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Sample records for nonfat dry milk

  1. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an official...

  2. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized skim milk. It...

  3. 7 CFR 58.716 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.716 Section 58.716 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.716 Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk used in cheese products should meet the requirements...

  4. 7 CFR 58.249 - Instant nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instant nonfat dry milk. 58.249 Section 58.249... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry milk manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable...

  5. 7 CFR 58.522 - Reconstituting nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconstituting nonfat dry milk. 58.522 Section 58.522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.522 Reconstituting nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk shall be reconstituted in a sanitary...

  6. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  7. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  8. Condensed milk storage and evaporation affect the flavor of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) manufacture influence sensory properties, and consequently, its use and acceptance in ingredient applications. Condensed skim milk may be stored at refrigeration temperatures for extended periods before spray drying due to shipping or lack of drying capacity. Currently, NFDM processors have 2 options for milk concentration up to 30% solids: evaporation (E) or reverse osmosis (RO). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of condensed milk storage and milk concentration method (E vs. RO) on the flavor of NFDM and investigate mechanisms behind flavor differences. For experiment 1, skim milk was pasteurized and concentrated to 30% solids by E or RO and then either stored for 24h at 4°C or concentrated to 50% solids by E and spray dried immediately. To investigate mechanisms behind the results from experiment 1, experiment 2 was constructed. In experiment 2, pasteurized skim milk was subjected to 1 of 4 treatments: control (no E), heated in the evaporator without vacuum, E concentration to 30% solids, or E concentration to 40% solids. The milks were then diluted to the same solids content and evaluated. Volatile compounds were also measured during concentration in the vapor separator of the evaporator. Sensory properties were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis and instrumental volatile compound analysis was conducted to evaluate volatile compounds. Interaction effects between storage and method of concentration were investigated. In experiment 1, E decreased sweet aromatic flavor and many characteristic milk flavor compounds and increased cardboard and cooked flavors in NFDM compared with RO. Liquid storage increased cardboard flavor and hexanal and octanal and decreased sweet aromatic flavors and vanillin concentration. Results from experiment 2 indicated that the characteristic milk flavors and their associated volatile compounds were removed by the vapor separator in the evaporator due to the heat and

  9. The effect of spray-drying parameters on the flavor of nonfat dry milk and milk protein concentrate 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Stout, Mark A; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and milk protein concentrate (MPC). Off-flavors in dried dairy ingredients decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray-drying parameters affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of NFDM and MPC 70% (MPC70). Condensed skim milk (50% solids) and condensed liquid MPC70 (32% solids) were produced using pilot-scale dairy processing equipment. The condensed products were then spray dried at either 160, 210, or 260°C inlet temperature and 30, 40, or 50% total solids for NFDM and 12, 22, or 32% for MPC70 in a randomized order. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the NFDM and MPC70 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses. Surface free fat, particle size, and furosine were also analyzed. Both main effects (30, 40, and 50% solids and 160, 210, and 260°C inlet temperature) and interactions between solids concentration and inlet temperature were investigated. Interactions were not significant. In general, results were consistent for NFDM and MPC70. Increasing inlet temperature and feed solids concentration increased sweet aromatic flavor and decreased cardboard flavor and associated lipid oxidation products. Increases in furosine with increased inlet temperature and solids concentration indicated increased Maillard reactions during drying. Particle size increased and surface free fat decreased with increasing inlet temperature and solids concentration. These results demonstrate that increasing inlet temperatures and solids concentration during spray drying decrease off-flavor intensities in NFDM and MPC70 even though the heat treatment is greater compared with low temperature and low solids. Copyright © 2016 American

  10. Prevalence of thermoduric bacteria and spores in nonfat dry milk powders of Midwest origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, Kimberly P; Anand, Sanjeev; Djira, Gemechis D

    2015-05-01

    Samples of nonfat dry milk powder were analyzed for the presence of heat-resistant bacteria. The samples were collected from Midwest manufacturing companies and were evaluated for the presence of spores, thermoduric bacteria, and the total bacterial count. Three companies were included in this study, and results showed differences between each of the companies in the heat-resistant microbial groups tested. Company 3 had the highest levels of total spores and thermoduric bacteria: 3.6±0.14 and 3.5±0.13 log cfu/g, respectively. Interestingly, this company did not have the highest total bacterial count but rather the second lowest total bacterial count for the group, perhaps because of the higher proportion of thermophiles present in the powders from this company. The average level of total bacterial counts was 2.57±0.07 log cfu/g. Isolates obtained from the samples were identified by mass spectrometry, and all of the companies showed Bacillus licheniformis as the most prevalent bacterial species identified.

  11. Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

    2006-01-01

    Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology.

  12. Validation of radio-frequency dielectric heating system for destruction of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella species in nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, M; Phebus, R K; Thippareddi, H; Subbiah, J; Birla, S L; Schmidt, K A

    2014-12-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella species have been associated with human illnesses from consumption of contaminated nonfat dry milk (NDM), a key ingredient in powdered infant formula and many other foods. Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella spp. can survive the spray-drying process if milk is contaminated after pasteurization, and the dried product can be contaminated from environmental sources. Compared with conventional heating, radio-frequency dielectric heating (RFDH) is a faster and more uniform process for heating low-moisture foods. The objective of this study was to design an RFDH process to achieve target destruction (log reductions) of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. The thermal destruction (decimal reduction time; D-value) of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. in NDM (high-heat, HH; and low-heat, LH) was determined at 75, 80, 85, or 90 °C using a thermal-death-time (TDT) disk method, and the z-values (the temperature increase required to obtain a decimal reduction of the D-value) were calculated. Time and temperature requirements to achieve specific destruction of the pathogens were calculated from the thermal destruction parameters, and the efficacy of the RFDH process was validated by heating NDM using RFDH to achieve the target temperatures and holding the product in a convection oven for the required period. Linear regression was used to determine the D-values and z-values. The D-values of C. sakazakii in HH- and LH-NDM were 24.86 and 23.0 min at 75 °C, 13.75 and 7.52 min at 80 °C, 8.0 and 6.03 min at 85 °C, and 5.57 and 5.37 min at 90 °C, respectively. The D-values of Salmonella spp. in HH- and LH-NDM were 23.02 and 24.94 min at 75 °C, 10.45 and 12.54 min at 80 °C, 8.63 and 8.68 min at 85 °C, and 5.82 and 4.55 min at 90 °C, respectively. The predicted and observed destruction of C. sakazakii and Salmonella spp. were in agreement, indicating that the behavior of the organisms was similar regardless of the heating system (conventional vs

  13. Characterization of near infrared spectral variance in the authentication of skim and nonfat dry milk powder collection using ANOVA-PCA, Pooled-ANOVA, and partial least squares regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of three days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700-2500 nm) were converted to pseudo-absorbance ...

  14. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made... used in an amount such that the finished macaroni product made with nonfat milk contains by weight...

  15. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  16. Characterization of Near-Infrared Spectral Variance in the Authentication of Skim and Nonfat Dry Milk Powder Collection Using ANOVA-PCA, Pooled-ANOVA, and Partial Least-Squares Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Harnly, James M.; Peter de B. Harrington; Botros, Lucy L.; Jablonski, Joseph; Chang, Claire; Bergana, Marti Mamula; Wehling, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Potts, Alan R.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and nonfat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of 3 days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700–2500 nm) were converted to pseudoabsorbance and examined using (a) analysis of variance-principal component analysis (ANOVA-PCA), (b) pooled-ANOVA based on data submatrices, and (c) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) coupled with pooled-ANOVA....

  17. Effect of nonfat dry milk and major whey components on interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production in human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunol, Z; Wong, C

    2010-06-01

    Bovine nonfat dry milk (NDM) and major whey components (lactose, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin) were evaluated for their effects on IL-6 and IL-8 production in human intestinal-like Caco-2 cells unstimulated or stimulated with IL-1beta. All the whey components investigated and NDM induced IL-6 production by Caco-2 cells; the most significant increase was observed with beta-lactoglobulin. In the case of IL-1beta-stimulated cells, neither NDM nor the major whey components investigated contributed to the induction of IL-6 production after they were stimulated. Induction of IL-8 production by both alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin was higher than that by lactose and NDM; alpha-lactalbumin was a more potent inducer of IL-8 than beta-lactoglobulin and IL-1beta alone in both unstimulated and stimulated cells. In Caco-2 cells that were stimulated with IL1-beta, NDM and all the major whey components investigated had a synergistic effect on induction of IL-8 production, indicating that IL-8 induction was amplified by prior stimulation of cells by IL-1beta. This synergistic effect was not observed with IL-6. Our results suggest that immunomodulatory properties of milk components may be affected by other complex events in the gut.

  18. Characterization of near-infrared spectral variance in the authentication of skim and nonfat dry milk powder collection using ANOVA-PCA, pooled-ANOVA, and partial least-squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnly, James M; Harrington, Peter B; Botros, Lucy L; Jablonski, Joseph; Chang, Claire; Bergana, Marti Mamula; Wehling, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Potts, Alan R; Moore, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-13

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and nonfat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of 3 days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700-2500 nm) were converted to pseudoabsorbance and examined using (a) analysis of variance-principal component analysis (ANOVA-PCA), (b) pooled-ANOVA based on data submatrices, and (c) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) coupled with pooled-ANOVA. ANOVA-PCA score plots showed clear separation of the samples with respect to milk class (SMP or NFDM), day of analysis, production site, processing temperature, and individual samples. Pooled-ANOVA provided statistical levels of significance for the separation of the averages, some of which were many orders of magnitude below 10⁻³. PLSR showed that the correlation with Certificate of Analysis (COA) concentrations varied from a weak coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.32 for moisture to moderate R² values of 0.61 for fat and 0.78 for protein for this multinational study. In this study, pooled-ANOVA was applied for the first time to PLS modeling and demonstrated that even though the calibration models may not be precise, the contribution of the protein peaks in the NIR spectra accounted for the largest proportion of the variation despite the inherent imprecision of the COA values.

  19. Leite em pó desnatado não inativado e leite desnatado uht para preservação e fertilidade do sêmen eqüino resfriado The use of not inactivated nonfat dry milk and uht skim milk in the preservation and fertility of cooled equine semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silva Meirelles

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de verificar a necessidade de inativar o leite em pó desnatado reconstituído, bem como o uso do leite desnatado UHT como diluente de sêmen eqüino resfriado. Para tanto, foram efetuados dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento, 4 diluentes foram testados: leite desnatado não inativado, leite desnatado inativado, leite desnatado UHT, marca A e leite desnatado UHT marca B. 20 coletas de sêmen foram realizadas. O sêmen resfriado a +4°C foi avaliado quanto à motilidade progressiva e motilidade total nas 0 , 24 e 48 horas posteriores à diluição. No segundo experimento, um total de 101 ciclos foram utilizados, inseminando-se as éguas com sêmen diluído em leite desnatado não inativado e leite desnatado inativado. A diluição foi realizada numa proporção de 1:2 (sêmen: diluente e a dose inseminante mínima utilizada foi de 500x10(6 espermatozóides. Conclui-se que não há necessidade de inativar o leite em pó desnatado, reconstituído, na sua utilização como diluente de sêmen eqüino resfriado, e que o leite desnatado UHT pode ser utilizado como diluente para preservar sêmen eqüino resfriado.The present study was designed aiming to verify the need of inactivating reconstituted nonfat dry milk and the use of skim milk UHT as extender for cooling equine semen. Two experiments were performed. In the first experiment, four diluents were tested: reconstituted not-inactivated dry skim milk, inactivated reconstituted dry skim milk, UHT skim milk A and UHT skim milk B. Twenty semen collections were obtained. semen were cooled at +4°C and evaluated for progressive and total motility 0 , 24 and 48 h after collection. In the second experiment, one hundred and one cycles were studied. Mares were inseminated with semen diluted in inactivated and not-inactivated dry skim milk. Dilution was done in a 1:2 (sêmen:diluem ratio and the minimal inseminating dosis used was 500x10(6 spermatozoa. It

  20. Cereal and nonfat milk support muscle recovery following exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Yi-Hung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the effects of ingesting cereal and nonfat milk (Cereal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Drink immediately following endurance exercise on muscle glycogen synthesis and the phosphorylation state of proteins controlling protein synthesis: Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and eIF4E. Methods Trained cyclists or triathletes (8 male: 28.0 ± 1.6 yrs, 1.8 ± 0.0 m, 75.4 ± 3.2 kg, 61.0 ± 1.6 ml O2•kg-1•min-1; 4 female: 25.3 ± 1.7 yrs, 1.7 ± 0.0 m, 66.9 ± 4.6 kg, 46.4 ± 1.2 mlO2•kg-1•min-1 completed two randomly-ordered trials serving as their own controls. After 2 hours of cycling at 60–65% VO2MAX, a biopsy from the vastus lateralis was obtained (Post0, then subjects consumed either Drink (78.5 g carbohydrate or Cereal (77 g carbohydrate, 19.5 g protein and 2.7 g fat. Blood was drawn before and at the end of exercise, and at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. A second biopsy was taken 60 minutes after supplementation (Post60. Differences within and between treatments were tested using repeated measures ANOVA. Results At Post60, blood glucose was similar between treatments (Drink 6.1 ± 0.3, Cereal 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p Conclusion These results suggest that Cereal is as good as a commercially-available sports drink in initiating post-exercise muscle recovery.

  1. Characterization of goat milk and potentially symbiotic non-fat yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernanda Paz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining prebiotics and probiotic microorganisms improve quality in the formulation of foods. In this paper, the characteristics of goat milk and symbiotic yogurt were studied. Raw goat milk was analyzed and the skimming process was optimized. For the formulation of a potentially non-fat symbiotic yogurt made with skimmed goat milk, inulin, gelatin, sugar, and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnoshus. Chemical characteristics, acceptability, and viability of lactic acid bacteria and probiotic culture were assessed. The protein and fat content of the raw milk was 2.90 and 3.56 g/100 mL, respectively. The optimum skimming process was obtained at 9,800 rpm and 4 °C for 15 minutes. The product formulated had a protein and fat content of 4.04 to 0.04 g/100 mL, good sensory properties, and acceptability of 95%. The lactic bacteria count was 9 × 10(7 CFU mL- 1, and probiotic culture count was higher than 1 × 10(6 CFU mL- 1, which guarantees their effect and capacity to survive in the digestive tract and spread in the intestine. The yogurt was stable during the 21 days of storage. Therefore, this study shows that goat milk yogurt is an adequate delivery vehicle of the probiotic culture L. casei and inulin.

  2. Effect of high-pressure homogenization, nonfat milk solids, and milkfat on the technological performance of a functional strain for the production of probiotic fermented milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, F; Iucci, L; Lanciotti, R; Vallicelli, M; Mathara, J Maina; Holzapfel, W H; Guerzoni, M E

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this research was the evaluation of the effects of milkfat content, nonfat milk solids content, and high-pressure homogenization on 1) fermentation rates of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei BFE 5264 inoculated in milk; 2) viability loss of this strain during refrigerated storage; and 3) texture parameters, volatile compounds, and sensorial properties of the coagula obtained. The data achieved suggested a very strong effect of the independent variables on the measured attributes of fermented milks. In fact, the coagulation times were significantly affected by pressure and added milkfat, and the rheological parameters of the fermented milk increased with the pressure applied to the milk for added nonfat milk solids concentrations lower than 3%. Moreover, the polynomial models and the relative response surfaces obtained permitted us to identify the levels of the 3 independent variables that minimized the viability loss of the probiotic strain used during refrigerated storage.

  3. Characterization of yogurts made with milk solids nonfat by rheological behavior and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding milk solids nonfat (MSNF on the physical properties and microstructure of yogurts was investigated. The physical properties of fat free yogurt, fat free with MSNF yogurt, whole fat yogurt, and whole fat with MSNF yogurt were analyzed using shear viscosity, viscoelasticity, and texture analysis. The two yogurts with MSNF had higher consistency coefficient (K, storage modulus (G′, yield stress, and hardness. To gain insight into the multiphase system, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and brightfield microscope images were acquired. The addition of MSNF significantly modified NMR relaxation time; T1 values were reduced significantly. Brightfield microscope images showed that the size of the protein network of the two yogurts with MSNF added was greater than that of the two yogurts without MSNF added. The microstructural information supported the physical information. The results showed that the increase in MSNF contributed positively to strengthening the physical/mechanical properties of yogurt.

  4. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products, including dry whole milk, nonfat dry milk, dried whey, dried buttermilk, and formulations which... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16...

  5. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  6. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a) Description. Dry whole milk is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk, as defined...

  7. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents or... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND...

  8. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products.

  9. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles affects composition but not oxidative stability of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testroet, E D; Li, G; Beitz, D C; Clark, S

    2015-05-01

    Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few

  10. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF.

  11. Toward a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida Afina

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at the development of a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in cow's milk. Progesterone is a steroid hormone and regulates ovulation in female mammals. The concentration of progesterone in blood and in milk is in accordance with the reproductive cycle of the individual femal

  12. 78 FR 24334 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order Amending the Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...) allowances for cheese, butter, nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and dry whey contained in the Class III and Class IV... whey for manufacturing plants located in Federal milk marketing areas. The established criteria for the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order...

  13. Whey and dry milk products as feedstocks for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, T C

    1979-10-01

    Surplus whey and dry milk could have supplied about 1,383,723,000 lbs of lactose in 1978 for conversion to approximately 84,632,171 gallons of ethanol. This would be about .00085% of the total gasoline used in the US, or .0085% of the ethanol needed to produce a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend nationwide. To the extent that these are surpluses not desired for food purposes, whey and dry milk can contribute to ethanol supply in a small way. However, no energy or economic assessment has been made so the cost/benefit relationship is unknown.

  14. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  15. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM.

  16. Effect of fortification with various types of milk proteins on the rheological properties and permeability of nonfat set yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Serra, M; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2009-01-01

    Yogurt base was prepared from reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP) with 2.5% protein and fortified with additional 1% protein (wt/wt) from 4 different milk protein sources: SMP, milk protein isolate (MPI), micellar casein (MC), and sodium caseinate (NaCN). Heat-treated yogurt mixes were fermented at 40 degrees C with a commercial yogurt culture until pH 4.6. During fermentation pH was monitored, and storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Yield stress (sigma(yield)) and permeability of gels were analyzed at pH 4.6. Addition of NaCN significantly reduced buffering capacity of yogurt mix by apparently solubilizing part of the indigenous colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in reconstituted SMP. Use of different types of milk protein did not affect pH development except for MC, which had the slowest fermentation due to its very high buffering. NaCN-fortified yogurt had the highest G' and sigma(yield) values at pH 4.6, as well as maximum LT values. Partial removal of CCP by NaCN before fermentation may have increased rearrangements in yogurt gel. Soluble casein molecules in NaCN-fortified milks may have helped to increase G' and LT values of yogurt gels by increasing the number of cross-links between strands. Use of MC increased the CCP content but resulted in low G' and sigma(yield) at pH 4.6, high LT and high permeability. The G' value at pH 4.6 of yogurts increased in the order: SMP = MC yogurt. Practical Application: In yogurt processing, it is common to add additional milk solids to improve viscosity and textural attributes. There are many different types of milk protein powders that could potentially be used for fortification purposes. This study suggests that the type of milk protein used for fortification impacts yogurt properties and sodium caseinate gave the best textural results.

  17. Effects of ionic and nonionic surfactants on milk shell wettability during co-spray-drying of whole milk particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallbeeharry, P; Tian, Y; Fu, N; Wu, W D; Woo, M W; Selomulya, C; Chen, X D

    2014-09-01

    Mixing surfactants with whole milk feed before spray drying could be a commercially favorable approach to produce instant whole milk powders in a single step. Pure whole milk powders obtained directly from spray drying often have a high surface fat coverage (up to 98%), rendering them less stable during storage and less wettable upon reconstitution. Dairy industries often coat these powders with lecithin, a food-grade surfactant, in a secondary fluidized-bed drying stage to produce instant powders. This study investigated the changes in wetting behavior on the surface of a whole milk particle caused by the addition of surfactants before drying. Fresh whole milk was mixed with 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin (total solids), and the wetting behavior of the shell formed by each sample was captured using a single-droplet drying device at intermediate drying stages as the shell was forming. The addition of surfactants improved shell wettability from the beginning of shell formation, producing more wettable milk particles after drying. The increase in surfactant loading by 10 times reduced the wetting time from around 30s to 30s). We proposed that Tween 80 could adsorb at the oil-water interface of fat globules, making the surface fat more wettable, whereas lecithin tends to combine with milk proteins to form a complex, which then competes for the air-water surface with fat globules. Spray-drying experiments confirmed the greatly improved wettability of whole milk powders by the addition of either 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin; wetting time was reduced from 35±4s to drying system has been used to elucidate the complex interactions between ionic or nonionic surfactants and milk components (both proteins and fat), as well as the resultant effect on the development of milk particle functionality during drying.

  18. Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Birchal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at modeling and simulating the drying of whole milk emulsion in spray dryers. Drops and particles make up the discrete phase and are distributed into temporal compartments following their residence time in the dryer. Air is the continuous and well-mixed phase. Mass and energy balances are developed for each phase, taking into account their interactions. Constitutive equations for describing the drop swelling and drying mechanisms as well as the heat and mass transfer between particles and hot air are proposed and analyzed. A set of algebraic-differential equations is obtained and solved by specific numerical codes. Results from experiments carried out in a pilot spray dryer are used to validate the model developed and the numerical algorithm. Comparing the simulated and experimental data, it is shown that the model predicts well the individual drop-particle history inside the dryer as well as the overall outlet air-particle temperature and humidity.

  19. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  20. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period len

  1. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  2. Effect of sucrose on physical properties of spray-dried whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, U V Lay; Ziegler, G R; Floros, J D

    2008-11-01

    Spray-dried whole milk powders were prepared from whole condensed milk with various sucrose concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/w), and their glass transition temperature and some physical properties of importance in chocolate manufacture were evaluated. In milk powder samples, the glass transition temperature and free-fat content decreased in a nonlinear manner with sucrose addition. Moreover, increasing sucrose concentration reduced the formation of dents on the particle surface. Addition of sucrose in whole condensed milk increased linearly the apparent particle density and in a nonlinear manner the particle size of spray-dried milk powders. The particle size volume distribution of milk powders with the highest sucrose concentration differed from the log-normal distribution of the other samples due to the formation of large agglomerates. Neither vacuole volume, nor the amorphous state of milk powders was affected by sucrose addition.

  3. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  4. A diet containing a nonfat dry milk matrix significantly alters systemic endocannabinoids and oxylipins in diet-induced obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Diets rich in dairy and/or calcium (Ca) have been associated with reductions in adiposity and inflammation, but the mechanisms underlying this remain to be fully elucidated. Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids, which influence energy homeostasis, adipose function, insuli...

  5. Composition and Some Properties of Spray-Dried Retentates Obtained by the Ultrafiltration of Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kalab, Miloslav; Caric, Marijana; Zaher, Mansour; Harwalkar, V. R.

    1989-01-01

    Retentates containing 20, 27, and 34% total solids, obtained on commercial scale by the ultrafiltration of milk were spray-dried on laboratory scale using centrifugal atomization and single stage drying with the inlet air temperature of 220 C and the outlet air temperature of 90 C. The protein content in the powders was 31% to 35% compared to 24.8% protein in the control whole-milk powder. Lactose contents were markedly lower in the retentate powders (-10.6%) than in the milk powder (40.4...

  6. Milk quality on some delivery regions in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Dražeta Dražetić; Neven Antunac; Dubravka Samaržija; Samir Kalit

    2003-01-01

    In collected cow`s milk samples, from five ransom areas in the Republic of Croatia, a chemical composition and hygienic quality are analysed. The milk quality is accomplished thru a period of one year (1998/99), i.e. before the Regulations on fresh raw milk quality was accepted. Milk samples are analysed for the following parameters (%): milk fat, proteins, and non-fat dry matter content, somatic cell count and total bacterial count. Significant differences are determined between ransom areas (P

  7. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  8. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the week

  9. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  10. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Scolozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  11. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  12. Milk quality on some delivery regions in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražeta Dražetić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In collected cow`s milk samples, from five ransom areas in the Republic of Croatia, a chemical composition and hygienic quality are analysed. The milk quality is accomplished thru a period of one year (1998/99, i.e. before the Regulations on fresh raw milk quality was accepted. Milk samples are analysed for the following parameters (%: milk fat, proteins, and non-fat dry matter content, somatic cell count and total bacterial count. Significant differences are determined between ransom areas (P<0.05 with regard to the amounts of proteins and non-fat dry matter. The amounts of fat, proteins andnon-fat dry matter of the analysed milk samples, are lower (3.23%, 4.55% and 24.78% respectively than those stated by the Regulations on fresh raw milk quality. To prescribed hygienic milk quality, with regard to chemical composition, is not satisfied for considerably larger number of samples. With inclusion of hygienic milk quality in a new system of payment and by following a strict basic procedures in milk production, certainly will result with improvement of milk quality, which will satisfy the prescribed Croatian and European criteria.

  13. Comparative study of heavy metals in dried and fluid milk in Peshawar by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfullah, Ghosia; Khan, Abid Ali; Amjad, Azra Yasmeen; Perveen, Sajida

    2014-01-01

    Various essential and toxic heavy metals (Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni) contents in various types of dried (infant formula and powdered) and fluid (fresh and processed) cow milk were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The milk samples were collected from local markets of different parts of Peshawar city, Pakistan. Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly depending upon the type of milk. The heavy metal concentrations in most of the samples were within normal and permissible ranges. It was observed that the samples contained considerable amounts of calcium, while magnesium levels were well above the required levels. The results also revealed that copper levels were slightly lower than the permissible limits. The concentration of zinc in dried milk samples was greater than the values for the liquid milk types. Infant milk formulae had higher iron levels as compared to other milk samples because of the added constituents. Significant differences were observed in the mean values of manganese and cadmium in different types of milk. The toxic metals were within the acceptable limits and did not show significant levels leading to toxicity.

  14. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Dried and Fluid Milk in Peshawar by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfullah, Ghosia; Khan, Abid Ali; Amjad, Azra Yasmeen; Perveen, Sajida

    2014-01-01

    Various essential and toxic heavy metals (Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni) contents in various types of dried (infant formula and powdered) and fluid (fresh and processed) cow milk were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The milk samples were collected from local markets of different parts of Peshawar city, Pakistan. Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly depending upon the type of milk. The heavy metal concentrations in most of the samples were within normal and permissible ranges. It was observed that the samples contained considerable amounts of calcium, while magnesium levels were well above the required levels. The results also revealed that copper levels were slightly lower than the permissible limits. The concentration of zinc in dried milk samples was greater than the values for the liquid milk types. Infant milk formulae had higher iron levels as compared to other milk samples because of the added constituents. Significant differences were observed in the mean values of manganese and cadmium in different types of milk. The toxic metals were within the acceptable limits and did not show significant levels leading to toxicity. PMID:24967439

  15. Integrating fasciolosis control in the dry cow management: the effect of closantel treatment on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80-42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3-6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3-0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥ 0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters.

  16. Integrating fasciolosis control in the dry cow management: the effect of closantel treatment on milk production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Charlier

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals exposed to F. hepatica to 1 assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80-42 days before calving in first-calving heifers on milk production parameters and 2 evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3-6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg and a slightly higher persistence (9% of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3-0.5 optical density ratio (ODR, but not a very high (≥ 0.5 ODR F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters.

  17. Measurement of thermal characteristics of spray-dried milk and juice blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan S; Abu Shelaibi, A A; Laleye, L C; Ismail, I A

    2009-01-01

    Blended concentrated grape/peach (G/P) juice 60% total soluble solids (TSS) with condensed whole cow milk 40% TSS (1.5:8.5) was spray dried using a pilot-scale spray drier FT 80 at feeding pressure 7,000 Pa, at chamber temperature 180 degrees C and at chamber pressure -110 Pa. The glass transition state of blended G/P juice-milk powder, three pure sugars (glucose, sucrose and lactose) and casein were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetry showed that G/P juice-milk powder is a glassy material. The glass transition temperature of blended G/P juice-milk powder at 0.248 water activity was 42 degrees C, compared with commercial full milk powder (control) of 29 degrees C at 0.334 at water activity (a(w)).

  18. Effects of spray-dried whole egg and biotin in calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D

    2002-01-01

    Holstein bull calves (n = 120) were fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, or 20% of the formulation (0, 22, or 44% of crude protein) as spray-dried whole egg powder in a 56-d feeding trial. Milk replacer was medicated with oxytetracycline and neomycin and was fed from d 1 to 42 of the study in a phase-fed program. All experimental milk replacers were supplemented with B vitamins, except biotin. One half of all calves were supplemented with 1 mg/kg of supplemental biotin to determine whether avidin in the egg protein product inhibited growth. Increasing spray-dried whole egg caused a linear reduction in body weight, body weight gain at 28 and 56 d of the study, calf starter intake, and feed efficiency. Calves fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, and 20% spray-dried whole egg gained an average of 486, 369, and 302 g/d, respectively, during the 56-d trial. Efficiency of feed utilization was 446, 318, and 231 g of body weight gain per kilogram of dry matter intake. Improvement in body weight and feed efficiency occurred when calves began consuming calf starter on d 29. Digestibility of protein or fat from egg may have been reduced during the trial; however, the addition of biotin to the milk replacer did not influence animal performance, suggesting that avidin in spray-dried whole egg was not responsible for impaired performance. The spray-dried whole egg product used in this study did not provide nutrients to support adequate growth of milk-fed calves.

  19. Strip-dried whole milk sampling technique for progesterone detection in cows by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonova, J V; Osipov, A P; Kondakov, S E

    2017-12-01

    New sampling format of whole cows' milk in strip-dried form was proposed. Few methodological issues of whole milk progesterone ELISA using samples dried on a membrane carrier in a form of strip were investigated and optimized: width of a strip, shape of punched/cut-off part of membrane, sample application method. It was shown that distribution of the hormone along narrow strip was even except the initial part of a strip (the first 0.5 × 0.5cm piece) where recovered concentration of progesterone was higher. Storage stability of progesterone in strip-dried whole cows' milk samples at 4°C, ambient temperature, 37°C and 60°C was investigated. Rising of the detected progesterone concentration over storage period at elevated temperatures was observed predominantly in milk samples with low hormone concentration (from non-pregnant cows). Strip-dried whole milk samples can be used for collection, transportation, storage and ELISA analysis of progesterone level which is correlated with reproductive status of cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A comprehensive sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of a milk drying process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, A.; Gutiérrez, S.; Sin, G.

    2015-01-01

    A simple steady state model of a milk drying process was built to help process understanding. It involves a spray chamber and also internal/external fluid beds. The model was subjected to a statistical analysis for quality assurance using sensitivity analysis (SA) of inputs/parameters, identifiab...

  1. Modeling a production scale milk drying process: parameter estimation, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, A.; Gutierrez, S.; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    A steady state model for a production scale milk drying process was built to help process understanding and optimization studies. It involves a spray chamber and also internal/external fluid beds. The model was subjected to a comprehensive statistical analysis for quality assurance using sensitiv...

  2. Free fat and physical structure of spray-dried whole milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, T.J.

    1971-01-01

    Many workers have observed that under standardized conditions only part of the fat present in spray-dried milk can be extracted by fat solvents. This fat is usually called 'free fat' and has been related to other powder properties which are of practical importance.

    Contradictory results

  3. Dry period heat stress relief effects on prepartum progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenson, D; Flamenbaum, I; Berman, A

    1988-03-01

    Effects of cooling high producing dairy cows during the dry period were examined in 84 pluriparous Israeli-Holstein cows. Cooling was by a combination of wetting and forced ventilation from 0600 to 1800 h until parturition and common management afterwards for both groups. Cooling maintained diurnal increase in rectal temperature within .2 degrees C as compared with .5 degrees C in control cows in warmer months, Mean rectal temperatures at 1400 h in control cows were moderate, within 39.2 degrees C. Cooling did not affect prepartum or postpartum body condition score or mean blood progesterone during the dry period. Results suggested a possible increase in blood progesterone in later pregnancy by cooling during hot weather. Cooling increased mean 150-d milk production by 3.6 kg/d (3.1 kg FCM/d). Prepartum cooling negatively affected first lactation month yield in cows calving in early summer. Prepartum cooling might prevent adaptation to heat and impair subsequent postpartum performance. Prepartum progesterone was not related to milk yield. Calves' birth weight increased by cooling, but the effect was mostly in older cows. Birth weight was related to milk yield, independently of cooling effect, mostly in older cows. Cooling during the dry period might increase milk yield as it does during lactation. Results indicate possible benefit of cooling dry cows even under mild heat stress.

  4. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Jose L.; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G.; Kennedy, Jeffrey B.; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye syndrome (DES) affects millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic remedies to treat a wide variety of ocular diseases have previously been documented in the literature, but little systematic work has been performed to validate the remedies’ efficacy using accepted laboratory models of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear), two widely used homeopathic remedies, as agents to reduce pathological markers of DES. Methods The previously described benzalkonium chloride (BAK) dry eye mouse model was used to study the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear). BAK (0.2%) was applied to the mouse ocular surface twice daily to induce dry eye pathology. Fluorescein staining was used to verify that the animals had characteristic signs of DES. After induction of DES, the animals were treated with human milk (whole and fat-reduced), nopal, nopal extract derivatives, or cyclosporine four times daily for 7 days. Punctate staining and preservation of corneal epithelial thickness, measured histologically at the end of treatment, were used as indices of therapeutic efficacy. Results Treatment with BAK reduced the mean corneal epithelial thickness from 36.77±0.64 μm in the control mice to 21.29±3.2 μm. Reduction in corneal epithelial thickness was largely prevented by administration of whole milk (33.2±2.5 μm) or fat-reduced milk (36.1±1.58 μm), outcomes that were similar to treatment with cyclosporine (38.52±2.47 μm), a standard in current dry eye therapy. In contrast, crude or filtered nopal extracts were ineffective at preventing BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness (24.76±1.78 μm and 27.99±2.75 μm, respectively), as were solvents used in the extraction of nopal materials (26.53±1.46 μm for ethyl acetate, 21.59±5.87 μm for methanol). Epithelial damage, as reflected in the punctate scores, decreased over 4 days of treatment with whole and fat

  5. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  6. The impact of atomization on the surface composition of spray-dried milk droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Martin; Gengenbach, Thomas; Woo, Meng Wai; Selomulya, Cordelia

    2016-04-01

    The dominant presence of fat at the surface of spray-dried milk powders has been widely reported in the literature and described as resulting in unfavourable powder properties. The mechanism(s) causing this phenomenon are yet to be clearly identified. A systematic investigation of the component distribution in atomized droplets and spray-dried particles consisting of model milk systems with different fat contents demonstrated that atomization strongly influences the final surface composition. Cryogenic flash-freezing of uniform droplets from a microfluidic jet nozzle directly after atomization helped to distinguish the influence of the atomization stage from the drying stage. It was confirmed that the overrepresentation of fat on the surface is independent of the atomization technique, including a pressure-swirl single-fluid spray nozzle and a pilot-scale rotary disk spray dryer commonly used in industry. It is proposed that during the atomization stage a disintegration mechanism along the oil-water interface of the fat globules causes the surface predominance of fat. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements detected the outermost fat layer and some adjacent protein present on both atomized droplets and spray-dried particles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy gave a qualitative insight into the protein and fat distribution throughout the cross-sections, and confirmed the presence of a fat film along the particle surface. The film remained on the surface in the subsequent drying stage, while protein accumulated underneath, driven by diffusion. The results demonstrated that atomization induces component segregation and fat-rich surfaces in spray-dried milk powders, and thus these cannot be prevented by adjusting the spray drying conditions.

  7. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  8. How surface composition of high milk proteins powders is influenced by spray-drying temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiani, C; Morand, M; Sanchez, C; Tehrany, E Arab; Jacquot, M; Schuck, P; Jeantet, R; Scher, J

    2010-01-01

    High milk proteins powders are common ingredients in many food products. The surface composition of these powders is expected to play an essential role during their storage, handling and/or final application. Therefore, an eventual control of the surface composition by modifying the spray-drying temperature could be very useful in the improvement of powder quality and the development of new applications. For this purpose, the influence of five spray-drying temperatures upon the surface composition of the powders was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The major milk proteins were studied: native micellar casein and native whey, both more or less enriched in lactose. The results show a surface enrichment in lipids for all the powders and in proteins for many powders. Whatever the drying temperature, lipids and proteins are preferentially located near the surface whereas lactose is found in the core. This surface enrichment is also highly affected by the spray-drying temperature. More lipids, more proteins and less lactose are systematically observed at the surface of powders spray-dried at lower outlet air temperatures. The nature of proteins is also found essential; surface enrichment in lipids being much stronger for whey proteins containing powders than for casein containing powders. Additionally, we found a direct correlation between the lipids surface concentration and the wetting ability for the 25 powders studied.

  9. [The determination of the urea content in cow's milk with the help of the dry chemical system Reflotron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, G

    1989-01-01

    The dry chemistry laboratory unit "Reflotron" (Boehringer Mannheim) is tested for its efficacy in the determination of urea in dairy milk with the test Urea. It gives reliable results. The system is easy to handle. The storage of milk is of no influence on the level of urea.

  10. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  11. An examination of teat drying with disinfectant impregnated cloths on the bacteriological quality of milk and on the transfer of Streptococcus agalactiae before milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, C H; Higgs, T M; Bramley, A J

    1985-08-01

    Total bacterial counts of the milk from individual cows were measured for three groups of ten winter housed cows at three milkings. The teats were either (i) left unwashed or (ii) washed with disinfected water (60 ppm available iodine) and dried with individual paper towels or (iii) washed with plain water and then dried with a single fabric cloth impregnated with a polymeric bisguanide and a quaternary ammonium compound. The mean total bacterial counts/ml for the groups were 5820, 2108 and 1116 respectively. Treatments (ii) and (iii) were also compared for their ability to prevent the inter-teat transfer of bacteria. Before teat washing and drying, one teat of each cow was deliberately contaminated with Streptococcus agalactiae. Significantly fewer teats (5/30) became contaminated with Str. agalactiae when treatment (iii) was used for teat washing and drying compared with treatment (ii) (20/30).

  12. Utilización de inulina en la formulación de yogur descremado de leche de cabra Using inulin in the formulation of non-fat goats´milk yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Goncalvez de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    aceptabilidad y características sensoriales apropiadas en lo que respecta a color, aroma, textura y sabor.The inulin is a prebiotic fiber that imparts greater creaminess and favours texture and firmness in dairy products. The aim of this work was to use it to replace fat in the formulation of non-fat goats´milk yogurt, with whipped consistency. To that purpose, the following was used: biotype Saanen goat milk, lyophilized lactic bacteria cultures: Streptococcus thermophilus (ST M6 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb-12; inulin powder, unflavored gelatin (INS 440 and whole strawberry preserves. Lactic bacteria were worked to 0,04; 0,08; 0,1 and 0,2%, with a ratio bacillus/coconut 1:1; 1:2; 1:3 and 1:4. The optimum concentration was pre selected using testing technologies: diacetyl, proteolysis, lipolysis; and the final selection using a preference test, with a pilot panel of 8 trained judges. Three yogurts were prepared with different concentrations of fruits: at 9, 16 and 23%, that were tested using the Preference Test. Subsequently, in the preferred one, acceptability was evaluated. For the formulation of the yogurt, inulin, gelatin, sugar, specific lactic bacteria ST M6 and Lb- 12 at 0,04 %, with a ratio bacillus/coconut 1:1 were added to the skim pasteurized milk. The fermentation was carried out in an oven at 37 ± 1º C for 2 hours, 30 minutes, to pH 4,6. Refrigerated at 4 ± 2º C. The preferred fruit concentration was 23%, with an acceptability of 99%. Consumers found the final product nice, sweet, with an adequate acidity, colour and consistency and pleasant aroma. The chemical composition was: moisture: 75,39; carbohydrates: 13,85; inulin: 4,5; protein: 5,22; fat: 0,04; ashes: 0,99 g/100ml; calcium: 173,77 and phosphorus: 72,54 mg/100ml. The formulation of the non-fat yogurt incorporating inulin was feasible, generating a product with fiber, low lipid value, good acceptability and appropriate sensory characteristics respecting color, aroma, texture

  13. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  14. Evaluation of different drying techniques on the nutritional and biofunctional properties of a traditional fermented sheep milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Althnaibat, Rami M; Kubow, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of solar and freeze drying techniques on the physicochemical, nutritional and biofunctional properties of salted or unsalted Jameed from fermented sheep milk product. The highest yield of Jameed was obtained via the salted-solar drying process. As measured by colorimetry, salted freeze-dried Jameed showed improved consumer characteristics in terms of increased lightness and decreased red and yellow color components. When unsalted Jameed was prepared by solar or freeze drying, additional major peptide bands were detected by SDS-PAGE treatments as compared to the solar or freeze drying of the salted Jameed. Use of salt in the preparation of solar dried Jameed also led to the highest ACE inhibitory activities whereas antioxidant activity was lowest in unsalted solar dried Jameed. The study findings indicate that both greater yield and better overall nutritional and biofunctional properties were associated with solar dried salted Jameed.

  15. 75 FR 33534 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ..., including whey, when calculating the milk contained in a product on a protein- equivalent or nonfat solids....5 percent nonfat solids standard and whey,'' and adopting a 2.25 percent true milk protein criterion... whey for other milk solids, to create new products that contain less than 6.5 percent nonfat...

  16. Composition, thermotropic properties, and oxidative stability of freeze-dried and spray-dried milk fat globule membrane isolated from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2011-08-24

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) was isolated from cheese whey using a recently developed novel method. The cheese-derived MFGM contained about 17-19% lipids and 65-70% protein on a dry weight basis. About 50% of the lipids in MFGM were phospholipids. Compositional analysis of the cheese whey-derived MFGM showed that it is a rich source of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, and bioactive proteins CD36, butyrophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1. Utilization of MFGM in foods as a source of nutraceutical lipids depends on its oxidative stability. In this context, the impact of drying methods, namely, freeze-drying versus spray-drying, on the storage stability of MFGM was studied. Freeze-dried (FD) and spray-dried (SD) MFGM samples were morphologically very different when examined by light microscope: The thermotropic phase transition temperature (T(m)) of lipids in the FD-MFGM was 37.8 °C, and it was 48 °C in SD-MFGM. This 10 °C difference in T(m) indicated that the drying method altered the thermodynamic state of phospholipids in MFGM. At all storage temperatures studied, the zero-order rate constant of lipid oxidation, as measured by hexanal production, was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater in the spray-dried than in the freeze-dried MFGM. The results clearly indicated that the choice of drying method affects morphological characteristics, the T(m) and oxidative stability of phospholipids in MFGM.

  17. Analysis and simulation of the drying-air heating system of a Brazilian powdered milk plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Ribeiro Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at simulating air-heating systems, two algorithms were developed for the calculation of finned elliptical-tube heat exchangers, whose basic difference lies in the kind of hot fluid employed: saturated steam or hot liquid. In both cases, a crossflow unit, in which the cold fluid is mixed and always flows on the shell side, is considered. The hot fluid may exhibit multiple passes in the tubes and is assumed unmixed, except for the region between the passes. A comparison between calculated results and operating data on industrial exchangers indicated the adequacy of the algorithms developed. The codes were then introduced into the ASPEN Plus shell, enabling simulation of the steady-state operation of the whole drying-air heating system of a powdered milk plant. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of this system was conducted for one of its operating parameters and the existence of an optimal value for this variable was clearly shown.

  18. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  19. Effect of feeding dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk yield and milk composition of cows in mid-lactation and digestibility in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreicher-Kristen, E; Kaiser, R; Steingass, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of three sources of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of mid-lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk composition and on digestibility in sheep. DDGS from wheat, corn and barley (DDGS1 ), wheat and corn (DDGS2 ) and wheat (DDGS3 ) were studied and compared with a rapeseed meal (RSM). RSM and DDGS were characterized through in situ crude protein (CP) degradability. Nutrient digestibility was determined in sheep. Twenty-four multiparous cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Treatments included total mixed rations containing as primary protein sources RSM (control), DDGS1 (D1), DDGS2 (D2) or DDGS3 (D3). RSM contained less rapidly degradable CP (fraction a), more potentially degradable CP (fraction b) and more rumen undegradable CP (UDP) than the three DDGS. In vivo digestibility of RSM organic matter was similar to DDGS. Calculated net energy for lactation (NEL ) was lower for RSM (7.4 MJ/kg DM) than for DDGS, which averaged 7.7 MJ/kg DM. Cows' dry matter intake did not differ between diets (21.7 kg/day). Cows fed D1 yielded more milk than those fed D3 (31.7 vs. 30.4 kg/day); no differences were found between control and DDGS diets (31.3 vs. 31.1 kg/day). Energy-corrected milk was similar among diets (31.2 kg/day). Diets affected neither milk fat concentration (4.0%) nor milk fat yield (1.24 kg/day). Milk protein yield of control (1.12 kg/day) was significantly higher than D3 (1.06 kg/day) but not different form D1 and D2 (1.08 kg/day each). Feeding DDGS significantly increased milk lactose concentration (4.91%) in relation to control (4.81%). DDGS can be a suitable feed in relation to RSM and can be fed up to 4 kg dry matter per day in rations of dairy cows in mid-lactation. However, high variation of protein and energy values of DDGS should be considered when included in diets of dairy cows.

  20. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  1. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  2. Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination

  3. Effectiveness of convective drying to conserve indigenous yeasts with high volatile profile isolated from algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa HAMOUDI-BELARBI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yeasts Candida tropicalis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saprochaete suaveolens and Trichosporon coremiiforme were isolated and identified by physiological, biochemical tests with API 20C AUX system and molecular methods by restriction fragment analysis of PCR-amplified 28S-rRNA from Algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb. Selected yeasts S. suaveolens, I. orientalis, K. marxianus and W. anomalus produced esters and higher esters which can exert a pertinent influence on the sensory characteristics of Rayeb. Viability of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus using three methods of drying (freeze-drying, convective drying, and spray-drying and during 4 months of storage at 4 °C and 25 °C in the darkness was studied. Immediately after each drying method, high survival was obtained using freeze-drying followed by convective drying in rice cakes and spray-drying respectively. During storage at 4 °C, convective drying provided better survival of yeast cultures of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus than freeze-drying. At 25 °C of storage, convective and freeze-dried yeast cultures showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 2 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 3 months of storage at 25 °C.

  4. EFFECT OF FEEDING CORN DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF COW UNDER HOT CLIMATE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS is a co-product of ethanol industry made from grains through fermentation process and it can be used for animal feeding especially for dairy cows. A feeding trial on US corn DDGS was conducted at commercial dairy farm in Vietnam during hot condition in 2010. One hundred and fifty six dairy cows in a later stage of milk production were allotted randomly in three groups of 52 cows with similar milk production. Three dietary treatments offered comprised control diet, diet with 7.5% DDGS and diet with 15% DDGS. The diets were formulated to contain similar nutrient profiles and comprised forages (corn, elephant grass and alfalfa hay, brewery waste, soybean curd waste, corn, soybean meal, molasses and commercial dairy supplement. The diet was manufactured locally in total mixed ration system and delivered two times per day. Milk production, feed consump-tion and milk quality were measured for 5 days before the trial and 45 days after the trial. The result demonstrated that feeding DDGS could support higher milk production without affecting feed consumption. Feeding DDGS at 7.5% and 15% resulted in higher milk production of 2 and 4 kg per day respectively compared to cows fed control diet. Feed intake remained unaffected at around 35 kg per day. Milk quality as measured by total solid and fat content was similar in cows fed the control diet and DDGS at 7.5%. Feeding DDGS at 15% tended to have slightly better total solid and fat content. Feeding DDGS was able to reduce cost of the diets; diet cost for control, DDGS 7.5% and DDGS 15% were VND 2537, 2460 and 2399 per kg, respectively. It is concluded that DDGS can be economically used for feeding dairy cows in hot climate condition and improving milk production.

  5. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  6. Investigation of the persistence of closantel residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments and its migration into dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Clare; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Clancy, Clare; Furey, Ambrose; Jordan, Kieran; Danaher, Martin

    2013-09-11

    Closantel is a veterinary drug used to treat liver fluke in cattle and sheep. A provisional maximum residue limit (MRL) of 45 μg/kg in milk has been set by the European Union. The purpose of this study was to investigate the persistence of closantel residues in milk and the migration of residues into milk products. Following dry-cow treatment, residues ranged from undetectable to 8.7 μg/kg at the first milking. Following lactating-cow treatment, residues detected ranged from 278 to 482 μg/kg at day 1 post-treatment and were detectable above the MRL for 52 days and detectable for 198 days. At day 2 and day 23 post-treatment, the milk was collected and dairy products manufactured. Closantel residues concentrated in the cheese, butter, and skim milk powder. The results indicate that closantel is best used as a dry-cow treatment.

  7. The influence of distillers dried grains with solubles during gestation on sow productivity and milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS during gestation on sow productivity, litter performance and milk composition. Thirty-six second- and third-parity (2.27 parity sows (Yorkshire were bred with semen from a pool of Landrace boars. The sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 groups and fed diets containing 0 (control, 12.5 or 25% DDGS during gestation. The sows were divided into 12 blocks of three animals. Piglets were cross-fostered, within dietary treatment groups 48 h after birth to standardise litter size to a range of 9 to13 piglets. The 25% DDGS supplementation resulted in a greater (P=0.03 average daily feed intake (ADFI during lactation compared with control sows. The weaning-to-oestrus interval was shorter in sows receiving 25% DDGS diets compared to the control (P=0.01. The number of piglets born was similar among treatments. The addition of 12.5 and 25% DDGS to the gestation diet increased the average daily gain (ADG of the piglets during lactation (P=0.04. The results demonstrated that feeding 25% DDGS does not have negative effects on sow or litter performance and increases the sow ADFI and the piglet ADG during lactation.

  8. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Jenkins, C J R; Aluthge, N D; Anderson, C; Fernando, S C; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-03-01

    Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, with (mean ± SD) 91 ± 19 d in milk and 595 ± 81 kg were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to compare the effects of feeding conventional dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and reduced-fat DDGS (RFDDGS) in combination with rumen-inert fat (RIF) on milk production and rumen fermentation; one square contained rumen cannulated animals for rumen measurements. In each 21-d period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (values on a dry matter basis): (1) control (CON) that contained 0% DDGS; (2) DG contained 30% DDGS; (3) RFDG contained 30% RFDDGS in substitution of DDGS; and (4) RFDG+RIF was similar to RFDG with the addition of 1.9% RIF. Unlike most practical diets in the dairy field, our diets had 18.0% crude protein. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments with any form of DDGS averaging 26.0 ± 0.6 kg/d, whereas the CON diet resulted in less dry matter intake, 21.6 ± 0.6 kg/d. Milk yield tended to be 1.7 kg/d greater for diets with either type of DDGS. Concentration of milk protein was greatest for the DG and RFDG diets, intermediate for the RFDG+RIF diet, and least for the CON diet, namely 3.22, 3.21, 3.12, and 3.07 ± 0.05%. Reduced milk fat percentage and yield were observed when cows consumed the DG diet, 3.27 ± 0.10% and 1.11 ± 0.04 kg/d, respectively, whereas these responses were similar among CON, RFDG, and RFDG+RIF, which averaged 3.68 ± 0.10% and 1.22 ± 0.04 kg/d. The presence of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was only detected in milk from cows consuming the DG diet; similarly, concentration and yield of trans-10 18:1 were greater for cows consuming this diet. Rumen ammonia was similar across treatments averaging 27.0 ± 2.1mg/dL. The CON and RFDG+RIF diets had similar mean pH, 6.1 ± 0.11, whereas DG and RFDG resulted in lower pH averaging 5.79 ± 0.11. No effect on total concentration of volatile fatty acids was observed; the overall mean

  9. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Human Milk and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aghamohammadi, Azar; Zafari, Mandana; Moslemi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Objective Comparing the effect of topical human milk application and dry cord care on cord separation time. Methods This research was a randomized clinical trial study on 130 singleton and mature newborns. Newborns were placed randomly in groups of topical application of human milk and dry cord care. The umbilical separation time was compared in the two groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Independent Samples t-Test, χ2, Fisher were used in this study. Findings Median time of cord sepa...

  10. [Effects of dry period length on milk production, health, fertility, and quality of colostrum in dairy cows. Invited review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, R; Sauter-Louis, C; Martin, R

    2012-01-01

    In terms of milk production, the dry period (DP) is a non-productive time. In addition, the risk of mastitis increases when cows with daily milk yield >12.5kg are dried off, which is often the case when the DP is set to 55-60 days. References on the positive effects of a shortened DP on the metabolic health at the start of lactation and the subsequent reproductive performance were the motive of this review. Completely foregoing or shortening the DP produces a decrease in milk yield during the following lactation. This decrease is particularly pronounced for cows at the beginning of the second lactation. It is thought that this may be due in part to different involution and proliferation processes of the mammary glands in primiparous and multiparous animals. The majority of the scientific papers suggest that shortening the DP has a positive rather than a negative effect on udder health. The quality of the colostrum is also unaffected; but if there is no drying off, the colostrum will be diluted. When considered overall, the literature, with support from metabolic profile studies, appears to favour a reduced impact on energy metabolism in early lactation in circumstances when the DP is shortened or waived. Clear positive effects on parameters relevant to energy metabolism however only apply to multiparous animals, and other factors, such as milking frequency before and after calving, exert an influence. Positive effects of shortening the DP on the reproductive performance were shown in several studies. Time from calving to first ovulation as well as indicators for assessing the success of artificial insemination and reproductive performance showed better results in animals with no or shortened drying off periods. Again, this only applied to multiparous animals. Overall, there is no single clear answer to the question of an optimal length of the DP, but conversely it is abundantly clear that a dry period of 55-60 days is not necessary in all cases and does not make

  11. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Human Milk and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparing the effect of topical human milk application and dry cord care on cord separation time.Methods: This research was a randomized clinical trial study on 130 singleton and mature newborns.Newborns were placed randomly in groups of topical application of human milk and dry cord care. Theumbilical separation time was compared in the two groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Independent Samples t-Test, χ2, Fisher were used in this study.Findings: Median time of cord separation in human milk application group (150.95±28.68 hours was significantly shorter than dry cord care group (180.93±37.42 hours (P<0.001.Conclusion: Topical application of human milk on the remaining part of the cord reduces the cord separation time and it can be used as an easy, cheap and non invasive way for cord care.

  12. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfat milk solids, and whey; and (2) The quantity of skim milk equivalent in any modified product... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING...

  13. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  14. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly (P base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  15. Comparison of the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on the bacterial colonization of umbilical cord in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk contains significant amounts of compounds that act as natural antimicrobial agents. This study was conducted to compare the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on bacterial colonization in the umbilical cord of newborn infants. Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 174 infants in Kashan. The newborns were randomized to mother's milk group and dry cord care group from the birth. In group 1, the mother rubbed her own milk on the cord stump every 12 hours from 3 hours after birth to 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. In group 2, the mother was recommended not to use any material on the cord. Then, the cord samples were taken four times; 3hours after birth, at days 3 and 7, and 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. Results: The findings of the culture two days after umbilical cord separation indicated that low percentage of neonates in the breast milk (23.1% and dry cord care (28.8% groups had bacterial colonization. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of growth of pathogenic organisms and normal flora of the skin (P>0.05. Conclusion: Given the low prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the two groups, it seems using breast milk and dry cord care are equally effective methods of taking care of umbilical cord.

  16. Freeze-drying of “pearl milk tea”: A general strategy for controllable synthesis of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingke; Tian, Xiaohui; Wang, Pengcheng; Hu, Min; Du, Guodong

    2016-05-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in many fields, but the large-scale synthesis of materials with controlled pore sizes, pore volumes, and wall thicknesses remains a considerable challenge. Thus, the controllable synthesis of porous materials is of key general importance. Herein, we demonstrate the “pearl milk tea” freeze-drying method to form porous materials with controllable pore characteristics, which is realized by rapidly freezing the uniformly distributed template-containing precursor solution, followed by freeze-drying and suitable calcination. This general and convenient method has been successfully applied to synthesize various porous phosphate and oxide materials using different templates. The method is promising for the development of tunable porous materials for numerous applications of energy, environment, and catalysis, etc.

  17. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to compare the effects of organic and inorganic Zn supplements on milk production and chemical composition of milk. Animals received three diets in a randomized block design: basal diet with no supplemental Zn (control, 42 mg Zn/kg), basal diet plus 500 mg......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  18. Diet preference and meal patterns of weanling pigs offered diets containing either spray-dried porcine plasma or dried skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, P M; Miller, P S; Lewis, A J

    1994-06-01

    Preference tests and meal pattern analyses were conducted to examine the feed intake response of weanling pigs to spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, 36 weanling pigs (mean +/- SD; 6.2 +/- .8 kg and 26 d of age) were allowed to choose between a SDPP diet (8.5% SDPP, 20% dried whey, 10% lactose, and .13% DL-methionine) and a dried skim milk (DSM) diet (20% each of DSM and dried whey) throughout 21 d postweaning. Twenty-eight pigs preferred the SDPP diet and seven pigs preferred the DSM diet. Preference for SDPP became apparent by d 2 (60% of total feed consumption) and increased (P Average daily feed consumption was 371 and 172 g for the SDPP and DSM diets, respectively (P meal patterns of 16 weanling pigs (mean +/- SD; 7.2 +/- .3 kg and 26 d of age) offered either the SDPP or the DSM diet were examined in Exp. 2. On d 3, 7, and 14 postweaning, feeding behavior was observed continuously for 18 h (0600 to 2400). Time spent consuming feed and time between periods of feeding were recorded. Although the difference was not significant, pigs fed the SDPP diet consumed 27 and 6% (P = .38) more feed than pigs fed the DSM diet during the first 7 d and during the entire 21-d period, respectively. This difference was reflected in increased (P .10) on meal size, the number of meals, or the percentage of time spent consuming feed. Weanling pigs prefer diets containing SDPP to those containing DSM, and the increased consumption of diets containing SDPP may be due to greater palatability.

  19. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp.

  20. Industrial application of model predictive control to a milk powder spray drying plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results from an industrial application of model predictive control (MPC) with real-time steady-state target optimization (RTO) for control of an industrial spray dryer that produces enriched milk powder. The MPC algorithm is based on a continuous-time transfer ...

  1. Short communication: Folates and vitamin B12 in colostrum and milk from dairy cows fed different energy levels during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Girard, C L; Pellerin, D; Overton, T R

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations of colostrum and milk in early lactation of dairy cows fed different levels of energy during the dry period. A total of 84 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments fed as a total mixed ration 57 d before the expected calving date: (1) high-energy one-group dry cow diet [1.35 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of dry matter (DM); 56% corn silage, 12% wheat straw, and 32% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis]; (2) controlled-energy one-group dry cow diet (1.14 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM; 29% corn silage, 36% wheat straw, and 35% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis); or (3) an intermediate step-up diet (controlled-energy diet from dry off until 29 d before the expected calving date and then switching to a diet representing a 50:50 blend of the controlled- and high-energy diets from 28 d before expected calving date until parturition; 1.24 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM). After calving, all cows were fed the same diet served as a total mixed ration (44% corn silage, 14% grass silage, and 42% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis) until 42 d in milk (DIM). Colostrum samples were taken at the first milking after parturition and milk samples were taken during the morning milking at 11 and 39±2 DIM. Colostrum from the first milking and milk yields were weighed on the day of sampling. Colostrum yield from the first milking postpartum and milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were unaffected by treatments. Colostrum yield averaged 6.8±0.7mg at the first milking postpartum, whereas milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were, on average, 40.3±1.5 and 48.9±1.3mg/d, respectively. Folate concentrations in colostrum and milk were not different among treatments. Folate concentration of colostrum (440.3±18.8ng/mL) was higher than folate concentration in milk at 11 (93.7±3.0ng/mL) and at 39 DIM (78.4±2.6ng/mL). Vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum

  2. Influence of curd particles drying temperature on the composition of curd made of milk in which co aggregates were formed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different drying temperatures of curd particles in order to obtain curd particles with chemical composition characteristic for Dutch-type semi-hard cheeses was investigated. The experiments were performed with heat-treated milk at 87ºC for 10 minutes to induce chemical interaction between casein and serum proteins and to form the co-called co aggregates. The curd particles were dried at 42ºC and 45ºC for 60 minutes and two types of curd, named curd A and curd B were formed afterwards. The results of the experiments showed that the used temperatures had no significant influence on chemical composition of the curd. The average total solids of curd A was 49.09%, moisture in fat free basis (MFFB 68.78% protein content 22.23%, lactose content 1.55%, ash 1.98%, titratable acidity 71.700T and pH 6.22. On the other side, the average values for curd B were 49.40%, 68.58%, 22.74%, 1.47%, 1.94%, 75.920T and 6.07, respectively. The use of different drying temperatures, as well as the other treatments (pressing, salting and ripening provide conditions for semihard cheese producing, with the chemical composition similar to the Dutch-type semihard cheese prepared according to the traditional method.

  3. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...... in ration composition and characteristics of maize silage. The dataset compiled for the study comprised 29 experiments with 96 dietary treatments, but for a number of parameters less observations were published and therefore used in the analyses. Enhanced aNDFom digestibility was associated with a decrease...

  4. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Maternal Milk, 96% Ethyl Alcohol, and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Full-Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eghbalian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord infections are of main causes for neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Different methods are used for umbilical cord care with multifarious efficien-cies. The aim of this study was to compare three methods of local use of maternal milk, local use of 96% ethyl alcohol, and dry cord care. Materials & Methods: In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, 207 healthy full-term neo-nates were randomly assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups, mothers rubbed her milk and 96% ethyl alcohol on umbilical cord until two days after its separation, respec-tively. In the third group, they only kept the cord clean and dry. The length of umbilical cord separation was compared among the groups with ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. Results: The difference among lengths of umbilical cord separation in three groups was statis-tically significant. For alcohol users group, this time was significantly longer than that for the other two groups. The difference between cord separation time in maternal milk users and dry cord care groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Usage of maternal milk on umbilical cord and keeping the cord dry are acceptable methods but alcohol is not recommended for cord care in healthy term neonates with home care and in normal state. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:5-10

  5. Investigative Study of the Development of a Dry Whole Milk Substitute for Ration Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    emulsifier , lecithin , wetting agent, seed lactose, antioxidant, silicon dioxide, and flavorings» Processing variables were concentrating, homogenizing...procedures for concentrating, incorporating vegetable oil with emulsifier and antioxidant, vacuum treating, homogenizing, spray drying, adding seed...lactose and silicon dioxide prior to instantizing with water containing a wetting agent and lecithin , ana redryir ^ to 3% moisture. Amounts of all

  6. Effects of spray drying on physicochemical properties of milk protein-stabilised emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Lavrijsen, B.W.M.; Vollenbroek, J.M.; Stege, van der H.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of spray drying and reconstitution has been studied for oil-in-water emulsions (20.6% maltodextrin, 20% soybean oil, 2.4% protein, 0.13 M NaCl, pH 6.7) with varying ratios of sodium caseinate and whey protein, but with equal size distribution (d(32) = 0.77 mum). When the concentration of

  7. Stability to oxidation of spray-dried fish oil powder microencapsulated using milk ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.;

    2001-01-01

    Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...

  8. Observation of Microorganisms in Milk after the Expiration Date Using Dry Rehydratable Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin; Lim, Soo-Min; Lee, Il-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria is often not included in scientific inquiries conducted in school because of the difficulty of manufacturing a suitable medium. A method using dry rehydratable film to reduce the need to manufacture a suitable medium and shorten incubation time was developed as an efficient microbial testing…

  9. Spray-drying of milk for oxygen evolution electrocatalyst and solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenyi; Kuang, Min; Chen, Xiling; Wu, Hao; Ge, Hongtao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2017-02-01

    The development of efficient and robust electrocatalyst has been the central of the solar water splitting-based hydrogen fuel acquisition. In this work, we reported the use of cow milk, with addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and melamine, for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon microspheres. Due to the large surface and enhanced charge transport behavior, the obtained samples enabled low overpotentials and a small Tafel slope toward oxygen evolution reaction, which were close or comparable to the best OER catalysts of carbon materials reported previously. Further incorporation of this catalyst and a Pt wire to a commercial solar cell, the direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion was realized, with a stability of over 30h.

  10. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery T. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides. No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status. However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  11. Up-regulation of milk secretion with modified microclimate through manipulating plasminogen-plasmin system in Murrah buffaloes during hot dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, N.; Singh, M.; Hossain, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed at determining changes in milk yield and composition along with the plasminogen-plasmin system of milk, plasma hormones, and metabolites of buffaloes during hot dry season (air temperature range 39.7 to 44.8 °C) under two different management systems. Buffaloes were divided in two groups of six animals each: control and treatment, where treatment group animals accessed benefit of mist and fan cooling from 9:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., while control group animals were devoid of it. Duration of experiment was 6 weeks. Under mist and fan cooling system, buffaloes experienced better comfort by alleviating environmental stress as their physiological responses such as rectal temperature, respiration rate, pulse rate, and forehead and middorsal temperatures were significantly ( P milk yield by 4.44 % ( P milk samples revealed higher concentration of plasminogen (7.99 vs 6.27 μg/ml; P calcium content of milk, GH, and epinephrine level in plasma. Hence, it may be concluded that provision of cooling system during summer was effective to minimize environmental stress and improve milk production by manipulation of the PG-PL system in buffaloes.

  12. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 by spray-drying using sweet whey and skim milk as encapsulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, G M; Chaves, K S; Grosso, C R F; Gigante, M L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulating material on encapsulation yield, resistance to passage through simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage. Microparticles were produced from reconstituted sweet whey or skim milk (30% total solids) inoculated with a suspension of L. acidophilus La-5 (1% vol/vol) and subjected to spray-drying at inlet and outlet temperatures of 180°C and 85 to 95°C, respectively. The samples were packed, vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4°C and 25°C. Encapsulation yield, moisture content, and resistance of microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 compared with free cells (control) during exposure to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0 and 7.0) were evaluated. Viability was assessed after 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90d of storage. The experiments were repeated 3 times and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test for the comparison between means. The encapsulating material did not significantly affect encapsulation yield, average diameter, or moisture of the particles, which averaged 76.58±4.72%, 12.94±0.78μm, and 4.53±0.32%, respectively. Both microparticle types were effective in protecting the probiotic during gastrointestinal simulation, and the skim milk microparticles favored an increase in viability of L. acidophilus La-5. Regardless of the encapsulating material and temperature of storage, viability of the microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 decreased on average 0.43 log cfu/g at the end of 90d of storage, remaining higher than 10(6)cfu/g. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  14. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  15. 7 CFR 58.526 - Official identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Shield. (b) Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk, when used in cottage cheese bearing official identification.... Low Heat Classification (not less than 6.0 mg. undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of nonfat dry milk). In addition, the nonfat dry milk shall have a direct microscopic count not exceeding...

  16. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.

  17. Distribution of contagious and environmental mastitis agents isolated from milk samples collected from clinically health buffalo cows between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, then incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. Among the 580 isolated microrganisms, 182 (31,38% were recovered from samples collected during the rainy season and 398 (68,62% from the dry season. In the rainy period the most prevalent agents were: bacteria from the genus Corynebacterium sp (53,30%, Staphylococcus sp (19,78% and Rhodococcus equi (13,74%. In the dry period, the commonest ones were: Corynebacterium sp (44,97%, Staphylococcus sp (18,84% and Micrococcus sp (9,55%. The results demonstrated that the methods used to select health quarters in brazilian dairy buffalo farms allow the transmission of contagious bacteria during both seasons of the year, maintaining Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 6, (Suppl. 2, 896-899, 2007 897 VIII World Buffalo Congress agents known to cause mainly subclinical inflammatory reactions that compromise cronically the physiology and production of the mammary gland.

  18. 21 CFR 131.206 - Nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... destroy viable microorganisms. (b) Vitamin addition (optional). (1) If added, vitamin A shall be present... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat yogurt. 131.206 Section 131.206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  19. Epidemiology of Nonfatal Injuries among Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Al-Awamreh, Khetam; Gharaibeh, Huda; Al-Kloub, Manal; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Alhalaiqa, Fadwa; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    Nonfatal injuries are considered as one of the major public health hazards affecting schoolchildren, and the majority of these injuries occur at school or in the home. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 months, March-May 2015. The participants were 4,355 Jordanian schoolchildren in Grades 7-12. The Pearson ?[superscript 2]…

  20. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  1. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  2. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  3. 75 FR 36015 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... less than 2.25 percent true milk protein;'' is corrected to read ``Any product that contains less than 6.5 percent nonfat milk solids and contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein;''. Further, in... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas;...

  4. Effects of antibiotic dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant on milk somatic cell counts and clinical and subclinical mastitis in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Hodge, A; Lean, I J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an internal teat sealant (TS; Teatseal; Zoetis Australia, Silverwater, NSW, Australia), when used in combination with antibiotic dry-cow therapy (ADCT) administered at dry-off, on milk individual somatic cell count (ISCC), milk production and components, and the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows up to 60 d after calving, when compared with ADCT only. Multiparous Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein cross cows (n=2,200) from 8 farms in southern and eastern Australia were randomly assigned to treatment of all 4 quarters with ADCT alone or with ADCT plus TS (ADCT + TS) at dry-off in this randomized, multisite clinical trial. Individual milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and ISCC were measured at intervals of 14±3 d after calving for the first 60 d of lactation. The first measurement occurred between 10 and 24 d after calving. Clinical mastitis and health events were recorded from dry-off to 60 d of lactation. Milk samples were collected from first cases of clinical mastitis and subjected to bacteriology. Treatment and the interaction of treatment by time did not affect milk yield, ISCC weighted by milk yield, or fat and protein percentages. Treatment with ADCT + TS decreased geometric mean ISCC compared with treatment with ADCT alone over the first 60 d of lactation. Geometric mean ISCC (×10(3) cells/mL) was 32.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8 to 38.3] and 43.5 (95% CI: 36.2 to 52.1) for ADCT + TS and ADCT alone, respectively. The odds of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis (ISCC ≥250,000 cells/mL) were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.6) with ADCT alone in the first 60 d of lactation compared with ADCT + TS. Use of ADCT + TS reduced the estimated incidence of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis on all 8 farms, compared with use of ADCT alone. Only 4 cows that calved 40 to 100 d after dry-off had a first case of clinical mastitis in the dry period. Five percent of

  5. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  6. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on pasting, rheological and viscoelastic properties of milk-barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) blends meant for spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Arun; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Simha, H V Vikram; Nath, B Surendra

    2016-10-01

    The influence of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on the pasting properties of barnyard millet was studied using a rheometer. The effects of blending hydrolyzed barnyard millet wort with milk at different ratios (0:1, 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2) on flow and viscoelastic behavior were investigated. From the pasting curves, it was evident that enzymatically-hydrolyzed starch did not exhibit typical pasting characteristics expected of normal starch. The Herschel-Bulkley model fitted well to the flow behaviour data, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.942 to 0.988. All milk-wort blends demonstrated varying degree of shear thinning with flow behavior index (n) ranging from 0.252 to 0.647. Stress-strain data revealed that 1:1 blend of milk to wort had the highest storage modulus (7.09-20.06Pa) and an elastically-dominant behavior (phase angle <45°) over the tested frequency range. The crossover point of G' and G" shifted to higher frequencies with increasing wort content. From the flow and viscoelastic behavior, it was concluded that the 1:1 blend of milk to wort would have least phase separation and better flowability during spray drying.

  7. Up-regulation of milk secretion with modified microclimate through manipulating plasminogen-plasmin system in Murrah buffaloes during hot dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, N.; Singh, M.; Hossain, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    The present study was aimed at determining changes in milk yield and composition along with the plasminogen-plasmin system of milk, plasma hormones, and metabolites of buffaloes during hot dry season (air temperature range 39.7 to 44.8 °C) under two different management systems. Buffaloes were divided in two groups of six animals each: control and treatment, where treatment group animals accessed benefit of mist and fan cooling from 9:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., while control group animals were devoid of it. Duration of experiment was 6 weeks. Under mist and fan cooling system, buffaloes experienced better comfort by alleviating environmental stress as their physiological responses such as rectal temperature, respiration rate, pulse rate, and forehead and middorsal temperatures were significantly (P animals. However, exposure of buffaloes to cooling system did not alter composition and calcium content of milk, GH, and epinephrine level in plasma. Hence, it may be concluded that provision of cooling system during summer was effective to minimize environmental stress and improve milk production by manipulation of the PG-PL system in buffaloes.

  8. Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terramoccia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental, taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d, milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d, body condition score (BCS (6.44 and 6.31 and weight (617 and 653 kg at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA (1.2 g/kg DM, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA (12.6 g/kg DM, p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA (5.6 g/kg DM and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53, live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 μg/g, p<0.01 and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 μg/g, p<0.01. The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs was

  9. Valuation of milk composition and genotype in cheddar cheese production using an optimization model of cheese and whey production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H A; Parvin, L; Garnett, I; DePeters, E J; Medrano, J F; Fadel, J G

    2007-02-01

    A mass balance optimization model was developed to determine the value of the kappa-casein genotype and milk composition in Cheddar cheese and whey production. Inputs were milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, condensed skim milk, and starter and salt. The products produced were Cheddar cheese, fat-reduced whey, cream, whey cream, casein fines, demineralized whey, 34% dried whey protein, 80% dried whey protein, lactose powder, and cow feed. The costs and prices used were based on market data from March 2004 and affected the results. Inputs were separated into components consisting of whey protein, ash, casein, fat, water, and lactose and were then distributed to products through specific constraints and retention equations. A unique 2-step optimization procedure was developed to ensure that the final composition of fat-reduced whey was correct. The model was evaluated for milk compositions ranging from 1.62 to 3.59% casein, 0.41 to 1.14% whey protein, 1.89 to 5.97% fat, and 4.06 to 5.64% lactose. The kappa casein genotype was represented by different retentions of milk components in Cheddar cheese and ranged from 0.715 to 0.7411 kg of casein in cheese/kg of casein in milk and from 0.7795 to 0.9210 kg of fat in cheese/kg of fat in milk. Milk composition had a greater effect on Cheddar cheese production and profit than did genotype. Cheese production was significantly different and ranged from 9,846 kg with a high-casein milk composition to 6,834 kg with a high-fat milk composition per 100,000 kg of milk. Profit (per 100,000 kg of milk) was significantly different, ranging from $70,586 for a high-fat milk composition to $16,490 for a low-fat milk composition. However, cheese production was not significantly different, and profit was significant only for the lowest profit ($40,602) with the kappa-casein genotype. Results from this model analysis showed that the optimization model is useful for determining costs and prices for cheese plant inputs and products, and that it can

  10. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  11. 7 CFR 58.205 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drug Administration. Nonfat dry milk shall not contain nor be derived from dry buttermilk, dry whey, or..., dry whey, or products other than nonfat dry milk, except that lactose may be added as a processing aid... contain nor be derived from nonfat dry milk, dry whey, or products other than buttermilk, and shall...

  12. Prediction and validation of residual feed intake and dry matter intake in Danish lactating dairy cows using mid-infrared spectroscopy of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, N; Løvendahl, P; Lund, M S; Buitenhuis, A J

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the effectiveness of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI). The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models. The models were validated using different external test sets, one randomly leaving out 20% of the records (validation A), the second randomly leaving out 20% of cows (validation B), and a third (for DMI prediction models) randomly leaving out one cow (validation C). The data included 1,044 records from 140 cows; 97 were Danish Holstein and 43 Danish Jersey. Results showed better accuracies for validation A compared with other validation methods. Milk yield (MY) contributed largely to DMI prediction; MY explained 59% of the variation and the validated model error root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.24kg. The model was improved by adding live weight (LW) as an additional predictor trait, where the accuracy R(2) increased from 0.59 to 0.72 and error RMSEP decreased from 2.24 to 1.83kg. When only the milk FT-IR spectral profile was used in DMI prediction, a lower prediction ability was obtained, with R(2)=0.30 and RMSEP=2.91kg. However, once the spectral information was added, along with MY and LW as predictors, model accuracy improved and R(2) increased to 0.81 and RMSEP decreased to 1.49kg. Prediction accuracies of RFI changed throughout lactation. The RFI prediction model for the early-lactation stage was better compared with across lactation or mid- and late-lactation stages, with R(2)=0.46 and RMSEP=1.70. The most important spectral wavenumbers that contributed to DMI and RFI prediction models included fat, protein, and lactose peaks. Comparable prediction results were obtained when using infrared-predicted fat, protein, and lactose instead of full spectra, indicating that FT-IR spectral data do not add significant new information to improve DMI and RFI prediction models. Therefore, in

  13. ¬¬¬¬ SURVIVAL OF Cronobacter sakazakii IN SKIM MILK DURING SPRAY DRYING, STORAGE AND RECONSTITUTION [Ketahanan Hidup Cronobacter sakazakii dalam Susu Skim selama Proses Pengeringan Semprot, Penyimpanan dan Rekonstitusi

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen known to survive dry conditions and its presence in powder infant formula (PIF) has been linked to several outbreaks. In Indonesia, isolation of this bacterium from various foods have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spray drying and storage humidity on the survival of C. sakazakii YRc3a in skim milk and their viability upon reconstitution. The survival of Cronobacter during spray drying was determined by c...

  14. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  15. Sorghum silage supplemented with crambe meal improves dry matter intake and milk production in crossbred Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Araújo, Saulo Alberto; Bicalho, Guilherme Pires; da Silva Rocha, Norberto; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; Ortêncio, Marluci Olício

    2017-09-23

    We studied the feed intake and milk production of Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows fed sorghum silage diets and concentrates, with and without the addition of crambe meal. Using a change-over design for a total of 120 days, eight cows were fed two diets (concentrates + silages with and without crambe meal) in four 30-day periods, with four replications (animals). The crambe meal diet increased (P  0.05) for the milk composition between the treatments. Crambe meal as an additive in sorghum silage (100 g/kg in natural matter) showed a great potential for introduction in dairy farming as it substantially increases CP intake, does not reduce food intake, raises animal productivity, and does not affect milk composition.

  16. Inhibitory effects of freeze-dried milk fermented by selected Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains on carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats and by diethylnitrosamine in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balansky, R; Gyosheva, B; Ganchev, G; Mircheva, Z; Minkova, S; Georgiev, G

    1999-12-01

    Fermented milk products might be used for cancer chemoprevention due to their putative anticarcinogenic and antitumor activities. The diet was supplemented with freeze-dried milk fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain LBB.B 144 (product FFM.B 144) added throughout the experiment at doses of 1.3 g and 2.5 g per rat, 5 times a week starting 3 weeks before the first carcinogen injection. This treatment significantly inhibited, by 26.2-28.6% and by 34.2%, the total intestinal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 21 mg/kg, s.c., once per week for 20 weeks) in male and female BD6 rats, respectively. FFM.B144 decreased the tumor incidence and multiplicity in large bowel, caecum, and duodenum. Protective effects were better expressed in female animals, with exception of that observed in duodenum. Supplementation of diet with freeze-dried milk fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain LBB.B5 (product FFM.B5) inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis only in the large bowel, but had no significant protective effect when all intestinal tumors were taken into account. However, both freeze-dried products favorably shifted the differentiation of large bowel tumors by increasing the proportion of benign and highly differentiated malignant tumors and decreasing in parallel the number of poorly differentiated carcinomas without influencing the tumor size. A lower number of cases with visible mesenterial metastasis was also observed in FFM-treated rats. In addition, both FFM.B 144 and FFM.B5 significantly inhibited, by 26-33%, the induction in the same rats of ear-duct tumors. FFM.B144 but not FFM.B5 was also effective in inhibiting the tracheal carcinogenesis induced in Syrian golden hamsters by diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 100 mg/kg, two s.c. injections), the protective effect being better expressed in female animals. The anticarcinogenic potential of some fermented milk products might be exploited in chemoprevention of cancer in humans.

  17. Research of nitroxynil residues in bovine milk following a single administration in the dry period by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chirollo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxynil (NIT is a halogenated phenol used to control fascioliasis in cattle and sheep. The Commission Regulation EU No 37/2010 has established maximum residue limits for NIT in bovine and ovine muscle (400 μg kg−1, fat (200 μg kg−1, liver (20 μg kg−1 and kidney (400 μg kg−1, and more recently in bovine and ovine milk (20 μg kg−1. Thirty-five pregnant dairy cows were treated in this study with nitroxynil (340 mg/mL solution for injection at the recommended dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at the start of the dry period, i.e. 53 to 74 days before the expected calving. Calving occurred between 43 days and 79 days after treatment. The concentrations of NIT in the milk were monitored for up to 120 days after calving. NIT residues were extracted using acetonitrile; magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were added to induce liquid-liquid partitioning and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction for clean-up. NIT was detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS in negative ionization mode. The highest concentrations of this drug were found in two animals at the first milking, 48 and 53 day post treatment with levels of 362 and 657 μg kg–1, respectively. NIT residues were below the limit of detection of the method (0.24 μg/kg–1 between 67 and 106 day post-treatment. Following calving, residues rapidly depleted in animals and were non-detectable from 10 to 38 days post-calving. In particular, in all animals milk resulted compliant (<20 μg/kg−1 three days post partum.

  18. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., evaporated milk, dried milk, and a mixture of butter with skim milk, concentrated skim milk, evaporated skim... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food,...

  19. Enzymatic cross-linking of soy proteins within non-fat set yogurt gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanpuori, Rana; Madadlou, Ashkan; Zeynali, Fariba; Khosrowshahi, Asghar

    2014-08-01

    Soy proteins as the health-promoting ingredients and candidate fat substitutes in dairy products are good substrates for the cross-linking action of the enzyme transglutaminase. Non-fat set yogurt samples were prepared from the milks enriched with soy protein isolate (SPI) and/or treated with the enzyme transglutaminase. The highest titrable acidity was recorded for the yogurt enriched with SPI and treated with the enzyme throughout the cold storage for 21 d. SPI-enrichment of yogurt milk increased the water holding capacity. Although enrichment with SPI did not influence the count of Streptococcus themophilus, increased that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ∼3 log cycles. The enzymatic treatment of SPI-enriched milk however, suppressed the bacteria growth-promoting influence of SPI due probably to making the soy proteins inaccessible for Lactobacillus. SPI-enrichment and enzymatic treatment of milk decreased the various organic acids content in yoghurt samples; influence of the former was more significant. The cross-linking of milk proteins to soy proteins was confirmed with the gel electrophoresis results.

  20. Decision Tree Model for Non-Fatal Road Accident Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Ellisya Sapri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-fatal road accident injury has become a great concern as it is associated with injury and sometimes leads to the disability of the victims. Hence, this study aims to develop a model that explains the factors that contribute to non-fatal road accident injury severity. A sample data of 350 non-fatal road accident cases of the year 2016 were obtained from Kota Bharu District Police Headquarters, Kelantan. The explanatory variables include road geometry, collision type, accident time, accident causes, vehicle type, age, airbag, and gender. The predictive data mining techniques of decision tree model and multinomial logistic regression were used to model non-fatal road accident injury severity. Based on accuracy rate, decision tree with CART algorithm was found to be more accurate as compared to the logistic regression model. The factors that significantly contribute to non-fatal traffic crashes injury severity are accident cause, road geometry, vehicle type, age and collision type.

  1. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.

    2014-01-01

    ) (2.1g P/kg DM) and High P (HP) (2.5g P/kg DM). After parturition and throughout lactation treatments were LP (2.3g P/kg DM), MP (2.8g P/kg DM) and HP (3.4g P/kg DM). Differences in dietary P were obtained by adding 0.60 and 1.19% mono-sodium phosphate per kg DM to MP and HP, respectively. The cows......Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation....... Reduction in P concentration from 3.4 to 2.3g P/kg DM reduced DMI, milk yield, milk protein yield and plasma Pi concentration, and increased serum concentration of CTX, but did not affect serum concentration of OC in early lactation. Reduced dietary P concentration from 3.4 to 2.8g P/kg DM did not affect...

  2. Characterising variances of milk powder and instrumentation for the development of a non-targeted, Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics detection method for the evaluation of authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M; Moore, Jeffrey C; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2016-06-01

    There is a need to develop rapid tools to screen milk products for economically motivated adulteration. An understanding of the physiochemical variability within skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) is the key to establishing the natural differences of these commodities prior to the development of non-targeted detection methods. This study explored the sources of variance in 71 commercial SMP and NFDM samples using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) and characterised the largest number of commercial milk powders acquired from a broad number of international manufacturers. Spectral pre-processing using a gap-segment derivative transformation (gap size = 5, segment width = 9, fourth derivative) in combination with sample normalisation was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background of the milk powder samples. PC scores plots revealed no clear trends for various parameters, including day of analysis, powder type, supplier and processing temperatures, while the largest variance was due to irreproducibility in sample positioning. Significant chemical sources of variances were explained by using the spectral features in the PC loadings plots where four samples from the same manufacturer were determined to likely contain an additional component or lactose anomers, and one additional sample was identified as an outlier and likely containing an adulterant or differing quality components. The variance study discussed herein with this large, diverse set of milk powders holds promise for future use as a non-targeted screening method that could be applied to commercial milk powders.

  3. Characterising variances of milk powder and instrumentation for the development of a non-targeted, Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics detection method for the evaluation of authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R.; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M.; Moore, Jeffrey C.; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to develop rapid tools to screen milk products for economically motivated adulteration. An understanding of the physiochemical variability within skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) is the key to establishing the natural differences of these commodities prior to the development of non-targeted detection methods. This study explored the sources of variance in 71 commercial SMP and NFDM samples using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) and characterised the largest number of commercial milk powders acquired from a broad number of international manufacturers. Spectral pre-processing using a gap-segment derivative transformation (gap size = 5, segment width = 9, fourth derivative) in combination with sample normalisation was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background of the milk powder samples. PC scores plots revealed no clear trends for various parameters, including day of analysis, powder type, supplier and processing temperatures, while the largest variance was due to irreproducibility in sample positioning. Significant chemical sources of variances were explained by using the spectral features in the PC loadings plots where four samples from the same manufacturer were determined to likely contain an additional component or lactose anomers, and one additional sample was identified as an outlier and likely containing an adulterant or differing quality components. The variance study discussed herein with this large, diverse set of milk powders holds promise for future use as a non-targeted screening method that could be applied to commercial milk powders. PMID:27167451

  4. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash, often around the mouth Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A true milk allergy differs from milk ... Question ingredients when ordering in restaurants. Sources of milk products Obvious sources of allergy-causing milk proteins ...

  5. Milk and methane production in lactating dairy cattle consuming distillers dried grains and solubles or canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of byproducts as an alternative feed source is becoming increasingly popular among dairy producers. A study using 12 multiparous (79 ± 16 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows, was conducted over 5 months to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or canola meal...

  6. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  7. Spray-drying process preserves the protective capacity of a breast milk-derived Bifidobacterium lactis strain on acute and chronic colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patricia; Alard, Jeanne; Hrdỳ, Jiri; Boutillier, Denise; Páez, Roxana; Reinheimer, Jorge; Pot, Bruno; Vinderola, Gabriel; Grangette, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a central role in the development and perpetuation of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and therefore is key target for interventions with high quality and functional probiotics. The local production of stable probiotic formulations at limited cost is considered an advantage as it reduces transportation cost and time, thereby increasing the effective period at the consumer side. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory capacities of the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) INL1, a probiotic strain isolated in Argentina from human breast milk, with the commercial strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB12. The impact of spray-drying, a low-cost alternative of bacterial dehydration, on the functionality of both bifidobacteria was also investigated. We showed for both bacteria that the spray-drying process did not impact on bacterial survival nor on their protective capacities against acute and chronic colitis in mice, opening future perspectives for the use of strain INL1 in populations with IBD. PMID:28233848

  8. Correlation between somatic cell count and chemical composition of cooled raw milk in properties of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the damage caused by subclinical mastitis in loss of production and quality of milk, the present study aimed to verify the correlation between somatic cell count (SCC and the chemical composition of cooled raw milk collected in the Agreste region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in drought and rain seasons. Samples were collected in seven dairy farms during morning time, between January 2010 and March 2012, and sent to the Brazilian et of Milk Quality Laboratory (ESALQ/USP. The contents of protein, fat, lactose, casein, total solids, nonfat dry extract and urea nitrogen, besides of SCC and total bacterial count were performed. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, correlation analysis and comparison of means by Tuckey test , 5%. The average SCC was 604,000 cells/mL and had significant variation in the dry period (558 000 cells/mL and rainy (650 000 cells/mL. The SCC was positively correlated with fat and total solids but negatively with the lactose cow’s milk of bulk tank, regardless of the season in the Agreste of Rio Grande do Norte.

  9. A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Binaifer; Yu, Ye; Wang, Xue; Garber, Eric A E; Jackson, Lauren S

    2017-04-01

    Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate

  10. Prevalence and etiology of buffalo mastitis and milk somatic cell count in dry and rainy seasons in a buffalo herd from Analândia, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.L. Pizauro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC, prevalence and etiology of mastitis in a dairy buffalo herd from Analândia, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the dry and rainy seasons. Additionally, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of microorganisms isolated from milk samples was also evaluated. 1,042 milk samples from female Murrah buffaloes in a dairy farm located in Analândia, São Paulo State, Brazil, collected between May 2011 and November 2012 were analyzed. After the mammary gland physical examination, strip cup test and California Mastitis Test (CMT were performed. Afterwards, 50mL of milk samples from each mammary quarter were collected aseptically for SCC in automatic equipment and microbiological examination. The antimicrobial sensitivity profile to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, oxacillin, penicillin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was evaluated by disk diffusion method. The monthly average temperature and pluviometric index were obtained from "Centro Integrado de Informações Agrometeorológicas" (CIIAGRO of "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas" (IAC. Milk samples with positive results in the microbiological test showed average SCC of 137,720 cells/mL in the dry period and 190,309 cells/mL in the rainy period. Although a higher number of isolated microorganisms was observed in buffalo milk samples during the rainy period (69/600 compared to the dry period (50/442, the season had no significant effect on the frequency of isolation of microorganisms. The main genera of microorganisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (38.4%, Streptococcus agalactiae (28.8%, and Bacillus spp. (7.56% during the dry season and Corynebacterium sp. (23.5%, Streptococcus spp. (32.3%, and Streptococcus agalactiae (9.24% during the rainy period. Multidrug resistance was observed in 30.1% of the isolated microorganisms.

  11. 21 CFR 131.149 - Dry cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry cream. 131.149 Section 131.149 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.149 Dry cream. (a) Description. Dry cream is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk or cream or...

  12. Microbial growth in dry grain food (Sunsik) beverages prepared with water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sun-Young

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Cronobacter sakazakii and Bacillus cereus, in Sunsik beverages made of water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water during storage at room temperature. Prepared Sunsik beverages were stored at room temperature and the growth of total aerobic counts, Escherichia coli/coliforms, and yeast and mold were measured. Also, samples inoculated with a cocktail of C. sakazakii or B. cereus spores were stored at room temperature and their growths were determined during storage. Populations of total aerobic counts and coliforms significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature, which resulted in higher than 8 log and 7 log after 24 h in all samples except for the honey-water sample, respectively. Levels of total aerobic counts and coliforms were significantly lower in the honey-water sample than in the other samples after 6 and 9 h of storage, respectively. Initial populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus ranged from 0 to 1 log CFU/mL, respectively, and these populations significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature. Therefore, populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus were approximately 7 to 8 log CFU/mL after 24 h of storage. However, after 12 and 9 h of storage, there were significant differences in levels of C. sakazakii and B. cereus between the honey-water sample and the other samples, respectively. Based on these results, the addition of honey can inhibit microbial growth in Sunsik beverages; however, the best way to avoid pathogen infection would be to consume Sunsik beverages as soon as possible after preparation.

  13. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-09

    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  14. Microencapsulation of borage oil with blends of milk protein, β-glucan and maltodextrin through spray drying: physicochemical characteristics and stability of the microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Yi; Shi, Yan

    2017-07-07

    Borage oil is a rich commercial source of γ-linolenic acid (18:3n-6). However, borage oil is rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vulnerable to oxidation. Thus, selecting appropriate wall materials is critical to the encapsulation of borage oil. The present study investigated the influence of wall materials on the physicochemical characteristics and stability of microencapsulated borage oil by spray drying. Blends of milk protein [sodium caseinate (CAS) or whey protein concentrate], β-glucan (GLU) and maltodextrin (MD) were used as the wall materials for encapsulating borage oil. The microencapsulation of borage oil with different wall materials attained high encapsulation efficiencies. The microencapsulated borage oil prepared with CAS-MD achieved the optimal encapsulation efficiency of 96.62%. The oxidative stabilities of borage oil and microencapsulated borage oil were measured by accelerated storage test at 45 °C and 33% relative humidity for 30 days. The microencapsulated borage oil presented lower peroxide values than those of borage oil, and the microcapsules prepared with CAS-10GLU-MD (consisting of CAS 50 g kg(-1) , GLU 100 g kg(-1) and MD 475 g kg(-1) of microencapsulation) conferred borage oil with high protection against lipid oxidation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the CAS-GLU-MD blend is appropriate for microencapsulating borage oil. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Whey protein concentrate and gum tragacanth as fat replacers in nonfat yogurt: chemical, physical, and microstructural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziznia, S; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Rahimi, J

    2008-07-01

    The effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum tragacanth (GT) as fat replacers on the chemical, physical, and microstructural properties of nonfat yogurt was investigated. The WPC (7.5, 15, and 20 g/L) and GT (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/L) were incorporated into the skim milk slowly at 40 to 45 degrees C with agitation. The yogurt mixes were pasteurized at 90 degrees C for 10 min, inoculated with 0.1% starter culture, and incubated at 42 degrees C to pH 4.6, then refrigerated overnight at 5 degrees C. A control nonfat yogurt and control full fat yogurt were prepared as described, but without addition of WPC and GT. Increasing amount of WPC led to the increase in total solids, total protein, acidity, and ash content, whereas GT did not affect chemical parameters. Increasing WPC caused a more compact structure consisting of robust casein particles and large aggregates. Firmness was increased and susceptibility to syneresis was decreased as WPC increased. No significant difference was observed for firmness and syneresis of yogurt fortified with GT up to 0.5 g/L compared with control nonfat yogurt. Increasing the amount of gum above 0.5 g/L produced softer gels with a greater tendency for syneresis than the ones prepared without it. Addition of GT led to the coarser and more open structure compared with control yogurt.

  16. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CHANGE IN SALIVARY pH ON CONSUMPTION OF DRY READY TO EAT CEREALS, CEREALS WITH AND WITHOUT ADDED SUGAR IN MILK- AN IN -VIVO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh J*, Sapna B, Veeresh DJ, Divya D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dry, Ready to Eat Cereals are a combination of refined sugar and starch, most commonly consumed breakfast in the modern human diet. The present study was done to investigate the effects of combination foods on salivary pH. Objective: To assess and compare the salivary pH changes after consumption of Dry Ready to Eat Cereals (REC), Cereals with plain and sugar added milk. Method: Thirty six adults of age 18 to 25 years were assessed for salivary pH at baseline followed by one minut...

  17. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Golubeva; O. I. Dolmatova; E. I. Bocharova; G. S. Dolmatova

    2012-01-01

    Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  18. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  19. ¬¬¬¬ SURVIVAL OF Cronobacter sakazakii IN SKIM MILK DURING SPRAY DRYING, STORAGE AND RECONSTITUTION [Ketahanan Hidup Cronobacter sakazakii dalam Susu Skim selama Proses Pengeringan Semprot, Penyimpanan dan Rekonstitusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen known to survive dry conditions and its presence in powder infant formula (PIF has been linked to several outbreaks. In Indonesia, isolation of this bacterium from various foods have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spray drying and storage humidity on the survival of C. sakazakii YRc3a in skim milk and their viability upon reconstitution. The survival of Cronobacter during spray drying was determined by comparing the number of bacteria before and after drying. The viability of Cronobacter in spray dried skim milk (SDSM during storage was observed at weeks 1 to 8 and 12. At the same intervals, SDSM containing the pathogens was reconstituted at either 27°C or 50°C and the survivors were enumerated. The data were plotted to yield survival curves. Spray drying caused 4.19 log CFU/g reduction of Cronobacter and the bacteria experiencing drying were less sensitive to reconstitution at 50°C. During storage, the water activity of SDSM reached equilibrium at week 2 and afterwards, they started to decrease when stored at 50% or 90% RH, but maintained its viability at 70% RH. Storage at 50% and 90% RH accelerated the death rate of C. sakazakii YRc3a, resulting in the decline of the viable counts for 3 log cycles. At 50% RH, C. sakazakii Yrc3a decreased significantly, but the survivors exhibited increased heat resistance with the lowest reduction upon reconstitution at 50°C (0.16 log CFU/ml.

  20. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  1. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    or other treatment for depression in the past 12 months and having a ... homes and communities, are needed in order to enhance their quality of life (WHO, 2015c, p. 4). ... Studies on the association with non-fatal road traffic injury in older adult ...

  2. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the risk of subtypes of stroke is as yet unclear. To investigate the effect of oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen therapy on the risk of non-fatal haemorrhagic and thromboembolic stroke, we carried out a case-...

  3. Effect of simulated milk fat with different melting points on the physiochemical properties of concentrated milk protein by spray drying%不同熔点乳脂模拟物对浓缩乳蛋白喷雾干燥粉理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪超; 胡锦华; 郭宏慧; 周鹏

    2015-01-01

    The effect of milk fat with different melting points on milk powders' physicochemical properties was investigated.The milk fat and fatty acid components in commercial concentrated milk protein were analyzed to select the best simulations and using spray dry to obtained the milk powder.The surface fat concentration,microstructure and protein dissolution behavior of the powders were measured.Compared with new spray-dried MPC,milk powders containing esters had a rough surface with fat layer and had a porous wall.The surface fat contents varied with esters' melting point,the higher melting point,the higher content.Protein dissolution behavior different with each other and the dissolution rate were slower than that of spray dried MPC.%文中探讨了不同熔点乳脂组成对浓缩乳蛋白干粉理化性质的影响.首先利用气相色谱技术分析商业浓缩乳蛋白(milk protein concentrate,MPC)的脂肪酸组成,并结合乳脂肪的熔点(melting point,MP)特征选取不同熔点的脂肪酸甲酯模拟乳脂肪,其次采用喷雾干燥技术制备含不同乳脂模拟物的加脂乳粉,并对其表面含脂量、微观结构和蛋白质溶解行为进行分析.研究发现:与商业MPC重新喷雾干燥后表面光滑和内壁致密的结构相比,加脂的乳粉则表面粗糙、多孔且内壁疏松,表面还可观察到脂肪层;加脂乳粉的表面含脂量随着所加甲酯熔点的升高逐渐增加;不同甲酯的添加使得加脂乳粉的蛋白质溶解行为存在差异,而且与MPC相比,不同加脂乳粉中蛋白质溶出速率均变得缓慢.

  4. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  5. Heat stability of reconstituted, protein-standardized skim milk powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J

    2010-12-01

    We determined the effects of standardization material, protein content, and pH on the heat stability of reconstituted milk made from low-heat (LH) and medium-heat (MH) nonfat dry milk (NDM). Low-heat and MH NDM were standardized downward from 35.5% to 34, 32, and 30% protein by adding either edible lactose powder (ELP) or permeate powder (PP) from skim milk ultrafiltration. These powders were called standardized skim milk powders (SSMP). The LH and MH NDM and SSMP were reconstituted to 9% total solids. Furthermore, subsamples of reconstituted NDM and SSMP samples were set aside to measure heat stability at native (unadjusted) pH, and the rest were adjusted to pH 6.3 to 7.0. Heat stability is defined as heat coagulation time at 140°C of the reconstituted LH or MH NDM and SSMP samples. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times at unadjusted pH values and 2 times at adjusted pH values. At an unadjusted pH, powder type, standardization material, and protein content influenced the heat stability of the samples. Heat stability for reconstituted LH NDM and SSMP was higher than reconstituted MH NDM and SSMP. Generally, decreased heat stability was observed in reconstituted LH or MH SSMP as protein content was decreased by standardization. However, adding ELP to MH SSMP did not significantly change its heat stability. When pH was adjusted to values between 6.3 and 7.0, powder type, standardization material, and pH had a significant effect on heat stability, whereas protein content did not. Maximum heat stability was noted at pH 6.7 for both reconstituted LH NDM and SSMP samples, and at pH 6.6 for both reconstituted MH NDM and SSMP samples. Furthermore, for samples with adjusted pH, higher heat stability was observed for reconstituted LH SSMP containing PP compared with reconstituted milk from LH SSMP containing ELP. However, no statistical difference was observed in the heat stability of reconstituted milk from MH NDM and MH SSMP samples. We conclude that powder type

  6. The Determination of Somatic Cell Count and Some Components of Raw Milk Evaluated By a Private Company in Trakya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Onal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the amount of bulk tank somatic cell counts. Chemical and microbiological compositions of raw milk produced in Trakya were also reached in order to evaluate the structure of milk production. For this purpose 36 raw milk samples were collected from bulk milk tank within three different location of Trakya (18 samples from Edirne, 10 from Tekirdağ and 8 from Kırklareli. The arithmetic means and standard errors of fat percentages, non-fat dry matter, protein percentages, BTSCC (Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Count and TB (Total Bacteria for Edirne, Tekirdağ and Kırklareli provinces were; 3.70 0.052, 3.60 0.098, 3.76 0.064; 8.34 0.025, 8.50 0.035, 8.39 0.038; 3.05 0.012, 3.09 0.019, 3.05 0.016; 308.555 26.510 SCC/ml (log 5.459 0.04 SCC/ml, 350.200 53.627 SCC/ml (Log 5.500 0.06 SCC/ml, 254.500 37.645 SCC/ml (Log 5.370 0.06 SCC/ml; 479.481 51.777 cfu/ml (Log 5.630 0.05 cfu/ml, 435.716 91.194 cfu/ml (Log 5.5230.12 cfu/ml, 446.958 81.515 cfu/ml (Log 5.602 0.075 cfu/ml respectively. Consequentially, the correlation coefficient for LogBTSCC and fat percentage, non-fat dry matter, protein percentage and LogTB were found to be 0.036, 0.251, 0.421 and 0.219 respectively. A significant (p<0.05 correlation coefficient was obtained between LogBTSCC and protein percentage.

  7. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the risk of subtypes of stroke is as yet unclear. To investigate the effect of oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen therapy on the risk of non-fatal haemorrhagic and thromboembolic stroke, we carried out a case......-control study. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Register we identified all Danish women aged 45-64 years who had a non-fatal, first-ever cerebrovascular attack during 1990-92. Two age-matched controls were randomly selected for each case from the Danish National Person Register. Important correlates...... of hormone use and stroke, on which information was obtained from postal questionnaires, were controlled for by multivariate analyses based on log-linear graphical models. The analyses included data on 1422 cases classified in four subtypes of stroke (160 subarachnoid haemorrhage, 95 intracerebral...

  8. 75 FR 51929 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order Amending the Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ..., whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar...; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim milk; sweetened condensed milk/ skim milk; yogurt... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order...

  9. Disparity surveillance of nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The lack of race information for nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries in the United States has limited the understanding of racial disparities in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). In this article, we describe a pilot surveillance project in Nebraska that linked crash reports and driver's license records to investigate racial disparity among nonfatal MVC injuries. The project linked 43,157 severely and nonseverely injured drivers from crash reports between 2006 and 2010 to the corresponding state driver's license database so that drivers' race information from each MVC could be retrieved. A log rate model was used to examine the likelihood of MVC injuries by drivers' race along the dimensions of age, sex, and place of residence. Black drivers had 31.6 and 87 percent more severe and nonsevere injuries, respectively, than white drivers. Rural residents were more likely than urban residents to have severe MVC injuries. Controlling for residence status, age, and sex did not alter the basic pattern that black drivers had higher rates of nonfatal MVC injuries. The linkage approach provides an effective way to obtain additional information for MVC injury disparity surveillance. To reduce racial disparities in severe and nonsevere MVC injuries, race-sex-, race-age-, and race-location-specific interventions should be considered based on their significant contributions to disparity.

  10. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.

  11. a Fermented Milk-Based-Sorghum-Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying Kinetics, Physico-chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of ... methods on the drying behaviour, functional and nutritional quality of such a food ..... Table 2: Proximate composition of sorghum and of milk-sorghum flours. .... J. of Human.

  12. PENGGUNAAN BERBAGAI JENIS BAHAN PELINDUNG UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN VIABILITAS BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT YANG DI ISOLASI DARI AIR SUSU IBU PADA PROSES PENGERINGAN BEKU [Utilization of various cryogenic agents during freeze drying to Maintain the viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Puspawati1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are the most important bacteria having potential as probiotic. The objectives of the present study were to examine the growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria, identify the Lactic Acid Bacteria capable of surviving and evaluate the best cryogenic agents that protect the viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria during freeze drying. Four cryogenic agents, i.e. sucrose, lactose, skim milk and maltodextrin, were used in freeze drying of three species of Lactic Acid Bacteria, i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus A16, Lactobacillus brevis A17 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R21 isolated from breast milk. Evaluation included viability before and after freeze drying, survival of freeze dried culture in 0.5 % bile salt and low pH for 5 hours. The result showed that three of cryogenics, i.e. sucrose, lactose and skim milk improved the viability of freeze dried of all lactobacilli, except maltodextrin that did not give protection to L. rhamnosus R21. Evaluation on the survival of LAB in 0.5 % bile salt showed that cryogenic agents improved the survival rate of all Lactic Acid Bacteria during freeze drying. The cryogenic also improved the survival rate of LAB at low pH, with the best protection given by skim milk on L. rhamnosus R21.

  13. Fluid milk vitamin fortification compliance in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S C; Whited, L J; Rosenberry, L C; Hammond, B H; Bandler, D K; Boor, K J

    2001-12-01

    Current US regulations, as specified in the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, require vitamin A fortification of all reduced fat fluid milk products. The addition of vitamin D is optional in all fluid products. Acceptable vitamin concentrations in fortified milks are 2000 to 3000 International units per quart for vitamin A and 400 to 600 International units per quart for vitamin D. Vitamin A and D levels were analyzed in fortified milk products collected over a 4-yr period in New York State. Samples of whole fat, 2% fat, 1% fat, and nonfat milks were collected twice per year from up to 31 dairy processing plants. For vitamin A, 44.5% of 516 samples were in compliance with current regulations, and 47.7% of 648 samples were within the acceptable range for vitamin D. Most milk samples that were out of compliance were underfortified.

  14. The use of skimmed dried milk as an alternative diluent for the cooling step during the boar sêmen freezing procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyane Bandeira Barros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical points in the cryopreservation process is the use of a proper diluent while lowering the temperature following the resuspension and thawing processes. Here, we tested an alternative diluent for the process of freezing boar semen. We used skimmed dried milk (SDM during the cooling and post-thawed resuspension steps. To do so, we collected semen from 15 Dalland boars using the glovedhand technique, and incubated each ejaculate sample at 30 °C. We then removed two semen aliquots from a pre-dilution. We diluted one of the aliquots in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS - control, and the remaining sample was diluted in SDM. Both aliquots were subsequently held at 30º C for 45 min (1st period of stabilization. At the end of this period, we analysed vigor and motility to determine sperm metabolic activity. We then held the diluted semen at 25° C for 30 min (2nd period of stabilization and at 17° C for 2 h (3rd period stabilization. We centrifuged the semen at 800 × g and 1600 × g at 5º C for 15 min, discarded the supernatant, and resuspended the sperm pellet in 2 mL of the cooling diluent at 5° C for 1h. We again diluted the samples in 2 mL of the freezing diluent, poured them into straws, and cooled and plunged them into liquid N2. The sêmen samples were thawed in a 39º C water bath, and were resuspended in their respective diluents at the same temperature. We determined the following sperm features: vigor, motility, vitality, acrosomal integrity and membrane functionality. During the first phase of temperature cooling (30º C, semen diluted in SDM exhibited a higher vigor (3.4 ± 0.6 and motility (78.6 ± 13.0 than those diluted BTS (vigor: 3.1 ± 0.7; motility: 69.4±14.3. However, after the thawing procedure, the inverse was observed in that: BTS samples exhibited a higher vigor (2.1 ± 0.6 and motility (35.5 ± 21.0 than SDM samples (vigor: 1.7 ± 0.9; motility: 22.8 ± 18.1. Regarding membrane functionality and

  15. 7 CFR 1170.9 - Price reporting exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.9 Price... markets less than 1 million pounds of dry whey per calendar year is exempt from reporting dry whey sales... pounds of nonfat dry milk per calendar year is exempt from reporting nonfat dry milk sales as...

  16. 干燥方式对湿法加工奶茶固体饮料感官和稳定性的影响%The Effect of Different Drying Methods on Sensory Quality and Stability of Wet Processed Milk Tea Solid Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建文; 王跃; 邢志强; 柳新荣; 梅华; 张云峰

    2014-01-01

    为了考察干燥方式对湿法加工奶茶固体饮料感官和稳定性的影响,本实验以喷雾干燥和真空干燥两种方式干燥奶茶固体饮料。结果表明,经过真空干燥的奶茶粉冲泡浮油严重,口感和组织状态显著差于喷雾干燥奶茶粉。真空干燥奶茶粉表面油含量为13.44%,而喷雾干燥仅为0.78%,通过粒径分布和透光率测定,均显示真空干燥奶茶粉稳定性差,喷雾干燥稳定性较佳。在得率方面,喷雾干燥得率59%,真空干燥74%。综合各项结果,喷雾干燥更适合干燥湿法奶茶固体饮料。%In order to study the effect of different drying methods on sensory quality and stability of milk tea solid beverage, the vacuum drying and spray drying was used in this study, at the same time, the milk tea powder was made with wet process. The result indicated:the taste and texture of milk tea processed by vacuum drying were very bad, the surface oil content of vacuum dried milk tea was 13.44%, while spray drying was 0.78% only. the low stability of vacuum drying milk tea solid was also indicated by particle size distribution and transmittance. The yield of spray drying was 59% and vacuum drying was 74%. In contrast to vacuum drying, the spray drying is feasible in wet processed milk tea solid beverage.

  17. Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A

    2015-03-01

    As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or

  18. Process of peanut protein milk powder by dry preparation%花生蛋白奶粉的干法生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章宝; 单杨; 李高阳

    2011-01-01

    以去壳花生仁为原料,经低温烘烤、脱红衣、冷榨脱脂、超微粉碎等工艺生产出花生蛋白粉,将其与全脂奶粉混合生产花生蛋白奶粉,所得产品溶解度高、冲调性好、口感细腻、营养均衡,同时具有奶味和花生特有的香味。%Peanut protein milk powder was made by mixing whole milk powder with peanut protein powder,which was made by the technologies of low-temperature baking,taking the peanut red skin off,cold-pressed degreasing and ultra-fine pulverizatio by using shelled pea

  19. Evaluation of the Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Solar and Freeze-Dried Jameed Produced from Cow and Sheep Milk with the Addition of Carrageenan Mix to the Jameed Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jameed is a fermented dried dairy product in the form of stone hard balls or other shapes produced by straining the heated buttermilk on cloth mesh bags, salting the formed paste by kneading, shaping and drying in the sun. This product is reconstituted after disintegration to be used in the preparation of Mansaf, the national dish in Jordan, which is basically lamb meat cooked in Jameed sauce (Sharab, Mareece and served on cooked rice. The addition of Carrageenan (0.15%, to the Jameed paste resulted in improvement of solar dried Jameed with significant result for Carrageenan treatment as evaluated by wettability and syneresis test. Whipping of the paste to which carrageenan was used, added an additional improvement to the solubility of Jameed and stability of its dispersion The sensory evaluation of the sauce prepared From sheep milk using hedonic scale test had higher mean scores than control market sample which was karaki jameed considered as the best quality in Jordan.

  20. Seasonal Variations Affect the Physicochemical Composition of Bufallo Milk and Artisanal Cheeses Produced in Marajó Island (Pa, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G., Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation in physicochemical composition and microbiological profile of buffalo milk and of the artisanal cream and butter types cheeses produced on Marajó Island. Eighteen farms located of the island were involved in the study. Milk and cheese quality were evaluated in two typical seasons. The rainy, from January to June and dry, from July to December. Samples were submitted to a detailed set of laboratorial analyses. Physicochemical composition of buffalo milk was influenced by the seasons. Compared to rainy, the dry period showed an increase in fat (5.53±0.71 to 6.74±1.19 and lactose (4.77±0.20 to 5.20±0.20 concentrations and reduction in total solids (16.89±0.92 to 15.77±1.54, nonfat dry matter (9.94±0.36 to 8.99±1.23 and minerals (0.84±0.12 to 0.62±0.09 concentrations (p<0.05. The season influence was observed in physicochemical composition of both cheese-types. Compared to rainy season, in the cream cheese type, higher values (p<0.05 were found for titratable acidity (0.63±0.02 to 0.78±0.15, fat (32.38±3.22 to 36.89±4.59, fat in the dry matter (55.06±3.26 to 63.92±2.49 but lower values for water activity (0.99±0.02 to 0.49±0.03, minerals (2.37±0.55 to 1.40±0.02 and calcium (0.28±0.08 to 0.18±0.07. For the butter cheese type, in the dry season, higher values were found only for titratable acidity (0.49±0.02 to 0.38±0.0 and lower values for water activity (0.18±0.07 to 0.45±0.08. The study have shown that some components of the buffalo milk and artisanal cheeses produced on Marajó Island are influenced by the dry and rainy typical seasons and therefore, some sensory variations are expected around the year.

  1. 9 CFR 319.281 - Bockwurst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Species) may be used in accordance with § 319.6. (2) The “milk” may be fresh whole milk, dried milk, nonfat dry milk, calcium reduced dried skim milk, enzyme (rennet) treated calcium reduced dried skim milk... not be cooked. It contains meat, milk or water or a combination thereof, eggs, vegetables, and any...

  2. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  3. Hair analysis to document non-fatal pesticide intoxication cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Baudel, J L; Fardet, L; Maury, E; Lachâtre, G

    2008-03-21

    We reported two non-fatal cases of intoxication with pesticides namely alachlor and carbofuran. Hair stand samples were collected from two men approximately 1 year after alachlor intoxication for case 1, and 14 days after the last exposure for case 2. Hair analysis was performed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In case 1, alachlor was detected in the 5 analysed hair segments (concentrations between 12 and 136 pg/mg) and its metabolites were not detected. In case 2, carbofuran and its main metabolite (3-hydroxycarbofuran) were detected in the hair strand (global analysis) at the concentrations of 207 and 164 pg/mg, respectively. However, additional data are required in order to interpret such results.

  4. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  5. Milk Thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Milk Thistle Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about milk thistle—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  6. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Milk Allergy Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common ...

  7. The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk production, nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-six Holstein cows, four of which were ruminally cannulated, (mean ± SD, 111 ± 35 DIM; 664 ± 76.5 kg BW) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of brown midrib (bm3) and conventional (DP) corn silages and the inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG...

  8. Water adsorption isotherms and isosteric sorption heat of spray-dried and freeze-dried dehydrated passion fruit pulp with additives and skimmed milk Isotermas de adsorção e calor isostérico de sorção de polpa de maracujá desidratada por spray dryer e liofilizador com aditivos e leite desnatado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Tafari Catelam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data of passion fruit pulp powders with maltodextrin and gum arabic were obtained by two different drying methods (spray drying and freeze drying and determined at 20, 30, 40 and 50º C. Skimmed milk was used to substitute part of these additives in the samples. One formulation using passion fruit pulp/maltodextrin/skimmed milk (PMS was prepared, and another using passion fruit pulp/gum arabic/skimmed milk (PGS. The behavior of curves was type III, according to Brunauer's classification. GAB models were fitted to experimental equilibrium data. The parameters obtained from GAB models was affected by the presence of additives. The behavior of the sorption isotherms for different temperatures are similar, noting only a small effect of temperature. There were little differences between both drying methods and additives used in relation to equilibrium moisture content. The parameters obtained with the addition of the skimmed milk were considered satisfactory (Xm values ranged from 0,04084 to 0,06488 in dry basis, demonstrating that it is an effective and cheap alternative for regular additives. A progressive increase in the heat of sorption in relation to decreasing moisture content was observed and the heat of sorption values of different samples are all similar, comparing the relative equilibrium moisture content.Dados de umidade de equilíbrio da polpa de maracujá em pó com maltodextrina e goma arábica obtidas por dois diferentes processos de secagem (spray dryer e liofilizador foram determinados a 20, 30, 40 e 50° C. Leite desnatado foi utilizado nas amostras em substituição a uma parte desses dois aditivos. Prepararou-se uma formulação, usando polpa de maracujá/maltodextrina/leite desnatado (PMS e outra com polpa de maracujá/goma arábica/leite desnatado (PGS. Os comportamentos das isotermas obedeceram ao tipo III, de acordo com a classificação de Brunauer e utilizou-se o modelo de GAB para ajuste dos dados de

  9. Preterm milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  10. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry EC Method for Enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" EC method, originally certified by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Test Method(SM) program for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli coliforms in raw meat products (Performance Tested Method(SM) 110402), has undergone an evaluation to extend the method's claim to cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, instant nonfat dry milk powder, and pasteurized milk (2% fat). Compact Dry EC is a ready-to-use dry media sheet containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, selective agents, and a chromogenic medium, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL diluted sample. E. coli form blue/blue-purple colonies, whereas other coliform bacteria form red/pink colonies. Users can obtain an E. coli count (blue/blue-purple colonies only) and a total coliform count (red/pink plus blue/blue-purple colonies) after 24 ± 2 h of incubation at 37 ± 1°C. The matrix extension study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom. Method comparison data for cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, and instant nonfat dry milk powder were collected in a single-laboratory evaluation by Campden BRI. A multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk (2% fat), with 13 laboratories participating. The Compact Dry EC method was compared to ISO 16649-2:2001 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli-Part 2: Colony-count technique at 44 degrees C using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-glucuronide" and to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current standards at the time of this study. Each matrix was evaluated separately for E. coli and non-E. coli coliforms at each contamination level (including an

  11. Predictors of non-fatal overdose among a cohort of polysubstance-using injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Thomas; Fairbairn, Nadia; Tyndall, Mark; Marsh, David; Li, Kathy; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2007-02-23

    Non-fatal overdose is a major determinant of morbidity among injection drug users (IDU). We sought to evaluate factors associated with non-fatal overdose among IDU in Vancouver. We examined non-fatal overdose among participants in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. Correlates of non-fatal overdose occurring between 1996 and 2004 were identified using generalized estimating equations (GEE). There were 1587 participants included in this analysis, including 576 (36%) women. At baseline, 750 (47%) reported a history of non-fatal overdose. In total, 985 reports of non-fatal overdose were made during follow-up by 519 (32.7%) participants. In multivariate GEE analyses, factors independently associated with non-fatal overdose included: heroin injection (AOR=2.67), cocaine injection (AOR=2.01), benzodiazepine use (AOR=2.00), requiring help injecting (AOR=1.58), binge drug use (AOR=1.52), homelessness (AOR=1.38), alcohol use (AOR=1.32), street injecting (AOR=1.22), non-injectable opiate use (AOR=1.16), speedball use (AOR=1.15), and recent incarceration (AOR=1.14). Younger age (AOR=0.99) and methadone use (AOR=0.51) were protective. We found that non-fatal overdose was common among local IDU. Non-fatal overdose was associated with several factors that may be amenable to intervention, including opiate and stimulant use, and the characteristic of requiring help with injecting. These findings indicate the need for the ongoing development of structural interventions to address this common cause of morbidity among IDU.

  12. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of fortified and concentrated hay supplementation on the production of bovine milk (Bos taurus L. during the dry season in the Achaca-Tiahuanacu community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty-Quispe Magda Hortencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the Achaca Community of the Municipality of Tiahuanacu, with the objective of evaluating the effect of supplementation with fortified and concentrated hay on milk production, feed conversion, total solids and production costs in three periods (Control, adaptation and supplementation during the dry season (October and November. 12 Holstein mestizo cows were used between 4 and 6 months of lactation. The design used was completely randomized blocks with factorial arrangement of 2Ax3Bx (3 with three replicates. The average milk yield of 4.69 kg of cows supplemented with fortified hay and 6.24 kg with concentrate were higher than the production of 3.94 and 5.11 kg respectively in the adaptation period and finally the production of 3.58 and 3.42 kg in the control period. The feed conversion with fortified hay supplementation of 2.60 kg was greater than 2.12 and 1.90 kg respectively. While feed conversion between supplements was 1.61 and 1.78 kg with concentrate in the adaptation period and finally with 2.12 and 2.60 kg with fortified hay in the supplementation period. The total solids content of 10.52 ºBrix was superior to the adaptation period of 10.30 ºBrix and control with 10.05 ºBrix. Meanwhile, total solids between supplements were 10.19 ºBrix with fortified hay and 10.39 ºBrix with concentrate.

  14. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  15. Use of genotype × environment interaction model to accommodate genetic heterogeneity for residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; de Los Campos, G; VandeHaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Coffey, M; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Hanigan, M D; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency in dairy cattle has gained much attention recently. Due to the cost-prohibitive measurement of individual feed intakes, combining data from multiple countries is often necessary to ensure an adequate reference population. It may then be essential to model genetic heterogeneity when making inferences about feed efficiency or selecting efficient cattle using genomic information. In this study, we constructed a marker × environment interaction model that decomposed marker effects into main effects and interaction components that were specific to each environment. We compared environment-specific variance component estimates and prediction accuracies from the interaction model analyses, an across-environment analyses ignoring population stratification, and a within-environment analyses using an international feed efficiency data set. Phenotypes included residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight from 3,656 cows measured in 3 broadly defined environments: North America (NAM), the Netherlands (NLD), and Scotland (SAC). Genotypic data included 57,574 single nucleotide polymorphisms per animal. The interaction model gave the highest prediction accuracy for metabolic body weight, which had the largest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.37 to 0.55. The within-environment model performed the best when predicting residual feed intake, which had the lowest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.41. For traits (dry matter intake and net energy in milk) with intermediate estimated heritabilities (0.21 to 0.50 and 0.17 to 0.53, respectively), performance of the 3 models was comparable. Genomic correlations between environments also were computed using variance component estimates from the interaction model. Averaged across all traits, genomic correlations were highest between NAM and NLD, and lowest between NAM and SAC. In conclusion, the interaction model provided a novel way to evaluate traits measured in

  16. Milk composition and its relationship with weaning weight in Charolais catte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Inocencio Pacheco Contreras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of a number of non-genetic factors on milk components and estimate their indirect relationships with weaning weight (WW205, the percentages of protein, fat, lactose and solids non-fat in Charolais cows from Mexico were estimated. Lactation period (LP and calving season (CS had significant effects on protein and fat, whereas lactose and solids non-fat were only affected by the LP. Sire line and age of the dam had significant effects on calf birth weight, while CS affected WW205. Residual correlations between milk components and WW205 suggest a low but significant correlation with lactose. These results demonstrate the importance of several non-genetic factors on the composition of milk from Charolais cows managed under extensive cow-calf production systems and the indirect relationships between these factors and the weaning weight of a calf.

  17. [Non-fatal occupational injuries: gender and job contract differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Vilma; Maia, Antônio P; Carvalho, Cláudia; Luz, Glaura

    2003-01-01

    In Brazil, workers without a formal job contract comprise more than half of the labor force, a contingent formed mainly by women. This study presents estimates of the annual incidence of non-fatal work-related injuries and their distribution by gender and type of job contract in an urban area of Brazil. This was a community-based study with a random cluster area sample of the inhabitants from the city of Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. The study population included all individuals from 18 to 65 years of age who reported having a paid job (n = 2,947). Data were obtained through individual household interviews. The overall estimated annual incidence rate was 5.80%, with a non-statistically significant difference between men (6.05%) and women (5.53%) or workers with (5.67%) and without (5.92%) a formal job contract. These similarities between work-related accidents across gender and type of job contract highlighted the need for greater attention to this problem among women and informal workers, who are largely ignored in official statistics.

  18. Problems concerning ovine milk clotting aptitude

    OpenAIRE

    M. Martini; R. Fortina; Di Stasio, L.; L. Chiofalo; A. Caroli; BOLLA, P.; Duranti, E; Piccolo, V.; Zullo, A

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds), the kind of milk (whole or skimmed), and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml) was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstitu...

  19. COMPARISON BETWEEN SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CACAO MILK AND RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Roman

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison between some physical - chemical characteristics of the cacao milk and of the raw milk. For this comparison we made the following determinations for both types of milk: the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature, the determination of the proteic substance by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) N/10, the milk pasteurization control by the starch and potassium iodide test and the pH determination using the indicato...

  20. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Sattar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.

  1. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  2. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  3. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  4. Identifying injection drug users at risk of nonfatal overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Phillip O; Tracy, Melissa; Bucciarelli, Angela; Ompad, Danielle; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2007-07-01

    Drug overdose is the second leading cause of accidental deaths among U.S. adults aged 15-64 years. Emergency physicians have a unique opportunity to provide overdose prevention interventions, because habitual drug users are in frequent need of medical care. The authors evaluated associations between individual-level risk factors and experiencing an overdose in the past six months to determine which characteristics and behaviors may be most predictive of overdose. The authors used data from a sample of street-recruited habitual drug users who participated in face-to-face interviews about overdose from November 2001 to February 2004. This analysis was restricted to 772 respondents who had been injecting for at least one year and who had injected heroin within the past two months. A total of 16.6% of participants had overdosed in the past six months. Characteristics and behaviors that were independently associated with an increased risk of a recent overdose were having had a prior overdose (odds ratio [OR], 28.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.10 to 57.96), using cocaine/crack in the past six months (OR, 2.07; 95% CI = 1.25 to 3.45), using alcohol in the past six months (OR, 1.90; 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.57), experiencing serious withdrawal symptoms in the past two months (OR, 2.70; 95% CI = 1.58 to 4.61), and younger age. Drug users who have previously experienced a nonfatal overdose are at very high risk of experiencing future overdoses. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify robust predictors of overdose risk over time in habitual drug users, but these data suggest that drug users who have overdosed warrant aggressive prevention efforts such as agonist maintenance treatment or provision of take-home naloxone.

  5. Concentrate composition for Automatic Milking Systems - Effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...... the Standard concentrate. A marked effect was found on the number of visits of the cows in the AMS and the subsequent milk production in relation to composition of the concentrate. The composition of the concentrates also influenced the composition of the milk and the MR intake. Based on the overall responses...... the cows preferred a mixture containing Barley and Oats. Also Wheat based concentrate appeared to be preferred to concentrate based on Maize or Barley and the cows did not like the Fat rich or the pure Artificially dried grass concentrate used in the experiment....

  6. 7 CFR 1170.6 - Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... means to place nonfat dry milk or dry whey in a manufacturing plant, packaging plant, distribution point... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.6 Store. (a)...

  7. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  8. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... dry milk, and dry whey in a report titled Dairy Products Sales on April 4, 2012. (4) Section 1000.54... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent... discovery mechanism for raw milk component values, and the component values are then used in...

  9. Circumstances surrounding non-fatal opioid overdoses attended by ambulance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madah-Amiri, Desiree; Clausen, Thomas; Myrmel, Lars; Brattebø, Guttorm; Lobmaier, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Opioid overdose fatalities are a significant concern globally. Non-fatal overdoses have been described as a strong predictor for future overdoses, and are often attended by the ambulance services. This paper explores characteristics associated with non-fatal overdoses and aims to identify possible trends among these events in an urban area in Norway. This is a retrospective analysis of non-fatal overdoses from Bergen ambulance services from 2012 to 2013. Demographic, temporal and geographic data were explored. During the two years, 463 non-fatal opioid overdoses were attended by ambulance services. Ambulance call-outs occurred primarily during the late afternoon and evening hours of weekdays. Summer months had more overdoses than other seasons, with a peak in August. Overdoses were nearly twice as likely to occur in a public location in August (risk ratio 1.92, P = 0.042). Ambulance response times were more likely to be longer to private locations, and these victims were more likely to be treated and left at the scene. There was no difference in arrival time for drug-related and non-drug related dispatch. The temporal patterns suggest that non-fatal overdoses occur during non-recreational time periods. The longer ambulance response time and disposition for private addresses indicate potential opportunities for peer interventions. Our analysis describes circumstances surrounding non-fatal overdoses and can be useful in guiding relevant, targeted prevention interventions. [Madah-Amiri D, Clausen T, Myrmel L, Brattebø G, Lobmaier P. Circumstances surrounding non-fatal opioid overdoses attended by ambulance services. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:288-294]. © 2016 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  11. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented camel milk and selection of strains for fermentation of camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Angelina June Brandt; Berhe, Tesfemariam; Kiran, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities in spontaneously fermented camel milk from Ethiopia were characterised through metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and lactic acid bacteria were isolated with the goal of selecting strains suitable as starter cultures. The fermented camel milk microbiota was dominated either...... fermented camel milk and the isolated LAB strains will significantly contribute towards improving food safety and food security in dry regions that depend on camel milk production....

  12. Effects of Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Earlier Lactating Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Manji; SHAN Anshan

    2008-01-01

    A total of 12 mature healthy Holstein dairy cows of the nearly body weight (580±30) kg, milk yield (22.5±2.8) kg in the early stages of lactation were selected in this experiment. The cows were randomly divided into 2 groups, every group had 6 cows, every group had 6 repeats, and every repeat had I cow. Added 20 g protected methionine in earlier lactating cow food every day. The results showed that protected methionine increased milk yield by 10.83%, testing group milk yield was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);protected methionine increased milk fat by 5.98%, testing group milk fat was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);Milk protein increased by 2.15%, but had insignificantly different (P>0.05);dry matter of milk had the tendency of decrease, but had insignificant difference (P>0.05).

  13. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lactoferrin, lactulose non-dairy creamers whey, whey hydrolysate Vegan foods are made without animal products, such as eggs or milk. You can buy vegan products at health food stores. Be careful to ...

  14. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk...... by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat......-containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65...

  15. Nonfatal tractor-related injuries presenting to a state trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanton, Amanda R; Young, Tracy L; Leinenkugel, Kathy; Torner, James C; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2015-06-01

    To identify tractor-related injuries using data from a statewide trauma system, to characterize the mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injury, and to determine which injuries are associated with higher severity injury. A retrospective observational study was conducted using the Iowa State Trauma Registry to identify cases of nonfatal tractor-related injuries over an 11-year period from 2002 to 2012. Frequency of injury was reported by age, sex, severity, and nature. Injuries were classified by mechanism and a polytomous regression model was used to predict injury severity adjusting for sex and age. Five-hundred thirteen nonfatal tractor-related injuries were identified with 18% classified as severe. Injuries were most frequent among males and among those ≥45years of age. Rollovers were the most frequent mechanism of both total (25%) and severe injury (38%), although the frequency of injury mechanism varied by age. Falls were the next most frequent mechanism of injury (20%) but resulted in fewer high-severity injuries. Collision (adjOR=1.89, 95% CI=1.01-3.51), rollover (adjOR=2.03, 95% CI=1.21-3.40), and run over/rolled on (adjOR=2.06, 95% CI=1.17-3.62) injuries were significantly associated with higher injury severity. Advanced age was also a significant predictor of higher severity injury (adjOR=1.82, 95% CI=1.06-3.12). Mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injuries are heterogeneous, differ by age, and are associated with varying level of severity. This work shows the burden of nonfatal tractor injuries on a rural state trauma system. These findings also demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of nonfatal tractor injuries and underscore the need for a multi-level approaches to injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterisation and research of the milk quality in Krk cheese manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical-chemical composition and hygienic quality of milk are of crucial importance in cheese manufacturing. During 2007, a research was carried out with the aim to investigate manufacturing features and milk quality of Krk sheep and to describe technological procedure of manufacture and physicalchemical composition of Krk cheese. The milking capacity was checked according to AT method. Chemical composition was analyzed by infrared spectrometry and hygienic milk quality by fluoro-opto-electronic method, i.e. flow cytometry method. In 160 days of lactation, sheep produced in average 108 kg of milk (38 kg in lactating and 70 kg in milking period, 5.67 kg of milk fat and 4.12 kg of proteins. In the average, the milk contained: 19.49 % of dry matter, 8.29 % of milk fat, 5.99 % of proteins, 4.45 % of lactose and 11.32 % of dry matter without fat. Milking had a significant influence on: daily milk quantity, dry matter and milk fat share, milk freezing point and hygienic milk quality (log10MO and log10BSS. Significant correlation coefficients were determined between manufacturing features of sheep and certain milk quality indicators. Based on the research results, values of physical-chemical composition, microbiological and sensory milk and cheese quality can be suggested, necessary in standardization of technological manufacturing procedure of Krk cheese.

  17. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  18. 高速离心生牛乳所得4种分离物的感官及干燥失重分析%Sensory evaluation and dry matter analysis on 4 isolates obtained from high-speed centrifugation of raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 李宏梁; 张莉; 魏莉娟; 黄峻榕

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过高速离心发现了牛乳一个被忽视的简单现象,可用于鉴别牛乳的掺假问题。方法本实验以奶牛场不同泌乳期的正常生牛乳为对象,通过10000 r/min的转速进行高速离心20 min,对离心产物进行感官和干燥失重分析。结果高速离心能快速使生牛乳形成4种分离物,分别为:上层悬浮的奶皮,静置20 min后会溶解消失、离心管壁上半部分附着的半圆形稀奶油、脱脂乳液体、离心管底部的沉淀物。对于泌乳期为2、4、6个月的正常乳,4种产物的感官评定无显著差异,4种产物的干物质占生牛乳总干物质质量百分比的平均值分别为8.2%、15.3%、72.0%、4.5%。结论此方法为牛乳的掺假鉴别提出了一种新思路,简单、快速、成本低、重现性好。%ObjectiveA simple phenomenon after high-speed centrifugation of raw milk was used to eva-luate milk adulteration.MethodsNormal raw milk during different lactation period, obtained from dairy farm, was high-speed centrifuged at 10000 r/min for 20 min. Samples after centrifugation were analyzed upon dry mat-ter and sensory evaluation.Results Four isolates appeared rapidly after the high-speed centrifugation of raw milk: the upper suspended milk skin, which was dissolved after standing for 20 min, the semicircle cream that ad-hered to the upper half wall of centrifuge tube, the liquid skim milk, and the sediment at the bottom of centrifuge tube. For normal raw milk during 2, 4, and 6 months of lactation, on average, sensory evaluation of the4 products showed no significant differences, the dry matter of these 4 isolates were accounted for 8.2%, 15.3%, 72.0%, and 4.5% (w:w), respectively, of the total dry matter of raw milk.Conclusion This is a new method for evaluation of milk adulteration which is simple and fast, with low cost and good reproducibility.

  19. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  20. Variability and correlation between basic quality parameters of raw cow milk

    OpenAIRE

    Memiši N.; Bogdanović V.; Tomić Z.; Kasalica A.; Žujović M.; Stanišić N.; Delić N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results of the analysis of the milk somatic cell count are presented, as well as correlation between the somatic cell count and content of certain chemical parameters in milk (milk proteins, fat, lactose and dry matter without fat) determined in collective samples of milk obtained from cows reared in intensive rearing system, during two production years. The research was carried out by control of collective milk samples from cows reared on...

  1. Composition and fatty acid distribution of bovine milk phospholipids from processed milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Cabral, Charles; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David W

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of different extraction methods of phospholipids and to measure the effect that processing has on phospholipid composition. Four methods of extracting phospholipids from buttermilk powder were compared to optimize recovery of sphingomyelin. Using the optimal method, the phospholipid profile of four dairy products (raw milk, raw cream, homogenized and pasteurized milk, and buttermilk powder) was determined. A total lipid extraction by the Folch method followed by a solid-phase extraction using the Bitman method was the most efficient technique to recover milk sphingomyelin. Milk processing (churning, centrifuging, homogenization, spray-drying) affected the profile of milk phospholipids, leading to a loss of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine after centrifugation for cream separation. A corresponding decrease in the saturation content of the raw cream phospholipids and a loss of phosphatidylethanolamine after spray-drying to produce buttermilk powder were also observed.

  2. Fatal and non-fatal burn injuries with electrical weapons and explosive fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mark W; Ritter, Mollie B; Williams, Howard E

    2017-08-01

    While generally reducing morbidity and mortality, electrical weapons have risks associated with their usage, including eye injuries and falls. With the presence of explosive fumes or fuels there also exists the possibility of burn injury. We searched for cases of fatal and non-fatal major burns with TASER(®) electrical weapon usage where there was a possibility that the weapon ignited the explosion. We confirmed 6 cases of fatal burn injury and 4 cases of major non-fatal burns out of 3.17 million field uses. The mean age was 35.5 ± 9.7 years which is consistent with the typical arrest-related death. Moderate, minor, and noninjurious fires - typically due to a cigarette lighters in a pocket, petrol, recreational inhalants, or body spray were also noted. The use of electrical weapons presents a small but real risk of death from fatal burn injury. It also presents a small risk of major non-fatal burn injury. The ignition of petrol fumes dominates these cases of major fatal and nonfatal burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensory and instrumental characterization of low-fat and non-fat cream cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janhoj, T.; Frost, M.B.; Prinz, J.; Ipsen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relationships between physical/chemical and sensory properties using a set of 20 low-fat and non-fat cream cheeses. High correlations were found between several descriptors; hand resistance (i.e., tactile firmness) was best predicted by squeezing flow viscometry (r = 0.90) and fo

  4. News reports of bullying-related fatal and nonfatal injuries in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srabstein, Jorge Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Bullying is a multifaceted and injurious form of maltreatment, prevalent across social settings and around the globe. Victims and perpetrators of bullying are at significant risk of suffering from an array of morbidity and dying young due to accidental injuries, suicide, and homicide. This study reviews news reports of nonfatal and fatal injuries linked to bullying throughout the Western Hemisphere during 12 months. News reports, obtained through a Google search, of episodes of fatal and nonfatal injuries related to school bullying and violence from July 2011 through June 2012 that affected children and adolescents (ages 5 to 19 years) throughout the Americas were analyzed. News reports were found of 82 cases of bullying-related fatal and nonfatal injuries, occurring in one year, across 24 countries and dependent territories in the Western Hemisphere, which have a combined total youth population of 225.5 million children and adolescents ages 5 to 19 years. Ninety-seven percent of the victims were between 10 and 19 years old; 60% of them were below age 15, with a male/female ratio of 2:1. News reports of fatal and nonfatal injurious events related to bullying and affecting children and adolescents in the Americas in one year represent the tip of the public health iceberg composing the unknown magnitude of injuries associated with this type of maltreatment. Data on the magnitude of mortality linked to bullying, which would be of the essence in developing public health policies for its prevention, have not been documented.

  5. [Nonfatal suicidal acts in a group of psychiatric inpatients. Situation of Mediterranean immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, M

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the correlation of belonging to an ethnic cultural minority and nonfatal suicidal acts (suicide attempts), suicidal ideation, and self-injurious behavior in a group of 494 psychiatric inpatients at the time of admission. The frequency of nonfatal suicidal acts was 15.3% in the group of immigrants ( n=111) and 8.9% in the group of German patients. This difference is significant, but the impact of belonging to the immigration group covaries with the impact of female gender and young age (below 45 years). If all three factors come together the risk of suicide attempts increases threefold. In the immigrant group alone, nonfatal suicidal acts were correlated with "transcultural conflicts". In the group of suicide attempters, we tried to assess the risk of suicide with the help of the "suicide risk list" (Pöldinger) and the suicidal intention with the help of the "suicide intention scale" (Pierce). Additionally, we investigated the method of suicide attempts and categorized them into two groups: "hard" and "weak" methods. We did not find any significant difference between immigrants and German patients concerning suicide risk, suicide intention, and choice of the method. Although there are some methodological shortcomings, we interpret our findings as an indication that immigrant inpatients are more involved in managing the additional stress which results from their immigration. Perhaps nonfatal suicidal behavior represents a risky, but insufficient attempt at "solving" transcultural problems in the immigrant group.

  6. Detection of pasteurized milk adulteration through official methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mareze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of milk consumed is a constant concern of dairy industry and healthcare-related authorities, technicians as well as consumers. The most serious problems are the various frauds which cause economic losses, risks to consumer health and, sometimes, problems for industries, such as the decrease in industrial output. Many foods are subject to fraud, but milk is one of the most commonly spoofed. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fraudulent substances and assess the physico-chemical properties of pasteurized milk produced in dairies from the North region of Paraná. Eighty samples were evaluated in the period from March to June 2014 and carried out specific methods for detection of restoratives: starch, alcohol, chloride and sucrose; neutralizers: bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide; preservatives: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. The evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics was carried out through the following analyses: density at 15° C, cryoscopic index, Dornic titratable acidity, 72 alizarol stability, pH, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fat, total solids, non-fat solids, urea, protein and lactose. Non-standard samples were observed for the following analyses: fat (12.5%, non-fat solids (5%, density (1.25%, cryoscopy (3.75%, pH (48.75%, urea (1.25%. Frauds were observed by addition of water and sucrose (3.75%, presence of hypochlorite (5% and occurrence of skim milk (12.5%. The evidence together can assist in detecting fraud most commonly performed in pasteurized milk, but does not show in which thread might have occurred. However, if not detected, the quality of the product cannot be assured since many frauds have been carried out in a balanced way hindering its detection.

  7. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... filter system shall comply with the applicable requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and...

  8. Milk Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s leading food company has expanded its business into the dairy industry A combined financial venture between China’s largest agricultural trading and processing company and a private equity firm formed to milk profits from the dairy business has led to

  9. Flavanols and methylxanthines in commercially available dark chocolate: a study of the correlation with nonfat cocoa solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Swen; Marshall, Lisa J; Day, Andrea J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2011-08-10

    Intake of flavanols, a subgroup of dietary polyphenols present in many fruits and vegetables, may be associated with health benefits, particularly with reducing the risk of coronary diseases. Cocoa and chocolate products are rich in flavanol monomers, oligomers, and polymers (procyanidins). This study used normal phase HPLC to detect, identify, and quantify epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers in 14 commercially available chocolate bars. In addition, methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine) were also quantified. Nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) were determined both gravimetrically and by calculation from theobromine contents. The flavanol levels of 12 commonly consumed brands of dark chocolate have been quantified and correlated with % theobromine and % NFCS. Epicatechin comprised the largest fraction of total chocolate flavonoids, with the remainder being catechin and procyanidins. Calculated NFCS did not reflect epicatechin (R(2) = 0.41) or total flavanol contents (R(2) = 0.49). Epicatechin (R(2) = 0.96) was a reliable marker of total flavanols, catechin (R(2) = 0.67) to a lesser extent. All dark chocolate tested contained higher levels of total flavanols (93.5-651.1 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g of product) than a milk or a white "chocolate" (40.6 and 0.0 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g, respectively). The amount and integrity of procyanidins often suffer in the manufacturing of chocolate, chiefly due to oxidation and alkalinization. In this study, the labeled cocoa content of the chocolate did not always reflect analyzed levels of flavonoids. Increasingly, high % NFCS is being used commercially to reflect chocolate quality. If the flavanol content of chocolate is accepted to be a key determinant of health benefits, then continued monitoring of flavanol levels in commercially available chocolate products may be essential for consumer assurance.

  10. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 6.0 undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as classified in the U.S... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  11. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  12. Effect of Cholesterol Removal Processing Using β-Cyclodextrin on Main Components of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Maskooki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of β-CD were mixed with different fat contents (1%, 2.5% and 3% of raw (unhomogenized and homogenized milk at two mixing temperatures of 8 and 20°C. The cholesterol residue, fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat (SNF, density, and ash content of milk were measured for each treatment. The results statistically analysed and showed that the cholesterol content of milk remarkably decreased as the β-CD was increased particularly in homogenized milk at 20°C. However, the reduction rate of cholesterol was decreased when extra β-CD was added due to its intermolecular reactions. The maximum cholesterol reduction was achieved at the level of 1% β-CD. The fat content, SNF, protein, lactose, and density content were decreased with increasing β-CD whereas it did not affect ash content.

  13. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  14. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  15. Transfer of dietary zinc and fat to milk--evaluation of milk fat quality, milk fat precursors, and mastitis indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J

    2008-04-01

    The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk.

  16. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  17. Comparison of extraction conditions for milk and hen's egg allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The evaluation of recovery rates extracting dried milk and egg powder using eleven different extractants led to approximately similar results for both foods. Compared to the other extraction solutions investigated, ?1% Tween 20 and 0.4% Triton X-100? and ?4 % SDS? are the most qualified extractants to isolate proteins of hen's egg or milk. Comparing calculated protein recovery rates of egg and milk powder extracts the results clearly indicate that the choice of a suitable ...

  18. 7 CFR 58.646 - Official identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable requirements in subpart A of this part which have been officially inspected in process and found.... grades established (nonfat dry milk, whole milk, buttermilk and whey) shall be U.S. Extra Grade or...

  19. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm–5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5–1653.7 nm and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm–3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study.

  20. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-03-25

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm-5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5-1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm-3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study.

  1. Effect of continuous milking on immunoglobulin concentrations in bovine colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.J.; Koets, A.P.; Eisenberg, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous milking is defined as a dairy cattle management system without a planned dry period for cows in late gestation. Continuous milking has been described to reduce health problems common in periparturient cattle, but may affect colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration and subsequently calf

  2. Pregnancy test via milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, H.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a pregnancy through the milk. Wageningen University is researching the possibilities. The first steps have been taken. Researchers have identified five milk proteins that release a signal of a pregnancy. A pregnancy test via the milk comes within sight.

  3. Field and laboratory methods in human milk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Aiello, Marco O; Fujita, Masako; Hinde, Katie; Milligan, Lauren; Quinn, E A

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a complex and variable fluid of increasing interest to human biologists who study nutrition and health. The collection and analysis of human milk poses many practical and ethical challenges to field workers, who must balance both appropriate methodology with the needs of participating mothers and infants and logistical challenges to collection and analysis. In this review, we address various collection methods, volume measurements, and ethical considerations and make recommendations for field researchers. We also review frequently used methods for the analysis of fat, protein, sugars/lactose, and specific biomarkers in human milk. Finally, we address new technologies in human milk research, the MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and dried milk spots, which will improve the ability of human biologists and anthropologists to study human milk in field settings.

  4. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte Bach Larsen; Morten Dam Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the forma...

  5. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Lykke, Mikkel; Chatterton, D E W

    2014-01-01

    milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm...

  6. RELATION OF FAT AND NON-FAT BODY COMPOSITION IN WOMEN WITH X-LEG DEFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Influence of x-leg deformity in relation to fat and non-fat body composition in women was the goal of the paper. In this regards, the research included 41 female students with x-leg deformity and 41 female students without the deformity, while the total number of participants of the research was 82 aged from 18 to 19 years. 6 anthropometric variables have been used; one form measuring the body volme, three variables regarding the dimension of the sub skin fat tissue, one variable for measurement of non-fat body composition and one variable for measurement of fat body mass. Anthropometric measurements were carried out according to International Biological Program (IBP. Data collected demonstrates that x-leg deformity in women have significant influence on relation of fat and non-fat body composition. This relation is manifested as a result of decreased capacity of muscle endurance of leg muscles as main parts responsible for the physical activities, then consumption of calories and insufficient burning of fat as result of decreased capacity of movement.

  7. Toxicological results in a fatal and two non-fatal cases of scopolamine-facilitated robberies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthof, K J; Bosman, I J; Kubat, B; Vincenten-van Maanen, M J

    2017-02-04

    The use of scopolamine as an incapacitating drug, in sexual crimes and robberies, has been known for many decades. However, blood concentrations and doses of scopolamine in those cases are largely unknown. Here we present the toxicological results of one fatal and two non-fatal cases in a series of scopolamine-facilitated robberies. In the fatal case, the concentration of scopolamine in heart blood was 0.30mg/L, about 3000 times higher than the average therapeutic level of 0.0001mg/L (for one dermal patch). In femoral blood, the concentration of scopolamine was much lower (0.0048mg/L), but still 50 times higher than therapeutic levels. The scopolamine concentration in the stomach was very high (20mg/kg) as compared to the heart blood and femoral blood, which explains the very high concentration in heart blood by postmortem leakage from the stomach. In the non-fatal case, the scopolamine concentration in serum, obtained 23h after the incident, was 0.00035mg/L. The estimated concentration of scopolamine at the time of the incident is 0.0035mg/L. In the other non-fatal case, scopolamine was detected in urine and in hair.

  8. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  9. Effects of the amount of soy milk on thermorheological, thermal and textural properties of chocolate with soy milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a two-phase rheological system. The solid phase, consisting of non-fat cocoa particles, sugar and soy milk is wrapped in a fat phase - cocoa butter. Physical, thermal, textural and organoleptic properties of chocolate depend on the composition of the ingredients, manufacturing process and a properly conducted pre-crystallization phase. For this study, two chocolate masses were produced in a ball mill: one with 15% of soy milk powder (R1 and the other with 20% of soy milk powder (R2. The chocolate mass was produced at different milling times (30, 60 and 90 min, and pre-crystallization temperature (26, 28 and 30oC. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes caused by different amounts of soy milk powder on the quality of the chocolate. The quality of chocolate was evaluated by comparing the nutritional composition, hardness, thermorheological and thermal properties of the chocolate mass. The results show that chocolate mass R2, due to the presence of higher amounts of soy milk proteins, should be milled longer, and also needs lower temperatures for pre-crystallization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  10. [Making tablets of powdered milk and the physical properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Nakane, Shota; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Compressed baby milk powder has proven to be very convenient for parents due to the ease with which it can be handled, and the fact that use of a measuring scoop is not necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a compressed baby milk powder and analyze the resulting physical properties. The basic production process consisted of the following steps: 1) molding milk powder by low compression pressure, 2) humidification at 25°C·97%RH and 3) drying with use of a desiccant. No chemical additives were used for solidification; therefore the chemical composition of the compressed milk powder is identical to the base milk powder. The important properties of the compressed milk powder are both ready solubility and the strength of the solid. The compressed milk powder obtained at low pressure was too brittle for practical use, but the strength was increased by humidification followed by drying. During the humidification process, the powder particles located close to the surface of the compressed milk powder partially dissolve resulting in bridging structures between the particles, leading to an increase in strength. Both specific surface area and the volume ratio of the compressed milk powder decreased. Testing showed that caking between the particles occurred following humidification, and that the volume of caking affected the ease with which the compressed milk powder dissolves in water.

  11. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afaneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW, Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM and skim milk. The formulas were fermented using commercial yoghurt starter culture for different times. Results: The texture of all the resulted yoghurt lacked the typical set yoghurt body and was similar to that of drinking yoghurt. The best formula was sesame milk with 2% CDW followed by sesame milk with 2% NFDM and then by sesame milk extended with skim milk in a ratio of 1:1. The optimum fermentation times were 6, 8 and 8 h respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The addition of dairy products was essential to promote acid and flavor development.

  12. Determination of the Content of Heavy Metals Chromium,Lead,Arsenic in Infant Formula Dried Milk%婴幼儿配方奶粉中重金属铬、铅、砷的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉兰; 徐红颖; 包玉龙

    2015-01-01

    Measured the content of heavy metals chromium, lead, inorganic arsenic in the 68 samples from 8 brands of infant formula milk powder which were procured from MeiTeHao supermarket in Hohhot and proved these 3 kinds of heavy metal elements content in infant formula milk powder. hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine the content of chromium, lead, inorganic arsenic in infant formula milk powder. none of the heavy metals content in the 68 samples was out of limit. This was a simple, fast and sensitive method which is also applicable to the analysis of heavy metals in infant formula milk powder , with satisfactory results. the contents of heavy metals in different brands of infant formula milk powder are not identical.%通过对呼和浩特美特好超市中采购的8个婴幼儿配方奶粉品牌,68个样品中重金属铬、铅、无机砷的含量状况的测定,探明了这3种重金属元素在婴幼儿配方奶粉中的含量状况。方法:采用氢化物原子荧光光度法测定婴幼儿配方奶粉中的铬、铅、无机砷含量。结果:68个样品均无超标现象。本法简单、快速、灵敏,适用于婴幼儿配方奶粉中重金属的分析,结果满意。结论:不同品牌的婴幼儿配方奶粉中重金属的含量各不相同。

  13. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  14. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are reared, primarily, in mountainous areas (Podhale, Bieszczady but also in Wielkopolska and Podlasie. The sheep population in Poland is estimated at 223 000 animals but milk is obtained only from a small number of animals and its annual production is assessed at the level of 1000 t. The nutritional value of sheep milk is higher in comparison with goat or cow milk. Sheep milk protein is characterised by a high biological value comparable with the biological value of the whole chicken egg. In addition, products manufactured from sheep milk possess high nutritive value. Due to its rich chemical composition, sheep milk provides an excellent raw material for processing into maturing soft and hard cheeses (75-80% of protein is casein, for fermented beverages, both natural and with different tastes, as well as butter, ghee and ice-cream. High proportion of dry matter (up to 18% found in sheep milk does not require application of any thickeners in production of fermented beverages. That is why these beverages are fully natural and free of additives.

  15. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  16. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pvariables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency

  17. Survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wen-Chian; Hsiao, Hung-Chi; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2002-03-25

    To investigate the survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying, Bifidobacterium infantis CCRC 14633, B. infantis CCRC 14661, B. longum ATCC 15708, B. longum CCRC 14634 and B. longum B6 were first spray-dried with different carrier media including 10% (w/w) gelatin, gum arabic and soluble starch. B. infantis CCRC 14633 and B. longum were also determined in skim milk. It was found that survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying varied with strains and is highly dependent on the carriers used. Among the test organisms, B. longum B6 exhibited the least sensitivity to spray-drying and showed the highest survival of ca. 82.6% after drying with skim milk. Comparisons of the effect of carrier concentrations revealed that spray-drying at 10% (w/w) gelatin, gum arabic or soluble starch resulted in the highest survival of bifidobacteria. In addition, among the various outlet-air temperatures tested, bifidobacteria showed the highest survival after drying at 50 degrees C. Elevation of outlet-air temperature caused increased inactivation of bifidobacteria. However, the inactivation caused by increased outlet-air temperature varied with the carrier used, with the greatest reduction observed using soluble starch and the least with skim milk.

  18. 21 CFR 131.170 - Eggnog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (1) Concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk, buttermilk, whey, lactose, lactalbumins... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.170 Eggnog. (a... percent milkfat and not less than 8.25 percent milk solids not fat. The egg yolk solids content is...

  19. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempts: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Jerrold F Rosenbaum,3 Cesare Cerri,1,4 Cesare M Cornaggia1,51Psychiatry Clinic, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Salvini Hospital, Rho, Italy; 3Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zucchi Clinical Institute, Carate Brianza, Italy; 5Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Mantua, ItalyObjectives: This review aimed to identify the evidence for predictors of repetition of suicide attempts, and more specifically for subsequent completed suicide.Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2009, and we excluded studies investigating only special populations (eg, male and female only, children and adolescents, elderly, a specific psychiatric disorder and studies with sample size fewer than 50 patients.Results: The strongest predictor of a repeated attempt is a previous attempt, followed by being a victim of sexual abuse, poor global functioning, having a psychiatric disorder, being on psychiatric treatment, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse or dependence. For other variables examined (Caucasian ethnicity, having a criminal record, having any mood disorders, bad family environment, and impulsivity there are indications for a putative correlation as well. For completed suicide, the strongest predictors are older age, suicide ideation, and history of suicide attempt. Living alone, male sex, and alcohol abuse are weakly predictive with a positive correlation (but sustained by very scarce data for poor impulsivity and a somatic diagnosis.Conclusion: It is difficult to find predictors for repetition of nonfatal suicide attempts, and even more difficult to identify predictors of completed suicide. Suicide ideation and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence, which are, along with depression, the most consistent predictors for initial nonfatal

  20. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them.

  1. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand, July 1997-June 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

    2003-05-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand. Methods. Press records from a major English language newspaper for the period from July 1997 to June 1999 were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. From July 1997 to June 1999, up to 233 deaths were reported and up to a further 216 were reported injured in incidents involving tourists. One hundred and one deaths and 45 injured were reported following one major domestic jet aircraft crash in southern Thailand, however, it was not stated what proportion of casualties were tourists. Approximately 90 people perished in a single hotel fire in southeast Thailand. Most of the victims were local travellers attending meetings of two Thai companies. Sixteen deaths and 86 injured resulted from five road accidents. The majority of deaths and injuries involved foreigners. Twelve deaths and at least 33 injured resulted from three ferry and tour boat accidents. Most victims were reported to be foreigners. Three deaths and 35 injured resulted from a single cable car accident in northern Thailand. Most of these were Thai tourists, however, four of the injured were foreigners. Eight deaths and six injured resulted from 11 muggings and other violent incidents. All were foreigners. Six deaths were reportedly connected to a scam at the airport in Bangkok involving unlicensed airport taxis. Three deaths and four injured were due to other reported incidents. Conclusions. Newspaper reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand were probably uncommon, particularly given the volume of tourists entering the Kingdom, although better reporting mechanisms are needed. With the exception of the unusual major incidents, most reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists were due to road trauma and other transportation accidents, muggings, and occasional water sports and other accidents, which could occur at any major tourist

  2. Genetic Influences on Suicide and Nonfatal Suicidal Behavior: Twin Study Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that suicidal behavior is familial. Twin studies provide a unique opportunity to distinguish genetic effects from other familial influences. Consistent with findings from previous twin studies, including case series and selected samples, data from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry clearly demonstrate the importance of genetic influences on suicide. Twin studies of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts also implicate genetic influences, even when accounting for the effects of psychopathology. Future work is needed to evaluate the possibility of age and gender differences in heritability of suicide and nonfatal suicidal behavior. PMID:20444580

  3. Population based estimates of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafi Mostafa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatal injuries are at the top of the injury pyramid; however, non-fatal injuries are quite common and impose huge medical expenses on the population. Relying on hospital data will underestimate the incidence of non-fatal injuries. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual incidence and out of pocket medical expenses of all injuries in urban population of Tehran (the capital city of Iran. Methods Using the cluster random sampling approach, a household survey of residents of greater Tehran was performed on April 2008. At randomly selected residential locations, interviewers asked one adult person to report all injuries which have occurred during the past year for all household members, as well as the type of injury, place of occurrence, the activity, cause of accidents resulting in injuries, the amount of out of pocket medical expenses for injury, and whether they referred to hospital. Results This study included 2,450 households residing in Tehran during 2007-8. The annual incidence of all injuries was 188.7 (180.7-196.9, significant injuries needing any medical care was 68.8 (63.7-74.2, fractures was 19.3 (16.6 - 22.4, and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 16.7 (14.2 - 19.6 per 1000 population. The annual incidence of fatal injuries was 33 (7-96 per 100,000 Population. In children aged 15 or less, the annual incidence of all injuries was 137.2 (120.0 - 155.9, significant injuries needing any medical care was 64.2 (52.2 - 78.0, fractures was 21.8 (15.0 - 30.7, and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 6.8 (3.3 - 12.5 per 1000 population. The mean out of pocket medical expense for injuries was 19.9 USD. Conclusion This population based study showed that the real incidence of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran is more than the formal hospital-based estimates. These injuries impose non trivial medical and indirect cost on the community. The out of pocket medical expense of non-fatal injuries to Tehran

  4. Population based estimates of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatal injuries are at the top of the injury pyramid; however, non-fatal injuries are quite common and impose huge medical expenses on the population. Relying on hospital data will underestimate the incidence of non-fatal injuries. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual incidence and out of pocket medical expenses of all injuries in urban population of Tehran (the capital city of Iran). Methods Using the cluster random sampling approach, a household survey of residents of greater Tehran was performed on April 2008. At randomly selected residential locations, interviewers asked one adult person to report all injuries which have occurred during the past year for all household members, as well as the type of injury, place of occurrence, the activity, cause of accidents resulting in injuries, the amount of out of pocket medical expenses for injury, and whether they referred to hospital. Results This study included 2,450 households residing in Tehran during 2007-8. The annual incidence of all injuries was 188.7 (180.7-196.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 68.8 (63.7-74.2), fractures was 19.3 (16.6 - 22.4), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 16.7 (14.2 - 19.6) per 1000 population. The annual incidence of fatal injuries was 33 (7-96) per 100,000 Population. In children aged 15 or less, the annual incidence of all injuries was 137.2 (120.0 - 155.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 64.2 (52.2 - 78.0), fractures was 21.8 (15.0 - 30.7), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 6.8 (3.3 - 12.5) per 1000 population. The mean out of pocket medical expense for injuries was 19.9 USD. Conclusion This population based study showed that the real incidence of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran is more than the formal hospital-based estimates. These injuries impose non trivial medical and indirect cost on the community. The out of pocket medical expense of non-fatal injuries to Tehran population is estimated

  5. Assessing the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Vieira, A H; Neto, R P C; Cappato, L P; Coimbra, P T; Moraes, J; Andrade, M M; Calado, V M A; Granato, D; Freitas, M Q; Tavares, M I B; Raices, R S L; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T22) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature. The replacement of sheep milk fat by prebiotics in sheep milk ice cream constitutes an interesting option to enhance nutritional aspects and develop a functional food.

  6. Income Optimization of Dairy Farm to Increase National Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uka Kusnadi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The program to improve national milk production over the past years has not been well targeted. This is indicated by the slow increase of dairy population and milk production that could not meet the increasing demand. It should be apparently focus on income generation of dairy farmers to increase their welfare so that they are willing to improve their dairy business that will affect national milk production. Implementation of economical dairy management and technology, could increase milk production, hence improve the farmer’s income. This could be done through several ways, i.e.: economical dairy composition, optimization of dry period and improvement milk hygiene. All these aspects including technical aspect are discussed in this paper. Apart from above, income optimalization could also be done by reducing the price of feed concentrate, raising only productive dairy cows and managing milk cooperative efficiently.

  7. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  8. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  9. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  10. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  11. Fatal and nonfatal risk associated with recycle of D&D-generated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boren, J.K.; Ayers, K.W.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    As decontamination and decommissioning activities proceed within the U.S. Department of Energy Complex, vast volumes of uncontaminated and contaminated concrete will be generated. The current practice of decontaminating and landfilling the concrete is an expensive and potentially wasteful practice. Research is being conducted at Vanderbilt University to assess the economic, social, legal, and political ramifications of alternate methods of dealing with waste concrete. An important aspect of this research work is the assessment of risk associated with the various alternatives. A deterministic risk assessment model has been developed which quantifies radiological as well as non-radiological risks associated with concrete disposal and recycle activities. The risk model accounts for fatal as well as non-fatal risks to both workers and the public. Preliminary results indicate that recycling of concrete presents potentially lower risks than the current practice. Radiological considerations are shown to be of minor importance in comparison to other sources of risk, with conventional transportation fatalities and injuries dominating. Onsite activities can also be a major contributor to non-fatal risk.

  12. Nonfatal occupational injuries associated with slips and falls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hoon-Yong; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine nonfatal occupational injury data associated with slip and fall accidents by extracting the latest information from the database of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Systematic information on the cost and causes of industrial slip and fall accidents are not readily available from statistical and survey data sources, as such, detailed information regarding the slip-/fall-related injuries in US industries categorized by various factors are presented in this study. Nonfatal injuries resulting in days lost from work due to fall and slip were categorized by the number and incidence rate by various characteristics such as major US industry, nature of injury, source of injury, types of fall, occupation, part of body injured, age of the injured, gender of the injured and number of lost workdays utilizing the BLS database. Additionally, cost per claim associated with industrial slip and fall accidents are reviewed using the National Safety Council database. This information may be used to focus our attention toward most relevant intervention strategies associated with workplace slip and fall accidents.

  13. Níveis de substituição do leite em pó desnatado pelo isolado protéico de soja na dieta de leitões desmamados Substitution levels of dry skim milk for isolated soybean protein in diets of weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Mack Junqueira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da substituição do leite desnatado em pó pelo isolado protéico de soja em rações para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade sobre o desempenho, a morfometria intestinal e relação peso de pâncreas/peso de carcaça. Foram utilizados 80 leitões desmamados, no período de 21 a 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e quatro animais por unidade experimental (dois machos e duas fêmeas, totalizando 16 leitões por tratamento. Os tratamentos consistiram na substituição protéica (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do leite desnatado em pó pelo isolado protéico de soja. Todas as dietas apresentaram mesmo conteúdo protéico (20,00%, energético (3420 kcal ED/kg de dieta e de lactose (8,16%. Foram analisados parâmetros de desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo e conversão alimentar e relação entre peso de pâncreas/peso de carcaça. Realizou-se análise morfométrica do intestino delgado, abatendo-se seis animais/tratamento ao término do período experimental. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos tratamentos para ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e efeito linear negativo para consumo de ração. Não houve alterações morfométricas para altura de vilosidade, profundidade de criptas e para a relação entre peso de pâncreas/peso de carcaça. Concluiu-se que o isolado protéico de soja pode substituir a proteína do leite em pó desnatado em 34,25% para máximo ganho de peso e 51,00% para melhor conversão alimentar. A substituição total da proteína láctea pela proteína da soja não afetou a integridade do vilo e a relação entre peso de pâncreas/peso de carcaça.One experiment was conducted to study the effect of the substitution of dry skim milk for isolated soybean protein in diets of piglets from 21 to 35 days of age. It was used 80 piglets in a experimental design involved 5 treatments, 4 blocks of 4 animals each in a total of 16

  14. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  15. PCSK9 variant, long-chain n-3 PUFAs, and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rican Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Campos, Hannia; Qi, Lu

    2017-03-22

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that the cardioprotective effects of long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may vary across various ethnic populations. Emerging evidence has suggested that the gene-environment interaction may partly explain such variations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to have a mutually regulating relation with LC n-3 PUFAs and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we hypothesized that certain PCSK9 genetic variants may modify the association between LC n-3 PUFA intake and CVD risk.Objective: We determined whether a PCSK9 variant (rs11206510), which has been identified for early onset myocardial infarction (MI), modified the association of LC n-3 PUFAs with nonfatal MI risk in Costa Rican Hispanics.Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1932 case subjects with a first nonfatal MI and 2055 population-based control subjects who were living in Costa Rica to examine potential gene-environment interactions. Two-sided P values n-3 PUFA intake on nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.012). The OR of nonfatal MI was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.98) per 0.1% increase in total energy intake from LC n-3 PUFAs in protective-allele (C-allele) carriers, whereas the corresponding OR (95% CI) in non-C-allele carriers was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.10). Similar results were observed when we examined the association between docosahexaenoic acid, which is one type of LC n-3 PUFA, and nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.003).Conclusion: LC n-3 PUFA intake is associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI in C-allele carriers of PCSK9 rs11206510 (n = 799) but not in non-C-allele carriers (n = 3188).

  16. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  17. An Inquiry into Differences in Patient Outcomes by Observing Dietitian and Nurse Practitioner Management of Hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Roquefort substituted -Camembert -Edam - Gouda -Ricotta -Swiss -Pasteurized Processed Cheese Non-Daily Cream Substitutes -Imitation Sour Cream -Imitation...Milk Evaporated Skim Milk Evaporated Milk Yogurt made from skim milk Cream Non-fat dry milk powder Ice Cream Fruit ices Cream Cheese Sherbert (1-2...fat) Sour Cream Ice Milk Half & Half * Cheese made from skim milk Whipped Cream Low-fat cottage cheese Yogurt made from whole milk -Sapsago Cheese

  18. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  19. 1% low-fat milk has perks!: An evaluation of a social marketing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Karla Jaye; John, Robert; Thompson, David M

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk) were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM), the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t-test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention. Results show the monthly market share of 1% milk sales changed from 10.0% to 11.5%, a 15% increase. Evaluating the volume sold, the monthly mean number of gallons of 1% milk sold increased from 890.5 gal (SD = 769.8) per supermarket from before the intervention to 1070.7 gal (SD = 922.5) following the intervention (t(79) = 9.4, p = 0.000). Moreover, average weekly sales of 1% milk were stable prior to the intervention (b = - 0.2 gal/week, 95% CI [- 0.6 gal/week, 0.3 gal/week]). During each additional week of the intervention, 1% milk sales increased by an average of 4.1 gal in all supermarkets (95% CI [3.5 gal/week, 4.6 gal/week]). Three months later, albeit attenuated, a significant increase in 1% milk sales remained. In the comparison market, no change in the market share of 1% milk occurred. Paid advertising, using the principles of social marketing, can be effective in changing an entrenched and habitual nutrition habit.

  20. 1% low-fat milk has perks!: An evaluation of a social marketing intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Jaye Finnell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM, the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t-test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention. Results show the monthly market share of 1% milk sales changed from 10.0% to 11.5%, a 15% increase. Evaluating the volume sold, the monthly mean number of gallons of 1% milk sold increased from 890.5 gal (SD = 769.8 per supermarket from before the intervention to 1070.7 gal (SD = 922.5 following the intervention (t(79 = 9.4, p = 0.000. Moreover, average weekly sales of 1% milk were stable prior to the intervention (b = −0.2 gal/week, 95% CI [−0.6 gal/week, 0.3 gal/week]. During each additional week of the intervention, 1% milk sales increased by an average of 4.1 gal in all supermarkets (95% CI [3.5 gal/week, 4.6 gal/week]. Three months later, albeit attenuated, a significant increase in 1% milk sales remained. In the comparison market, no change in the market share of 1% milk occurred. Paid advertising, using the principles of social marketing, can be effective in changing an entrenched and habitual nutrition habit.

  1. Measuring the lactose content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaskova Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has become a powerful and popular tool for food systems analyses lately. Based on characteristic vibrations of the studied material, the information on its content and structure can be answered. In the paper, Raman spectroscopy is studied for a purpose of lactose content in milk assessment. Lactose, the milk disaccharide, in a human organism decomposes during digestion by the act of enzyme lactase to more easily digestible monosaccharides – glucose and galactose. The lack of enzyme lactase causes symptoms of lactose intolerance what limits lactose-intolerant individuals in the intake of milk and dairy products. Lactose-free products in the diet can be a solution. Raman spectroscopy offers rapid measurement independent of the number of chemicals and other in the paper listed benefits. Raman spectra of lactose, glucose and galactose exhibit enough differences to distinguish the content of lactose in milk. C-O-H bending mode at 1087 cm-1 is used for lactose quantification. The method accuracy for measuring content of lactose was tested on dried milk droplets. Evaluation of the spectroscopic data was related to two different substances - phenylalanine contained generally in the milk and crystal violet used as an internal standard.

  2. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  3. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  4. Breast milk jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000995.htm Breast milk jaundice To use the sharing features on this ... otherwise healthy, the condition may be called "breast milk jaundice." Causes Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that ...

  5. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  6. Shelf Stable Egg-Based Products Processed By Ultra High Pressure Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-03

    soybean oil, modified food starch, whey solids, salt, nonfat dried milk , and citric acid. Patties #2 and #4 (code 03-1426-10) also had #1 patty basic...Dimensions (mm) #1 46025-30020- 00 Basic ingredients: whole eggs, water, soybean oil, modified food starch, whey solids, salt, nonfat dried milk , and...oil, salt, modified food starch, whey , skim milk powder, and cheese) was used. Four formulations considered are shown in table 20. 42 Table 20

  7. Updating Nutritional Data and Evaluation of Technological Parameters of Italian Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Manzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different technologically treated Italian milks (whole and semi-skimmed ultra-high temperature (UHT, pasteurized and microfiltered milk, collected from 2009 to 2012, were evaluated for nutritional and technological properties. No significant differences in calcium and sodium were detected (p > 0.05, while significant differences were observed concerning phosphorus content, between whole and semi-skimmed milk, and lactose content, between pasteurized and UHT milk (p 0.05 were detected for choline, a functional molecule, between whole (11.3–14.6 mg/100 g and semi-skimmed milk (11.1–14.7 mg/100 g, but there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in processing milk (UHT vs. pasteurized milk and UHT vs. microfiltered milk. Among the unsaponifiable compounds, only 13 cis retinol and trans retinol showed differences in technologically treated milk (pasteurized vs. UHT milk and microfiltered vs. UHT milk; p < 0.05. In this research, the greater was the “severity” of milk treatment, the higher was the percent ratio 13 cis/trans retinol (DRI, degree of retinol isomerization. The degree of antioxidant protection parameter (DAP, useful to estimate the potential oxidative stability of fat in foods, was significantly different between whole and semi-skimmed milk (p < 0.05. Finally, the evaluation of color measurement of whole milk showed a good correlation between beta carotene and b* (r = 0.854 and between lactulose and a* (r = 0.862.

  8. Characteristics of the lactation, chemical composition milk hygiene quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is one of the possible economic uses of donkey population. The Littoral- Dinaric donkey is numerous, but the structural changes in rural areas during the last decade have pushed it into a group of endangered genetic heritage. The aim of this research is to determine the production potential, lactation characteristics, chemical composition and hygienic quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass milk. The average milk production was 172.12 mL per milking with the average fat percentage of 0.33 %, milk protein 1.55 %, and lactose 6.28 %. The low average number of somatic cells and bacterial count are noticed in ass’s milk (4.09 mL log-1; 3.58 mL log-1. A significant influence of lactation stage on the milk quantity and proportion of dry matter (P<0.01, as well on the proportion of milk fat and milk protein (P<0.05, was observed. Also the influence of the season on productivity, and the proportion of dry matter and milk fat (P<0001, as well as milk protein (P<0.01 was also significant. Productivity of the Littoral-Dinaric ass in the pasture system is relatively modest, but the direct and indirect benefits from this kind of production are multiple. That is the reason to continue the development of donkey milk production technology.

  9. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  10. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  11. Relationships between buffalo milk components and curd characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zicarelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the coefficients of correlation between curd chemical composition and milk characteristics, theoretical and real cheese yield and ratios between cheese yield and protein percentage. The analysis were performed on 326 milk samples collected from 60 half sib buffaloes, ascertained by DNA test, every 50 days. The percentages of dry matter, proteins and fat of the curd were inversely correlated to the curd firmness (a30, a low enzymatic phase of coagulation and low pH value. Percentage of dry matter in the curd was positively correlated with proteins, casein and fat of the milk and negatively with lactose. Furthermore, dry matter and proteins percentages are also positively correlated with theoretical cheese yield and its ratio with real cheese yield, curd dry matter from 1 litre of milk and the ratio between curd dry matter and protein percentage. Negative correlations were found with real cheese yield at 28 hours (r = - 0.100; P< 0.01 and its ratio with protein percentage. An inverse relationship was highlighted between curd proteins percentage and fat of either milk and curd, while a direct association was present with lactose. A higher protein percentage in the curd was linked to a lower cheese yield and a lower ratio between cheese yield and proteins. Ash of the curd, finally, showed similar association to those described for proteins.

  12. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  13. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  14. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula.

  15. Efeito de medicamentos indicados para a prevenção da mastite bovina no período seco sobre a função fagocítica in vitro de leucócitos do leite de caprinos Effect of dry cow therapy products on the in vitro phagocytic function of goat milk leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Q. Benesi

    2010-05-01

    physiological differences apart from the particularities of the two species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of five drugs specific for dry cow therapy on the function of goat milk phagocytes. Somatic cells were isolated from 20 milk samples of 10 lactating goats that had not been treated for mastitis during the previous 30 days. Milk samples were collected properly and microbiological culture yielded negative results. Cells adherent to glass coverslips were treated with commercially available dry cow therapy drugs containing active principles such as Gentamicin (M1, Cephalonium anhydrous (M2, Ampicillin (M3, Cloxacillin benzathine (M4 and Cephapirin benzathine (M5. Phagocytosis of Zymosan particles was evaluated. Mean phagocytosis indexes of cells treated with M2 (15.12% ± 16.22, M3 (6.02% ± 7.96, M4 (4.54% ± 5.45 and M5 (2.47% ± 4.64 were lower (p<0.001 than mean phagocytosis index of the control group (40.67% ± 19.68. Mean phagocytosis index of cells treated with M2 was greater (p<0.05 than those treated with M3, M4 and M5, whereas means of the latter three treatments were statistically similar. M1-treated cells did not adhere adequately to the cover slips, making it impossible to evaluate phagocytosis in this group. The results obtained enable the conclusion that drugs used affected milk phagocytes negatively. However, interference on somatic cell function is not the sole factor determining an unsuccessful dry period therapy, since the efficacy of the active principle on pathogens responsible for infectious processes also has to be considered.

  16. CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka BERNACKA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the cytological quality of goat milk based on the somatic cell count in respective months of lactation. Besides there was defined the effect of somatic cell on the milk production and chemical composition of milk. The research covered goats of color improved breed in the 2nd and 3rd lactation. Daily milk yield, chemical composition of milk and its somatic cell count were defined based on monthly morning and evening control milkings from both teats, following the A4 method applied in District Animal Evaluation Stations. The research indicated that the greater the somatic cell count in milk, the lower the daily milk yield, however the greater the somatic cell count, the greater the percentage content of fat and dry matter and the lower the content of lactose.

  17. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples.

  18. SKIM MILK POWDER, WHEY POWDER AND MILK AND WHEY MIXTURES IN POWDER PRODUCED IN MINISPRAY DRYER:ISOTHERM ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF THE BET MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de; Pereira, João Pablo Fortes; Stringueta, Paulo César; Silva, Paulo Henrique Fonseca da

    2013-01-01

    In this study whey powders and skim milk powder were produced in laboratory scale. Water vapor sorption for each powder was measured gravimetrically. The results of the isothermal adsorption were in agreement with the BET model and the quantities of water in the monolayer, obtained by the model, were less than the total quant ities of water in the powder s. Laboratory scale production of milk and whey powders showed that increasing whey percentage in the mixture of milk and whey before drying...

  19. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  20. Inclusion of crude glycerin in the diet of dairy cows on intake, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of crude glycerin (CG, corrected for protein with a byproduct of processing corn, mazoferm, on intake, production and composition of milk from Holstein cows. A total of 12 Holstein cows distributed in three Latin squares 4x4, with average production of 15 kg. The animals were fed four diets, protein and isocaloric, referring to four levels of replacement of corn grain by mixing PG-80, 0, 33.3, 66.6 and 100.0% based on the total dry matter, which corresponded respectively to 0, 40, 80 and 120 g of CG/kg dry matter. The cows were milked mechanically twice a day, making up the record of milk production of each experimental period and collected a sample of milk for evaluation of lactose, fat, protein, total solids and somatic cell count (SCC. Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The dry matter intake, the average milk production and milk production adjusted to 35 g fat / kg milk, were not affected (P>0.05 by the inclusion of GP-80 mixture in the diet. The nutritional composition of milk (fat, protein, lactose and total solids was not affected by treatments (P>0.05. The use of crude glycerin in diets to meet protein and energy requirements of animals does not compromise the dry matter intake, production, composition and milk quality for cows of low production.

  1. Modified Diet Recipes for Army Medical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-20

    Starch, edible, modified Milk non-fat, dry Water , cold 1 oz 3 oz 1 lb 15 oz l/4 cup 3/4 cup 1 quart 33 Ö9 881 3. 4. 5. 6...Milk| nonfat dry - Water Starch, edible, mQdified Pepper, ground lemon Juice Ghicken, Puree, canned WEIGHTS 4 oz 1 oz 2 oz 11/2 oz 30 oz...simmer 10 minutes or until fish and potatoes are tender. 3. Add salt, garlic, thyme, parsley and tarragon. Milk, nonfat, dry Water , warm Starch

  2. Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F; Cachon, R; Pernin, K; De Coninck, J; Gervais, P; Guichard, E; Cayot, N

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation.

  3. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P R; Gislason, G H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. METHODS: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  4. The predictive value of fatigue for nonfatal ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether fatigue predicts nonfatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality in middle-aged men. Methods The study population consisted of 5216 middle-aged men born in the Copenhagen metropolitan area in 1953. At baseline, men free of angina pectoris and previou...... is a potential risk indicator for IHD and mortality. Further research is needed to establish the role of smoking and other life-style characteristics.......% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-3.61) and all-cause mortality (HR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.27-7.02). These associations became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models (HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 0.82-3.01 and HR = 1.90, 95% CI = 0.95-3.80). Imputation of missing data did not modify conclusions. Fatigue...

  5. Non-fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Said, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Bin Aziz; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed data on non-fatal occupational injuries reported to Malaysia's social security organization from 2002 to 2006. There was a decrease in both the absolute number and the incidence rates of these injuries over time. About 40% of cases occurred in the manufacturing sector followed by the service (17%) and trading (17%) sectors. The agriculture sector reported the highest incidence rate (24.1/1,000), followed by the manufacturing sector subcategories of wood-product manufacturing (22.1/1,000) and non-metallic industries (20.8/1,000). Men age 40 to 59 and persons of Indian ethnicity had a greater tendency to sustain injuries. Government and non-governmental organizations should strive to develop strategies to reduce the occupational injuries targeting vulnerable groups. Enforcement of safety measures will further play an important role to ensure that both employees and employers take special precautions to address workplace hazards.

  6. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  7. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  8. Associations between serum uric acid levels and the incidence of nonfatal stroke: a nationwide community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Keita; Konta, Tsuneo; Hirayama, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Kubota, Isao; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Narita, Ichiei; Kondo, Masahide; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kasahara, Masato; Asahi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Hyperuricemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality. This study investigated the association between serum uric acid and the incidence of nonfatal stroke in a Japanese community-based population. We used a nationwide database of 155,322 subjects (aged 40-73, male 39 %) who participated in the annual "Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan" checkup from 2008 to 2010. We examined the relationship between the quintiles of serum uric acid levels at baseline and the incidence of nonfatal stroke during a 2-year study period using self-reported data. The crude incidence of nonfatal stroke was significantly associated with serum uric acid levels at baseline, showing the lowest values in subjects with the 3rd quintile (Q3: men, 5.0-5.6; women, 3.8-4.3) of uric acid levels (mg/dL) and the highest values in subjects with the highest quintile (Q5: men ≥7.1, women ≥5.5) both in men and women (P uric acid levels for incident stroke was high, irrespective of characteristics such as age, sex, and renal function. This study has shown that serum uric acid is independently associated with the incidence of nonfatal stroke in the general Japanese population.

  9. A Comparison of Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses among Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Dene T.; Lebbon, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the trends and changes in patterns of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses among Hispanic workers versus non-Hispanic minority workers in the United States between 1992 and 2009. Injuries and illnesses are also examined by the severity of cases and across industry sectors. The differences in the mean share of…

  10. History of non-fatal cardiovascular disease in a cohort of Dutch and British patients with haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Putte, Dietje E. Fransen; Fischer, Kathelijn; Makris, Michael; Tait, R. Campbell; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter W.; Meijer, Karina; Roosendaal, Goris; Schutgens, Roger E. G.; Mauser-Bunschoten, Eveline P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is reported to be lower in haemophilia patients than in the general population, but information on the occurrence of non-fatal CVD is lacking. The aim of our study was to assess CVD history in a cohort of living haemophilia patients. Methods Retrospec

  11. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  12. Skull fracture and hemorrhage pattern among fatal and nonfatal head injury assault victims - a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrabhal Tripathi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global incidence of fatal head injuries as the result of assault is greater than the number of non-fatal cases. The important factors that determine the outcome in terms of survival of such head injury cases include the type of weapon used, type and site of skull fracture, intra cranial hemorrhage and the brain injury. The present study aims to highlight the role of skull fractures as an indirect indicator of force of impact and the intra cranial hemorrhage by a comparative study of assault victims with fatal and nonfatal head injuries. METHODS: 91 head injury cases resulting from assault were studied in the Department of Forensic Medicine, IMS, BHU Varanasi over a period of 2 years from which 18 patients survived and 73 cases had a lethal outcome. Details of the fatal cases were obtained from the police inquest and an autopsy while examination of the surviving patients was done after obtaining an informed consent. The data so obtained were analyzed and presented in the study. RESULTS: Assault with firearms often led to fatality whereas with assault involving blunt weapons the survival rate was higher. Multiple cranial bones were involved in 69.3% cases while comminuted fracture of the skull was common among the fatal cases. Fracture of the base of the skull was noted only in the fatal cases and a combination of subdural and subarachnoid haemorrhage was found in the majority of the fatal cases. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows skull fractures to be an important indicator of severity of trauma in attacks to the head. Multiple bone fracture, comminuted fracture and base fractures may be considered as high risk factors in attempted homicide cases.

  13. A fresh look at the costs of non-fatal consumer product injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Bruce A; Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2015-02-01

    Products under the purview of the Consumer Product Safety Commission are involved in a large share of injuries and injury costs in the USA. This study analyses incidence data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and cost data based on the Injury Cost Model, integrated with the NEISS. We examined the magnitude of non-fatal consumer product related injury, the distribution of products involved in these injuries and the cost of these injuries. We compared these findings with an earlier identical study from 2000. In 2008-2010, 43.8% of the annual 30.4 million non-fatal injuries treated in hospital emergency departments involved consumer products. Of these consumer product related injuries, in 2009-2010, just three product groups accounted for 77% of the $909 billion annual cost: sports and recreation; home structures and construction materials; and home furnishings and fixtures. Sports and recreation was a leading cause of injury costs among 5-24-year-olds, particularly football, basketball, bicycling, baseball/softball and soccer. Since 1996, football surpassed basketball in becoming the number one cause of injury costs for children aged 10-19 years and the fifth ranked cause of product related injury costs overall. Among those over age 30 years, stairs and floors were a leading cause of consumer product related injury costs, in particular among those over age 70 years where they were responsible for over one-fifth of costs. The findings of this study highlight priority areas for intervention and generate questions for future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Intoxications with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine: an analysis of fatal and non-fatal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Kölle, Markus A; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2013-11-01

    Tranylcypromine (TCP) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor and an effective agent in the treatment of major depression. It features a complex pharmacologic profile and overdoses might induce severe intoxications. To identify typical clinical presentations of TCP-intoxications, range of associated TCP-dosages and possible differences between fatal and non-fatal intoxications a systematic review of all previously published cases of TCP-intoxications was conducted. We detected n=20 reports of TCP-intoxications in the literature (fatalities n=10). Mean age was 36.7 years (median 37); the majority of patients were female (60%). Frequent findings in patients with TCP-intoxications were disturbance of consciousness/cognitive dysfunction (90%), cardio-vascular symptoms (55%), hyperthermia (50%), respiratory distress (45%), delirium (45%), muscular rigidity (30%) and renal failure (20%). Suicidal intent was present in n=18 (90%) patients. First clinical symptoms related to TCP-intoxication developed on average in less than 1 day. The average dosage related to TCP-intoxication was 677 mg. The highest survived TCP-dosage was 4000 mg and the lowest fatal dosage was 170 mg. Patients with fatal intoxications were on average older (40.5 vs. 32.8 years) and developed a more rapid onset of symptoms (0.2 vs. 0.8 days). Death occurred after a mean time of 0.6 days; symptom relief in patients with non-fatal intoxications developed on average after 3.2 days. Considering the large dose spectrum between survived and lethal TCP-dosages individual susceptibility factors might play a role regarding the severity of clinical symptoms independently of the ingested dosage.

  15. Risk of recurrent overdose associated with prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after nonfatal overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to estimate risk of recurrent overdose associated with psychosocial assessment by psychiatrists during hospitalization for nonfatal overdose and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after discharge. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a nationwide claims database in Japan. We classified patients aged 19–64 years hospitalized for nonfatal overdose between October 2012 and September 2013 into two cohorts: 1) those who had consulted a psychiatrist prior to overdose (n=6,790) and 2) those who had not (n=4,950). All patients were followed up from 90 days before overdose until 365 days after discharge. Results Overall, 15.3% of patients with recent psychiatric treatment had a recurrent overdose within 365 days, compared with 6.0% of those without psychiatric treatment. Psychosocial assessment during hospital admission had no significant effect on subsequent overdose, irrespective of treatment by psychiatrists before overdose. There was a dose–response relationship for the association of benzodiazepine prescription after overdose with subsequent overdose in either cohort, even after accounting for average daily dosage of benzodiazepines before overdose and other confounders. In patients with recent psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 27.7% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 22.0% for those receiving high dosages, 15.3% for those receiving normal dosages, and 7.6% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. In patients without psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 24.3% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 18.0% for those receiving high dosages, 9.0% for those receiving normal dosages, and 4.1% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. Conclusion Lower dose of benzodiazepines after overdose is associated with lower risk of subsequent overdose. PMID:28293108

  16. Milk and the risk and progression of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that nutritional factors contribute to a substantial proportion of cancer cases, and milk contains numerous bioactive substances that could affect risk and progression of cancer. Cancer results from multiple genetic and epigenetic events over time, so demonstrating a specific effect of nutrients or other bioactive food components in human cancer is challenging. Epidemiological evidence consistently suggests that milk intake is protective against colorectal cancer. Calcium supplements have been shown to reduce risk for recurrence of adenomatous polyps. Calcium supplementation has not been observed to reduce risk for colon cancer, although long latency and baseline calcium intake affect interpretation of these results. High calcium intake from both food and supplements is associated with increased risk for advanced or fatal prostate cancer. Results from epidemiological studies examining the relationship between intake of dairy foods and breast or ovarian cancer risk are not consistent. Animal studies have suggested that galactose may be toxic to ovarian cells, but results from epidemiological studies that have examined ovarian cancer risk and milk and/or lactose intakes are mixed. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention encourage meeting recommended levels of calcium intake primarily through food choices rather than supplements, and choosing low-fat or nonfat dairy foods.

  17. Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.

  18. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  19. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, N; Sanogo, O M; Rufino, M C; van Keulen, H; Giller, K E

    2015-07-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the 'white gold' for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially during the long dry season. This study combines earlier published results of farmer participatory experiments with simulation modelling to evaluate the lifetime productivity of cows under varying feeding strategies and the resulting economic performance at farm level. We compared the profitability of cotton production to the innovation of dairy. The results show that milk production of the West African Méré breed could be expanded if cows are supplemented and kept stall-fed during the dry season. This option seems to be profitable for better-off farmers, but whether dairy will replace (some of) the role of cotton as the white gold for these smallholder farmers will depend on the cross price elasticity of cotton and milk. Farmers may (partly) replace cotton production for fodder production to produce milk if the price of cotton remains poor (below US$0.35/kg) and the milk price relatively strong (higher than US$0.38/kg). Price ratios need to remain stable over several seasons given the investments required for a change in production strategy. Furthermore, farmers will only seize the opportunity to engage in dairy if marketing infrastructure and milk markets are further developed.

  20. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  1. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  2. Effect of Four Different Media on Periodontal Ligament Cells Viability of Dry- Stored Dog Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Fariborz Moazzami; Bahar Asheghi; Safoura Sahebi

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The maintenance of viable periodontal ligament cells is the most important issue in the long-term preservation of avulsed teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess aloe vera as a new storage media in maintaining the cell viability of dry-stored teeth in comparison with soy milk, Hank`s balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk. Materials and Method: Twenty one extracted dog premolar teeth were dried for 30 minutes and stored in soy milk, HBSS, milk, an...

  3. Viability of Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum G4 after Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenie Wong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 following spray-drying and freeze-drying in skim milk was evaluated. After spray-drying, the strain experienced over 99% loss in viability regardless of the air outlet temperature (75 and 85 °C and the heat-adaptation temperature (45 and 65 °C, 30 min. The use of heat-adaptation treatment to improve the thermotolerance of this strain was ineffective. On the other hand, the strain showed a superior survival at 71.65%–82.07% after freeze-drying. Viable populations of 9.319–9.487 log10 cfu/g were obtained when different combinations of skim milk and sugar were used as cryoprotectant. However, the addition of sugars did not result in increased survival during the freeze-drying process. Hence, 10% (w/v skim milk alone is recommended as a suitable protectant and drying medium for this strain. The residual moisture content obtained was 4.41% ± 0.44%.

  4. 77 FR 8213 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ..., shipments, and selling prices for such products as butter, cheese, dry whey, and nonfat dry milk. Cheddar... Agricultural Statistics Service Title: Milk and Milk Products. OMB Control Number: 0535-0020. Summary of... current official state and national estimates of crop and livestock production. Estimates of...

  5. Milk quality according to the daily range in farm production in the Mesoregion Central Mineira and Oeste of Minas Gerais regions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Borges

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize milk production from the Central Mineira and Oeste Mesoregions regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to quality parameters such as somatic cell count, total bacteria count, and composition for specific production ranges. Average results for milk fat, protein, total and nonfat solids were compliant with Brazilian legal requirements (IN-62/2011 in all the production ranges selected. Average somatic cell counts (SCC complied with the legal requirements of 600,000 cells/mL, except for the range with a daily production above 1,000 liters. However, average maximum values of 400,000 cells/mL are recommended for good milk quality. Total bacterial count was the most critical quality factor, with the highest values found in breeds with milk production above 500 liters per day.

  6. THE IMPACT OF BALANCED ENERGY AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY IN EARLY LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Widyobroto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine the impact of balanced energy and protein supplementation with high rumen undegraded protein (HRUP to milk production and quality in early lactating dairy cows. Twelve early lactating Friesian Holstein cows were divided into two groups (control and HRUP. Both control and HRUP group were fed on a basal diet (forage to concentrate ratio was 60:40; DM basis, with rumen undegraded protein (RUP levels were 27.47% and 32.78% for control and HRUP, respectively. The experimental diets were given to animals twice daily, morning and afternoon. Water was given by ad libitum. The observed parameters were nutrient intake, quantity and quality of milk production . Data were examined using t-test. Results showed that feed intake, milk production and 4% FCM, milk fat and lactose concentrations, and milk solid non-fat and total solid concentrations were not differed significantly between control and HRUP groups. However, milk protein concentration and production were differed (P<0.05 between controls and HRUP groups. The balanced energy and protein supplementation with HRUP in early lactating dairy cows could impact on milk protein concentration and production.

  7. Evaluation of ovine milk clotting aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caroli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds, the kind of milk (whole or skimmed, and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstituted on the basis of established methods from Sardinia, Comisana, and Massese ewes. All the considered variability factors showed a highly significant effect (P<0.001 on the lactodynamographic parameters considered. In particular, Massese ewe milk showed the shortest curd speed (k20 and the best coagulum strength (a30 and a45, although clotting time (CT was the highest one. The same trend was registered for skimmed milk and for the most concentrated one (20g. Repeatability values within laboratories were 96% and 97% for CT and k20, lowering for a30 e a45, (respectively 87% and 85%. Much lower coefficients were found for the among laboratories reproducibility, ranging from a maximum of 58% for CT to a minimum of 18% for k20. The wide variability observed indicates that lactodynamographic parameters are comparable only within the same lab. Further investigation is needed to compare different labs in order to obtain more homogeneous results.

  8. Problems concerning ovine milk clotting aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds, the kind of milk (whole or skimmed, and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstituted on the basis of established methods from Sardinia, Comisana, and Massese ewes. All the considered variability factors showed a highly significant effect (P<0.001 on the lactodynamographic parameters considered. In particular, Massese ewe milk showed the shortest curd speed (k20 and the best coagulum strength (a30 and a45, although clotting time (CT was the highest one. The same trend was registered for skimmed milk and for the most concentrated one (20g. Repeatability values within laboratories were 96% and 97% for CT and k20, lowering for a30 e a45, (respectively 87% and 85%. Much lower coefficients were found for the among laboratories reproducibility, ranging from a maximum of 58% for CT to a minimum of 18% for k20. The wide variability observed indicates that lactodynamographic parameters are comparable only within the same lab. Further investigation is needed to compare different labs in order to obtain more homogeneous results.

  9. Optimization of the spray drying method in the application of DHA in formula milk powder%DHA微胶囊配方乳粉的喷雾干燥工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫波; 魏福华; 张玲; 林宇红

    2013-01-01

    The effects of homogenization pressure,feed flow rate and inlet air temperature on the application of Docosahexaenoic Acid(DHA)in formula milk powder were studied by single factor experiment,then the process conditions of the application were optimized by response surface method (RSM). The results showed that the effects of homogenization pressure,feed flow rate and inlet air temperature on the retention rate of DHA were significant( p < 0.01). By the RSM transactional analysis, the optimum process conditions were optimized as following: homogenization pressure 36~37MPa, feed flow rate 20.50mL/min, inlet air temperature 165℃, respectively.The retention rate of DHA was up to 95.28%±0.54% under the optimum condition.%采用单因素实验,研究了均质压力、进料流量、进风温度对二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)微胶囊配方乳粉品质的影响,并进一步对工艺参数进行响应面优化.结果表明:均质压力、进料流量、进风温度对DHA保留率均有极显著影响(p<0.01);响应面优化得到DHA微胶囊在配方乳粉中应用的最佳工艺条件为:均质压力36 ~ 37 MPa、进料流量20.50mL/min、进风温度165℃,DHA保留率可达95.28%±0.54%.

  10. 7 CFR 1430.2 - Price support levels and purchase conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for milk will be made available through CCC purchases of butter, nonfat dry milk, and Cheddar cheese... Program for Milk § 1430.2 Price support levels and purchase conditions. (a)(1) The level of price support provided to farmers marketing milk containing 3.67 percent milkfat from dairy cows is $9.90...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  12. Protein composition of rhesus monkey milk: comparison to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, C; Lönnerdal, B

    1993-04-01

    1. Proteins in human milk and Rhesus monkey milk have been compared by FPLC gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography, SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, nitrogen and protein determination. 2. Mature Rhesus milk is higher in protein concentration (15-20 mg/ml) than human milk (8-9 mg/ml). 3. Non-Protein nitrogen is 6-13% in Rhesus milk but 25-30% in human milk. 4. Secretory IgA, lactoferrin, serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme are present in Rhesus milk, but at a lower concentration than in human milk. 5. The casein subunit pattern is more complex in Rhesus milk compared to human milk. 6. The ratio of whey proteins to casein is similar in both milks (approximately 60/40). 7. A protein with a M(r) of 21,600 is a major component in monkey whey but is not found in human milk.

  13. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  14. Production of dry Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG preparations by spray drying and lyophilization in aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Leja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drying is the oldest method of food preservation. It works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. Moreover, spray or freeze drying is also used for the preservation of probiotic cultures. The aim of this study was to compare a survival rate of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus during spray and freeze drying in ATPS. These results were also compared with survival rate of cells dried under the same conditions but suspended only in skim milk, 6% solution of PVP or 6% solution of dextran. Material and methods. The bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GGwere suspended and spray or freeze dried in various types of aqueous two-phase emulsions: PVP/dextran, PEG4000/dextran and PEG8000/dextran. These emulsions consisted of different types of polymers and had varying ratio of polymers in dispersed (dextran and dispersing (PEG and PVP phases. Results. The research demonstrated that survival rate of bacteria directly after drying depended mainly on protective reagent, rather than on drying method. After 30-day-storage of the dried bacteria cell specimens, the highest survival rate was noted in case of freeze dried cells in milk. In case of spray drying the highest cell survival rate was observed when emulsion PVP3.6%/dextran2.4% was used as a drying medium. Conclusions. Finally, it has been found that cell survival rate was not strongly influenced by the storage temperature of the powder but it depended on the drying medium.  

  15. Effect of cobalt supplementation during late gestation and early lactation on milk and serum measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, R L; Socha, M T

    2007-04-01

    Thirty-six multiparous cows were assigned to a study to determine the effects of dietary Co supplementation during late gestation and early lactation on concentrations of Co in serum and liver, vitamin B12 concentrations in serum and milk, and milk yield. Nonlactating cows received diets containing 0.15, 0.89, or 1.71 mg/ kg of Co (dry matter basis) from 55 d before parturition, and lactating cows received diets containing 0.19, 0.57, or 0.93 mg/kg of Co (dry matter basis) from parturition through 120 d postpartum. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations declined sharply in all cows between 55 and 20 d prepartum. Dietary Co supplementation tended to cause an increase in the concentration of vitamin B12 in colostrum and milk. Cobalt intake did not affect concentrations of Co in liver or serum, but increased the Co concentration of milk (0.089, 0.120, and 0.130 microg of Co/mL) at 120 days in milk. There was no effect of Co supplementation on dry matter intake or yield of milk and milk components. In conclusion, serum concentrations of vitamin B12 are reduced in the early dry period, and added dietary Co may increase ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12 as indicated by a tendency for increased vitamin B12 concentrations in colostrum and milk of cows supplemented with dietary Co.

  16. Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Smits, Marcel; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and dimethy

  17. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; Rashid, M H; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  18. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  19. Milk: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajić, S.; Đorđević, J.; Ledina, T.; Šarčević, D.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Although milk/dairy consumption is part of many cultures and is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of controversy, leading to a highly polarized debate within the scientific community, media and public sector. The present article, at first, describes the evolutionary roots of milk consumption, then reviews the milk-derived bioactive peptides as health-promoting components. The third part of the article, in general, presents the associations between milk nutrients, disease prevention, and health promotion.

  20. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  1. Iodine carry over in dairy cows: effects of levels of diet fortification and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Masoero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous lactating cows were divided in three groups based on milk yield: high (H, average (A and low (L. Within each group, cows were randomly allotted to two levels of iodine inclusions into the diet and respectively: level 1 (1: base diet containing 1.55 mg/kg dry matter, level 2 (2: base diet plus 47.2 mg/d. Potassium iodide was used. Feeds, orts, drinking water and individual milk samples were collected and analysed for the iodine content. The iodine concentration and total excretion in milk were affected by the level of iodine supplementation (P<0.05. No effect on milk iodine concentration could be addressed either to the level of milk yield or to the milk yield x treatment interaction. The total amount of iodine excretion and carry over were affected (P<0.05 by the level of milk yield.

  2. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: Effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. G.; Nielsen, M. O.; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated....

  3. Risk of recurrent overdose associated with prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after nonfatal overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyuki Okumura,1 Daisuke Nishi21Research Department, Institute for Health Economics and Policy, Association for Health Economics Research and Social Insurance and Welfare, Tokyo, 2Department of Mental Health Policy and Evaluation, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, JapanObjective: We aimed to estimate risk of recurrent overdose associated with psychosocial assessment by psychiatrists during hospitalization for nonfatal overdose and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications after discharge. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a nationwide claims database in Japan. We classified patients aged 19–64 years hospitalized for nonfatal overdose between October 2012 and September 2013 into two cohorts: 1 those who had consulted a psychiatrist prior to overdose (n=6,790 and 2 those who had not (n=4,950. All patients were followed up from 90 days before overdose until 365 days after discharge. Results: Overall, 15.3% of patients with recent psychiatric treatment had a recurrent overdose within 365 days, compared with 6.0% of those without psychiatric treatment. Psychosocial assessment during hospital admission had no significant effect on subsequent overdose, irrespective of treatment by psychiatrists before overdose. There was a dose–response relationship for the association of benzodiazepine prescription after overdose with subsequent overdose in either cohort, even after accounting for average daily dosage of benzodiazepines before overdose and other confounders. In patients with recent psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at 365 days was 27.7% for patients receiving excessive dosages of benzodiazepines, 22.0% for those receiving high dosages, 15.3% for those receiving normal dosages, and 7.6% for those receiving no benzodiazepines. In patients without psychiatric treatment, the cumulative proportion of recurrent overdose at

  4. Epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke and transient ischemic attacks in Al Quseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy HN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Nabil M Abdel-Hakeem,2 Tarek A Rageh,1 Reda Badry,1 Mahmoud R Kandil1 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut branch, Assuit, Egypt Background and purpose: Stroke is a medical emergency that can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and disability. We aim to determine the epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke (CVS and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs in Al Quseir City, Red Sea, Egypt. Methods: The total population (n=33,285 was screened through a door to door study by three specialists of neurology and 15 female social workers (for demographic data collection. All suspected stroke patients were subjected to a full clinical examination, computerized tomography (CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of their brain, blood sugar, lipogram, serum uric acid, complete blood cells, blood urea, and serum creatinine, as well as evaluated by Barthel Index and Scandinavian Stroke Scale. Carotid doppler, echocardiography, and thyroid functions were done for selected cases. Results: CVS was recorded among 130 patients out of 19,848 subjects aged 20 years and more, yielding a total prevalence of 6.55/1,000 population. From June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011, 36 patients were recorded to have stroke within 1-year, yielding an incidence rate of 1.81/1,000. Prevalence and incidence rates were higher among males than females, and both indices increased steadily with advancing age to reach the highest prevalence (37.02/1,000 and incidence rate (9.5/1,000 among aged persons 60 years and more. Conclusion: The prevalence of non-fatal stroke in Al Quseir city (6.55/1,000 was at the lower range of that recorded in developing countries (5–10/1,000 and slightly higher than that recorded in industrialized countries (5/1,000 population. Ischemic stroke is the most

  5. Epidemiology of nonfatal stroke and transient ischemic attack in Al-Kharga District, New Valley, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farghaly WM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Nabil M Abdel-Hakeem,2 Mohamed A Abd Elhamed,1 Bastawy MA Al-Fawal,3 Reda Badry1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, 3Aswan Health Insurance Hospital, Ministry of Health, Aswan, Egypt Background: Stroke is a medical emergency. Nonfatal stroke may cause permanent neurologic damage, complications, and disability. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of nonfatal stroke in Al-Kharga District, New Valley, Egypt. Methods: The total population (62,583 was screened via a door-to-door study by three neurology specialists and 15 female social workers for demographic data collection. All subjects with probable stroke were subjected to a full clinical examination, neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and laboratory investigations including blood sugar, lipid profile, serum uric acid, a complete blood count, blood urea, and serum creatinine. Stroke severity and outcome were assessed using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and Barthel Index. Carotid Doppler, echocardiography, and thyroid function tests were done in selected cases. Results: During the study period (June 1, 2005 to May 31, 2008, 351 subjects were diagnosed as having suffered a cerebrovascular stroke at some point during their lives, yielding a total lifetime prevalence of 5.6 per 1,000 population. Of these, 156 subjects were identified as having suffered a stroke during the year from January 1 to December 31, 2007, with an incidence rate of 2.5 per 1,000. Both prevalence and incidence rates were higher in urban (5.8 per 1,000 and 2.6 per 1,000, respectively than rural communities (5.2 per 1,000 and 2.3 per 1,000, and were higher in males (6.1 per 1,000 and 2.7 per 1,000, respectively than in females (5.1 per 1,000 and 2.3 per 1

  6. [Effect of crystalline metastasis of lactose on hardness of compressed baby milk powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Ohara, Mika; Omae, Rika; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the crystalline metastasis of lactose, which is a main component baby milk powder, and the hardness of baby milk powder compressed by humidification followed by drying. Because baby milk powder is manufactured using a spray dryer, lactose in compressed baby milk powder exists in an amorphous (solid dispersion) form. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this amorphous lactose metastasized to β-form crystalline lactose, and thereafter metastasized to the α-form during the humidification-drying process. As a result of this crystalline metastasis, the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder increased, and then decreased. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed bridging structures between the particles increased and then decreased during the humidification-drying process. This showed that bridging structures between the particles produced by crystalline metastasis of lactose as a result of the humidification-drying process, which leads to an increase in the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder. These results show that the necessary degree of hardness of the porous compressed baby milk powder (necessary for packaging and transportation) resulted from the humidification-drying process.

  7. Cow’s milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Salamończyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Material and methods. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow’s milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds Results. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml, fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively and milk calorifi c value (732 kcal/kg. The highest energy value was recorded in cow’s milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg. Conclusions. High milk calorifi c value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  8. The changes of proteins fractions shares in milk and fermented milk drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Bonczar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this research was to observe the changes which take place in the electrophoretic picture of milk proteins after pasteurisation and inoculation with different starter cultures (both traditional and probiotic. After incubation, the yoghurt, kefir, acidified milk, fermented Bifidobacterium bifidum drink and Lactobacillus acidophillus drink were chilled for 14 days to observe the changes which occurred. Materials and methods. The research materials were raw and pasteurised milk, as well as fermented milk- based drinks. The raw milk used for research came from Polish Holstein-Fresian black and white cows. The milk was sampled 3 times and divided into 5 parts, each of which was pasteurised at 95°C for 10 min and then cooled for inoculation: yoghurt to 45°C, kefir and acidified milk to 22°C and drinks with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophillus to 38°C. Milk was inoculated with lyophilised, direct vat starter cul- tures, in an amount equal to 2% of the working starter. For the production of fermented drinks, the subsequent starters were applied: “YC-180” Christian Hansen for yoghurt, “D” Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for kefir, CH-N--11 Christian Hansen for acidified milk, starter by Christian Hansen for the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum milk, starter by Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophillus milk. The analyses were conducted in raw, pasteurised and freshly fermented milk as well as in milk drinks stored for 14 days. The total solid content was estimated by the drying method; the fat content by the Gerber method; the lactose content by the Bertrand method; the protein content by the Kjeldahl method with Buchi apparatus; the density of milk was measured with lactodensimeter; acidity with a pH-meter; and potential acidity by Soxhlet-Henkl method (AOAC, 1990. The electrophoretic separation of proteins in raw and pasteurised milk, as well as in freshly produced milk drinks

  9. Analysis of Human Milk Composition After Preterm Delivery With and Without Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcho, Peter; Vojtova, Vladimira; Benesova, Michaela

    2015-08-01

    Human milk is often assumed to have a consistent composition, and when fortification is needed, fortifiers are added at fixed doses. However, if the milk contains less than the assumed quantities of nutrients, then the infant drinking that milk may receive inadequate nutrition. In this study, we compared changes in the concentrations of the main constituents of human breast milk before and after fortification. We tested the hypothesis that the protein concentration would increase less than that of other nutrients. Thirty breast milk samples were obtained from mothers of preterm infants (gestational age 28-36 weeks; birthweight 900-2,470 g). The concentrations of fat, carbohydrates, dry matter, protein and energy in the breast milk samples were analyzed and compared with the concentrations of these nutrients in the same samples of milk fortified with a standard amount of HMF FM 85. Dry matter and energy content increased the most after fortification. Although protein also increased, the magnitude of this increase was small relative to the increases in the other components. Lipid concentrations did not significantly change with fortification. Protein is needed for adequate growth in premature infants; however, fortification of breast milk from the mothers of preterm infants resulted in only a small increase in this essential nutrient. Based on these results, we conclude that fortification of human milk must be individually adjusted based on continuous analysis of breast milk composition. Customized fortification would provide more optimal nutrition to preterm infants to support better growth and development.

  10. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Bach Larsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the formation of clots in the milk. Based on reported changes in primarily the milk protein fraction asa response to infection of the mammary gland, different explanations for the generation of precipitates in mastitis milkare discussed. Automatic milking systems (AMS should have sensors to monitor and divert abnormal milk. The managementsystem of AMS provides an excellent opportunity to introduce Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points (HACCPsystems for surveying the milk quality. HACCP-based proposals are given for avoiding contamination of the bulk milk withmilk from cows with clinical mastitis and for ensuring a low bulk milk bacterial count.

  11. Associations between milking practices, somatic cell counts and milk postharvest losses in smallholder dairy and pastoral camel herds in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier B. Kashongwe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On-farm hygienic practices are important in assuring quality and safety of milk for consumers and for reducing losses at production and at post-harvest. This study investigated the relationship between milking practices, mastitis as well as milk somatic cell counts (SCC and the effects of high SCC on milk production and post-harvest losses (PHL in smallholder dairy (n = 64 and pastoral camel (n = 15 herds in Kenya. The collected data included milking practices, mastitis test on udder quarters (n = 1236 and collection of milk samples for laboratory analyses: SCC, detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. Production losses were computed as a proportion of cows and herds with SCC (>200,000 cells/mL and PHL as quantity of milk exceeding 4 × 105 cells/mL. Practices associated with production herds included hands, udder washing and drying, and milk let down stimulation with calves suckling or manually (p < 0.001. Udder drying was only applied in peri-urban herds (100%. Herd level prevalence of mastitis was lower in smallholder than in pastoral herds (60.7% vs 93.3%. Mastitis positive samples had higher prevalence of S.aureus than of Streptococcus species in both smallholder (57.9% vs 23.7% and pastoral (41.6% vs 36.5% herds. Moreover, SCC was significantly affected by presence of mastitis and S.aureus (p < 0.001. Milk PHL from high SCC was higher in smallholder rural herds (27% compared to peri-urban (7% and in pastoral peri-urban (81% compared to rangelands (76%. Milking practices may have contributed to maintain mastitis pathogens in herds. This has led to substantial pre and postharvest milk losses in smallholder and pastoral herds. Therefore teat dipping, dry cow period and herd level mastitis treatment may complement current practices for lower SCC and milk PHL.

  12. Non-fatal cocaine overdose among injecting and non-injecting cocaine users in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sharlene; Darke, Shane

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the frequency of non-fatal cocaine overdose, and responses to overdoses, among injecting and non-injecting cocaine users. Cross-sectional study. Sydney, Australia. Two hundred current cocaine users. Structured interview. Thirteen per cent of the sample had overdosed on cocaine, 7% in the preceding 12 months. Cocaine injectors were more likely to have overdosed, both ever (17 v 6%) and in the preceding 12 months (9 v 3%). The most common symptoms of overdose were palpitations (68%), intense sweating (44%) and seizures (40%). The use of other drugs in combination with cocaine prior to the most recent overdose was prevalent (64%), most commonly opioids (40%), alcohol (24%) and cannabis (24%). Those who had overdosed were more likely to be female, had longer cocaine use careers, had used more cocaine in the preceding month and preceding 6 months, had higher levels of cocaine dependence and more extensive polydrug use. Twenty-four per cent had witnessed a cocaine overdose, 13% in the preceding 12 months. Injectors were more likely to have witnessed overdoses, both ever (35% v 8%) and in the preceding 12 months (20% v 3%). Experience of, and exposure to, overdose were not rare events. Cocaine users need to be aware of the possibility and nature of overdose, and that cocaine overdose can occur irrespective of method of use. There is a need to emphasise the potential danger of combining cocaine with other drugs.

  13. [Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar-Medina, Martha; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo

    2008-01-01

    To determine non-fatal road traffic injuries (NFRTI) prevalence and its distribution in Mexico. Data from ENSANUT Survey 2006 were used. Using simple random sampling, one adult, one adolescent and one child were selected in each household, constituting a final sample of 94,197 representing an N of 102,886,482 people. The dependent variable was the prevalence of road traffic injuries (RTI) during the 12 months prior to the survey. The general accident prevalence was 6.0%; 16.7% corresponded to NFRTI. Men in the 20 to 44 age group living in urban areas and with high socioeconomic status had a higher RTI prevalence (pAguascalientes and Sonora were states with the highest prevalence of RTI, while Guerrero, Michoacan and Oaxaca were those with the lowest. NFRTI are frequent in Mexico and they are concentrated among men in productive ages in urban areas; they are associated with socioeconomic status at the individual level and with the state's development at the population level.

  14. Vital signs: health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Gwen; Peterson, Cora; Ederer, David; Florence, Curtis; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Xu, Likang

    2014-10-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and injury in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the current health burden and medical and work loss costs of nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in the United States. CDC analyzed data on emergency department (ED) visits resulting from nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in 2012 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System – All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The number and rate of all ED visits for the treatment of crash injuries that resulted in the patient being released and the number and rate of hospitalizations for the treatment of crash injuries were estimated, as were the associated number of hospital days and lifetime medical and work loss costs. In 2012, an estimated 2,519,471 ED visits resulted from nonfatal crash injuries, with an estimated lifetime medical cost of $18.4 billion (2012 U.S. dollars). Approximately 7.5% of these visits resulted in hospitalizations that required an estimated 1,057,465 hospital days in 2012. Nonfatal crash injuries occur frequently and result in substantial costs to individuals, employers, and society. For each motor vehicle crash death in 2012, eight persons were hospitalized, and 100 were treated and released from the ED. Public health practices and laws, such as primary seat belt laws, child passenger restraint laws, ignition interlocks to prevent alcohol impaired driving, sobriety checkpoints, and graduated driver licensing systems have demonstrated effectiveness for reducing motor vehicle crashes and injuries. They might also substantially reduce associated ED visits, hospitalizations, and medical costs.

  15. Reporting of drug induced depression and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the UK from 1998 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kyla H.; Richard M. Martin; Potokar, John; Pirmohamed, Munir; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour to the UK’s Yellow Card Scheme from 1998 to 2011. Methods We obtained Yellow Card data from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency for the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression and suicidal behaviour f...

  16. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  17. 7 CFR 252.4 - Application to participate and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... butter, cheese, corn grits, cornmeal, flour, macaroni, nonfat dry milk, peanut butter, peanut granules... paragraph (c)(7)(i)(A) of this section (substitution of meat and poultry items shall not be permitted). (A...

  18. Duchenne muscular dystrophy - a molecular service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy using molecular technology was instituted at the ..... utilising non-fat dry milk for analysis of proteins and nucleic acids transferred ... acid to high specific activity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase.

  19. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  20. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effective, and to slow the growth of cancer cells (see Question 3 and Question 6 ). Milk thistle is usually taken in capsules or tablets (see Question 5 ). Small studies of milk thistle have been done in acute lymphoblastic leukemia , prostate cancer , breast cancer , head and neck cancer , ...

  1. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  2. Human Milk Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  3. Transglutaminase inhibitor from milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A.H. de; Wijngaards, G.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cross-linking experiments of skimmed bovine milk with bacterial transglutaminase isolated from Streptoverticillium mobaraense showed only some degree of formation of high-molecular-weight casein polymers. Studies on the nature of this phenomenon revealed that bovine milk contains an inhibitor of tra

  4. Nonfatal childhood and their association with socioeconomic and gender structures: an ecological study of 14 Swedish municipalities (2000–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Dale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: Injuries are the major cause of death and disability in European children. This study explored socioeconomic and gender structures in association with nonfatal childhood injury rates by sex and age groups in Sweden. Methods: Six indicators of socioeconomic structure and three indicators of gender structure were combined using principal component analysis. Sex- and age-specific mean annual injury rates of fourteen Swedish municipalities were estimated (2000–2005. The associations were analysed with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: Narrow gender ratio in unskilled occupations and in politics was positively associated with injuries in girls 6–17 years (r ≥ 0.7 and with fractures in boys 6–12 years of age (r = 0.5. Wider income distribution was negatively associated (r ≥ -0.4 with boys’ injuries and positively associated with fractures in girls 13–17 years (r = 0.5. Relative wealth and male manager dominance was negatively associated with injuries in children 0–5 years (r = -0.4. Relative poverty was not associated with nonfatal childhood injuries. Conclusions: The strength of the associations between socioeconomic and gender structures and nonfatal childhood injury rates varied by sex, age group and type of injury. Childhood injury preventive interventions should consider the local gender structure, area-level wealth and area-level income distribution, and not only area-level poverty.

  5. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl;

    2016-01-01

    of milk fat. Rapeseed supplementation is expected to increase milk production and to increase all C18 fatty acids in milk fat. An interaction between rapeseed and silage type is expected, as hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in rapeseed is expected to be less when low fibre silage is fed. Thirty...... supplementation. Dry matter intake and milk production was higher for autumn than for spring silage. Rapeseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake, but increased milk production. The concentrations of C18 : 1cis9, C18 : 2n6 and β-carotene and C18 : 3n3 in milk were increased whereas the concentrations....... Rapeseed inclusion increased milk production, and increased C18 : 0 as well as C18 : 1 fatty acids, but not C18 : 2 and C18 : 3 in milk fat. Interactions between silage type and rapeseed supplementation were minimal....

  6. Metoclopramide and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gezelle, H; Ooghe, W; Thiery, M; Dhont, M

    1983-04-01

    Thirteen primiparous nursing mothers participated in this placebo-controlled double blind trial of metoclopramide. Therapy was started on the first postpartum day and continued for 8 days. Seven women received metoclopramide (10 mg, 3 X dd). Serum prolactin and milk yield were measured during the trial. The breast milk composition was analysed during the trial and weekly for 3 wk after the trial. A detailed analysis of the amino acid content was performed on the 6th and 21st postpartum days. During the early puerperium the total milk yield was ca. 50% greater in the metoclopramide-treated group compared to the control group. The evolution of the breast milk composition was similar for both groups, except for the amino acid content. The shift in amino acid composition occurred earlier in the treatment group indicating that metoclopramide enhances the rate of transition from colostrum to mature milk.

  7. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  8. Milk Production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years Croatian economy is restructuring through the processes of market liberalization and closing to EU, which is demanding some significant changes. Agriculture is in the process of reforms on the basis of CAP (Common Agricultural Policy policies of the EU, and those changes are producing different effects in each agricultural sector. The most sensitive area is livestock production, especially cattle and milking cows (production of meat and milk. This sector has insufficient production. More precise, domestic production in Croatia can satisfy around 80% of one-year consumption. This study shows economic position of production and processing of milk with the emphasis on primary milk production, processing of milk, domestic market and export-import situation. The goal is to consider the situation, position and possibilities for development of this sector.

  9. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  11. Sources of Clostridia in Raw Milk on Farms▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Marie-Claude; Dion, Patrice; Lafrenière, Carole; Antoun, Hani; Drouin, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to examine on-farm sources of Clostridium cluster I strains in four dairy farms over 2 years. Conventional microbiological analysis was used in parallel to monitor size of clostridial populations present in various components of the milk production chain (soil, forage, grass silage, maize silage, dry hay, and raw milk). PCR amplification with Clostridium cluster I-specific 16S rRNA gene primers followed by DGGE separation yielded a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which varied greatly with respect to frequency of occurrence. Some OTUs were found only in forage, and forage profiles differed according to farm location (southern or northern Québec). More clostridial contamination was found in maize silage than in grass silage. Milk represented a potential environment for certain OTUs. No OTU was milk specific, indicating that OTUs originated from other environments. Most (83%) of the OTUs detected in raw milk were also found in grass or maize silage. Milk DGGE profiles differed according to farm and sampling year and fit into two distinct categories. One milk profile category was characterized by the presence of a few dominant OTUs, the presence of which appeared to be more related to farm management than to feed contamination. OTUs were more varied in the second profile category. The identities of certain OTUs frequently found in milk were resolved by cloning and sequencing. Clostridium disporicum was identified as an important member of clostridial populations transmitted to milk. Clostridium tyrobutyricum was consistently found in milk and was widespread in the other farm environments examined. PMID:18757576

  12. Growth and Freeze-Drying Optimization of Bifidobacterium crudilactis

    OpenAIRE

    Tanimomo, Jean; Delcenserie, Véronique; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Saint-Hubert, Catherine; Durieux, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 belongs to a new population of bifidobacteria isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese. The objective of this work was to study the large scale culture of the stain and its stability in a dry formulation. Growth rate of Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 was optimal at a pH of 5.0 and a temperature of 37˚C. At a temperature growth of 33˚C and a pH of 5.0, the stationary phase was reached after 22 h, the viable cell number and the mean dry b...

  13. Comparison of near and medium infrared spectroscopy to predict fatty acid composition on fresh and thawed milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, Mauro; Revello-Chion, Andrea; Giaccone, Daniele; Ferlay, Anne; Tabacco, Ernesto; Borreani, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Near (NIR) and medium (MIR) infrared reflectance spectroscopy (IR) predictions of fatty acid (FA) composition, expressed as g/kg of milk or g/100g of FA, on fresh and thawed milk were compared. Two-hundred-and-fifty bulk cow milks, collected from 70 farms in northwest Italy, were scanned by MIR in liquid form and by NIR in liquid and oven-dried forms. MIR and NIR FA (g/100g FA) predictions on oven-dried milk were similar for the sum of even chain-saturated FA (ECSFA), odd chain-FA (OCFA), unsaturated FA (UFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 FA, and C18:1cis9 to C16 ratio. The monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-6 to n-3 ratio, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and n-6 FA were predicted better by NIR on oven-dried milk. The NIR showed worse predictions than MIR for almost all FA, when expressed as g/kg of milk. The NIR predictions on fresh liquid and oven-dried milk were similar, but the reliability decreased for thawed liquid milk. The high performance shown by NIR and MIR allows their use for routine milk FA composition recording.

  14. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  15. Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, U.; Jensen, S.

    2016-01-01

    of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content....... Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...

  16. Clinical pathology of milking calves digestion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatur Bogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The period from calving until normal dry food feeding is very sensitive for preruminat animals. Normal weaning can be successful at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Young milking calves are very susceptible to bacterial or viral infection if immunity is not reached through colostrum on time. On the other hand indigestions are very frequent and account for one-third of the most frequent disorders in young calves. Parturition losses (dystocia and respiratory diseases are more frequent. The final result of negative environmental and management influences can be the onset of acute or chronic diarrhea associated with long, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. Acute dehydration and death are not so rare. Etiological reasons are known, it is possible define them: inadequate feeding of pregnant cows and heifers in late stages of pregnancy; hygiene problems and bad management of neonate calves. Contaminated milk, starters and milk substitutes are the main source of scours. These problems are evident on farms where owners or workers do not have the elementary knowledge about physiology, anatomic differences and management principles for preruminant animals. At weaning time calves can develop serious problems when dry feeding does not begin on time. For does that reason normal micro flora and fauna are not able to accept normal function for ruminal digestion.

  17. Deinococcus Mn2+ -Peptide Complex: A Novel Approach to Alphavirus Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Island, NY) and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Amersham Biosciences, Pittsburgh, PA). Membranes were blocked with 6% non-fat dry milk ...MO) and 5% nonfat dry milk (Becton Dickinson and Co., Sparks, MD) (PBSTM) for 2 hours at 37oC. The plates were washed 3 times with PBST using the...polyclonal rabbit anti-VEEV antibody (kindly provided by Dr. Franziska B. Grieder, USUHS, Bethesda, MD) (1:200) or CHIKV immune ascititc fluid (1:100) (ATCC

  18. 奶牛产奶量与乳成分的多元回归分析%Multiple Regression Analysis on Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧娥; 吴学荣; 马水鱼; 邢燕

    2011-01-01

    通过SAS 8.2软件分析了20头胎次相同、泌乳期相近荷斯坦泌乳牛产奶量与乳成分中乳蛋白质率、乳脂率、干物质、体细胞数和乳中尿素氮的多元回归分析.结果表明:从产奶量与乳成分的单项指标回归分析表明,产奶量与乳脂率、体细胞数和干物质含量呈显著性的负相关,而与乳蛋白率和乳中尿素氮差异不显著;从产奶量与乳成分的多元回归分析表明,乳蛋白率、乳脂率和干物质含量对产奶量的影响高于体细胞数和乳中尿素氮,同时乳蛋白率、乳脂率、体细胞数和乳中尿素氮与产奶量成反比.%20 heads Holstein cattles of same matched plet and similar lactation period were selected. Multiple regression analysis between milk yield and protein ratio in milk, fat ration in milk, dry matter content,somatic cell count and urea nitrogen in milk were analyzed in this study by SAS 8.2. The result showed that the corelation between milk yield and fat ration in milk, somatic cell count, and dry matter content was significantly negative, while milk yield had no significant corelation with protein ratio in milk and urea nitrogen in milk according to single index regression analysis between milk yield and milk components. The effects of protein ratio in milk, fat ration in milk and dry matter content on milk yield were bigger than those of somatic cell count and urea nitrogen in milk, meanwhile, protein ratio in milk, fat ration in milk, somatic cell count and urea nitrogen in milk were inversely proportional to milk yield according to multiple regression analysis between milk yield and milk components.

  19. Elimination of the tremorgenic toxin of Ipomoea asarifolia by milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the aim to determine if the tremorgenic toxin of Ipomoea asarifolia is eliminated in milk, three groups of Swiss female mice received, immediately after giving birth until weaning, a ration containing 20% or 30% of dry I. asarifolia. All the offspring of the females that received 20% or 30% I. ...

  20. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.; Milanović Spasenija D.; Lončar Eva S.; Malbaša Radomir V.

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v) of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characterist...

  1. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the m

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  4. Use of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn on intake, apparent digestibility, production and composition of milk of dairy goats Utilização da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho em substituição ao milho seco no consumo, digestibilidade aparente, produção e composição do leite de cabras leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.l.L. Canizares

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty primiparous and multiparous Alpine breed goats at approximately 80 days of lactation were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually in metal cages and distributed according to milk production in five 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experimental diets used in the experiment presented concentrate:forage ratio of 65:35. The treatments were characterized by increasing levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% of high moisture corn silage (HMCS replacing corn dry grain (CDG. Average intake of DM (1.62 kg/day, 3.90 % BW, CP (0.22 kg/day, NFC (0.76 kg/day and TDN (1.29 kg/day were not influenced by levels of HMCS. However, intake of NDF (0.53 kg/day was significant for the different level of HMCS. Daily milk production and production of milk correct at 3.5% of fat, feed efficiency (MP/DMI, fat percentage, protein, lactose, total solids and milk urea nitrogen, with means of 1.86; 1.69; 1.11; 2.96; 2.85; 4.36; 10.96 and 17.1, respectively, were not influenced by the levels of HMCS. Percentage of non fat solids (8.00% was affected by replacing levels of HMCS. The use of high moisture corn silage in the diet does not change milk production and it can be applied in total or partial substitution to dry corn grain in the feeding of milk goats.Foram utilizadas 20 cabras da raça Alpina, primíparas e multíparas, com aproximadamente 80 dias em lactação, alojadas individualmente em gaiolas metálicas e distribuídas, de acordo com a produção de leite, em cinco quadrados latinos 4 × 4. As dietas experimentais utilizadas apresentaram relação concentrado:volumoso 65:35. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por níveis crescentes 0, 33, 67 e 100% de silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM em substituição ao grão seco de milho (GSM. As médias de consumo de MS (1,62 kg/dia, 3,90 %PV, proteína bruta (0,22 kg/dia, carboidratos não fibrosos (0,76 kg/dia e nutrientes digestíveis totais (1,29 kg/dia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de SGUM

  5. Milk iodine residues in herds practicing iodophor premilking teat disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, D M; Petersson, L G; Erb, H N

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to determine effects of different concentrations of iodophor teat dips on milk iodine residues, when teat dips were used both premilking and postmilking. Eighty cows in each of seven herds were assigned to one of four treatments. Each treatment received postmilking teat dip at .1 or 1% iodophor concentration. Two groups received no premilking dip, and the other two groups received premilking teat dip at the same concentration as the postmilking teat dip. Premilking teat dipping was followed by manual drying of teats. Noniodophor postmilking dips and no premilking inodophor udder sanitizers were used during an 8-d adjustment period. Milk was collected for milk iodine determination from each cow from weigh jars or milk meters at p.m. milkings during the last 3 d of the adjustment period and d 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment period. Premilking and postmilking teat dipping with .1% iodophor dip did not significantly increase milk iodine residue above postmilking teat dipping with .1% iodophor dip alone. However, 1% iodophor postmilking teat dip significantly increased milk iodine residue over use of .1% iodophor dip used as a premilking and postmilking teat dip. Adding a 1% iodophor premilking teat dip significantly increased iodine residues.

  6. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  7. Liquid chromatography-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the separation and preconcentration of molybdenum in milk and infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, I; Viñas, P; Romero-Romero, R; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2007-08-06

    Two procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of molybdenum in milk and infant formulas using slurried samples are described. For powdered milk samples, 10% (m/v) slurries were prepared in a medium containing 25 and 75% (v/v) concentrated hydrogen peroxide and hydrofluoric acid, respectively, and introduced directly into the furnace. Palladium (200 microg mL(-1)) was used as the modifier and calibration was carried out using aqueous standards prepared in the same medium. The detection limit was 0.02 microg g(-1) for powdered milk samples suspended at 10% (m/v) (equivalent to 2 microg L(-1)). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for five measurements was 1.9%, the characteristic mass being 25 pg. For liquid milk samples, a procedure was proposed based on preconcentration and removal of the matrix, using ionic exchange (Amberlite IRA 743) and elution of molybdenum with 5% (m/v) NaOH. In this case, a 30-fold improvement in the calibration slope was achieved, leading to a detection limit of 0.04 microg L(-1) for liquid samples diluted to 10%. The R.S.D. was 3.5%. Using a size-based separation procedure, it was found that molybdenum is present in its inorganic form or associated to low molecular weight substances in cow milk, while in breast milk it is associated to proteins. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained with those found using a previous mineralization stage and by analyzing three certified reference materials, namely, BCR 063R (skim milk powder), NBS 1549 (non-fat milk powder) and NBS 8435 (whole milk powder).

  8. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  9. Bovine milk glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B

    2008-10-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  10. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality...... and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive...

  11. Fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior in Israeli adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter, Alan; King, Robert A; Bleich, Avi; Fluck, Avi; Kotler, Moshe; Kron, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is examine the similarities and differences between adolescent suicide completers, adolescents with non-fatal suicidal symptoms, and non-suicidal psychiatric controls in an epidemiologic sample. Using the central Israeli military medical registry, 214 18-21 year old males from the same national service cohort were identified, consisting of 43 consecutive completed suicides and 171 consecutive central psychiatric clinic outpatients presenting with near-fatal suicide attempts, serious suicide attempts, para-suicidal gestures, threats, ideation, or other non-suicidal complaints. Systematic pre-induction and service data were available for all subjects, with detailed postmortem inquest data for suicides. Systematic clinical data, including the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS), Hamilton Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory were obtained on all clinic subjects. Major depression was present in half of completers, near-lethal attempters, and ideators, but absent in the other clinic groups, whose commonest diagnosis was adjustment disorder. Depression scores increased across groups with increasing intent; ideators also had high scores. Completers and near-lethal attempters had higher I.Q. and medical fitness ratings and were in more demanding assignments than other groups. Prior attempts were commonest in completers, near-lethal attempters, and gesturers. Disciplinary history, ethnicity, family intactness, immigrant status, and Eysenck Personality Inventory scores did not differentiate the groups. The findings may not be generalizable to female adolescents or to other countries or time periods. The findings thus point to contrasts, as well as similarities, between groups of adolescents with different types of suicidal symptoms.

  12. Fermented milk for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-04-18

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.

  13. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  14. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  15. Pasteurization of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barbosa Alzate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the time it takes milk, which is heated from 60°F to 150°F, to achieve pasteurization and compared this result with the standard pasteurization process of heating milk at a constant temperature of 150°F for 30 minutes. Instead of directly quantifying the bacterium population, we considered the bacteria to milk concentration ratio. To solve for the unknown time, we equated the final bacterium concentration ratio achieved through both varied temperature and constant temperature. After equating the final pasteurization concentrations we were unable to find an analytical solution, so we used numerical techniques to find the unknown heating time.

  16. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Holsteins, Red Danes, and Jerseys in parities 1, 2, and 3. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model, with cow-lactation as a random effect and assuming heterogeneous residual variance over the lactation. Cow-lactation variance was fitted using linear spline functions with 5 knot-points. Residual...... variance was generally greatest in early lactation and declined thereafter. Accordingly, animal-related variance tended to increase with progression of lactation. Milking frequency (the reverse of milking interval) was found to be moderately repeatable throughout lactation. Daily milk yield expressed per...

  17. Correlation between whole and partial milk yields of dairy cows milked using the automatic milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to quantify the correlations between milk indicators of partial milk yields and whole milk output; we analysed 576 milk samples taken from 2 to 4 partial milk yields of 156 Holstein dairy cows milked using the automatic milking system (AMS. In the accredited (EN ISO 17025 milk laboratory in Brno–Tuřany the samples were analysed for the content of fat (T; g . 100g−1, crude protein (B; g . 100g−1, lactose (L; lactose monohydrate; g . 100g−1 and somatic cell count (SCC; 103.ml−1. The average values in the whole milk output were as follows: T = 3.69 g . 100g−1, B = 3.39 g . 100g−1, L = 4.92 g . 100g−1, PSB = 345.103 ml−1 and log SCC = 1.9695, at a whole milk output of 29.88 kg.day1 of milk. The correlation coefficients between the milk indicators (T, B, L, PSB and log PSB of partial milk yields and whole milk output ranged from the minimum r = 0.786 (between the content of T in the whole and 3rd milk yield to the maximum r = 0.979 (between the content of B in the whole milk output and identically in the 1st, 3rd and 4th milk yields and in all cases they were statistically highly significant (P ≤ 0.001. Next we calculated the regression equations for the estimation of milk indicators of the whole milk output from milk indicators of the 1st to 4th partial milk yields.

  18. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  19. Estimation and comparison of benefits due to feeding hay and silage during the dry season on commercial dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras and Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, A.D.; Holmann, F.; Argel, P.; Ordoñez, J.C.; Chaves, J.

    2006-01-01

    Smallholders with dual-purpose cattle production systems in most Central America experience a shortage of forages during the dry season (4-8 month. As a result, substantially lower milk production and weight gain occurs. Dual-purpose operations seeking to maximize milk and beef production in the dry

  20. Milk yield and milk composition responses to change in predicted net energy and metabolizable protein: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J B; Friggens, N C; Chapoutot, P; Van Laar, H; Sauvant, D

    2016-12-01

    Using a meta-analysis of literature data, this study aimed to quantify the dry matter (DM) intake response to changes in diet composition, and milk responses (yield, milk component yields and milk composition) to changes in dietary net energy for lactation (NEL) and metabolizable protein (MP) in dairy cows. From all studies included in the database, 282 experiments (825 treatments) with experimentally induced changes in either NEL or MP content were kept for this analysis. These treatments covered a wide range of diet characteristics and therefore a large part of the plausible NEL and MP contents and supplies that can be expected in practical situations. The average MP and NEL contents were, respectively (mean±SD), 97±12 g/kg DM and 6.71±0.42 MJ/kg DM. On a daily supply basis, there were high between-experiment correlations for MP and NEL above maintenance. Therefore, supplies of MP and NEL above maintenance were, respectively, centred on MP supply for which MP efficiency into milk protein is 0.67, and NEL above maintenance supply for which the ratio of NEL milk/NEL above maintenance is 1.00 (centred variables were called MP67 and NEL100). The majority of the selected studies used groups of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation, milked twice a day. Using a mixed model, between- and within-experiment variation was split to estimate DM intake and milk responses. The use of NEL100 and MP67 supplies substantially improved the accuracy of the prediction of milk yield and milk component yields responses with, on average, a 27% lower root mean square error (RMSE) relative to using dietary NEL and MP contents as predictors. For milk composition (g/kg), the average RMSE was only 3% lower on a supply basis compared with a concentration basis. Effects of NEL and MP supplies on milk yield and milk component yields responses were additive. Increasing NEL supply increases energy partitioning towards body reserve, whereas increasing MP supply increases the

  1. Milk metabolome relates enteric methane emission to milk synthesis and energy metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Fernandes, E C; van Gastelen, S; Dijkstra, J; Hettinga, K A; Vervoort, J

    2016-08-01

    Methane (CH4) emission of dairy cows contributes significantly to the carbon footprint of the dairy chain; therefore, a better understanding of CH4 formation is urgently needed. The present study explored the milk metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (milk volatile metabolites) and nuclear magnetic resonance (milk nonvolatile metabolites) to better understand the biological pathways involved in CH4 emission in dairy cattle. Data were used from a randomized block design experiment with 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows and 4 diets. All diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 80:20 (dry matter basis) and the roughage was grass silage (GS), corn silage (CS), or a mixture of both (67% GS, 33% CS; 33% GS, 67% CS). Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as CH4 yield (per unit of dry matter intake) and CH4 intensity (per unit of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). No volatile or nonvolatile metabolite was positively related to CH4 yield, and acetone (measured as a volatile and as a nonvolatile metabolite) was negatively related to CH4 yield. The volatile metabolites 1-heptanol-decanol, 3-nonanone, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran were positively related to CH4 intensity. None of the volatile metabolites was negatively related to CH4 intensity. The nonvolatile metabolites acetoacetate, creatinine, ethanol, formate, methylmalonate, and N-acetylsugar A were positively related to CH4 intensity, and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-hexose B and citrate were negatively related to CH4 intensity. Several volatile and nonvolatile metabolites that were correlated with CH4 intensity also were correlated with FPCM and not significantly related to CH4 intensity anymore when FPCM was included as covariate. This suggests that changes in these milk metabolites may be related to changes in milk yield or metabolic processes involved in milk synthesis. The UDP-hexose B was correlated with FPCM, whereas citrate was not. Both metabolites were

  2. Use of whey powder and skim milk powder for the production of fermented cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren AKAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is about the production of fermented cream samples having 18% fat by addition of starter cultures. In order to partialy increase non-fat solid content of fermented cream samples, skim milk powder and demineralized whey powder in two different rates (50% and 70% were used. Samples were analyzed for changes in their biochemical and physicochemical properties (total solid, ash, fat, titratable acidity, pH value, total nitrogen, viscosity, tyrosine, acid number, peroxide and diacetyl values during 29-day of storage period. Samples tested consisted of 7 different groups; control group (without adding any powder, skim milk powder, 50% demineralized whey powder and 70% demineralized whey powder samples were in two different addition rate (2% and 4%. Also samples were analyzed for sensory properties. According to the results obtained, the addition of milk powder products affected titratable acidity and tyrosine values of fermented cream samples. Although powder addition and/or storage period didn’t cause significant variations in total solid, ash, fat, pH value, viscosity, acid number, peroxide, tyrosine and diacetyl values; sensory properties of fermented cream samples were influenced by both powder addition and storage period. Fermented cream containing 2% skim milk powder gets the top score of sensory evaluation among the samples.

  3. A new comprehensive index for discriminating adulteration in bovine raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Jing; Liu, Zhen-Min; Guo, Ben-Heng

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a new comprehensive index, called Q, which can effectively discriminate artificial adulterated milk from unadulterated milk. Both normal and adulterated samples of bovine raw milk were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic instrument to measure the traditional indices of quality, including fat (FAT), protein (PRO), lactose (LAC), total solids (TS), non-fat solid (NFS), freezing point (FP) and somatic cell counts (SCC). From these traditional indices, this paper elaborates a method to build the index Q. First, correlated analysis and principle component analysis were used to select parameter pairs TS-FAT and FP-LAC as predominant variables. Second, linear-regression analysis and residual analysis are applied to determine the index Q and its discriminating ranges. The verification and two-blind trial results suggested that index Q could accurately detect milk adulteration with maltodextrin and water (as low as 1.0% of adulteration proportions), and with other nine kinds of synthetic adulterants (as low as 0.5% of adulteration proportions). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...... for daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...

  5. INFLUENCE OF BIOPREPARATIONS FROM DRY SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER LECITHINS ON SERUM LIPIDS COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Dziak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry lecithin, which is a mixture of polar phospholipids, neutral lipids, free fatty acids, glycolipids, carbohydrates, and small amounts of moisture, is a promising object for biologic-hepatoprotectors creation. One of its pharmacological activity displays is its influence on serum lipids, in particular transport forms of these lipids. The influence of dry soy lecithin and sunflower on hyperlipoproteinemia ratio and other lipid disorders is studied. It is shown that low-fat dry soybean lecithin showed hypocholesterolemic activity against all studied forms of serum cholesterol. Nonfat dry sunflower lecithin had similar but somewhat less prominent effect. However reduced concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol under sunflower lecithin developed right before soya lecithin. Both lecithin prevented the development of dyslipidemia induced carbon tetrachloride.

  6. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper.

  7. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... becomes catabolic due to the high priority of milk production and to current feeding practices. Indeed, feed is changed from a gestation to a lactation diet for most sows and the feed supply typically goes from a restricted supply to an ad libitum allowance. In addition, transition sows are often exposed...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  8. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  9. Short communication: Lactational responses to palmitic acid supplementation when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, J; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of mid-lactation dairy cows to a palmitic acid (C16:0)-enriched fatty acid supplement when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn in the diet. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (182 ± 60 d in milk; mean ± SD) were blocked by preliminary 3.5% fat-corrected milk and randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments consisted of a control diet containing no supplemental fat (CON), and 2 C16:0-enriched fatty acid-supplemented treatments (PA; BergaFat F100, Berg & Schmidt, Hanover, Germany) as a replacement for either soyhulls (PA-SH) or dry ground corn (PA-CG). The C16:0-enriched supplement was fed at 1.5% of diet dry matter. The PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake, but PA-SH increased dry matter intake by 1.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments did not affect milk yield; however, PA-SH increased milk yield by 2.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to decrease milk protein content (3.12 vs. 3.15%). In contrast, PA-SH increased milk protein content (3.14 vs. 3.10%) and milk protein yield (1.27 vs. 1.19 kg/d) compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments increased milk fat concentration (3.68 vs. 3.55%) and milk fat yield (1.46 vs. 1.38 kg/d). The increase in milk fat yield with PA treatments was due to the increase in the yield of 16-carbon fatty acid in milk fat. Furthermore, PA-SH tended to increase yield of de novo fatty acids and yield of 16-carbon fatty acids compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to increase feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/dry matter intake) compared with CON (1.51 vs. 1.46). The PA-SH treatment tended to increase insulin concentration compared with PA-CG (1.58 vs. 1.49 μg/L) and PA treatments increased nonesterified fatty acids compared with CON (110 vs. 99 μEq/L). Overall, PA treatments improved feed efficiency and increased milk fat yield and the response to the C16:0-enriched

  10. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  11. Risk of Nonfatal Stroke in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Comparison Between Disease Management Programs and Standard Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiefarn, Stefan; Heumann, Christian; Rettelbach, Anja; Kostev, Karel

    2017-07-01

    The present retrospective study examines the influence of disease management programs on nonfatal stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Germany. The evaluation is based on retrospective patient data from the Disease Analyzer (IMS Health). The analysis included 169 414 T2DM patients aged 40 years and older with an initial prescription of antihyperglycemic therapy between January 2004 and December 2014. A total of 86 713 patients participated in a disease management program (DMP) for T2DM and 82 701 patients received standard care. The main outcome measure of this study was nonfatal stroke. Kaplan-Meier curves of DMP and SC patients were compared using log rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to provide an adjusted estimate of the DMP effect. It is apparent from the baseline characteristics that the general health of patients receiving standard care was poorer than that of patients participating in a DMP. The baseline HbA1c value was 7.6% in the DMP group and 7.8% in the SC group. Furthermore, the SC group had a higher proportion of preexisting conditions, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral arterial occlusive disease (pAOD), and renal insufficiency. The proportion of patients who received insulin in first year therapy was higher in the SC group. Time to event analysis showed that DMP was associated with a delayed occurrence of stroke, because stroke occurred an average of 350 days later in DMP patients than in patients receiving SC (DMP: 1.216 days, RV: 866 days). The Cox model with covariable adjustment confirmed the significant association of DMPs with nonfatal stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (HR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.69-0.74). The present study indicates that DMPs are positively associated with stroke. The possible reasons for this must be verified in further studies.

  12. Increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction following testosterone therapy prescription in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Finkle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between testosterone therapy (TT and cardiovascular disease has been reported and TT use is increasing rapidly. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of the risk of acute non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI following an initial TT prescription (N = 55,593 in a large health-care database. We compared the incidence rate of MI in the 90 days following the initial prescription (post-prescription interval with the rate in the one year prior to the initial prescription (pre-prescription interval (post/pre. We also compared post/pre rates in a cohort of men prescribed phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I; sildenafil or tadalafil, N = 167,279, and compared TT prescription post/pre rates with the PDE5I post/pre rates, adjusting for potential confounders using doubly robust estimation. RESULTS: In all subjects, the post/pre-prescription rate ratio (RR for TT prescription was 1.36 (1.03, 1.81. In men aged 65 years and older, the RR was 2.19 (1.27, 3.77 for TT prescription and 1.15 (0.83, 1.59 for PDE5I, and the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR for TT prescription relative to PDE5I was 1.90 (1.04, 3.49. The RR for TT prescription increased with age from 0.95 (0.54, 1.67 for men under age 55 years to 3.43 (1.54, 7.56 for those aged ≥ 75 years (p trend = 0.03, while no trend was seen for PDE5I (p trend = 0.18. In men under age 65 years, excess risk was confined to those with a prior history of heart disease, with RRs of 2.90 (1.49, 5.62 for TT prescription and 1.40 (0.91, 2.14 for PDE5I, and a RRR of 2.07 (1.05, 4.11. DISCUSSION: In older men, and in younger men with pre-existing diagnosed heart disease, the risk of MI following initiation of TT prescription is substantially increased.

  13. Long-Term Effects of the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on Incidence of Fatal and Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Kentarou; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Matsuura, Yuuki; Komi, Ryousuke; Niiyama, Masanobu; Kawakami, Mikio; Koeda, Yorihiko; Sakai, Toshiaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Tomonori

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the long-term effects of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami on the incidence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, the incidence of 2 types of cardiac events was comprehensively recorded. The study area was divided into 2 zones based on the severity of tsunami damage, which was determined by the percentage of the inundated area within the residential area (tsunami (r = 0.77; p tsunami was associated with a continual increase in the incidence of fatal MI among disaster survivors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Effect of oilseeds rich in linoleic and linolenic acids on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia GAO; Tao SUN; Jianguo LI

    2009-01-01

    Nine multiparous cows averaging 93±13 days in milk production (DIM) were used in a triple 3×3 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding them whole roasted flaxseed, cracked roasted soybean and fresh alfalfa in the diet on milk production, milk fatty acid profiles and the digestibility of nutrients. Each experimental period lasted 30 d and a sample collection was performed during the last 7 d. The cows were fed on the control basal diet (CON) or diets containing whole roasted flaxseed (FLA) or cracked roasted soybean (SOY). All diets were fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) and had similar concentrations of crude protein (CP), Net Energy Lactation (NEL), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The dry matter intake (DMI) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but tended to increase in FLA and SOY diets compared with the control (P > 0.05). Cows in all treatments had a similar milk yield, although 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield was higher on the FLA and SOY diets than on the CON diet. Milk fat percentage (3.45%) increased in the FLA diet compared with the control (3.31%) and SOY diets (3.39%). Milk protein percentages were similar among the diets (P > 0.05). There were similar digestibilities of DM, CP and ADF among the treatments and lower digestibilities of NDF and ether extract in the SOY diet compared with the CON diet. Feeding various oilseeds significantly increased the concentrations of C18:1, C18:3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The FLA diet decreased the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty-acids in the milk, which would improve the nutritive value of the milk.

  16. Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight and estrus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Delavaud, C.; Chilliard, Y.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe fluctuations in leptin concentrations during late pregnancy and lactation and to investigate how those fluctuations are related to energy balance, milk yield, milk components, dry matter intake, live weight, first postpartum luteal activity, and first obse

  17. Effects of intramammary antibiotic therapy during the dry period on the performance of Lacaune dairy sheep under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira, Laura; Fernández, Beatriz; Egea, Marta; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan V; Astiz, Susana

    2015-02-01

    Often the only way to ensure profitability of Lacaune dairy sheep is intensive management, which requires appropriate dry-period treatment to ensure animal productivity and health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intramammary antibiotic dry therapy on the performance and health of Lacaune sheep under intensive management. We recorded data for 5981 complete lactation periods that followed a dry period. A total of 2402 lactation periods were preceded by a dry period involving intramammary administration of 300 mg of cephapirin benzathine (antibiotic group) and 3579 lactation periods were preceded by dry periods with no treatment (control group). The following on-farm yield data were collected for individual lactation periods: length of the subsequent lactation period; total milk yield per lactation period; daily milk yield and length of the subsequent dry period. Data on confounding factors that might affect productivity were also recorded, including the individual ewe, number of lactation periods and length of the previous dry period. Milk quality was assessed using data on somatic cell count (SCC) and content of protein and fat taken from the Spanish National Official Milk Yield Recording System. Antibiotic dry therapy significantly improved total yield per lactation period, which was 429±151·1 l in the antibiotic group and 412±165·5 l in the control group, as well as the daily milk yield, which was 1986±497·0 and 1851±543·2 ml/d, respectively (both P<0·0001). The initial dry period was significantly longer in the antibiotic group than in the control group, and dry period length correlated inversely with yield variables such us total yield per lactation period (r=-0·055; P<0·0001) and yield per day in milk (r=-0·039; P<0·0001). As a result, milk yield records systematically underestimated the positive effects of antibiotic dry therapy. Antibiotic dry therapy also significantly improved milk quality. Milk from the antibiotic

  18. A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour--the mediating role of school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Beata; Lindblad, Frank; Ostberg, Viveca; Lindberg, Lene; Rasmussen, Finn; Hjern, Anders

    2012-01-09

    A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  19. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  20. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  1. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  2. Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and

  3. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk.

  4. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C. Bertram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining a better understanding of how milk composition is linked to nutritional or quality traits.

  5. Manufacture and application of high milk protein powder

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Vikram

    2002-01-01

    International audience; A procedure was developed for the production of a high milk protein powder that was rich in both milk proteins, casein and whey proteins, and free of lactose. The method utilized ultrafiltration and diafiltration with no pH adjustment and a relatively low temperature. Spray drying was conducted at low temperatures (120 to 125 °C inlet air temperature, 75 to 80 °C outlet air temperature). The resulting powder contained at least 84% total protein (casein and whey protein...

  6. Production response of lactating cows fed dried versus wet brewers' grain in diets with similar dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, T R; Bingham, H R; Radloff, H D

    2003-09-01

    Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (20 intact and 4 fitted with rumen cannula) during early lactation (56 +/- 25.3 d in milk) were assigned to two treatments to determine intake and production responses to feeding dried and wet brewers' grain. There were two cows fitted with a rumen cannula in each treatment. Cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily containing either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The diet contained 47% forage and 53% concentrate. The experimental design was a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square with two periods of 5 wk each. First 2 wk in each period were considered as adaptation to diets and data from the last 3 wk were used for treatment comparisons. Dried and wet brewers' diets contained 68.0 and 66.5% DM, respectively. Feeding brewers' grain dry or wet to dairy cows had no influence on feed intake (25.6 vs. 25.1 kg/d), fat corrected milk yield (40.1 vs. 40.7 kg/d), milk composition and feed consumption. The pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acids and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not different between treatments. Fatty acid composition of milk fat from cows fed diets containing dry or wet brewers' grain was identical, except C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids were lower in milk fat from cows fed wet brewers' grain compared with dried brewers' grain. The results from the present study suggest that the performance of cows fed either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of dietary DM was similar when diets had the same DM. The average price for dried and wet brewers' grain in the United States from July 2001 to June 2002 was dollars 145.3 and dollars 96.9/metric tonne DM, respectively. Using wet instead of dried brewers' grain will save dollars 49/metric tonne minus the difference in storage costs. Wet brewers' grain can be fed to dairy cows in areas that are close to the brewery and provides nutritive value similar to the dried brewers' grain.

  7. Contributions to ultrasound monitoring of the process of milk curdling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Antonio; Rufo, Montaña; Paniagua, Jesús M; Crespo, Abel T; Guerrero, M Patricia; Riballo, M José

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasound evaluation permits the state of milk being curdled to be determined quickly and cheaply, thus satisfying the demands faced by today's dairy product producers. This paper describes the non-invasive ultrasonic method of in situ monitoring the changing physical properties of milk during the renneting process. The basic objectives of the study were, on the one hand, to confirm the usefulness of conventional non-destructive ultrasonic testing (time-of-flight and attenuation of the ultrasound waves) in monitoring the process in the case of ewe's milk, and, on the other, to include other ultrasound parameters which have not previously been considered in studies on this topic, in particular, parameters provided by the Fast Fourier Transform technique. The experimental study was carried out in a dairy industry environment on four 52-l samples of raw milk in which were immersed 500kHz ultrasound transducers. Other physicochemical parameters of the raw milk (pH, dry matter, protein, Gerber fat test, and lactose) were measured, as also were the pH and temperature of the curdled samples simultaneously with the ultrasound tests. Another contribution of this study is the linear correlation analysis of the aforementioned ultrasound parameters and the physicochemical properties of the curdled milk.

  8. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  9. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  10. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk. It...

  11. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  12. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a) Description. Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete milking...

  13. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  15. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  17. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk: importance of soluble minerals in the changes in viscosity during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenue, A; Jiménez-Flores, R; Singh, H

    2003-12-01

    Properties of condensed milks prior to spray drying dictate to a large extent the functionality of the resulting milk powder. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk, with total solids content of 45% but different mineral content, were studied as a function of shear rate and storage time at 50 degrees C. These milks are proposed as a model to study the effects of minerals on rheology and age gellation of condensed milk prior to drying. During storage of the concentrated milk, the apparent viscosity, particularly after 4 h, increased markedly at all shear rates studied. The yield stress also increased steeply after 4 h of storage at 50 degrees C. The changes in apparent viscosity of concentrated milk stored for up to 4 h were largely reversible under high shear, but irreversible in samples stored for longer time. The appearance of yield stress suggested the presence of reversible flocculation arising from weak attraction between casein micelles, with a transition from reversible to irreversible aggregation during storage. Particle size analysis confirmed irreversible aggregation and fusion of casein micelles during storage. Gradual reduction of mineral content of concentrated milks resulted in a marked decrease in the apparent viscosity and casein micelle aggregation during storage, while addition of minerals to milk had the opposite effect. The results demonstrated that the soluble mineral content is very important in controlling the storage-induced changes in the rheology of concentrated milks.

  18. A study on friability, hardness and fiber content analysis of fiber enriched milk tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Irfan, M. H.; Ibrahim, U. K.

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to analyze the friability, hardness and fiber content of fiber enriched milk tablet derived from five different local fiber sources such as carrot, spinach, dragon fruit, mango and watermelon. Cow milk was mixed to complement with the tablet as a protein source. The powder were spray dried at 100°C, 120°C and 140°C and freeze dried at -60°C. The mixture of fruits and milk were made into equal ratio with the addition of 15 maltodextrin as a carrier. Tablets formed were used for friability and hardness test while dried powder were used for fiber content analysis. Dragon fruit tablet dried at 140°C have the highest friability with 11. 42 of weight loss. The second highest friability was spinach tablet dried at 100°C and 120°C drying temp erature with 9.30 and 9.28 respectively. The lowest friability was exhibited by carrot, mango and watermelon tablet at 100°C and dragon fruit at 120°C while carrot and spinach at 140°C. In contras t, none of the freeze dried tablets showed any weight loss hence they are not friable. For hardness test, all of the freeze dried showed to have higher tensile strength than spray dried, where carrot showed to be the highest at 2.27 Newton and the lowest were spray dried mango at 0.16 Newton. In fiber content analysis, freeze dried mango have the highest fiber content followed by freeze dried carrot and 140°C s pray dried carrot. It can be concluded that the higher the spray dry temperature, the more friable is the tablet. While, high friability leads to lower hardness of tablets. In terms of fiber content, the higher the spray dry temperature, the lower the fiber content found.

  19. Effect of dietary antioxidant and increasing corn oil inclusion on milk fat yield and fatty acid composition in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a dietary synthetic antioxidant on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components and milk fatty acids (FA), in combination with increasing concentrations of dietary corn oil to provide increasing rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) challenges. Twenty-six Holstein cows (177 ± 57 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to treatment in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a control diet (CON; n=13 cows) or the same diet supplemented with a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; 6.1g/d; dry blend of ethoxyquin and propyl gallate, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO; n=13 cows). In period 1 (21 d), no supplemental corn oil was fed; in periods 2, 3, and 4 (14 d each), corn oil was supplemented at 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8% of the diet [dry matter (DM) basis] to incrementally increase RUFAL. For all variables measured, no significant interactions were detected between treatment and period, indicating no differences between the CON and AOX treatments at all levels of oil inclusion. Intake of DM was lower for AOX compared with CON but AOX had no effect on milk yield or milk fat concentration and yield. Milk protein yield and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/DM intake) tended to be greater for AOX compared with CON. Increasing dietary corn oil concentration (RUFAL) decreased DM intake, milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and feed efficiency. The AOX treatment increased the concentration and yield of 16-carbon milk FA, with no effect on de novo (16 carbon) milk FA. Milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1, trans-10,cis-12 C18:2, and trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 were unaffected by AOX but increased with increasing RUFAL. In conclusion, supplementation with AOX did not overcome the dietary-induced milk fat depression caused by increased RUFAL.

  20. Prion protein in milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Franscini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are known to cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE after accumulation in the central nervous system. There is increasing evidence that prions are also present in body fluids and that prion infection by blood transmission is possible. The low concentration of the proteinaceous agent in body fluids and its long incubation time complicate epidemiologic analysis and estimation of spreading and thus the risk of human infection. This situation is particularly unsatisfactory for food and pharmaceutical industries, given the lack of sensitive tools for monitoring the infectious agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an adsorption matrix, Alicon PrioTrap, which binds with high affinity and specificity to prion proteins. Thus we were able to identify prion protein (PrP(C--the precursor of prions (PrP(Sc--in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats. The absolute amount of PrP(C differs between the species (from microg/l range in sheep to ng/l range in human milk. PrP(C is also found in homogenised and pasteurised off-the-shelf milk, and even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminishes endogenous PrP(C concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication occurring in the mammary gland of scrapie infected sheep suffering from mastitis, the appearance of PrP(C in milk implies the possibility that milk of TSE-infected animals serves as source for PrP(Sc.

  1. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Korver, S.

    1992-01-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each

  2. Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Stuart A; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Zhang, Ruth; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Release from prison is associated with a markedly increased risk of both fatal and non-fatal drug overdose, yet the risk factors for overdose in recently released prisoners are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk and protective factors for non-fatal overdose (NFOD) among a cohort of illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, according to recent incarceration. Prospective cohort of 2515 community-recruited illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, followed from 1996 to 2010. We examined factors associated with NFOD in the past six months separately among those who did and did not also report incarceration in the last six months. One third of participants (n=829, 33.0%) reported at least one recent NFOD. Among those recently incarcerated, risk factors independently and positively associated with NFOD included daily use of heroin, benzodiazepines, cocaine or methamphetamine, binge drug use, public injecting and previous NFOD. Older age, methadone maintenance treatment and HIV seropositivity were protective against NFOD. A similar set of risk factors was identified among those who had not been incarcerated recently. Among this cohort, and irrespective of recent incarceration, NFOD was associated with a range of modifiable risk factors including more frequent and riskier patterns of drug use. Not all ex-prisoners are at equal risk of overdose and there remains an urgent need to develop and implement evidence-based preventive interventions, targeting those with modifiable risk factors in this high risk group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-fatal workplace violence injuries in the United States 2003-2004: a follow back study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Dan; Doman, Brooke; Hendricks, Scott A; Jenkins, E Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Contribute to the prevention of workplace violence by providing information about the nature and circumstances of nonfatal assaults among U.S. workers. Data were collected from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work), a stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals. Workplace violence victims identified from NEISS-Work voluntarily completed a followback interview detailing the nature and circumstances surrounding their workplace violence incident. The majority of workplace violence injuries treated in emergency departments resulted from simple assaults that did not involve any lost time from work. Almost two-thirds of these workplace violence victims filed only an internal report. Eighty percent of the victims returned to their same jobs and will not change the way they do their jobs as a result of the violent incident. Nonfatal workplace violence is an important risk for U.S. workers, particularly in some occupations and industries. Prevention strategies need to be tailored by occupation and work environment. Results from the healthcare section of this survey indicate high numbers of incidents during times when the healthcare workers were assisting patients with medical and non-medical needs.

  4. Report on Non-fatal events cardio-cerebro-vascular to ten years in a Southern Italy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Rocco; Capuano, Eduardo; Torre, Sergio; Marchese, Federica; Capuano, Ernesto

    2014-12-01

    Data relating to non-fatal cardiovascular events are poor but these data are essential to organize targeted interventions on the territory and to understand their effectiveness. We calculated the rates of morbidity from cardiovascular events covering the period 1998/99-2008/09, in a cohort of 1200 persons (600 men and 600 women) aged 25 to 74 years. Data were standardized using the European standard population. The incidence of events to ten years of non-fatal myocardial infarc.ion was 2.2% in men and of 1.8% in women. PCI interventions to ten year have been 3.3% in men and 3.4% in women, the interventions of aorto-coronary bypass have been 2.4% and 0.5% for men and women respectively. While all major cardiovascular events have been more frequent in men, in women there was a higher incidence of stroke (1.6% vs 0.9%). Although by comparison with other European countries Italy is among the countries considered at low-risk of coronary heart disease, in Campania cardiovascular diseases reach higher rates than the rest of the country. Our results are in keeping with the literature data and confirm that cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem. Local analysis are useful in providing additional information for planning prevention interventions targeted to its own territory.

  5. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients may be used: (1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3. (2... optional ingredients. (i) Salt. (ii) Cheese whey, concentrated cheese whey, dried cheese whey, or reconstituted cheese whey prepared by addition of water to concentrated cheese whey or dried cheese whey....

  6. Milk cortisol concentration in automatic milking systems compared with auto-tandem milking parlors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2006-09-01

    Milk cortisol concentration was determined under routine management conditions on 4 farms with an auto-tandem milking parlor and 8 farms with 1 of 2 automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the AMS was a partially forced (AMSp) system, and the other was a free cow traffic (AMSf) system. Milk samples were collected for all the cows on a given farm (20 to 54 cows) for at least 1 d. Behavioral observations were made during the milking process for a subset of 16 to 20 cows per farm. Milk cortisol concentration was evaluated by milking system, time of day, behavior during milking, daily milk yield, and somatic cell count using linear mixed-effects models. Milk cortisol did not differ between systems (AMSp: 1.15 +/- 0.07; AMSf: 1.02 +/- 0.12; auto-tandem parlor: 1.01 +/- 0.16 nmol/L). Cortisol concentrations were lower in evening than in morning milkings (1.01 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.13 nmol/L). The daily periodicity of cortisol concentration was characterized by an early morning peak and a late afternoon elevation in AMSp. A bimodal pattern was not evident in AMSf. Finally, milk cortisol decreased by a factor of 0.915 in milking parlors, by 0.998 in AMSp, and increased by a factor of 1.161 in AMSf for each unit of ln(somatic cell count/1,000). We conclude that milking cows in milking parlors or AMS does not result in relevant stress differences as measured by milk cortisol concentrations. The biological relevance of the difference regarding the daily periodicity of milk cortisol concentrations observed between the AMSp and AMSf needs further investigation.

  7. Polyamines in Human Breast Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Büyükuslu

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal food for all newborns and infants. It involves macro nutrients and functional compounds for growth and development. The composition of breast milk differs between preterm and term milk. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition to their de novo polyamine synthesis, cells can take up polyamines from extracellular sources, such as food, and intestinal microbiota. Breast milk is the first source of exogenous polyamines...

  8. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows

  9. The influence of some non-genetic factors on the production and quality of East Friesian sheep milk in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the herd (A and B, stage of lactation (0-60th day; 61st-150th day and 151st - drying off and number of lactation (I., II. III. IV. and other on daily milk yield, physicalchemical properties and the hygienic quality of East Friesian sheep milk. The study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 years on a 100 sheep sample. The milk samples were taken during morning and evening milking after weaning, every 30 days during lactation. The physical-chemical properties and the hygienic quality of milk were determined by reference and standard methods. The collected data were statistically analysed by the PROC ANOVA, SAS programme. The East Friesian sheep in the lactation of 217 days, produced in average 1040 mL milk/day. A significant effect (P < 0,001 of the herd was determined on the daily milk yield, dry matter non fat, freezing point, protein content (P < 0,01 and pH value (P < 0,01. The stage of lactation had a significant effect (P < 0,001 on all analyzed parameters except on somatic cell count. The highest content of fat (6.53 %, proteins (5.44 %, dry matter (17.45 % and dry matter non fat (10.98 % were determined at the end of lactation, while the content of lactose (4.61 % was the lowest. Significant coefficient of correlations (P<0,05 were also determined between daily milk yield and: the content of dry matter (-0,46, milk fat (-0,51, proteins (-0,39, lactose (0,51, dry matter non fat (-0,28, pH value (0,14. From the results, it can be concluded that the herd, stage and number of lactation have significant influence on the most analyzed parameters.

  10. The decrease in the IgG-binding capacity of intensively dry heated whey proteins is associatead with intense Maillard reaction, structural changes of the proteins and formation of RAGE-ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Teodorowicz, M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Wichers, H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is the most common way of milk processing, inducing structural changes as well as chemical modifications in milk proteins. These modifications influence the immune-reactivity and allergenicity of milk proteins. This study shows the influence of dry heating on the solubility, particle

  11. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  12. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank.

  13. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  14. Milk Production in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiumei Ji; Tsam You; Zhang Oiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes milk production and livestock production in Tibet.Some information of market demand has also been presented.There has been very little information published in Tibetan journals on production and nutrition of cattle.This review provides a brief introduction to feeding systems and feeding resources.Many studies on milk production have been done in isolation,and do not go beyond the basic and practical level.Compared with dairy cattle research in other parts of China,large gaps in knowledge still exist in cattle production science,particularly related to nutrition,and systems approaches for the development of a dairy industry.

  15. Assessment of whey protein nitrogen index as an indicator of heat treatment for UHT milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Natália Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During heat treatment of dairy products it is possible to occur several chemical modifications which whey protein denaturation is quite evident and studied. This phenomenon can cause gelation in UHT milk and some problems in reconstitution of milk powder, two major dairy products widely used in dairy foods and by consumer. The whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI can be an useful tool to assess the degree of severity that milk was submitted, and therefore inferred from the occurrence of possible defects associated with protein denaturation. This study presents theevaluation of the non-denaturated whey protein contents as a heat treatment indicator for ultrapasteurization and drying milk processing. Commercial samples of UHT milk and milk powdershowed WPNI confidence interval of (2.39 ± 1.41 mgWPN.mL-1 and (2.63 ± 1.38 mgWPN.mL-1, respectively. According to the statistical analysis of variance, all samples differed with a p-value < 0.001; and 90% of UHT milk and 67% milk powder samples were classified as medium heat treatment. It was possible to infer the severity of the heat treatment associated with each kind of product analyzed.The results were able to demonstrate the lack of standardization of heat treatment processes on the samples studied, a fact that may result in the growth of undesirablecharacteristics in the products during the storage or commercia lization.

  16. Milk composition of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): nutritional effects and correlation to corresponding blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Khalid A; Amin, Alia S A; Abdelatif, Abdalla M

    2007-08-15

    This study has been conducted in order to study the possible correlations between the nutritional value of plants selected by camels during the dry and green season and the corresponding blood and milk composition of the dromedary camels. The study has been conducted on 50 indigenous Arabian camels of different age and kept under natural range in Southern Darfur. The dromedary camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher crude protein content during the dry season and kept the serum albumin concentration and milk protein content at the same levels as those observed during the green season. However, the significantly (p<0.05) higher lipogenic content (ether extract + crude fiber) of the plant selected during the dry season resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher serum triacylglycerides concentration and significantly (p<0.05) higher milk fat content compared to that of the green season. Although, the camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen free extract content during the dry season, the plasma glucose level and the milk lactose content were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared to that of the green season. The significantly (p<0.05) lower ach content of the plants selected during the dry season resulted in significantly lower serum calcium + phosphorus concentration, but did not reflect on the ash content of the milk. The results indicate that despite camels selectivity and unique adaptation to arid conditions, the milk lactose-and fat content were affected by the nutritional scarcity during the dry season. Therefore, it could be beneficial to provide energy-rich feed supplemented with calcium and phosphorus to camels kept under dry tropical conditions.

  17. Identification and quantification of bovine protein lactosylation sites in different milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-02-16

    The microbiological safety of milk is typically guaranteed by thermal treatments, such as pasteurization and ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment, whereas infant formula (IF) is often produced at even harsher conditions including a drying process. Thermal treatments have raised concerns, as they may denature proteins and initiate protein modifications. Previous studies identified already many lactosylation sites in milk and showed that the lactosylation degree of some proteins correlates to thermal treatment conditions. Here, we studied the glycation degrees of 124 lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins in raw milk, three brands of pasteurized milk, three brands of UHT milk, and five brands of IF. Whereas, the glycation degree of many lactosylation sites increased from raw milk, to pasteurized milk, UHT milk, and IF, several modification sites showed a different behavior indicating that global measures do not correctly reflect the reactivity of distinct sites. Interestingly, the glycation degrees varied considerably among the brands of UHT milk and IF indicating that specific production processes of a company have to be considered and not only the classification of milk as pasteurized or UHT. Thus, proper adjustments of the technical processes should allow reducing the lactosylation levels in both UHT milk and IF. It is well established that thermal treatment of milk triggers protein modifications, such as lactosylation of lysine residues in several proteins, although the extent of lactosylation has not been quantitatively compared for a broad panel of protein lactosylation sites among different commercial products. The current study extends previous reports by relatively quantifying 124 confirmed lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins including several low abundant proteins. Whereas, glycation is generally assumed to be an unspecific chemical reaction with the modification degrees depending on the protein and sugar concentrations, we could show

  18. Hidrolisados protéicos de mucosa intestinal, levedura e proteína isolada de soja em dietas com leite em pó integral para leitões desmamados Hydrolyzed proteins of intestinal mucosa membrane, yeast and isolated soybean protein in diets with dried whole milk to wealing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio João Scandolera

    2008-04-01

    leitões.The effect of partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by hydrolyzed protein of the cellular content of yeast (HPCCY, isolated protein of soy (IPS, hydrolyzed protein of intestinal mucosa membrane of swine (HPIMS in diets with dried whole milk (DWM on performance, serum urea and diarrhea incidence of weaned pigs. Fourteen piglets weaned at 21 days old (20 barrows and 20 females, were allotted to a completely randomized experimental block design with five treatments (diets and 8 replications each. The diets were fed in three phases according to the animal age. In the pre-initial phase 1 (21 to 35 days of age: corn-soy diet, diet with 15% DWM, diet with 15% DWM + 3,5% HPIMS, diet with 15% DWM + 5% IPS, diet with 15% DWM + 5% HPCCY. In the phase pre-initial 2 (36 to 49 days of age a corn-soy diet was maintained and DWM was reduced to 7.5% in all diets, HPIMS to 1.5%; IPS to 4% and HPCCY was maintained in 5%. In the phase initial (50 a 70 days of age was maintained the corn-soybean based diet, DWM was removed of all the diets and the animals that received the treatments with DWM and DWM + HPIMS in the phases pre-initial 1 and 2, they were fed corn-soy diet, IPS was reduced to 3% and HPCCY to 2.5%. In the period from 21 to 35 days, the diet DWM + IPS provided the highest daily weight gain and better feed conversion. In the following phases, there was not difference in the performance among diets. Up to five days post weaning, pigs fed SM and DWM + IPS showed the lowest diarrhea incidence. The levels of serum urea were not influenced by the diets. The use of IPS, HPIMI and HPCCY in complex diets containing dried whole milk represents a viable biologically alternatives in diets for pigs.

  19. Temporal changes in milk proteomes reveal developing milk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinliu; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.

  20. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content....... Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...

  1. Separation of milk fat globules via microfiltration: Effect of diafiltration media and opportunities for stream valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukkola, A; Partanen, R; Rojas, O J; Heino, A

    2016-11-01

    Milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) sourced in buttermilk have gained recent interest given their nutritional value and functional properties. However, production of isolated MFGM has been challenging given their size similarity with casein micelles, which limits attempts toward fractionation by size exclusion techniques. Therefore, the hypothesis underpinning this study is that the removal of proteins from cream before butter-making facilitates MFGM isolation. As such, milk fat globules were separated from raw whole milk via microfiltration (1.4-µm pore diameter and 0.005-m(2) filtration surface area) by using 3 diafiltration media; namely, skim milk ultrafiltration permeate, saline, and water. Their effects on the stability of the milk fat globules and protein permeation was elucidated. Whereas a substantial reduction in protein concentration was achieved with all diafiltration media (~90% reduction), water and saline produced negligible membrane fouling with better filtration performance. Moreover, diafiltration with skim milk ultrafiltration permeate exhibited reduced permeate flux. Colloidal stability of the resultant milk decreased with all diafiltration solutions due to changing composition and reduced apparent viscosity. Overall, microfiltration was found to be an efficient method for separation of milk fat globules from whole milk, leading to increased MFGM fragment concentration in buttermilk dry matter, thus making it more suitable for industrial utilization.

  2. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties.

  3. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  4. Contaminants in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A E

    1978-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding excretion of contaminants in human milk, due to experimental difficulties and until recently a general lack of interest. Because of the high fat content of milk and as its acidity is higher than that of plasma, nearly all liposoluble and basic agents consumed by the mother will be excreted in the milk. Distinction must be made between, on the one hand drugs and social toxicants such as smoking and alcohol, whose intake can be stopped or limited during pregnancy and lactation, and ecological toxicants present in a polluted environment to which the mother is exposed. Cases have occurred of heavy prenatal and postnatal intoxication of infants with hexachlorobenzene in Turkey and methylmercury in Iraq due to consumption of fungicide-treated seed wheat by pregnant and lactating mothers. Recent attention has been concentrated on contamination of milk with organochlorine compounds such as DDT and PCB's, that are found in many parts of the world. The heaviest contamination with DDT has been found in Guatemala, resulting in suckling infants consuming many times the Acceptable Daily Intake of this compound proposed by WHO, with unknown future effects.

  5. A Sour Milk Rivalry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A libel scandal involving Mengniu taints its image and deals a blow to China’s dairy industry Mengniu,with the 2008 milk contamination incident still fresh in people’s memories,has brought China’s dairy industry into the spotlight again-this time the attention focused on a bitter rivalry.

  6. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  7. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  8. Recombinant human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Human milk provides proteins that benefit newborn infants. They not only provide amino acids, but also facilitate the absorption of nutrients, stimulate growth and development of the intestine, modulate immune function, and aid in the digestion of other nutrients. Breastfed infants have a lower prevalence of infections than formula-fed infants. Since many women in industrialized countries choose not to breastfeed, and an increasing proportion of women in developing countries are advised not to breastfeed because of the risk of HIV transmission, incorporation of recombinant human milk proteins into infant foods is likely to be beneficial. We are expressing human milk proteins known to have anti-infective activity in rice. Since rice is a normal constituent of the diet of infants and children, limited purification of the proteins is required. Lactoferrin has antimicrobial and iron-binding activities. Lysozyme is an enzyme that is bactericidal and also acts synergistically with lactoferrin. These recombinant proteins have biological activities identical to their native counterparts. They are equally resistant to heat processing, which is necessary for food applications, and to acid and proteolytic enzymes which are needed to maintain their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. These recombinant human milk proteins may be incorporated into infant formulas, baby foods and complementary foods, and used with the goal to reduce infectious diseases.

  9. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  10. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  11. Modulation of Estrogen-Depurinating DNA Adducts by Sulforaphane for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    in Tris-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween 20 with 5% non-fat milk , incubated with primary antibodies and then incubated with a peroxidaseconjugated...COMT, GSTA1 and β-actin (Sigma) antibodies were made in blocking solution (5% non-fat dry milk in Tris-buffered saline). The blots were incubated...and Chiral pesticides separation); MALDI-TOF  Purification of biomarkers from biological fluid samples (including serum, urine, cell culture

  12. An investigation of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of additives to milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuche; Qin, Jianwei; Lim, Jongguk; Chan, Diane E.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    In this research, four chemicals, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and melamine, were mixed into liquid nonfat milk at concentrations starting from 0.1% to a maximum concentration determined for each chemical according to its maximum solubility, and two Raman spectrometers-a commercial Nicolet Raman system and an in-house Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) system-were used to acquire Raman shift spectra for these mixture samples. These chemicals are potential adulterants that could be used to artificially elevate protein measurements of milk products evaluated by the Kjeldahl method. Baseline subtraction was employed to eliminate milk intensity, and the normalized Raman intensity was calculated from the specific Raman shift from the spectrum of solid chemical. Linear relationships were found to exist between the normalized Raman intensity and chemical concentrations. The linear regression coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9111 to 0.998. Although slightly higher R2 values were calculated for regressions using spectral intensities measured by the Nicolet system compared to those using measurements from the RCI system, the results from the two systems were similar and comparable. A very low concentration of melamine (400 ppm) in milk was also found to be detectable by both systems. Raman sensitivity of Nicolet Raman system was estimated from normalized Raman intensity and slope of regression line in this study. Chemicals (0.2%) were dissolved in milk and detected the normalized Raman intensity. Melamine was found to have the highest Raman sensitivity, with the highest values for normalized Raman intensity (0.09) and regression line slope (57.04).

  13. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.

  14. A survey of drying-off practices on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany and a comparison to science-based recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulat, Sandra; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    While dry cow management is important for health, milk production and fertility information on drying-off procedures implemented on commercial dairy farms is lacking. Current drying-off management procedures on commercial dairy farms were evaluated using a questionnaire and results compared with recommendations given in the current literature. Ninety-one participants from a farmer education event completed the survey. On average, cows were dried off seven weeks before calving. Only 9.9 per cent of the farms had a dry period length of five weeks or less. A continuous milking regime without dry period was not established on any farm participating in the survey. Most farmers performed an abrupt drying-off (73.0 per cent). Only 11.8 and 15.0 per cent attempted to lower milk yield prior to drying-off by reducing milking frequencies and adjusting feed rations, respectively. While a blanket antibiotic dry cow treatment was carried out on 79.6 per cent of the farms, selective dry cow treatment was not mentioned by any farmer. Although 77.4 per cent preponed the drying-off date in low-yielding cows, an altered drying-off procedure in high-yielding dairy cows was rare (9.7 per cent). This survey provides an insight into drying-off procedures currently applied on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany.

  15. A survey of drying-off practices on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany and a comparison to science-based recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulat, Sandra; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    While dry cow management is important for health, milk production and fertility information on drying-off procedures implemented on commercial dairy farms is lacking. Current drying-off management procedures on commercial dairy farms were evaluated using a questionnaire and results compared with recommendations given in the current literature. Ninety-one participants from a farmer education event completed the survey. On average, cows were dried off seven weeks before calving. Only 9.9 per cent of the farms had a dry period length of five weeks or less. A continuous milking regime without dry period was not established on any farm participating in the survey. Most farmers performed an abrupt drying-off (73.0 per cent). Only 11.8 and 15.0 per cent attempted to lower milk yield prior to drying-off by reducing milking frequencies and adjusting feed rations, respectively. While a blanket antibiotic dry cow treatment was carried out on 79.6 per cent of the farms, selective dry cow treatment was not mentioned by any farmer. Although 77.4 per cent preponed the drying-off date in low-yielding cows, an altered drying-off procedure in high-yielding dairy cows was rare (9.7 per cent). This survey provides an insight into drying-off procedures currently applied on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany. PMID:26392891

  16. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat.

  17. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  18. Influence of paragenetic factors on production and chemical composition of Paška sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the produced Paška sheep milk is entirely processed in Pag cheese, it is of great importance to ensure a uniform milk production of prescribed chemical composition and hygienic quality. In addition to genotype, as the most important factor, the production and quality of sheep milk is affected by numerous physiological factors, so the aim of this research was to determine the influence of paragenetic factors (stage and number of lactation on daily milk yield and chemical composition (total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids non fat of Paška sheep milk. Three herds were chosen by random selection within the areas of Kolan and Caska, and survey was conducted on a total of 213 Paška sheep. Stage of lactation was divided to: the beginning (to 50th-day, the middle (from 51st till 100thday and the end (101st -day till dry out of lactation. Depending on the number of lactation, sheep were grouped into five groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and others. A significant influence of stage and number of lactation on average daily milk yield and analysed chemical composition parameters was determined. The Paška sheep had the highest daily milk production in the mid lactation (773 g, and the third lactation (712 g recorded. At the end of lactation, total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, total solids non fat in milk were significantly higher than at the beginning and middle of lactation. The highest share of total solids, milk fat, protein and casein was determined in Paška sheep milk at 5th lactation and other lactations. Between the individual parameters significantcorrelation coefficients were determined.

  19. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenhuis, H; Van Arendonk, J A; Korver, S

    1992-09-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each milk protein gene was analyzed separately (single-gene analysis) and a model in which all milk protein genes were analyzed simultaneously (multigene analysis). The results of the two models indicate that some effects ascribed to certain milk protein genes in the single-gene analysis are not effects of the milk protein gene itself but of linked genes. Results from this study and from literature indicate that the kappa-casein gene or a very closely linked gene affects protein percentage, and the beta-lactoglobulin gene or a very closely linked gene affects fat percentage. Furthermore, effects of beta-casein genotypes on milk production, fat percentage, and protein yield were significant, and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had significant effects on milk production and protein yield. It is less clear whether those effects are due to effects of milk protein genes themselves or to effects of linked genes.

  20. Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Akhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow. Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value, milk is being consumed by people of different age groups therefore, issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticide residues levels in raw dairy milk are discussed here in few selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs, organo chlorine (OCPs, pyrethroids and carbamate (CB pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.

  1. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  2. Milk and dairy products in hotel daily menue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the portion of milk and dairyproducts as a source of macronutrients, energy, vitamins and minerals in average hotel menus for some category of hotel guests. For this purpose the evaluation of 66 whole day meals (breakfast, lunch and supper on daily menus was made. Meals were therefore mathematically and statistically analysed and compared with recommendations (RDA and DRI for middle aged and elderly guests, both genders. The obtained results indicated that the meals should be balanced according to nutritional principles, because of too high energy share derived from fats (average 47.95% while just about 37.57% of daily energy was from carbohydrates origin. The energy values were much higher than recommendations for both genders, respectively. The energy share from milk and dairy products origin was 11% of total energy what should be considered as a suitable. The most served dairy product was milk while the ice-cream took the second place. It is necessary to increase the yogurt and similar fermented products consumption, especially for the elderly guests. With milk and dairy products consumption males and females fulfill 92% RDA for calcium, and 61.80 % DRI for elderly, respectively.

  3. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  4. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage.

  5. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Osler, M; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    reduced their daily tobacco consumption by at least 50% without quitting between first and second examination, and 1379 participants stopped smoking. During follow up 1658 men and 521 women experienced a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, people who...... controlling for baseline illness in different ways. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation in healthy people reduces the risk of a subsequent myocardial infarction, whereas this study provides no evidence of benefit from reduction in the amount smoked.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on incidence of myocardial infarction after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and hospital registers. The association of individual...

  6. Nonfatal and Fatal Self-Harm Injuries among Children Aged 10-14 Years--United States and Oregon, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajani, Madhavi; Annest, Joseph L.; Crosby, Alex E.; Alexander, Janice D.; Millet, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries due to suicidal behavior among younger adolescents are of growing concern for many communities. We examined the incidence and patterns of these injuries among persons aged 10-14 years using three databases, two national and a third from Oregon. Suffocation and firearm gunshot were the leading external causes of suicide;…

  7. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  8. Profile of non-fatal injuries due to road traffic accidents from a industrial town in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Pankaj; Bhawalkar, J S; Jadhav, S L; Banerjee, Amitav

    2013-01-01

    India has one of the highest road traffic accident rates in the world. To lessen this burden, information on the contributing factors is necessary. We studied a series of cases of non-fatal road traffic accidents in two tertiary care hospitals in Pimpri, Pune, India. A total of 212 non-fatal road traffic accidents admitted over a period of one year in these two hospitals constituted the study sample. The study variables were, the gender of the accident victims, mode of accident, days of week on which the accident took place, time of day when the injury was sustained, part of the body injured, nature of injury, and self-reported reasons for the accident. data were summarized using percentages. The Chi-square test for goodness of fit was applied, to see whether there was any association between the different weekdays or time of day and the accidents. MALE : female ratio was almost 5 : 1, which was statistically significant (Chi-Square for goodness of fit = 95.11, df = 1, P accidents occurred on Sundays and Mondays and the least around midweek (Wednesday). This pattern was also statistically significant (Chi-square for goodness of fit = 30.09, df = 6, P Traffic Injuries (RTIs). Accidents were more likely in the time zone of 8 pm to midnight, followed by 4 pm to 8 pm (Chi-square for goodness of fit = 89.58, df = 5, P accident. Almost half (46.22%) of the injured admitted to drinking alcohol on a regular basis. Wide pavements and safe zebra crossings should be provided for pedestrians, as the highest casualty in this study were pedestrians. More accidents occurred on Sundays and Mondays and in the late evenings. Extra supervision by traffic police may be considered on Sundays / Holidays and the day following. Roads should be well lit to improve visibility after sunset.

  9. Estimated Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Emergency Department-Treated Nonfatal Injuries--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis; Haegerich, Tamara; Simon, Thomas; Zhou, Chao; Luo, Feijun

    2015-10-02

    A large number of nonfatal injuries are treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) every year. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics estimates that approximately 29% of all ED visits in 2010 were for injuries. To assess the economic impact of ED-treated injuries, CDC examined injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) for 2013, as well as injury-related lifetime medical and work-loss costs from the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). NEISS-AIP collects data from a nationally representative sample of EDs, using specific guidelines for recording the primary diagnosis and mechanism of injury. Number of injuries, crude- and age-specific injury rates, and total lifetime work-loss costs and medical costs were calculated for ED-treated injuries, stratified by sex, age groups, and intent and mechanism of injury. ED-treated injuries were further classified as those that were subsequently hospitalized or treated and released. The rate of hospitalized injuries was 950.8 per 100,000, and the rate of treated and released injuries was 8,549.8 per 100,000. Combined medical and work-loss costs for all ED-treated injuries (both hospitalized and treated and released) were $456.9 billion, or approximately 68% of the total costs of $671 billion associated with all fatal and ED-treated injuries. The substantial economic burden associated with nonfatal injuries underscores the need for effective prevention strategies.

  10. Skull fracture and haemorrhage pattern among fatal and nonfatal head injury assault victims – a critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Tripathi, Chandrabhal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The global incidence of fatal head injuries as the result of assault is greater than the number of non-fatal cases. The important factors that determine the outcome in terms of survival of such head injury cases include the type of weapon used, type and site of skull fracture, intra cranial haemorrhage and the brain injury. The present study aims to highlight the role of skull fractures as an indirect indicator of force of impact and the intra cranial haemorrhage by a comparative study of assault victims with fatal and nonfatal head injuries. Methods: 91 head injury cases resulting from assault were studied in the Department of Forensic Medicine, IMS, BHU Varanasi over a period of 2 years from which 18 patients survived and 73 cases had a lethal outcome. Details of the fatal cases were obtained from the police inquest and an autopsy while examination of the surviving patients was done after obtaining an informed consent. The data so obtained were analyzed and presented in the study. Results: Assault with firearms often led to fatality whereas with assault involving blunt weapons the survival rate was higher. Multiple cranial bones were involved in 69.3% cases while comminuted fracture of the skull was common among the fatal cases. Fracture of the base of the skull was noted only in the fatal cases and a combination of subdural and subarachnoid haemorrhage was found in the majority of the fatal cases. Conclusions: The present study shows skull fractures to be an important indicator of severity of trauma in attacks to the head. Multiple bone fracture, comminuted fracture and base fractures may be considered as high risk factors in attempted homicide cases. PMID:21483205

  11. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  12. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis.

  13. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study.

  14. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  15. Raw milk consumption and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  16. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%, ground grain corn, and soybean meal, differing with regard to the sources of trace minerals, plus an organic and inorganic mix. The organic mineral source increased milk fat and fat-corrected milk yield without changing milk yield, intake, or total apparent digestibility. Blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances were not affected by the sources of minerals. Organic sources of minerals improve milk fat yield without affecting other parameters.

  17. Development of Vegetable Based Milk from Decorticated Sesame (Sesamum Indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Decorticated sesame seed can supply us with nutritious, functional and healthy meals with relatively low cost. These properties make sesame a valuable source of protein and other nutrients to be utilized in imitated dairy products, which could be used for infant and adults with lactose intolerance as well as for vegetarian or others who like to eat dairy products free from cholesterol. Additionally, the production of sesame-based dairy products can overcome the problems that limit consumption of soy-based dairy products such as antinutritional factors, flavor and flatulence. The major challenges in developing dairy analogs from plant sources are: unacceptable flavor, low solids yield and low dispersion stability. Approach: The following factors were investigated to increase/optimize the sesame milk yield, dispersion stability and sensory acceptance: pretreatment of sesame seed with simple physical treatments (soaking in water, boiling, pressure cooking, steaming and combination treatments and heat treatment of sesame milk (pasteurization or sterilization. Results: Heat treatments during all steps of processing proved to be the most important factor in determining the yield and quality of sesame milk. The best treatment was pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 12% initial sesame seed concentration (previously dried at 170°C for 5 sec and formulated with the addition of 2% sucrose. Conclusion: The developed procedure for sesame milk production resulted in high yield, excellent dispersion stability and good sensory acceptability.

  18. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy ingredients...

  19. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy ingredients...

  20. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...