the replicating viral genomes, RPA32 phosphorylation was not necessary for B19V DNA replication. Thus, this report provides evidence that B19V uses the cellular DNA replication machinery for viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection can cause transient aplastic crisis, persistent viremia, and pure red cell aplasia. In fetuses, B19V infection can result in nonimmune hydrops fetalis and fetal death. These clinical manifestations of B19V infection are a direct outcome of the death of human erythroid progenitors that host B19V replication. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response that is important for cell cycle arrest at late S phase. Here, we analyzed dynamic changes in cellular gene expression and found that DNA metabolic processes are tightly regulated during B19V infection. Although genes involved in cellular DNA replication were downregulated overall, the cellular DNA replication machinery was tightly

  3. Bloqueo aurículo-ventricular congénito completo: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura Congenital complete atrioventricular block: eport of one case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Díaz D

    2008-02-01

    intervention. It is observed in children of mothers having connective tissue autoimmune diseases, in particular systemic lupus erythematosus, when the condition is congenital. If it is post-natal, congenital cardiopathies are responsible in most cases. It may also appear in structurally normal hearts. The characteristic clinical finding is persistent bradycardia manifested since intrauterine life and affecting the circulatory fetal stability, going as far as to produce hydrops fetalis, a serious and lethal condition. After birth, it appears with bradycardia as well, that may or not unbalance the patient hemodynamics. Diagnosis is made upon clinical suspicion with fetal echocardiography and when post-natal, through electrocardiogram and maternal antibody type antiRo and antiLa. Pacemaker implantation is the definitive treatment that contributes to improve patient survival and prognosis. We present the case of a premature female patient with 31 weeks of gestation due to non-immune hydrops in who complete atrioventricular block secondary to maternal lupus erythematosus confirmed by frankly positive anti-nuclear antibodies and positive antiRo and antiLa antibodies was diagnosed, and that received inotropic support after pace maker implantation. She improved completely from her heart failure and was sent to other institution for conventional management of prematures.

  4. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-10-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equalled the maternal concentration in three cases. In the remaining three cases treatment with digitalis was effective in converting tachyarrhythmias to sinus rhythm after delivery. With maintenance digoxin therapy, the prognosis of fetal tachyarrhythmias seems to be good, once conversion to sinus rhythm has been accomplished.

  5. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate Parvovirus B19 Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, David I; El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A; Wolff, Mark; Simone, Gina; Segawa, Claire; Wong, Susan; Shelly, Daniel; Young, Neal S; Dempsey, Walla

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is an important human pathogen causing erythema infectiosum, transient aplastic crisis in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders and hydrops fetalis. We therefore evaluated a parvovirus B19 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of a 25 μg dose of parvovirus B19 recombinant capsid; 2.5 and 25 μg doses of the recombinant capsid given with MF59; and saline placebo were assessed in healthy adults. Because of 3 unexplained cutaneous events the stu...

  6. Rabdomioma cardiaco tratado quirúrgicamente con éxito y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Cigarroa López,Ángel; García Jiménez,Yoloxóchitl; Yáñez Gutiérrez,Lucelly; Jiménez Arteaga,Santiago; Martínez Sánchez,Arturo; Ortegón Cardeña,José; David Gómez,Felipe; Sánchez Soberanes,Agustín; López Gallegos,Diana; Riera-Kinkel,Carlos; Alva Espinosa,Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Los tumores cardiacos primarios son raros, con incidencia variable en todas las edades del 0.005 al 0.05%. En pacientes pediátricos, la incidencia es del 0.27%. Los tumores más frecuentes durante la infancia son los rabdomiomas cardiacos, considerados como benignos. Aunque la expresión clínica es amplia, en la mayoría de los casos son asintomáticos y se detectan por la presencia de soplos. En la etapa prenatal se manifiestan con arritmias o hydrops fetalis. En algunos neonatos y lactantes se ...

  7. Prevalence of Parvovirus B19 and Parvovirus V9 DNA and Antibodies in Paired Bone Marrow and Serum Samples from Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Heegaard, Erik D.; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Heilmann, Carsten J.; Hornsleth, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (hereafter referred to as B19) exhibits a marked tropism to human bone marrow (BM), and infection may lead to erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis, and various hematologic disorders. Recently, a distinct parvovirus isolate termed V9 with an unknown clinical spectrum was discovered. In contrast to the many studies of B19 serology and viremia, valid information on the frequency of B19 or V9 DNA in the BM of healthy individuals is limited. To develop a reference valu...

  8. Parvovirose congênita: relato de caso Congenital parvovirus infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F. Gradia

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de regressão espontânea de hidropisia fetal provavelmente causada por infecção materno-fetal pelo parvovírus B19. Além de hidropisia, observamos anemia e hipocontratilidade cardíaca no feto. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido pela soma dos achados ultra-sonográficos, detecção do vírus no soro materno, hemograma fetal e dosagem de enzimas hepáticas fetais.We report a case in which there was spontaneous regression of hydrops fetalis. Hydrops was probably caused by fetal infection with parvovirus B19. Anemia and hypokinesia of the heart were also observed. Diagnosis was accomplished by the ultrasound, virus detection in maternal serum, complete fetal blood count, and analysis of hepatic enzymes.

  9. Hydrops foetalis forårsaget af et mediastinalt teratom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Andrea Caroline; Kock, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    by a mass which was clinically interpreted as a hernia of the diaphragm at gestational week 19 + 6. An abortion was granted and performed. Autopsy revealed an immature teratoma in the mediastinum compressing the heart and airway. The prognosis and treatment of mediastinal teratoma and HF is discussed....

  10. Interventions and outcomes infetal hydrops - a ten year experience

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, C

    2011-02-01

    Institute of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, RCPI Four Provinces Meeting, Junior Obstetrics & Gynaecology Society Annual Scientific Meeting, Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Dublin Maternity Hospitals Reports Meeting, Nov 2010

  11. Noonan syndrome: Severe phenotype and PTPN11 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Salas, Pilar; Gómez-Molina, Gertrudis; Carreto-Alba, Páxedes; Granell-Escobar, Reyes; Vázquez-Rico, Ignacio; León-Justel, Antonio

    2018-04-24

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterized by a wide range of distinctive features and health problems. It caused in 50% of cases by missense mutations in PTPN11 gene. It has been postulated that it is possible to predict the disease course based into the impact of mutations on the protein. We report two cases of severe NS phenotype including hydrops fetalis. PTPN11 gene was studied in germinal cells of both patients by sequencing. Two different mutations (p.Gly503Arg and p.Met504Val) was detected in PTPN11 gene. These mutations have been reported previously, and when they were germinal variants, patients presented classic NS, NS with other malignancies and recently, p.Gly503Arg has been also observed in a patient with severe NS and hydrops fetalis, as our cases. Therefore, these observations shade light on that it is not always possibly to determine the genotype-phenotype relation based into the impact of mutations on the protein in NS patients with PTPN11 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetal red blood cell parameters in thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong

    2013-01-01

    With the lack of fetal blood specimens in routine practice, little is known about red blood cell (RBC) parameters of fetuses with various thalassemia syndromes. This study aimed to describe these in various forms of thalassemia. The study was performed on 93 fetal blood specimens obtained from pregnant women by cordocentesis during 18-24 weeks of gestation. RBC parameters were recorded on automated analyzer. Hemoglobin (Hb) and DNA analyses were performed for definite genotyping. No significant difference in RBC parameters was observed between non-thalassemic fetuses and those with β-thalassemia trait, Hb E trait, homozygous Hb E and β-thalassemia/Hb E disease. However, in those with α(0)-thalassemia trait and double heterozygous α(0)-thalassemia/Hb E, slight reduction in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was noted. Fetuses with the Hb H disease showed significant reductions in Hb, MCV and mean corpuscular Hb (MCH). Marked reductions in Hb, hematocrit, MCH and mean cell Hb concentration and increased RBC distribution width with numerous nucleated RBC were clearly observed in Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. Simple analysis of fetal RBC parameters is useful for making presumptive prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia syndromes including Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis which can then be confirmed by Hb and DNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn with late-onset anemia due to anti-M: a case report and review of the Japanese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Ohto, Hitoshi; Nollet, Kenneth E; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Saito, Shunnichi; Yagi, Yoshihito; Negishi, Yutaka; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) attributed to M/N-incompatibility varies from asymptomatic to lethally hydropic. Case reports are rare, and the clinical significance of anti-M is not completely understood. A challenging case of HDFN due to anti-M prompted an investigation of the Japanese literature, in order to characterize the clinical spectrum of M/N-incompatibility pregnancies in Japan and report results to English-language readers. Japanese reports of HDFN attributed to M/N incompatibility were compiled. Abstracted data include maternal antibody titers at delivery, fetal direct antiglobulin test, hemoglobin, total bilirubin, reticulocyte count at birth, and therapeutic interventions. We investigated characteristics of HDFN due to M/N-incompatible pregnancies in Japan after encountering a case of severe HDFN along with late-onset anemia in an infant born to a woman carrying IgG anti-M with a titer of 1. In total, thirty-three babies with HDFN due to anti-M and one due to anti-N have been reported in Japan since 1975. The median maternal antibody titer was 64 at delivery and was 16 or less in 10 of 34 women (29%). Five of 34 babies (15%) were stillborn or died as neonates. Twenty-one of 29 survivors (72%) had severe hemolytic anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. The reticulocyte count of neonates with anemia stayed below the reference interval. Sixteen (55%) developed late-onset anemia and 14 (48%) were transfused with M-negative RBCs. Significant positive correlation (P hemolytic anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Low reticulocyte count in neonates with late-onset anemia is consistent with suppressed erythropoiesis due to anti-M. © 2013.

  14. Intrauterine demise due to congenital mesoblastic nephroma in a fetus conceived by assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Monique E; Shapiro, Svetlana; Young, Lawrence; Carr, Stephen R; Gundogan, Fusun

    2011-03-01

    To report a case of antenatally diagnosed congenital mesoblastic nephroma in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) conception. Case report. Tertiary care university-affiliated hospital. Fetus of 26-weeks' gestation with antenatally diagnosed large abdominal tumor. ART with transfer of cryopreserved embryo. Postmortem examination. Examination revealed a congenital mesoblastic nephroma, mixed classic and cellular type, with marked intratumoral hemorrhage and associated hydrops. The marked fetal erythroblastosis was suggestive of fetal response to pronounced anemia. Intrauterine demise is attributed to fetal intratumoral hemorrhage and early nonimmune hydrops secondary to a large congenital mesoblastic nephroma. This is the third reported case of congenital mesoblastic nephroma in an ART conception. Whether the association between mesoblastic nephroma and ART is coincidental or causative remains to be determined. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymicrogyria and Congenital Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Schulert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal parvovirus B19 infection causes anemia, hydrops, and pregnancy loss but is generally not considered teratogenic. Nevertheless, disturbances of neuronal migration have been described with congenital parvovirus infection. We evaluated a term infant with congenital parvovirus disease and polymicrogyria. We compared this case with four other reports of central nervous system disease after birth to parvovirus-infected mothers. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation, this infant was found to have congenital parvovirus disease with severe anemia and nonimmune hydrops as well as extensive polymicrogyria. Although rare, this report and literature review suggest that parvovirus B19 has the potential to disrupt normal neurodevelopment. We suggest that infants with severe congenital parvovirus infection have close developmental surveillance and if symptomatic undergo neuroimaging to assess for disorders of neuromigration.

  16. Metabolic and physiologic studies of nonimmune lymphoid cells cytotoxic for fibroblastic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhew, E.; Bennett, M.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro reaction between mouse lymphoid cells and target fibroblastic cells in wells of microtest plates, which appears to simulate the in vivo rejection of hemopoietic allografts, has been analyzed for metabolic and physiologic requirements. Protein synthesis was required for only the first few hours of culture. Inhibition of RNA synthesis and alteration of cell surface charge with various agents were without obvious effects. Metabolic slowing at 4 0 C or deviation of the pH of the culture medium suppressed the reaction. Thymus cells, which are not cytotoxic in this system, significantly but not completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of lymph node cells. Antiserum directed against target cells specifically protected them from the cytotoxic lymphoid cells in the absence of complement. Precursors of cytotoxic lymphoid cells were radiosensitive, unlike the cytotoxic cells themselves. BALB/c anti-C57BL/6 spleen cell serum and 89 Sr both are able to prevent rejection of marrow allografts in vivo. Lymphoid cells incubated with this antiserum plus complement lost much of their cytotoxicity but were still effective at high ratios of aggressor to target cells. Lymphoid cells of mice treated with 89 Sr were effectively cytotoxic but lost practically all of their cytotoxicity after incubation with the antiserum plus complement. Thus, it appears that this reaction detects two different cytotoxic lymphoid cells, either of which can function in vitro. Both cell types may need to cooperate in vivo during marrow allograft rejections

  17. The schistosoma-specific antibody response after treatment in non-immune travellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Liv Marie; Christensen, Anders Vittrup; Navntoft, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    Egg detection is the gold standard in diagnosing and controlling treatment in schistosomiasis, but sensitivity is poor in lightly infected individuals, whereas Schistosoma-specific antibodies are more sensitive. The purpose of the study was to evaluate use of Gut Associated Antigen (GAA...

  18. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by nonimmune sera from sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D R; Rooney, S; Miller, N J; Mather, T N

    2000-12-01

    Various species of cervid deer are the preferred hosts for adult, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) in the United States. Although frequently exposed to the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), these animals, for the most part, are incompetent as transmission reservoirs. We examined the borreliacidal activity of normal and B. burgdorferi-immune sera from sika deer (Cervus nippon) maintained in a laboratory setting and compared it to that of similar sera from reservoir-competent mice and rabbits. All normal deer sera (NDS) tested killed > 90% of B. burgdorferi cells. In contrast, normal mouse and rabbit sera killed feeding exhibited IFA titers of 1:256, whereas sera from mice and rabbits similarly exposed had titers of > 1:1,024. Heat treatment (56 C, 30 min) of NDS reduced borreliacidal activity, with complement-mediated killing. The chelators EGTA and EDTA were used to block the classical or both the classical and alternative complement pathways, respectively. Addition of 10 mM EGTA to NDS had a negligible effect on borreliacidal activity, with > 90% of the cells killed. Addition of 10 mM EDTA reduced the killing to approximately 30%, whereas the addition of Mg2+ (10 mM) restored borreliacidal activity to NDS. The addition of zymosan A, an activator of the alternative pathway, increased the survival of B. burgdorferi cells to approximately 80% in NDS. These data suggest that the alternative complement activation pathway plays a major role in the borreliacidal activity of NDS. Additionally, 10 mM EGTA had almost no effect on the killing activity of B. burgdorferi-exposed deer sera, suggesting that the classical pathway is not involved in Borrelia killing, even in sera from B. burgdorferi-exposed deer.

  19. Nonimmune immunoglobulin binding and multiple adhesion characterize Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes of placental origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Niloofar; Namusoke, Fatuma; Chêne, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    The harmful effects of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) are engendered by the heavy sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs in the placenta. It is well documented that this process is mediated by interactions of parasite-encoded variant surface antigens and placental receptors...... and adhesion to multiple receptors (IgG/IgM/HA/CSA) rather than the exclusive binding to CSA is a characteristic of fresh Ugandan placental isolates. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the pathogenesis of placental malaria and have implications for the ongoing efforts to develop a global...

  20. Contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Sumiaki; Seno, Masao; Tsuchiya, Choji; Noritake, Masayuki; Wasada, Kazunori

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial kinetics of Vibrio cholerae 569B in the local infection of mice was examined after the γ-ray-irradiation or the treatment with carrageenan. In the control mice, bacterial number decreased exponentially. In the mice treated with carrageenan gave similar tendency. In the irradiated mice, however, decrease in bacterial number was not as significant and the clearance was never observed. From these results, it is concluded that the protection against V. cholerae local infection depends mainly on polymorphonuclear cells in the early phase. (author)

  1. A new gene deletion in the alpha-like globin gene cluster as the molecular basis for the rare alpha-thalassemia-1(--/alpha alpha) in blacks: HbH disease in sickle cell trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, M H; Coleman, M B; Adams, J G; Hartmann, R C; Saba, H; Anagnou, N P

    1986-02-01

    A novel deletion of at least 26 kilobase of DNA, including both alpha-globin genes, the psi alpha- and psi zeta-globin genes, but sparing the functional zeta-gene was found in a 10-year-old black boy with HbH disease and sickle cell trait. This particular deletion has not previously been described in blacks. Its existence makes it likely that the absence of Hb Barts hydrops fetalis in blacks is due to the rarity of the chromosome lacking two alpha-globin genes rather than a result of early embryonic death due to the failure to synthesize embryonic hemoglobins because of deletion of functional zeta-globin genes.

  2. Percutaneously Inject able Fetal Pacemaker: Electrodes, Mechanical Design and Implantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Chmait, Ramen; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv; Peck, Raymond A.; Loeb, Gerald E.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a self-contained cardiac pacemaker with a small, cylindrical shape (~3×20mm) that permits it to be implanted percutaneously into a fetus to treat complete heart block and consequent hydrops fetalis, which is otherwise fatal. The device uses off-the-shelf components including a rechargeable lithium cell and a highly efficient relaxation oscillator encapsulated in epoxy and glass. A corkscrew electrode made from activated iridium can be screwed into the myocardium, followed by release of the pacemaker and a short, flexible lead entirely within the chest of the fetus to avoid dislodgement from fetal movement. The feasibility of implanting the device percutaneously under ultrasonic imaging guidance was demonstrated in acute adult rabbit experiments. PMID:23367442

  3. Percutaneously injectable fetal pacemaker: electrodes, mechanical design and implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Chmait, Ramen; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv; Peck, Raymond A; Loeb, Gerald E

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a self-contained cardiac pacemaker with a small, cylindrical shape (~3 × 20 mm) that permits it to be implanted percutaneously into a fetus to treat complete heart block and consequent hydrops fetalis, which is otherwise fatal. The device uses off-the-shelf components including a rechargeable lithium cell and a highly efficient relaxation oscillator encapsulated in epoxy and glass. A corkscrew electrode made from activated iridium can be screwed into the myocardium, followed by release of the pacemaker and a short, flexible lead entirely within the chest of the fetus to avoid dislodgement from fetal movement. The feasibility of implanting the device percutaneously under ultrasonic imaging guidance was demonstrated in acute adult rabbit experiments.

  4. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against α-globin chain-containing human hemoglobins for detecting α-thalassemia disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdeepak, Kanet; Pata, Supansa; Chiampanichayakul, Sawitree; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tatu, Thanusak

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against α-globin containing human Hbs, named AMS-Alpha1 and AMS-Alpha 2, were produced by the hybridoma technique using spleen cells enriched by the newly developed B lymphocyte enrichment protocol. These two monoclonal antibodies were of IgM class, reacting to only intact form of human Hbs A, A2, E, and F, which contain α-globin chain. By the indirect ELISA, the AMS-Alpha1 and AMS-Alpha 2 quantified less amount of α-globin chain containing hemoglobins in HbH disease than the SEA-α thalassemia 1 carriers and normal individuals. It was thus anticipated that these monoclonal antibodies can be used for detecting Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis in which no α-globin chain is produced.

  5. Anti-E Alloimmunization: A Rare Cause of Severe Fetal Hemolytic Disease Resulting in Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shine Chao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe intrauterine hemolysis caused by sole anti-E alloimmunization. A 36-year-old multipara woman presented with hydrops fetalis at 27 weeks of gestation. She had a history of previous neonatal death. In this pregnancy, she was found to have very high titer of anti-E antibody. Ultrasonography detected marked skin edema, cardiomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly, pleural effusion, ascites, placentomegaly, and polyhydramnios. The Doppler peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery was 0.8 m/s, indicating severe fetal anemia. Multiple intrauterine transfusions for the anemic fetus were administered. However, persistent severe fetal anemia and placentomegaly caused poor neonatal death and mirror syndrome in the mother. Uncommon red blood cell alloimmunization has to be watched for early in any population, especially in a woman with a history of unexplained perinatal loss.

  6. Polyphasic taxonomic approach in the description of Alishewanella fetalis gen. nov., sp nov., isolated from a human foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Christensen, H.

    2000-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterium is described on the basis of a physiological and biochemical characterization, fatty acid profiling and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrase B (gyrB) genes. This non-motile, non-fermentative bacterium was isolated from a human foetus in Uppsala, Sweden...

  7. Detection of SEA-type α-thalassemia in embryo biopsies by digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ta-Hsien; Hsu, Ya-Chiung; Chang, Chia Lin

    2017-08-01

    Accurate and efficient pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) based on the analysis of single or oligo-cells is needed for timely identification of embryos that are affected by deleterious genetic traits in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the backbone of modern genetic diagnoses, and a spectrum of PCR-based techniques have been used to detect various thalassemia mutations in prenatal diagnosis (PND) and PGD. Among thalassemias, SEA-type α-thalassemia is the most common variety found in Asia, and can lead to Bart's hydrops fetalis and serious maternal complications. To formulate an efficient digital PCR for clinical diagnosis of SEA-type α-thalassemia in cultured embryos, we conducted a pilot study to detect the α-globin and SEA-type deletion alleles in blastomere biopsies with a highly sensitive microfluidics-based digital PCR method. Genomic DNA from embryo biopsy samples were extracted, and crude DNA extracts were first amplified by a conventional PCR procedure followed by a nested PCR reaction with primers and probes that are designed for digital PCR amplification. Analysis of microfluidics-based PCR reactions showed that robust signals for normal α-globin and SEA-type deletion alleles, together with an internal control gene, can be routinely generated using crude embryo biopsies after a 10 6 -fold dilution of primary PCR products. The SEA-type deletion in cultured embryos can be sensitively diagnosed with the digital PCR procedure in clinics. The adoption of this robust PGD method could prevent the implantation of IVF embryos that are destined to develop Bart's hydrops fetalis in a timely manner. The results also help inform future development of a standard digital PCR procedure for cost-effective PGD of α-thalassemia in a standard IVF clinic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Variation of Ultrasound Findings in the First Trimester Examination of Recurrent Cases With Trisomy 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidis, Aggelos; Balaouras, Dimitrios; Chitzios, Dimitrios; Balaouras, Georgios; Capilna, Mihai; Asimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2015-01-01

    Increased nuchal translucency (NT) is present in about 50% of cases with trisomy 21. Very often the nuchal edema evolves in hydrops fetalis until the second trimester. Furthermore, a small amount of cases with a normal NT and trisomy 21 exhibit anatomical anomalies. We present a case of a 21-year-old woman, nulliparous, with a history of one termination of pregnancy and a smoking quitter. The prenatal control was negative for TORCH. During the first trimester scan on the 13th week, the NT was found 2.7 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present. Hydrops fetalis was present though, and the parents were advised for chorionic villus sampling (CVS), but they opted for termination of pregnancy. The molecular control by QF-PCR showed normal karyotype for 13 and 18, a male fetus, but non-dysjunction trisomy 21 was present. Parental karyotype was advised, but they refused to perform it. One year later, the couple had another pregnancy. On the 12th week scan, the NT was found 1.0 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present, but encephalocele was also found, and the parents consented again for termination of pregnancy. The new molecular control showed the same results. This time parental karyotype was performed. The father had a normal one, whereas the mother showed reversed p11 and q13 zones in chromosome 2. Genetical consulting and prenatal cytological control was advised in before next pregnancy. PMID:25883716

  9. Characterizing a cohort of α-thalassemia couples collected during screening for hemoglobinopathies: 14 years of an Iranian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Khosravi, Mohsen; Bayat, Nooshin; Kariminejad, Ariana; Hadavi, Valeh; Oberkanins, Christian; Azarkeivan, Azita; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to determine the number of couples with normal hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis and low-borderline hematological values, which may come up with a clinically critical status in their offspring. The number of couples at risk for severe α-thalassemia (α-thal) needed to be estimated before recommending genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND). During the past 14 years, from at least 7000 referrals, 754 couples were investigated for α-thal by direct mutation detection methods followed by reverse strip assay and α-globin gene sequencing for inconclusive cases. Detection of silent β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations was done in suspected cases by complete β-globin gene sequencing. We were able to provide a molecular diagnosis in 87.3% (658/754) of couples. A total of 9.1% (60/658) may have a clinically significant hemoglobinopathy in their offspring. Significant conditions included hydrops fetalis (20.0%; 12/60), certain Hb H (β4) genotypes (78.3%; 47/60) and β-thal intermedia (β-TI) (1.7%; 1/60). The diagnostic flowchart for couples with microcytic hypochromic anemia in countries with a high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies should include α and β gene sequencing. As our results indicate, every nine out of 100 of these couples will face significant hemoglobinopathies and every two out of 100 can carry Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis in their pregnancies. For such cases, PND should be utilized to allow the carrier couples to decide whether or not to abort the fetus.

  10. Distribution of alpha thalassaemia in 16 year old Malaysian Students in Penang, Melaka and Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimah, A N; Nisha, S; Safiah, B; Roshida, H; Punithawathy, Y; Nurul, H; Syahzuwan, H; Zubaidah, Z

    2012-12-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is wide spread in Malaysia and is a public health problem. This study aimed to describe the carrier frequencies of α‒thalassaemia and its distribution among major ethnic groups in three states of Malaysia. Educational forums were organised and study was explained to students from three schools. Students were invited to take part in the screening with parent consent. A total of 8420 adolescent students aged 16 years volunteered to participate in the study. Peripheral blood samples were analysed for complete blood counts, haemoglobin quantification and typing, and serum ferritin levels. Genomic DNA was used for screening alpha thalassaemia alleles by PCR based molecular methods. We identified seven α‒globin gene defects in 341 (4.08%) students: amongst them α(+)‒ and α(0)‒thalassaemias were detected in 232 (2.77%) and 107 (1.28%) students respectively. Genotype ‒α(3.7)/αα was the most prevalent among sub-populations of Malay, indigenous communities of Sahab and Indian, while ‒‒(SEA)/αα deletion is more prevalent in Malaysian Chinese. It is estimated that 63 pregnancies annually are at risk of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. We have demonstrated the prevalence and mutation patterns of α‒thalassaemia in the 16 year olds in three states of Malaysia. High α(0)‒thalassaemia deletions amongst the study subjects place these carriers at an increased risk of conceiving fetuses with HbH disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis should they choose another heterozygous partner. It is therefore highly recommended to institute community screening programmes and provide prospective carriers with genetic counselling to help them make informed choices.

  11. Successful pleurodesis with OK-432 (picibanil in preterm infants with persistent pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Eun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OK-432 (picibanil is an inactivated preparation of &lt;em&gt;Streptococcus pyogenes&lt;/em&gt; that causes pleurodesis by inducing a strong inflammatory response. Intrapleural instillation of OK-432 has recently been used to successfully treat neonatal and fetal chylothorax. Here we report a trial of intrapleural instillation of OK-432 in two preterm infants who were born with hydrops fetalis and massive bilateral pleural effusion. Both cases showed persistent pleural effusion, refractory to conservative treatment, up to postnatal days 26 and 46, respectively. An average of 80 to 140 mL of pleural fluid was drained daily. In case 1, the infant was treated with OK-432 during the fetal period at gestation 28 weeks and 4 days of gestation, but showed recurrence of pleural effusion and progressed into hydrops. Within two to three days after OK-432 injection, the amount of pleural fluid drainage was dramatically decreased and there was no reaccumulation. We did not observe any side effects related to OK-432 injection. We suggest that OK-432 should be considered as a therapeutic option in infants who have persistent pleural effusion for more than four weeks, with the expectation of the early removal of the chest tube and a good outcome.

  12. Two-phase endolymphatic hydrops : a dynamic model for Menière's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnebier, Erwin Alexander

    1998-01-01

    In 1861, Prosper Menière described the classical triadic symptomatology of hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus, which he attributed for the first time to a labyrinthine disorder. The underlying pathophysiology of this disabling inner ear disease was not known, but since Hallpike and Cairns, and also

  13. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  14. Identification of Lactobacillus proteins with different recognition patterns between immune rabbit sera and nonimmune mice or human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Sabina; Buda, Barbara; Brzozowska, Ewa; Schwarzer, Martin; Srutkova, Dagmar; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-02-09

    The genus Lactobacillus belongs to a large heterogeneous group of low G + C Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, which are frequently used as probiotics. The health-beneficial effects, in particular the immunomodulation effect, of probiotics depend on the strain and dose used. Strain variations may be related to diversity of the cell surface architecture of bacteria and the ability to express specific antigens or secrete compounds. The use of Lactobacillus as probiotic requires a comprehensive understanding of its effect on host immune system. To evaluate the potential immunoreactive properties of proteins isolated from four Lactobacillus strains: L. johnsonii 142 and L. johnsonii 151, L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900 and L. casei LOCK 0919, the polyclonal sera obtained from mouse and human have been tested as well as with sera from rabbits immunized with whole lactobacilli cells. The reactivity of isolated proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and sequenced, in particular the fractions were identified as phosphoglycerate kinase (L. johnsonii 142), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (L. johnosnii 142, L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900), hypothetic protein JDM1_1307 (L. johnsonii 151) and fructose/tagatose-bisphosphate-aldolase (L. casei LOCK 0919). The different prevalence of reactions against tested antigens in rabbit, mouse and human sera may indicate significant differences in immune system and commensal cross-talk in these groups. The identification of immunoreactive lactobacilli proteins opens the possibility to use them as an antigens for development of vaccines.

  15. Replication, Pathogenesis and Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Non-Immune Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brookes, Sharon M; Nunez, Alejandor; Choudhury, Bhudipa

    2010-01-01

    The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1,2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment...... and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and veterinary health consideration in the context of the evolving pandemic is whether the H1N1/09 virus could become established in pig populations [4]. We performed an infection and transmission study in pigs with A/California/07/09. In combination......, with clearly demonstrable pulmonary pathology, there was apparent selection of a virus variant with glycine (225G). These findings provide potential clues to the existence and biological significance of viral receptor-binding variants with 225D and 225G during the 1918 pandemic [5]....

  16. Determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures among non-immune travellers during missions to tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briolant Sébastien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of anti-vectorial malaria protective measures in travellers and expatriates is hampered by incorrect compliance. The objective of the present study was to identify the determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures (AVPMs in this population that is particularly at risk because of their lack of immunity. Methods Compliance with wearing long clothing, sleeping under insecticide-impregnated bed nets (IIBNs and using insect repellent was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 2,205 French military travellers from 20 groups before and after short-term missions (approximately four months in six tropical African countries (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Gabon and Djibouti. For each AVPM, the association of "correct compliance" with individual and collective variables was investigated using random-effect mixed logistic regression models to take into account the clustered design of the study. Results The correct compliance rates were 48.6%, 50.6% and 18.5% for wearing long clothing, sleeping under bed nets and using repellents, respectively. Depending on the AVPM, correct compliance was significantly associated with the following factors: country, older than 24 years of age, management responsibilities, the perception of a personal malaria risk greater than that of other travellers, the occurrence of life events, early bedtime (i.e., before midnight, the type of stay (field operation compared to training, the absence of medical history of malaria, the absence of previous travel in malaria-endemic areas and the absence of tobacco consumption. There was no competition between compliance with the different AVPMs or between compliance with any AVPM and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving compliance with AVPMs should target young people without management responsibilities who are scheduled for non-operational activities in countries with high risk of clinical malaria. Weak associations between compliance and history of clinical malaria or variables that pertain to threat perception suggest that cognition-based interventions referencing a "bad experience" with clinical malaria could have only a slight impact on the improvement of compliance. Further studies should focus on the cognitive and behavioural predictors of compliance with AVPMs.

  17. Identification of Lactobacillus proteins with different recognition patterns between immune rabbit sera and nonimmune mice or human sera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górska, S.; Buda, B.; Brzozowska, E.; Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Kozáková, Hana; Gamian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, FEB 2016 (2016), s. 17 ISSN 1471-2180 Grant - others:Evropský fond pro regionální rozvoj(XE) CZ.3.22/2.1.00/09.01574; Evropský fond pro regionální rozvoj(XE) CZ.3.22/2.1.00/13.03892 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lactobacillus * Probiotics * Surface proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2016

  18. Determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures among non-immune travellers during missions to tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagui, Emmanuel; Resseguier, Noémie; Machault, Vanessa; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Texier, Gaetan; Pages, Frédéric; Michel, Remy; Pradines, Bruno; Briolant, Sébastien; Buguet, Alain; Tourette-Turgis, Catherine; Rogier, Christophe

    2011-08-10

    The effectiveness of anti-vectorial malaria protective measures in travellers and expatriates is hampered by incorrect compliance. The objective of the present study was to identify the determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures (AVPMs) in this population that is particularly at risk because of their lack of immunity. Compliance with wearing long clothing, sleeping under insecticide-impregnated bed nets (IIBNs) and using insect repellent was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 2,205 French military travellers from 20 groups before and after short-term missions (approximately four months) in six tropical African countries (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Gabon and Djibouti). For each AVPM, the association of "correct compliance" with individual and collective variables was investigated using random-effect mixed logistic regression models to take into account the clustered design of the study. The correct compliance rates were 48.6%, 50.6% and 18.5% for wearing long clothing, sleeping under bed nets and using repellents, respectively. Depending on the AVPM, correct compliance was significantly associated with the following factors: country, older than 24 years of age, management responsibilities, the perception of a personal malaria risk greater than that of other travellers, the occurrence of life events, early bedtime (i.e., before midnight), the type of stay (field operation compared to training), the absence of medical history of malaria, the absence of previous travel in malaria-endemic areas and the absence of tobacco consumption.There was no competition between compliance with the different AVPMs or between compliance with any AVPM and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Interventions aimed at improving compliance with AVPMs should target young people without management responsibilities who are scheduled for non-operational activities in countries with high risk of clinical malaria. Weak associations between compliance and history of clinical malaria or variables that pertain to threat perception suggest that cognition-based interventions referencing a "bad experience" with clinical malaria could have only a slight impact on the improvement of compliance. Further studies should focus on the cognitive and behavioural predictors of compliance with AVPMs.

  19. Expanding the clinical spectrum of ocular anomalies in Noonan syndrome: Axenfeld-anomaly in a child with PTPN11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Andrea; So, Joyce; Mireskandari, Kamiar; Jougeh-Doust, Soghra; Chisholm, Caitlin; Klatt, Regan; Richer, Julie

    2015-02-01

    Ocular anomalies have been frequently reported in Noonan syndrome. Anterior segment anomalies have been described in 57% of PTPN11 positive patients, with the most common findings being corneal changes and in particular, prominent corneal nerves and cataracts. We report on a neonate with a confirmed PTPN11 mutation and ocular findings consistent with Axenfeld anomaly. The patient initially presented with non-immune hydrops and subsequently developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dysmorphic features typical of Noonan syndrome. While a pathogenic mutation in PTPN11 was confirmed, prior testing for the two common genes associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, PITX2, and FOXC1 was negative. This finding expands the spectrum of anterior chamber anomalies seen in Noonan syndrome and perhaps suggests a common neural crest related mechanism that plays a critical role in the development of the eye and other organs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Peritonite meconial como diagnóstico diferencial de ascite fetal: relato de caso Meconium peritonitis in the differential diagnosis of fetal ascites: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim

    1999-07-01

    include fetal ascites and intra-abdominal calcifications. Evidence suggests that prenatal diagnosis can improve postnatal prognosis. Case Report: R.C.M.S., 22 years, II pregnancy O para, presented ultrasound (12/02/98 with diagnosis of fetal ascites. Investigation for hydrops fetalis was performed and immune and nonimmune causes were excluded. Severe fetal ascites persisted on subsequent ultrasound examinations, without calcifications. Vaginal delivery occurred at 36 weeks (01/02/99, with polyhydramnios. Female neonate weighing 2,670 g, with signs of respiratory distress, abdominal distension and petechiae. Abdominal distension worsened progressively, with palpation of a petrous tumor in the right upper quadrant and elimination of white mucus at rectal examination. Radiological findings (01/04/99 were disseminated abdominal calcifications, intestinal dilatation and absence of gas at rectal ampulla. Exploratory laparotomy was indicated with diagnosis of meconium peritonitis. A giant meconium cyst and ileal atresia were observed and lysis of adhesions and ileostomy were performed. Initial postoperative evolution was satisfactory but was subsequently complicated by sepsis and neonatal death occurred (01/09/99. Conclusion: meconium peritonitis should be remembered at differential diagnosis of fetal ascites. In the present case, surgical indication could be anticipated if prenatal diagnosis were established, with improvement of neonatal evolution.

  1. Prospective evaluation of 618 pregnant women exposed to parvovirus B19: risks and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, J H; Adler, S P; Koch, W C; Harger, G F

    1998-03-01

    To assess the risk of maternal parvovirus B19 infection from exposure to various sources and the fetal morbidity of those infections. We obtained demographic and occupational information about pregnant women exposed to sources of B19 and about the nature and duration of the exposures. We performed serologic testing 10-14 days after exposure using an indirect capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women with immunoglobulin (Ig) M were examined with weekly ultrasound until 12 weeks after exposure, and the outcome of the pregnancy was ascertained from interviews with patients and their obstetricians. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for maternal immunity and infection by B19. Of 618 pregnant women exposed, 307 (49.7%) were immune to B19, 259 remained susceptible after exposure, and 52 (16.7% of all susceptibles) contracted B19 infection. None of the 52 fetuses of infected women developed nonimmune hydrops, and there were no fetal deaths attributable to B19 in this group. The relative risk of maternal B19 infection was 2.8 if the source was a related child living in the household (95% confidence interval 1.7, 4.6; P women (4.1%, 2.8%, and 5.7%, respectively). Only 17 (33%) of the IgM-positive women were entirely asymptomatic. The risk of maternal B19 infection in pregnancy could not be predicted by a gravida's occupation, but it was significantly higher when the source of exposure was her own child. The fetal risk of nonimmune hydrops after maternal B19 infection must be very low. As a consequence, exclusion of pregnant women from the workplace during endemic periods with seasonal clusters of cases is not justified. Weekly fetal ultrasound evaluation in these cases carries a low yield.

  2. A Case of the TOF with APV Complicated with Polyhydramnios and Severe Bronchomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS is a rare congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary insufficiency, characterized with aneurysmal dilation in the pulmonary artery and one or both of its branches. We presented a rare case with APVS and literature review in this letter. Prenatal USG examination of the fetus at the 26th week of gestation revealed severe polyhydramnios, dilatation at right ventricle, and abnormal appearance of the heart. At the 31st gestational week, the baby was born with cesarean section. The newborn had right heart failure but had no hydrops fetalis. Therefore, severe respiratory distress observed in the infant has been associated with pulmonary complications. The infant, who had respiratory acidosis according to blood gas analysis, was intubated and attached to mechanical ventilator. Despite progressively increased respiratory support and other interventions, the infant died on the 3rd day of admission. Compression against bronchial tree and esophagus due to dilated pulmonary artery and its branches may inevitably lead to bronchomalacia and polyhydramnios. In conclusion, presence of polyhydramnios and the possibility of severe bronchomalacia should be kept in mind; and due to the risk of early neonatal mortality, delivery should be performed in a center where pediatric heart surgery is available.

  3. The diagnosis and molecular analysis of a novel 21.9kb deletion (Qinzhou type deletion) causing α+ thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ju; Yan, Shanhuo; Lao, Kegan; Pang, Wanrong; Ye, Xuehe; Sun, Lei

    2014-04-01

    α-Thalassemia is a common single-gene genetic disease that can cause Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb H disease in tropical and subtropical regions. When examining conventional thalassemia genes, an only detected --(SEA) genotype sample needs further analysis. In doing so, we found a novel 21.9kb deletion (Qinzhou type deletion). The deletion position of the novel 21.9kb deletion is from 14373bp to 36299bp of the α-globin gene cluster (NG_000006.1); thus, there exists a 21927bp sequence deletion, into which a 29bp sequence is added. After sequence analysis, a group of Gap-PCR primers were synthesized to diagnose this novel thalassemia genotype. Through pedigree analysis, we deduced that the propositus obtained the novel alleles from her mother. The genotype of this propositus is --(SEA)/-α(21.9) and its phenotype conforms to the characteristics of Hb H disease, establishing that the combination between -α(21.9) genotype and α(0) genotype can lead to Hb H disease. By molecular analysis, we established that this case fits the characteristic of an α(+) thalassemia genotype. © 2013.

  4. Parvovirus B19 infection presenting with severe erythroid aplastic crisis during pregnancy in a woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and alpha-thalassemia trait: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shan; Wang, Wei-Yao; Ma, Jui-Shan; Shu, Hwei-Fan; Fan, Frank S

    2015-03-12

    Parvovirus B19 virus commonly causes subclinical infection, but it can prove fatal to the fetus during pregnancy and cause severe anemia in an adult with hemolytic diseases. We present the case of a woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia who was diagnosed with parvovirus B19-induced transient aplastic crisis during her second trimester of pregnancy and faced the high risk of both fetal and maternal complications related to this specific viral infection. To the best of our knowledge, the experience of successful intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for B19 virus infection during pregnancy, as in our case, is limited. A 28-year-old and 20-week pregnant Chinese woman with genetically confirmed alpha-thalassemia trait was diagnosed with cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia and suffered from transient aplastic crisis caused by B19 virus infection. She received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment to reduce the risk of hydrops fetalis. Her peripheral blood reticulocyte percentage recovered, but anemia persisted, so she underwent several courses of high dose intravenous dexamethasone for controlling her underlying hemolytic problem. Finally, her hemoglobin levels remained stable with no need of erythrocyte transfusion, and a healthy baby boy was naturally delivered. Parvovirus B19 virus infection should be considered when a sudden exacerbation of anemia occurs in a patient with hemolytic disease, and the possible fetal complications caused by maternal B19 virus infection during pregnancy should not be ignored. Close monitoring and adequate management can keep both mother and fetus safe.

  5. The fetal MR appearance of 'nutmeg lung': findings in 8 cases linked to pulmonary lymphangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-10-15

    A pattern of abnormal signal at fetal MRI may be seen in the setting of primary or secondary congenital lymphangiectasia, manifested as a heterogeneous appearance of the lung parenchyma and the presence of subtle T2-hyperintense branching tubular structures that emanate from the hila. We have named this pattern the nutmeg lung. We describe the nutmeg lung appearance seen in fetal MRI scans, with discussion of possible etiologies and outcomes in a series of eight fetuses. We retrospectively reviewed imaging from a database of patients demonstrating features of nutmeg lung on fetal MRI. Medical records were used to determine the postnatal diagnosis, clinical course and outcome. Among the eight fetal cases of nutmeg lung, two had postnatal confirmation of primary lymphangiectasia and the remaining six had secondary lymphangiectasia, presumably secondary to congenital cardiac anomalies. There were various-size pleural effusions in all cases. Only one of the cases demonstrated hydrops fetalis. We present the description of the nutmeg lung sign on fetal MRI as T2-hyperintense heterogeneous lungs with fluid-filled, serpiginous branching structures that extend from the pulmonary hila to the periphery of the lung, often accompanied by pleural effusions. The sign denotes findings of primary or secondary lymphangiectasia. Findings of secondary lymphangiectasia in our series were a result of cardiac insufficiency. Recognizing this sign might be helpful in the diagnostic algorithm of the fetus with abnormal lung parenchyma. (orig.)

  6. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Nabae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.

  7. Is the diagnostic yield influenced by the indication for fetal autopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ratna Dua; Kotecha, Udhaya; Lall, Meena; Dash, Pratima; Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Verma, Ishwar Chander

    2016-08-01

    The utility of fetal autopsy to corroborate antenatal ultrasound findings and to aid genetic counseling is well known. However, the ability to identify an underlying cause for the common indications for which it is performed is not well studied. This study aimed to determine if the diagnostic yield of fetal autopsy in identifying the underlying cause is determined by the indication of the autopsy. Five groups of fetuses were defined based on the indication for the autopsy performed in 903 cases: (i) malformations, (ii) intrauterine death (IUD), (iii) cystic hygroma and hydrops fetalis, (iv) isolated abnormalities of amniotic fluid, and (v) intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The highest diagnostic yield was in fetuses with isolated abnormalities of amniotic fluid (77%), followed by those with IUGR (75%), with IUD (69.6%), those in group five (55.2%) and lowest (45%) in fetuses with malformations (P autopsy related its common indications, can be utilized to counsel families of the utility of autopsy to establish cause and recurrence risks and thereby assist then to make an informed decision to consent for the procedure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Persistent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) associated with passive acquisition of anti-D in maternal breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Marissa; Blaustein, John C

    2017-09-01

    Anti-D is a well-documented, significant cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), but its presence in breast milk is not routinely described. Theoretically, breast milk containing anti-D could have the potential to exacerbate HDFN if ingested by the affected infant. This is a case report of a 28-week premature male neonate with hydrops fetalis born to a 32-year-old woman (gravidity 3/parity 3) with anti-D and anti-G. The male neonate experienced prolonged HDFN due to passive acquisition of anti-D in the mother's breast milk. The mother's breast milk reacted strongly (4+) with the D-positive cells in the antibody screen test. Discontinuation of breast milk feeding and addition of total parenteral nutrition led to the cessation of clinically significant HDFN. Although anti-D is a significant cause of HDFN through placental transfer of antibody, exacerbation of the condition through breast milk antibodies is rarely described. The current case highlights the possibility of this occurring. Discontinuation of maternal breast milk feedings should be considered in infants with HDFN who do not respond to standard treatment. © 2017 AABB.

  9. Elevated second-trimester maternal serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein as indicators of adverse obstetric outcomes in fetal Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nava, Francisco; Soto, Marisol; Lanes, Roberto; Pons, Hector; Morales-Machin, Alisandra; Bracho, Ana

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of biochemical analytes to identify adverse outcomes in pregnancies with Turner syndrome. Maternal serum and amniotic fluid (AF) marker concentrations were measured in 73 singleton pregnancies with Turner syndrome (10-22 weeks of gestation). Fetal Turner syndrome was definitively established by cytogenetic analysis. Two subgroups, fetuses with hydrops fetalis versus fetuses with cystic hygroma, were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curves and relative risk were established for a cut-off multiples of the median ≥3.5 for β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or AF alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Forty-nine (67%) of 73 pregnant women had an abnormal maternal serum. While levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-subunit (fβ)-hCG were not different to those of the control group, AFP, unconjugated estriol and β-hCG concentrations were significantly different in the study group (P Turner syndrome pregnancies with the highest risk of fetal death. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  11. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  12. Fetal liver iron overload: the role of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassart, Marie; Avni, Freddy Efraim; Guibaud, Laurent; Molho, Marc; D'Haene, Nicky; Paupe, Alain

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of fetal liver iron overload. We reviewed seven cases of abnormal liver signal in fetuses referred to MR imaging in a context of suspected congenital infection (n = 2), digestive tract anomalies (n = 3) and hydrops fetalis (n = 2). The average GA of the fetuses was 31 weeks. The antenatal diagnoses were compared with histological data (n = 6) and postnatal work-up (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated unexpected abnormal fetal liver signal suggestive of iron overload in all cases. The iron overload was confirmed on postnatal biopsy (n = 2) and fetopathology (n = 4). The final diagnosis was hepatic hemosiderosis (haemolytic anaemia (n = 2) and syndromal anomalies (n = 2)) and congenital haemochromatosis (n = 3). In all cases, the liver appeared normal on US. Magnetic resonance is the only imaging technique able to demonstrate liver iron overload in utero. Yet, the study outlines the fundamental role of MR imaging in cases of congenital haemochromatosis. The antenatal diagnosis of such a condition may prompt ante - (in the case of recurrence) or neonatal treatment, which might improve the prognosis. (orig.)

  13. Fetal liver iron overload: the role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassart, Marie; Avni, Freddy Efraim [Erasme Hospital, Medical imaging, Brussels, Brabant (Belgium); Guibaud, Laurent [Hopital femme mere enfant, Imagerie Pediatrique et Foetale, Lyon-Bron (France); Molho, Marc [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Imagerie Medicale, Poissy (France); D' Haene, Nicky [Erasme Hospital, Anatomopathology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Paupe, Alain [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Pediatrie, Poissy (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of fetal liver iron overload. We reviewed seven cases of abnormal liver signal in fetuses referred to MR imaging in a context of suspected congenital infection (n = 2), digestive tract anomalies (n = 3) and hydrops fetalis (n = 2). The average GA of the fetuses was 31 weeks. The antenatal diagnoses were compared with histological data (n = 6) and postnatal work-up (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated unexpected abnormal fetal liver signal suggestive of iron overload in all cases. The iron overload was confirmed on postnatal biopsy (n = 2) and fetopathology (n = 4). The final diagnosis was hepatic hemosiderosis (haemolytic anaemia (n = 2) and syndromal anomalies (n = 2)) and congenital haemochromatosis (n = 3). In all cases, the liver appeared normal on US. Magnetic resonance is the only imaging technique able to demonstrate liver iron overload in utero. Yet, the study outlines the fundamental role of MR imaging in cases of congenital haemochromatosis. The antenatal diagnosis of such a condition may prompt ante - (in the case of recurrence) or neonatal treatment, which might improve the prognosis. (orig.)

  14. Is intrauterine exchange transfusion a safe procedure for management of fetal anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, C; Philippe, M; Vaast, P; Wibaut, B; Salleron, J; Delsalle, A; Rakza, T; Subtil, D; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2014-08-01

    To study modalities and complications of intrauterine exchange transfusion (IUET) for the management of severe fetal anaemia. Retrospective study of all IUET procedures performed between January 1999 and January 2012 at a regional centre. Characteristics of each procedure were studied to identify risk factors for complications. Survival rates according to the different aetiologies of anaemia were evaluated. In total, 225 IUET procedures were performed in 96 fetuses. Major indications were feto-maternal erythrocyte alloimmunization (n=80/96, 83.3%) and parvovirus B19 infection (n=13/96, 13.5%). Twenty-six percent of the fetuses (25/96) had hydrops fetalis before the first IUET. Intrauterine fetal death occurred after 2.7% (6/225) of procedures, premature rupture of the membranes occurred after 0.9% (2/225) of procedures, and emergency caesarean section was required after 3.6% (8/225) of procedures. Fetal bradycardia [odds ratio (OR) 37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3-170; prate in the study cohort was 87.5% (84/96): 90% (72/80) in the alloimmunization group and 76.9% (10/13) in the parvovirus-infected group (NS). IUET has a higher complication rate than simple intrauterine transfusion, and should be performed by well-trained specialists. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Generation of a parvovirus B19 vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Medina-Selby, Angelica; Coit, Doris; Schaefer, Mary; Spencer, Terika; Brito, Luis A; Zhang, Pu; Otten, Gillis; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C

    2013-08-20

    Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease in children, aplastic crisis in those with blood dyscrasias, and hydrops fetalis. Previous parvovirus B19 virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were produced by co-infection of insect cells with two baculoviruses, one expressing wild-type VP1 and the other expressing VP2. In humans, the VLPs were immunogenic but reactogenic. We have developed new VLP-based parvovirus B19 vaccine candidates, produced by co-expressing VP2 and either wild-type VP1 or phospholipase-negative VP1 in a regulated ratio from a single plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These VLPs are expressed efficiently, are very homogeneous, and can be highly purified. Although VP2 alone can form VLPs, in mouse immunizations, VP1 and the adjuvant MF59 are required to elicit a neutralizing response. Wild-type VLPs and those with phospholipase-negative VP1 are equivalently potent. The purity, homogeneity, yeast origin, and lack of phospholipase activity of these VLPs address potential causes of previously observed reactogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Thalasemic Patients in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoozad, Razieh; Mahzounieh, Mohammad Reza; Ghorani, Mohammad Reza

    2015-11-01

    Parvovirus B19, a member of the Erythrovirus genus of Parvoviridae family, causes various clinical illnesses including infectious erythema, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis or congenital anemia, and transient aplastic crises. The B19 virus can be transmitted through respiratory secretions, blood products, and blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to detect the B19 virus in thalassemia patients in Isfahan, Iran. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection was compared between thalassemia major patients and healthy subjects. Plasma samples were collected from 30 thalassemia patients from Isfahan, Iran. Thirty patients without any blood complications were considered as the control group. After DNA extraction from the plasma samples, polymerase chain reaction was performed for parvovirus B19 detection. The parvovirus B19-specific nucleotide sequence was detected in 6 patients (20%). None of the samples obtained from the 30 control subjects tested positive for B19. In this study B19-Parvovirus infection were detected in patients with hematologic disorders in comparison with control subjects. Screening of patients with a high risk of parvovirus B19 infection can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection.

  17. [The diagnostic value of anti-CMV and anti-HPV-B19 antiviral antibodies in studies on causes of recurrent abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkaradkiewicz, A; Pieta, P; Tułecka, T; Breborowicz, G; Słomko, Z; Strzyzowski, P

    1997-04-01

    Presence of serum anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) and anti-parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) antibodies was studied in 11 women within the first day after consecutive spontaneous abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy and in the control group, consisting of 15 women in the second trimester of a normal pregnancy. Most of studied women manifested presence of serum IgG class anti-CMV antibodies (IgG-anti-CMV) and levels of the antibodies proved significantly higher in women following spontaneous abortions. The patients frequently demonstrated in parallel presence of serum IgG class anti-HPV-B19 antibodies. In one patient a generalised nonimmunological hydrops fetalis was disclosed and her serum contained IgM and IgG class antibodies against CMV as well as against HPV-B19. The results suggest that in majority of the studied women the spontaneous abortion might have resulted from fetal infection due to reactivation of chronic CMV infection in the course of pregnancy.

  18. Parvovirus-B19-associated complications in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2007-10-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a common human pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum in children, hydrops fetalis in pregnant women, and transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Immunosuppressed patients can fail to mount an effective immune response to B19, resulting in prolonged or persistent viremia. Renal transplant recipients can develop symptomatic B19 infections as a result of primary infection acquired via the usual respiratory route or via the transplanted organ, or because of reactivation of latent or persistent viral infection. The most common manifestations of B19 infection in immunosuppressed patients are pure red cell aplasia and other cytopenias. Thus, this diagnosis should be considered in transplant recipients with unexplained anemia and reticulocytopenia or pancytopenia. Collapsing glomerulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy have been reported in association with B19 infection in renal transplant recipients, but a causal relationship has not been definitively established. Prompt diagnosis of B19 infection in the renal transplant recipient requires a high index of suspicion and careful selection of diagnostic tests, which include serologies and polymerase chain reaction. Most patients benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and/or alteration or reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. Conservative therapy might be sufficient in some cases.

  19. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bager Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of folic acid use in pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. We studied 243 women with pregnancies complicated by some forms of birth defect(s. These patients were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies. The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7 percent. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome, and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with the folic acid use. Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy.

  20. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dastgiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using folic acid during pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. Material and Methods : In this study, 243 pregnant women that were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies were evaluated. They were referred to Legal Medicine Organization of East Azarbaijan province to get permission for therapeutic termination of pregnancy. Results : The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7%. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79% (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94% (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with use folic acid. Conclusion : Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy for maternal and child health promotion. ​

  1. Hb Dartmouth (HBA2: c.200T>C): An α2-Globin Gene Associated with Hb H Disease in One Homozygous Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashi, Samaneh; Faramarzi Garous, Negin; Ashki, Mehri; Vakili, Shadi; Zeinali, Fatemah; Imanian, Hashem; Azarkeivan, Azita; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Hb H (β4) disease is caused by deletion or inactivation of three out of four α-globin genes. A high incidence of Hb H disease has been reported all over the world. There is a wide spectrum of phenotypic presentations, from clinically asymptomatic to having significant hepatosplenomegaly and requiring occasional or even regular blood transfusions, even more severe anemia, Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis syndrome that can cause death in the affected fetuses late in gestation. We here present a case who was diagnosed with Hb H disease that represents a new genotype for this hereditary disorder. Hb Dartmouth is a variant caused by a missense mutation at codon 66 of the α2-globin gene (HBA2: c.200T>C), resulting in the substitution of leucine by proline. We here emphasize the importance of this point mutation involving Hb H disease and also the necessity for prenatal diagnosis (PND) for those who carry this point mutation in the heterozygous state.

  2. Co-inheritance of α0 -thalassemia elevates Hb A2 level in homozygous Hb E: Diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K; Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Fucharoen, S

    2017-10-01

    Differentiation of homozygous hemoglobin (Hb) E with and without α 0 -thalassemia is subtle on routine hematological ground. We examined in a large cohort of homozygous Hb E if the level of Hb A 2 is helpful. A total of 592 subjects with homozygous Hb E were recruited from ongoing thalassemia screening program. Additionally, five couples at risk of having fetuses with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis who were homozygous Hb E were also investigated. Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis system. Globin genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Subjects were classified into four groups including pure homozygous Hb E (n=532), homozygous Hb E/α 0 -thalassemia (n=48), Hb Constant Spring EE Bart's disease (n=8), and Hb EE Bart's disease (n=4). The levels of Hb A 2 were found, respectively, to be 4.97±0.69, 6.64±1.02, 4.86±0.87, and 7.60±1.04%. Among five couples at risk, α 0 -thalassemia was identified in three subjects with Hb A 2 >6.0%. Increased Hb A 2 level is a useful marker for differentiation of homozygous Hb E with and without α 0 -thalassemia. This should lead to a significant reduction in number of referral cases of homozygous Hb E for molecular testing of α 0 -thalassemia in routine practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campisi Corradino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL is a rare developmental disorder involving the lung, and characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation. The prevalence is unknown. PL presents at birth with severe respiratory distress, tachypnea and cyanosis, with a very high mortality rate at or within a few hours of birth. Most reported cases are sporadic and the etiology is not completely understood. It has been suggested that PL lymphatic channels of the fetal lung do not undergo the normal regression process at 20 weeks of gestation. Secondary PL may be caused by a cardiac lesion. The diagnostic approach includes complete family and obstetric history, conventional radiologic studies, ultrasound and magnetic resonance studies, lymphoscintigraphy, lung functionality tests, lung biopsy, bronchoscopy, and pleural effusion examination. During the prenatal period, all causes leading to hydrops fetalis should be considered in the diagnosis of PL. Fetal ultrasound evaluation plays a key role in the antenatal diagnosis of PL. At birth, mechanical ventilation and pleural drainage are nearly always necessary to obtain a favorable outcome of respiratory distress. Home supplemental oxygen therapy and symptomatic treatment of recurrent cough and wheeze are often necessary during childhood, sometimes associated with prolonged pleural drainage. Recent advances in intensive neonatal care have changed the previously nearly fatal outcome of PL at birth. Patients affected by PL who survive infancy, present medical problems which are characteristic of chronic lung disease.

  4. Identification of chosen apoptotic (TIAR and TIA-1) markers expression in thyroid tissues from adolescents with immune and non-immune thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossowski, A.; Czarnocka, B.; Lyczkowska, A.; Bardadin, K.; Czerwinska, J.; Moniuszko, A.; Dadan, J.; Bossowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expression in thyrocytes from patients with GD and no-toxic multi nodular goitre (NTMG) in relationship with apoptotic (TIAR and TIA-1) markers. The investigation was performed on thyroid cells isolated from post operation thyroid tissues from 15 patients aged 12-21 years old with GD and 15 cases aged 13-21 years old with NTMG. Detection of NIS and TPO was performed by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of apoptotic markers in thyroid tissues was performed using antibodies to TIAR and TIA-1 by Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. Identification of pro apoptotic TIAR and TIA-1 molecules in the thyroid tissues revealed a higher expression of both proteins in patients with Graves' disease (+++; +, respectively) in comparison to patients with NTNG (+; 0). In addition, TIAR expression was detected in three bands [p50, p42, p38 (kDa)] and TIA-1 in two bands [p22, p17 (kDa)]. using Western Blot test in patients with thyroid autoimmune diseases. In patients with NTNG expression of both apoptotic proteins was lower and identified in single bands: 42 (kDa) for TIAR and 17 (kDa) for TIA-1. The analysis of expression of NIS and TPO in thyroid follicular cells was higher in patients with Graves' disease in compared to their detection in patients with NTMG. In addition, degree of thyroid antigen expression positive correlated with amount of pro apoptotic markers (TIAR, p<0.001; TIA-1, p<0.025 for NIS; TIAR, p<0.012 for TPO). We conclude that elevated expression of NIS and TPO in Graves' disease is associated with higher stimulation and activation of apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells during autoimmune process. (authors)

  5. TU-CD-303-03: Localized Radiation Can Induce Systemic Anti-Cancer Immune and Non-Immune Responses and How We Might Utilize It

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. [National Institutes of Health (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage. However, new insights have elucidated that in addition to causing cellular DNA damage, localized therapeutic radiation also initiates cascades of complex downstream biological responses in tissue that extend far beyond where therapeutic radiation dose is directly deposited. For instance, studies show that irradiated dying tumor cells release tumor antigens that can lead the immune system to a systemic anti-cancer attack throughout the body of cancer patient; targeted irradiation to solid tumor also increases the migration of tumor cells already in bloodstream, the seeds of potential metastasis. Some of the new insights may explain the long ago discovered but still unexplained non-localized radiation effects (bystander effect and abscopal effect) and the efficacy of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy) where many “hot” and “cold” spots are intentionally created throughout the treatment volume. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind the non-localized radiation effects creates tremendous opportunities to develop new and integrated cancer treatment strategies that are based on radiotherapy, immunology, and chemotherapy. However, in the multidisciplinary effort to advance new radiobiology, there are also tremendous challenges including a lack of multidisciplinary researchers and imaging technologies for the microscopic radiation-induced responses. A better grasp of the essence of these advances in cancer biology research will give medical physicists a new perspective in daily clinical physics practice and in future radiation therapy technological development. Furthermore, academic medical physics should continue to be an integral part of the multidisciplinary cancer research community, harnessing our newly acquired understanding of radiation effects, and developing novel cost-effective treatment strategies to better combat cancer. Learning Objectives: Understand that localized radiation can lead to non-localized secondary effects such as radiation-induced immune response, bystander effect, and abscopal effect. Understand that the non-localized radiation effects may be harnessed to improve cancer treatment. Learn examples of physics participation in multidisciplinary research to advance cancer biology. Recognize the challenges and possibilities of physics applications in cancer research. Chang: NIH 5RC2CA148487-02 and 1U54CA151652-01 Graves: IDEA award (19IB-0106) from the California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP), and by NIH P01 CA67166.

  6. TU-CD-303-03: Localized Radiation Can Induce Systemic Anti-Cancer Immune and Non-Immune Responses and How We Might Utilize It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage. However, new insights have elucidated that in addition to causing cellular DNA damage, localized therapeutic radiation also initiates cascades of complex downstream biological responses in tissue that extend far beyond where therapeutic radiation dose is directly deposited. For instance, studies show that irradiated dying tumor cells release tumor antigens that can lead the immune system to a systemic anti-cancer attack throughout the body of cancer patient; targeted irradiation to solid tumor also increases the migration of tumor cells already in bloodstream, the seeds of potential metastasis. Some of the new insights may explain the long ago discovered but still unexplained non-localized radiation effects (bystander effect and abscopal effect) and the efficacy of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy) where many “hot” and “cold” spots are intentionally created throughout the treatment volume. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind the non-localized radiation effects creates tremendous opportunities to develop new and integrated cancer treatment strategies that are based on radiotherapy, immunology, and chemotherapy. However, in the multidisciplinary effort to advance new radiobiology, there are also tremendous challenges including a lack of multidisciplinary researchers and imaging technologies for the microscopic radiation-induced responses. A better grasp of the essence of these advances in cancer biology research will give medical physicists a new perspective in daily clinical physics practice and in future radiation therapy technological development. Furthermore, academic medical physics should continue to be an integral part of the multidisciplinary cancer research community, harnessing our newly acquired understanding of radiation effects, and developing novel cost-effective treatment strategies to better combat cancer. Learning Objectives: Understand that localized radiation can lead to non-localized secondary effects such as radiation-induced immune response, bystander effect, and abscopal effect. Understand that the non-localized radiation effects may be harnessed to improve cancer treatment. Learn examples of physics participation in multidisciplinary research to advance cancer biology. Recognize the challenges and possibilities of physics applications in cancer research. Chang: NIH 5RC2CA148487-02 and 1U54CA151652-01 Graves: IDEA award (19IB-0106) from the California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP), and by NIH P01 CA67166

  7. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  8. Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by irregular blood subgroup (Kell, C, c, E, and e) incompatibilities: report of 106 cases at a tertiary-care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagol, Belma Saygili; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Okumus, Nurullah; Karadag, Nilgun; Dursun, Arzu; Hakan, Nilay

    2012-06-01

    To determine the clinical spectrum of hemolytic disease due to irregular blood subgroup incompatibility in hospitalized neonates. The medical records of the all hospitalized newborn patients diagnosed with indirect hyperbilirubinemia due to subgroup incompatibility in Kell, C, c, E, and e systems were included in the study. Data from 106 newborns with hemolytic jaundice due to irregular blood subgroups were retrospectively evaluated, and clinical and laboratory findings were compared between patients . The treatment modalities given to the patients of each subgroup types and the laboratory findings and treatment modalities of the cases according to Coombs tests results were also analyzed. Fetal affection of the hemolysis and also fetal losses due to irregular red-cell alloimmunization were not detected in prenatal course, as there was no follow-up of these pregnancies. The mean postnatal hospitalizing age was 6.1 ± 5.2 days after birth. The mean total bilirubin level and the mean hemoglobin value on hospitalization were 343.7 ± 63.3 µmol/L (=20.1 ± 3.7 mg/dL) and 14.9 ± 3.4 g/dL, respectively. Of 106 patients identified with irregular subgroup incompatibility, 40 infants (37.7%) were associated with C, 22 (20.8%) with c, 30 (28.3%) with E, 9 (8.5%) with e, and 5 (4.7%) with Kell subgroup system. Positive Coombs tests (either direct and/or indirect) occurred in 28.3% of the study cases. Hydrops fetalis was determined in 5 of 106 neonates (4.7%). Twenty-two of 106 (20.8%) patients required total exchange transfusion. Positive Coombs test in cases required total exchange transfusion was 63.6%. Our data expose the magnitude and spectrum of the potential developing severe hemolytic disease and immune hydrops due to irregular subgroup incompatibility. Minor group antibody screening is recommended both in the mother and the high-risk infants with hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh

  9. [Clinical study of 12 cases with obstetric mirror syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-lin; Wang, Chen-hong; Li, Zhi-quan

    2012-03-01

    To discuss the clinical features, management, pregnancy outcome and prognosis of obstetric mirror syndrome. The clinical data of 12 cases with obstetric mirror syndrome at Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital from April 2008 to December 2010 were collected to retrospectively analyze the clinical features, management, pregnancy outcome and prognosis. (1) ETIOLOGY: 12 cases with obstetric mirror syndrome included 9 cases of Bart's hydrops fetalis, 2 cases with fetal complicated congenital cardiac anomalies, and 1 case of unknown etiology. (2) Gestational age at diagnosis and at delivery: gestational age at diagnosis ranged from 28 to 36 weeks [mean (31.5 ± 4.7) weeks], and gestational age at delivery ranged from 28(+3) to 38 weeks [mean (32.9 ± 2.9) weeks]. There were no significant differences between the gestational age at diagnosis and at delivery in consistence with severe preeclampsia group and mild preeclampsia group [(31.8 ± 2.3) weeks vs. (30.9 ± 7.2) weeks, (32.5 ± 2.3) weeks vs. (33.5 ± 3.9) weeks, P > 0.05]. (3) The patients with obstetric mirror syndrome can present a preeclampsia-like syndrome: maternal extremity edema in 12 cases, headache and visual disturbance in 1 case, proteinuria in 11 cases, elevated blood pressure in 5 cases, elevated uric acid in 9 cases, hypoproteinemia in 12 cases, elevated creatinine in 3 case, elevated liver enzyme in 1 case, thrombocytopenia in 2 cases. The major complications included 1 case of HELLP syndrome, acute pulmonary edema, placental abruption, amnionic fluid embolism, DIC respectively, 3 cases of acute kidney failure and 6 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. (4) Sonographic findings: 1) Hydrops fetalis: fetal ultrasound revealed pleural fluid, fetal ascites, skin edema, scalp edema, encephalocolele enlargement, hydropericardium and increased cardio-chest ratio. 2) Placenta megaly: the placental pathological examination revealed edematous and large in 12 cases. Placental thickness was beyond 4 cm in

  10. [Supraventricular tachycardia in utero. Apropos of a personal case, review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, P; Delarue, T; Souplet, J P; Foissey, A; Oudry, B; Lefrançois, C

    1983-01-01

    After describing a case of early hydrops fetalis in a fetus demonstrating supraventricular tachycardia (TSVF) the authors review the literature: First they note the increase in the number of cases of TSVF published in the last few years, thanks to better means of monitoring pregnancies and to the place taken by TSVF among the different other troubles of fetal heart rhythm than can occur. The second section enumerates and analyses the pathological associations and the complications that have been observed in cases of TSVF that have been indexed. All have a poor prognosis: as far as those cases where there are faults in the rhythm which are associated with or alternate with TSVF, congestive heart failure occurs in 50% of cases, and organic heart pathological conditions in 20% of cases. 19.1% die. The third section analyses the means available for diagnosis and prognosis and the value of these means. Diagnosis rests on screening by clinical observation (careful auscultation in every pregnancy, observation of the raised height of the uterine fundus and a lessening in active fetal movements) and by monitoring. Only the ECG can confirm the diagnosis. Congestive heart failure is diagnosed by using ultrasound. A cardiac malformation should be searched for thoroughly by ultrasound. Monitoring in labour has no use as a prognostic indicator. Only repeated measurements of pH can demonstrate fetal distress in labour. The last section is concerned with management: digitalisation is strongly to be recommended before the fetus is mature. Propranolol should be reserved for resistant and severe cases: when there is no congestive heart failure a wait and see policy under strict observation can be followed. If there is congestive heart failure, caesarean section must be carried out. After delivery resuscitation with vagal stimulation is often sufficient, but when it is not digitalisation can be used and very rarely electric cardioversion is needed. Relapses are frequent and treatment

  11. Diagnosis of common hemoglobinopathies among South East Asian population using capillary isoelectric focusing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S

    2017-02-01

    We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Successful management of severe hemolytic disease of the fetus due to anti-Jsb using intrauterine transfusions with serial maternal blood donations: a case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Riyami, Arwa Z; Al Salmani, Moza; Al Hashami, Sabria; Al Mahrooqi, Sabah; Al Hinai, Sumaiya; Al Balushi, Halima; Al Riyami, Nihal; Gowri, V; Al Dughaishi, Tamima; Al Hosni, Saif; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Al Huneini, Mohammed; Alkindi, Salam

    2014-01-01

    The management of pregnant women with anti-Jsb is challenging due to the paucity of antigen-negative blood for fetal and neonatal transfusion. A 29-year-old woman with anti-Jsb was referred for assessment of recurrent fetal losses. With the presence of the sister as a historically matched donor, she was planned for active surveillance for fetal anemia during pregnancy. The fetus remained well until 21 weeks of gestation when signs of fetal anemia and early hydrops fetalis were noted. Anti-Jsb titer was at 128. The sister's red blood cells (RBCs) were cross-match incompatible. Urgent intrauterine transfusion (IUT) was performed with washed irradiated maternal RBCs, donated after cessation of heparin. The mother was given intravenous iron (IV-Fe) and continued on weekly recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-EPO). Repeated IUTs were needed every 1 to 3 weeks. Throughout a 7-week period, three maternal donations were performed with total donated whole blood volume of 1250 mL, supporting four IUTs. At 29 weeks of gestation, the procedure was complicated by umbilical cord hematoma necessitating urgent cesarean section. A male newborn was delivered, transfused at birth, and subsequently treated with phototherapy and five top-up transfusions. This case represents a successful example of managing hemolytic disease of the fetus due to a rare antibody using maternal blood. It also supports previous data on safety of maternal donations during pregnancy and the use of combination of rHu-EPO and IV-Fe as a supportive measure. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Can postmortem fetal MR imaging replace autopsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Kim, Seoung Hyup

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare postmortem fetal MRI findings with autopsy findings and to assess whether postmortem MRI can replace autopsy. The study group consisted of 13 stillborn fetuses, seven that died immediately after birth, and five terminated because of anomalies seen on prenatal sonograms. A total 17 were male, and eight were female, and their gestational ages were from 20 to 41 (average;28.2) weeks. Spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted axial, sagittal, and coronal MR images were obtained, and autopsy findings were divided into major and minor. A major finding was defined as an anomaly or syndrome which caused fetal death or termination of the pregnancy: minor findings were classified, on the basis of gross inspection, as internal or external. MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists unaware of the autopsy findings, and by comparison with these, the postmortem MRI detection rates for major and minor findings was then determined. In seven of 25 fetuses, MR imaging revealed major findings, a dietction rate of 100%. There were two cases of anencephaly, two of trisomy-18, and one each of hydrops fetalis with large cystic hygroma, diaphragmatic hernia, and Dandy-Walker malformation. Twenty-three of 60 minor findings (38.3%) were detected by MRI. The detection rates for external and internal findings were 29.6%(8/27) and 45.5%(15/33), respectively. Although a limitation of our study is the low detection rate for minor findings, postmortem fetal MRI may help diagnose the major cause of fetal death

  14. [Clinical and biological manifestations in primary parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompetent adult: a retrospective study of 26 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, D; Mekki, Y; Durieu, I; Broussolle, C; Sève, P

    2014-05-01

    Parvovirus B19 causes erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic anemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies, pur red cell aplasia in immunocompromised persons and hydrops fetalis in pregnancy. The spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations in immunocompetent adult continues to grow up. We report on a case series of 26 patients with primary parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompetent adults. This is a retrospective study over the period 2000 to 2010 in two departments of internal medecine. The diagnostic was clinical, serological or molecular. There was a female predominance (sex-ratio 3.33/1). Median patient age at diagnostic was 38.8 years (range: 18-68). The predominant symptoms were fever (65%), peripheral and symmetrical polyarthralgia (62%) and skin rash (58%). Two patients had neurological manifestations (sixth cranial nerve palsy, distal paresthesia) and one patient had myocarditis. Abnormal laboratory values included increased acute phase reactants (73%), thrombocytopenia (43%), lymphopenia (38%) and elevated liver enzymes (37%). Antinuclear (19%), anti-DNA (28%) and anti-phospholipids antibodies (14%), and hypocomplementemia (32%) were observed. False reaction with anti-CMV and anti-EBV IgM positivity was documented in 27% of cases. Two patients had persistent parvovirus B19 infection. The diversity of the clinical manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection may be misleading for the clinician. However, the diagnosis should be suspected in immunocompetent adults to limit the risk of transmission to the patients who could develop a severe infection such as pregnant women or immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 and parvovirus V9 DNA and antibodies in paired bone marrow and serum samples from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heegaard, Erik D; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Heilmann, Carsten J; Hornsleth, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Parvovirus B19 (hereafter referred to as B19) exhibits a marked tropism to human bone marrow (BM), and infection may lead to erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis, and various hematologic disorders. Recently, a distinct parvovirus isolate termed V9 with an unknown clinical spectrum was discovered. In contrast to the many studies of B19 serology and viremia, valid information on the frequency of B19 or V9 DNA in the BM of healthy individuals is limited. To develop a reference value, paired BM and serum samples from healthy subjects were tested for the presence of B19 and V9 DNA and specific antibodies. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was not found in any of the serum samples. The prevalence of IgG showed a gradual and steady increase from 37% in children aged 1 to 5 years to 87% in people aged >50 years. When 190 well-characterized subjects were examined, B19 DNA was detected in the BM of 4 individuals (2.1%; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 5.3%) while none of the paired serum samples showed evidence of circulating viral DNA. V9 DNA was not found in any of the BM or serum samples. The finding of B19 DNA probably indicated a primary infection in one 7-year-old individual and reinfection or reactivation of persistent infection in the remaining three persons, aged 47 to 58 years. Serving as a benchmark for future studies, these findings are useful when interpreting epidemiologic data, performing BM transplantation, or considering clinical implications of parvovirus infection.

  16. Risk Factors and Outcome Associated with Polyhydramnios in Sudanese Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, O I [Postgraduate Medical Studies Board, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2002-10-01

    This is a prospective descriptive study to find out the associated risk factors and the outcome in cases of polyhydramnios. It was carried out in the period from 1/4/2001 to 1/6/2002 in Soba University hospital. Objectives: To detect the associated risk factors, the role of ultrasound in the antenatal diagnosis and fetal out in cases of polyhydramnios. Setting: Soba University Hospital. Subject: 100 patients of confirmed polyhydramnios who had been followed in the fetomaternal unit in Soba University Hospital from 1/4/2001 to 1/6/2002. Results: Polyhydramnios increased with advanced age, (42%) of the patients were grandmultiparae. Twenty percent of them had bad obstetrical history. Most of the patients(78%) were diagnosed after the gestational age of 28 weeks. Seventy nine percent o the patients had mild polyhydramnios, (15%) had moderate polyhydramnios and (6%) of the cases polyhydramnios were severe. Thirty nine percent of the patients had associated risk factors in the current pregnancy. these risk factors were as follows:- diabetes in (16%), Rhesus iso- immunization complicated with hydrops fetalis in (4%), congenital malformation in (15%) and 4% ha multiple pregnancy. Sixty five percent of the cases had no complication and did not need any treatment, those with complications were managed by different methods such as control of diabetes, Amnioreduction and Indomethacin therapy. Thirty eight percent of the patients delivered preterm, (44%) delivered by caesarean section, most of them were emergency caesarean section. Twenty five percent of the neoborns more than 4 Kg. Fifteen percent of them had apparent congenital malformation, 43% of the them needed different types of special management. Perinatal mortality was found to be (19.2%). (Author)

  17. Duplication of 20p12.3 associated with familial Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kimberly I; Anderson, Jacqueline; Levy, Philip T; Cole, F Sessions; Silva, Jennifer N A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2013-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is caused by preexcitation of the ventricular myocardium via an accessory pathway which increases the risk for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The condition is often sporadic and of unknown etiology in the majority of cases. Autosomal dominant inheritance and association with congenital heart defects or ventricular hypertrophy were described. Microdeletions of 20p12.3 have been associated with WPW syndrome with either cognitive dysfunction or Alagille syndrome. Here, we describe the association of 20p12.3 duplication with WPW syndrome in a patient who presented with non-immune hydrops. Her paternal uncle carries the duplication and has attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and electrocardiographic findings consistent with WPW. The 769 kb duplication was detected by the Affymetrix Whole Genome-Human SNP Array 6.0 and encompasses two genes and the first two exons of a third gene. We discuss the potential role of the genes in the duplicated region in the pathogenesis of WPW and possible neurobehavioral abnormalities. Our data provide additional support for a significant role of 20p12.3 chromosomal rearrangements in the etiology of WPW syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Activity patterns in malformed fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F; Barr, M

    1982-04-15

    Knowledge of a malformed fetus before the onset of labor would assist the physician in preparing the expectant parents, managing the timing and method of delivery, and preparing for the immediate care of a salvageable infant. This 3-year prospective investigation compared the activity patterns of fetuses who were later found to have major malformation with those of fetuses who had no apparent defects. Fetal motion over prolonged periods was determined by daily charting of fetal movement by the mother. Although not a reliable predictor for all malformations, evidence of fetal inactivity was found to be more common (p less than 0.0001) among fetuses with anomalies (16 of 58 cases, 28%) than among those with no defects (39 of 1,098 cases, 4%). All malformations associated with fetal inactivity were strongly suspected ultrasonographically and included hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, nonimmune hydrops, bilateral renal agenesis, and bilateral dislocation of the hips. Documentation of fetal inactivity is helpful in recognizing certain major malformations and constitutes grounds for more detailed study by ultrasonography.

  19. Immunoreactive proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 identified by gnotobiotic mono-colonized mice sera, immune rabbit sera and nonimmune human sera.

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    Sabina Górska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372.

  20. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górska, S.; Dylus, E.; Rudawska, A.; Brzozowska, E.; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, A.; Kozáková, Hana; Gamian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, SEP 29 (2016), s. 1537 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16PL006 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacterium * probiotics * moonlighting proteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  1. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK ( B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372).

  2. Hemoglobinopathy: molecular epidemiological characteristics and health effects on Hakka people in the Meizhou region, southern China.

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    Min Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited diseases in southern China. However, there have been only a few epidemiological studies of hemoglobinopathies in Guangdong province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 15299 "healthy" unrelated subjects of dominantly ethnic Hakka in the Meizhou region, on which hemoglobin electrophoresis and routine blood tests were performed. Suspected cases with hemoglobin variants and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH were further characterized by PCR, DNA sequencing, reverse dot blot (RDB or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. In addition, 1743 samples were randomly selected from the 15299 subjects for thalassemia screening, and suspected thalassemia carriers were identified by PCR and RDB. RESULTS: The gene frequency of hemoglobin variants was 0.477% (73/15299. The five main subgroups of the ten hemoglobin variants were Hb E, Hb G-Chinese, Hb Q-Tahiland, Hb New York and Hb J-Bangkok. 277 cases (15.89%, 277/1743 of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCV<82 fl were found by thalassemia screening, and were tested by a RDB gene chip to reveal a total of 196 mutant chromosomes: including 124 α-thalassemia mutant chromosomes and 72 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. These results give a heterozygote frequency of 11.24% for common α and β thalassemia in the Hakka population in the Meizhou region. 3 cases of HPFH/δβ-thalassemia were found, including 2 cases of Vietnamese HPFH (FPFH-7 and a rare Belgian( Gγ((Aγδβ⁰-thalassemia identified in Chinese. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in Hakka people of the Meizhou region. The estimated numbers of pregnancies each year in the Meizhou region, in which the fetus would be at risk for β thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart's hydrops fetalis, and Hb H disease, are 25 (95% CI, 15 to 38, 40 (95% CI

  3. Hemoglobinopathy: Molecular Epidemiological Characteristics and Health Effects on Hakka People in the Meizhou Region, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Wen, Ying-Fang; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Gui-Rong; Huang, Yue; Yang, Hui; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Lin, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hui-Tian; Weng, Qiu-Qing; Huang, Fen-Ting; Wang, Yuan; Yao, Mei-Qiong; Chen, Hui-Zhou; Wu, Di-Hong; Zeng, Jing-Bo; Zeng, Ri-Xin; Yang, Hua; Li, Gui-Cai; Lu, Min; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Xie, Long-Xu; Wang, Jun-Li; Yang, Li-Ye

    2013-01-01

    Background Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited diseases in southern China. However, there have been only a few epidemiological studies of hemoglobinopathies in Guangdong province. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 15299 “healthy” unrelated subjects of dominantly ethnic Hakka in the Meizhou region, on which hemoglobin electrophoresis and routine blood tests were performed. Suspected cases with hemoglobin variants and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) were further characterized by PCR, DNA sequencing, reverse dot blot (RDB) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In addition, 1743 samples were randomly selected from the 15299 subjects for thalassemia screening, and suspected thalassemia carriers were identified by PCR and RDB. Results The gene frequency of hemoglobin variants was 0.477% (73/15299). The five main subgroups of the ten hemoglobin variants were Hb E, Hb G-Chinese, Hb Q-Tahiland, Hb New York and Hb J-Bangkok. 277 cases (15.89%, 277/1743) of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCVthalassemia screening, and were tested by a RDB gene chip to reveal a total of 196 mutant chromosomes: including 124 α-thalassemia mutant chromosomes and 72 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. These results give a heterozygote frequency of 11.24% for common α and β thalassemia in the Hakka population in the Meizhou region. 3 cases of HPFH/δβ-thalassemia were found, including 2 cases of Vietnamese HPFH (FPFH-7) and a rare Belgian Gγ(Aγδβ)0–thalassemia identified in Chinese. Conclusions Our results provide a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in Hakka people of the Meizhou region. The estimated numbers of pregnancies each year in the Meizhou region, in which the fetus would be at risk for β thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart’s hydrops fetalis, and Hb H disease, are 25 (95% CI, 15 to 38), 40 (95% CI, 26 to 57), and 15 (95% CI, 8 to

  4. Neonatal Outcomes of Rh-Negative Pregnancies in a Tertiary Level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Study

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    Chacham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Rhesus incompatibility is a preventable cause for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, hydrops fetalis and still births. The prevalence of the Rh-negative blood group among Indian woman varies from 2% - 10%. Despite declining the incidence of Rhesus incompatibility, due to availability of anti-D immunoglobulin, and improved antenatal care of the Rh-negative pregnant woman, it still accounts for a significant proportion of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and neuro-morbidity. The prevalence of Rh-negative women having Rh-positive neonates is 60%. Objectives This study aimed to estimate the incidence of Rh iso-immunization and evaluate the outcomes of Rh iso-immunized neonates. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit, Princess Esra hospital, Deccan college of medical sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Consecutive intramural and extramural neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit with the Rh-negative mother’s blood group and hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled. Neonates born to Rh+ve mothers were excluded. Neonatal gestational age, birth weight, age at admission, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, neonatal examination and investigations were recorded in a predesigned, pretested performa. Results A total of 90 neonates were born to Rh-negative mothers, of which 70% (63 had the Rh-positive blood group and 30% had the Rh-negative blood group. Of these 63 neonates, 48 (76.2% had hyperbilirubinemia and 43 neonates (68.3% had significant hyperbilirubinemia (total serum bilirubin > 15mg/dL. Among them, 2%, 75% and 23% were born to primi, multi and grandmutli, respectively. Also, 14.5% of the neonates were large for dates (LFD, 75% appropriate for dates (AFD and 10.5% were small for dates (SFD. Premature and SFD neonates had higher incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. Significantly higher incidence of jaundice occurred within 72 hours of life. The mean

  5. Syphilis during pregnancy: a preventable threat to maternal-fetal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Martha W F; Revell, Paula A; Eppes, Catherine S

    2017-04-01

    Syphilis remains the most common congenital infection worldwide and has tremendous consequences for the mother and her developing fetus if left untreated. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of congenital syphilis cases in the United States. Thus, recognition and appropriate treatment of reproductive-age women must be a priority. Testing should be performed at initiation of prenatal care and twice during the third trimester in high-risk patients. There are 2 diagnostic algorithms available and physicians should be aware of which algorithm is utilized by their testing laboratory. Women testing positive for syphilis should undergo a history and physical exam as well as testing for other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Serofast syphilis can occur in patients with previous adequate treatment but persistent low nontreponemal titers (Syphilis can infect the fetus in all stages of the disease regardless of trimester and can sometimes be detected with ultrasound >20 weeks. The most common findings include hepatomegaly and placentomegaly, but also elevated peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery (indicative of fetal anemia), ascites, and hydrops fetalis. Pregnancies with ultrasound abnormalities are at higher risk of compromise during syphilotherapy as well as fetal treatment failure. Thus, we recommend a pretreatment ultrasound in viable pregnancies when feasible. The only recommended treatment during pregnancy is benzathine penicillin G and it should be administered according to maternal stage of infection per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Women with a penicillin allergy should be desensitized and then treated with penicillin appropriate for their stage of syphilis. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurs in up to 44% of gravidas and can cause contractions, fetal heart rate abnormalities, and even stillbirth in the most severely affected pregnancies. We recommend all viable pregnancies receive the first

  6. Parvovirus B19: What Is the Relevance in Transfusion Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, David; Hennig, Holger

    2018-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been discovered in 1975. The association with a disease was unclear in the first time after the discovery of B19V, but meanwhile, the usually droplet transmitted B19V is known as the infectious agent of the “fifth disease,” a rather harmless children’s illness. But B19V infects erythrocyte progenitor cells and thus, acute B19V infection in patients with a high erythrocyte turnover may lead to a life-threatening aplastic crisis, and acutely infected pregnant women can transmit B19V to their unborn child, resulting in a hydrops fetalis and fetal death. However, in many adults, B19V infection goes unnoticed and thus many blood donors donate blood despite the infection. The B19V infection does not impair the blood cell counts in healthy blood donors, but after the acute infection with extremely high DNA concentrations exceeding 1010 IU B19V DNA/ml plasma is resolved, B19V DNA persists in the plasma of blood donors at low levels for several years. That way, many consecutive donations that contain B19V DNA can be taken from a single donor, but the majority of blood products from donors with detectable B19V DNA seem not to be infectious for the recipients from several reasons: first, many recipients had undergone a B19V infection in the past and have formed protective antibodies. Second, B19V DNA concentration in the blood product is often too low to infect the recipient. Third, after the acute infection, the presence of B19V DNA in the donor is accompanied by presumably neutralizing antibodies which are protective also for the recipient of his blood products. Thus, transfusion-transmitted (TT-) B19V infections are very rarely reported. Moreover, in most blood donors, B19V DNA concentration is below 1,000 IU/ml plasma, and no TT-B19V infections have been found by such low-viremic donations. Cutoff for an assay for B19V DNA blood donor screening should, therefore, be approximately 1,000 IU/ml plasma, if a general screening of blood

  7. Human Parvovirus B19 Induced Apoptotic Bodies Contain Altered Self-Antigens that are Phagocytosed by Antigen Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasri, Kanoktip; Rauhamäki, Sanna; Wang, Liping; Filippou, Artemis; Kivovich, Violetta; Marjomäki, Varpu; Naides, Stanley J.; Gilbert, Leona

    2013-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) from the erythrovirus genus is known to be a pathogenic virus in humans. Prevalence of B19V infection has been reported worldwide in all seasons, with a high incidence in the spring. B19V is responsible for erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) commonly seen in children. Its other clinical presentations include arthralgia, arthritis, transient aplastic crisis, chronic anemia, congenital anemia, and hydrops fetalis. In addition, B19V infection has been reported to trigger autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanisms of B19V participation in autoimmunity are not fully understood. B19V induced chronic disease and persistent infection suggests B19V can serve as a model for viral host interactions and the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we investigate the involvement of B19V in the breakdown of immune tolerance. Previously, we demonstrated that the non-structural protein 1 (NS 1) of B19V induces apoptosis in non-permissive cells lines and that this protein can cleave host DNA as well as form NS1-DNA adducts. Here we provide evidence that through programmed cell death, apoptotic bodies (ApoBods) are generated by B19V NS1 expression in a non-permissive cell line. Characterization of purified ApoBods identified potential self-antigens within them. In particular, signature self-antigens such as Smith, ApoH, DNA, histone H4 and phosphatidylserine associated with autoimmunity were present in these ApoBods. In addition, when purified ApoBods were introduced to differentiated macrophages, recognition, engulfment and uptake occurred. This suggests that B19V can produce a source of self-antigens for immune cell processing. The results support our hypothesis that B19V NS1-DNA adducts, and nucleosomal and lysosomal antigens present in ApoBods created in non-permissive cell lines, are a source of self-antigens. PMID:23776709

  8. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis) Kidney disease, with increased production of a hormone called erythropoietin ...

  9. Rational management of acute keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. B. Slonimskiy; A. Yu. Slonimskiy; E. A. Korchuganova

    2015-01-01

    Acute keratoconus is a common and severe complication of advanced progressive keratoconus that occurs in more than 30 % of cases. Acute corneal edema in advanced progressive keratectasia is reffered to as acute corneal hydrops (hydrops corneae). It has been also reported in other ectatic disorders such as pellucid marginal degeneration. The most common misdiagnosis in hydrops is HSV disciform keratitis or acute bacterial keratitis. 126 corneal hydrops patients (79 men, 47 women) aged 16‑63 (1...

  10. Birth order, gestational age, and risk of delivery related perinatal death in twins: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S; Pell, Jill P; Dobbie, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine whether twins born second are at increased risk of perinatal death because of complications during labour and delivery. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Scotland, 1992 and 1997. Participants All twin births at or after 24 weeks' gestation, excluding twin pairs in which either twin died before labour or delivery or died during or after labour and delivery because of congenital abnormality, non-immune hydrops, or twin to twin transfusion syndrome. Main outcome measure Delivery related perinatal deaths (deaths during labour or the neonatal period). Results Overall, delivery related perinatal deaths were recorded for 23 first twins only and 23 second twins only of 1438 twin pairs born before 36 weeks (preterm) by means other than planned caesarean section (P>0.99). No deaths of first twins and nine deaths of second twins (P=0.004) were recorded among the 2436 twin pairs born at or after 36 weeks (term). Discordance between first and second twins differed significantly in preterm and term births (P=0.007). Seven of nine deaths of second twins at term were due to anoxia during the birth (2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 5.9) per 1000); five of these deaths were associated with mechanical problems with the second delivery following vaginal delivery of the first twin. No deaths were recorded among 454 second twins delivered at term by planned caesarean section. Conclusions Second twins born at term are at higher risk than first twins of death due to complications of delivery. Previous studies may not have shown an increased risk because of inadequate categorisation of deaths, lack of statistical power, inappropriate analyses, and pooling of data about preterm births and term births. What is already known on this topicIt is difficult to assess the wellbeing of second twins during labourDeliveries of second twins are at increased risk of mechanical problems, such as cord prolapse and malpresentation, after vaginal delivery of first twins

  11. Prevalence of rubella antibodies in a non-immunized urban population, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de anticorpos anti-vírus da rubéola em população urbana não imunizada, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda A.U.F. Souza

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of rubella antibodies was evaluated through a ramdom Seroepidemiological survey in 1400 blood samples of 2-14 year old children and in 329 samples of umbilical cord serum. Rubella IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA, and the sera were collected in 1987, five years before the mass vaccination campaign with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine carried out in the city of São Paulo in 1992. A significant increase in prevalence of rubella infection was observed after 6 years of age, and 77% of the individuals aged from 15 to 19 years had detectable rubella antibodies. However, the seroprevalence rose to 90.5% (171/189 in cord serum samples from children whose mothers were 20 to 29 years old, and reached 95.6% in newborns of mothers who were 30 to 34 years old, indicating that a large number of women are infected during childbearing years. This study confirms that rubella infection represents an important Public Health problem in São Paulo city. The data on the seroprevalence of rubella antibodies before the mass vaccination campaign reflects the baseline immunological status of this population before any intervention and should be used to design an adequate vaccination strategy and to assess the Seroepidemiological impact of this intervention.A prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da rubéola foi avaliada através de inquérito soroepidemiológico, em 1400 amostras de sangue de crianças com idade entre 2 e 14 anos e 329 amostras de soro de cordão umbilical. Anticorpos para o vírus da rubéola foram detectados pela técnica de ELISA e as amostras foram colhidas em 1987, 5 anos antes da campanha de vacinação em massa com a vacina tríplice viral realizada na cidade de São Paulo em 1992. Um aumento significativo na prevalência foi observado após 6 anos de idade, e 77% dos indivíduos entre 15 e 19 anos apresentaram anticorpos anti-rubéola. Entretanto, a soroprevalência elevou-se para 90,5% (171/189 em soros de cordão de crianças cujas mães apresentavam idade entre 20 e 29 anos, alcançando 95,6% no grupo etário de 30 a 34 anos., indicando que um grande número de mulheres são infectadas durante a idade fértil. Este estudo confirma que a infecção pelo vírus da rubéola representa um importante problema de saúde pública na cidade de São Paulo. Os dados de prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da rubéola antes da campanha de vacinação em massa reflete o estado imunológico desta população antes de qualquer intervenção e pode ser usado para desenvolver estratégias adequadas de vacinação e avaliar o impacto soroepidemiológico dessa intervenção.

  12. Carrier screening for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Sylvie; Ford, Jason C; Chitayat, David

    2008-10-01

    investigation should include quantitation of HbA2 and HbF. In addition, if there is microcytosis(mean cellular volume thalassemia or an Hb variant, or of a combination of thalassemia and a hemoglobin variant, they should be referred for genetic counselling. Ideally,this should be prior to conception, or as early as possible in the pregnancy. Additional molecular studies may be required to clarify the carrier status of the parents and thus the risk to the fetus. (II-3A) 5. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered to the pregnant woman/couple at risk for having a fetus affected with a clinically significant thalassemia or hemoglobinopathy. Prenatal diagnosis should be performed with the patient's informed consent. If prenatal diagnosis is declined, testing of the child should be done to allow early diagnosis and referral to a pediatric hematology centre, if indicated. (II-3A) 6. Prenatal diagnosis by DNA analysis can be performed using cells obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Alternatively for those who decline invasive testing and are at risk of hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis (four-gene deletion alpha-thalassemia), serial detailed fetal ultrasound for assessment of the fetal cardiothoracic ratio (normal thalassemia should prompt immediate investigation of the pregnant patient and her partner to determine their carrier status for alpha-thalassemia. (III-A) VALIDATION: This guideline has been prepared by the Prenatal Diagnosis Committee of the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) and the Genetics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and approved by the Board of Directors of the CCMG and the Executive and Council of the SOGC.

  13. RNA Binding Protein RBM38 Regulates Expression of the 11-Kilodalton Protein of Parvovirus B19, Which Facilitates Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Safder S; Chen, Aaron Yun; Huang, Chun; Xu, Peng; Kleiboeker, Steve; Du, Aifang; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-04-15

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) expresses a single precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), which undergoes alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation to generate 12 viral mRNA transcripts that encode two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS1, 7.5-kDa protein, and 11-kDa protein). Splicing at the second 5' donor site (D2 site) of the B19V pre-mRNA is essential for the expression of VP2 and the 11-kDa protein. We previously identified that cis -acting intronic splicing enhancer 2 (ISE2) that lies immediately after the D2 site facilitates the recognition of the D2 donor for its efficient splicing. In this study, we report that ISE2 is critical for the expression of the 11-kDa viral nonstructural protein. We found that ISE2 harbors a consensus RNA binding motif protein 38 (RBM38) binding sequence, 5'-UGUGUG-3'. RBM38 is expressed during the middle stage of erythropoiesis. We first confirmed that RBM38 binds specifically with the ISE2 element in vitro The knockdown of RBM38 significantly decreases the level of spliced mRNA at D2 that encodes the 11-kDa protein but not that of the D2-spliced mRNA that encodes VP2. Importantly, we found that the 11-kDa protein enhances viral DNA replication and virion release. Accordingly, the knockdown of RBM38 decreases virus replication via downregulating 11-kDa protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that the 11-kDa protein facilitates B19V DNA replication and that RBM38 is an essential host factor for B19V pre-mRNA splicing and for the expression of the 11-kDa protein. IMPORTANCE B19V is a human pathogen that can cause fifth disease, arthropathy, anemia in immunocompromised patients and sickle cell disease patients, myocarditis, and hydrops fetalis in pregnant women. Human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) are most susceptible to B19V infection and fully support viral DNA replication. The exclusive tropism of B19V for erythroid-lineage cells is dependent not only on the expression of viral

  14. Weaning of inhaled nitric oxide: is there a best strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Ware

    2015-04-01

    , pulmonary hemorrhage, hydrops fetalis, and other congenital anomalies. The average dose of iNO was 20 ppm (range = 2-80 ppm. The duration of exposure to iNO was on average 2 ± 2 days (range = 15 min - 7 days. Weaning protocols were highly varied from duration of treatment, duration of time in between iNO decreases, initial dose, adjunctive medications used to wean, and increasing FiO2 used to wean iNO. The weaning parameters were based on multiple variables including FiO2, PaO2, O2 sats, and pulmonary arterial pressure.Conclusion: There is a limited amount of data specific to weaning protocols for nitric oxide. There is no consensus on an appropriate method for weaning of iNO either on its own, or with adjunct medication. Further research to elucidate a strategy for weaning of iNO needs to be done. We propose that weaning iNO in a stepwise approach from 20 ppm in increments of 5 ppm per decrease until 5 ppm; and stepwise by 1 ppm from 5 ppm to off, while monitoring O2 saturations and blood gases parameters and allowing transient increases in FiO2 during adjustment to the transition is a safe approach (both for invansive and non-invasive modes of ventilation. This is not a protocol that is appropriate for every patient pathology, but is a safe starting point with allowance for individual patient and physician variablilty.

  15. [Hydrocholecystis, unrecognized cause of painful abdominal crises in patients with sickle cell anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, S; Desjardin, F; Baruchel, S; Bégué, P; Cordier, M D; Lasfargues, G

    1985-12-01

    The first case of painful abdominal crisis caused by hydrops of the gallbladder during sickle cell disease is reported. The cholecystosonography allowed diagnosis and supervision in a 4 year-old black boy with sickle cell anemia. The persistence of hydrops led to cholecystectomy. Pathophysiology is discussed according to the other etiologies reported in the literature.

  16. Survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) serum in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    Virulent and non-virulent strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum of different serotypes were examined for survival and growth in non-immune and immune rainbow trout serum, in vitro. A majority of the examined strains consumed complement of non-immune serum, but the complement cascade was not able...

  17. Malformação congénita das vias aéreas pulmonares – Experiência de cinco centros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha

    2007-07-01

    óstico pré-natal tem bom prognóstico na ausência de sofrimento fetal; uma radiografia de tórax sem alterações ao nascimento não exclui MACPC; o tratamento da lesão assintomática é controverso; a cirurgia está indicada devido à baixa morbilidade e possibilidade de preven-ção de complicações tardias, como a degenerescência maligna.Rev Port Pneumol 2007; XIII (4: 511-523 Abstract: Background: The clinical spectrum of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAML ranges from asymptomatic lesions to neonatal respiratory distress and hydrops fetalis.Aim: To review our experience with CCAML, emphasising natural history, management and out-come.Material and methods: A retrospective chart review of all CCAML-diagnosed neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care units of five tertiary medical centres in the north of Portugal between 1996 and 2005.Results: Fifteen neonates with CCAML were identified, 9 F/6 M, birth weight 3100 g (645-3975, gestational age 38 weeks (24-40. The incidence of CCAML was 1: 9300 births. There were 11 (73% cases of cystic lung lesion diagnosed during pregnancy, median age 22 weeks (19-30. The lesion was right sided in six (40% and left sided in nine (60% cases. In utero spontaneous regression of the lesion was observed in two cases. Antenatal intervention (pleurocentesis and thoracoamniotic shunting was performed in one foetus with impending hydrops. Normal lung radiographic findings at birth were present in five cases, with an abnormal CT scan. Three (20% neonates became symptomatic during the neonatal period (respiratory distress and one (70% after the neonatal period (spontaneous pneu-mothorax. Two neonates (13% died. Six (40% patients underwent thoracotomy and appropriate excisional surgery. Histological examination showed definitive features of CCAML (Stocker classification: type I=4; type II=1; type III=2. Eight (53% patients remain asymptomatic and did not undergo surgery

  18. Malformação congénita das vias aéreas pulmonares: Experiência de cinco centros Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: The experience of five medical centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha

    2007-07-01

    lesão assintomática é controverso; a cirurgia está indicada devido à baixa morbilidade e possibilidade de prevenção de complicações tardias, como a degenerescência maligna.Background: The clinical spectrum of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAML ranges from asymptomatic lesions to neonatal respiratory distress and hydrops fetalis. Aim: To review our experience with CCAML, emphasising natural history, management and outcome. Material and methods: A retrospective chart review of all CCAML-diagnosed neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care units of five tertiary medical centres in the north of Portugal between 1996 and 2005. Results: Fifteen neonates with CCAML were identified, 9F/6M, birth weight 3100 g (645-3975, gestational age 38 weeks (24-40. The incidence of CCAML was 1: 9300 births. There were 11 (73% cases of cystic lung lesion diagnosed during pregnancy, median age 22 weeks (19-30. The lesion was right sided in six (40% and left sided in nine (60% cases. In utero spontaneous regression of the lesion was observed in two cases. Antenatal intervention (pleurocentesis and thoracoamniotic shunting was performed in one foetus with impending hydrops. Normal lung radiographic findings at birth were present in five cases, with an abnormal CT scan. Three (20% neonates became symptomatic during the neonatal period (respiratory distress and one (70% after the neonatal period (spontaneous pneumothorax. Two neonates (13% died. Six (40% patients underwent thoracotomy and appropriate excisional surgery. Histological examination showed definitive features of CCAML (Stocker classification: type I = 4; type II = 1; type III = 2. Eight (53% patients remain asymptomatic and did not undergo surgery. Conclusions: Antenatally diagnosed CCAML has a good prognosis in the absence of severe foetal distress; normal radiographic findings at birth do not rule out CCAML; treatment of asymptomatic CCAML is controversial; surgery may be advocated

  19. Splenic rupture in a neonate – a rare complication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differential diagnosis of a hypovolaemic shocked infant with an abdominal mass. The symptoms of splenic rupture are ... A diagnosis of splenic rupture due to possible birth trauma was made. The mother admitted a month later ... parenchyma, e.g. erythroblastosis fetalis and congenital syphilis, as an enlarged spleen is more ...

  20. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Histopathological assessment of liver sections of treated-rats showed normal ... Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, Rats, Subacute oral toxicity, Neutrophils, Hepatocytes, Hydropic ..... albino rats against acetaminophen-induced.

  1. Thoraco-amniotic shunting for fetal pleural effusion--a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, J

    2011-11-15

    Fetal pleural effusion is a rare occurrence, with an incidence of 1 per 10-15,000 pregnancies. The prognosis is related to the underlying cause and is often poor. There is increasing evidence that in utero therapy with thoraco-amniotic shunting improves prognosis by allowing lung expansion thereby preventing hydrops and pulmonary hypoplasia. This is a review of all cases of fetal pleural effusion managed over an eight year period the National Maternity Hospital Dublin. Over the nine year period there were 21 cases of fetal pleural effusion giving an overall incidence of 1 per 9281 deliveries. Of these, 15 underwent thoraco-amniotic shunting. There were associated anomalies diagnosed in 5 (33%) of cases. The overall survival in our cohort was 53%. The presence of hydrops was a poor prognostic factor, with survival in cases with hydrops of 33% (3\\/9) compared to 83% (5\\/6) in those cases without associated hydrops.

  2. Lectin binding patterns and immunohistochemical antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... placenta and lungs of Brucella abortus-bovine infected fetuses. María Andrea ... The present lectin histochemical study revealed a distinctive pattern of oligosaccharide .... tissue was used as a positive control and nonimmune.

  3. Disease: H01045 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma parasites. Schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease in the world and WHO estimates 600 million peop...le at risk of infection with 200 million infected. Among nonimmune patients, host's

  4. Induction of Protective Immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina Infections Using Dendritic Cell-Derived Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Margarita; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quilez, Joaquin; Lillehoj, Erik P.; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel immunization strategy against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from Eimeria parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs). Chicken intestinal DCs were isolated and pulsed in vitro with a mixture of sporozoite-extracted Ags from Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina, and the cell-derived exosomes were isolated. Chickens were nonimmunized or immunized intramuscularly with exosomes and subsequently noninfected or coinfected with E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina oocysts. Immune parameters compared among the nonimmunized/noninfected, nonimmunized/infected, and immunized/infected groups were the numbers of cells secreting Th1 cytokines, Th2 cytokines, interleukin-16 (IL-16), and Ag-reactive antibodies in vitro and in vivo readouts of protective immunity against Eimeria infection. Cecal tonsils, Peyer's patches, and spleens of immunized and infected chickens had increased numbers of cells secreting the IL-16 and the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon, greater Ag-stimulated proliferative responses, and higher numbers of Ag-reactive IgG- and IgA-producing cells following in vitro stimulation with the sporozoite Ags compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and nonimmunized/infected controls. In contrast, the numbers of cells secreting the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were diminished in immunized and infected chickens compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and the nonimmunized/infected controls. Chickens immunized with Ag-loaded exosomes and infected in vivo with Eimeria oocysts had increased body weight gains, reduced feed conversion ratios, diminished fecal oocyst shedding, lessened intestinal lesion scores, and reduced mortality compared with the nonimmunized/infected controls. These results suggest that successful field vaccination against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from DCs incubated with Ags isolated from Eimeria species may be possible. PMID:22354026

  5. Eritroblastozis fetalise bağlı Blueberry muffin bulgusu

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT1, Filiz; 2, Fuat Emre CANPOLAT; 3, Hasan TEZER; 1, Fatma ESK?O?LU

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blueberry Muffin sign due to erythroblastosis fetalis Blueberry muffin sign is a cutaneous manifestation characterized by widespread reddish-blue maculopapular lesions. The eruptions are often generalized but favor the trunk, head, and neck. Blueberry muffin skin lesions are manifestations of dermal haematopoiesis and are associated with both intra-uterine infections and hematological disorders with chronic and severe anaemia. TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalo-virus, he...

  6. Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor: prenatal imaging clues to differentiate from other fetal chest lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Bitters, Constance; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stanek, Jerzy [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We present a prenatal case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor referred as a congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) with hydrops and polyhydramnios at 30 weeks' gestational age. US and fetal MRI findings did not fit with the referral diagnosis, raising the possibility of intrinsic lung tumor. Fetal hydrops worsened and the baby was successfully delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to resection at 31 weeks' gestational age. To the best of our knowledge, this is a unique case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor that underwent comprehensive prenatal evaluation and EXIT procedure with good outcome. (orig.)

  7. Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor: prenatal imaging clues to differentiate from other fetal chest lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Bitters, Constance; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Lim, Foong-Yen; Stanek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    We present a prenatal case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor referred as a congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) with hydrops and polyhydramnios at 30 weeks' gestational age. US and fetal MRI findings did not fit with the referral diagnosis, raising the possibility of intrinsic lung tumor. Fetal hydrops worsened and the baby was successfully delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to resection at 31 weeks' gestational age. To the best of our knowledge, this is a unique case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor that underwent comprehensive prenatal evaluation and EXIT procedure with good outcome. (orig.)

  8. Myositis non-inflammatory mechanisms: An up-dated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manole, Emilia; Bastian, Alexandra E; Butoianu, Niculina; Goebel, Hans H

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) represent a heterogeneous group of rare muscular diseases, with no clearly known causes. IIM frequently have an incomplete response to treatment due to the difficulty in distinguishing between IIM forms, and due to neglect their non-inflammatory causes. Important data concerning non-immune mechanisms in IIM pathology have been recently accumulated. There is a correlation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory mechanisms, but their involvement in IIM pathogenesis is still unknown. Here we review some of the most important data regarding the non-immune IIM pathology, highlighting possible future therapeutic targets: endoplasmic reticulum stress, ATP metabolism, ROS generation, autophagy, and microRNAs disturbances.

  9. Click Stimulus Electrocochleography Versus MRI With Intratympanic Contrast in Meniere's Disease: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziylan, Fuat; Smeeing, Diederik P. J.; Stegeman, Inge; Thomeer, Hans G. X. M.

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of electrocochleography compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intratympanic gadolinium administration to diagnose endolymphatic hydrops in patients with Ménière's disease. Data Sources: An electronic search was performed in the PubMed,

  10. Prenatally Diagnosis and Outcome of Fetuses with Cardiac Rhabdomyoma – Single Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramush Bejiqi

    2017-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac rhabdomyoma are benign from the cardiovascular standpoint in most affected fetuses. An early prenatal diagnosis may help for an adequate planning of perinatal monitoring and treatment with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Large tumour size, the number of tumours and localisation may cause hydrops, and they are significantly associated with poor neonatal outcome.

  11. Two cases of Kawasaki disease presented with acute febrile jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaman, Ayşe; Aydın-Teke, Türkan; Gayretli-Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Öz, Fatma Nur; Metin-Akcan, Özge; Eriş, Deniz; Tanır, Gönül

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although gastrointestinal involvement does not belong to the classic diagnostic criteria; diarrhea, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, hydrops of gallbladder, and acute febrile cholestatic jaundice are reported in patients with Kawasaki disease. We describe here two cases presented with fever, and acute jaundice as initial features of Kawasaki disease.

  12. Hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood are destroyed earlier than normal. Causes During pregnancy, red blood cells from the unborn baby can ... In other cases, problems such as hydrops can cause the baby to die before, or shortly after birth. ... can be prevented if the mother is tested during pregnancy. If needed, she is given a shot of ...

  13. Conservative Treatment for Cystic Duct Stenosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gasparetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Few cases of common bile duct stenosis have been reported in the literature, and observations of strictures in the cystic duct are even more rare. Surgical cholecystectomy is the treatment needed in most cases of gallbladder hydrops. This paper describes the diagnosis and successful medical treatment of a rare pediatric case of cystic duct stenosis and gallbladder hydrops. Case Report. A formerly healthy one-year-old girl was admitted with colicky abdominal pain. Blood tests were normal, except for an increase in transaminases. Abdominal ultrasound excluded intestinal intussusception and identified a distended gallbladder with biliary sludge. MR cholangiography revealed a dilated gallbladder containing bile sediment and no detectable cystic duct, while the rest of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree and hepatic parenchyma were normal. This evidence was consistent with gallbladder hydrops associated with cystic duct stenosis. The baby was treated with i.v. hydration, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and ursodeoxycholic acid. Her general condition rapidly improved, with no further episodes of abdominal pain and normalization of liver enzymes. This allowed to avoid cholecystectomy, and the child is well 1.5 years after diagnosis. Conclusions. Although cholecystectomy is usually necessary in case of gallbladder hydrops, our experience suggests that surgical procedures can be avoided when the distension is caused by a cystic duct stenosis.

  14. Tetramethylammonium for in vivo marking of the cross-sectional area of the scala media in the guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, A N; DeMott, J

    1992-01-01

    A physiologic technique was developed to measure endolymphatic cross-sectional area in vivo using tetramethylammonium (TMA) as a volume marker. The technique was evaluated in guinea pigs as an animal model. In the method, the cochlea was exposed surgically and TMA was injected into endolymph of the second turn at a constant rate by iontophoresis. The concentration of TMA was monitored during and after the injection using ion-selective electrodes. Cross-section estimates derived from the TMA concentration measurements were compared in normal animals and animals in which endolymphatic hydrops had been induced by ablation of the endolymphatic duct and sac 8 weeks earlier. The method demonstrated a mean increase in cross-sectional area of 258% in the hydropic group. Individually measured area values were compared with action potential threshold shifts and the magnitude of the endocochlear potential (EP). Hydropic animals typically showed an increase in threshold to 2 kHz stimuli and a decrease in EP. However, the degree of threshold shift or EP decrease did not correlate well with the degree of hydrops present.

  15. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lethal disorder called hydrops-ectopic calcification-'moth eaten' (HEM) or Greenberg skeletal dys- plasia. The healthy mother of the affected fetus had hypolobulated granulocyte nuclei and abnormal chromatin structure thus confirming her PHA status. In a third paper, Shultz et al (2003) reported that the mouse ichthyosis ...

  16. Effect of oral administration of Gnidia Stenophylla Gilg aqueous root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microscopic evaluation of sections of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum of the mice treated with 400 mg/kg body weight did not show any histopathological change. In the mice treated with 800 mg/kg body weight, however, the GIT sections revealed cytoplasmic vacuolation, hydropic degeneration and excessive erosion ...

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Ja; Shin, M. J.; Yoo, Y. J.; Park, J. M.; Kim, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is one of a rare congenital malformation usually unilateal in volving a part of lobe or a whole lobe of the fetal lung, characterized by excessive growing of terminal respiratory element. We made a prenatal diagnosis in a case of congenital cystic adenomdtoid malformation with diffuse bilateral involvement, Stocker Type III which is associated with fetal hydrops

  18. Definition of fluctuant hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J J

    1975-06-01

    In summary, fluctuant hearing loss is defined as a disorder of the inner ear characterized by fullness, roaring tinnitus, and fluctuations in hearing. It is believed to be caused by an inadequate absorption of endolymph from the endolymphatic sac, with or without one or more metabolic disorders, that interferes with the delicate balance between the production and absorption of endolymph and thus produces cochlear hydrops. This triad of fullness, roaring tinnitus, and fluctuant hearing loss resulting from cochlear hydrops is much more common than the quadrad of true turning vertigo, fullness, roaring tinnitus, and fluctuant hearing loss due to vestibular and cochlear hydrops known as Meniere's disease. Although patients with fluctuant hearing loss only may eventually develop vertigo as the chief complaint and then be said to have Meniere's disease, it is remarkable how many patients continue to suffer mainly from cochlear symptoms at all times. It would appear, because of the greater frequency of fluctuant hearing loss than in Meniere's disease, that the cochlear labyrinth is more susceptible to hydrops than the vestibular labyrinth. For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment it is very useful to separate patients into those with fluctuant hearing loss and those with Meniere's disease.

  19. Fetal stroke and congenital parvovirus B19 infection complicated by activated protein C resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Timo R.; van Wezel-Meijler, Gerda; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Von Lindern, Jeanette S.; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Walther, Frans J.

    2006-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection in gestation has been associated with severe fetal complications such as anaemia, hydrops and fetal demise. Fetal infection in the first trimester poses the greatest risk for these complications, but infection during the third trimester is more common than previously

  20. Disturbance of cerebral neuronal migration following congenital parvovirus B19 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, Lourens Rasmus; Smal, Jaime; de Haan, Timo Robert; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C. M. L.; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata; Oepkes, Dick; de Vries, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the clinical course of an infant who presented with severe fetal anemia and fetal hydrops following congenital parvovirus B19 infection before 16 gestational weeks. The fetus was treated by cordocentesis and intrauterine transfusion at 18 weeks. The infant demonstrated mild unilateral

  1. Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage caused by an intraplacental choriocarcinoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Havsteen, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    of a severely anemic infant. A fetomaternal hemorrhage resulted in a hemoglobin concentration in the infant of only 2,1 g/dL. Neither mother nor child showed signs of metastatic disease. The macroscopic examination showed a hydropic placenta weighing more than 1 kilogram. Microscopy showed an intraplacental...

  2. Psychological aspects and stress-related hormones in Menière's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijsen, Nynke van

    2006-01-01

    Menière's disease is a chronic inner ear disease with handicapping symptoms as spontaneous vertigo attacks, progressive hearing loss and tinnitus. Endolymphatic hydrops is the most commonly used pathophysiologic model, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. There is no curative treatment

  3. Psychological aspects and stress-related hormones in Menière's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijsen, Nynke van

    2006-01-01

    Menière's disease is a chronic inner ear disease with handicapping symptoms as spontaneous vertigo attacks, progressive hearing loss and tinnitus. Endolymphatic hydrops is the most commonly used pathophysiologic model, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. There is no curative treatment available for Menière's disease, so any treatment remains symptomatic. ... Zie: Summary

  4. Molecular aspects of plant disease susceptibility: Arabidopsis genes affecting downy mildew infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapin, D.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of plants with pathogenic microorganisms are influenced by multiple biotic and abiotic factors. The host immune system can detect pathogens and restrict their growth and development, but also non-immunity related host factors and processes can contribute to pathogenesis by attracting

  5. Kaposis sarkom tolket som haematom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Jesper R; Hasselager, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a frequent skin cancer in HIV-positive patients, but is relatively uncommon in HIV-negative and non-immune compromised patients. We present a case of Kaposi's sarcoma of the face and scalp in a HIV-negative male with previous facial basal cell carcinoma....

  6. Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and Invasive Arthropod Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    significant morbidity and mortality in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador , Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. It occurs less frequently in...The population at highest risk for CL is nonimmune expatriates such as tourists , soldiers, new settlers, and construction or agricultural workers...of 1933. U. S. Treasury Department, Public Health Service. National Institute of Health Bulletin No. 166. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing

  7. Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-09-01

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.

  8. Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer disease: clinical and therapeutic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Rozemuller, A. J.; Hoozemans, J. J.; Veerhuis, R.; van Gool, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease brains, the amyloid plaques are closely associated with a locally induced, nonimmune-mediated, chronic inflammatory response without any apparent influx of leukocytes from the blood. The present findings indicate that in cerebral A beta diseases (Alzheimer disease, Down

  9. Opioid Receptors Blockade Modulates Apoptosis in a Rat Model of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammation characterized by replacement of liver tissue by ... Materials and Methods: Cirrhosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation .... treated with deoxyribonucleic acid labeling solution containing ... binding was inhibited using non-immune serum. .... studies considering the increased level of tumor necrosis factor-α.

  10. Induction of antigen-specific antibody response in human pheripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro by a dog kidney cell vaccine against rabies virus (DKCV).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G. Loggen; R.H.J. Bakker (Roland); J.A.A.M. van Asten (Jack); J.G. Kreeftenberg; P. van der Marel; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIn the present report an in vitro method for obtaining a secondary human antibody response to a dog kidney cell vaccine against rabies virus (DKCV) is described. Cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal rabies-immune and nonimmune donors were stimulated in vitro by

  11. The in vitro diagnosis of drug allergy: status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebo, D. G.; Leysen, J.; Mayorga, C.; Rozieres, A.; Knol, E. F.; Terreehorst, I.

    2011-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADR) can result from immune-mediated (drug allergy) and nonimmune-mediated mechanisms. In both types of reaction, conclusive diagnosis and appropriate management remain major problems in daily clinical practice. This review summarizes the potentials and shortcomings of the

  12. Ibuprofen-induced HUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, N. J.; Weening, J. J.; Krediet, R. T.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by nonimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. There are many causes for HUS, but adverse reactions to drugs have been increasingly reported. Even the NSAIDs which have been reported as safe and effective

  13. 78 FR 15660 - Hazardous Substances and Articles; Supplemental Definition of “Strong Sensitizer”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... insufficient, however, if a toy or other article intended for the use of children is, bears, or contains a... accessible to a child to whom the article is entrusted. Under that scenario, the toy or children's article... a characteristic in the development of sensitization. \\1\\ An ``irritant response'' is a nonimmune...

  14. Diphtheria in Andhra Pradesh-a clinical-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Meera; M, Rajarao

    2014-02-01

    Clinical diphtheria is on the increase worldwide, mainly affecting developing countries. We sought to understand its presentation among patients at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Diphtheria patients presented with fever, pharyngitis, and a patch in the throat. Data collected for each patient included age, clinical presentation, morbidity, mortality, bacteria isolated from culture, and immunization status. Of 61 950 admissions from January 2008 to December 2012, 2925 (4.7%) had clinical diphtheria; 1194 had been immunized and 1731 were non-immunized. Immunized patients had a milder disease. Culture-positive immunized patients were positive for Corynebacterium other than diphtheriae (COD; n=104) or Corynebacterium diphtheriae (CD; n=23); these patients suffered mild disease and recovered completely. In contrast, culture-positive non-immunized patients were positive for COD (n=11) or CD (n=412). Eighty-one patients (3%) died, 77 of whom were non-immunized; death was usually as a result of myocarditis. Seventy-three percent of deaths were in patients aged diphtheria and its severity and morbidity differ considerably in immunized and non-immunized patients. Disease caused by CD can be deadly, while disease due to COD is mild and responds to treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 3 Agonists Differentially Affect Oligodendrocyte Survival, Differentiation, and Myelin Membrane Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bsibsi, Malika; Nomden, Anita; van Noort, Johannes M.; Baron, Wia

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in controlling innate immune responses to a wide variety of pathogen-associated molecules as well as endogenous signals. In addition, TLR expression within nonimmune cells has been recognized as as modulator of cell behavior. In this study we have addressed

  16. The cellular ratio of immune tolerance (immunoCRIT) is a definite marker for aggressiveness of solid tumors and may explain tumor dissemination patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Türbachova (Ivana); T. Schwachula (Tim); I. Vasconcelos (Ines); A. Mustea (Alexander); T. Baldinger (Tina); K.A. Jones (Katherine); H. Bujard (Hermann); A. Olek (Alexander); A. Olek (Alexander); K. Gellhaus (Katharina); I. Braicu (Ioana); D. Könsgen (Dominique); C. Fryer (Christy); E. Ravot (Elisabetta); A. Hellwag (Alexander); N. Westerfeld (Nicole); O.J. Gruss (Oliver); M. Meissner (Markus); M. Hasan (Mazahir); M. Weber (Michael); U. Hoffmüller (Ulrich); S. Zimmermann (Sven); C. Loddenkemper (Christoph); S. Mahner (Sven); N. Babel (Nina); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); R. Adams (Rod); R. Zeilinger (Robert); U. Baron (Udo); I. Vergote (Ignace); T. Maughan (Tim); F. Marme (Federick); T. Dickhaus (Thorsten); J. Sehouli (Jalid); A. Olek (Alexander)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe adaptive immune system is involved in tumor establishment and aggressiveness. Tumors of the ovaries, an immune-privileged organ, spread via transceolomic routes and rarely to distant organs. This is contrary to tumors of non-immune privileged organs, which often disseminate

  17. Serum Antibody Response to Koala Retrovirus Antigens Varies in Free-Ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) in Australia: Implications for Vaccine Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Gillett, Amber; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2016-04-28

    Little is known about the immune response in the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) to its retroviruses. Koala retroviruses (KoRVs) have been linked to neoplasia in wild and captive koalas, but there is no treatment available. We tested the KoRV-specific serum immunoglobulin G antibody response in nonimmunized and immunized koalas.

  18. Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community of ... ours, it is a common cause of anaemia in pregnancy in both immune and non-immune ... Apart from the use of nets, drugs and vector control, the prevention of malaria in ...

  19. Contribution of T cell-mediated immunity to the resistance to staphlococcal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, S.; Sasai, Y.; Minami, K.; Nomoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    Abscess formation in nude mice after subcutaneous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was more extensive and prolonged as compared with that in phenotypically normal littermates. Abscess formation in nude mice was augmented markedly by whole-body irradiation. Not only T cell-mediated immunity but also radiosensitive, nonimmune phagocytosis appear to contribute to the resistance against staphylococcal infection

  20. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid S; Sunde, Lone

    2007-01-01

    classifications, and compared the ability of the two classifications to discriminate between patients with and without a substantial risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. METHODS: 294 cases of consecutively collected hydropic placentas clinically suspected of hydatidiform mole made the basis......OBJECTIVE: Hydatidiform mole can be classified by histopathologic characteristics and by genetic constitutions and most complete moles are diploid, whereas most partial moles are triploid. We investigated the concordance between these two classifications, characterized moles with conflicting......-molar miscarriage, 20 were triploids, 2 were diploid androgenetic and 2 were diploid biparental. In 23% of the conceptuses, the histopathologic and genetic classifications were conflicting. 5% of the patients with hydropic placentas classified as partial mole encountered persistent trophoblastic disease; however...

  1. A case of lethal congenital dwarfism with accelerated skeletal maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomstrand, S.; Claesson, I.; Saeve-Soederbergh, J.

    1985-01-01

    Details of a female infant, who was born after 29 weeks gestation and who died within minutes of birth, are presented. The infant was hydropic, showed macroglossia and had very short limbs with normal sized hands and feet. Apart from a preductal aortic coarctation the pathological findings were confined to the skeleton. The radiographical and histological findings are described in detail; they differ from those of previous studies of similar conditions. (orig.)

  2. Canine hypertrophic osteopathy associated with extra-thoracic lesions Osteopatia hipertrófica canina associada com lesões extratorácicas

    OpenAIRE

    Selwyn Arlington Headley; Eduardo Alcântara Ribeiro; Gustavo José Von G. dos Santos; Carlos Maia Bettini; Ewaldo Mattos Júnior

    2005-01-01

    Canine hypertrophic osteopathy is described in a dog that presented extra-thoracic lesions, mainly in the liver. Hepatic lesions were characterized by necrosis, hemorrhage, severe hydropic degeneration of centrolobular hepatocytes, proliferation of epithelial cells of bile ducts, and mild biliary stasis. The disease syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical signs, radiological evaluation, and inspection of macerated bones.Osteopatia hipertrófica canina é descrita em um cão que apresentou lesõe...

  3. Treatment of Primary Fetal Hydrothorax with OK-432 (Picibanil): Outcome in 14 Fetuses and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brooke; Kesby, Greg; Ogle, Robert; Rieger, Ingrid; Hyett, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Primary fetal hydrothorax (PFHT) is an uncommon condition with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10,000/15,000 pregnancies. Therapeutic interventions include thoracocentesis, thoraco-amniotic shunting (TAS), and pleurodesis using OK-432. A review of the literature was performed to identify all cases of PFHT treated with TAS and OK-432. All cases of PFHT referred to the Fetal Maternal Unit at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. In the cohort of fetuses treated with OK-432, the main perinatal outcomes evaluated were termination of pregnancy, live birth, neonatal death, and fetal death in utero. Secondary outcomes included gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, GA at treatment, GA at resolution, birth weight, and GA at birth. The development of the children was screened using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Version 3 (ASQ-3, 2009). Primary hydrothorax was diagnosed in 31 fetuses, of which 14 had treatment with OK-432. One pregnancy terminated after treatment with OK-432. Survival was 85% (11/13): 100% in fetuses treated with OK-432 without hydrops, and 78% in those treated with hydrops. This compares well to the cases of TAS in the literature with an average survival of 63%: 85% in fetuses without hydrops and 55% with hydrops. The mean GA at birth was 36(+4) weeks and mean birth weight 3,007 g. Eight of the 9 children screened with ASQ-3 scored well within the normal range. OK-432 appears to be a valid treatment option in fetuses with PFHT, particularly in those diagnosed at early GAs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Case of lethal congenital dwarfism with accelerated skeletal maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomstrand, S.; Claesson, I.; Saeve-Soederbergh, J.

    1985-02-01

    Details of a female infant, who was born after 29 weeks gestation and who died within minutes of birth, are presented. The infant was hydropic, showed macroglossia and had very short limbs with normal sized hands and feet. Apart from a preductal aortic coarctation the pathological findings were confined to the skeleton. The radiographical and histological findings are described in detail; they differ from those of previous studies of similar conditions.

  5. A case report of corgenotal cystic adenomatoid malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Cha, Kyung Sub; Chi, Je Geun

    1987-01-01

    Congenital cystic adnomatoid malformation (CCAM) is rare pulmonary cystic disease. CCAM has been detected on prematurity, stillborn and respiratory distress infant or child by chest X-ray film and CT scan. One case of CCAM diagnosed in utero at gestational age 22 weeks is reported with sonographic findings and autopsy findings. Ultrasonographic findings are large cystic lesion in fetal thorax and fetal hydrops without hydramnios. The survival of these infants is very poor despite accurate prenatal diagnosis and maximal postnatal care

  6. Does lamellar surgery for keratoconus experience the popularity it deserves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, Robert P L; van den Hoven, Célinde M L; Van der Lelij, Allegonda

    2014-08-01

    To analyse developments in surgical treatment for keratoconus (KC) by assessing rates and types of corneal surgery from 2005 to 2010. The Dutch Transplantation Foundation supplied data on all keratoplasty procedures for KC performed from 2005 to 2010 in the Netherlands. Registration was carried out by the eyebank at allocation and by the surgeon at the time of surgery. The type of surgery was categorized as either a penetrating or a lamellar procedure. Five hundred and seventy-five anonymized records were received, with excellent data completion (99%). Patients undergoing penetrating surgery had on average a lower visual acuity, higher k-readings and were slightly older compared with the lamellar group. A previous corneal hydrops was recorded for 19.1% of patients. Regular penetrating keratoplasty decreased in popularity from 79.7% in 2005 to 43.7% in 2010, due to the increased rate of lamellar surgery (42.5% in 2010) and 'mushroom' penetrating keratoplasty (13.8% in 2010). When hydrops cases were excluded, popularity became equal (47.6% penetrating versus 52.4% lamellar surgery, in 2010). Lamellar surgery is gaining in popularity, although regular penetrating keratoplasty is still the more commonly performed procedure. Only when hydrops cases are excluded do transplant rates become comparable. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of Eimeria tenella radiovaccine for immunoprophylaxis in fowl against coccidiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, R.; Mielke, D.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted into oral immunization of broilers, using a widely standardized coccidiosis vaccine attenuated by irradiation with 250 Gy (Eimeria tenella radiovaccine). The method was applied to 2,567 animals kept in floor pens and to another 21,620 animals under production conditions. Profound immunity was thus built up to last from three weeks after vaccination to slaughter maturity. Immunized chickens challenged with E. tenella develope no clinical infection, whereas the non-immunized ones showed an intensive haemorrhagic enteritis with 88% of lethality. The total output of coccidiaoocysts of immunized chickens decreased to more than 95% compared to the non-immunized ones. These results were reproducible in six different experimental groups. (author)

  8. Studies on the transfer of protective immunity with lymphoid cells from mice immune to malaria sporozoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhave, J.P.; Strickland, G.T.; Jaffe, H.A.; Ahmed, A.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanisms involved in the protective immunity to malarial sporozoites, an A/J mouse/Plasmodium berghei model was studied. Protective immunity could consistently be adoptively transferred only by using sublethal irradiation of recipients (500 R); a spleen equivalent (100 x 10 6 ) of donor cells from immune syngeneic mice; and a small booster immunization (1 x 10 4 ) of recipients with irradiation-attenuated sporozoites. Recipient animals treated in this manner were protected from lethal challenge with 1 x 10 4 nonattenuated sporozoites. Immune and nonimmune serum and spleen cells from nonimmune animals did not protect recipient mice. Fewer immune spleen cells (50 x 10 6 ) protected some recipients. In vitro treatment of immune spleen cells with anti-theta sera and complement abolished their ability to transfer protection. This preliminary study suggests that protective sporozoite immunity can be transferred with cells, and that it is T cell dependent

  9. In vivo immunologic selection of class I major histocompatibility complex gene deletion variants from the B16-BL6 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, J E; Talmadge, C B; Zbar, B; McEwen, R; Meeker, A K; Tribble, H

    1987-06-01

    The mechanism by which tumor allografts escape host immunologic attack was investigated. B16-BL6 cells (the bladder 6 subline of the B16 melanoma) (H-2b) were transfected with a gene (Dd) encoding an allogeneic class I major histocompatibility complex antigen. Clones that expressed Dd antigen were injected into the footpads of nonimmune syngeneic mice, syngeneic immune mice, and nude mice. Under conditions of immunologic selection a clone that contained multiple copies of the transfected gene formed variants that lacked the transfected gene. Primary tumors and pulmonary metastases of immunized mice and pulmonary metastases of nonimmunized mice had lost the Dd gene and, in most cases, all of the associated plasmid. In contrast, in immunodeficient nude mice, primary tumors and pulmonary metastases retained the Dd gene and the associated plasmid. Deletion of genes encoding cell surface antigens may be one of the mechanisms by which allogeneic tumors escape immunologic attack.

  10. The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Promoting Ovarian Cancer Growth and Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Immune Response Arm Cells MSC effects Innate Dendritic Cells (APC) Inhibition of maturation (CD80/86 expression) by STAT3 and IL10 (Beyth...are better understood. It is known that once MDSCs are 9 activated, they accumulate in lymphoid organs and tumors where they exert specific T cell 10...expressed on leukocyte 32 subsets and non-immune cells and may regulate important aspects of innate and adaptive 33 immune responses (Mempel, Voelcker et al

  11. Evaluation of Rubella Immunity in Women before Marriage and Pregnancy in Isfahan During 1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Allameh

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital Rubella syndrome is a public health problem in many developing countries which has not yet been sufficiently put into account. There is an urgent need for collecting appropriate data to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential global Rubella control program. This study was conducted to determine susceptibility to Rubella in women who are going to marry or consult for pregnancy. Methods: This study began in 1997 and ended in 2000. The study was analytic descriptive and prospective. Eight hundred and thirty eight women who referred for premarriage tests or counselling for conception were included. According to antibody levels, test results were reported as immune and non-immune (susceptible for every individual. Results: Among 838 cases, 253 women (30.1% were non-immune (susceptible and 585 women (69.9% were immune. The educational status of the two groups were recorded. Analysis of data showed that the higher the educational level (62.2% for University degree holder, the lower the immunity against Rubella would be (75.2% for unfinished high school individuals. Furthermore, immunity in the younger group was higher (73.9% in <20 years than in the older group(61% in >30 years. Conclusion: More than one third of pre marriage and pre conceptional women were non-immune (susceptible to Rubella, so health providers should be aware of Rubella prevention and control in childbearing age via screening and vaccination. Immunity against Rubella can vary over time and the socioeconomic status is believed to play an important role in the level of immunity. Keywords: Congenital Rubella Syndrome, Rubella immunity, Rubella non-immunity.

  12. New strategies to prevent fetal and neonatal complications in Rhesus D immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Tiblad, Eleonor

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of this thesis was to investigate if fetal and neonatal complications due to RhD immunization in the mother could be prevented by 1) reducing procedurerelated complications in intrauterine blood transfusions and by 2) reducing the incidence of RhD immunization by providing routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis during pregnancy selectively to non-immunized RhD negative women with RhD positive fetuses. Paper I was a retrospective study including 284 intra...

  13. Heparin- induced thrombocytopenia (HIT: a case report of CABG patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jahangirifard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heparin- induced thrombocytopenia (HIT is an antibody mediated adverse effect of heparin therapy which is classified into two subtypes, HITI which is non-immune, spontaneously reversible thrombocytopenia and; HITII which is an autoimmune-mediated adverse effect of heparin therapy. In this case report, we described a 65-year old male patient with HITII after coronary artery bypass grafting.Key words: Heparin- induced thrombocytopenia, Heparin- induced thrombosis, coronary artery bypass grafting.

  14. The effect of oral immunization on the population of lymphocytes migrating to the mammary gland of the sow

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, J.E. van; Kortbeek-Jacobs, J.M.C.; Kooten, P.J.S. van; Donk, J.A. van der; Rutten, V.P.M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Sows were immunized orally with live Escherichia coli according to various immunization schedules. Six pregnant gilts were used; 4 immunized at various intervals during the last month of gestation, 1 control immunized after parturition following suppression of lactation by weaning and 1 non-immunized control. The effect of oral vaccination on cell populations from lymphoid organs was studied. The in vitro proliferative responses of the cell populations to K88 antigen, anti-Ig sera and mitogen...

  15. U.S. Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, 1987 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    Argentina to determine efficacy of the Candid #1 vaccine in both immune and nonimmune populations. 12 %0 0 Shigella Vaccines are oral products containing...in Cebus monkeys at the University of Lowell, MA. Working groups were convened to outline clinical testing of the TAP and to finalize the draft...measure exposure rates. Data collected from these studies will be used to plan field trials for vaccines that have been developed including Shigella

  16. Use of radioactively labelled bacteria in animal experiments. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossmann, K.D.; Mueller, G.; Heilmann, P.; Finsterbusch, L.; Hubald, J.

    1981-01-01

    Intratracheal administration of 3 H-, 14 C-, 59 Fe- or 125 I-labelled Pasteurella multocida germs to mice resulted in a more or less differentiated, nuclidedependent distribution of radioactivity in blood, spleen, liver, lung, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract, and was comparable to that following subcutaneous application. The elimination of the antigen from the lungs and other organs could be characterised by an e function, after having reached a certain level of distribution. Some of the antigen was persistent in the lung not less than 14 days. Extremely high activity concentration and persistence was recordable, following the use of 59 Fe complete antigen. Phagocytosis of Pasteurella multocida germs through alveolar macrophages of the lung was secured by autoradiography. Most of the antigen seemed to be discharged from the lungs through the digestive tract. Antigen distribution recorded from immunized and non-immunized mice seemed to suggest that the fate of antigen applied was affected by the kind of immunization. No difference in antigen distribution between non-immunized and subcutaneously immunized animals were provable, following intratracheal antigen application, but is was clearly provable, following intratracheal immunization. Elimination of antigen from the lungs of intratracheally immunized animals was found to occur faster than it did from non-immunized animals. (author)

  17. Sero-prevalence and vaccination status of hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adults with cirrhosis in Sri Lanka: a hospital based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Kobbegala, Vipuli Jayendra; Karalliyadda, Hasnatha Nuwan; Ranawaka, Chamila Kumara; de Silva, Arjuna Priyadarshin; Dassanayake, Anuradha Supun; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2017-07-21

    As acute viral hepatitis can be fatal in patients with cirrhosis, vaccination against hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) is recommended for non-immune patients. With increasing affluence the incidence of hepatitis A in childhood has decreased leading to a significant proportion of non-immune adults. As part of their routine investigation, hepatitis A IgG antibodies (anti-HAV IgG), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies was checked and immunization status was assessed among consenting newly diagnosed cirrhotic patients presenting to a tertiary referral center. Out of 135 patients, 107 [79.3%; males 91; mean age (SD) at presentation: 55.5 (11.6) years] with complete data were included for analysis. Most patients had either cryptogenic cirrhosis (62.6%) or alcoholic cirrhosis (29.9%); 2 (1.9%) had HBV cirrhosis, none had hepatitis C (HCV) cirrhosis. None of the patients had received vaccination against hepatitis A, while 71 (67.6%) had been vaccinated against HBV. The majority [62 (58%)] were negative for anti-HAV IgG. Most cirrhotic patients in this cohort were not immune to hepatitis A. None had been vaccinated against HAV, while a third of patients had not been vaccinated against HBV. Cirrhotic patients should be routinely investigated for immunity against HAV and HBV, and vaccination offered to those found to be non-immune.

  18. Bone marrow-derived T lymphocytes responsible for allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, M.; Marusic, M.

    1984-01-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells were grafted with allogeneic skin grafts 6-7 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution. Mice with intact thymuses rejected the grafts whereas the mice thymectomized before irradiation and reconstitution did not. Thymectomized irradiated mice (TIR mice) reconstituted with bone marrow cells from donors immune to the allografts rejected the grafts. Bone marrow cells from immunized donors, pretreated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C', did not confer immunity to TIR recipients. To determine the number of T lymphocytes necessary for the transfer of immunity by bone marrow cells from immunized donors, thymectomized irradiated mice were reconstituted with nonimmune bone marrow cells treated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C' and with various numbers of splenic T lymphocytes from nonimmune and immune donors. Allogeneic skin graft rejection was obtained with 10(6) nonimmune or 10(4) immune T cells. The effect of immune T cells was specific: i.e., immune T cells accelerated only rejection of the relevant skin grafts whereas against a third-party skin grafts acted as normal T lymphocytes

  19. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate in normal, anaemic and transfused human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soothill, P W; Lestas, A N; Nicolaides, K H; Rodeck, C H; Bellingham, A J

    1988-05-01

    1. The effect of anaemia and transfusion with adult blood on fetal 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels was investigated by studying fetal blood from 45 normal pregnancies at 17-42 weeks of gestation and in 34 pregnancies complicated by erythroblastosis fetalis. 2. In normal fetuses, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration was higher than in adults and did not change significantly with gestational age. 3. In erythroblastotic fetuses, there was a significant negative correlation between 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and haemoglobin concentration. 4. When adult blood was transfused into the fetal circulation, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration reached similar levels to that found in untransfused fetuses after allowing for the severity of anaemia.

  20. A subserosal, pedunculated, multilocular uterine leiomyoma with ovarian tumor-like morphology and histological architecture of adenomatoid tumors: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Kenji; Tanaka, Yu; Hirano, Koki; Kai, Yuka; Arii, Kaoru; Nakatani, Kimiko; Ito, Satoshi; Imai, Toshiya; Fukunaga, Masaharu; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-12-20

    Uterine leiomyomas are common uterine tumors, and typical cases of leiomyoma are easily diagnosed by imaging study. However, uterine leiomyomas are often altered by degenerative changes, which can cause difficulty and confusion in their clinical diagnosis. We describe the 17th reported case of a uterine leiomyoma clinically diagnosed as an ovarian tumor; however, the present case shows the most detailed radiological evaluation, including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. We first show that a uterine leiomyoma can histologically mimic an adenomatoid tumor. A 47-year-old premenopausal, nulliparous Japanese woman with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia had lower abdominal pain. Ultrasonography confirmed a 6-cm mass in the right-sided space of the pelvic cavity. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation showed that a multilocular mass was present near the uterus, and a mucinous ovarian tumor was considered. Emergency surgery due to acute abdomen was performed under the diagnosis of pedicle torsion of the ovarian tumor. During surgery, a pedunculated uterine mass without stalk torsion was seen. The mass grossly contained serous and hemorrhagic fluids in the cavities, and pathology examination confirmed that the mass was a leiomyoma with hydropic and cystic degeneration. Anastomosing thin cord-like arrangements of the leiomyoma cells mimicked the architecture of adenomatoid tumors. The tumor cells were positive for the microphthalmia transcription factor but negative for other melanoma markers. Three days postoperatively, she was discharged without sequelae. Marked intratumoral deposition of fluids may induce the multilocular morphology of a tumor, and the cellular arrangement of the tumor cells with hydropic degeneration mimicked an adenomatoid tumor in this case. Clinicians need to be aware that a subserosal leiomyoma with cystic and hydropic degeneration can mimic an ovarian tumor, and pathologists should be aware that such

  1. Optimal management of Ménière’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster CA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carol A Foster Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA Abstract: Confusion in the nomenclature of Ménière’s disease and lack of a standard definition of the disorder until 1995 has hampered accurate assessment of treatment efficacy since the presently defined disorder was first described in 1938. The lack of a widely accepted mechanism of the disease has also delayed the development of rational treatments. Past treatments have focused on relieving elevated pressures in the hydropic ear and more recently on treatment of underlying migraine. Present dietary methods of control include sodium restriction and migraine trigger elimination. Pharmacologic treatments include diuretics, migraine prophylactic medications, histamine analogs, and oral steroids. Surgical procedures include intratympanic steroid perfusion, shunts, and ablative procedures when conservative treatments fail. External pressure devices are also used. Evidence of efficacy is lacking for most interventions other than ablation. At our institution, Ménière’s disease is treated as a cerebrovascular disorder. Control of risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemia is combined with treatment of pressure dysfunction in the hydropic ear. Screening for risk factors is performed at presentation. Migraine, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, hypertension, and atheroscle­rosis are among the major factors that often require medical management. Migraine prophylactic medications, magnesium supplementation, sodium restriction, migraine trigger elimination, diuretics, anticoagulants, and antihypertensives are among the treatments used initially. Steroids administered orally or intratympanically are used if control is not achieved medically, and ablation remains the definitive treatment in unilateral cases experiencing treatment failure. Keywords: endolymphatic hydrops, migraine, cerebrovascular disorders, ischemia

  2. Neonatal pleural effusions in a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions are rare in the newborn. Still, being familiar with this condition is relevant given its association with a wide range of disorders. Only two large series of cases on this matter have been published, with no solid conclusions established. The aim of this study is to determine the etiology, management and prognosis of pleural effusions in a population of high-risk neonates.The authors performed a retrospective study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of "Hospital de São João", Porto (Portugal, between 1997 and 2014, of all newborns with the diagnosis of pleural effusion, chylothorax, hemothorax, empyema, fetal hydrops or leakage of total parenteral nutrition (TPN.Eighty-two newborns were included, 48 males and 34 females. Pleural effusions were congenital in 19 (23.2% newborns and acquired in 63 (76.8%. Fetal hydrops was the most frequent cause (15 cases, 78.9% of congenital effusions while postoperative after intrathoracic surgery was the most common cause (39 cases, 61.9% of acquired effusions, followed by leakage of TPN (13 cases, 20.6%. Chylothorax was the most common type of effusion (41.5% of cases. Pleural effusions after intrathoracic surgery were mainly (64.1% chylothoraces. Regarding use of octreotide for treatment of acquired chylous effusions, the comparative analysis showed no statistical differences between the group of alive newborns who received octreotide and the group who did not. Twenty-seven (32.9% newborns died; the causes of death were related to underlying diseases and not to the pleural effusion. Clinical outcome is generally good, except in hydropic neonates. Blood albumin level appears to be predictive of prognosis and further investigation on its clinical significance should be encouraged.

  3. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Thomas, Kristen B.; Harned, Roger K.; Wu, Sarah R.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D.

    2005-01-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  5. Intrauterine transfusion and non-invasive treatment options for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn - review on current management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Carolien; van Kamp, Inge; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) remains a serious pregnancy complication which can lead to severe fetal anemia, hydrops and perinatal death. Areas covered: This review focusses on the current prenatal management, treatment with intrauterine transfusion (IUT) and promising non-invasive treatment options for HDFN. Expert commentary: IUTs are the cornerstone in prenatal management of HDFN and have significantly improved perinatal outcome in the past decades. IUT is now a relatively safe procedure, however the risk of complications is still high when performed early in the second trimester. Non-invasive management using intravenous immunoglobulin may be a safe alternative and requires further investigation.

  6. Rational management of acute keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Slonimskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute keratoconus is a common and severe complication of advanced progressive keratoconus that occurs in more than 30 % of cases. Acute corneal edema in advanced progressive keratectasia is reffered to as acute corneal hydrops (hydrops corneae. It has been also reported in other ectatic disorders such as pellucid marginal degeneration. The most common misdiagnosis in hydrops is HSV disciform keratitis or acute bacterial keratitis. 126 corneal hydrops patients (79 men, 47 women aged 16‑63 (129 eyes were observed and treated over the last five years. 124 patients were diagnosed with acute keratoconus and 2 patients were diagnosed with pellucid marginal degeneration. Acute kereatoconus patientsrepresented a special and compromised cohort with systemic allergic diseases (neurodermatitis and various atopic disorders, n = 48, Down’s syndrome (n = 16 or mental disorders (n = 19. In many of these patients who vigorously rubbed their eyes, keratectasia progressed more rapidly. In 7 cases, acute keratoconus developed during pregnancy. 3 cases of recurrent keratoconus were reported — in a woman with Down’s syndrome (recurrence in 3 years, in a man with severe neurodermatitis (recurrence in 5 years, and in a man with anamnestic acute keratoconus (recurrence in 20 years. 3 patients experienced bilateral acute keratoconus. Acute keratoconus can be subdivided by the area of corneal edema into three categories, i.e., partial (6 mm or less, 52 eyes, subtotal (7‑10 mm, 56 eyes, and total (more than 10 mm, 21 eyes. Corneal edema ultimately disappeared, however, acute keratoconus resulted in a deep local scarring through the corneal layers. Slit lamp exam revealed Descemet’s membrane ruptures (so-called fish mouth. 73 eyes were referred to refractive penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. Corneal perforation was unusual even in severe corneal thinning (4 cases. In one case, descemetocele with a high risk of perforation was observed. 4 eyes

  7. Rational management of acute keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Slonimskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute keratoconus is a common and severe complication of advanced progressive keratoconus that occurs in more than 30 % of cases. Acute corneal edema in advanced progressive keratectasia is reffered to as acute corneal hydrops (hydrops corneae. It has been also reported in other ectatic disorders such as pellucid marginal degeneration. The most common misdiagnosis in hydrops is HSV disciform keratitis or acute bacterial keratitis. 126 corneal hydrops patients (79 men, 47 women aged 16‑63 (129 eyes were observed and treated over the last five years. 124 patients were diagnosed with acute keratoconus and 2 patients were diagnosed with pellucid marginal degeneration. Acute kereatoconus patientsrepresented a special and compromised cohort with systemic allergic diseases (neurodermatitis and various atopic disorders, n = 48, Down’s syndrome (n = 16 or mental disorders (n = 19. In many of these patients who vigorously rubbed their eyes, keratectasia progressed more rapidly. In 7 cases, acute keratoconus developed during pregnancy. 3 cases of recurrent keratoconus were reported — in a woman with Down’s syndrome (recurrence in 3 years, in a man with severe neurodermatitis (recurrence in 5 years, and in a man with anamnestic acute keratoconus (recurrence in 20 years. 3 patients experienced bilateral acute keratoconus. Acute keratoconus can be subdivided by the area of corneal edema into three categories, i.e., partial (6 mm or less, 52 eyes, subtotal (7‑10 mm, 56 eyes, and total (more than 10 mm, 21 eyes. Corneal edema ultimately disappeared, however, acute keratoconus resulted in a deep local scarring through the corneal layers. Slit lamp exam revealed Descemet’s membrane ruptures (so-called fish mouth. 73 eyes were referred to refractive penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. Corneal perforation was unusual even in severe corneal thinning (4 cases. In one case, descemetocele with a high risk of perforation was observed. 4 eyes

  8. The effect of injection of high K+ solution into scala media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, T; Ohmura, M; Yagi, N

    1987-01-01

    Thirty guinea pig ears were studied to investigate the effect of endolymphatic hydrops on the cochlea. High K+ solution was injected into the scala media, and cochlear microphonics (CM) and endocochlear potential (EP) were observed before, during and after the injection. The CM amplitude decreased rapidly after injection, ending in a depressed plateau value. By contrast, EP remained almost unchanged. By changing the composition of the solution it was suggested that the effect of the injection was mechanical one, rather than biochemical. In three ears, spontaneous recovery of CM was observed during a relatively long interval after the injection. The meaning of these findings for the hearing loss in Meniere's disease is discussed.

  9. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Thomas, Kristen B.; Harned, Roger K.; Wu, Sarah R.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D. [University of California, Davis Health Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. α-thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgs Douglas R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-thalassaemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a clinical phenotype varying from almost asymptomatic to a lethal haemolytic anaemia. It is probably the most common monogenic gene disorder in the world and is especially frequent in Mediterranean countries, South-East Asia, Africa, the Middle East and in the Indian subcontinent. During the last few decades the incidence of alpha thalassaemia in North-European countries and Northern America has increased because of demographic changes. Compound heterozygotes and some homozygotes have a moderate to severe form of alpha thalassaemia called HbH disease. Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis is a lethal form in which no alpha-globin is synthesized. Alpha thalassaemia most frequently results from deletion of one or both alpha genes from the chromosome and can be classified according to its genotype/phenotype correlation. The normal complement of four functional alpha-globin genes may be decreased by 1, 2, 3 or all 4 copies of the genes, explaining the clinical variation and increasing severity of the disease. All affected individuals have a variable degree of anaemia (low Hb, reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH/pg, reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV/fl and a normal/slightly reduced level of HbA2. Molecular analysis is usually required to confirm the haematological observations (especially in silent alpha-thalassaemia and alpha-thalassaemia trait. The predominant features in HbH disease are anaemia with variable amounts of HbH (0.8-40%. The type of mutation influences the clinical severity of HbH disease. The distinguishing features of the haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome are the presence of Hb Bart's and the total absence of HbF. The mode of transmission of alpha thalassaemia is autosomal recessive. Genetic counselling is offered to couples at risk for HbH disease or haemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Foetalis Syndrome

  11. EFFICACY OF REMAXOL AND ADEMETHIONINE IN EXPERIMENTAL LIVER DAMAGE CAUSED BY A COMBINATION OF RESERVE-SERIES ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AND ALCOHOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sukhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic and endothelial protective effects of remaxol and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were studied on 24 male rats with liver damage caused by reserve-series antituberculosis drugs in combination with alcohol. The test agents were found to have a unilateral hepatoprotective effect in decreasing the blood levels of triglycerides, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase with a concurrent significant reduction in the manifestations of hyaline-drop and hydropic dystrophy of hepatocytes. Remaxol and ademethionine have the same endothelial protective activity manifested as normalization of an endothelium-dependent vasodilation response and endothelial dysfunction coefficient.

  12. Prevalence and evolution of human parvoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Norja, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses are minute single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of mammalians and invertebrates. Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) was discovered in the 1970s and was soon found to cause several diseases, including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemias, fetal hydrops, and fetal death. The B19V titer in blood is high during acute infection. After primary infection, B19V has been shown to persist in tissues of symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. Prior to the commencement of this w...

  13. Neonatal Hemoperitoneum Secondary to Hemorrhage from Omental Venous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hyun Nam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum in the neonate is uncommon. We report our experience with a neonate who suddenly developed hemoperitoneum in late gestation. Ascites with right pleural effusion initially suggested fetal hydrops. However, a decrease in hemoglobin with bloody ascites from the paracentesis gave the impression of hemoperitoneum. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed no abnormality in the solid organs. Using 3-mm laparoscopic exploration, we found the omental mass and excised it. It was histologically confirmed as a venous malformation. Venous malformation of the omentum with significant bleeding requiring exploration is a very rare condition in the neonate, but it should be considered as a cause of neonatal hemoperitoneum.

  14. Rift Valley fever virus infections in Egyptian cattle and their prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, C; Gwida, M; El-Ashker, M; Ziegler, U; Homeier-Bachmann, T; Eiden, M; Groschup, M H

    2017-12-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes consistently severe outbreaks with high public health impacts and economic losses in livestock in many African countries and has also been introduced to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Egypt with its four large outbreaks in the last 40 years represents the northernmost endemic area of RVFV. The purpose of this study was to provide an insight into the current anti-RVFV antibody status in immunized as well as non-immunized dairy cattle from the Nile Delta of Egypt. During 2013-2015, a total of 4,167 dairy cattle from four governorates including Dakahlia, Damietta, Gharbia and Port Said were investigated. All cattle were born after 2007 and therewith after the last reported Egyptian RVFV outbreak in 2003. The samples derived from vaccinated animals from 26 different dairy farms as well as non-immunized cattle from 27 different smallholding flocks. All samples were examined following a three-part analysis including a commercially available competition ELISA, an in-house immunofluorescence assay and a virus neutralization test. Additionally, a subset of samples was analysed for acute infections using IgM ELISA and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. The results indicated that the RVFV is still circulating in Egypt as about 10% of the non-immunized animals exhibited RVFV-specific antibodies. Surprisingly, the antibody prevalence in immunized animals was not significantly higher than that in non-vaccinated animals which points out the need for further evaluation of the vaccination programme. Due to the substantial role of livestock in the amplification and transmission of RVFV, further recurrent monitoring of the antibody prevalence in susceptible species is highly warranted. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Irradiated larval vaccination of ponies against strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, T R; Torbert, B J; Chapman, M R; Ochoa, R

    1982-08-01

    Nonimmune pony foals 9 to 12 mo of age were vaccinated with third-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae (L3) irradiated with 70, 100, or 130 Kr of gamma radiation. Ponies receiving per os inoculations of L3 irradiated with 70 or 100 Kr were protected from the clinical disease and lesions associated with challenge infections of 4,300 L3, when compared to nonvaccinated controls. Similarly, the numbers of worms from the challenging population recovered from successfully vaccinated animals were significantly lower than from nonvaccinated controls. The degree of resistance that develops in individuals can be semiquantitated based on clinical and pathological responses.

  16. METABOLIC AND AUTOIMMUNE RISK FACTORS FOR CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD IN HEART TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Khalilulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential autoimmunity risk factors for development of CAD are increasing level of anticardiolipin antibodies and homocystein. This report presents retrospective analyses of 39 heart transplant recipients with maximal follow up over 16 years. Our results showed that hyperhomocystenemia and high levels of anticardiolipin antibodies play great value in development of CAD. Thus relative risks for development of CAD in presence both high levels of anticardiolipin antibodies and homocysteine are higher, than in traditional nonimmune risk factors. 

  17. An innately dangerous balancing act: intestinal homeostasis, inflammation, and colitis-associated cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulated immune responses to the intestinal microbiota, and by chronic intestinal inflammation. Several recent studies demonstrate the importance of innate microbial recognition by immune and nonimmune cells in the gut. Paradoxically, either diminished or exacerbated innate immune signaling may trigger the breakdown of intestinal homeostasis, leading to IBD and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). This dichotomy may reflect divergent functional roles for immune sensing in intestinal epithelial cells and leukocytes, which may vary with distinct disease mechanisms. PMID:20679404

  18. IgE-mediated reaction to local anaesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartal, O.; Gulec, M.; Sener, O.; Caliskaner, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Local anaesthetics (LAs) are essential agents in daily practices of dentistry, minor surgery and dermatology. Although they have an impressive history of safety and efficacy, LAs also have the potential to produce adverse events, which are mainly of non-immune nature. The true IgE-mediated allergies are quite rare, but are more considerable in terms of ability to cause life-threatening outcomes. In this report, we present a case of IgE-mediated systemic reaction to LAs occurring during epidural anaesthesia for Cesarean section. (author)

  19. Prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies according to age with comments on the risk of prenatal infection.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, J.; Polak, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Sera from 1661 persons in 12 age groups from 0 to 79 years were titrated for toxoplasma antibodies in the indirect immunofluorescence test. The sera were collected from patients with symptoms suggestive of acute, mainly respiratory, viral infections. After the first year of life, the prevalence of antibodies started to rise, reaching 59% between 40 and 79 years of age. From the prevalence of antibodies in different age groups the annual infection risk, i.e, the risk of a non-immune person acq...

  20. IFN-λ and microRNAs are important modulators of the pulmonary innate immune response against influenza A (H1N2) infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Louise; Larsen, Lars E.; Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg

    2018-01-01

    the expression of miRNAs and protein coding genes in the lungs of pigs 1, 3, and 14 days after challenge with swine IAV (H1N2). Through RT-qPCR we observed a 400-fold relative increase in IFN-lambda 3 gene expression on day 1 after challenge, and a strong interferon-mediated antiviral response was observed......The innate immune system is paramount in the response to and clearance of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in non-immune individuals. Known factors include type I and III interferons and antiviral pathogen recognition receptors, and the cascades of antiviral and pro- and anti-inflammatory gene...

  1. RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone and controls cell proliferation of neurospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Natalia; Cédile, Oriane; Pollet-Villard, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    playing either immune or nonimmune function. Among the latter, MHC functions in the central nervous system has started to receive recent interest. Here, our first goal was to investigate the potential relationship between MHC class I molecules and neurogenesis. For the first time, we report the expression......, and we demonstrate they persist in one of the main area of adult neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ). So far, RAE-1 is only known for its immune functions as a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T, Tγδ, and some T CD8 lymphocytes. Here...

  2. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.

  3. Chickenpox ARDS in a health care worker following occupational exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knaggs, A

    2012-02-03

    A case is described of chickenpox acute respiratory distress syndrome in an ambulance driver after the inter-hospital transfer of a patient known to have chickenpox pneumonia. Following this exposure, he neither avoided patient contact nor received varicella zoster immune globulin. He subsequently required 13 days of ventilatory support before making a full recovery. The case described supports the contention that health care workers should be screened by serology for immunity to chickenpox before patient contact occurs, with subsequent vaccination of those who are non-immune, when the vaccine becomes available.

  4. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  5. Irradiated larval vaccination of ponies against Strongylus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klei, T.R.; Torbert, B.J.; Chapman, M.R.; Ochoa, R.

    1982-01-01

    Nonimmune pony foals 9 to 12 mo of age were vaccinated with third-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae (L3) irradiated with 70, 100, or 130 Kr of gamma radiation. Ponies receiving per os inoculations of L3 irradiated with 70 or 100 Kr were protected from the clinical disease and lesions associated with challenge infections of 4,300 L3, when compared to nonvaccinated controls. Similarly, the numbers of worms from the challenging population recovered from successfully vaccinated animals were significantly lower than from nonvaccinated controls. The degree of resistance that develops in individuals can be semiquantitated based on clinical and pathological responses

  6. Micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunosorbent technique (RIST) for the detection of immunity to clinical tetanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, G T [Royal Infirmary, Manchester (UK)

    1980-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and radioimmunosorbent assay (RIST) techniques for the detection of tetanus toxin antibodies are described. Both methods proved to be highly sensitive, and allowed the measurement of 5 x 10/sup -3/ units/ml tetanus antitoxin in human serum or plasma, sensitivity and reproducibility comparing well with other techniques previously described, and being superior to haemagglutination and latex agglutination tests. Results of the two methods correlated well, and reflected the immunization histories obtained. Micro ELISA and micro RIST would seem to be suitable for the detection of immunity, or non-immunity to clinical tetanus.

  7. A micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunosorbent technique (RIST) for the detection of immunity to clinical tetanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and radioimmunosorbent assay (RIST) techniques for the detection of tetanus toxin antibodies are described. Both methods proved to be highly sensitive, and allowed the measurement of 5 x 10 -3 units/ml tetanus antitoxin in human serum or plasma, sensitivity and reproducibility comparing well with other techniques previously described, and being superior to haemagglutination and latex agglutination tests. Results of the two methods correlated well, and reflected the immunization histories obtained. Micro ELISA and micro RIST would seem to be suitable for the detection of immunity, or non-immunity to clinical tetanus. (author)

  8. Report of the ECCO pathogenesis workshop on anti-TNF therapy failures in inflammatory bowel diseases: definitions, frequency and pharmacological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allez, Matthieu; Karmiris, Konstantinos; Louis, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The first ECCO pathogenesis workshop focused on anti-TNF therapy failures in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The overall objective was to better understand and explore primary non response and loss of response to anti-TNF agents in IBD. The outcome of this workshop is presented into two parts....... This first section addresses definitions, frequency and pharmacological aspects of anti-TNF therapy failure, including pharmacokinetics of anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies and immune and non-immune mediated clearance of anti-TNF mAbs. The second section concerns the biological roles of TNF and TNF antagonists...

  9. Long-term effect of oral immunization against influenza with a gamma-inactivated vaccine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, K.; Tischner, H.; Pohl, W.D.; Braeuniger, S.; Nordheim, W.

    1986-01-01

    NMRI mice were immunized orally twice within 10 days with an influenza vaccine inactivated by gamma radiation. The immunization with a relatively low dosis led to the occurence of low specific antibody titer in the lung lavage fluid up to 6th month. Despite of the low titer, immunized mice were protected against aerogenic infection for about 6 months. Protection was demonstrated in comparison to non-immunized mice by a limited increase of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage, low virus titer in the lung and survival of most animals after a lethal aerosol challenge with the live virus. (author)

  10. A mathematical model of radiation effect on the immunity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O.A.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model, simulating the effect of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of humoral immune reaction is suggested. It represents the system of nonlinear differential equations and is realized in the form of program in Fortran computer language. The model describes the primary immune reaction of nonirradiated organism on T-independent antigen, reflects the postradiation lymphopoiesis dynamics in nonimmunized mammals, simulates the processes of injury and recovery of the humoral immunity system under the combined effect of ionizing radiation and antigenic stimulation. The model can be used for forecasting imminity state in irradiated mammals

  11. Possible role of specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in immunoprotection of humans living in a hyperendemic area, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudin, C; Chumpitazi, B; Dziegiel, M

    1993-01-01

    of antibodies to crude extracts of Plasmodium falciparum (IgG or IgM antisomatic and IgG antiexoantigens) were tested by IFI or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were followed up according to the fluctuations of the parasite densities. Specific IgG antibodies had the same evolution as parasite densities....... Group 3 was composed of immunoprotected adults. Specific IgM and IgG antibodies to crude extracts or a recombinant antigen (glutamate-rich protein) of P. falciparum were tested. Specific IgM antibodies were lower in group 1 (nonimmune) than in groups 2 (semiimmune) and 3 (immunoprotected). Furthermore...

  12. Application of rat mast cell incubates as a possible short-time test for sensitizing occupational chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, F.; Neidhart, B.; Opree, W.

    1981-08-01

    The direct action of sensitizing occupational chemicals (formaldehyde, phenol, phenylhydrazine, p-aminophenol) on rat mast cells was investigated by determination of histamine using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection. It turned out that dispersed mast cells from immunized and non-immunized Wistar-rats are more sensitive than small-cut lung tissue slices. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was negative after a fortnight sensitizing experiment with the here described occupational chemicals. Short-time tests with rat mast cells reflect anaphylactoid response and are suitable for the screening of sensitizing chemicals.

  13. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S

    2003-03-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  14. MR imaging of the cochlear modiolus after intratympanic administration of Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hisashi; Naganawa, Shinji; Ishihara, Shunichi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether enhancement of the cochlear modiolus could be visualized 24 hours after intratympanic injection of gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using a 3-dimensional real inversion recovery sequence combined with a 32-channel head coil at 3 tesla. Intratympanic injection of Gd-DTPA has been reported for visualizing endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease, and its use has shown communication between the cochlear perilymph and cerebrospinal fluid in the internal auditory canal. Although the cochlear modiolus has been considered the route for this communication, this has not been confirmed through direct visualization of its enhancement. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the presence of contrast enhancement in the modiolus in 19 patients with clinically suspected endolymphatic hydrops or hearing loss who underwent imaging as described above. The contrast ratio (CR) between the cochlear modiolus and cerebellar white matter on the injected side was 1.09±1.23, and that on the non-injected side was -0.48±0.38 (P<0.01). In all subjects, the CR value was larger on the injected than non-injected side, and enhancement of the cochlear modiolus was also recognized visually. Intratympanic Gd-DTPA can be administered to visualize enhancement of the cochlear modiolus and may thereby reveal its functional anatomy. (author)

  15. Hemolytic disease in the newborn - history and prevention in the world and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavy, Jiri

    2010-06-01

    Hemolytic disease in the newborn with its typical signs and poor prognosis has been known for centuries. Historically it can be divided into three pathological states which are fetal hydrops (hydrops fetus universalis), neonatal jaundice (icterus neonati gravis familiaris) and fetal anemia (anemia neonati). Almost 70 reports with quite accurate descriptions were found up to the end of 19th century. The patho physiological basis of the condition began to be studied at the beginning of the last century and the development of our knowledge is an example of the cooperation between pathologists, pediatricians, hematologists and later, obstetricians, immunologists and geneticists. Despite all the advances in this field it remains a serious disease up to this time. It is not managed successfully in all cases and despite successful immunological prophylaxis there are cases when we need to administer intrauterine transfusion based on the information received by dopplerometric measurement of arteria cerebri perfusion and fetal blood sampling. Review of lover cited literature. The history of the hemolytic disease in the newborn, its condition and approaches to it has not been recently compiled in the Czech Republic.

  16. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from contaminated locations of the Lagos lagoon complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarinmoye, O.; Taiwo, V.; Clarke, E.; Kumolu-Johnson, C.; Aderinola, O.; Adekunbi, F.

    2010-01-01

    Several toxicological studies into the effects of aquatic pollutants on the liver of teleost fish exist in literature. The focus on the liver in these studies is predicated on its central nature in the scheme of biotransformation and excretion of xenobiotics following exposure in polluted water bodies. As a consequence of the latter primary role of the liver in these processes it is regarded as a predilective site for the sub lethal effects of xenobiotics on the organism usually detectable at histological level. Hepatic histopathology recorded in livers from feral populations of the brackish water catfish Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from locations on the Lagos lagoon complex with significant anthropogenic inputs from denizen populations and industries are presented. Liver sections from sixty specimens from two locations on the Lagos lagoon complex (Badagry lagoon: 6??24'N, 2??56'E; and Lagos lagoon: 6??29'N, 3??22'E) were analysed. Observed pathologies included hydropic degeneration (58%), portal / sinusoidal congestion (33%), hepatic necrosis (26%), hemosiderosis (12%) and foci of cellular alterations (FCA's). No obvious oncologic features were observed; the presence of the hydropic Vacuolation lesion was taken as prelude to the development of neoplasms and discussed as such. ?? 2009, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary.

  17. Histopathological changes due to the effect of selenium in experimental cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A Latheef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Selenium usually acts as an antioxidant at optimal levels in the body and increased levels are toxic. In this study an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of an optimum dose (0.14 mg of selenium on histopathological changes in experimental hypercholesterolemia in cockerels. Methods: The effect of selenium (0.14 mg was investigated on histopathological changes in four tissues namely liver, kidney, heart, and descending aorta in cockerel animal model. Animals were either fed with stock diet (group C, stock diet with cholesterol (group CH, stock diet with selenium (group Se, stock diet, selenium and cholesterol (group CH+Se for six months. Animals were sacrified and the tissues were isolated and subjected to histopathological study. Results: Xanthochromatic collections in liver were observed in group CH; hydropic degeneration in group Se and lobular disarray, hydropic degeneration and kuppfer cell hyperplasia in group CH+Se were observed. In kidney, mild mononuclear infiltration was observed in interstitium in groups CH, Se and CH+Se. myocyte disruption, and mononuclear infiltration in group CH and c0 H+Se, and disruption of muscle bundles with vascular congestion in group Se were observed. Smooth muscle proliferation in the media of blood vessel was observed in groups CH, Se and CH+Se. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that the optimum dose of (140 ΅g/day feeding induced atherogenesis by inflammation and smooth muscle proliferation in cockerels with experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  18. Late occurrence of granular dystrophy in bilateral keratoconus: Penetrating keratoplasty and long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of keratoconus with granular dystrophy with a follow-up of two decades, documenting the sequential presentation of two diseases confirmed by histology and genetic studies. A 13-year-old boy was diagnosed in 1988 with keratoconus in both eyes (BE based on slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings of corneal ectasia in BE accompanied by Fleischer′s ring, Vogt′s striae, a small, old, healed hydrops. The left eye (LE had central corneal thinning and scar in the central area involving the mid and posterior stroma secondary to healed hydrops. Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP was advised. The boy was lost to follow-up till 1991 and presented with white, dot-like opacities in the central cornea in the RE only, suggestive of granular corneal dystrophy. Similar findings of white, dot-like opacities were noted in the LE in 1995 and the patient subsequently underwent PKP in BE. Histopathology of corneal buttons confirmed the presence of patchy, crystal-like orange deposits, which stained bright red with Masson′s trichrome. Mutational analysis of the TGFBI gene in patient′s DNA revealed a heterozygous mutation corresponding to a change in Arg555Trp in the keratoepithelin protein. Granular dystrophy recurred after 8 years in the RE.

  19. Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F

    1992-05-01

    Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization.

  20. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after intrauterine transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn: the LOTUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenburg, Irene T; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E; van Klink, Jeanine M; Verduin, Esther; van Kamp, Inge L; Walther, Frans J; Schonewille, Henk; Doxiadis, Ilias I; Kanhai, Humphrey H; van Lith, Jan M; van Zwet, Erik W; Oepkes, Dick; Brand, Anneke; Lopriore, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in children with hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn treated with intrauterine transfusion (IUT). Neurodevelopmental outcome in children at least 2 years of age was assessed using standardized tests, including the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, according to the children's age. Primary outcome was the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment defined as at least one of the following: cerebral palsy, severe developmental delay, bilateral deafness, and/or blindness. A total of 291 children were evaluated at a median age of 8.2 years (range, 2-17 years). Cerebral palsy was detected in 6 (2.1%) children, severe developmental delay in 9 (3.1%) children, and bilateral deafness in 3 (1.0%) children. The overall incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment was 4.8% (14/291). In a multivariate regression analysis including only preoperative risk factors, severe hydrops was independently associated with neurodevelopmental impairment (odds ratio, 11.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-92.7). Incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment in children treated with intrauterine transfusion for fetal alloimmune anemia is low (4.8%). Prevention of fetal hydrops, the strongest preoperative predictor for impaired neurodevelopment, by timely detection, referral and treatment may improve long-term outcome. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal management of Ménière’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Confusion in the nomenclature of Ménière’s disease and lack of a standard definition of the disorder until 1995 has hampered accurate assessment of treatment efficacy since the presently defined disorder was first described in 1938. The lack of a widely accepted mechanism of the disease has also delayed the development of rational treatments. Past treatments have focused on relieving elevated pressures in the hydropic ear and more recently on treatment of underlying migraine. Present dietary methods of control include sodium restriction and migraine trigger elimination. Pharmacologic treatments include diuretics, migraine prophylactic medications, histamine analogs, and oral steroids. Surgical procedures include intratympanic steroid perfusion, shunts, and ablative procedures when conservative treatments fail. External pressure devices are also used. Evidence of efficacy is lacking for most interventions other than ablation. At our institution, Ménière’s disease is treated as a cerebrovascular disorder. Control of risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemia is combined with treatment of pressure dysfunction in the hydropic ear. Screening for risk factors is performed at presentation. Migraine, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, hypertension, and atherosclerosis are among the major factors that often require medical management. Migraine prophylactic medications, magnesium supplementation, sodium restriction, migraine trigger elimination, diuretics, anticoagulants, and antihypertensives are among the treatments used initially. Steroids administered orally or intratympanically are used if control is not achieved medically, and ablation remains the definitive treatment in unilateral cases experiencing treatment failure. PMID:25750534

  2. Optimal management of Ménière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Confusion in the nomenclature of Ménière's disease and lack of a standard definition of the disorder until 1995 has hampered accurate assessment of treatment efficacy since the presently defined disorder was first described in 1938. The lack of a widely accepted mechanism of the disease has also delayed the development of rational treatments. Past treatments have focused on relieving elevated pressures in the hydropic ear and more recently on treatment of underlying migraine. Present dietary methods of control include sodium restriction and migraine trigger elimination. Pharmacologic treatments include diuretics, migraine prophylactic medications, histamine analogs, and oral steroids. Surgical procedures include intratympanic steroid perfusion, shunts, and ablative procedures when conservative treatments fail. External pressure devices are also used. Evidence of efficacy is lacking for most interventions other than ablation. At our institution, Ménière's disease is treated as a cerebrovascular disorder. Control of risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemia is combined with treatment of pressure dysfunction in the hydropic ear. Screening for risk factors is performed at presentation. Migraine, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, hypertension, and atherosclerosis are among the major factors that often require medical management. Migraine prophylactic medications, magnesium supplementation, sodium restriction, migraine trigger elimination, diuretics, anticoagulants, and antihypertensives are among the treatments used initially. Steroids administered orally or intratympanically are used if control is not achieved medically, and ablation remains the definitive treatment in unilateral cases experiencing treatment failure.

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Using Two and Three-Dimensional Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Teresa Moreira Rios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacrococcygeal teratoma accounts for half of all fetal tumors, with a prevalence of 1 : 40,000 births. It is believed to originate from pluripotent cells in Hensen's nodule. Although most are benign, they are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates because the fetus develops congestive heart failure and hydrops. Factors leading to poor prognosis include solid components in the mass, and hydrops diagnosed before the 30th week. A case of prenatal sacrococcygeal teratoma diagnosed using B-mode and color Doppler two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS is described, in which three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS enabled characterization of the extent of fetal lesions and allowed the parents to understand the pathological condition better. A 20-year-old primigravida was referred with a solid mass diagnosed in the lumbosacral spine. Examinations performed at our institution revealed pregnancy of 23 weeks and 4 days, with a female fetus presenting a bulky solid mass with cystic components and calcifications, measuring 7.7×9.1×12.2 cm, starting from the sacral region, with internal flow seen on color Doppler. A new ultrasound confirmed fetal death at 25 weeks and 4 days. Postnatal findings confirmed the diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma. 3DUS can be used in cases of sacrococcygeal teratoma to assess the development of tumor during the prenatal and to allow better understanding of this anomaly by the parents.

  4. Communication between cochlear perilymph and cerebrospinal fluid through the cochlear modiolus visualized after intratympanic administration of Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Satake, Hiroko; Iwano, Shingo; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    Intratympanic injection of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) has been reported as a procedure to visualize endolymphatic hydrops of Meniere's disease. We frequently noted that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the internal auditory canal (IAC) was also enhanced after this procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how frequently this occurs and to investigate the specific features of patients who lack this communication. A total of 25 patients with clinically suspected endolymphatic hydrops underwent the procedure. After 24 h, three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) and 3D constructive interference in steady state (3D-CISS) were performed. The presence of contrast enhancement in the CSF space of the fundus of the IAC was evaluated. The contrast ratio between CSF of the IAC fundus and cerebellar white matter on the injected side was 1.49±0.65, and that of the noninjected side was 0.32±0.16 (P<0.01). Enhancement of the CSF space in the IAC fundus was seen in all but two subjects: one had enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (EEDS), and the other had cochlear nerve agenesis. In these two patients, the cochlear modiolus seemed to be normal. Intratympanic Gd-DTPA administration can reveal permeability of the modiolus and might facilitate evaluation of functional abnormalities of the modiolus not detected by conventional imaging tests. (author)

  5. Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A rare case of histologically proven placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD with fetal omphalocele in a 22-year-old patient is reported. Material and Methods. Antenatal ultrasound of this patient showed hydropic placenta with a live fetus of 17 weeks period of gestation associated with omphalocele. Cordocentesis detected the diploid karyotype of the fetus. Patient, when prognosticated, choose to terminate the pregnancy in view of high incidence of fetal and placental anomalies. Subsequent histopathological examination of placenta established the diagnosis to be placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion. On clinical and ultrasonic grounds, suspicion of P.M.D. arises when hydropic placenta with a live fetus presents in second trimester of pregnancy. Cordocentesis can detect the diploid karyotype of the fetus in such cases. As this condition is prognostically better than triploid partial mole, continuation of pregnancy can sometimes be considered after through antenatal screening and patient counseling. However, a definite diagnosis of P.M.D. is made only on placental histology by absence of trophoblast hyperplasia and trophoblastic inclusions.

  6. Abnormal umbilical cord Doppler sonograms may predict impending demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Johnson, Mark P; Coleman, Beverly G; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Adzick, N Scott; Flake, Alan W

    2004-01-01

    To identify factors predictive of fetal demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT). The recent management of monochorionic twins discordant for a large SCT and a singleton with a large SCT was reviewed. Serial fetal echocardiography and ultrasonography with Doppler flow measurements documented rapid growth of the SCT in both cases with a relatively modest increase in combined cardiac output. No placentomegaly or hydrops was observed at any time. In both fetuses with SCT, evolution of abnormal umbilical artery waveforms was observed with the ultimate development of reversed end-diastolic umbilical arterial flow that was followed by sudden fetal demise. Death in these 2 fetuses with large SCTs in the absence of placentomegaly/hydrops or hemodynamic changes suggestive of evolving high-output failure suggests a previously unrecognized mechanism of death in fetuses with large rapidly growing SCTs. In these cases, fetal demise may only be heralded by abnormal umbilical artery waveforms that progress to the premorbid observation of reversed diastolic umbilical artery blood flow. Umbilical artery waveform analysis should be closely monitored with other hemodynamic parameters in fetuses with large SCTs. In such fetuses, depending on the gestational age, abnormalities in umbilical artery waveform should be considered indications for early delivery or in utero intervention to prevent fetal demise. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Abnormal umbilical cord Dopplers may predict impending demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. A report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Johnson, Mark P; Coleman, Beverly G; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Adzick, N Scott; Flake, Alan W

    2003-01-01

    To identify factors predictive of fetal demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT). The recent management of monochorionic twins discordant for a large SCT and a singleton with a large SCT were reviewed. Serial fetal echocardiography and ultrasonography with Doppler flow measurements documented rapid growth of the SCT in both cases with a relatively modest increase in combined cardiac output. No placentomegaly or hydrops was observed at any time. In both fetuses with SCT, evolution of abnormal umbilical artery waveforms was observed with the ultimate development of reversed end-diastolic umbilical arterial flow that was followed by sudden fetal demise. Death in these 2 fetuses with large SCTs in the absence of placentomegaly/hydrops or hemodynamic changes suggestive of evolving high-output failure suggests a previously unrecognized mechanism of death in fetuses with large rapidly growing SCTs. In these cases, fetal demise may only be heralded by abnormal umbilical artery waveforms that progress to the premorbid observation of reversed diastolic umbilical artery blood flow. Umbilical artery waveform analysis should be closely monitored with other hemodynamic parameters in fetuses with large SCTs. In such fetuses, depending on the gestational age, abnormalities in umbilical artery waveform should be considered indications for early delivery or in utero intervention to prevent fetal demise. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Stria vascularis and cochlear hair cell changes in syphilis: A human temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Pelin; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    To observe any changes in stria vascularis and cochlear hair cells in patients with syphilis. We examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with syphilis (our syphilis group), as well as 12 histopathologically normal samples from 9 age-matched patients without syphilis (our control group). We compared, between the two groups, the mean area of the stria vascularis (measured with conventional light microscopy connected to a personal computer) and the mean percentage of cochlear hair cell loss (obtained from cytocochleograms). In our syphilis group, only 1 (7.7%) of the 13 samples had precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces; 8 (61.5%) of the samples revealed the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (4 cochlear, 4 saccular). The mean area of the stria vascularis did not significantly differ, in any turn of the cochlea, between the 2 groups (P>0.1). However, we did find significant differences between the 2 groups in the mean percentage of outer hair cells in the apical turn (Psyphilis group, we observed either complete loss of the organ of Corti or a flattened organ of Corti without any cells in addition to the absence of both outer and inner hair cells. In this study, syphilis led either to complete loss of the organ of Corti or to significant loss of cochlear hair cells, in addition to cochleosaccular hydrops. But the area of the stria vascularis did not change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Placental abruption possibly due to parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Ayaka; Takai, Yasushi; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Samejima, Kouki; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about the development of anemia-associated fetal hydrops associated with maternal parvovirus B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 infection occurs via the globoside (P antigen) receptor, the main glycolipid of erythroid cells, which induces apoptosis. Similar findings have been reported for the P antigen of globoside-containing placental trophoblast cells. A 32-year-old woman was infected with human parvovirus B19 at week 32 of pregnancy, and had severe anemia at week 34. At week 37, an emergency cesarean section was performed because of sudden abdominal pain and fetal bradycardia; placental abruption was found. A live male infant was delivered with no sign of fetal hydrops or fetal infection. Placental tissue was positive for parvovirus B19 according to polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-related M30 CytoDEATH monoclonal antibody revealed M30 staining of the placental villous trophoblasts. Placental trophoblasts and erythroid precursor cells have been reported to express globoside (P antigen), which is necessary for parvovirus B19 infectivity, and to show apoptotic activity as a result of infection. Placentas from three other pregnancies with documented abruption showed no M30 staining. The present case strongly suggests an association between placental abruption and apoptosis resulting from parvovirus B19 infection.

  10. Computed tomography of the petrous bone in otosclerosis and Meniere's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, J.A.M. de.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine if, in the case of otosclerosis and Meniere's disease, one could obtain more information with high resolution computer tomography than with conventional polytomography. In the first part of this thesis a brief survey of some principles of computer tomography is given and a computer tomographic atlas of the normal petrous bone in the otoradiologic planes used in this study. In the introduction of the second part some aspects of otosclerose are discussed (definition, clinical aspects). Subsequently a treatment is given of a part of the histopathology referring to the otospongiotic and otosclerotic changes in the labyrinthine capsule. A survey is given of preceding studies on the petrous bone in the case of otosclerosis; in these studies mostly classical planigraphic techniques were employed. In the third part some general aspects of Meniere's disease are discussed: definition, incidence, clinical aspects and pathophysiology. It is assumed that the symptoms of Meniere's disease are caused by an overpressure in the endolymphatic areas of the labyrinthum ('hydrops'), however till now a proof for this is still not given. The ductus endolympathicus, which passes through a channel in the petrous bone (the vestibular aqueduct), plays a role in the drainage of endolymph. Stagnation of this drainage could cause hydrops. (Auth.)

  11. Molecular mechanism and function of CD40/CD40L engagement in the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; Benson, Micah J; de Vries, Victor C; Wasiuk, Anna; Guo, Yanxia; Noelle, Randolph J

    2009-05-01

    During the generation of a successful adaptive immune response, multiple molecular signals are required. A primary signal is the binding of cognate antigen to an antigen receptor expressed by T and B lymphocytes. Multiple secondary signals involve the engagement of costimulatory molecules expressed by T and B lymphocytes with their respective ligands. Because of its essential role in immunity, one of the best characterized of the costimulatory molecules is the receptor CD40. This receptor, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is expressed by B cells, professional antigen-presenting cells, as well as non-immune cells and tumors. CD40 binds its ligand CD40L, which is transiently expressed on T cells and other non-immune cells under inflammatory conditions. A wide spectrum of molecular and cellular processes is regulated by CD40 engagement including the initiation and progression of cellular and humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we describe the downstream signaling pathways initiated by CD40 and overview how CD40 engagement or antagonism modulates humoral and cellular immunity. Lastly, we discuss the role of CD40 as a target in harnessing anti-tumor immunity. This review underscores the essential role CD40 plays in adaptive immunity.

  12. The Immune Response and the Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myositis: a Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceribelli, Angela; De Santis, Maria; Isailovic, Natasa; Gershwin, M Eric; Selmi, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIMs, including polymyositis and dermatomyositis) remains largely enigmatic, despite advances in the study of the role played by innate immunity, adaptive immunity, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors in an orchestrated response. Several factors are involved in the inflammatory state that characterizes the different forms of IIMs which share features and mechanisms but are clearly different with respect to the involved sites and characteristics of the inflammation. Cellular and non-cellular mechanisms of both the immune and non-immune systems have been identified as key regulators of inflammation in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, particularly at different stages of disease, leading to the fibrotic state that characterizes the end stage. Among these, a special role is played by an interferon signature and complement cascade with different mechanisms in polymyositis and dermatomyositis; these differences can be identified also histologically in muscle biopsies. Numerous cellular components of the adaptive and innate immune response are present in the site of tissue inflammation, and the complexity of idiopathic inflammatory myositis is further supported by the involvement of non-immune mechanisms such as hypoxia and autophagy. The aim of this comprehensive review is to describe the major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the onset of idiopathic inflammatory myositis and to report on the major working hypothesis with therapeutic implications.

  13. Direct effects of fermented cow's milk product with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 on human enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, L; Aitoro, R; Nocerino, R; Fierro, C; Bruno, C; Canani, R Berni

    2018-01-29

    Cow's milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 (FM-CBAL74) exerts a preventive effect against infectious diseases in children. We evaluated if this effect is at least in part related to a direct modulation of non-immune and immune defence mechanisms in human enterocytes. Human enterocytes (Caco-2) were stimulated for 48 h with FM-CBAL74 at different concentrations. Cell growth was assessed by colorimetric assay; cell differentiation (assessed by lactase expression), tight junction proteins (zonula occludens1 and occludin), mucin 2, and toll-like receptor (TRL) pathways were analysed by real-time PCR; innate immunity peptide synthesis, beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and cathelicidin (LL-37) were evaluated by ELISA. Mucus layer thickness was analysed by histochemistry. FMCBA L74 stimulated cell growth and differentiation, tight junction proteins and mucin 2 expression, and mucus layer thickness in a dose-dependent fashion. A significant stimulation of HBD-2 and LL-37 synthesis, associated with a modulation of TLR pathway, was also observed. FM-CBAL74 regulates non-immune and immune defence mechanisms through a direct interaction with the enterocytes. These effects could be involved in the preventive action against infectious diseases demonstrated by this fermented product in children.

  14. Predictors of travel-related hepatitis A and B among native adult Danes: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ulla Schierup; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Cowan, Susan; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Petersen, Eskild

    2012-04-01

    To assess journey length and other predictors of travel-related acute hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) virus infection among native Danes and determine the sensitivity and specificity of current pre-travel vaccination guidelines. A nationwide case-control study was perfomed involving 60 Danes with HAV and 14 with HBV who acquired hepatitis in non-western countries from 2000 to 2010. Non-immune travellers from a nationwide survey (1188 HAV and 1709 HBV) served as controls. The odds ratios (ORs) for HAV and HBV increased with increasing journey length (p<0.0001). However, 90% of HAV and 62% of HBV cases travelled for less than 4 weeks, and the daily infection rate did not increase with journey length; rather, for HAV it decreased. Increasing age (p<0.0001) and journeys to Africa (OR 6.1 (3.2-11)) raised the risk of acute HAV. Travelling alone or with friends as compared to travelling with a partner/family (OR: 15 (3.2-134)) strongly predicted HBV risk. Danish vaccination guidelines had HAV/HBV sensitivities of 86%/31%, and specificities of 27%/95%, respectively. Incidence rates were 12.8 (HAV) and 10.2 (HBV) per 100,000 non-immune travel months, and acute disease severity affected HAV and HBV cases equally. These results may support revision of current pre-travel vaccination guidelines. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial peptides in the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Joon Ha; Shin, Younhee; Shim, Jae-Young; Jung, Myunghee; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Oh, Jaedon; Seong, Jiyeon; Lee, Hak Kyo; Kong, Hong Sik; Song, Ki-Duk; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, In-Woo; Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Dong Gun; Hwang, Ui-Wook; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2014-06-01

    The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans is an environmentally beneficial and medically important arthropod species. Although this species is increasingly applied as a reliable source of new antimicrobial peptides, the transcriptome of this species is a prerequisite for more rational selection of antimicrobial peptides. In this report, we isolated total RNA from the whole body of adult centipedes, S. subspinipes mutilans, that were nonimmunized and immunized against Escherichia coli, and we generated a total of 77,063 pooled contigs and singletons using high-throughput sequencing. To screen putative antimicrobial peptides, in silico analyses of the S. subspinipes mutilans transcriptome were performed based on the physicochemical evidence of length, charge, isoelectric point, and in vitro and in vivo aggregation scores together with the existence of continuous antimicrobial peptide stretches. Moreover, we excluded some transcripts that showed similarity with both previously known antimicrobial peptides and the human proteome, had a proteolytic cleavage site, and had downregulated expression compared with the nonimmunized sample. As a result, we selected 17 transcripts and tested their antimicrobial activity with a radial diffusion assay. Among them, ten synthetic peptides experimentally showed antimicrobial activity against microbes and no toxicity to mouse erythrocytes. Our results provide not only a useful set of antimicrobial peptide candidates and an efficient strategy for novel antimicrobial peptide development but also the transcriptome data of a big centipede as a valuable resource.

  16. Comparison of a gel column blood typing method and a point-of-care cartridge for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Richardson, Danielle M; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2013-01-01

    Blood typing for the presence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA) 1.1 is recommended in all donor and recipient dogs prior to transfusion of blood products. The objective of this study was to determine if a point-of-care DEA 1.1 blood typing cartridge could be used in place of the gel column typing method. Detection of DEA 1.1 was performed using a laboratory-based gel column method and a point-of-care cartridge. A convenience sample of 30 healthy blood donors, 13 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) (3 of which had concurrent immune-mediated thrombocytopenia [IMT]), and 44 dogs with other diseases was included in the study. Agreement was observed between the tests for normal dogs and dogs with nonimmune-mediated disease in 74/74 cases. Two dogs in the IMHA group had indeterminate gel column blood typing results; 1 dog in this group had a negative gel column test result but a positive cartridge test result. There was good agreement between the 2 methods for normal dogs and dogs with nonimmune-mediated disease. Blood typing methods in dogs with IMHA should be further investigated. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  17. Glucose 6 phosphatase dehydrogenase (G6PD and neurodegenerative disorders: Mapping diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key and rate limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. The physiological significance of enzyme is providing reduced energy to specific cells like erythrocyte by maintaining co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. There are preponderance research findings that demonstrate the enzyme (G6PD role in the energy balance, and it is associated with blood-related diseases and disorders, primarily the anemia resulted from G6PD deficiency. The X-linked genetic deficiency of G6PD and associated non-immune hemolytic anemia have been studied widely across the globe. Recent advancement in biology, more precisely neuroscience has revealed that G6PD is centrally involved in many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective role of the enzyme (G6PD has also been established, as well as the potential of G6PD in oxidative damage and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS produced in cerebral ischemia. Though G6PD deficiency remains a global health issue, however, a paradigm shift in research focusing the potential of the enzyme in neurological and neurodegenerative disorders will surely open a new avenue in diagnostics and enzyme therapeutics. Here, in this study, more emphasis was made on exploring the role of G6PD in neurological and inflammatory disorders as well as non-immune hemolytic anemia, thus providing diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  18. Proteolytic activity of IgGs from blood serum of wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis

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    Yu. Ya. Kit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the proteolytic activity of IgGs purified from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ERA induced by an injection of bovine collagen of type II. Twenty rats were immunized with a preparation of bovine collagen II (Sigma-Aldrich, USA in the presence of complete Freund’s adjuvant. ERA development was determined by inflammation in limbs of treated animals. IgG preparations were isolated from blood serum of immunized and non-immunized animals by precipitation of antibodies with 33% ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on the Protein G-Sepharose column. Human histone H1, bovine collagen II, calf thymus histones, myelin basic protein (MBP, bovine serum albumin (BSA, and bovine casein were used as substrates of the proteolytic activity of IgGs. It was found that IgG preparations from blood serum of rats with ERA were capable of cleaving histone H1 and MBP, however, they were catalytically inactive towards collagen II, casein, BSA, and core histones. IgGs from blood serum of non-immunized rats were proteolytically inactive towards all used protein substrates. Thus, we demonstrated that immunization of rats with bovine collagen II induced IgG-antibodies possessing the proteolytic activity towards histone H1 and MBP. This activity might be associated with the development of inflammatory processes in the immunized rats.

  19. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr 51 -release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK

  20. Winter distribution and abundance of Snowy Plovers in eastern North America and the West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Smith, Elise; Haig, Susan M.; Ferland, C.L.; Gorman, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Serum protein changes were studied in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with three different strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Strain I (nonvirulent) produced no change in the relative concentration of serum components. Strains II (oral canker) and III (Jones' Barn) produced decreases in albumin and alpha globulins, and increases in beta and gamma globulins between the 7th and 20th days post infection. Birds infected with strain II began to return to normal by the 20th day, while all those infected with strain III were dead between 10 and 14 days post infection. Two serum protein patterns resulted from infection of immune birds with the Jones' Barn strain. One showed no change in relative protein concentrations and no tissue invasion by the parasite while the other was similar to that seen in nonimmune birds infected with a strain producing oral canker. These also showed evidence of tissue invasion by the parasite. It was concluded that tissue invasion was necessary to evoke a quantitative change in serum protein concentrations.

  1. Cardiovascular Disorders in Thyrotoxicosis of Various Origins: Optimization of Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Yu. Babenko

    2014-11-01

    ling formed more often. In patients with overt thyrotoxicosis, formation of all types of left ventricular pathological remodeling was associated with male gender, age older than 44 years, the presence of systolic hypertension, duration of the disease with the lack of stable compensation of hyperthyroidism for more than 20 months. In patients with overt thyrotoxicosis, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure occurs much more frequently than in patients who had subclinical hyperthyroidism (16.5 and 7 %; 40 and 32 %; 8.6 and 4.5 %, respectively. Both overt and subclinical thyrotoxicosis led to the development of endothelial dysfunction, the incidence and severity of which was greater in autoimmune origin of thyrotoxicosis (impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the immune origin was observed in 79 % of patients, with non-immune origin — in 13.3 % of cases, the level of von Willebrand factor was higher in the immune origin of hyperthyroidism in 53 % of patients, with non-immune origin — in 20 %, and its average level was within the normal range in this group. Selecting thyrostatic (mercazolilum or propitsil and beta-blockers (selective or non-selective is not a factor determining the risk of thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy and inverse dynamics of its manifestations. Inclusion in the therapy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors can reduce the severity of left ventricular hypertrophy, dilatation of the left atrium, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction.

  2. First applications of a targeted exome sequencing approach in fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities reveals an important fraction of cases with associated gene defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Pangalos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fetal malformations and other structural abnormalities are relatively frequent findings in the course of routine prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Due to their considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity, the underlying genetic cause is often elusive and the resulting inability to provide a precise diagnosis precludes proper reproductive and fetal risk assessment. We report the development and first applications of an expanded exome sequencing-based test, coupled to a bioinformatics-driven prioritization algorithm, targeting gene disorders presenting with abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings. Methods. We applied the testing strategy to14 euploid fetuses, from 11 on-going pregnancies and three products of abortion, all with various abnormalities or malformations detected through prenatal ultrasound examination. Whole exome sequencing (WES was followed by variant prioritization, utilizing a custom analysis pipeline (Fetalis algorithm, targeting 758 genes associated with genetic disorders which may present with abnormal fetal ultrasound findings. Results. A definitive or highly-likely diagnosis was made in 6 of 14 cases (43%, of which 3 were abortuses (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Nemaline myopathy 2 and 3 involved on-going pregnancies (Citrullinemia, Noonan syndrome, PROKR2-related Kallmann syndrome. In the remaining eight on-going pregnancy cases (57%, a ZIC1 variant of unknown clinical significance was detected in one case, while in seven cases testing did not reveal any pathogenic variant(s. Pregnancies were followed-up to birth, resulting in one neonate harboring the PROKR2 mutation, presenting with isolated minor structural cardiac abnormalities, and in seven apparently healthy neonates. Discussion. The expanded targeted exome sequencing-based approach described herein (Fetalis, provides strong evidence suggesting a definite and beneficial increase in our diagnostic capabilities in prenatal

  3. Distribution of thalassemias and associated hemoglobinopathies identified by prenatal diagnosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Tien; Liu, Su-Ching; Peng, Yi-Chin; Lin, Tsai-Hsiu; Wang, Shiow-Jain; Le, Ching-Yi; Shih, Mu-Chin; Tien, Ni; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2013-10-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) gene disorders are common hereditary disorders in Taiwan, and α- and β-thalassemias are among the well-known Hb disorders here. Our study provides a primary reference for designing a locally relevant antenatal diagnostic test to control the spread of thalassemia. Between 1998 and 2011, prenatal diagnoses for identifying thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies were performed on 1240 fetuses at risk for α-hydrops and β-thalassemia major. Of 1240 specimens analyzed, 1082 (87%) were obtained by amniocentesis; 125 (10%), by chorionic villus sampling; and 33 (3%), by cordocentesis. Prenatal diagnoses revealed that 21.5% of these fetuses as thalassemia major (including α-thalassemia hydrops, β-thalassemia major, and Hb E/β-thalassemia); 50.2%, for thalassemia minor (include α-thalassemia carrier, β-thalassemia carrier, and α-thalassemia combined β-thalassemia carrier); and 28.3% for normal type (include non-α, β-thalassemia). The most common α-hydrops were SEA (Southeast Asian) and Philippine type (frequencies of 74.91 and 5.24%, respectively). The frequency of the IVS-II-654 combined codons 41/42 mutation, the most common β-thalassemia major mutation in this region, was 5.24%. Two fetuses were found with E/β-thalassemia (HbE/IVS-II-654 and HbE/codons 41/42, respectively). Since 1993, Taiwan's Department of Health adopted a national program for screening pregnancies to control spread of thalassemia. In the last 10years, less than 3 such cases have occurred per year. After 2003, this number was 0 for a total of 4years (2003, 2004, 2007, and 2008). In Taiwan, incidence and frequency of thalassemia genotypes were similar to those previously reported. The national program for screening pregnancies to control spread of thalassemia that resulted in a marked decline in the number of newborns with thalassemia major. Interestingly, prenatal diagnoses revealed 21.5% for thalassemia major, 50.2% for thalassemia minor, 28.3% normal comparison of thalassemia

  4. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Sunita; Bhati, Sharwan; Isran, Rakesh; Ranga, Deepti; Meena, Dinesh; Pyarelal

    2012-01-01

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  5. Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollason Terence P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus is a recently described rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. We report a case of cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma in a 52 year old woman who presented with menorrhagia and abdominal pain. An ultrasound scan showed a bulky uterus and a cystic heterogenous mass near the left ovary. At hysterectomy, the left broad ligament mass was removed. This was continuous with an ill-defined nodular area in the myometrial fundus. Microscopy revealed a benign smooth muscle proliferation in the myometrium that extended beyond the uterus and into the broad ligament. The lesion appeared to be dissecting the myometrial fibres and showed areas of oedema, hyalinisation and perinodular hydropic change. Cellular atypia, mitoses and coagulative necrosis were absent. The patient is alive and well 18 months after surgery. It is important to recognize this benign and unusual appearing variant of leiomyoma in order to prevent inappropriate treatment.

  6. Primary adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Güngördük

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is a rare tumor that histologically and clinically resembles primary ovarian carcinoma. In this article, seven patients with primary fallopian tube carcinoma who were managed at our clinic between 2002 and 2007 were evaluated. All cases were treated by total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy,appendectomy and lymph node dissection followed by chemotherapy. Fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely suspected preoperatively. The symptom complex of ‘hydrops tubae profluence’, said to be pathognomonic for this tumor, is rarely encountered. Appropriate therapy for each stage of the disease should be defined, and further studies are required to better depict the clinical course and; prognostic factors.

  7. Epidermal growth factor in alkali-burned corneal epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Foster, C S

    1987-06-15

    We conducted a double-masked study to evaluate the effect of epidermal growth factor on epithelial wound healing and recurrent erosions in alkali-burned rabbit corneas. Epithelial wounds 10 mm in diameter healed completely under the influence of topical epidermal growth factor, whereas the control corneas did not resurface in the center. On reversal of treatment, the previously nonhealing epithelial defects healed when treated with topical epidermal growth factor eyedrops. Conversely, the epidermal growth factor-treated and resurfaced corneas developed epithelial defects when treatment was discontinued. Histopathologic examination disclosed hyperplastic epithelium growing over the damaged stroma laden with polymorphonuclear leukocytes when treated with epidermal growth factor eyedrops, but it did not adhere to the underlying tissue. Hydropic changes were seen intracellularly as well as between the epithelial cells and the stroma.

  8. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops

  9. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in two dogs with different underlying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; McNeil, P E; Evans, H; Srebernik, N

    1995-05-06

    Two dogs with metabolic epidermal necrosis had hyperkeratosis of the footpads accompanied by erythematous, erosive and crusting lesions affecting the muzzle, external genitalia, perineum and periocular regions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a superficial hydropic dermatitis with marked parakeratosis. Both dogs had high plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase and high concentrations of glucose, and also a marked hypoaminoacidaemia. Despite these similarities, the cutaneous eruptions were associated with different underlying diseases. One dog had a pancreatic carcinoma which had metastasised widely; the primary tumour and the metastases showed glucagon immunoreactivity on immunocytochemical staining, and the dog's plasma glucagon concentration was markedly greater than that of control dogs. The other dog had diffuse hepatic disease; its plasma glucagon concentration was similar to that of control samples and cirrhosis was identified post mortem. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in dogs is a distinct cutaneous reaction pattern which may be associated with different underlying systemic diseases; however, the pathogenesis of the skin lesions remains unclear.

  10. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  11. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  12. Repairing skull defects in children with nano-hap/collagen composites:A clinical report of thirteen cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuoyu Chen; Fuzhai Cui; Yuqi Zhang; Huancong Zuo; Yapeng Zhao; Chaoqiang Xue; Bin Luo; Qinglin Zhang; Jin Zhu; Xiumei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical results of repairing skull defects with biomimetic bone (nano-hap/collagen composites, NHACs) in children. Methods:Thirteen children with skull defects were treated with NHACs in our hospital. The NHACs molded with the help of a 3D printer were used in the operations. Results: All 13 operations were successful, and patients recovered without infection. Only one patient suffered from subcutaneous hydrops post-operation. The implanted NHACs remained fixed well after 1 year, and their CT HU values raised gradually. Skull shapes of children developed normally. Recovery of neurological and cognitive function was significant. Conclusions:NHAC, chosen to repair skull defects in children, can coexist with normal skull and reduce the negative effects on growth and development. NHAC could be a good choice for children with skull defects.

  13. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnostics in cases of congenital cystadenomatoid malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesing, K.A.; Kilian, A.K.; Neff, K.W.; Schaible, T.

    2006-01-01

    Despite advancing therapeutic strategies, congenital cystadenomatoid malformation of the fetal lung is still a potentially life-threatening anomaly. Antenatally, the development of hydrops as well as the natural history of the malformation is of particular therapeutic and prognostic importance. Postnatally, respiratory distress due to pulmonary hypoplasia counts as a crucial limiting factor. Owing to its feasibility and practicability, as well as a high sensitivity, antenatal ultrasound is still the screening method of choice for the detection of fetal thoracic malformations. However, particularly in cases of indistinguishable sonographic findings, fetal MRI is the modality of choice for proving the diagnosis and preliminary appraisal of intensive care therapy and extracorporal membrane oxygenation postnatally. Furthermore, fetal MRI often facilitates assessment and planning of intrauterine surgical procedures. These two features frequently require a close transfer to an expert neonatal centre. (orig.) [de

  14. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  15. Value of amniofetography following ultrasound diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, Z; Vachter, J; Csecsei, K; Papp, Z [Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Radiologiai Klinika

    1984-08-01

    In the course of amniocentesis, the contrast agent injected into the gestational sac disperses evenly in the amniotic fluid. The fat-soluble contrast agent binds to the exterior of the fetus, while the water-soluble one enters the gastrointestinal tract by swallowing. Thus, by means of amniofetography, numerous fetal anomalies can be detected prenatally. Authors describe the technique of the method, its field of indication, and their own experiences in 13 cases. Successful diagnoses were established such as cervical hygrom, myelomeningocele, thanatophor dysplasia, hydrocephalia, anencephalia, iniencephalia, encephalocele, hydrops, omphalocele, oesophageal and intestinal atresia. Amniofetography is indicated when fetal developmental anomaly is suspected, and its type and grade of seriousness, respectively, can not be assessed by means of echography and/or amniocentesis.

  16. The value of amniofetography following ultrasound diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Zoltan; Vachter, Janos; Csecsei, Karoly; Papp, Zoltan

    1984-01-01

    In the course of amniocentesis, the contrast agent injected into the gestational sac disperses evenly in the amniotic fluid. The fat-soluble contrast agent binds to the exterior of the fetus, while the water-soluble one enters the gastrointestinal tract by swallowing. Thus, by means of amniofetography, numerous fetal anomalies can be detected prenatally. Authors describe the technique of the method, its field of indication, and their own experiences in 13 cases. Successful diagnoses were established such as cervical hygrom, myelomeningocele, thanatophor dysplasia, hydrocephalia, anencephalia, iniencephalia, encephalocele, hydrops, omphalocele, oesophageal and intestinal atresia. Amniofetography is indicated when fetal developmental anomaly is suspected, and its type and grade of seriousness, respectively, can not be assessed by means of echography and/or amniocentesis. (author)

  17. A Novel Mutation on RAF1 in Association with Fetal Findings Suggestive of Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneitel, Anna W; Norby, Audrey; Vettraino, Ivana; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2015-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by genes encoding proteins involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway. Affected fetuses have variable presentations ranging from the absence of prenatal findings to increased nuchal fold, cystic hygromas, pleural effusions, cardiac malformations, or skin edema. We describe a male fetus who had features consistent with Noonan syndrome at the time of fetal anatomic survey, including hydrops and a possible cardiac defect. Subsequent scan revealed persistent bilateral pleural effusions (with predominance of lymphocytes). After bilateral thoracoamniotic shunt placement, the fetus did well and delivered at term. Prenatal testing revealed an S650F missense mutation in the RAF1 gene, which had not previously been associated with Noonan syndrome.

  18. Two cases of RIT1 associated Noonan syndrome: Further delineation of the clinical phenotype and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Doris; Overwater, Eline; Tamminga, Saskia; de Boer, Karin; Elting, Mariet W; van Hoorn, Marion E; Rinne, Tuula; Houweling, Arjan C

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in RIT1, involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway, have recently been identified as a cause for Noonan syndrome. We present two patients with Noonan syndrome caused by a RIT1 mutation with novel phenotypic manifestations, severe bilateral lower limb lymphedema starting during puberty, and fetal hydrops resulting in intrauterine fetal death, respectively. Including our patients, a total of 52 patients have been reported with Noonan syndrome caused by a RIT1 mutation. Our report contributes to the delineation of the phenotype associated with RIT1 mutations and underlines that lymphatic involvement is part of this spectrum. In addition, we provide an overview of the currently described Noonan syndrome patients with RIT1 mutations in literature. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Infra-sound cancellation and mitigation in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Albert; Ordys, Andrew; Al Zubaidy, Sarim

    2018-03-01

    The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometres far from wind turbine installations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and affect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.

  20. CLINICAL AND FAMILY PROFILE OF PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH KERATOCONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To screen the first degree relatives of patient diagnosed with keratoconus . MATERIALS AND METHODS : All the patients included in the study, patient details were taken which included - name, age, gender, hospital number, address and family history [pedigree tree] . All the patients underwent refraction, best corrected visual acuity, colour vision , keratometry, intraocular pressure measurement and corneal topography [orbscan]. Family screening was done, which included - refraction, best corrected visual acuity, colour vision, keratometry, intraocular pressure and corneal topography [orbscan]. RESULTS: In this study of 40 eyes, 24 eyes [Right eyes - 12 & Left eyes - 12] i.e. 60% have keratoconus, 3 eyes [2 - Right eyes & 1 - Left eye] i.e.15% have advanced keratoconus, 12 eyes [Right eye - 6 & Left eye - 6] i.e. 30% have VKC & Keratoconus, 1 eye have acute hydrops. Total family members screened 55, out of that 17 members are fathers, 20 members are mothers, 12 members are brothers and 6 are sisters

  1. The effects of exogenous melatonin on the morphology of thyrocytes in pinealectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundurovic, Z.; Sofic, E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin on the thyrocytes morphology in gamma-irradiated rats under condition where the pineal gland, as a main physiological source of endogenous melatonin, was removed. Three months after pinealectomy animals were divided into two groups: one group of animals was treated with 0.5 ml of vehicle (ethanol diluted in water) and other group was injected intraperitoneally 2 mg/kg of melatonin dissolved in 0.5 ml of vehicle daily during the period of fourteen days. After this treatment all the animals were irradiated with a single dose of 8 Gy gamma rays. Ionising radiation induced apoptosis, hydropic swelling or/and necrosis in both groups of animals, however these changes were less discerned in the thyrocytes of melatonin-treated animals. Our findings demonstrate that administration of exogenous melatonin prior to irradiation reduces radiation-induced thyrocytes damage. (author)

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of concurrent facial and cerebral vascular malformation which caused congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Moradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rarely reported antenatally. Most in utero diagnosis of vascular malformation is related to vein of Galen malformation (VGM. We describe a case of simultaneously diagnosed pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF and facial vascular malformation in a 20 weeks old fetus. The dilated intracranial venous pouch appeared as a midline anechoic structure which was misdiagnosed as a VGM in her previous ultrasound exam. Another AVM was diagnosed in the same side of fetal face which fed by a branch of external carotid artery and communicated with the mentioned pial AVF. High output cardiac failure and hydrops were evident. To our knowledge this is the first report of prenatally detected combination of facial and cerebral vascular malformations at such as early pregnancy week.

  3. Liver-specific Aquaporin 11 knockout mice show rapid vacuolization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in periportal hepatocytes after amino acid feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojek, Aleksandra; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Füchtbauer, Annette C.

    2013-01-01

    -specific Aqp11 KO mice, allowing us to study the role of AQP11 protein in liver of mice with normal kidney function. The unchallenged liver-specific Aqp11 KO mice have normal longevity, their livers appeared normal, and the plasma biochemistries revealed only a minor defect in lipid handling. Fasting......Aquaporin 11 (AQP11) is a protein channel expressed intracellularly in multiple organs, yet its physiological function is unclear. Aqp11 knockout (KO) mice die early due to malfunction of the kidney, a result of hydropic degeneration of proximal tubule cells. Here we report the generation of liver...... protein or larger doses of various amino acids. The fasting/refeeding challenge is associated with increased expression of markers of ER stress Grp78 and GADD153 and decreased glutathione levels, suggesting that ER stress may play role in the development of vacuoles in the AQP11-deficient hepatocytes. NMR...

  4. Histopathological changes in the kidney of experimental animals caused by lethal doses of thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilewicz, M; Danilewicz, M; Kurnatowski, A

    1979-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on 65 white male Wistar rats and 65 white male Swiss mice poisoned with thallium sulfate in doses 30 to 40 mg/kg body weight. The animals were sacrificed in the 4, 8, 24, 48th hours of experiment and their kidneys were submitted to light and an electron microscopic examination. With the light microscope necrosis of epithelium of Henle loops, hydropic degeneration, swelling and focal necrosis of epithelium of proximal convoluted tubules, and stromal oedema were seen. An electron microscopic study pointed out swelling and degenerative changes in the mitochondria, loss of microvilli in many cells, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum and decrease of electron density of basement membranes. Urea level in blood serum and protein level in urine increased.

  5. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  6. Gram-positive bacteria as an antigen topically applied into gingival sulcus of immunized rat accelerates periodontal destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, F; Kaneko, T; Yoshinaga, Y; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Nakatsu, S; Oshino, K; Ichimura, I; Hara, Y

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis is generally accepted to relate to gram-negative bacteria, and the host defense system influences its onset and progression. However, little is known about the relation between gram-positive bacteria and periodontitis. In this study, we topically applied gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial suspensions to the gingival sulcus in rats after immunization, and then histopathologically examined their influence on periodontal destruction. Rats previously immunized with heat-treated and sonicated Staphylococcus aureus or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were used as immunized groups. The non-immunized group received only sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In each animal, S. aureus or A. actinomycetemcomitans suspension was applied topically to the palatal gingival sulcus of first molars every 24 h for 10 d. Blood samples were collected and the serum level of anti-S. aureus or anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The first molar regions were resected and observed histopathologically. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The formation of immune complexes was confirmed by immunohistological staining of C1qB. Serum levels of anti-S. aureus and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans IgG antibodies in the immunized groups were significantly higher than those in the non-immunized groups were. The loss of attachment, increase in apical migration of the junctional epithelium, and decreases in alveolar bone level and number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in each immunized group were significantly greater than in each non-immunized group. The presence of C1qB was observed in the junctional epithelium and adjacent connective tissue in the immunized groups. Heat-treated and sonicated S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced attachment loss in rats immunized with their suspensions. Our results suggest that not only gram-negative but also gram

  7. Histomorphometric evaluation of intestinal cellular immune responses in pigs immunized with live oral F4ac+ non-enterotoxigenic E. coli vaccine against postweaning colibacillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kovšca Janjatovic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC infection is the most common type of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC. Among fimbriae of porcine ETEC strains the best studied family of fimbriae are the members of F4 adhesins, existing in at least three variants: ab, ac, ad. Active immunization against porcine PWC is difficult due to: i ETEC strains are only one of the essential predisposing factors, ii the success of vaccinal antigen uptake depends on the presence of enterocyte receptors for F4 adhesins, iii the intestinal immune system may react with tolerance or hypersensitivity to the same antigens depending on the dose and form of the vaccinal immunogen, and iv kinetics of the specific immune responses may be different in the case of F4 (earlier and the other ETEC adhesins, particularly F18 (later. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a live attenuated F4ac+ non-ETEC vaccine against porcine PWC by analyzing quantitative differences in the small intestinal lymphoid and myeloid cell subsets of immunized (with or without levamisole given as an adjuvant vs control non-immunized pigs. Four week-old pigs were intragastrically immunized with a vaccine candidate F4ac+ non-ETEC strain 2407 at day 0, challenged 7 days later with a virulent F4ac+ strain ETEC 11-800/1/94, euthanatized at day 13 and sampled for immunohistology. Non-immunized pigs received saline at day 0 and were processed as the principals. Immuno-phenotypes of lymphoid and myeloid cell subsets were demonstrated within jejunal and ileal mucosa by immunohistochemical avidin-biotin complex method and corresponding morphometric data were analyzed using software program Lucia G for digital image analyses. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with surface molecules on porcine immune cells such as CD3, CD45RA, CD45RC, CD21 and SWC3 enabled clear insight into distribution patterns and amount of these cells within the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT examined. The numbers of

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of hydatidiform mole and missed abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Kwang Myeong; Lee, Yeong Hwan; Chung, Hye Kyeong; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1990-01-01

    To establish the sonographic characteristics of the hydatidiform mole and the missed abortion with placental degeneration, we have retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of complete mole, 10 cases of partial mole, and 10 cases of missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration, collected at Taegu Catholic General Hospital, from January 1986 to December 1989. The results were as follows : 1. Of 12 cases of complete mole, all demonstrated diffuse intrauterine vesicular pattern of internal echo without a gestational sac. Two cases were recurred after D and E. 2. The partial mole was characterized by focal (70%) or diffuse (20%) distribution of hydatidiform placental change and a gestational sac (100%) with or without a macerated fetus. But the striking hydatidiform placental change was not present in one cases of partial mole. 3. The uterus was larger for dates in 9 cases (90%) of complete mole, but smaller for dates in 7 cases (70%) of partial mole. 4. The missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration was indistinguished from a partial mole due to their similar sonographic appearance : focal or diffuse cystic change of a placenta, a distorted gestational sac with or without a fetus, and a smaller uterus for dates. On conclusion, the complete mole could be easily distinguished from a partial mole or a missed abortion by sonography : a gestational sac or an area of noncystic placenta was not identified in a complete mole. The partial mole was indistinguished from a missed abortion, but if there is the suspicion of trophoblastic proliferation, such as a convex placental surface or a larger uterus for dates, then the diagnosis is probably a partial mole rather than a missed abortion

  9. Analysis of petrous apex meningocele associated with meningioma. Is there any relation with chronic intracranial hypertension?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wan-Qun; Huang, Biao; Liang, Chang-Hong [Southern Medical University, The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Feng, Jie-Ying [Nanhai Hospital Affiliated Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Foshan, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hong-Jun [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2018-02-15

    Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is an uncommon cystic lesion involving the petrous apex. The underlying cause of PAM may be related to chronic elevated intracranial pressure. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between PAM and meningioma and between PAM and other intracranial hypertension findings. Two hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients with meningiomas were retrospectively studied. Fifty age- and gender-matched controls were also enrolled in this study. The incidence of PAM, empty sella, tortuosity of the optic nerve, and hydrops of optic nerve sheath was evaluated. The maximum width, area, volume of each PAM, or Meckel's cave and volume of meningioma were measured in controls and patients, separately. One hundred fifty-nine (57.19%) patients were detected with coexistent PAMs. One hundred twenty-five patients had bilateral PAMs, 34 had unilateral lesions, and the remaining 119 did not have PAM. Two subjects (4/50) had unilateral PAMs in normal controls. The maximum width, area, volume of PAM, or Meckel's cave were significantly larger in the patients with bilateral PAM group than those in the unilateral PAM group, in the group without PAM, and those in control group (p = 0.000). The volume of meningioma was positively correlated with the PAM volume (r = 0.48). There was a positive correlation for the incidence between PAM and (1) empty sella (r = 0.901) and (2) tortuosity of the optic nerves and hydrops of the optic sheath (r = 0.825). Coexistence of PAMs with meningiomas is not rare in incidence, and it suggests a potential role for chronically elevated intracranial pressure and disturbance of CSF circulation in their pathophysiology. (orig.)

  10. Relationship between Contrast Enhancement of the Perivascular Space in the Basal Ganglia and Endolymphatic Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Toshio; Naganawa, Shinji; Katagiri, Toshio; Kuno, Kayao

    2018-01-10

    We routinely obtain the endolymphatic hydrops (EH) image using heavily T 2 -weighted three dimensional-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (hT 2 w-3D-FLAIR) imaging at 4 hours after intravenous administration of a single-dose of gadolinium-based contrast media (IV-SD-GBCM). While repeating the examination, we speculated that the contrast enhancement of the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia might be related to the degree of EH. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the endolymphatic volume ratio (%EL volume ) and the signal intensity of the PVS (SI-PVS). In 20 patients with a suspicion of EH, a heavily T 2 -weighted 3D-turbo spin echo sequence for MR cisternography (MRC) and an hT 2 w-3D-FLAIR as a positive perilymph image (PPI) were obtained at 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM. The %EL volume of the cochlea and the vestibule were measured on the previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 image. The PVS in the basal ganglia was segmented on MRC using a region-growing method. The PVS regions were copied and pasted onto the PPI, and the SI-PVS was measured. The larger value of the right and the left ears was employed as the %EL volume , and the weighted average of both sides was employed as the SI-PVS. The correlation between the %EL volume and the SI-PVS was evaluated. There was a strong negative linear correlation between the %EL volume of the cochlea and the SI-PVS (r = -0.743, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between the %EL volume of the vestibule and the SI-PVS (r = -0.267, P = 0.256). There was a strong negative correlation between the cochlear %EL volume and the SI-PVS. Contrast enhancement of PVS might be a biomarker of EH.

  11. Analysis of petrous apex meningocele associated with meningioma. Is there any relation with chronic intracranial hypertension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wan-Qun; Huang, Biao; Liang, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jie-Ying; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is an uncommon cystic lesion involving the petrous apex. The underlying cause of PAM may be related to chronic elevated intracranial pressure. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between PAM and meningioma and between PAM and other intracranial hypertension findings. Two hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients with meningiomas were retrospectively studied. Fifty age- and gender-matched controls were also enrolled in this study. The incidence of PAM, empty sella, tortuosity of the optic nerve, and hydrops of optic nerve sheath was evaluated. The maximum width, area, volume of each PAM, or Meckel's cave and volume of meningioma were measured in controls and patients, separately. One hundred fifty-nine (57.19%) patients were detected with coexistent PAMs. One hundred twenty-five patients had bilateral PAMs, 34 had unilateral lesions, and the remaining 119 did not have PAM. Two subjects (4/50) had unilateral PAMs in normal controls. The maximum width, area, volume of PAM, or Meckel's cave were significantly larger in the patients with bilateral PAM group than those in the unilateral PAM group, in the group without PAM, and those in control group (p = 0.000). The volume of meningioma was positively correlated with the PAM volume (r = 0.48). There was a positive correlation for the incidence between PAM and (1) empty sella (r = 0.901) and (2) tortuosity of the optic nerves and hydrops of the optic sheath (r = 0.825). Coexistence of PAMs with meningiomas is not rare in incidence, and it suggests a potential role for chronically elevated intracranial pressure and disturbance of CSF circulation in their pathophysiology. (orig.)

  12. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-04-28

    Immunity against microbial pathogens primarily depends on the recognition of pathogen components by innate receptors expressed on immune and non-immune cells. Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). These receptors recognize pathogens or pathogen-derived products in different cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane, the endosomes or the cytoplasm, and induce the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules to eliminate pathogens and instruct pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.

  13. Autophagy--A free meal in sickness-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Gustav; Loos, Ben; Nell, Theo; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the immune system is metabolically costly, yet a hallmark of an infection is a reduction in appetite with a subsequent reduction in metabolite provision. What is the functional value of decreasing nutrient intake when an infection imposes large demands on metabolic parameters? Here, we propose that sickness-associated anorexia (SAA) upregulates the ancient process of autophagy systemically, thereby profoundly controlling not only immune- but also nonimmune-competent cells. This allows an advanced impact on the resolution of an infection through direct pathogen killing, enhancement of epitope presentation and the contribution toward the clearance of noxious factors. By rendering a 'free meal,' autophagy is thus most fundamentally harnessed during an anorexic response in order to promote both host tolerance and resistance. These findings strongly suggest a reassessment of numerous SAA-related clinical applications and a re-evaluation of current efforts in patient care.

  14. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in experimentally infected humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Magistrado, Pamela; Hermsen, Cornelus C

    2005-01-01

    -encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes where it mediates binding to endothelial receptors. Thus, severe malaria may be caused by parasites expressing PfEMP1 variants that afford parasites optimal sequestration...... in immunologically naive individuals and high effective multiplication rates. METHODS: var gene transcription was analysed using real time PCR and PfEMP1 expression by western blots as well as immune plasma recognition of parasite cultures established from non-immune volunteers shortly after infection with NF54...... compared to parasites expressing other var genes. The differential expression of PfEMP1 was confirmed at the protein level by immunoblot analysis. In addition, serological typing showed that immune sera more often recognized second and third generation parasites than first generation parasites. CONCLUSION...

  15. Innate lymphoid cells as regulators of immunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christoph S N; Artis, David

    2016-06-21

    Research over the last 7 years has led to the formal identification of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), increased the understanding of their tissue distribution and has established essential functions of ILCs in diverse physiological processes. These include resistance to pathogens, the regulation of autoimmune inflammation, tissue remodeling, cancer and metabolic homeostasis. Notably, many ILC functions appear to be regulated by mechanisms distinct from those of other innate and adaptive immune cells. In this Review, we focus on how group 2 ILC (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3) responses are regulated and how these cells interact with other immune and non-immune cells to mediate their functions. We highlight experimental evidence from mouse models and patient-based studies that have elucidated the effects of ILCs on the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the consequences for health and disease.

  16. Intestinal stromal cells in mucosal immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B M J; Simmons, A

    2013-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that non-hematopoietic stromal cells of the intestine have multiple roles in immune responses and inflammation at this mucosal site. Despite this, many still consider gut stromal cells as passive structural entities, with past research focused heavily on their roles in fibrosis, tumor progression, and wound healing, rather than their contributions to immune function. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of stromal cells in intestinal immunity, highlighting the many immunological axes in which stromal cells have a functional role. We also consider emerging data that broaden the potential scope of their contribution to immunity in the gut and argue that these so-called "non-immune" cells are reclassified in light of their diverse contributions to intestinal innate immunity and the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis.

  17. Cross-immunity among allogeneic tumors in rats immunized with gamma-irradiated ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsusuke; Suga, Michio; Kudo, Hajime; Waga, Takashi; Ogasawara, Masamichi

    1980-01-01

    Non-inbred rats of the Gifu strain were intraperitoneally challenged with Hirosaki sarcoma (Tetraploid type, 10 5 cells) after repeated immunization with gamma-irradiated (13,000 rads 60 Co) allogeneic non-viral tumors of ascites type (Tetraploid or diploid type of Hirosaki sarcoma, Usubuchi sarcoma or AH130). In rats immunized not only with the same tumor as the immunizing tumor but also with a different tumor, the growth of the challenge tumor was markedly inhibited as compared with the control in non-immunized rats. It is considered that these tumors retained common antigen(s) by the resistance to irradiation because of their form of ascites tumor. The marked cross-immunity in rats immunized with AH130 may be explained by the fact that gamma-irradiated AH130 cells were alive longer in the peritoneal cavity than other tumors on account of its high resistance to irradiation. (author)

  18. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children andadolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescentsis unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases amongchildren. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistentforms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestationsand complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents.Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  19. Basic study on the role of thymus in hemopoietic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J W; Basford, N L; Shinpock, S G

    1977-01-01

    Marrow, after in vitro treatment with either ..cap alpha.. Thy 1.2 or nonimmune serum and complement, was transplanted to separate groups of lethally irradiated isogenic mice. Mice of several different genotypes were used in 12 studies. Macroscopic spleen colony numbers were similar in the two groups, but differences were found when spleens were examined microscopically. The most striking and consistent finding was a decrease in granulopoietic colonies in recipients of ..cap alpha.. Thy 1.2 treated marrow. There were fewer pronounced decreases in erythropoietic and in total colonies (all hemopoietic kinds). E/G ratios were regularly increased. Anemia did not develop in chimeras given either kind of treated marrow over a period of four months.

  20. Resistance to RadLV-induced leukemia: non-participation of splenic natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, Y.; Hugo, P.; Lemieux, S.; Lussier, G.; Potworowski, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    The phenotypic expression of genetically determined resistance to radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced leukemia in mice has been shown to reside in the bone marrow. Because the bone marrow contains precursors of natural killer (NK) cells, known to play a role in retrovirally induced infections, and because these cells have been suggested as participating in resistance to radiation-induced leukemia, it was pertinent to establish whether their levels differed in strains of mice susceptible and resistant to leukemia. We therefore tested splenic NK cell levels in C57BL/Ka (susceptible) and B10.A(5R) (resistant) mice before viral inoculation, immediately after viral inoculation, and throughout the preleukemic period and showed that they were not different. This indicates that splenic NK cell levels have no bearing on the resistance to RadLV-induced leukemia and that other immune or non-immune mechanisms must be sought

  1. Chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria from Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, D F; McCarthy, V C; Miller, R M; Hornick, R B

    1976-02-01

    A strain of Plasmodium falciparum, transmitted in Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea) was isolated in 1974 and sent to the University of Maryland for characterization in nonimmune volunteers. At Maryland the Indonesia (Whit.) strain, as it has been designated, was transmitted to colonized Anopheles stephensi. Prophylactically, it was not suppressed by proguanil hydrochloride 100 mg. daily. Curatively, parasitaemia was not cleared by treatment with 1-5 g. (base) in three days of chloroquine or amodiaquine (RII responses), nor by treatment with 150 mg. of pyrimethamine in three days (RIII), and some resistance was also shown to quinine. A single dose of 1-5 g. of mefloquine (WR 142,490) produced radical cure in the two patients treated with this new 4-quinolinemethanol compound.

  2. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  3. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, P F; Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Rosa, E S; Monteiro, H A; Cruz, A C; Barros, V L; Souza, M R; Rosa, J F

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes.

  4. Identification and development of a promising novel mumps vaccine candidate strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Ma, Shaohui; Liu, Longding; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Jiang, Li; Xie, Zhongping; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Qihan

    2010-12-01

    Mumps epidemics are usually caused by airborne transmission of mumps virus (MuV) and have high morbidity in non-immunized children. Epidemiological studies in many regions of China show that the genotype F viral strain is the most prevalent. However, the genotype A strain is currently used to prepare vaccines. Regional epidemiological MuV data suggest a significant application for the development of live attenuated mumps vaccines targeting specific genotypes. This article reports the isolation and culture of a genotype F MuV candidate strain that could be used to prepare a live attenuated mumps vaccine. This strain is shown to have good immunological efficacy and stability in neurovirulence evaluations. This work should facilitate the implementation of mumps vaccination in mainland China by targeting the most prevalent MuV genotype, genotype F. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Stromal-dependent tumor promotion by MIF family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert A; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha

    2014-12-01

    Solid tumors are composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that interact with each other and with soluble and insoluble factors that, when combined, strongly influence the relative proliferation, differentiation, motility, matrix remodeling, metabolism and microvessel density of malignant lesions. One family of soluble factors that is becoming increasingly associated with pro-tumoral phenotypes within tumor microenvironments is that of the migration inhibitory factor family which includes its namesake, MIF, and its only known family member, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT). This review seeks to highlight our current understanding of the relative contributions of a variety of immune and non-immune tumor stromal cell populations and, within those contexts, will summarize the literature associated with MIF and/or D-DT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of silenced cytokine gene promoters by the synergistic effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators.

  7. Evaluation of vaccination efficiency against HBV among Syrian multitransfused patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazji, Wadad; Habal, Wafaa; Menem, Fawza

    2018-03-05

    This cross-sectional study estimates HBV prevalence and evaluates vaccination efficiency among multitransfused patients. 159 patients with various hemoglobinopathies were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serological results were then compared with the relevant documentation in medical records. Seropositivity of HBV was detected in 1/8 of recruited patients. Serological immunity was found in only half of patients, while the other half were either infected or non-immune. The vaccination against HBV appeared inefficient in almost half of vaccinated patients and was not documented in the medical records of 1/6 of patients. Thus, multitransfused patients are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection. Applying prophylactic vaccination, documenting vaccine doses, and monitoring immune response are highly recommended.

  8. Anti-thymocyte globulins in kidney transplantation: focus on current indications and long-term immunological side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Staeck, Oliver; Crépin, Thomas; Halleck, Fabian; Saas, Philippe; Brakemeier, Susanne; Ducloux, Didier; Budde, Klemens

    2017-10-01

    Antithymocyte globulins (ATGs) are part of the immunosuppression arsenal currently used by clinicians to prevent or treat acute rejection in solid organ transplantation. ATG is a mixture of non-specific anti-lymphocyte immunoglobulins targeting not only T cell subsets but also several other immune and non-immune cells, rendering its precise immunoglobulin composition difficult to appreciate or to compare from one preparation to another. Furthermore, several mechanisms of action have been described. Taken together, this probably explains the efficacy and the side effects associated with this drug. Recent data suggest a long-term negative impact on allograft and patient outcomes, pointing out the need to better characterize the potential toxicity and the benefit-risk balance associated to this immunosuppressive therapy within large clinical trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. Allograft cytotoxicity co-operation between alloimmune T cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Jones, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    T cells from the spleens of C57BL 10 (H-2sup(b)) mice 7 to 12 days after immunization with P815Y (H-2sup(d)) mastocytoma cells have been shown to co-operate synergistically with an adherent component of non-immune starch induced peritoneal cells in the cytostasis of target cells. Although significant values for synergy could be obtained using the ( 125 I) UdR incorporation assay to measure cytostasis, normal peritoneal cells were incapable of co-operating with T cells in cytolysis as measured by 51 Cr release from pre-labelled target cells. Initially, the synergistic interaction was immunologically specific, but non-specific activity could be induced by challenge with specific antigen. (author)

  10. Attrition of schistosomes in an irradiation-attenuated cercarial immunization model of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Dean, D.A.; Clark, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The attrition of Schistosoma mansoni challenge worms was studied in irradiation-attenuated cercaria-immunized mice as a function of site and time. The peak recovery of schistosomula from the lungs of immunized mice was delayed 2 days in comparison with non-immunized controls. The difference between the peak recoveries of control and immunized mice accounted for about half of the final attrition observed at the 7-week adult worm stge. Hepatic-mesenteric vein worm recoveries obtained 10 to 42 days after challenge were reduced in most cases at least as much as the 49-day counts. Somewhat higher reductions were observed at 14 to 28 days than at 49 days, confirming the evidence of delayed migration obtained at the lung phase. These findings, coupled with histologic observations, indicate that at least half of the worm elimination attributable to immunization occurs 8 or more days after the challenge infection

  11. Immune selection and within-host competition can structure the repertoire of variant surface antigens in Plasmodium falciparum -a mathematical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Noort, Sander P; Nunes, Marta C; Weedall, Gareth D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evolutionary mechanisms structuring the expression pattern of variant surface antigen (VSA) families that allow pathogens to evade immune responses and establish chronic and repeated infections pose major challenges to theoretical research. In Plasmodium falciparum, the best...... subset of PfEMP1 variants tends to dominate in non-immune patients and in patients with severe malaria, while more diverse subsets relate to uncomplicated infection and higher levels of pre-existing protective immunity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use the available molecular and serological......-host and diverse blocks that are favoured by immune selection at the population level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of a monotonic dominance profile to VSAs encoded by a gene family generates two opposing selective forces and, consequently, two distinct clusters of genes emerge in adaptation to naïve...

  12. The NKG2D ligands RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε differ with respect to their receptor affinity, expression profiles and transcriptional regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cédile, Oriane; Popa, Natalia; Pollet-Villard, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    RAE-1 is a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by NK cells, NKT, γδT and some CD8(+)T lymphocytes. RAE-1 is overexpressed in tumor cell lines and its expression is induced after viral infection and genotoxic stress. We have recently demonstrated that RAE-1 is expressed in the adult...... subventricular zone (SVZ) from C57BL/6 mice. RAE-1 is also expressed in vitro by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and plays a non-immune role in cell proliferation. The C57BL/6 mouse genome contains two rae-1 genes, rae-1δ and rae-1ε encoding two different proteins. The goals of this study are first...

  13. Dendritic Cells in the Gut: Interaction with Intestinal Helminths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal environment in mammals is highly tolerogenic; however, after exposure to pathogens or danger signals, it is able to shift towards an inflammatory response. Dendritic cells (DCs orchestrate immune responses and are highly responsible, through the secretion of cytokines and expression of surface markers, for the outcome of such immune response. In particular, the DC subsets found in the intestine have specialized functions and interact with different immune as well as nonimmune cells. Intestinal helminths primarily induce Th2 responses where DCs have an important yet not completely understood role. In addition, this cross-talk results in the induction of regulatory T cells (T regs as a result of the homeostatic mucosal environment. This review highlights the importance of studying the particular relation “helminth-DC-milieu” in view of the significance that each of these factors plays. Elucidating the mechanisms that trigger Th2 responses may provide the understanding of how we might modulate inflammatory processes.

  14. The influence of live tularemia vaccine on counter-suppression of lymphocytes and end-results of combined treatment of endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, R.T.; Markosyan, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Randomized investigation in two patients groups suffered with endometrial carcinoma (EC) of 1-2 and 3-4 stages (FIGO, 1977) is performed. Effect of blood lymphocytes contrasuppression before and after combined treatment (operation + radiotherapy) is studied as well as delayed therapy results. A part of patients was immunized with tularemia live vaccine (TLV) before treatment. It is shown that the delayed combined treatment results in EC patients correlate with contrasuppression effect revealed in them before therapy. It is concluded that the index of contrasuppression effect revealability and delayed results of combined therapy in EC patients immunized with TLV before therapy have an expressed tendency to improving as compared to nonimmunized patients of the same stages [ru

  15. Food allergy: Definitions,prevalence,diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk

    2015-01-01

    disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication......Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune...... disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac...

  16. Artemether-lumefantrine: an oral antimalarial for uncomplicated malaria in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, George O; Goka, Bamenla Q; Binka, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Artemether-lumefantrine (AL; Coartem, Riamet) is the first fixed-dose artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) regimen to be manufactured under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, and is the most widely adopted ACT regimen used in malaria control programs. AL is approved for the treatment...... of uncomplicated malaria in adults, children and infants, and as treatment of uncomplicated malaria in nonimmune travelers returning from malarious areas. AL is efficacious for treating uncomplicated malaria in children and the frequency of associated adverse events is not higher than other available ACT regimens....... In this review, available evidence on efficacy and safety of AL in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, with emphasis on children where appropriate, and focusing on characteristics that are potentially important for malaria control policy decisions, are presented and discussed....

  17. Recurrent atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome after renal transplantation: treatment with eculizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Latzke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is a rare entity. It is characterized by a thrombotic microangiopathy (nonimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure, with a typical histopathology of thickening of capillary and arteriolar walls and an obstructive thrombosis of the vascular lumen. The syndrome is produced by a genetic or acquired deregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, with high rates of end stage renal disease, post-transplant recurrence, and high mortality. Mutations associated with factor H, factor B and complement C3 show the worst prognosis. Even though plasma therapy is occasionally useful, eculizumab is effective both for treatment and prevention of post-transplant recurrence. We describe here an adult case of congenital aHUS (C3 mutation under preventive treatment with eculizumab after renal transplantation, with neither disease recurrence nor drug-related adverse events after a 36-months follow-up.

  18. In vitro stimulation of rabbit T lymphocytes by cells expressing herpes simplex antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, A K; Ling, N R; Nash, A A; Bachan, A; Wildy, P

    1982-04-01

    Lymphocyte stimulation responses to herpes antigens were studied using virus-infected X-irradiated cells. Rabbits were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain HFEM) grown in RK 13 cells. For in vitro stimulation assay BHK21 cells were X-irradiated (15 000 rad) and infected with a high m.o.i. of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant (N102) of HFEM strain at the non-permissive temperature (38.5 degrees C) of virus. Virus antigens were expressed on the infected cells and there was no leakage of infectious virus into the medium at 38.5 degrees C. T lymphocytes from rabbits immunized with herpes simplex virus were specifically activated by herpesvirus-infected X-irradiated cells; lymph node cells from rabbits immunized with RK13 cells and from non-immune rabbits showed no proliferative response.

  19. The roles of the pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 86Y mutations, immunity and the initial level of parasitaemia, in predicting the outcome of chloroquine treatment in two areas with different transmission intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, I F; Alifrangis, M; Tarimo, D S

    2005-01-01

    The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) is probably mediated by point mutations in two genes: pfcrt and pfmdr1. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in patients treated with CQ, the association between host factors, such as immunity and initial level of parasitaemia......, and the ability to clear P. falciparum parasites carrying the key chloroquine-resistance (CQR) mutations, pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 86Y. Identical CQ-efficacy trials were performed in 51 young children (aged ..., such as level of parasitaemia when treated and age, are also important. The 76T and 86Y alleles could still be used as predictive markers for CQR, in non-immune individuals and low-transmission areas....

  20. [Atipical uremic hemolityc syndrome in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calatayud, Ángel Augusto; Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Álvarez-Goris, Mercedes Del Pilar; Sánchez Zamora, Ricardo; Torres Aguilar, Angélica A; Mendoza-Mórales, Rosa Elba

    2016-01-01

    Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome is one of the main variants of thrombotic microangiopathy, and is characterized by excessive complement activation in the microvasculature. It is also characterised by the clinical triad; non-immune haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. In addition, 60% of patients have mutations in the genes encoding complement regulators (factor H, factor I, membrane cofactor proteins, and thrombomodulin), activators (factor B and C3), as well as autoantibodies against factor H. Multiple factors are required for the disease to manifest itself, including a trigger and gene mutations with adequate penetration. Being one of the differential diagnoses of preeclampsia- eclampsia and HELLP syndrome means that the clinician must be familiar with the disease due to its high mortality, which can be modified with early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex in humans: lymphocyte cytotoxicity measured by 51Cr release from infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, A.S.; Percy, J.S.; Kovithavongs, T.

    1975-01-01

    We assessed cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus type 1 antigen in patients suffering from recurrent cold sores and in a series of healthy controls. Paradoxically, all those subject to recurrent herpetic infections had, without exception, evidence of cell-mediated immunity to herpes antigens. This was demonstrated by lymphocyte transformation and specific 51 Cr release from infected human amnion cells after incubation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Where performed, skin tests with herpes antigen were also positive. In addition, serum from these patients specifically sensitized herpes virus-infected cells to killing by nonimmune, control mononuclear cells. These tests were negative in the control patients except in a few cases, and it is suggested that these latter may be the asymptomatic herpes virus carriers previously recognized or that they may have experienced a genital infection. (U.S.)

  2. Basic study on the role of thymus in hemopoietic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.W.; Basford, N.L.; Shinpock, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    Marrow, after in vitro treatment with either α Thy 1.2 or nonimmune serum and complement, was transplanted to separate groups of lethally irradiated isogenic mice. Mice of several different genotypes were used in 12 studies. Macroscopic spleen colony numbers were similar in the two groups, but differences were found when spleens were examined microscopically. The most striking and consistent finding was a decrease in granulopoietic colonies in recipients of α Thy 1.2 treated marrow. There were fewer pronounced decreases in erythropoietic and in total colonies (all hemopoietic kinds). E/G ratios were regularly increased. Anemia did not develop in chimeras given either kind of treated marrow over a period of four months

  3. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by tartrazine and a pyrazolone analogue in normal and allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J S; Splansky, G L; Bernstein, I L

    1980-11-01

    The effect of tartrazine (T) (yellow dye No. 5) and one of its metabolites an aminopyrazolone analogue (1-sulphophenyl-3-carboxy-5-hydroxypyrazole, SCHP) upon collagen-induced platelet aggregation (C-PA) was investigated in fourteen atopic patients and fourteen normal subjects. Both T and SCHP inhibited C-PA in atopic patients at significantly lower doses than in normal volunteers. The mean inhibitory concentrations of SCHP were similar to aspirin in both atopic and normal individuals. Although the precise mechanism by which these chemicals block C-PA has not been elucidated, this in vitro system may be a useful method of assessing non-immune mechanisms involved in reactions to tartrazine.

  4. Schistosomiasis and international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corachan, Manuel

    2002-08-15

    Infection with Schistosoma species is acquired by exposure to fresh water that harbors cercariae released by infected snails. Although the route of infection is clear, clinical presentation of the established infection in the nonimmune tourist typically differs from that in the local population of areas of endemicity. For the health care practitioner, the traveler's syndrome presents distinctive management problems: water-transmitted bacterial and viral infections may coexist, and identification of the stage of disease at presentation, along with identification of the causative species, will maximize treatment options. Travel medicine clinics serve as epidemiological antennae, helping to identify the dynamics of species transmission in geographically distinct areas. Education of persons traveling to areas of endemicity and the development of mechanical protection against exposure are needed.

  5. The subtle signs of Wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome: not all juvenile diabetes is type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Claudia; Brosig, Burkhard; Zimmer, Klaus P; Wudy, Stefan A

    2011-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (also known as DIDMOAD = diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the association of childhood non-immune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM) with progressive bilateral optic atrophy. Additional symptoms including signs of severe neurodegeneration and psychiatric illness are likely to evolve over time resulting in premature death. We report on two siblings of Turkish origin from our diabetes clinic who were diagnosed with Wolfram syndrome after 6 years and 2 years duration of DM, respectively. Subtle symptoms such as attitude changes, growing reading difficulties in the history of children or adolescents with antibody negative and ketone negative DM should alert the treating physician and lead to re-evaluation of the diagnosis, keeping in mind that not all juvenile DM is type 1 DM.

  6. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children and adolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescents is unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases among children. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistent forms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestations and complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents. Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  7. The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-10-01

    Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity. The immunologic regulation of eosinophils extends from innate immunity to adaptive immunity and also involves non-immune cells. Herein, we summarize recent findings regarding novel roles of murine and human eosinophils, focusing on interactions with other hematopoietic cells. We also review new experimental tools available and remaining questions to uncover a greater understanding of this enigmatic cell.

  8. An in vitro and in vivo analysis of murine immunocompetence during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambel, P.I.; Ferguson, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Spleen cells from pregnant and lactating BALB/c mice were depressed in their cytolytic capabilities after in vivo immunization with the allogeneic EL4 lymphoma. However, in vitro spleen cells from both syngeneic (BALB/cxBALB/c) and allogeneic (BALB/cxC57BL/6J) matings responded with proliferative and cytolytic responses which were comparable to virgin controls. Upon secondary in vitro stimulation, in vivo primed maternal cells had responses which were similar to virgin controls. In addition, the in vivo sensitized spleen cells adoptively immunized in irradiated allogeneic recipients responded like the virgin controls. In these studies suppressor cells could not be detected in either nonimmune or immune maternal spleen cell populations. (Auth.)

  9. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells by serum from x-irradiated tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Tumor-specific antigens of the chemically induced MC 429 mouse fibrosarcoma were detected in a 3 M KCl extract of tumor by the inhibition of migration of specifically immune spleen cells. Using this assay with serum from tumor-bearing mice no tumor antigen was detected in serum of mice bearing small tumors, unless the tumor was exposed to local x irradiation (3000 R) 1 day prior to collection of serum. It was concluded that local x irradiation of tumor caused increased concentration of tumor antigen in the serum. When the tumor was allowed to grow extremely large, with necrosis, then host serum did cause migration inhibition of both nonimmune and immune spleen cells. This migration-inhibition effect was not associated with tumor antigen, but with a nonspecific serum factor

  10. Inhibition of the mixed leukocyte reaction by alloantisera in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.; Leeuwen, A. van; Rood, J.J. van

    1977-01-01

    The incidence of MLC(mixed leukocyte culture)-inhibiting antibodies was determined in 42 pregnancy sera. MLC's were carried out between the cells from the serum donor and her husband in the presence of nonimmune AB serum and the test serum. Fifty per cent of the sera reduced the MLC response to less than 40% of the control values. Only four sera had lymphocytotoxic activity. The inhibition was strong against the specific immunizor, less strong against random unrelated cells and weak against cells which were SD(serologically defined)-identical with the serum donor. Absorptions with lymphocytes and platelets were carried out. Lymphocytes removed activity in three of the four sera tested. Platelets removed activity from one serum. It was concluded that both anti-LD(lymphocyte defined) and anti-SD antibodies were able to inhibit the MLR (mixed leukocyte reaction) at the stimulator cell level. (author)

  11. Early imaging of experimental myocardial infarction by intracoronary administration of /sup 131/I-labelled anticardiac myosin (Fab')/sub 2/ fragments. [Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, B.A.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Fallon, J.T.; Strauss, W.; Pohost, G.M.; Haber, E.

    1978-12-01

    The feasibility of early imaging of myocardial infarcts by intracoronary injection of /sup 131/I-labelled cardiac myosin-specific antibody (Fab')/sub 2/ was examined. The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 5 hs by a balloon catheter introduced through the carotid artery in 12 dogs. The catheter was withdrawn and 1 mCi /sup 201/Tl was injected intravenously and 500 ..mu..Ci of /sup 131/I antibody were injected into the main left coronary artery. Six of these animals demonstrated evidence of myocardial infarction by ECG and subsequent triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride staining, while the others did not. In each of the infarcted animals, in vivo scintograms one-half h after injection of isotope showed uptake of /sup 131/I in the anteroapical region of the heart corresponding to the region of absent /sup 201/Tl uptake. This relationship was confirmed in the excized hearts and in heart slices. In slices, /sup 131/I uptake corresponded to regions that did not stain with triphenyltetrazolium chloride. In the six animals that did not show evidence for infarction after coronary occlusion, uptake of /sup 131/I was not demonstrated, either in vivo or in excized specimens. In four additional dogs subjected to the same procedure, /sup 125/I-labelled (Fab')/sub 2/ from nonimmune IgG was injected simultaneously into the left main coronary artery with /sup 131/I-labelled canine myosin-specific antibody (Fab')/sub 2/. The ratio of uptake between infarct center and normal tissue was 34.3 +- 1.5 (mean +- SEM) for the specific antibody fragment as contrasted to 6.6 +- 0.4 for the nonimmune IgG fragment, indicating that intracoronary injection does not favor nonspecific sequestration of protein in regions of infarction. Thus the intracoronary administration of myosin-specific antibody fragments leads to early and specific one-half h imaging of myocardial infarcts.

  12. Immunogenic and protective efficacy of recombinant protein GtxA-N against Gallibacterium anatis challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ida J; Pors, Susanne E; Bager Skjerning, Ragnhild J; Nielsen, Søren S; Bojesen, Anders M

    2015-10-01

    Gallibacterium anatis is a major cause of reproductive tract infections in chickens. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the recombinant protein GtxA-N at protecting hens, by addressing three objectives; (i) evaluating the antibody response following immunization (ii) scoring and comparing lesions, following challenge with G. anatis, in immunized and non-immunized hens and (iii) investigating if the anti-GtxA-N antibody titre in individual hens correlated with the observed lesions. Two consecutive experiments were performed in hens. In the first experiment hens were immunized with GtxA-N on day 0 and day 14, infected with G. anatis on day 28 and euthanized on day 56. The GtxA-N antibody response was assessed in pooled serum samples throughout the experiment, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the second experiment the GtxA-N antibody titres were assessed in individual hens before and after immunization. Subsequently, the hens were inoculated with G. anatis and finally all hens where euthanized and submitted for post mortem examination 48 h after inoculation. Immunization elicited strong antibody responses that lasted at least 8 weeks (P scores following G. anatis infection were significantly lower in immunized hens compared to non-immunized hens (P = .004). Within the immunized group, no correlation was found between the individual antibody titres and the lesion scores. This study clearly demonstrated GtxA-N as a vaccine antigen able of inducing protective immunity against G. anatis.

  13. Safety and efficacy of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Berg, J D; Duvenage, C S; Roskell, N S; Scott, T R

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride combination therapy for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in at-risk nonimmune subjects in South Africa. This open-label trial was conducted at research sites in South Africa during the main malaria transmission season, February through July. The study volunteers were temporarily living in, or traveling to, a malaria-endemic area. They received I tablet of 250 mg atovaquone and 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride once daily for up to 10 weeks. Subjects were monitored using sequential clinical and laboratory assessments. Thick blood smears were stained and evaluated by a central laboratory. An immunochromatographic test for P. falciparum was also used for on-site patient management. Prophylactic success was summarized using a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of subjects who did not develop parasitemia or who withdrew due to a treatment-related adverse event. A total of 175 subjects (15% women) were enrolled in the trial. The mean duration of drug exposure was 8.9 weeks. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events considered possibly related to study treatment were headache (7%), abdominal pain (2%), increased cough (2%), and skin disorder (2%). No serious adverse events were reported, and no treatment-emergent effects were noted for any laboratory variables. One subject who was noncompliant with therapy developed parasitemia, and 3 subjects withdrew due to a treatment-related adverse event (2 subjects with headache and 1 with nausea and dizziness). The prophylaxis success rate was 97%. In this study, atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride combination therapy had an excellent safety and efficacy profile for prophylaxis of P. falciparum malaria in nonimmune subjects.

  14. Measles: summary of worldwide impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, F

    1983-01-01

    Nearly every measles infection results in well-recognized clinical disease. In nonimmunized populations almost every child will get measles early in life. The universality of the disease in nonimmunized communities, particularly those in the developing world, has led to a more or less passive acceptance of measles as an unavoidable risk of early life. The clinical spectrum of measles ranges from a mild, self-limiting illness to a fatal disease. Conditions encountered mainly in the developing world, e.g., unfavorable nutrition, high risk of concurrent infection, and inadequate case management -- particularly at home -- favor the development of complications and adverse outcome. Conversely, good clinical management of an otherwise healthy child, a situation seen mostly in the developed world, greatly influences the course of the disease. Hence many in the medical profession believe that measles is a mild disease except among populations living under particularly unfavorable conditions. Measles vaccine is effective in preventing disease in the individual and in controlling it in the community if it is given at the critical age when maternal antibodies wane and the risk of natural infection increases sharply and if a high immunization rate is maintained in the target population. The experience with immunization, particularly in sub-saharan Africa, is rewarding: mothers who had previously accepted measles as an unavoidable risk clamour for immunization of their children once its effectiveness has been demonstrated. No reason exists for measles to claim its present toll of morbidity and mortality. With extension of the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization, the impact of measles should progressively decline.

  15. The mandibular ridge oral mucosa model of stromal influences on the endothelial tip cells: an immunohistochemical and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Stănescu, Ruxandra; Pop, Florinel; Mănoiu, Valentina Mariana; Jianu, Adelina Maria; Vâlcu, Marek

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the morphological features of the oral mucosa endothelial tip cells (ETCs) and to determine the immune and ultrastructural patterns of the stromal nonimmune cells which could influence healing processes. Immune labeling was performed on bioptic samples obtained from six edentulous patients undergoing surgery for dental implants placement; three normal samples were collected from patients prior to the extraction of the third mandibular molar. The antibodies were tested for CD34, CD117(c-kit), platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α), Mast Cell Tryptase, CD44, vimentin, CD45, CD105, alpha-smooth muscle actin, FGF2, Ki67. In light microscopy, while stromal cells (StrCs) of the reparatory and normal oral mucosa, with a fibroblastic appearance, were found positive for a CD34/CD44/CD45/CD105/PDGFR-α/vimentin immune phenotype, the CD117/c-kit labeling led to a positive stromal reaction only in the reparatory mucosa. In TEM, non-immune StrCs presenting particular ultrastructural features were identified as circulating fibrocytes (CFCs). Within the lamina propria CFCs were in close contact with ETCs. Long processes of the ETCs were moniliform, and hook-like collaterals were arising from the dilated segments, suggestive for a different stage migration. Maintenance and healing of oral mucosa are so supported by extensive processes of angiogenesis, guided by ETCs that, in turn, are influenced by the CFCs that populate the stromal compartment both in normal and reparatory states. Therefore, CFCs could be targeted by specific therapies, with pro- or anti-angiogenic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Injury and subsequent regeneration of muscles for activation of local innate immunity to facilitate the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoki; Hirata, Shinya; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahata, Kimito; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether injury and regeneration of the skeletal muscles induce an inflammatory milieu that facilitates the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis. The quadriceps of C57BL/6 mice were injured with bupivacaine hydrochloride (BPVC) and evaluated histologically. Macrophages and regenerating myofibers in the treated muscles and differentiating C2C12 myotubes were examined for cytokine expression. Mice were immunized with C protein fragments at the base of the tail and in the right hind footpads (day 0) to evoke systemic anti-C protein immunity and to induce local myositis in the right hind limbs. The contralateral quadriceps muscles were injured with BPVC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on day 7 or after spontaneous regression of myositis (day 42). The quadriceps muscle in nonimmunized mice was injured with BPVC on day 7. The muscles were examined histologically 14 days after treatment. The BPVC-injured muscles had macrophage infiltration most abundantly at 3 days after the injection, with emergence of regenerating fibers from day 5. The macrophages expressed inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and CCL2. Regenerating myofibers and C2C12 myotubes also expressed the cytokines. The BPVC-injected muscles from nonimmunized mice had regenerating myofibers with resolved cell infiltration 14 days after treatment. In mice preimmunized with C protein fragments, the muscles injected with BPVC on day 7 as well as on day 42, but not those injected with PBS, had myositis accompanied by CD8+ T cell infiltration. Injury and regeneration could set up an inflammatory milieu in the muscles and facilitate the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Use of pre-travel vaccine-preventable disease serology as a screening tool to identify patients in need of pre-travel vaccination: a retrospective audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David P; McGuinness, Sarah L; Cohen, Jonathan; Waring, Lynette J; Leder, Karin

    2017-05-01

    Vaccination is a safe and effective public health intervention that not only protects individual travellers from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), but prevents them from becoming a source of disease in their destination and on their return. Obtaining an accurate vaccination history from travellers during a pre-travel review can be difficult; serology may be used to identify patients who are non-immune to specific diseases in order to guide vaccination requirements. Clinically relevant data about the usefulness of serology in this setting are lacking. We performed a retrospective audit of pre-travel VPD serology requested by practitioners of a busy community-based travel clinic. All serological results for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella zoster virus, hepatitis A and B requested over a 5-year period were extracted and analysed. Results were stratified by gender and year of birth and compared using Stata. Four thousand four hundred and fifty-one serological assays from 1445 individual were assessed. Overall, 47% of patients tested had at least one negative serological result. High rates of seropositivity for measles, mumps and rubella were seen in those born prior to 1966 but >10% of travellers born after 1966 lacked serological evidence of protection against these diseases. Hepatitis A and B serological results revealed broadly lower rates of immunity in our community likely reflecting the absence of these vaccines from historical vaccine protocols. Serology can be a useful tool in the identification of non-immune travellers to enable targeted vaccination prior to travel. We recommend that travel health clinicians assess patients' vaccination and infection histories, and strongly consider serology or vaccination where there is doubt about immunity. This will help protect the traveller and prevent importation of disease into destination or home communities. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  18. Immune Cell-Mediated Protection against Vaginal Candidiasis: Evidence for a Major Role of Vaginal CD4+ T Cells and Possible Participation of Other Local Lymphocyte Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Lucciarini, Roberta; Amantini, Consuelo; Morrone, Stefania; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia

    2002-01-01

    The protective roles of different lymphocyte subsets were investigated in a rat vaginal candidiasis model by adoptive transfer of vaginal lymphocytes (VL) or sorted, purified CD3+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or CD3− CD5+ B cells from the vaginas of naïve or immune rats following three rounds of Candida albicans infection. The adoptive transfer of total VL from nonimmune animals did not alter the course of vaginal candidiasis of the recipient rats. In contrast, the animals receiving total VL or CD3+ T cells from immune rats showed a highly significant acceleration of fungus clearance compared with animals which received nonimmune VL. The animals with vaginal CD3− CD5+ B cells transferred from immune rats also had fewer Candida CFU than the controls, but fungal clearance was significantly retarded with respect to the animals administered immune T cells. Sorted, purified CD4+ and CD8+ vaginal T cells from immune rats were also adoptively transferred to naïve animals. Although both populations were seen to accelerate the clearance of the fungus from the vagina, CD4+ T cells were much more effective than CD8+ T cells. Overall, there was no difference between the antifungal effects of immune vaginal CD4+ T cells and those achievable with the transfer of whole, immune VL. Histological observations of the vaginal tissues of rats with adoptively transferred immune T cells demonstrated a remarkable accumulation of lymphocytes in the subepithelial lamina propria and also infiltrating the mucosal epithelium. These results strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4+ T cells probably playing a major role. PMID:12183521

  19. RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone and controls cell proliferation of neurospheres.

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    Popa, Natalia; Cedile, Oriane; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Bagnis, Claude; Durbec, Pascale; Boucraut, José

    2011-01-01

    Improving and controlling the capacity of endogenous or grafted adult neural stem cells to repair the nervous system relies on a better knowledge of interactions between immune cells and neural stem cells. Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) family members comprise numerous proteins playing either immune or nonimmune function. Among the latter, MHC functions in the central nervous system has started to receive recent interest. Here, our first goal was to investigate the potential relationship between MHC class I molecules and neurogenesis. For the first time, we report the expression of two MHC class I-related members by neural stem/progenitor cells: retinoic acid early induced transcript (RAE)-1 and CD1d. The expression of RAE-1 but not CD1d disappears when differentiation of neurosphere cells is induced. Interestingly, RAE-1 transcripts are expressed in the brain during development, and we demonstrate they persist in one of the main area of adult neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ). So far, RAE-1 is only known for its immune functions as a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T, Tγδ, and some T CD8 lymphocytes. Here, we do not detect any NKG2D expression in the SVZ either in physiological or in pathological conditions. Interestingly, inhibition of RAE-1 expression in neurosphere cells reduces cell proliferation without alteration of cell viability, which argues for a nonimmune role for RAE-1. These results reveal an unexpected role of RAE-1 in regulating adult SVZ neurogenesis by supporting stem/progenitor cells proliferation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Thrombus imaging in a primate model with antibodies specific for an external membrane protein of activated platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, T.M.; Furie, B.C.; Konstam, M.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Connolly, R.; Brockway, B.A.; Ramberg, K.L.; Furie, B.

    1989-01-01

    The activated platelet is a potential target for the localization of thrombi in vivo since, after stimulation and secretion of granule contents, activated platelets are concentrated at sites of blood clot formation. In this study, we used antibodies specific for a membrane protein of activated platelets to detect experimental thrombi in an animal model. PADGEM (platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane protein), a platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, is translocated to the plasma membrane during platelet activation and granule secretion. Since PADGEM is internal in unstimulated platelets, polyclonal anti-PADGEM and monoclonal KC4 antibodies do not bind to circulating resting platelets but do interact with activated platelets. Dacron graft material incubated with radiolabeled KC4 or anti-PADGEM antibodies in the presence of thrombin-activated platelet-rich plasma bound most of the antibody. Imaging experiments with 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM in baboons with an external arterial-venous Dacron shunt revealed rapid uptake in the thrombus induced by the Dacron graft; control experiments with 123I-labeled nonimmune IgG exhibited minimal uptake. Deep venous thrombi, formed by using percutaneous balloon catheters to stop blood flow in the femoral vein of baboons, were visualized with 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM. Thrombi were discernible against blood pool background activity without subtraction techniques within 1 hr. No target enhancement was seen with 123I-labeled nonimmune IgG. 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM cleared the blood pool with an initial half-disappearance time of 6 min and did not interfere with hemostasis. These results indicate that radioimmunoscintigraphy with anti-PADGEM antibodies can visualize thrombi in baboon models and is a promising technique for clinical thrombus detection in humans

  1. Effect of immunization against ox-LDL with two different antigens on formation and development of atherosclerosis

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    Saberi Salb-Ali

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies were pointed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL as one of the main immunogenes which have important roles in primary lesions of atherosclerosis. In this study, by immunization against ox-LDL with two different antigens in an animal model (rabbit and consideration of its effect on two different dietary regimens; we tried to clear relation between immune system and atherosclerosis. Methods LDL was isolated from hypercholesterolemic rabbits plasma and oxidized with MDA or Cu++. Rabbits were divided to three groups and immunized with MDA-LDL or Cu-LDL or phosphate-buffer (PBS as a control group. Immunization was repeated after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks and concentration of antibodies against ox-LDL was measured in each stage. After immunization, rabbits in each group were divided to two subgroups based on the dietary regimen (fed normal or high cholesterol diet. At the beginning and the end of the study, biochemical factors were measured. Also, fatty streaks in aorta and left and right coronary arteries evaluated. Results Immunization with Cu2+-LDL and MDA-LDL induced statistically significant antibodies against ox-LDL. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits immunized with MDA-LDL the level of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and fatty streak lesions in aorta and right coronary arteries were significantly decreased as compared with non-immunized high-cholesterol group. Immunization with Cu2+-LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits significantly decreased triglyceride, fasting blood sugar, cholesterol and CRP. No significant differences were detected in the fatty streak lesions in this group as compared with non-immunized high-cholesterol diet. In groups under normal diet immunized with MDA-LDL or Cu2+-LDL no significant effect on biochemical factors and atherosclerotic lesions were observed. Conclusion This study indicates that although the effect of produced antibodies in several methods and different dietary

  2. Evidence against suppressor cell involvement in naturally acquired tolerance of a minor histocompatibility antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was investigated that suppressor cells may be responsible for maintenance of immunologic tolerance of a minor H3 antigen in mice that express the antigen naturally. Lymphoid cell populations from B6.C-H-24c (HW54) mice, a congenic-resistant strain histoincompatible with H-24b-expressing C57BL/6 (B6) mice only with respect to the H-24 locus, were examined in cell-transfer experiments to see if they contained naturally arising H-24c-specific suppressor cells. The H-24 antigen was chosen for these studies because, unlike most other minor and major histocompatibility (H) antigens, it is not detectable on mature lymphoid cells by any of several functional criteria. Thus transfer of HW54 lymphoid cells to B6 hosts could be done without the complication of inducing hyporesponsiveness de novo in the host, as occurs with other minor H antigens that are expressed on lymphocytes. B6 hosts were given HW54 skin grafts along with HW54 lymphoid cells to assess their tolerance of the H-24c-encoded antigen. The hosts were either (1) normal, nonimmune B6 mice; (2) B6 mice rendered immunodeficient by thymectomy and irradiation (TxB) and repopulated with H-24c-immune B6 lymphocytes; or (3) TxB B6 hosts repopulated with nonimmune B6 lymphocytes. In each case it was found that the additionally infused HW54 lymphoid cells did not suppress the ability of these hosts to reject HW54 skin grafts. In other words, HW54 lymphoid cells appear not to possess suppressive activity specific for the H-24c antigen that might maintain antigen-specific natural tolerance. Additional experiments were performed to determine whether HW54 lymphoid cells can inhibit the ability of sublethally irradiated B6 mice to regain the capacity to reject HW54 skin

  3. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

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    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  4. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

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    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  5. Using WeChat official accounts to improve malaria health literacy among Chinese expatriates in Niger: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Han, Le Qiang; Guo, Yan Jun; Sun, Jing

    2016-11-24

    Malaria is the main health risk for Chinese expatriates working in Niger. Health education is a recommended intervention for prevention of malaria among non-immune travellers and expatriate workers. It is urgent to develop an effective and feasible way for these populations to obtain information about the prevention and treatment of malaria. An individually randomized, unblinded, controlled trial was used to evaluate the effectiveness of using WeChat official accounts for health education to improve malaria health literacy among Chinese expatriates in Niger. A total 1441 participants completed a baseline malaria health literacy questionnaire and were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison group in a ratio of 1:1. From July to October 2014, 50 malaria prevention and treatment messages were sent to the intervention group; 50 health news messages were concurrently sent to the control group. Both groups completed the malaria health literacy questionnaire again 4 months after the start of the education intervention. A questionnaire addressing satisfaction with the health education programme was completed by the intervention group. Malaria morbidity data for 2013 and 2014 were also collected. At baseline, participant health literacy rates were 58.29, 62, 54, and 34% for skills, knowledge, practice, and attitude, respectively. After the intervention, rates for all four aspects of malaria literacy were above 70%. There was greater change in knowledge, attitude, practice, skills, and overall health literacy among the intervention group compared with the controls, with a statistically significant difference (p WeChat health education programme with over 80% stating that they would continue to follow the programme. The present health education intervention, via a WeChat official account, for the prevention and treatment of malaria among non-immune travellers and expatriate workers proved to be an effective, sustainable, feasible, and well accepted strategy for

  6. The evaluation of cases with pneumothorax in the neonatal intensive care unit

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    Müsemma Karabel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis and treatment is essentialin reducing mortality in newborns with pneumothorax. Inthis study, newborns with a diagnosis of pneumothorax inneonatal intensive care unit of our hospital were evaluatedand aimed to increase the awareness of physicians.Methods: 12 cases with pneumothorax were evaluatedretrospectively. The gender, birth weight, gestational age,mode of delivery, the presence of underlying disease,pneumothorax localization, implementation of the surfactantand mechanical ventilation and existence or absenceof mortality were recorded.Results: During the study, pneumothorax was detected12 patients. Male/female ratio was 1.4. Eight of the patientshad born with cesarean delivery, the mean birthweight of cases was 2623±912 g and, 66.7% of caseswere term babies. Pneumothorax was observed in thefirst week of life in all patients and it occurred spontaneouslyin 4 patients. The frequency of bilateral pneumothoraxwas 41.7%. For the treatment, closed tube drainagewas performed in 9 patients. The overall mortality ratewas 66.7%. Half of the patients who died had congenitalanomalies such as diaphragmatic eventration (n=1,hydrocephalus (n=1, encephalocel (n=1, non-immunehydrops fetalis (n=1.Conclusion: Additional congenital anomalies, such asPDAs and persistent pulmonary hypertension were foundto be effective on mortality in neonates with pneumothorax.Although, it is a life-threatening condition, the emergencytreatment is life saving. Therefore, in patients withrisk factors, keeping pneumothorax in mind is also thefirst step of the treatment. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3:289-292Key words: Newborn, respiratuar distress, pneumothorax,treatment, outcome

  7. Arsukibacterium ikkense gen. nov., sp. nov, a novel alkaliphilic, enzyme-producing gamma-Proteobacterium isolated from a cold and alkaline environment in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mariane; Priemé, Anders; Stougaard, Peter

    2007-04-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-negative, non-pigmented bacterium, GCM72(T), was isolated from the alkaline, low-saline ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord, SW Greenland. Strain GCM72(T) is a motile, non-pigmented, amylase- and protease-producing, oxidase-positive, and catalase-negative bacterium, showing optimal growth at pH 9.2-10.0, at 15 degrees C, and at 3% (w/v) NaCl. Major fatty acids were C(12:0) 3-OH (12.2+/-0.1%), C(16:00) (18.0+/-0.1%), C(18:1)omega7c (10.7+/-0.5%), and summed feature 3 comprising C(16:1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH (36.3+/-0.7%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolate GCM72(T) was most closely related to Rheinheimera baltica and Alishewanella fetalis of the gamma-Proteobacteria with a 93% sequence similarity to both. The G+C content of DNA isolated from GCM72(T) was 49.9mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization between GCM72T and R. baltica was 9.5%. Fatty acid analysis and G+C content supports a relationship primarily to R. baltica, but several different features, such as a negative catalase-response and optimal growth at low temperature and high pH, together with the large phylogenetic distance and low DNA similarity to its closest relatives, lead us to propose a new genus, Arsukibacterium, gen. nov., with the new species Arsukibacterium ikkense sp. nov. (type strain is GCM72(T)).

  8. Intratracheal instillation of cerium oxide nanoparticles induces hepatic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Nalabotu SK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Siva K Nalabotu1,2, Madhukar B Kolli1,2, William E Triest3,4, Jane Y Ma5, Nandini DPK Manne2,6, Anjaiah Katta1,2, Hari S Addagarla2, Kevin M Rice2,6–8, Eric R Blough1,2,6,7,91Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Marshall University, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine; 2Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, Marshall University; 3Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center; 4Section of Pathology, Department of Anatomy and Pathology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington; 5Health Effects Laboratory Division, NIOSH, Morgantown; 6Department of Biological Sciences; 7School of Kinesiology, College of Health Professions, Marshall University; 8Biotechnology Department, West Virginia State University; 9Department of Cardiology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University Huntington, WV, USABackground: Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05. Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05 and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal dilatation, and accumulation of granular material. No histopathological alterations were observed in the kidney, spleen, and heart. Analysis of serum biomarkers suggested an elevation of acute phase reactants and markers of hepatocyte injury in the rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles.Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that

  9. Teratoma Sacrococcigeo Neonatal, reporte de un caso de autopsia Neonatal Sacrococcygeal Teratomas, autopsy case report

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    Julio Cesar Mantilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los teratomas sacrococcígeos, constituyen una neoplasia que pese a su baja frecuencia, es una de las más comunes en neonatos. Se describe un caso de un feto muerto con hallazgos histopatológicos de un teratoma sacro coccígeo inmaduro.Pacientes y Métodos: Mujer de 26 años de edad en su cuarto embarazo de 32 semanas de gestación, quien presenta amenaza de parto pre término. Se le realiza una ecografía obstétrica que informa la presencia de una masa sacra fetal, e hidrops fetal. Se realizó cesárea y se obtiene un óbito fetal de sexo femenino. El estudio anatomopatológico evidenció un teratoma sacrococcígeo inmaduro. Conclusiones: En los teratomas sacrococcígeos fetales, el desarrollo de hidrops fetal, insuficiencia cardiaca y gran tamaño tumoral son indicadores de mal pronóstico. El diagnóstico prenatal, la planificación del parto, la estabilización perinatal y la resección quirúrgica del tumor, pueden hacer posible la sobre vida en estos pacientes. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 127-131Introduction: Sacrococcygeal teratomas are neoplasm that despite their low frequency, are one of the most common in newborns. We describe a case of a dead fetus with an immature sacrococcygeal teratoma, its radiological and histological findings. Patients and Methods: A 26 years old woman in the fourth pregnancy of 32 weeks' of gestation, who presented the threat of pre-term birth. We performed obstetric ultrasound reporting the presence of a fetal sacral mass and fetal hydrops. Caesarean section was run and got a female fetal death. Pathologic study showed immature sacrococcygeal teratoma. Conclusions: In fetal sacrococcygeal teratomas, the development of fetal hydrops, heart failure and large tumor size are indicators of poor prognosis. Prenatal diagnosis, planning delivery, the postnatal stabilization period and surgical resection of the tumor, can make survival possible in these patients. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 127-131.

  10. Ultrasonography of gallbladder in surgical patients with a prolonged stay (> 14 days) in the intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustic, A.; Miletic, D.; Cicvaric, T.

    2005-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of abnormal ultrasonographic (US) findings of gallbladder (GB) in surgical patients with the prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to correlate these findings with the severity of illness. Methods. In the prospective study fifty-seven (57) adult surgical patients (male 66%; age 49±18 yr.) with the prolonged stay in ICU (>14 days) were analyzed. In all patients the US examination was performed on the 15th day of their stay in ICU. The presence of the following US findings was analyzed: GB wall thickening (?4 mm), biliary sludge, GB hydrops, striated GB wall and pericholecystitic fluid. The severity of illness was also evaluated on the 15th day of the stay in ICU using Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II). Results. At least one abnormal US finding was found in 36 (63%), patients with GB wall thickening in 32 (56%), biliary sludge in 23 (40%), pericholecystitic fluid in 9 (16%), hydrops of GB in 7 (12%), and striated GB wall in 4 (7%) cases, respectively. Two to five US findings were found in 20 (35%) patients, three to five in 12 (21%), four to five in 10 (18%), while all five US findings were present in 4 (7%) cases. The patients with one and more US findings had significantly higher SAPS II than the patients who presented regular US findings of the GB (36±9 vs. 28±7; p < 0.01). The patients with two and more US findings had higher SAPS II than those with one or none US criteria (40±8 vs. 29±6; p < 0.001), while the patients with three and more had higher SAPS II than those with two, one or none (41±8 vs. 31±9; p < 0.001). The patients with four or five US findings had higher SAPS II than those with three or less (42±11 vs. 31±6; p < 0.001) while the patients with all five had higher SAPS II than all others (45±10 vs. 32±9; p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation between the number of US findings and SAPS II was present (r 0.57; p < 0.001). Conclusions. More than

  11. A Single-Domain Llama Antibody Potently Inhibits the Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Binding to the Non-Catalytic [alpha]-Exosite Binding Region

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    Dong, Jianbo; Thompson, Aaron A.; Fan, Yongfeng; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Ho, Mengfei; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Wilson, Brenda A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Marks, James D. (UIUC); (Scripps); (UCSF)

    2010-08-13

    Ingestion or inhalation of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) results in botulism, a severe and frequently fatal disease. Current treatments rely on antitoxins, which, while effective, cannot reverse symptoms once BoNT has entered the neuron. For treatments that can reverse intoxication, interest has focused on developing inhibitors of the enzymatic BoNT light chain (BoNT Lc). Such inhibitors typically mimic substrate and bind in or around the substrate cleavage pocket. To explore the full range of binding sites for serotype A light chain (BoNT/A Lc) inhibitors, we created a library of non-immune llama single-domain VHH (camelid heavy-chain variable region derived from heavy-chain-only antibody) antibodies displayed on the surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Library selection on BoNT/A Lc yielded 15 yeast-displayed VHH with equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub d}) from 230 to 0.03 nM measured by flow cytometry. Eight of 15 VHH inhibited the cleavage of substrate SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25,000 Da) by BoNT/A Lc. The most potent VHH (Aa1) had a solution K{sub d} for BoNT/A Lc of 1.47 x 10{sup -10} M and an IC{sub 50} (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.7 x 10{sup -10} M and was resistant to heat denaturation and reducing conditions. To understand the mechanism by which Aa1 inhibited catalysis, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the BoNT/A Lc-Aa1 VHH complex at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals that the Aa1 VHH binds in the {alpha}-exosite of the BoNT/A Lc, far from the active site for catalysis. The study validates the utility of non-immune llama VHH libraries as a source of enzyme inhibitors and identifies the BoNT/A Lc {alpha}-exosite as a target for inhibitor development.

  12. Preventive immunization of aged and juvenile non-human primates to beta-amyloid

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    Kofler Julia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization against beta-amyloid (Aβ is a promising approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, but the optimal timing for the vaccination remains to be determined. Preventive immunization approaches may be more efficacious and associated with fewer side-effects; however, there is only limited information available from primate models about the effects of preclinical vaccination on brain amyloid composition and the neuroinflammatory milieu. Methods Ten non-human primates (NHP of advanced age (18–26 years and eight 2-year-old juvenile NHPs were immunized at 0, 2, 6, 10 and 14 weeks with aggregated Aβ42 admixed with monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvant, and monitored for up to 6 months. Anti-Aβ antibody levels and immune activation markers were assessed in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples before and at several time-points after immunization. Microglial activity was determined by [11C]PK11195 PET scans acquired before and after immunization, and by post-mortem immunohistochemical and real-time PCR evaluation. Aβ oligomer composition was assessed by immunoblot analysis in the frontal cortex of aged immunized and non-immunized control animals. Results All juvenile animals developed a strong and sustained serum anti-Aβ IgG antibody response, whereas only 80 % of aged animals developed detectable antibodies. The immune response in aged monkeys was more delayed and significantly weaker, and was also more variable between animals. Pre- and post-immunization [11C]PK11195 PET scans showed no evidence of vaccine-related microglial activation. Post-mortem brain tissue analysis indicated a low overall amyloid burden, but revealed a significant shift in oligomer size with an increase in the dimer:pentamer ratio in aged immunized animals compared with non-immunized controls (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that preventive Aβ immunization is a safe therapeutic approach lacking adverse CNS immune system

  13. The NKG2D ligands RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε differ with respect to their receptor affinity, expression profiles and transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédile, Oriane; Popa, Natalia; Pollet-Villard, Frédéric; Garmy, Nicolas; Ibrahim, El Chérif; Boucraut, José

    2010-10-19

    RAE-1 is a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by NK cells, NKT, γδT and some CD8(+)T lymphocytes. RAE-1 is overexpressed in tumor cell lines and its expression is induced after viral infection and genotoxic stress. We have recently demonstrated that RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) from C57BL/6 mice. RAE-1 is also expressed in vitro by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and plays a non-immune role in cell proliferation. The C57BL/6 mouse genome contains two rae-1 genes, rae-1δ and rae-1ε encoding two different proteins. The goals of this study are first to characterize the in vivo and in vitro expression of each gene and secondly to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their respective expression, which are far from known. We observed that Rae-1δ and Rae-1ε transcripts are differentially expressed according to tissues, pathological conditions and cell lines. Embryonic tissue and the adult SVZ mainly expressed Rae-1δ transcripts. The NSPCs derived from the SVZ also mainly expressed RAE-1δ. The interest of this result is especially related to the observation that RAE-1δ is a weak NKG2D ligand compared to RAE-1ε. On the contrary, cell lines expressed either similar levels of RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε proteins or only RAE-1ε. Since the protein expression correlated with the level of transcripts for each rae-1 gene, we postulated that transcriptional regulation is one of the main processes explaining the difference between RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε expression. We indeed identified two different promoter regions for each gene: one mainly involved in the control of rae-1δ gene expression and the other in the control of rae-1ε expression. RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε differ with respect to their function and the control of their expression. Immune function would be mainly exerted by RAE-1ε and non-immune function by RAE-1δ.

  14. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

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    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  15. Are thiazides effective on hypertensive vertigo? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryaman, Esra; Gökcan, Gökçen; Parmaksız, Ergün; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir; Ozlüoğlu, Levent Naci

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the symptoms of vertigo related to hypertension resulted from endolymphatic hydrops and the efficacy of the thiazides in the treatment. A total of 24 vertigo patients without peripheric or central vestibular pathologies or hyperlipidemia were included. The study group comprised 15 patients with hypertension, including nine with regulated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). The control group comprised nine patients without hypertension or DM. The patients in the study group received hydrochlorothiazide treatment. The European Evaluation of Vertigo Scale (EEVS) and Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ), puretone audiometry, tympanometry, electronystagmography (ENG) for nystagmus tests, oculomotor tests, and caloric test were carried out initially and at three weeks for both groups. The results of the study group were compared to those of the control group. There was a statistically significant decrease in the scores of EEVS and VHQ at three weeks in the study group, compared to the baseline scores (for both groups p≤0.01). Our study results showed that thiazides alleviated vertigo symptoms in hypertensive patients, as measured by qualitative methods (i.e. EEVS, VHQ), but not with quantitative measurements (i.e. ENG).

  16. Evolution of ventricular outpouching through the fetal and postnatal periods: Unabating dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction

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    Niraj Kumar Dipak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular outpouching is a rare finding in prenatal sonography and the main differential diagnoses are diverticulum, aneurysm, and pseudoaneurysm in addition to congenital cysts and clefts. The various modes of fetal presentation of congenital ventricular outpouching include an abnormal four-chamber view on fetal two-dimensional echocardiogram, fetal arrhythmia, fetal hydrops, and pericardial effusion. Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA/nonapical diverticula are usually isolated defects. Apical diverticula are always associated with midline thoracoabdominal defects (epigastric pulsating diverticulum or large omphalocele and other structural malformations of the heart. Most patients with LVA/congenital ventricular diverticulum remain clinically asymptomatic but they can potentially give rise to complications such as ventricular tachyarrhythmias, systemic embolism, sudden death, spontaneous rupture, and severe valvular regurgitation. The treatment of asymptomatic LVA and isolated congenital ventricular diverticulum is still undefined. In this review, our aim is to outline a systematic approach to a fetus detected with ventricular outpouching. Starting with prevalence and its types, issues in fetal management, natural course and evolution postbirth, and finally the perpetual dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction is discussed.

  17. Effects of Aflatoxin on Liver and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

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    Fatma Colakoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of total aflatoxin (AF given orally on liver in Merino rams were studied. In addition, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of an esterified glucomannan (EG for protection against aflatoxicosis. One-year-old 32 Merino rams were divided into four equal groups. The control group (C was fed with the commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF. The EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 2 g/day of EG. The AF + EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF and 2 g/day of EG. After feeding period, tissue samples were taken from the liver in order to perform histological analyses. Vacuolar degeneration with small and large droplets and hydropic degeneration in hepatocytes were observed in the AF group. The ceroid pigmentation was observed in macrophages in groups or one by one. It was observed that the fat rate in hepatocytes was 2.6% in the C group, 35.5% in the AF group, 2.9% in the EG group, and 9.6% in the AF + EG group. In conclusion, the adverse effects caused by aflatoxicosis on the liver could be ameliorated by adding EG to the ration.

  18. An experimental study of the radiation-induced changes in the epithelium of the rat palatal mucosae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Hee; Lee, Kang Sook; Sohn, Jung Ick; Choi, Karp Shick

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the irradiation effects on the palatal mucosa. For this study, Sprague-Dawley strain rats were irradiated to their head and neck region with the dose of 5 Gy and 10 Gy by 6MV X-radiation and sacrificed on the experimental periods after irradiation. The authors observed the histological changes of the hard and soft palatal mucosae. The results were as follows; In the light microscopic examination, hydropic change on the basal cells, increased cell size of the epithelium, and decreased epithelial cell layers were observed on the 3 hours, 6 hours, and 12 hours groups after irradiation. But, basal cell hyperplasia, increased epithelial cell layers, and elongated rete pegs were observed on the 3 days group after irradiation. After then, these changes were recovered in the mucosa of the hard palate on the 7 days and 14 days groups, and in the mucosa of the soft palate on the 14 days and 28 days groups after irradiation. And such changes were greater in the mucosa of the soft palate than in that of the hard palate, and more prominent in 10 Gy irradiated groups than in 5 Gy irradiated groups.

  19. Histopathology of the Inner Ear in a Case With Recent Onset of Cogan's Syndrome: Evidence for Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, David H; Nadol, Joseph B; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Merola, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    The association of sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo with inflammatory eye disease, usually interstitial keratitis, has been called Cogan's syndrome. The pathogenesis of Cogan's syndrome is unknown, but it has been assumed to be an immune mediated disorder with vasculitis. The histopathology of the inner ear in Cogan's syndrome has been described in 6 case reports. Although common pathologic findings in these reports include degeneration of the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelium, endolymphatic hydrops, fibrosis, and new bone formation, direct pathologic evidence of a vasculitis has not been published. A possible reason for this failure to identify vasculitis was a substantial delay (range, 4-40 years) between the onset of symptoms and examination of the otopathology. In the current case report, the patient had both auditory and vestibular symptoms and interstitial keratitis with a time delay of only 2 to 4 weeks between symptoms and death. Evidence of a vasculitis as a possible underlying etiology included H&E histopathology and anti-CD45 immunostaining of vessels both in the auditory and vestibular systems, supporting the hypothesis of a vasculitis as a mechanism in this disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI HATI MENCIT(Mus musculus L. SETELAH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN EKOR NAGA (Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott

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    Ni Komang Tia Pramesti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhapidhophora pinnata, Schott is a traditional medical plant that has been use remedy for treatment of hypertension, stroke. Aims of  this research is to determine the effect of Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott leaf extract toward  mouse (Mus musculus L liverhistological structure. This research used completely randomized  design with 28 female mice that were divide into 4 groups of  P0 (control received 0,9% NaCl, group P1, P2, and P3 received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw respectively by oral administration. The treatment were given daily for 14 days. All of the mice were sacrificed by ether after 15 days. The liver were examined for their histopathological changes, namely fatty degeneration, hydropic degenaration and necrosis. Results were statistically analised by Kruskal-Wallis method. Treatment groups showed no significant differences with regard of liver histopatological changes, however hemorrhage, sinusoid congestion and inflamatory cell infiltration were found in liver.   Keyword : Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott, liver, mice

  1. Experimental poisoning by Niedenzuella stannea in cattle and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate

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    Felipe Peixoto de Arruda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In Brazil sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA containing plants are represented by 16 species that belong to three principle genera: Palicourea ( Rubiaceae , Amorimia ( Malpighiaceae , and Tanaecium ( Bignoniaceae . These plants can cause acute cardiac failure often referred to as sudden death syndrome. The objective of this paper was to determine if N. stannea contains MFA and to report the clinical signs and pathology of cattle experimentally poisoned by this plant. MFA was detected in all N. stannea plant parts except mature leaves. Niedenzuella stannea was dosed to cattle at single doses of 15-30g kg-1 bw. Clinical signs and pathology observed were similar to those reported by other MFA-containing plants. Animals showed marked tachycardia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, loss of balance, ataxia, falling, recumbence, pedaling movements, and opisthotonous leading to death in few minutes. Gross lesions included engorgement of the large veins, severe lung edema, and petechiae , ecchymosis and suffusions in the pericardium, epicardium and pleura. Histologically, hydropic vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells of the kidney were observed. Cattle that received daily doses of 4g kg-1 body weight for 24 days showed no clinical signs. In summary, this is the first report that N. stannea contains monofluoroacetate and causes sudden death in cattle.

  2. Evaluation of the Anti-schistosomal Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Versus Praziquantel in Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Atef; Rashed, Samia; El Hayawan, Ibrahim; El-Sayed, Rabab; Ali, Hemat

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is the major active ingredient of Curcuma longa L. , traditionally known as turmeric and has been shown to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-parasitic effect. However, it is found to be water-insoluble and has low bioavailability. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of turmeric solved in olive oil either alone or in combination with praziquantel (PZQ) in treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni . The whole turmeric powder suspended in olive oil (as a solvent) is indicated to S. mansoni -infected mice aiming to study its potential therapeutic role, either alone or in combination with PZQ. Turmeric significantly reduced S. mansoni worm burden and complete absence of adult worms achieved in mice treated with combination of turmeric and PZQ. Turmeric has slight non-significant effect on the oogram pattern in all examined S. mansoni infected mice. Turmeric and PZQ found to exert a significant reduction of granuloma size in comparison with control. However, turmeric has a non-significant effect on granuloma number. On the other hand, turmeric or/and PZQ treated mice showed obvious improvement of pathology with mild cloudy swelling and less hydropic degeneration. Turmeric significantly reduced parasite worm burden, granuloma size and consequently the pathology of affected liver, it still far less effective than PZQ.

  3. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner [Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  4. We can Diagnose it if we Consider it. Diagnostic Pitfall for Placenta: Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

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    Havva Serap TORU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is an increasingly recognizable abnormality. Early cases have been confused with partial hydatidiform mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is probably under-diagnosed because of being an unfamiliar clinical entity and also mistaken for gestational trophoblastic disease due to the similar sonographic findings of two entities. In this report, we describe the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in two cases. The 33-week-preterm baby of a 26-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease and 342 gram placenta and the 19-week fetus with trisomy 21 of a 40 year-old woman were terminated. Macroscopically thick-walled vessels and microscopically hydropic villous with peripherally localized thick-walled vessels without trophoblastic cell proliferation were observed in both cases. These two cases represent a rare placental anomaly that is benign but it is challenging to distinguish placental mesenchymal dysplasia from an incomplete mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia should be included in the differential diagnosis of sonographic findings that show a normal appearing fetus and a placenta with cystic lesions. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with pregnancy-related hypertension. In conclusion, the most important point is “you can diagnose it if you consider it”.

  5. Labyrinthectomy with cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolan, T A; Shepard, N T; Niparko, J K

    1993-05-01

    Numerous reports indicate that the cochlea remains responsive to electrical stimulation following labyrinthectomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss from birth, who developed episodic vertigo with symptoms suggestive of delayed onset endolymphatic hydrops. Following 8 months of failed medical and vestibular rehabilitation management, a right-sided labyrinthectomy combined with cochlear implantation was performed without complication. Postoperatively the patient was free of vertigo. Attempts to activate the patient's device between 4 to 12 weeks after surgery were unsuccessful as stimulation of the electrodes resulted in discomfort. However, all 20 electrodes elicited comfortable hearing sensations 16 weeks postsurgery. One year after the successful activation, the patient demonstrated improved sound awareness and speech recognition with the implant when compared with preoperative performance with a hearing aid. This case study suggests that electrical detection thresholds with prosthetic stimulation may be unstable in the recently labyrinthectomized ear but supports and extends prior observations of preserved cochlear responsiveness after labyrinthectomy.

  6. Intrauterine intravascular transfusion for fetal haemolytic anaemia: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, J P; Phillips, J M; Stock, R

    1992-11-16

    To report the first four years' clinical experience with fetal intravascular blood transfusion for the treatment of fetal haemolytic anaemia in Western Australia. King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, which is the sole tertiary level perinatal centre in Western Australia with a referral base of approximately 25,000 pregnancies each year. Transfusion was by injection of packed cells from Rh-negative donors into the fetal umbilical vein near the site of insertion into the placenta. Fetal haemoglobin levels were measured before and after each transfusion. In most cases, the fetus was paralysed by intramuscular tubocurarine. Sixty intravenous transfusions were performed in 20 pregnancies. At the time of the initial transfusion, the mean haemoglobin level was 5.8 g/dL (range, 2.5-8.5 g/dL) and six fetuses had signs of hydrops. The case survival rate was 80% and the procedure survival rate was 93%. Three of the deaths occurred in the first five cases. Caesarean section was performed during two of the procedures, one because of bleeding from the cord puncture site and one because of tamponade of the umbilical vessels. Fetal intravascular transfusion is a highly effective treatment for fetal alloimmunisation and allows pregnancies to continue to term and to be delivered vaginally. However, the procedure may be difficult and requires a team approach with ready access to fetal monitoring and emergency caesarean section. Our results suggest that increasing experience of the team is a major factor in improved outcome.

  7. Comparison of bone-conducted vibration for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: forehead versus mastoid tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Chen; Wang, Shou-Jen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2012-02-01

    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) stimuli at forehead (Fz) and mastoid sites for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs). Prospective study. University hospital. Twenty healthy subjects underwent oVEMP testing via BCV stimuli at Fz and mastoid sites. Another 50 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease also underwent oVEMP testing. All healthy subjects showed clear oVEMPs via BCV stimulation regardless of the tapping sites. The right oVEMPs stimulated by tapping at the right mastoid had earlier nI and pI latencies and a larger nI-pI amplitude compared with those stimulated by tapping at the Fz and left mastoid. Similar trends were also observed in left oVEMPs. However, the asymmetry ratio did not differ significantly between the ipsilateral mastoid and Fz sites. Clinically, tapping at the Fz revealed absent oVEMPs in 28% of Meniere's ears, which decreased to 16% when tapping at the ipsilesional (hydropic) mastoid site, exhibiting a significant difference. Tapping at the ipsilateral mastoid site elicits earlier oVEMP latencies and larger oVEMP amplitudes when compared with tapping at the Fz site. Thus, tapping at the Fz site is suggested to screen for the otolithic function, whereas tapping at the ipsilesional mastoid site is suitable for evaluating residual otolithic function.

  8. Evaluation of the Anti-schistosomal Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa Versus Praziquantel in Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef HUSSEIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Curcumin is the major active ingredient of Curcuma longa L., traditionally known as turmeric and has been shown to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-parasitic effect. However, it is found to be water-insoluble and has low bioavailability. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of turmeric solved in olive oil either alone or in combination with praziquantel (PZQ in treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni.Methods: The whole turmeric powder suspended in olive oil (as a solvent is indicated to S. mansoni-infected mice aiming to study its potential therapeutic role, either alone or in combination with PZQ.Results: Turmeric significantly reduced S. mansoni worm burden and complete absence of adult worms achieved in mice treated with combination of turmeric and PZQ. Turmeric has slight non-significant effect on the oogram pattern in all examined S. mansoni infected mice. Turmeric and PZQ found to exert a significant reduction of granuloma size in comparison with control. However, turmeric has a non-significant effect on granuloma number. On the other hand, turmeric or/and PZQ treated mice showed obvious improvement of pathology with mild cloudy swelling and less hydropic degeneration.Conclusion: Turmeric significantly reduced parasite worm burden, granuloma size and consequently the pathology of affected liver, it still far less effective than PZQ.

  9. Massive attack of honeybee on macaws (Ara ararauna and Ara chloropterus) in Brazil - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Silva, Tarcísio Macedo; Hataka, Alessandre; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2017-09-15

    Three adult birds of the species Ara chloropterus and five of the species Ara ararauna from a conservation breeding facility suffered a massive attack by honeybees. The A. chloropterus birds presented swollen puncture lesions with stingers (mainly in the facial regions without feathers), swelling of the eyelids and subcutaneous tissue, and respiratory distress, and they were treated with intramuscular injections of 1.67 mg/kg of promethazine and 10 mg/kg of hydrocortisone followed by removal of the stingers. Complete remission of the clinical signs occurred 48 hours after start of treatment. The five A. ararauna birds died before they arrived at the veterinary hospital, and the necropsies found stingers in the areas of the face without feathers and the subcutaneous tissue, which were associated with erythema, bruising, and swelling. Food content from the crop was found in the oral cavity and the tracheal lumen, and marked congestion was observed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, brain, and cerebellum. Among the histopathological findings, significant swelling of the myocytes in the endocardium and vascular dilation with erythroid repletion were observed, and there were multifocal areas of centrilobular necrosis associated with severe congestion and hemorrhaging in the hepatic tissue. Severe acute tubular necrosis and hydropic-vacuolar degeneration were observed in the kidneys. The clinical signs and pathological findings suggest envenomation due to a massive bee attack, the first such report for Psittacidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present

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    Bruno Bonnemain

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII, a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising.

  11. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

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    Sônia Cristina Almeida da Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe2, an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days exposed to (PhTe2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung.

  12. Separate visualization of endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space and bone by a single pulse sequence; 3D-inversion recovery imaging utilizing real reconstruction after intratympanic Gd-DTPA administration at 3 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Minako; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four hours after intratympanic administration of gadolinium contrast material (Gd), the Gd was distributed mainly in the perilymphatic space. Three-dimensional FLAIR can differentiate endolymphatic space from perilymphatic space, but not from surrounding bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 3D inversion-recovery turbo spin echo (3D-IR TSE) with real reconstruction could separate the signals of perilymphatic space (positive value), endolymphatic space (negative value) and bone (near zero) by setting the inversion time between the null point of Gd-containing perilymph fluid and that of the endolymph fluid without Gd. Thirteen patients with clinically suspected endolymphatic hydrops underwent intratympanic Gd injection and were scanned at 3 T. A 3D FLAIR and 3D-IR TSE with real reconstruction were obtained. In all patients, low signal of endolymphatic space in the labyrinth on 3D FLAIR was observed in the anatomically appropriate position, and it showed negative signal on 3D-IR TSE. The low signal area of surrounding bone on 3D FLAIR showed near zero signal on 3D-IR TSE. Gd-containing perilymphatic space showed high signal on 3D-IR TSE. In conclusion, by optimizing the inversion time, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space and surrounding bone can be separately visualized on a single image using a 3D-IR TSE with real reconstruction. (orig.)

  13. Refractory episodic vertigo: role of intratympanic gentamicin and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Celis-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Even today, the treatment of intractable vertigo remains a challenge. Vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin stands as a good alternative in the management of refractory vertigo patients. Objective: To control intractable vertigo through complete saccular and horizontal canal vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Methods: Patients with refractory episodic vertigo were included. The inclusion criteria were: unilateral ear disease, moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss, and failure to other treatments. Included patients underwent 0.5-0.8 mL of gentamicin intratympanic application at a 30 mg/mL concentration. Vestibular ablation was confirmed by the absence of response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. Audiometry, electronystagmography with iced water, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were performed in all patients. Results: Ten patients were included; nine patients with Meniere's disease and one patient with (late onset delayed hydrops. Nine patients showed an absent response on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. The only patient with low amplitude on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials had vertigo recurrence. Vertigo control was achieved in 90% of the patients. One patient developed hearing loss >30 dB. Conclusions: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials confirmed vestibular ablation in patients treated with intratympanic gentamicin. High-grade vertigo control was due to complete saccular and horizontal canal ablation (no response to iced water in electronystagmography and no response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

  14. [Hearing loss and idoneity--the segnalation of noise-induced hearing loss hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albera, Roberto; Dagna, Federico; Cassandro, Claudia; Canale, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Work idoneity in hearing loss must be related to working ability and evolution risks. Working ability is referred to the difficulties found in speech comprehension and in signals perception. As regards hearing loss evolution it is necessary to define if the subject is affected by conductive or neurosensorial hearing loss. In conductive hearing loss it is necessary to evaluate entity and frequential distribution of the deficit. In neurosensorial hearing loss it is necessary to distinguish between noise-induced hearing loss and extraprofessional hearing loss. In noise-induced hearing loss the evolution risk is high if the noise exposure is less than 10-15 years or the actual noise exposure is louder than the former. In case of extraprofessional hearing loss the evolution risk is higher in presbycusis, endolymphatic hydrops and toxic hearing loss. The necessity to report the presence on professionale noise-induced hearing loss arises if audiometric threshold is more than 25 dB at 0.5-1-2-3-4 kHz and if it is verified the professional origine of hearing loss.

  15. Studies on the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin in rats: toxicity and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Bajnógel, J; Varga, A; Móra, Z; Laczay, P

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin were investigated in rats. A three-day comparative oral repeated-dose toxicity study was performed in Phase I, when the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In Phase II, the two compounds were administered simultaneously to study the toxic interaction (monensin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). Monensin proved to be toxic to rats at doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg. Tiamulin was well tolerated up to the dose of 200 mg/kg. After combined administration, signs of toxicity were seen (including lethality in females). Monensin caused a dose-dependent cardiotoxic effect and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles in the animals given 50 mg/kg. Both compounds exerted a toxic effect on the liver in high doses. After simultaneous administration of the two compounds, there was a mild effect on the liver (females only), hydropic degeneration of the myocardium and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles. The alteration seen in the skeletal muscles was more marked than that seen after the administration of 50 mg/kg monensin alone.

  16. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  17. Susceptibility and pathological consequences of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton experimentally infected with Edwardsiella tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Thongam Bidya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the susceptibility and pathological changes of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton infected with Edwardsiella tarda (ET-PG-29. The bacterium was isolated from the kidney of a diseased pangas catfish. To determine the median lethal dose (LD50, C. catla were challenged with this bacterium (108-103 CFU ml-1, and the LD50 was calculated as 105.5 CFU ml-1. Another set of healthy C. catla were injected intraperitoneally with the LD50 dose to induce edwardsiellosis. The clinical signs of the infected C. catla were observed and recorded. Tissues such as kidney, liver, intestine, heart, and gill from the infected fish with clinical signs of edwardsiellosis were used for histopathology. The clinical and gross signs were first visible at 1 d post-injection, and the infected fish showed typical signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. The most striking histopathological features were found in the kidney which showed multi-focal necrosis with the formation of granuloma indicating an inflammatory response against the pathogen. The intestine displayed goblet cell hyperplasia, the liver showed hydropic degeneration with hyperemic central veins, and there was inflammation of gill lamellae and cardiac myositis associated with leucocyte infiltration. Collectively, the results confirmed the susceptibility of C. catla to E. tarda infection and that this bacterium is a threat to C. catla in aquaculture practices.

  18. Canine hypertrophic osteopathy associated with extra-thoracic lesions Osteopatia hipertrófica canina associada com lesões extratorácicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Canine hypertrophic osteopathy is described in a dog that presented extra-thoracic lesions, mainly in the liver. Hepatic lesions were characterized by necrosis, hemorrhage, severe hydropic degeneration of centrolobular hepatocytes, proliferation of epithelial cells of bile ducts, and mild biliary stasis. The disease syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical signs, radiological evaluation, and inspection of macerated bones.Osteopatia hipertrófica canina é descrita em um cão que apresentou lesões extratorácicas, principalmente no fígado. As alterações hepáticas foram caracterizadas por necrose, hemorragia, degeneração hepatocelular severa, proliferação das células epiteliais dos ductos biliares e estase biliar. O diagnóstico desta síndrome foi baseado nos sinais clínicos, a avaliação radiológica e a inspeção dos ossos macerados.

  19. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  20. Dynamic changes in the inner ear function and vestibular neural pathway related to the progression of labyrinthine infarction in patient with an anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Rim; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Hong, Sung Kwang

    2011-12-01

    To describe changes in the inner ear function and the vestibular neural pathway according to the progression of a labyrinthine infarction in a patient with an anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction. A 58-year-old woman with hypertension who presented with isolated inner ear symptoms similar to those of endolymphatic hydrops but finally progressed to an AICA infarction. Serial neurotologic testing according to progression to an AICA infarction and antiplatelet therapy. Radiologic findings and neurotologic parameters, including pure tone audiogram thresholds, spontaneous nystagmus, summating potentials/action potentials on electrocochleography, interaural amplitude difference on the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test, canal paresis and fixation index on the bithermal caloric test, and gain on oculomotor tests. Our patient initially presented with sudden hearing loss and was diagnosed with an acute AICA infarction on a follow up MRI. Dynamic change in neurotologic testing was observed during disease progression. The vertigo and motion intolerance improved gradually after antiplatelet therapy. Changes in the clinical profile, which were documented during a transition from isolated labyrinthine ischemia to an AICA infarction, suggest that sensitivity to an ischemic injury is variable in different components of the labyrinthine organs in addition to providing a new insight into the response of vestibular neural pathway to ischemic injury.

  1. Neonatal management and outcome in alloimmune hemolytic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Isabelle M C; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; van der Bom, Johanna G; van Klink, Jeanine M M; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2017-07-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) occurs when fetal and neonatal erythroid cells are destroyed by maternal erythrocyte alloantibodies, it leads to anemia and hydrops in the fetus, and hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus in the newborn. Postnatal care consists of intensive phototherapy and exchange transfusions to treat severe hyperbilirubinemia and top-up transfusions to treat early and late anemia. Other postnatal complications have been reported such as thrombocytopenia, iron overload and cholestasis requiring specific management. Areas covered: This review focusses on the current neonatal management and outcome of hemolytic disease and discusses postnatal treatment options as well as literature on long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Expert commentary: Despite major advances in neonatal management, multiple issues have to be addressed to optimize postnatal management and completely eradicate kernicterus. Except for strict adherence to guidelines, improvement could be achieved by clarifying the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HDFN. Several pharmacotherapeutic agents should be further researched as alternative treatment options in hyperbilirubinemia, including immunoglobulins, albumin, phenobarbital, metalloporphyrins, zinc, clofibrate and prebiotics. Larger trials are warranted to evaluate EPO, folate and vitamin E in neonates. Long-term follow-up studies are needed in HDFN, especially on thrombocytopenia, iron overload and cholestasis.

  2. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  3. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  4. A case of marked short-neck with fusion of cervical vertebrae in a Holstein cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, J.; Ando, T.; Otsuka, H.; Paku, T.; Yoshioka, I.; Saruyama, Y.; Yamada, H.; Iso, H.; Oyamada, T.; Watanabe, D.

    2007-01-01

    An 11-month old Holstein cow with congenitally shortened neck was subjected to clinical, radiographic and myelographic examination, and also autopsy and histopathological examination. Skeletal preparations of the cervical region were made to investigate the abnormality of the vertebrae. The cow was growing normally, and no critical neurological signs were observed. Radiographic examination showed marked kyphosis of the cervical spine, and fusion of posterior cervical vertebrae was suspected. Myelographic examination showed curvature of the spinal cord, but no narrowing at any part. Atrophy, hyaline degeneration, and hydropic degeneration of muscle fibers were seen in the dorsal part of the cervical region in the histopathological examination, but there was no abnormality in the cervical spinal cord. Deformation, fusion, and hypoplasia of the cervical vertebrae and posterior thoracic vertebrae were observed. It is suggested that in the organ system-wise classification of congenital abnormalities, this may be classified as a case of defective vertebrae with the coexisting congenital anomalies of kyphosis, scoliosis and vertebral fusion. The cause of this defect was not clear, but the observed vertebral fusion and hypoplasia indicated defective development of the vertebral segment during the early fetal stage

  5. A study of different scenarios of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil G Kachewar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity (MCA-PSV is being increasingly used for non-invasively diagnosing fetal anemias irrespective of their cause. A study was therefore undertaken to find out what different scenarios can be encountered in the local obstetric population. Doppler ultrasound measurements of fetal MCA-PSV were done in 1200 pregnant women who were referred for antenatal ultrasound between 12 - 40 weeks of gestation. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS software version 12. The different scenarios encountered in this study were then compiled and are presented here. With increasing gestational age, the value of MCA-PSV was seen to increase correspondingly in all normal fetuses. This correlation between the two was thus positive and was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05. Abnormally raised values of MCA-PSV were seen in fetuses with severe anemia due to ABO-Rh Iso-immunization which left untreated, ultimately resulted in fetal hydrops. Almost similar and normal values were seen in separate as well as conjoint healthy twins. Abnormally elevated values were seen in twins with discordant growths. Fetal MCA-PSV is very useful to confirm the presence or absence of fetal anemia irrespective of underlying cause in singleton as well as twin pregnancies. For complete assessment, it is essential that the specialist is thoroughly aware of the different scenarios that can be encountered while using this non-invasive method.

  6. L'assèchement des dépressions dunaires du littoral du Cotentin : mécanismes et propositions de gestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Petit-Berghem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les dunes de Basse-Normandie sont caractérisées par des dépressions humides de dimensions variables. Ces dépressions recèlent des habitats et une flore riches, ce qui leur confère un grand intérêt patrimonial. Mais ces milieux connaissent depuis quelques années une dynamique forte d'embroussaillement. Cette dernière, directement liée à un assèchement, préoccupe les gestionnaires. L'analyse des processus d'assèchement des dépressions humides met en avant la combinaison des paramètres en cause (conditions hydropédologiques, actions anthropiques et permet donc d'optimiser la gestion patrimoniale de ces sites.The dunes of Lower Normandy are characterized by moist depressions of various sizes. The depressions harbour a rich fauna and habitats, which are therefore of great patrimonial interest. But this environment has for some years witnessed an overgrowth of brushwood. This last one, directly connected to a drying out, worries the managers. The analysis of processes of drying out of dune slacks shows the combination of parameters involved (moisture conditions in the soil, human actions, and thus allows to optimise the patrimonial management of these sites.

  7. Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) and other lethal arthrogryposes in Finland--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Ritvanen, Annukka; Herva, Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Kestilä, Marjo; Ignatius, Jaakko

    2006-09-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by multiple contractures with an estimated frequency of 1 in 3,000 births. With improving diagnostic methods, increasing numbers of fetuses with arthrogryposis are found. The pathogenetic mechanisms are relatively well known but the epidemiology and genetics of the prenatally lethal forms of arthrogryposis are less well known. In this study we collected all cases of a multiple contractures diagnosed in Finland during 1987-2002 including live born infants, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies. Ninety-two cases of 214 suffered intrauterine demise (68 selective pregnancy terminations and 24 stillbirths) and 58 died in infancy. In 141 out of these cases the diagnosis could be included within lethal arthrogryposes, with a prevalence of 1 in 6,985 (1.43/10,000) births. Of these, 59 had spinal cord pathology at autopsy and thus were of neurogenic origin. Thirty-nine cases had lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) clinically characterized by total immobility of the fetus at all ultrasound examinations (12 weeks or later), multiple joint contractures in both upper and lower limbs, hydrops, and fetal death before the 32nd week of pregnancy. LCCS is noted as a unique Finnish disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 25,250 (0.40/10,000) births and is a major cause of lethal arthrogryposis in Finland.

  8. Mondini dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Taizo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Takeuchi, Shunji; Saito, Haruo

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technique, including high resolution thin section computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), permit the easy diagnosis of congenital malformations of the osseous labyrinth, which have so far been lumped together as 'Mondini dysplasia'. In the present study, the anatomic patterns from the radiogrpahic appearance and the clinical manifestation were examined in 18 patients (23 ears) with radiographic abnormalities of the inner ear. The most common abnormal configuration was a large vestibule (20 of 23 ears). This anomaly of the vestibule often involved the lateral semicircular canal, revealed as a round high signal zone on T2-weighted MRI. However, a large vestibule was not always associated with an abnormal cochlea. Abnormal cochleas were found in 8 of the 20 ears with a large vestibule, and most of these 8 ears had total or profound deafness. But 4 of the 10 ears with residual hearing had low tone deafness and 6 had fluctuating hearing loss, which was frequently associated with attacks of dizziness. These clinical manifestations of Mondini dysplasia are similar to those of patients with endolymphatic hydrops. (author)

  9. Management of twin anemia-polycythemia sequence using intrauterine blood transfusion for the donor and partial exchange transfusion for the recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, L; Slaghekke, F; Klumper, F J; Middeldorp, J M; Steggerda, S J; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E

    2013-01-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a rare condition which may occur either spontaneously in uncomplicated monochorionic twin pregnancies or may develop after laser treatment in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. TAPS is characterized by a large intertwin discordance in hemoglobin levels without discordance in amniotic fluid levels, and may lead to severe complications including fetal hydrops, hematological morbidity and perinatal mortality. Several treatments have been proposed including intrauterine transfusion, laser surgery, elective delivery and expectant management. The optimal treatment remains unclear. In this case series we report 3 TAPS cases managed recently at our center with a combination of intrauterine blood transfusion for the anemic twin and intrauterine partial exchange transfusion for the polycythemic twin. In 1 case, the donor was found to have severe cerebral injury on neuroimaging examination. We propose etiologic mechanisms for cerebral injury in TAPS, discuss the rationale behind this treatment alternative, and evaluate the pros and cons of the various management options. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as a novel cause for Ménière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Meiho; Kabaya, Kayoko

    2013-10-01

    Several recent reports have described the relation between sleep disorders and inner ear function. There are also many reports that insomnia is observed in Ménière's patients. However, the possibility that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might affect Ménière's disease or other neurotological consequences was not noticed, until studies using polysomnography for these patients. OSAS may cause not only vestibular but also auditory dysfunction. Several reports suggest that insufficient supply of blood via the vertebral basilar artery, which supplies the inner ear, may cause hydropic distension of the endolymphatic system and lead to Ménière's disease. However, few people noticed that in OSAS this insufficient supply might be exacerbated in the night while patients are sleeping. Even more, we should note that Ménière's patients may not only suffer from insomnia, but also that the impaired sleep might be caused by OSAS. Physicians routinely prescribe benzodiazepines or other drugs that have hypnotic, muscle relaxing, antianxiety, and anticonvulsant properties for insomnia, but these properties may have the effect of aggravating OSAS symptoms. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective therapy used worldwide for the treatment of OSAS. CPAP or surgeries for OSAS may also be useful as one aspect of treatment for Ménière's disease patients with OSAS.

  11. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V. A.; Linam, Leann E.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction.

  12. Four variations of the Mondini inner ear malformations as seen in microdissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, L G; Hawkins, J E; Rouse, R C; Kingsley, T C

    1984-01-01

    Four variations and degrees of severity of the Mondini malformation were found in the temporal bones from two neonates, one with congenital heart disease and the other with trisomy D, and from one teenager with leukemia: 1) short cochlea and normal vestibular organs; 2) short cochlea and persistent horizontal canal anlage; 3) markedly shortened cochlea with no modiolus, wide internal auditory meatus, and persistent horizontal canal anlage; 4) same as variation 3, but with persistent anlagen in all semicircular canals. Variations 3 and 4 were from the case of trisomy D, in which the left cochlea had a normal hair cell population but few nerve fibers, and the intraganglionic spiral bundle was displaced from Rosenthal's canal to the osseous spiral lamina. The right ear had no cochlear nerve fibers; the organ of Corti was present, but hair cells were unusually small. In the case of trisomy D, both ears showed subtotal loss of vestibular nerve fibers. Although the rudimentary cristae of the right ear had numerous hair cells, the macular hair cells were fewer and malformed. No hydrops was present.

  13. A familial case of achondrogenesis type II caused by a dominant COL2A1 mutation and "patchy" expression in the mosaic father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, F; Lituania, M; Viassolo, A; Superti-Furga, V; Wildhardt, G; Zabel, B; Faravelli, F

    2007-12-01

    Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is the most severe disorder that can be produced by dominant mutations in COL2A1. We report on four pregnancies of an apparently healthy, nonconsanguineous young couple. The father had scoliosis as a child, and has slight body disproportion with short trunk. The first child was born at 32 weeks and died neonatally. In the second pregnancy, short limbs and fetal hygroma were noted on ultrasound at 17 weeks' gestation. Similar findings were observed in the third fetus. Clinical, radiological, and histological evaluation of the fetuses after termination of the pregnancies showed findings consistent with ACG2. Molecular analysis of genomic DNA extracted from amniotic cells of the second and third fetuses revealed heterozygosity for a 10370G > T missense mutation (G346V) in the COL2A1 gene. This mutation was also found in the father, as a mosaic. The couple had a fourth pregnancy, and at 11 weeks fetal hydrops with a septated cystic hygroma were obvious. DNA from CVS demonstrated the same COL2A1 mutation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Incidentally detected gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Canbak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are mesenchymal tumors located primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to present a case report of GIST incidentally detected during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for one day. The physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant. In the laboratory examinations, white blood cell count 6,490 k/uL, hemoglobin 12 g/dL, hematocrit 35% and other biochemical tests were normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydropic gallbladder, several gallstones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and pericholecystic fluid collection was present. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned due to acute cholecystitis. In exploration, beside the presence of acute cholecystitis, a mass of approximately 5 cm, located 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz was detected. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conversion to open laparotomy was done; small intestine resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CD117, CD34 and S100 positivity was detected on histopathologic examination.It is thought that GISTs are mesenchymal tumors originating from precursors of Kajal cells. GISTs are usually detected in their 60s. The first option for treatment is surgical resection.

  15. Primary Adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kazandi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the follapian tube accounts for only 0.3 to 1.1% of all gynecologic malignancies. Primer carsinoma of follapian tube is a rare and aggressive cancer. It is not diagnosed until at an advanced stage. Because its epidemiologic, biologic and prognostic characteristics arent well known, no standart treatment has been developed. Most of them are adenocarcinomas. Stage is significant prognostic factor. Typical clinical symptoms are vaginal bleeding, watery discharge and pelvic pain. Tubal carsinomas are treated with surgical and chemotherapeutic approach as epithelial ovarian cancer. We reported a 76 year-old woman with primer fallopian tube carcinomas. The case presented with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Endometrial curettage showed no abnormal findings. However, we performed laparotomy because of ongoing vaginal bleeding after currettage and left adnexal mass. In the laparotomy, left tube was observed hydropic. The histopathologic result of the left tube revealed primer fallopian tube adenocarcinoma. We performed hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She has been given chemotherapy (endoxan-carboplatin treatment for 4 mounths.

  16. Therapeutic modalities of twin to twin transfusion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulović N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTTS accounts for approximately 10% of monochorionic twin pregnancies and, if left untreated, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. A net transfusion of blood flow from one fetus (donor twin to the other (recipient twin via placental vascular anastomoses has been supposed as the major etiology of TTTTS. The donor twin becomes hypovolemic and oliguria, oligohydramnios, and a variable degree of growth restriction develop, whereas the recipient twin manifests polyuria, polyhydramnios, and hydrops in response to hypervolemia. TTTTS can be treated by either serial amniocentesis or selective fetoscopic laser coagulation of the communicating vessels. The rationale for removal of large volumes of amniotic fluid is to prevent preterm delivery secondary to polyhydramnios and to improve fetal circulation by reducing pressure on the chorionic plate. On the other hand, the goal of laser therapy is to occlude vascular anastomoses, thereby interrupting intertwin blood exchange. Although laser treatment is associated with increased survival rate and reduced neurologic complications, compared with amnioreduction, it requires highly specialized centers, whereas serial amniocentesis has the advantage of being performed worldwide. Therefore, the optimal treatment for pregnancies complicated with TTTTS is still controversial.

  17. Limited Link between Oxidative Stress and Ochratoxin A—Induced Renal Injury in an Acute Toxicity Rat Model

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    Liye Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA displays nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. However, in the acute toxicity rat model, there is no evidence on the relationship between OTA and nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Based on this, the integrated analysis of physiological status, damage biomarkers, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were performed. After OTA treatment, the body weight decreased and AST, ALP, TP, and BUN levels in serum increased. Hydropic degeneration, swelling, vacuolization, and partial drop occurred in proximal tubule epithelial cells. PCNA and Kim-1 were dose-dependently increased in the kidney, but Cox-2 expression and proliferation were not found in the liver. In OTA-treated kidneys, the mRNA expressions of Kim-1, Cox-2, Lcn2, and Clu were dose-dependently increased. The mRNA expressions of Vim and Cox-2 were decreased in OTA-treated livers. Some oxidative stress indicators were altered in the kidneys (ROS and SOD and livers (SOD and GSH. DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage were not found. In conclusion, there is a limited link between oxidative stress and OTA-induced renal injury in an acute toxicity rat model.

  18. Microscopic study of edema in hydatidiform mole

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    Olivar C. Castejón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the purpose of this study is to use light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine the effect of edema on the structure of the molar vesicle. Methods: samples were taken from the complete hydatidiform mole and processed using conventional light and scanning electron microscopy techniques and an observation protocol that identified four variables: factors underlying the development of edema; the condition of the trophoblast basement membrane, development of the villi, accumulation and degeneration of sulphated mucosubstances at stromal level. Results: light microscopy showed a permeable trophoblastic basement membrane, a swollen syncytium, edematous regions disorganizating the stromal region and causing ischemic necrosis of cells. Using scanning electron microscopy, the basement membrane was found to be distended and thickened, with large irregular holes for the entry and movement of liquid, leaving a wide range of fluids during the influx process and depriving stromal cells of nutrition. Conclusions: a new three-dimensional view of the changes brought about by the entry of fluids into the stroma of molar hydropic vesicles was provided by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by light microscopy, thereby explaining the changes occurring at the level of the stroma as an effect of the edema.

  19. Histopathological and biochemical assessment of d-limonene-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carlos Alberto F; Sá, Rita de Cássia da S; Alves, Mateus F; Benedito, Rubens B; de Sousa, Damião P; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima F M; Araújo, Maria Salete T; de Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a biochemical, histologic and immunohistochemical study about the potential hepatotoxic effect of d-limonene - a component of volatile oils extracted from citrus plants. Blood alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from d-limonene-treated animals were determined and compared to morphologic hepatic lesions in order to investigate the possible physiopathologic mechanisms involved in the liver toxicity, in experimental animals treated with d-limonene. Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: two control groups (untreated or receiving only vehicle, tween-80); one positive control (vehicle); two experimental groups treated with d-limonene at doses of 25 mg/kg/day and 75 mg/kg/day for 45 days, and two other groups treated with the same doses for 30 days and kept under observation during 30 more days. Biochemical data showed significant reduction in ALT levels in the animals treated with 75 mg/kg of d-limonene. Histological analysis revealed some hepatocyte morphological lesions, including hydropic degeneration, microvesicular steatosis and necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia and incipient fibrosis. By immunohistochemistry, influx of T (CD3+) and cytotoxic (CD8+) lymphocytes was observed in the rats treated with d-limonene at both dose levels. In conclusion, it is possible that d-limonene has been directly responsible for hepatic parenchymal and matrix damage following subchronic treatment with d-limonene.

  20. Biomolecules in the treatment of lichen planus refractory to corticosteroid therapy: Clinical and histopathological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñas, Laura; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Suárez-Fernández, Ricardo; Anitua, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    Local deficit of several biomolecules have been described in oral lichen planus (OLP). Such a deficit impairs cellular functions and cell-matrix communication. Assess the efficacy of the local application of autologous biomolecules in the treatment of erosive OLP. In this study, the use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a source of blood-derived and autologous growth factors and proteins were tested in erosive oral lichen planus refractory to corticosteroids. Histopathological features of the disease were also analysed at the time of diagnosis. Clinical data were the number of recurrences and achievement of pain reduction and complete healing of the lesions. A total of 10 patients with erosive OLP refractory to treatment by corticosteroids were included in the study. All patients were females with a mean age of 48±12years. A complete remission of the disease was achieved after one infiltration of PRGF in 8 patients. Only 2 patients required a total of 2 infiltrations to heal. Hydropic degeneration of the epithelium basal layer, band-like subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration and fibrin deposits in the epithelium were observed in all patients. Interestingly plasma cells were present in 2 patients. All patients presenting plasma cells healed after only one PRGF infiltration. However, 2 patients out of 6 (no plasma cells) required 2 infiltrations. The local administration of autologous local factors could overcome the deficit of biomolecular clues and thus improve cell functions and restore cell-matrix communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: From insulin resistance to mitochondrial dysfunction Enfermedad grasa del hígado no alcohólica: Desde la resistencia a la insulina a la disfunción mitocondrial

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    J. A. Solís Herruzo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a set of liver lesions similar to those induced by alcohol that develop in individuals with no alcohol abuse. When lesions consist of fatty and hydropic degeneration, inflammation, and eventually fibrosis, the condition is designated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The pathogenesis of these lesions is not clearly understood, but they are associated with insulin resistance in most cases. As a result, abdominal fat tissue lipolysis and excessive fatty acid uptake by the liver occur. This, together with a disturbance of triglyceride export as VLDL, results in fatty liver development. Both the inflammatory and hepatocellular degenerative components of NASH are attributed to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial respiratory chain loss of activity plays a critical role in the genesis of latter stress. This may be initiated by an increase in the hepatic TNFa, iNOS induction, peroxynitrite formation, tyrosine nitration and inactivation of enzymes making up this chain. Consequences of oxidative stress include: lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, stellate cell activation in the liver, liver fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and apoptosis.

  2. Percutaneous cholecystostome; 60 cases of experience

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    Kang, Sung Gwon; Song, Ho Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Suk; Ki, Won Woo; Sung, Gyu Bo [Ulsan Univ College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To review the effectiveness and complication of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PCCS). We performed PCCS in 60 patient who presented with acute cholecystitis. The causes of acute cholecystitis were as follows; acalculous cholecystitis(n=8), calculous cholecystitis(n=23), GB hydrops (n=3), GB empyema(n=15), septic cholangitis(n=11). Of 60 patients, 36 patients had high risk factor for cholecystectomy; underlying malignancy(n=13), severe trauma(n=6). Cholecystostomy was done under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guide. The cholecystostomy was successfully in 59 patients, and failed in 1 patient. 15 patients improved without other procedure. 16 patients underwent cholecystectomy after improvement of their general condition. Severe complications of PCCS are as follows; bile peritonitis(n=6), hemoperitoneum(n=1), subphrenic abscess(n=1). Mild complication, such as pain, occurred in most patients. Emergency operation was done in one patient who developed bile peritonitis. Cholecystostomy is effective and safe, especially in cases of inoperable patients who represent acute cholecystitis. Percutaneous cholecystostomy may substitute surgical cholecystostomy.

  3. Keratoconus: current perspectives

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    Vazirani J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jayesh Vazirani, Sayan BasuCornea and Anterior Segment Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Keratoconus is characterized by progressive corneal protrusion and thinning, leading to irregular astigmatism and impairment in visual function. The etiology and pathogenesis of the condition are not fully understood. However, significant strides have been made in early clinical detection of the disease, as well as towards providing optimal optical and surgical correction for improving the quality of vision in affected patients. The past two decades, in particular, have seen exciting new developments promising to alter the natural history of keratoconus in a favorable way for the first time. This comprehensive review focuses on analyzing the role of advanced imaging techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of keratoconus and evaluating the evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of therapeutic advances for keratoconus, such as newer contact lens designs, collagen crosslinking, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, intracorneal ring segments, photorefractive keratectomy, and phakic intraocular lenses.Keywords: keratoconus, corneal topography, hydrops, collagen cross-linking, keratoplasty, contact lenses

  4. Protective effect of ginger and zinc chloride mixture on the liver and kidney alterations induced by malathion toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Attia, Hossam F; Soliman, Mohamed M; Makrum, Omar

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out on four groups of male Wistar rats, 10 rats per group. Group I got open access to food intake and water with normal balanced diet. Group II was administered 400 mg ginger per kg body weight (BW) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water for 4 months. Group III was administered malathion at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW/day in 0.2 mL corn oil via gavages for 4 months. This dose equal to 1/50 of the LD50. Group IV was given a mixture of 400 mg ginger per kg BW and ZnCl2 (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water in addition to 100 mg malathion/kg BW for 4 months. The liver showed histopathological changes include congestion, edema, and leucocytic infiltrations which were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. The kidney showed cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration of the renal tubules. These changes were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. Ki67 immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane. Its expression was estimated as the percentage of cells positively stained by the antibody in the different groups. In conclusion, malathion was toxic to the liver and kidney and must be avoided and protected by the addition of ginger and zinc mixture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Impaired fetal blood gas status in polyhydramnios and its relation to raised amniotic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, N M; Vaughan, J; Talbert, D

    1994-01-01

    A substantial proportion of perinatal losses in polyhydramnios occur as unexplained normally formed stillbirths. In order to investigate the relationship between fetal condition and raised amniotic pressure (AP), fetal blood gas and acid-base status were determined together with AP in 22 pregnancies with polyhydramnios. At fetal blood sampling, 8 (36%) had a venous pH value and 16 (73%) a pO2 value below the reference range. Both fetal pH and pO2 were significantly negatively correlated with the degree of elevation in AP (y = 7.43 - 0.036x, r = 0.56, p = 0.006, where y = pH and x = AP z score, and y = -1.6 - 0.48x, r = 0.54, p = 0.01, where y = pO2 z score, respectively). Although some of these fetuses were hydropic, had congenital anomalies, or were from multiple pregnancies, univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the above associations could not be accounted for by these potentially confounding variables. This work suggests that abnormal fetal blood gas status in human pregnancies with poly-hydramnios is associated with elevated AP.

  6. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Causes and Contributing Factors Leading to Exchange Transfusion at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad

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    Farhad Heydarian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is common in neonates; it can have a serious rising course. Due to its critical morbidity called "kernicterus", severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes which lead to exchange transfusion, should be clarified. This descriptive cross sectional study performed with reviewing of files of 118 neonates weighting 2kg and more who had exchange transfusion in pediatrics ward at Ghaem training hospital in Mashhad from April 2004 to March 2007. Among 118 patients, 75 (63.6% were male, and 43 patients (36.4% were female. The most common cause of exchange transfusion was ABO incompatibility (38.1%. In order of frequency, unknown etiology (25.4%, Rh incompatibility (16.1% with no immune hydrops, Sepsis(8.5%, urinary tract infection (5.1% and others (3.4% (Including Crigler-Najjar and cephalohematoma were next ones. Vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were detected as associated factors. Mean serum bilirubin levels was 28.7 mg/dl (SD. 9.2 ABO incompatibility. ABO incompatibility was the main cause of exchange transfusion. Male gender, vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were seen more among patients who need to be exchanged. So in case of ABO incompatibility especially when delivery route is vaginal, newborns should be visited soon again after early discharge from hospital.

  7. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rhesus monkeys: MR spectroscopy comparison with histopathology and ultrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qian; Wang Lianqing; Wu Jing; Zhao Huadong; Zhai Jinping; Guo Xue; Liu Lianxiang; Wu Yujin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships between changes of rhesus monkeys with EAE in MRS and those in histopathology and ultrastructure. Methods: Nine rhesus monkeys were sensitized by the intradermal injection of homologous myelin basic protein or purified bovine MBP in complete Freund's adjuvant. The ratio of Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr was measured in EAE over course and compared with that before attack. Finally, the histologic characters of the disease was confirmed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results: The lesions of acute and chronic form of EAE was extensive. The lesions of chronic form of EAE observed on MRI were multiple and limited, with mild inflammation. The ratios of NAA/Cr in acute and chronic form were decreased (t = 68.66, 5.69, separately, P < 0.05). A lot of vacuolation, hydropic degeneration, and lipofuscin in the axis-cylinders could be observed in both phases. The ratio of Cho/Cr in chronic EAE was increased (t = 3.48, P < 0.05). In acute form of EAE, severe inflammation, necrosis, and destruction of axons were observed in histopathology. However, chronic form of EAE showed marked demyelination. Conclusion: The ratios of Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr by MRS quantitative analysis can be used to determine different stages of the lesion and predict the histopathological feature in EAE in rhesus monkeys

  8. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Midgut Epithelial Cells of Female Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiba, I.M.; Abd El-Meguid, A.A.; Yousef, H.A.A.; Mahmoud, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the histological studies of the midgut in non- irradiated 4-day-old potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella and after the exposure of 5-day-old pupae to sub sterilizing and sterilizing doses 50 and 150 Gy, respectively. Anatomically, the midgut was a wide straight tube, the proximal part was marked by the connection to the crop and the distal part was determined by the connection of the Malpighian tubules. The arrangement of the Malpighian tubules around the midgut tube took a special pattern symmetrically on each side. Histologically, the midgut was subdivided into three main subdivisions, anterior, middle and posterior regions. The epithelial cells differed in shape and size according to the regions in the midgut. Exposure to gamma-irradiation showed various forms of changes, there was direct relationship between the dose levels and the observed effects. At dose level 150 Gy, the effects were more advanced than those at 50 Gy dose level. The effects of radiation could be summarized as: appearance of vacuoles and vesicles in the cytoplasm, nuclei in some cells were pyknotic or karyolysed, reduction in the cell number, enlargement in nuclei, absence of regenerative cells from some parts and the epithelial cells suffered from hydropic degeneration

  9. Verrucous form of chilblain lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pock, L; Petrovská, P; Becvár, R; Mandys, V; Hercogová, J

    2001-09-01

    A 45-year-old woman had symmetrical livid plaques with yellowish hyperkeratoses for 5 years, which progressed on to the fingers and toes and on the soles of the feet. Two years later creamy, whitish areas and maceration appeared on the buccal mucosa and the lips. A skin biopsy revealed massive collagen hyaline degeneration in the perivascular area, hyperkeratosis and hypergranulosis, small lymphocyte infiltrates with several melanophages and extravasates of erythrocytes in the upper corium in perivascular areas and hydropic degeneration of basal keratinocytes. The findings using direct immunofluorescence were compatible with lupus erythematosus (LE). Laboratory investigation showed a slight leucopenia and thrombopenia, a slightly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hypocomplementaemia C3 and C4, a high titre of rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies positivity of extractable nuclear antigen. The results reflected probably the development of a systemic form of the disease. The patient was successfully managed by methylprednisolone and hydroxychloroquine. After 1 year of therapy, a new skin biopsy revealed a substantial reduction of hyperkeratosis and hyaline degeneration of collagen tissue in the perivascular areas. The combination of the extensive hyperkeratosis and hyalinization thus seems to be features of the long-lasting, untreated lesions in chilblain LE.

  10. Correlation between bone contusion and ligament, menisci injury of knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijuan; Li Pei; Tu Changzhuo; Wu Guangren; Qi Yuliang; Yan Xiaoqun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between bone contusion and ligament, meniscus injury of knee joint with MR imaging. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute trauma of knee joint were studied retrospectively. All eases showed negative on X-ray and bone cont, -sion on MR imaging. Results: in all patients, ligament and meniscus injury were seen in 25 cases (71%), incorporate anterior cruciate ligament injury in 12 cases, posterior cruciate ligament in 6, tibial collateral ligament in 8 cases, fibular collateral ligament in 6 cases, medial meniscus tear in 4 cases, lateral meniscus tear in 5 cases, and hydrops in 29 cases. There were only 3 patients with ligament or meniscus injury but no bone contusion during the same period. Conclusion: It is necessary to check by MR for the patients with acute trauma of knee joint, who have clinical symptom such as ache, swelling, move un-freely showing bone contusion on MR Imaging but without any abnormality on X-ray in order to avoid failure in diagnosing injury of ligament and meniscus. (authors)

  11. Effect of radiosterilization of some antihistamines on their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Naiema, M.; Seham, H.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of pgeniramine maleate and menhydrinate solutions at the radiation levels of 15,25 and 50KGY on their toxicity has been investigated. Irradiation of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate solutions at dose levels of 15,25 and 50KGY resulted in no significant change in neither the gross toxicity of the two drugs nor in their LD 50's on rats. Pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate whether irradiated or not, resulted in no significant increase in serum GPT or alkaline phosphatase activities when given at a dose of 15mg/Kg suggesting no significant alteration to liver function in rats. Higher doses of the two antihistaminics, namely, the minimal lethal doses and the LD 50's induced hydropic degeneration of liver cells, lymphocytic infiltration of the portal tract and focal areas of necrosis of hepatic cells mostly in the central lobule. Fatty infiltration was observed with dimenhydrinate. Radiation treatment of those antihistamines up to 50KGY resulting in no alteration in their toxicity projects the high radiation stability of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate and confirms gamma irradiation is a successful method for their sterilization

  12. EXTRAPULMONARY SEQUESTRATION WITH PULMONARY HYPOPLASIA AND MULTICYSTIC RENAL DYSPLASIA : A RARE CASE REPORT

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    Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary sequestration is a rare anomaly which consists of the presence of pulmonary tissue that is not attached to the rest of the lung and does not communicate with the trachea. [1] It could be intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary. We report a case of extrapulmonary sequestration with brief review of literature. A 22 years old primigravida underwent an ultrasonography at 24 weeks of gestation which revealed a single live fetus with bilateral pleural effusion, fetal hydrops and the fetal thorax showed mediastinal shift to the right. A hyperechoic mass was present in the left thoracic cavity with a systemic blood supply to it. Termination of pregnancy was advised as the findings were incompatible with life and the fetus autopsied. Significant gross findings were a hypoplastic left lung, a grey - white spongy mass adjacent to the left lung but no t attached to it and present outside the pleural cavity which derived its blood supply via a branch from the thoracic aorta and caused a shift in the mediastinal structures to the right. Both kidneys showed multiple cystic spaces. Microscopically the mass showed multiple cystically dilated alveolar spaces and ducts lined by cuboidal to tall columnar epithelium, the left lung showed features of pulmonary hypoplasia and the microscopic findings in both the kidneys were suggestive of multicystic renal dysplasi a. Hence, it was reported as a case of left sided extrapulmonary sequestration with hypoplastic left lung and bilateral renal cystic dysplasia.

  13. Audiovestibular Function Deficits in Vestibular Schwannoma

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    Constantin von Kirschbaum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vestibular schwannomas (VS are benign tumours of the vestibular nerve and can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy, and brainstem compression. Audiovestibular diagnostic tests are essential for detection and treatment planning. Methods. Medline was used to perform a systematic literature review with regard to how audiovestibular test parameters correlate with symptoms, tumour size, and tumour location. Results. The auditory brainstem response can be used to diagnose retrocochlear lesions caused by VS. Since hearing loss correlates poorly with tumour size, a retrocochlear lesion is probably not the only cause for hearing loss. Also cochlear mechanisms seem to play a role. This can be revealed by abnormal otoacoustic emissions, despite normal ABR and new MRI techniques which have demonstrated endolymphatic hydrops of the inner ear. Caloric and head impulse tests show frequency specific dynamics and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may help to identify the location of the tumour regarding the involved nerve parts. Conclusion. In order to preserve audiovestibular function in VS, it is important to stop the growth of the tumour and to avoid degenerative changes in the inner ear. A detailed neurotological workup helps to diagnose VS of all sizes and can also provide useful prognostic information.

  14. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Lactoferrin from Milk: Nutraceutical and Pharmacological Properties

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    Francesco Giansanti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein present in large quantities in colostrum and in breast milk, in external secretions and in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Lactoferrin’s main function is non-immune protection. Among several protective activities shown by lactoferrin, those displayed by orally administered lactoferrin are: (i antimicrobial activity, which has been presumed due to iron deprivation, but more recently attributed also to a specific interaction with the bacterial cell wall and extended to viruses and parasites; (ii immunomodulatory activity, with a direct effect on the development of the immune system in the newborn, together with a specific antinflammatory effects; (iii a more recently discovered anticancer activity. It is worth noting that most of the protective activities of lactoferrin have been found, sometimes to a greater extent, also in peptides derived from limited proteolysis of lactoferrin that could be generated after lactoferrin ingestion. Lactoferrin could therefore be considered an ideal nutraceutic product because of its relatively cheap production from bovine milk and of its widely recognized tolerance after ingestion, along with its well demonstrated protective activities. The most important protective activities shown by orally administered bovine lactoferrin are reviewed in this article.

  16. A knowledge-driven interaction analysis reveals potential neurodegenerative mechanism of multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, W S; McCauley, J L; DeJager, P L; Dudek, S M; Hafler, D A; Gibson, R A; Matthews, P M; Kappos, L; Naegelin, Y; Polman, C H; Hauser, S L; Oksenberg, J; Haines, J L; Ritchie, M D

    2011-07-01

    Gene-gene interactions are proposed as an important component of the genetic architecture of complex diseases, and are just beginning to be evaluated in the context of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In addition to detecting epistasis, a benefit to interaction analysis is that it also increases power to detect weak main effects. We conducted a knowledge-driven interaction analysis of a GWAS of 931 multiple sclerosis (MS) trios to discover gene-gene interactions within established biological contexts. We identify heterogeneous signals, including a gene-gene interaction between CHRM3 (muscarinic cholinergic receptor 3) and MYLK (myosin light-chain kinase) (joint P=0.0002), an interaction between two phospholipase C-β isoforms, PLCβ1 and PLCβ4 (joint P=0.0098), and a modest interaction between ACTN1 (actinin alpha 1) and MYH9 (myosin heavy chain 9) (joint P=0.0326), all localized to calcium-signaled cytoskeletal regulation. Furthermore, we discover a main effect (joint P=5.2E-5) previously unidentified by single-locus analysis within another related gene, SCIN (scinderin), a calcium-binding cytoskeleton regulatory protein. This work illustrates that knowledge-driven interaction analysis of GWAS data is a feasible approach to identify new genetic effects. The results of this study are among the first gene-gene interactions and non-immune susceptibility loci for MS. Further, the implicated genes cluster within inter-related biological mechanisms that suggest a neurodegenerative component to MS.

  17. Oral Delivery of Protein Drugs Bioencapsulated in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Daniell, Henry

    2016-08-01

    Plants cells are now approved by the FDA for cost-effective production of protein drugs (PDs) in large-scale current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) hydroponic growth facilities. In lyophilized plant cells, PDs are stable at ambient temperature for several years, maintaining their folding and efficacy. Upon oral delivery, PDs bioencapsulated in plant cells are protected in the stomach from acids and enzymes but are subsequently released into the gut lumen by microbes that digest the plant cell wall. The large mucosal area of the human intestine offers an ideal system for oral drug delivery. When tags (receptor-binding proteins or cell-penetrating peptides) are fused to PDs, they efficiently cross the intestinal epithelium and are delivered to the circulatory or immune system. Unique tags to deliver PDs to human immune or nonimmune cells have been developed recently. After crossing the epithelium, ubiquitous proteases cleave off tags at engineered sites. PDs are also delivered to the brain or retina by crossing the blood-brain or retinal barriers. This review highlights recent advances in PD delivery to treat Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, hypertension, Gaucher's or ocular diseases, as well as the development of affordable drugs by eliminating prohibitively expensive purification, cold chain and sterile delivery.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Cross-Talk between Sympathetic Neurons and Immune Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Lorton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS and immune system is vital for health and well-being. Infection, tissue injury and inflammation raise firing rates of sympathetic nerves, increasing their release of norepinephrine (NE in lymphoid organs and tissues. NE stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs in immune cells activates the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA intracellular signaling pathway, a pathway that interfaces with other signaling pathways that regulate proliferation, differentiation, maturation and effector functions in immune cells. Immune–SNS cross-talk is required to maintain homeostasis under normal conditions, to develop an immune response of appropriate magnitude after injury or immune challenge, and subsequently restore homeostasis. Typically, β2-AR-induced cAMP is immunosuppressive. However, many studies report actions of β2-AR stimulation in immune cells that are inconsistent with typical cAMP–PKA signal transduction. Research during the last decade in non-immune organs, has unveiled novel alternative signaling mechanisms induced by β2-AR activation, such as a signaling switch from cAMP–PKA to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. If alternative signaling occurs in immune cells, it may explain inconsistent findings of sympathetic regulation of immune function. Here, we review β2-AR signaling, assess the available evidence for alternative signaling in immune cells, and provide insight into the circumstances necessary for “signal switching” in immune cells.

  19. Plasmodium coatneyi in Rhesus Macaques Replicates the Multisystemic Dysfunction of Severe Malaria in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Garcia, AnaPatricia; Orkin, Jack; Strobert, Elizabeth; Barnwell, John W.; Galinski, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Severe malaria, a leading cause of mortality among children and nonimmune adults, is a multisystemic disorder characterized by complex clinical syndromes that are mechanistically poorly understood. The interplay of various parasite and host factors is critical in the pathophysiology of severe malaria. However, knowledge regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms and pathways leading to the multisystemic disorders of severe malaria in humans is limited. Here, we systematically investigate infections with Plasmodium coatneyi, a simian malaria parasite that closely mimics the biological characteristics of P. falciparum, and develop baseline data and protocols for studying erythrocyte turnover and severe malaria in greater depth. We show that rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) experimentally infected with P. coatneyi develop anemia, coagulopathy, and renal and metabolic dysfunction. The clinical course of acute infections required suppressive antimalaria chemotherapy, fluid support, and whole-blood transfusion, mimicking the standard of care for the management of severe malaria cases in humans. Subsequent infections in the same animals progressed with a mild illness in comparison, suggesting that immunity played a role in reducing the severity of the disease. Our results demonstrate that P. coatneyi infection in rhesus macaques can serve as a highly relevant model to investigate the physiological pathways and molecular mechanisms of malaria pathogenesis in naïve and immune individuals. Together with high-throughput postgenomic technologies, such investigations hold promise for the identification of new clinical interventions and adjunctive therapies. PMID:23509137

  20. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Kroidl, Inge; Schunk, Mirjam; Alberer, Martin; Beissner, Marcus; Pritsch, Michael; Kroidl, Arne; Fröschl, Günter; Hanus, Ingrid; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2014-04-23

    Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.