Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States
Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.
2017-08-01
Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick R Zulkowski
Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.
Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2017-01-01
We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2018-03-01
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T
2018-03-28
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Nakagawa, Naoko; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Tasaki, Hal; Ito, Nobuyasu
2010-01-01
We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.
Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems
Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.
2017-04-01
Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.
Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zia, R K P; Weiss, Jeffrey B; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2016-01-01
Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of “probability angular momentum” and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: variability of ocean heat content in our climate system. (paper)
Non-equilibrium transport in the quantum dot: quench dynamics and non-equilibrium steady state
Culver, Adrian; Andrei, Natan
We present an exact method of calculating the non-equilibrium current driven by a voltage drop across a quantum dot. The system is described by the two lead Anderson model at zero temperature with on-site Coulomb repulsion and non-interacting, linearized leads. We prepare the system in an initial state consisting of a free Fermi sea in each lead with the voltage drop given as the difference between the two Fermi levels. We quench the system by coupling the dot to the leads at t = 0 and following the time evolution of the wavefunction. In the long time limit a new type of Bethe Ansatz wavefunction emerges, which satisfies the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with the two Fermi seas serving as the boundary conditions. This exact, non-perturbative solution describes the non-equilibrium steady state of the system. We describe how to use this solution to compute the infinite time limit of the expectation value of the current operator at a given voltage, which would yield the I-V characteristic of the dot. Research supported by NSF Grant DMR 1410583.
An expression of excess work during the transition between nonequilibrium steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuge, Tatsuro
2014-01-01
Excess work is a nondiverging part of the work during the transition between nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). It is a central quantity in steady-state thermodynamics (SST), which is a candidate for nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory. We derive an expression of excess work during quasistatic transitions between NESSs by using the macroscopic linear response relation of the NESS. This expression is a line integral of a vector potential in the space of control parameters. We show a relationship between the vector potential and the response function of the NESS, and thus obtain a relationship between the SST and a macroscopic quantity. We also connect the macroscopic formulation to microscopic physics through a microscopic expression of the nonequilibrium response function, which gives a result that is consistent with previous studies. (paper)
Astumian, R D
2018-01-11
In the absence of input energy, a chemical reaction in a closed system ineluctably relaxes toward an equilibrium state governed by a Boltzmann distribution. The addition of a catalyst to the system provides a way for more rapid equilibration toward this distribution, but the catalyst can never, in and of itself, drive the system away from equilibrium. In the presence of external fluctuations, however, a macromolecular catalyst (e.g., an enzyme) can absorb energy and drive the formation of a steady state between reactant and product that is not determined solely by their relative energies. Due to the ubiquity of non-equilibrium steady states in living systems, the development of a theory for the effects of external fluctuations on chemical systems has been a longstanding focus of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory of stochastic pumping has provided insight into how a non-equilibrium steady-state can be formed and maintained in the presence of dissipation and kinetic asymmetry. This effort has been greatly enhanced by a confluence of experimental and theoretical work on synthetic molecular machines designed explicitly to harness external energy to drive non-equilibrium transport and self-assembly.
How should we understand non-equilibrium many-body steady states?
Maghrebi, Mohammad; Gorshkov, Alexey
: Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. In this talk, I use a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in such models. I show that an effective temperature generically emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is described by a thermodynamic universality class. In the end, I will also discuss possibilities that go beyond the paradigm of an effective thermodynamic behavior.
Dynamics and non-equilibrium steady state in a system of coupled harmonic oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghesquière, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Ghesquiere@nithep.ac.za; Sinayskiy, Ilya, E-mail: sinayskiy@ukzn.ac.za; Petruccione, Francesco, E-mail: petruccione@ukzn.ac.za
2013-10-15
A system of two coupled oscillators, each of them coupled to an independent reservoir, is analysed. The analytical solution of the non-rotating wave master equation is obtained in the high-temperature and weak coupling limits. No thermal entanglement is found in the high-temperature limit. In the weak coupling limit the system converges to an entangled non-equilibrium steady state. A critical temperature for the appearance of quantum correlations is found.
Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states and its applications. Part I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xuejuan; Qian Hong; Qian Min
2012-01-01
The concepts of equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady states are introduced in the present review as mathematical concepts associated with stationary Markov processes. For both discrete stochastic systems with master equations and continuous diffusion processes with Fokker–Planck equations, the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is characterized in terms of several key notions which are originated from nonequilibrium physics: time irreversibility, breakdown of detailed balance, free energy dissipation, and positive entropy production rate. After presenting this NESS theory in pedagogically accessible mathematical terms that require only a minimal amount of prerequisites in nonlinear differential equations and the theory of probability, it is applied, in Part I, to two widely studied problems: the stochastic resonance (also known as coherent resonance) and molecular motors (also known as Brownian ratchet). Although both areas have advanced rapidly on their own with a vast amount of literature, the theory of NESS provides them with a unifying mathematical foundation. Part II of this review contains applications of the NESS theory to processes from cellular biochemistry, ranging from enzyme catalyzed reactions, kinetic proofreading, to zeroth-order ultrasensitivity.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Doyon
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
Edge Singularities and Quasilong-Range Order in Nonequilibrium Steady States
De Nardis, Jacopo; Panfil, Miłosz
2018-05-01
The singularities of the dynamical response function are one of the most remarkable effects in many-body interacting systems. However in one dimension these divergences only exist strictly at zero temperature, making their observation very difficult in most cold atomic experimental settings. Moreover the presence of a finite temperature destroys another feature of one-dimensional quantum liquids: the real space quasilong-range order in which the spatial correlation functions exhibit power-law decay. We consider a nonequilibrium protocol where two interacting Bose gases are prepared either at different temperatures or chemical potentials and then joined. We show that the nonequilibrium steady state emerging at large times around the junction displays edge singularities in the response function and quasilong-range order.
Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Moritz, Clemens; Dellago, Christoph
2015-01-01
Laser trapped nanoparticles have been recently used as model systems to study fundamental relations holding far from equilibrium. Here we study a nanoscale silica sphere levitated by a laser in a low density gas. The center of mass motion of the particle is subjected, at the same time, to feedback cooling and a parametric modulation driving the system into a non-equilibrium steady state. Based on the Langevin equation of motion of the particle, we derive an analytical expression for the energy distribution of this steady state showing that the average and variance of the energy distribution can be controlled separately by appropriate choice of the friction, cooling and modulation parameters. Energy distributions determined in computer simulations and measured in a laboratory experiment agree well with the analytical predictions. We analyze the particle motion also in terms of the quadratures and find thermal squeezing depending on the degree of detuning. (paper)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴金平
1991-01-01
The relation between the excess entropy production criterion of thermodynamic stabilityfor nonequilibrium states and kinetic linear stability principle is discussed. It is shown thatthe condition required by the excess entropy production criterion generally is sufficient, butnot necessary to judge the system stability. The condition required by the excess entropyproduction criterion is stronger than that of the linear stability principle. Only when theproduct matrix between the linearized matrix of kinetic equations and matrix of quadraticform of second-order excess entropy is symmetric, is the condition required by the excessentropy production criterion that the steady steate is asymptotically stable (δ_xP>0) necessaryand sufficient. The counterexample given by Fox to prove that the excess entropy, (δ~2S)ss,is not a Liapunov function is incorrect. Contradictory to his conclusion, the counterexampleis just a positive one that proves that the excess entropy is a Liapunov function. Moreover,the excess entropy production criterion is not limited by symmetric conditions of the linear-ized matrix of kinetic equations. The excess entropy around nonequilibrium steady states,(δ~2S)ss, is a Liapunov function of thermodynamic system.
Role of conformational dynamics in kinetics of an enzymatic cycle in a nonequilibrium steady state
Min, Wei; Xie, X. Sunney; Bagchi, Biman
2009-08-01
Enzyme is a dynamic entity with diverse time scales, ranging from picoseconds to seconds or even longer. Here we develop a rate theory for enzyme catalysis that includes conformational dynamics as cycling on a two-dimensional (2D) reaction free energy surface involving an intrinsic reaction coordinate (X) and an enzyme conformational coordinate (Q). The validity of Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation, i.e., substrate concentration dependence of enzymatic velocity, is examined under a nonequilibrium steady state. Under certain conditions, the classic MM equation holds but with generalized microscopic interpretations of kinetic parameters. However, under other conditions, our rate theory predicts either positive (sigmoidal-like) or negative (biphasic-like) kinetic cooperativity due to the modified effective 2D reaction pathway on X-Q surface, which can explain non-MM dependence previously observed on many monomeric enzymes that involve slow or hysteretic conformational transitions. Furthermore, we find that a slow conformational relaxation during product release could retain the enzyme in a favorable configuration, such that enzymatic turnover is dynamically accelerated at high substrate concentrations. The effect of such conformation retainment in a nonequilibrium steady state is evaluated.
Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge Hao; Qian Min; Qian Hong
2012-01-01
The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section , in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section ). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation–inhibition switching (Section ) and the well-known non-Michaelis–Menten-cooperativity (Section ) and kinetic proofreading (Section ), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section ). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück–Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections ). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept — the temporal cooperativity (Sections ), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section ). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.
Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter
2018-03-01
Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.
Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions
Jin, Xiao; Ge, Hao
2018-04-01
The nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but that under non-isothermal conditions has been much less extensively investigated. When the heat exchange between subsystems is slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system breaks down, as is true for many types of living organisms. Here, starting with a four-state model of molecular transporter across the cell membrane, we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics to the circumstances with non-uniform temperatures of subsystems in terms of general master equation models. We obtain a new thermodynamic relationship between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials in non-isothermal circumstances, based on the overdamped dynamics along the continuous reaction coordinate. We show that the entropy production can vary up to 3% in real cells, even when the temperature difference across the cell membrane is only approximately 1 K. We then decompose the total thermodynamic driving force into its thermal and chemical components and predict that the net flux of molecules transported by the molecular transporter can potentially go against the temperature gradient in the absence of a chemical driving force. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simple application of the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactant’ temperature is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction rate formulas that are not only consistent with the new thermodynamic relationship but also approximate the exact reaction rate better than Kramers’ rate formula under isothermal conditions.
Nonequilibrium current-carrying steady states in the anisotropic X Y spin chain
Lancaster, Jarrett L.
2016-05-01
Out-of-equilibrium behavior is explored in the one-dimensional anisotropic X Y model. Initially preparing the system in the isotropic X X model with a linearly varying magnetic field to create a domain-wall magnetization profile, dynamics is generated by rapidly changing the exchange interaction anisotropy and external magnetic field. Relaxation to a nonequilibrium steady state is studied analytically at the critical transverse Ising point, where correlation functions may be computed in closed form. For arbitrary values of anisotropy and external field, an effective generalized Gibbs' ensemble is shown to accurately describe observables in the long-time limit. Additionally, we find spatial oscillations in the exponentially decaying, transverse spin-spin correlation functions with wavelength set by the magnetization jump across the initial domain wall. This wavelength depends only weakly on anisotropy and magnetic field in contrast to the current, which is highly dependent on these parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiang, J.-T.; Hu, B.L.
2015-01-01
The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of classical harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for classical anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics. -- Highlights: •Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) for interacting quantum many-body systems. •Derivation of stochastic equations for quantum oscillator chain with two heat baths. •Explicit calculation of the energy flow from one bath to the
Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Hu, B.L.
2015-01-01
This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T_1>T_2. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.7642. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T_c, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T_1, T_2, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T_c is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, ‘hot entanglement’ is largely a fiction.
Disassembly of Faceted Macrosteps in the Step Droplet Zone in Non-Equilibrium Steady State
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noriko Akutsu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A Wulff figure—the polar graph of the surface tension of a crystal—with a discontinuity was calculated by applying the density matrix renormalization group method to the p-RSOS model, a restricted solid-on-solid model with a point-contact-type step–step attraction. In the step droplet zone in this model, the surface tension is discontinuous around the (111 surface and continuous around the (001 surface. The vicinal surface of 4H-SiC crystal in a Si–Cr–C solution is thought to be in the step droplet zone. The dependence of the vicinal surface growth rate and the macrostep size 〈 n 〉 on the driving force Δ μ for a typical state in the step droplet zone in non-equilibrium steady state was calculated using the Monte Carlo method. In contrast to the known step bunching phenomenon, the size of the macrostep was found to decrease with increasing driving force. The detachment of elementary steps from a macrostep was investigated, and it was found that 〈 n 〉 satisfies a scaling function. Moreover, kinetic roughening was observed for | Δ μ | > Δ μ R , where Δ μ R is the crossover driving force above which the macrostep disappears.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Jόzwikowska
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to determine a statistical non-equilibrium distribution function for the electron and holes in semiconductor heterostructures in steady-state conditions. Based on the postulates of local equilibrium, as well as on the integral form of the weighted Gyarmati’s variational principle in the force representation, using an alternative method, we have derived general expressions, which have the form of the Fermi–Dirac distribution function with four additional components. The physical interpretation of these components has been carried out in this paper. Some numerical results of a non-equilibrium distribution function for an electron in HgCdTe structures are also presented.
Study of nonequilibrium steady state of Fe(II) complex salt by means of synchrotron-radiation x-ray
Moritomo, Y
2003-01-01
In this article, we introduce our recent investigation at SPring-8/BL02B2 on the nonequilibrium steady state of photoexcited spin-crossover salts, which consists of Fe sup 2 sup + complexes and counter cations. The Fe sup 2 sup + complex takes two states; one is the low-spin state (S=0) and the other is the high-spin state (S=2). The photoexcitation can convert the low-spin site into the high-spin state, and hence, a finite the high-spin site is excited balancing with the thermal relaxation process. When the excitation power exceeds a critical value, we observe a dynamical phase transition into the high-spin condensed state.
The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin
Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...
The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.
2009-01-01
Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...
Schwarz, F.; Goldstein, M.; Dorda, A.; Arrigoni, E.; Weichselbaum, A.; von Delft, J.
2016-10-01
The description of interacting quantum impurity models in steady-state nonequilibrium is an open challenge for computational many-particle methods: the numerical requirement of using a finite number of lead levels and the physical requirement of describing a truly open quantum system are seemingly incompatible. One possibility to bridge this gap is the use of Lindblad-driven discretized leads (LDDL): one couples auxiliary continuous reservoirs to the discretized lead levels and represents these additional reservoirs by Lindblad terms in the Liouville equation. For quadratic models governed by Lindbladian dynamics, we present an elementary approach for obtaining correlation functions analytically. In a second part, we use this approach to explicitly discuss the conditions under which the continuum limit of the LDDL approach recovers the correct representation of thermal reservoirs. As an analytically solvable example, the nonequilibrium resonant level model is studied in greater detail. Lastly, we present ideas towards a numerical evaluation of the suggested Lindblad equation for interacting impurities based on matrix product states. In particular, we present a reformulation of the Lindblad equation, which has the useful property that the leads can be mapped onto a chain where both the Hamiltonian dynamics and the Lindblad driving are local at the same time. Moreover, we discuss the possibility to combine the Lindblad approach with a logarithmic discretization needed for the exploration of exponentially small energy scales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea De Martino
Full Text Available Within a fully microscopic setting, we derive a variational principle for the non-equilibrium steady states of chemical reaction networks, valid for time-scales over which chemical potentials can be taken to be slowly varying: at stationarity the system minimizes a global function of the reaction fluxes with the form of a Hopfield Hamiltonian with hebbian couplings, that is explicitly seen to correspond to the rate of decay of entropy production over time. Guided by this analogy, we show that reaction networks can be formally re-cast as systems of interacting reactions that optimize the use of the available compounds by competing for substrates, akin to agents competing for a limited resource in an optimal allocation problem. As an illustration, we analyze the scenario that emerges in two simple cases: that of toy (random reaction networks and that of a metabolic network model of the human red blood cell.
Hurowitz, Daniel; Rahav, Saar; Cohen, Doron
2013-12-01
We introduce an explicit solution for the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath, and is driven by an external hot source with log-wide distribution of couplings. Having time scales that stretch over several decades is similar to glassy systems. Consequently there is a wide range of driving intensities where the NESS is like that of a random walker in a biased Brownian landscape. We investigate the resulting statistics of the induced current I. For a single ring we discuss how sign of I fluctuates as the intensity of the driving is increased, while for an ensemble of rings we highlight the fingerprints of Sinai physics on the distribution of the absolute value of I.
Rich structure in the correlation matrix spectra in non-equilibrium steady states.
Biswas, Soham; Leyvraz, Francois; Monroy Castillero, Paulino; Seligman, Thomas H
2017-01-17
It has been shown that, if a model displays long-range (power-law) spatial correlations, its equal-time correlation matrix will also have a power law tail in the distribution of its high-lying eigenvalues. The purpose of this paper is to show that the converse is generally incorrect: a power-law tail in the high-lying eigenvalues of the correlation matrix may exist even in the absence of equal-time power law correlations in the initial model. We may therefore view the study of the eigenvalue distribution of the correlation matrix as a more powerful tool than the study of spatial Correlations, one which may in fact uncover structure, that would otherwise not be apparent. Specifically, we show that in the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, whereas there are no clearly visible correlations in the steady state, the eigenvalues of its correlation matrix exhibit a rich structure which we describe in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ness, H.; Dash, L. K.
2014-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium (NE) fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relations in the context of quantum thermoelectric transport through a two-terminal nanodevice in the steady-state. The FD relations for the one- and two-particle correlation functions are derived for a model of the central region consisting of a single electron level. Explicit expressions for the FD relations of the Green's functions (one-particle correlations) are provided. The FD relations for the current-current and charge-charge (two-particle) correlations are calculated numerically. We use self-consistent NE Green's functions calculations to treat the system in the absence and in the presence of interaction (electron-phonon) in the central region. We show that, for this model, there is no single universal FD theorem for the NE steady state. There are different FD relations for each different class of problems. We find that the FD relations for the one-particle correlation function are strongly dependent on both the NE conditions and the interactions, while the FD relations of the current-current correlation function are much less dependent on the interaction. The latter property suggests interesting applications for single-molecule and other nanoscale transport experiments
Direct approach for the fluctuation-dissipation theorem under nonequilibrium steady-state conditions
Komori, Kentaro; Enomoto, Yutaro; Takeda, Hiroki; Michimura, Yuta; Somiya, Kentaro; Ando, Masaki; Ballmer, Stefan W.
2018-05-01
The test mass suspensions of cryogenic gravitational-wave detectors such as the KAGRA project are tasked with extracting the heat deposited on the optics. These suspensions have a nonuniform temperature, requiring the calculation of thermal noise in nonequilibrium conditions. While it is not possible to describe the whole suspension system with one temperature, the local temperature at every point in the system is still well defined. We therefore generalize the application of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to mechanical systems, pioneered by Saulson and Levin, to nonequilibrium conditions in which a temperature can only be defined locally. The result is intuitive in the sense that the thermal noise in the observed degree of freedom is given by averaging the temperature field, weighted by the dissipation density associated with that particular degree of freedom. After proving this theorem, we apply the result to examples of increasing complexity: a simple spring, the bending of a pendulum suspension fiber, and a model of the KAGRA cryogenic suspension. We conclude by outlining the application to nonequilibrium thermoelastic noise.
Mellor, Andrew; Mobilia, Mauro; Zia, R. K. P.
2016-02-01
We introduce a heterogeneous nonlinear q-voter model with zealots and two types of susceptible voters, and study its non-equilibrium properties when the population is finite and well mixed. In this two-opinion model, each individual supports one of two parties and is either a zealot or a susceptible voter of type q 1 or q 2. While here zealots never change their opinion, a q i -susceptible voter (i=1,2) consults a group of q i neighbors at each time step, and adopts their opinion if all group members agree. We show that this model violates the detailed balance whenever q1 \
Jiang, Da-Quan; Qian, Min-Ping
2004-01-01
This volume provides a systematic mathematical exposition of the conceptual problems of nonequilibrium statistical physics, such as entropy production, irreversibility, and ordered phenomena. Markov chains, diffusion processes, and hyperbolic dynamical systems are used as mathematical models of physical systems. A measure-theoretic definition of entropy production rate and its formulae in various cases are given. It vanishes if and only if the stationary system is reversible and in equilibrium. Moreover, in the cases of Markov chains and diffusion processes on manifolds, it can be expressed in terms of circulations on directed cycles. Regarding entropy production fluctuations, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem is rigorously proved.
Levy, Tal J; Rabani, Eran
2013-04-28
We study steady state transport through a double quantum dot array using the equation-of-motion approach to the nonequilibrium Green functions formalism. This popular technique relies on uncontrolled approximations to obtain a closure for a hierarchy of equations; however, its accuracy is questioned. We focus on 4 different closures, 2 of which were previously proposed in the context of the single quantum dot system (Anderson impurity model) and were extended to the double quantum dot array, and develop 2 new closures. Results for the differential conductance are compared to those attained by a master equation approach known to be accurate for weak system-leads couplings and high temperatures. While all 4 closures provide an accurate description of the Coulomb blockade and other transport properties in the single quantum dot case, they differ in the case of the double quantum dot array, where only one of the developed closures provides satisfactory results. This is rationalized by comparing the poles of the Green functions to the exact many-particle energy differences for the isolate system. Our analysis provides means to extend the equation-of-motion technique to more elaborate models of large bridge systems with strong electronic interactions.
A matrix product solution for a nonequilibrium steady state of an XX chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Znidaric, Marko
2010-01-01
A one-dimensional XX spin chain of finite length coupled to reservoirs at both ends is solved exactly in terms of a matrix product state ansatz. An explicit representation of matrices of fixed dimension 4 independent of the chain length is found. Expectations of all observables are evaluated, showing that all connected correlations, apart from the nearest neighbor z-z, are zero.
Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido
2011-01-01
Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyldgaard, P
2012-01-01
The standard formulation of tunneling transport rests on an open-boundary modeling. There, conserving approximations to nonequilibrium Green function or quantum statistical mechanics provide consistent but computational costly approaches; alternatively, the use of density-dependent ballistic-transport calculations (e.g., Lang 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 5335), here denoted ‘DBT’, provides computationally efficient (approximate) atomistic characterizations of the electron behavior but has until now lacked a formal justification. This paper presents an exact, variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for fully interacting tunneling and provides a rigorous foundation for frozen-nuclei DBT calculations as a lowest-order approximation to an exact nonequilibrium thermodynamic density functional evaluation. The theory starts from the complete electron nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and I identify the operator for the nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy which, generally, must be treated as an implicit solution of the fully interacting many-body dynamics. I demonstrate a minimal property of a functional for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic grand potential which thus uniquely identifies the solution as the exact nonequilibrium density matrix. I also show that the uniqueness-of-density proof from a closely related Lippmann-Schwinger collision density functional theory (Hyldgaard 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 165109) makes it possible to express the variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic description as a single-particle formulation based on universal electron-density functionals; the full nonequilibrium single-particle formulation improves the DBT method, for example, by a more refined account of Gibbs free energy effects. I illustrate a formal evaluation of the zero-temperature thermodynamic grand potential value which I find is closely related to the variation in the scattering phase shifts and hence to Friedel density oscillations. This paper also discusses the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monthus, Cécile
2011-01-01
Filyokov and Karpov (1967 Inzh.-Fiz. Zh. 13 624) have proposed a theory of non-equilibrium steady states in direct analogy with the theory of equilibrium states: the principle is to maximize the Shannon entropy associated with the probability distribution of dynamical trajectories in the presence of constraints, including the macroscopic current of interest, via the method of Lagrange multipliers. This maximization leads directly to the generalized Gibbs distribution for the probability distribution of dynamical trajectories, and to some fluctuation relation of the integrated current. The simplest stochastic dynamics where these ideas can be applied are discrete-time Markov chains, defined by transition probabilities W i→j between configurations i and j: instead of choosing the dynamical rules W i→j a priori, one determines the transition probabilities and the associate stationary state that maximize the entropy of dynamical trajectories with the other physical constraints that one wishes to impose. We give a self-contained and unified presentation of this type of approach, both for discrete-time Markov chains and for continuous-time master equations. The obtained results are in full agreement with the Bayesian approach introduced by Evans (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 150601) under the name 'Non-equilibrium Counterpart to detailed balance', and with the 'invariant quantities' derived by Baule and Evans (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 240601), but provide a slightly different perspective via the formulation in terms of an eigenvalue problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajesh Ramaswamy
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.
Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido
2011-01-28
Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF) of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.
Rothman, Adam E.; Mazziotti, David A.
2010-03-01
We study molecular conductivity for a one-electron, bath-molecule-bath model Hamiltonian. The primary quantum-mechanical variable is the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM). By identifying similarities between the steady-state Liouville equation and the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 75, 022505 (2007)], we develop a way of enforcing nonequilibrium, steady-state behavior in a time-independent theory. Our results illustrate the relationship between current and voltage in molecular junctions assuming that the total number of electrons under consideration can be fixed across all driving potentials. The impetus for this work is a recent study by Subotnik et al. that also uses the 1-RDM to study molecular conductivity under different assumptions regarding the total number of electrons [J. E. Subotnik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 144105 (2009)]. Unlike calculations in the previous study, our calculations result in 1-RDMs that are fully N-representable. The present work maintains N-representability through a bath-bath mixing that is related to a time-independent relaxation of the baths in the absence of the molecule, as governed by the ACSE. A lack of N-representability can be important since it corresponds to occupying energy states in the molecule or baths with more than one electron or hole (the absence of an electron) in violation of the Pauli principle. For this reason the present work may serve as an important, albeit preliminary, step in designing a 2-RDM/ACSE method for studying steady-state molecular conductivity with an explicit treatment of electron correlation.
Grima, R
2010-07-21
Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horing, Norman J Morgenstern; Popov, Vyacheslav V
2006-01-01
Recent experimental observations by X.G. Peralta and S.J. Allen, et al. of dc photoconductivity resonances in steady source-drain current subject to terahertz radiation in a grid-gated double-quantum well FET suggested an association with plasmon resonances. This association was definitively confirmed for some parameter ranges in our detailed electrodynamic absorbance calculations. In this paper we propose that the reason that the dc photoconductance resonances match the plasmon resonances in semiconductors is based on a nonlinear dynamic screening mechanism. In this, we employ a shielded potential approximation that is nonlinear in the terahertz field to determine the nonequilibrium Green's function and associated density perturbation that govern the nonequilibrium dielectric polarization of the medium. This 'conditioning' of the system by the incident THz radiation results in resonant polarization response at the plasmon frequencies which, in turn, causes a sharp drop of the resistive shielded impurity scattering potentials and attendant increase of the dc source-drain current. This amounts to disabling the impurity scattering mechanism by plasmon resonant behavior in nonlinear screening
Nonequilibrium Distribution of the Microscopic Thermal Current in Steady Thermal Transport Systems
Yukawa, Satoshi; Ogushi, Fumiko; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu
2010-01-01
Nonequilibrium distribution of the microscopic thermal current is investigated by direct molecular dynamics simulations. The microscopic thermal current in this study is defined by a flow of kinetic energy carried by a single particle. Asymptotic parallel and antiparallel tails of the nonequilibrium distribution to an average thermal current are identical to ones of equilibrium distribution with different temperatures. These temperatures characterizing the tails are dependent on a characteristic length in which a memory of dynamics is completely erased by several particle collisions. This property of the tails of nonequilibrium distribution is confirmed in other thermal transport systems. In addition, statistical properties of a particle trapped by a harmonic potential in a steady thermal conducting state are also studied. This particle feels a finite force parallel to the average thermal current as a consequence of the skewness of the distribution of the current. This force is interpreted as the microscopic origin of thermophoresis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarboe, T.R.
1982-01-01
A major effort is being made in the national program to make the operation of axisymmetric, toroidal confinement systems steady state by the application of expensive rf current drive. Described here is a method by which such a confinement system, the spheromak, can be refluxed indefinitely through the application of dc power. As a step towards dc sustainment we have operated the present CTX source in the slow source mode with a longer power application time (approx. 0.1 ms) and successfully generated long-lived spheromaks. If the erosion of the electrodes can be controlled as well as it is with MPD arcs then dc operation should be very clean. If only a small fraction (approx. 10% for an experiment) of the poloidal flux of the spheromak connects to the source then the dc sustainment can be very efficient. The amount of connecting flux that is necessary for sustainment needs to be determined experimentally
Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium
Taniguchi, Nobuhiko
2018-04-01
We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.
Steady states in conformal theories
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.
Characterization of nonequilibrium states of trapped Bose–Einstein condensates
Yukalov, V. I.; Novikov, A. N.; Bagnato, V. S.
2018-06-01
The generation of different nonequilibrium states in trapped Bose–Einstein condensates is studied by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Inducing nonequilibrium states by shaking a trap creates the following states: weak nonequilibrium, the state of vortex germs, the state of vortex rings, the state of straight vortex lines, the state of deformed vortices, vortex turbulence, grain turbulence, and wave turbulence. A characterization of nonequilibrium states is advanced by introducing effective temperature, Fresnel number, and Mach number.
Steady-State Process Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul
2011-01-01
illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....
Steady State Shift Damage Localization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk
2017-01-01
The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...
Steady state neutral beam injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattoo, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Baruah, U.K.; Bisai, N.; Chakbraborty, A.K.; Chakrapani, Ch.; Jana, M.R.; Bajpai, M.; Jaykumar, P.K.; Patel, D.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.J.; Prahlad, V.; Rao, N.V.M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, N.P.; Sridhar, B.
2000-01-01
Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >10 5 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m 2 , frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)
Thermochemical nonequilibrium analysis of O2+Ar based on state-resolved kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jae Gang; Boyd, Iain D.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Thermochemical nonequilibrium studies for three lowest lying electronic states of O 2 . • The complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rates of O 2 +Ar. • Rovibrational relaxations and coupled chemical reactions of O 2 . • Nonequilibrium reaction rates of O 2 derived from the quasi-steady state assumption. - Abstract: The thermochemical nonequilibrium of the three lowest lying electronic states of molecular oxygen, O 2 (X 3 Σ g - ,a 1 Δ g ,b 1 Σ g + ), through interactions with argon is studied in the present work. The multi-body potential energy surfaces of O 2 +Ar are evaluated from the semi-classical RKR potential of O 2 in each electronic state. The rovibrational states and energies of each electronic state are calculated by the quantum mechanical method based on the present inter-nuclear potential of O 2 . Then, the complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rate coefficients of O 2 +Ar are calculated by the quasi-classical trajectory method including the quasi-bound states. The system of master equations constructed by the present state-to-state transition rate coefficients are solved to analyze the thermochemical nonequilibrium of O 2 +Ar in various heat bath conditions. From these studies, it is concluded that the vibrational relaxation and coupled chemical reactions of each electronic state needs to be treated as a separate nonequilibrium process, and rotational nonequilibrium needs to be considered at translational temperatures above 10,000 K
Efficient steady-state solver for hierarchical quantum master equations
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2017-07-01
Steady states play pivotal roles in many equilibrium and non-equilibrium open system studies. Their accurate evaluations call for exact theories with rigorous treatment of system-bath interactions. Therein, the hierarchical equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism is a nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipation theory, which can faithfully describe the dissipative dynamics and nonlinear response of open systems. Nevertheless, solving the steady states of open quantum systems via HEOM is often a challenging task, due to the vast number of dynamical quantities involved. In this work, we propose a self-consistent iteration approach that quickly solves the HEOM steady states. We demonstrate its high efficiency with accurate and fast evaluations of low-temperature thermal equilibrium of a model Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. Numerically exact evaluation of thermal equilibrium Rényi entropies and stationary emission line shapes is presented with detailed discussion.
Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.
Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T
1976-09-01
The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.
Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wreszinski, Walter F.
2015-01-01
We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system
The steady-state tokamak program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Politzer, D.A.; Nevins, W.M.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on a steady-state tokamak experiment (STE) needed to develop the technology and physics data base required for construction of a steady-state fusion power demonstration reactor in the early 21st century. The STE will provide an integrated facility for the development and demonstration of steady-state and particle handling, low-activation high-heat-flux components and materials, efficient current drive, and continuous plasma performance in steady-state, with reactor-like plasma conditions under severe conditions of heat and particle bombardment of the wall. The STE facility will also be used to develop operation and control scenarios for ITER
New Tore Supra steady state operating scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, G.; Parlange, F.; van Houtte, D.; Wijnands, T.
1995-01-01
This document deals with plasma control in steady state conditions. A new plasma control systems enabling feedback control of global plasma equilibrium parameters has been developed. It also enables to operate plasma discharge in steady state regime. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Shixiao W; Lu, Haihao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David
2016-01-01
Characterizing dispersive wave turbulence in the long time dynamics is central to understanding of many natural phenomena, e.g., in atmosphere ocean dynamics, nonlinear optics, and plasma physics. Using the β -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam nonlinear system as a prototypical example, we show that in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady state the turbulent state even in the strongly nonlinear regime possesses an effective linear stochastic structure in renormalized normal variables. In this framework, we can well characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics, which are dominated by long-wavelength renormalized waves. We further demonstrate that the energy flux is nearly saturated by the long-wavelength renormalized waves in non-equilibrium steady state. The scenario of such effective linear stochastic dynamics can be extended to study turbulent states in other nonlinear wave systems. (paper)
Cycle kinetics, steady state thermodynamics and motors-a paradigm for living matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian, Hong
2005-01-01
An integration of the stochastic mathematical models for motor proteins with Hill's steady state thermodynamics yields a rather comprehensive theory for molecular motors as open systems in the nonequilibrium steady state. This theory, a natural extension of Gibbs' approach to isothermal molecular systems in equilibrium, is compared with other existing theories with dissipative structures and dynamics. The theory of molecular motors might be considered as an archetype for studying more complex open biological systems such as biochemical reaction networks inside living cells
A design of steady state fusion burner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Akira; Hatori, Tadatsugu; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ikuta, Takashi; Kodama, Yuji.
1975-01-01
We present a brief design of a steady state fusion burner in which a continuous burning of nuclear fuel may be achieved with output power of a gigawatt. The laser fusion is proposed to ignite the fuel. (auth.)
Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinyar, I.; Geraud, A.; Yamada, H.; Lukin, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Skoblikov, S.; Umov, A.; Oda, Y.; Gros, G.; Krasilnikov, I.; Reznichenko, P.; Panchenko, V.
2005-01-01
Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation
The Markov process admits a consistent steady-state thermodynamic formalism
Peng, Liangrong; Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu
2018-01-01
The search for a unified formulation for describing various non-equilibrium processes is a central task of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, a novel steady-state thermodynamic formalism was established for general Markov processes described by the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Furthermore, corresponding formalisms of steady-state thermodynamics for the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation could be rigorously derived in mathematics. To be concrete, we proved that (1) in the limit of continuous time, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation fully agrees with that for the master equation; (2) a similar one-to-one correspondence could be established rigorously between the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation in the limit of large system size; (3) when a Markov process is restrained to one-step jump, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Fokker-Planck equation with discrete state variables also goes to that for master equations, as the discretization step gets smaller and smaller. Our analysis indicated that general Markov processes admit a unified and self-consistent non-equilibrium steady-state thermodynamic formalism, regardless of underlying detailed models.
Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis J. Evans
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.
The Opportunities of Steady State.
Sillars, Malcolm O.
Recent restrictions in funds made available to higher education, reinforced by declining birth rates and slowing or falling enrollments, are forcing an adjustment of thinking by educators. The growth of the last 20 years was not the normal state of higher education. Educators have come to think that bigger is better as enrollments and faculty have…
Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.
Lorsch, Jon R
2014-01-01
Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hannemann, K. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany); Jacobs, P.A. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics
1999-12-01
Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)
Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hannemann, K. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)); Jacobs, P.A. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics)
1999-01-01
Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)
steady – state performance of induction and transfer state
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
This paper presents paper presents paper presents the steady the steady the steady–state performance state performance state performance comparison comparison comparison between polyphase induction motor and polyphase between polyphase induction motor and polyphase. TF motor operating in. TF motor ...
Steady-state spheromak reactor studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.
1985-01-01
After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported
Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alibai Iskakbayev
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
SRB states and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium
Gallavotti, Giovannni; Ruelle, David
1996-01-01
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is studied using SRB states and a formula for their derivatives with respect to parameters. We write general expressions for the thermodynamic fluxes (or currents) and the transport coefficients, generalizing previous results. In this framework we give a general proof of the Onsager reciprocity relations.
Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study Langevin dynamics of a driven charged particle in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field. We discuss the validity of various work fluctuation theorems using different model potentials and external drives. We also show that one can generate an orbital magnetic moment in a nonequilibrium state ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Chen; Chen, Yong
2015-01-01
In the work of Amann, Schmiedl and Seifert (2010 J. Chem. Phys. 132 041102), the authors derived a sufficient criterion to identify a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) in a three-state Markov system based on the coarse-grained information of two-state trajectories. In this paper, we present a mathematical derivation and provide a probabilistic interpretation of the Amann–Schmiedl–Seifert (ASS) criterion. Moreover, the ASS criterion is compared with some other criterions for a NESS. (paper)
Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving
2016-08-29
construction does not require the solution of any differential equations , only linear algebraic equations . By contrast, a mapping in the opposite...set of algebraic linear equations . The mapping between NESS and SP presented above was not intended as a set of operational instructions for... differential equations with time-periodic parameters. Typically, this can only be done numerically. In some applications, transition rates are constrained by
The entropy concept for non-equilibrium states.
Lieb, Elliott H; Yngvason, Jakob
2013-10-08
In earlier work, we presented a foundation for the second law of classical thermodynamics in terms of the entropy principle. More precisely, we provided an empirically accessible axiomatic derivation of an entropy function defined on all equilibrium states of all systems that has the appropriate additivity and scaling properties, and whose increase is a necessary and sufficient condition for an adiabatic process between two states to be possible. Here, after a brief review of this approach, we address the question of defining entropy for non-equilibrium states. Our conclusion is that it is generally not possible to find a unique entropy that has all relevant physical properties. We do show, however, that one can define two entropy functions, called S - and S + , which, taken together, delimit the range of adiabatic processes that can occur between non-equilibrium states. The concept of comparability of states with respect to adiabatic changes plays an important role in our reasoning.
Steady state of tapped granular polygons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlevaro, Carlos M; Pugnaloni, Luis A
2011-01-01
The steady state packing fraction of a tapped granular bed is studied for different grain shapes via a discrete element method. Grains are monosized regular polygons, from triangles to icosagons. Comparisons with disc packings show that the steady state packing fraction as a function of the tapping intensity presents the same general trends in polygon packings. However, better packing fractions are obtained, as expected, for shapes that can tessellate the plane (triangles, squares and hexagons). In addition, we find a sharp transition for packings of polygons with more than 13 vertices signaled by a discontinuity in the packing fraction at a particular tapping intensity. Density fluctuations for most shapes are consistent with recent experimental findings in disc packing; however, a peculiar behavior is found for triangles and squares
On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones
2014-01-01
Press: London. Marks FD, Black PG, Montgomery MT, Burpee RW. 2008. Structure of the eye and eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 1237... hurricanes ; tropical cyclones; typhoons; steady-state Received 18 April 2013; Revised 25 November 2013; Accepted 29 December 2013; Published online in Wiley...the concept of the ‘mature stage’ of a hurricane vortex. The definition of the ‘mature stage’ is commonly based on the time period in which the maximum
Steady State versus Pulsed Tokamak DEMO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orsitto, F.P., E-mail: francesco.orsitto@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Todd, T. [CCFE/Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
2012-09-15
Full text: The present report deals with a Review of problems for a Steady state(SS) DEMO, related argument is treated about the models and the present status of comparison between the characteristics of DEMO pulsed versus a Steady state device.The studied SS DEMO Models (SLIM CS, PPCS model C EU-DEMO, ARIES-RS) are analyzed from the point of view of the similarity scaling laws and critical issues for a steady state DEMO. A comparison between steady state and pulsed DEMO is therefore carried out: in this context a new set of parameters for a pulsed (6 - 8 hours pulse) DEMO is determined working below the density limit, peak temperature of 20 keV, and requiring a modest improvement in the confinement factor(H{sub IPBy2} = 1.1) with respect to the H-mode. Both parameters density and confinement parameter are lower than the DEMO models presently considered. The concept of partially non-inductive pulsed DEMO is introduced since a pulsed DEMO needs heating and current drive tools for plasma stability and burn control. The change of the main parameter design for a DEMO working at high plasma peak temperatures T{sub e} {approx} 35 keV is analyzed: in this range the reactivity increases linearly with temperature, and a device with smaller major radius (R = 7.5 m) is compatible with high temperature. Increasing temperature is beneficial for current drive efficiency and heat load on divertor, being the synchrotron radiation one of the relevant components of the plasma emission at high temperatures and current drive efficiency increases with temperature. Technology and engineering problems are examined including efficiency and availability R&D issues for a high temperature DEMO. Fatigue and creep-fatigue effects of pulsed operations on pulsed DEMO components are considered in outline to define the R&D needed for DEMO development. (author)
Generalization of the nuclear equation of state to nonequilibrium states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neise, L.W.
1990-10-01
In this thesis it was shown, how the thermodynamic terms can be generalized, so that they are also still applicable in nonequilibrium states. Thereby the method with a generalized grand canonical potential presented here is also applicable to two mutually steadily streaming through parts of nuclear matter. The momentum anisotropy is described by a parameter which enters the equation of state quite similarly as for instance the temperature. While now in a purely position-dependent microscopical interaction a momentum anisotropy only means an additional additive kinetic energy, momentum-dependent forces, as they play a role in nucleus-nucleus collisions, lead to complicated connections, which were analyzed in this thesis. An important advance of the procedure presented here is the relativistic formulation, which allows to study also large momentum anisotropies respectively large relative flow velocities. It could be shown that the formation of delta matter is forced by a momentum anisotropy. Especially interesting is the influence of a momentum anisotropy on the phase transition between hadronic matter and a quark-gluon plasma. (orig./HSI) [de
Nonequilibrium shock-heated nitrogen flows using a rovibrational state-to-state method
Panesi, M.; Munafò, A.; Magin, T. E.; Jaffe, R. L.
2014-07-01
A rovibrational collisional model is developed to study the internal energy excitation and dissociation processes behind a strong shock wave in a nitrogen flow. The reaction rate coefficients are obtained from the ab initio database of the NASA Ames Research Center. The master equation is coupled with a one-dimensional flow solver to study the nonequilibrium phenomena encountered in the gas during a hyperbolic reentry into Earth's atmosphere. The analysis of the populations of the rovibrational levels demonstrates how rotational and vibrational relaxation proceed at the same rate. This contrasts with the common misconception that translational and rotational relaxation occur concurrently. A significant part of the relaxation process occurs in non-quasi-steady-state conditions. Exchange processes are found to have a significant impact on the relaxation of the gas, while predissociation has a negligible effect. The results obtained by means of the full rovibrational collisional model are used to assess the validity of reduced order models (vibrational collisional and multitemperature) which are based on the same kinetic database. It is found that thermalization and dissociation are drastically overestimated by the reduced order models. The reasons of the failure differ in the two cases. In the vibrational collisional model the overestimation of the dissociation is a consequence of the assumption of equilibrium between the rotational energy and the translational energy. The multitemperature model fails to predict the correct thermochemical relaxation due to the failure of the quasi-steady-state assumption, used to derive the phenomenological rate coefficient for dissociation.
Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths
Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie
2018-03-01
In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.
An accelerator based steady state neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, R.J.; Johnson, D.L.
1985-01-01
Using high current, c.w. linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the Accelerator Based Neutron Research Facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 10 16 n/cm 2 .s thermal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of $300-450M is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source in most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc. With the development of multi-beam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs
Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation
Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph
2017-11-01
We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.
Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž
2014-01-01
We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl 2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure
Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž
2014-05-15
We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl{sub 2} and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure.
Steady-State Operation in Tore Supra
Hoang, G. T.; Tore Supra, Equipe
1999-11-01
The Tore Supra superconducting tokamak is devoted to steady-state operation. The CIEL (French acronym for internal component and limiter) project( LIPA, M., et al., Proc. of the 17th IEEE/NPSS Symp. on Fus. Engineering, San Diego, USA, 1997.) consists of a complete upgrade of the inner chamber of Tore Supra, planned to be installed during the year 2000. This project will allow physics scenarios with up to 24 MW of radio frequency heating and current drive (typically 8 - 10 MW of ICRF, 10 - 12 MW of LHCD and 2 MW of ECRF) in stationary plasmas up to 1000 s, with active particle control. This paper presents an overview of the experiments planned to explore the properties, such as the confinement and MHD stability, of various heating and current drive scenarios for long duration discharges. The expected performance for the CIEL phase is also reported.
Producing a steady-state population inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.
1986-03-01
An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced
Reactor kinetics - pulse and steady state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estes, B F; Morris, F M [Sandia Laboratories (United States)
1974-07-01
An analytical model has been developed which couples the nuclear and thermal characteristics of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) into a solution which describes both the neutron kinetics of the reactor and the temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element. The model describes both pulse and steady state operations. This paper describes the important aspects of the reactor, the fuel- moderator elements, the neutron kinetic equations of the reactor, and the time-temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element that is being subjected to the maximum power density in the core. The parameters which are utilized in the equations are divided into two classes, those that can be measured directly and those that are assumed to be known (each is described briefly). Some of the solutions which demonstrate the versatility of the analytical model are described. (author)
Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment
1996-06-01
A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).
Progress towards Steady State on NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, D.A.; Kessel, C.; Menard, J.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.
2005-01-01
In order to reduce recirculating power fraction to acceptable levels, the spherical torus concept relies on the simultaneous achievement of high toroidal β and high bootstrap fraction in steady state. In the last year, as a result of plasma control system improvements, the achievable plasma elongation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been raised from κ ∼ 2.1 to κ ∼ 2.6--approximately a 25% increase. This increase in elongation has lead to a doubling increase in the toroidal β for long-pulse discharges. The increase in β is associated with an increase in plasma current at nearly fixed poloidal β, which enables higher β t with nearly constant bootstrap fraction. As a result, for the first time in a spherical torus, a discharge with a plasma current of 1 MA has been sustained for 1 second. Data is presented from NSTX correlating the increase in performance with increased plasma shaping capability. In addition to improved shaping, H-modes induced during the current ramp phase of the plasma discharge have been used to reduce flux consumption during and to delay the onset of MHD instabilities. A modeled integrated scenario, which has 100% non-inductive current drive with very high toroidal β, will also be presented. The NSTX poloidal field coils are currently being modified to produce the plasma shape which is required for this scenario, which requires high triangularity ((delta) ∼ 0.8) at elevated elongation (κ ∼ 2.5). The other main requirement for steady state on NSTX is the ability to drive a fraction of the total plasma current with radio-frequency waves. The results of High Harmonic Fast Wave heating and current drive studies as well as electron Bernstein Wave emission studies will be presented
Steady Particle States of Revised Electromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available A revised Lorentz invariant electromagnetic theory leading beyond Maxwell's equations, and to a form of extended quantum electrodynamics, has been elaborated on the basis of a nonzero electric charge density and a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. Among the applications of this theory, there are steady electromagnetic states having no counterpart in conventional theory and resulting in models of electrically charged and neutral leptons, such as the electron and the neutrino. The analysis of the electron model debouches into a point-charge-like geometry with a very small characteristic radius but having finite self-energy. This provides an alternative to the conventional renormalization procedure. In contrast to conventional theory, an integrated radial force balance can further be established in which the electron is prevented from "exploding" under the action of its net self-charge. Through a combination of variational analysis and an investigation of the radial force balance, a value of the electronic charge has been deduced which deviates by only one percent from that obtained in experiments. This deviation requires further investigation. A model of the neutrino finally reproduces some of the basic features, such as a small but nonzero rest mass, an angular momentum but no magnetic moment, and long mean free paths in solid matter.
Steady Particle States of Revised Electromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available A revised Lorentz invariant electromagnetic theory leading beyond Maxwell’s equations, and to a form of extended quantum electrodynamics, has been elaborated on the basis of a nonzero electric charge density and a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. Among the applications of this theory, there are steady electromagnetic states having no counterpart in conventional theory and resulting in models of electrically charged and neutral leptons, such as the electron and the neutrino. The analysis of the electron model debouches into a point-charge-like geometry with a very small characteristic radius but having finite self-energy. This provides an alternative to the conventional renormalization procedure. In contrast to conventional theory, an integrated radial force balance can further be established in which the electron is prevented from “exploding” under the action of its net self-charge. Through a combination of variational analysis and an investigation of the radial force balance, a value of the electronic charge has been deduced which deviates by only one percent from that obtained in experiments. This deviation requires further investigation. A model of the neutrino finally reproduces some of the basic features, such as a small but nonzero rest mass, an angular momentum but no magnetic moment, and long mean free paths in solid matter.
The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems
Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.
2012-09-01
Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.
Pseudo Steady-State Free Precession for MR-Fingerprinting.
Assländer, Jakob; Glaser, Steffen J; Hennig, Jürgen
2017-03-01
This article discusses the signal behavior in the case the flip angle in steady-state free precession sequences is continuously varied as suggested for MR-fingerprinting sequences. Flip angle variations prevent the establishment of a steady state and introduce instabilities regarding to magnetic field inhomogeneities and intravoxel dephasing. We show how a pseudo steady state can be achieved, which restores the spin echo nature of steady-state free precession. Based on geometrical considerations, relationships between the flip angle, repetition and echo time are derived that suffice to the establishment of a pseudo steady state. The theory is tested with Bloch simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments. A typical steady-state free precession passband can be restored with the proposed conditions. The stability of the pseudo steady state is demonstrated by comparing the evolution of the signal of a single isochromat to one resulting from a spin ensemble. As confirmed by experiments, magnetization in a pseudo steady state can be described with fewer degrees of freedom compared to the original fingerprinting and the pseudo steady state results in more reliable parameter maps. The proposed conditions restore the spin-echo-like signal behavior typical for steady-state free precession in fingerprinting sequences, making this approach more robust to B 0 variations. Magn Reson Med 77:1151-1161, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, C M; Stein, D L
2008-01-01
Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t → ∞. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)
Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Félix Ginot
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.
A steady-state axisymmetric toroidal system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1984-01-01
Conditions for achieving a steady state in an axisymmetric toroidal system are studied with emphasis on a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration. The analysis is carried out for the electromotive force produced by the Ohkawa current that is induced by neutral-beam injection. It turns out that, since the perpendicular component of the current j-vectorsub(perpendicular) to the magnetic field can be generated automatically by the diamagnetic effect, only the parallel component j-vectorsub(parallel) must be driven by the electromotive force. The drive of j-vectorsub(parallel) generates shear in the field line so that the pure toroidal field on the magnetic axis is rotated towards the plasma boundary and matched to the external field lines. This matching condition determines the necessary amount of injection beam current and power. It is demonstrated that a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration requires only a small amount of current-driving beam power because almost all the toroidal current except that close to the magnetic axis is carried by the diamagnetic current due to high beta. A low-beta tokamak, on the other hand, needs very high current-driving power since most of the toroidal current is composed of j-vectorsub(parallel) which must be driven by the beam. (author)
Triple echo steady-state (TESS) relaxometry.
Heule, Rahel; Ganter, Carl; Bieri, Oliver
2014-01-01
Rapid imaging techniques have attracted increased interest for relaxometry, but none are perfect: they are prone to static (B0 ) and transmit (B1 ) field heterogeneities, and commonly biased by T2 /T1 . The purpose of this study is the development of a rapid T1 and T2 relaxometry method that is completely (T2 ) or partly (T1 ) bias-free. A new method is introduced to simultaneously quantify T1 and T2 within one single scan based on a triple echo steady-state (TESS) approach in combination with an iterative golden section search. TESS relaxometry is optimized and evaluated from simulations, in vitro studies, and in vivo experiments. It is found that relaxometry with TESS is not biased by T2 /T1 , insensitive to B0 heterogeneities, and, surprisingly, that TESS-T2 is not affected by B1 field errors. Consequently, excellent correspondence between TESS and reference spin echo data is observed for T2 in vitro at 1.5 T and in vivo at 3 T. TESS offers rapid T1 and T2 quantification within one single scan, and in particular B1 -insensitive T2 estimation. As a result, the new proposed method is of high interest for fast and reliable high-resolution T2 mapping, especially of the musculoskeletal system at high to ultra-high fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nonequilibrium states of high tc YBCO superconductors under tunnel injection of quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, I.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K.; Yoshida, K.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium states of high Tc superconductors are investigated by means of tunnel injection of quasiparticles using Pb(or Au)/MgO/YBCO tunnel junctions. The effective critical-current reduction due to tunnel injection is observed, whose behaviour is different from simple heating. The observed results suggest that the resultant nonequilibrium states may also differ from those described by conventional nonequilibrium models
NLTE steady-state response matrix method.
Faussurier, G.; More, R. M.
2000-05-01
A connection between atomic kinetics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics has been recently established by using a collisional-radiative model modified to include line absorption. The calculated net emission can be expressed as a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) symmetric response matrix. In the paper, this connection is extended to both cases of the average-atom model and the Busquet's model (RAdiative-Dependent IOnization Model, RADIOM). The main properties of the response matrix still remain valid. The RADIOM source function found in the literature leads to a diagonal response matrix, stressing the absence of any frequency redistribution among the frequency groups at this order of calculation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R.
2014-01-01
We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively
On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems
Akimoto, Takuma
2008-01-01
We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.
Steady-State Performance of Kalman Filter for DPLL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Yi; CUI Xiaowei; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming
2009-01-01
For certain system models, the structure of the Kalman filter is equivalent to a second-order vari-able gain digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). To apply the knowledge of DPLLs to the design of Kalman filters, this paper studies the steady-state performance of Kalman filters for these system models. The results show that the steady-state Kalman gain has the same form as the DPLL gain. An approximate simple form for the steady-state Kalman gain is used to derive an expression for the equivalent loop bandwidth of the Kalman filter as a function of the process and observation noise variances. These results can be used to analyze the steady-state performance of a Kalman filter with DPLL theory or to design a Kalman filter model with the same steady-state performance as a given DPLL.
An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.
1995-08-01
A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.
2000-01-01
The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive...... on the temperatures, microstructured phases of both lamellar and droplet symmetry arise, described by a length scale that is determined by the characteristic temperature controlling the diffusive motion of the active impurities....
Bosma, T; Pikkemaat, MG; Kingma, Jacob; Dijk, J; Janssen, DB
2003-01-01
Haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 (DhaA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of carbon-halogen bonds in a wide range of haloalkanes. We examined the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of halopropane conversion by DhaA to illuminate mechanistic details of the
Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.
1990-01-01
The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra
Steady state and transient critical heat flux examinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szabados, L.
1978-02-01
In steady state conditions within the P.W.R. parameter range the critical heat flux correlations based on local parameters reproduce the experimental data with less deviations than those based on system parameters. The transient experiments were restricted for the case of power transients. A data processing method for critical heat flux measurements has been developed and the applicability of quasi steady state calculation has been verified. (D.P.)
Calculation analysis on steady state natural circulation characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fei; Nie Changhua; Huang Yanping
2005-01-01
The calculation results of single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics by using Retran02 code have been presented, good agreement is achieved between the verified calculation result and the experimental data which were conducted at a test facility. Based on the calculation model, some sensibility analyses were made and much deeper understanding for single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics was obtained. (author)
Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin
2009-01-01
Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....
Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.
2006-01-01
The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented
Cluster Mean-Field Approach to the Steady-State Phase Diagram of Dissipative Spin Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiasen Jin
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We show that short-range correlations have a dramatic impact on the steady-state phase diagram of quantum driven-dissipative systems. This effect, never observed in equilibrium, follows from the fact that ordering in the steady state is of dynamical origin, and is established only at very long times, whereas in thermodynamic equilibrium it arises from the properties of the (free energy. To this end, by combining the cluster methods extensively used in equilibrium phase transitions to quantum trajectories and tensor-network techniques, we extend them to nonequilibrium phase transitions in dissipative many-body systems. We analyze in detail a model of spin-1/2 on a lattice interacting through an XYZ Hamiltonian, each of them coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. In the steady-state phase diagram derived from our cluster approach, the location of the phase boundaries and even its topology radically change, introducing reentrance of the paramagnetic phase as compared to the single-site mean field where correlations are neglected. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the cluster mean field indicates a susceptibility towards a possible incommensurate ordering, not present if short-range correlations are ignored.
Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...
Sankararaman, Sumithra; Menon, Gautam I; Sunil Kumar, P B
2002-09-01
We study the linearized hydrodynamics of a two-component fluid membrane near a repulsive wall, using a model that incorporates curvature-concentration coupling as well as hydrodynamic interactions. This model is a simplified version of a recently proposed one [J.-B. Manneville et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 021908 (2001)] for nonequilibrium force centers embedded in fluid membranes, such as light-activated bacteriorhodopsin pumps incorporated in phospholipid egg phosphatidyl choline (EPC) bilayers. The pump-membrane system is modeled as an impermeable, two-component bilayer fluid membrane in the presence of an ambient solvent, in which one component, representing active pumps, is described in terms of force dipoles displaced with respect to the bilayer midpoint. We first discuss the case in which such pumps are rendered inactive, computing the mode structure in the bulk as well as the modification of hydrodynamic properties by the presence of a nearby wall. These results should apply, more generally, to equilibrium fluid membranes comprised of two components, in which the effects of curvature-concentration coupling are significant, above the threshold for phase separation. We then discuss the fluctuations and mode structure in the steady state of active two-component membranes near a repulsive wall. We find that proximity to the wall smoothens membrane height fluctuations in the stable regime, resulting in a logarithmic scaling of the roughness even for initially tensionless membranes. This explicitly nonequilibrium result is a consequence of the incorporation of curvature-concentration coupling in our hydrodynamic treatment. This result also indicates that earlier scaling arguments which obtained an increase in the roughness of active membranes near repulsive walls upon neglecting the role played by such couplings may need to be reevaluated.
Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao
2007-01-01
The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity
The Energy Budget of Steady State Photosynthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. David M. Kramer
2012-11-27
Progress is reported in addressing these questions: Why do hcef mutants have increased CEF1? Is increased CEF1 caused by elevated expression or altered regulation of CEF1 components? Which metabolic pools can be regulators of CEF1? Do metabolites influence CEF1 directly or indirectly? Which CEF1 pathways are activated in high CEF1 mutants? Is PQR a proton pump? Is elevated CEF1 activated by state transitions?
Kunova, O. V.; Shoev, G. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.
2017-01-01
Nonequilibrium flows of a two-component oxygen mixture O2/O behind a shock wave are studied with due allowance for the state-to-state vibrational and chemical kinetics. The system of gas-dynamic equations is supplemented with kinetic equations including contributions of VT (TV)-exchange and dissociation processes. A method of the numerical solution of this system with the use of the ANSYS Fluent commercial software package is proposed, which is used in a combination with the authors' code that takes into account nonequilibrium kinetics. The computed results are compared with parameters obtained by solving the problem in the shock-fitting formulation. The vibrational temperature is compared with experimental data. The numerical tool proposed in the present paper is applied to study the flow around a cylinder.
Implications of steady-state operation on divertor design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevier, D.L.; Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Silke, G.W.; Wong, C.P.C.; Hill, D.N.
1996-01-01
As fusion experiments progress towards long pulse or steady state operation, plasma facing components are undergoing a significant change in their design. This change represents the transition from inertially cooled pulsed systems to steady state designs of significant power handling capacity. A limited number of Plasma Facing Component (PFC) systems are in operation or planning to address this steady state challenge at low heat flux. However in most divertor designs components are required to operate at heat fluxes at 5 MW/m 2 or above. The need for data in this area has resulted in a significant amount of thermal/hydraulic and thermal fatigue testing being done on prototypical elements. Short pulse design solutions are not adequate for longer pulse experiments and the areas of thermal design, structural design, material selection, maintainability, and lifetime prediction are undergoing significant changes. A prudent engineering approach will guide us through the transitional phase of divertor design to steady-state power plant components. This paper reviews the design implications in this transition to steady state machines and the status of the community efforts to meet evolving design requirements. 54 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Full transmission modes and steady states in defect gratings,
van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Sopaheluwakan, A.; Andonowati, A.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R
2003-01-01
For a symmetric grating structure with a defect, we show that a fully transmitted defect mode in the band gap can be obtained as a superposition of two steady states: an amplified and an attenuated defect state. Without scanning the whole band gap by transmission calculations, this simplifies the
On non-equilibrium states in QFT model with boundary interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Lukyanov, Sergei L.; Zamolodchikov, Alexander B.
1999-01-01
We prove that certain non-equilibrium expectation values in the boundary sine-Gordon model coincide with associated equilibrium-state expectation values in the systems which differ from the boundary sine-Gordon in that certain extra boundary degrees of freedom (q-oscillators) are added. Applications of this result to actual calculation of non-equilibrium characteristics of the boundary sine-Gordon model are also discussed
Contour analysis of steady state tokamak reactor performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.
1990-01-01
A new method of analysis for presenting the possible operating space for steady state, non-ignited tokamak reactors is proposed. The method uses contours of reactor performance and plasma characteristics, fusion power gain, wall neutron flux, current drive power, etc., plotted on a two-dimensional grid, the axes of which are the plasma current I p and the normalized beta, β n = β/(I p /aB 0 ), to show possible operating points. These steady state operating contour plots are called SOPCONS. This technique is illustrated in an application to a design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with neutral beam, lower hybrid and bootstrap current drive. The utility of the SOPCON plots for pointing out some of the non-intuitive considerations in steady state reactor design is shown. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Realizing steady-state tokamak operation for fusion energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luce, T. C.
2011-01-01
Continuous operation of a tokamak for fusion energy has clear engineering advantages but requires conditions beyond those sufficient for a burning plasma. The fusion reactions and external sources must support both the pressure and the current equilibrium without inductive current drive, leading to demands on stability, confinement, current drive, and plasma-wall interactions that exceed those for pulsed tokamaks. These conditions have been met individually, and significant progress has been made in the past decade to realize scenarios where the required conditions are obtained simultaneously. Tokamaks are operated routinely without disruptions near pressure limits, as needed for steady-state operation. Fully noninductive sustainment with more than half of the current from intrinsic currents has been obtained for a resistive time with normalized pressure and confinement approaching those needed for steady-state conditions. One remaining challenge is handling the heat and particle fluxes expected in a steady-state tokamak without compromising the core plasma performance.
Steady State Advanced Tokamak (SSAT): The mission and the machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomassen, K.; Goldston, R.; Nevins, B.; Neilson, H.; Shannon, T.; Montgomery, B.
1992-03-01
Extending the tokamak concept to the steady state regime and pursuing advances in tokamak physics are important and complementary steps for the magnetic fusion energy program. The required transition away from inductive current drive will provide exciting opportunities for advances in tokamak physics, as well as important impetus to drive advances in fusion technology. Recognizing this, the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee and the US National Energy Strategy identified the development of steady state tokamak physics and technology, and improvements in the tokamak concept, as vital elements in the magnetic fusion energy development plan. Both called for the construction of a steady state tokamak facility to address these plan elements. Advances in physics that produce better confinement and higher pressure limits are required for a similar unit size reactor. Regimes with largely self-driven plasma current are required to permit a steady-state tokamak reactor with acceptable recirculating power. Reliable techniques of disruption control will be needed to achieve the availability goals of an economic reactor. Thus the central role of this new tokamak facility is to point the way to a more attractive demonstration reactor (DEMO) than the present data base would support. To meet the challenges, we propose a new ''Steady State Advanced Tokamak'' (SSAT) facility that would develop and demonstrate optimized steady state tokamak operating mode. While other tokamaks in the world program employ superconducting toroidal field coils, SSAT would be the first major tokamak to operate with a fully superconducting coil set in the elongated, divertor geometry planned for ITER and DEMO
Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hobart, R.H.
1979-10-01
In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state.
Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities
Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2014-02-01
Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.
Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hobart, R.H.
1979-01-01
In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state
Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stresses as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses...... for propagation and the angle of intersection of the crack front with the free edge....
Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1987-05-01
A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)
Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.
1992-01-01
evolution of actinolite to more stable aluminous compositions. This is modelled by a non-steady-state modification of the theory, retaining local equilibrium in grain boundaries while relatively steep zoning profiles develop in grain interiors through slow intracrystalline diffusion. Replacement of actinolite by hornblende does not require a change in P- T conditions if actinolite is a kinetically determined, non-equilibrium product. The common preservation of a sharp contact between hornblende and actionolite layers may be explained by ineffectiveness of intracrystalline diffusion: according to the theory, given sufficient grain-boundary Al flux, a metastable actinolite + quartz layer in contact with hornblende may be diffusionally stable and may continue to grow in a steady state.
Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators
Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar
2017-04-01
In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.
Steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovnev, A.; Trimper, S.
2010-01-01
The exact steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. A more tractable approximate solution is derived which can be used to compare the results with experimental observations in binary electrolytes. The breakdown of the PNP for high concentration and high applied voltage is discussed.
Kinematic Cosmology & a new ``Steady State'' Model of Continued Creation
Wegener, Mogens
2006-03-01
Only a new "steady state" model justifies the observations of fully mature galaxies at ever increasing distances. The basic idea behind the world model presented here, which is a synthesis of the cosmologies of Parmenides and Herakleitos, is that the invariant structure of the infinite contents of a universe in flux may be depicted as a finite hyperbolic pseudo-sphere.
Herd-Level Modeling and Steady-State Livestock Productivity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... an outline of the scope for applications and addresses the prospects for refinement and model extensions. The algorithms for use in development of steady state derivations include transition of matrices in a Markov Chain approach, continuous differential equations and actuarial approach built on life and fecundity tables.
Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment
Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…
A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and ... and a carbonate system weak acid/base chemistry part from which the digester pH is calculated from the partial pressure of CO2 and alkalinity generated.
Steady State and Transient Analysis of Induction Motor Driving a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The importance of using a digital computer in studying the performance of Induction machine under steady and transient states is presented with computer results which show the transient behaviour of 3-phase machine during balanced and unbalanced conditions. The computer simulation for these operating conditions is ...
Solution of generalized control system equations at steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilim, R.B.
1987-01-01
Although a number of reactor systems codes feature generalized control system models, none of the models offer a steady-state solution finder. Indeed, if a transient is to begin from steady-state conditions, the user must provide estimates for the control system initial conditions and run a null transient until the plant converges to steady state. Several such transients may have to be run before values for control system demand signals are found that produce the desired plant steady state. The intent of this paper is (a) to present the control system equations assumed in the SASSYS reactor systems code and to identify the appropriate set of initial conditions, (b) to describe the generalized block diagram approach used to represent these equations, and (c) to describe a solution method and algorithm for computing these initial conditions from the block diagram. The algorithm has been installed in the SASSYS code for use with the code's generalized control system model. The solution finder greatly enhances the effectiveness of the code and the efficiency of the user in running it
steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: fea approach
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
The flux levels at these loading conditions were also monitored. Key words: Three phase Induction Motor, Steady state and Dynamic Response, Flux Levels, FEA, Loading conditions. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications;. New York: ... for Electrical Engineers, Cambridge University. Press ...
Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh
2012-01-01
Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...
Steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: FEA approach
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper deals with the steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor using finite element analysis (FEA) approach. The motor has aluminum rotor bars and is designed for direct-on-line operation at 50 Hz. A study of the losses occurring in the motor performed at operating frequency of 50Hz showed that stator ...
Steady-state equations of even flux and scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verwaerde, D.
1985-11-01
Some mathematical properties of steady-state equation of even flux are shown in variational formalism. This theoretical frame allows to study the existence of a solution and its asymptotical behavior in opaque media (i.e. the relation with scattering equation). At last it allows to qualify the convergence velocity of resolution iterative processes used practically [fr
A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems
Yu, Y.
2005-01-01
In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a
Steady-state Operational Characteristics of Ghana Research ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Steady state operational characteristics of the 30 kW tank-in-pool type reactor named Ghana Research Reactor-1 were investigated after a successful on-site zero power critical experiments. The steadystate operational character-istics determined were the thermal neutron fluxes, maximum period of operation at nominal ...
Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions
Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; de Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; I. Bykov,; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.
2016-01-01
The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic
Stabilizing the border steady-state solution of two interacting ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we have successfully developed a feedback control which has been used to stabilize an unstable steady-state solution (0, 3.3534). This convergence has occurred when the values of the final time are 190, 200, 210 and 220 which corresponds to the scenario when the value of the step length of our simulation ...
State-to-state modeling of non-equilibrium air nozzle flows
Nagnibeda, E.; Papina, K.; Kunova, O.
2018-05-01
One-dimensional non-equilibrium air flows in nozzles are studied on the basis of the state-to-state description of vibrational-chemical kinetics. Five-component mixture N2/O2/NO/N/O is considered taking into account Zeldovich exchange reactions of NO formation, dissociation, recombination and vibrational energy transitions. The equations for vibrational and chem-ical kinetics in a flow are coupled to the conservation equations of momentum and total energy and solved numerically for different conditions in a nozzle throat. The vibrational distributions of nitrogen and oxygen molecules, number densities of species as well as the gas temperature and flow velocity along a nozzle axis are analysed using the detailed state-to-state flow description and in the frame of the simplified one-temperature thermal equilibrium kinetic model. The comparison of the results showed the influence of non-equilibrium kinetics on macroscopic nozzle flow parameters. In the state-to-state approach, non-Boltzmann vibrational dis-tributions of N2 and O2 molecules with a plateau part at intermediate levels are found. The results are found with the use of the complete and simplified schemes of reactions and the impact of exchange reactions, dissociation and recombination on variation of vibrational level populations, mixture composition, gas velocity and temperature along a nozzle axis is shown.
Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.
1985-07-01
A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations
Chlorine decay under steady and unsteady-state hydraulic conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoianov, Ivan; Aisopou, Angeliki
2014-01-01
This paper describes a simulation framework for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady and unsteady-state flows. Bulk flow and pipe wall reaction coefficients are replaced with steady and unsteady-state reaction coefficients. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined...... which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. A preliminary experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay...... and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration and the rapid loss of disinfectant residual. © 2013 The Authors....
Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacquinot Jean
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.
Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C.E.; Park, J.M.; Yi, Sumin; Kim, J.Y.; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A.C.C.
2009-01-01
We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; β N above 3, H 98 (y, 2) up to 2.0, f BS up to 0.76 and f NI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q min is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work
Partition Function and Configurational Entropy in Non-Equilibrium States: A New Theoretical Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akira Takada
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A new model of non-equilibrium thermodynamic states has been investigated on the basis of the fact that all thermodynamic variables can be derived from partition functions. We have thus attempted to define partition functions for non-equilibrium conditions by introducing the concept of pseudo-temperature distributions. These pseudo-temperatures are configurational in origin and distinct from kinetic (phonon temperatures because they refer to the particular fragments of the system with specific energies. This definition allows thermodynamic states to be described either for equilibrium or non-equilibrium conditions. In addition; a new formulation of an extended canonical partition function; internal energy and entropy are derived from this new temperature definition. With this new model; computational experiments are performed on simple non-interacting systems to investigate cooling and two distinct relaxational effects in terms of the time profiles of the partition function; internal energy and configurational entropy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yong; Ge, Hao; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Lihu
2016-01-01
Fluctuation theorem is one of the major achievements in the field of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics during the past two decades. There exist very few results for steady-state fluctuation theorem of sample entropy production rate in terms of large deviation principle for diffusion processes due to the technical difficulties. Here we give a proof for the steady-state fluctuation theorem of a diffusion process in magnetic fields, with explicit expressions of the free energy function and rate function. The proof is based on the Karhunen-Loève expansion of complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.
Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium States in Microfluidic Double Emulsions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pannacci, N.; Bruus, Henrik; Bartolo, D.
2008-01-01
We describe experimental and theoretical studies dedicated to establishing the physics of formation of double droplets in microfluidic systems. We show that the morphologies (complete engulfing, partial engulfing, and nonengulfing) obtained at late times minimize the interfacial energy of the sys......We describe experimental and theoretical studies dedicated to establishing the physics of formation of double droplets in microfluidic systems. We show that the morphologies (complete engulfing, partial engulfing, and nonengulfing) obtained at late times minimize the interfacial energy...... of the system. We explain that nonequilibrium morphologies generated in the system can have long lifetimes. Remarkably, the physics of formation of the double droplets with microfluidics allows the synthesis of particles with new morphologies....
Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Khan Burdi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics
Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.
Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B·n = 0 is force-free: ∇xB = 2αB, where α is a constant, in time and in space. α is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, ∂A/∂t, is constant in time and uniform in space
Theoretical analysis of steady state operating forces in control valves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basavaraj Hubballi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The controlling components, such as valves are used to regulate controlled fluid power. It is not always possible to calculate valve forces accurately, and with some types of valves even the existence of certain types of forces cannot be predicted with certainty. In many cases, however, the analysis can be made fairly completely and accurately. The assumption of steady state conditions is valid for the valve alone, but transient effects in the rest of the system may be large. These effects are particularly important with regard to the instability of valves, where the system may react on the valve in such a way as to make it squeal or oscillate, sometimes with large amplitude. The origin of the steady state flow force understood from a brief qualitative explanation. The following paper will summarize much of what is known about valve forces in the spool type controlling element.
The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juerg eSchmidli
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.
The Steady State Calculation for SMART with MIDAS/SMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Seong Won
2010-01-01
KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. Before the severe accident sequences are estimated, it is prerequisite that MIDAS code predicts the steady state conditions properly. But MIDAS code does not include the heat transfer model for the helical tube. Therefore, the heat transfer models for the helical tube from TASS/SMR-S were implemented into MIDAS code. To estimate the validity of the implemented heat transfer correlations for the helical tube and the input data, the steady state was recalculated with MIDAS/SMR based on design level 2 and compared with the design values
Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)
2003-07-01
Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)
Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail
Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.
1989-01-01
A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).
Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.
Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis
2017-03-28
Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.
Foot, R.
2018-05-01
Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.
Steady-state oxygen-solubility in niobium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze, K.; Jehn, H.
1977-01-01
During annealing of niobium in oxygen in certain temperature and pressure ranges steady states are established between the absorption of molecular oxygen and the evaporation of volatile oxides. The oxygen concentration in the niobium-oxygen α-solid solution is a function of oxygen pressure and temperature and has been redetermined in the ranges 10 -5 - 10 -2 Pa O 2 and 2,070 - 2,470 K. It follows differing from former results the equation csub(o) = 9.1 x 10 -6 x sub(po2) x exp (502000/RT) with csub(o) in at.-ppm, sub(po2) in Pa, T in K, R = 8.31 J x mol -1 x K -1 . The existence of steady states is limited to a temperature range from 1870 to 2470 K and to oxygen concentrations below the solubility limit given by solidus and solvus lines in the T-c diagram. In the experiments high-purity niobium wires with a specific electrical ratio rho (273 K)/rho(4.2 K) > 5,000 have been gassed under isothermal-isobaric conditions until the steady state has been reached. The oxygen concentration has been determined analytically by vacuum fusion extraction with platinum-flux technique as well as by electrical residual resistivity measurements at 4.2 K. (orig.) [de
Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhan Mahmood
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.
Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.
1997-01-01
Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables
Toroidal visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic steady states contain vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, J.W.; Montgomery, D.C.
1998-01-01
Poloidal velocity fields seem to be a fundamental feature of resistive toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady states. They are a consequence of force balance in toroidal geometry, do not require any kind of instability, and disappear in the open-quotes straight cylinderclose quotes (infinite aspect ratio) limit. If a current density j results from an axisymmetric toroidal electric field that is irrotational inside a torus, it leads to a magnetic field B such that ∇x(jxB) is nonvanishing, so that the Lorentz force cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure in the equation of motion. In a steady state, finite poloidal velocity fields and toroidal vorticity must exist. Their calculation is difficult, but explicit solutions can be found in the limit of low Reynolds number. Here, existing calculations are generalized to the more realistic case of no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field and a circular toroidal cross section. The results of this paper strongly suggest that discussions of confined steady states in toroidal MHD must include flows from the outset. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W
2006-01-01
Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T g = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm -1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T g , transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T g , the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm -1 have been measured
Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2006-02-07
Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.
Frontier of plasma physics. 'Research network on non-equilibrium and extreme state plasmas'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Fujisawa, Akihide; Kodama, Ryosuke; Sato, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Itoh, Kimitaka
2011-01-01
Plasma physics and fusion science have been applied to a wide variety of plasmas such as nuclear fusion plasmas, high-energy-density plasmas, processing plasmas and nanobio- plasmas. They are pioneering science and technology frontiers such as new energy sources and new functional materials. A large project 'research network on non-equilibrium and extreme state plasmas' is being proposed to reassess individual plasma researches from a common view of the non-equilibrium extreme plasma and to promote collaboration among plasma researchers all over the country. In the present review, recent collaborative works related to this project are being introduced. (T.I.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal stress and strain rates in a thick walled rotating cylinder under steady state temperature has been derived by using Seth’s transition theory. For elastic-plastic stage, it is seen that with the increase of temperature, the cylinder having smaller radii ratios requires lesser angular velocity to become fully plastic as compared to cylinder having higher radii ratios The circumferential stress becomes larger and larger with the increase in temperature. With increase in thickness ratio stresses must be decrease. For the creep stage, it is seen that circumferential stresses for incompressible materials maximum at the internal surface as compared to compressible material, which increase with the increase in temperature and measure n.
Generic finite size scaling for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states
de Oliveira, M. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Fiore, C. E.
2015-12-01
Based on quasistationary distribution ideas, a general finite size scaling theory is proposed for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states. Analogously to the equilibrium case, we show that quantities such as response functions, cumulants, and equal area probability distributions all scale with the volume, thus allowing proper estimates for the thermodynamic limit. To illustrate these results, five very distinct lattice models displaying nonequilibrium transitions—to single and infinitely many absorbing states—are investigated. The innate difficulties in analyzing absorbing phase transitions are circumvented through quasistationary simulation methods. Our findings (allied to numerical studies in the literature) strongly point to a unifying discontinuous phase transition scaling behavior for equilibrium and this important class of nonequilibrium systems.
Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miya, Naoyuki; Nakajima, Shinji; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; and athors)
1992-09-01
Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)
Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K
2017-07-17
Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].
Implicit unified gas-kinetic scheme for steady state solutions in all flow regimes
Zhu, Yajun; Zhong, Chengwen; Xu, Kun
2016-06-01
This paper presents an implicit unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) for non-equilibrium steady state flow computation. The UGKS is a direct modeling method for flow simulation in all regimes with the updates of both macroscopic flow variables and microscopic gas distribution function. By solving the macroscopic equations implicitly, a predicted equilibrium state can be obtained first through iterations. With the newly predicted equilibrium state, the evolution equation of the gas distribution function and the corresponding collision term can be discretized in a fully implicit way for fast convergence through iterations as well. The lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) factorization method is implemented to solve both macroscopic and microscopic equations, which improves the efficiency of the scheme. Since the UGKS is a direct modeling method and its physical solution depends on the mesh resolution and the local time step, a physical time step needs to be fixed before using an implicit iterative technique with a pseudo-time marching step. Therefore, the physical time step in the current implicit scheme is determined by the same way as that in the explicit UGKS for capturing the physical solution in all flow regimes, but the convergence to a steady state speeds up through the adoption of a numerical time step with large CFL number. Many numerical test cases in different flow regimes from low speed to hypersonic ones, such as the Couette flow, cavity flow, and the flow passing over a cylinder, are computed to validate the current implicit method. The overall efficiency of the implicit UGKS can be improved by one or two orders of magnitude in comparison with the explicit one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, L.
1992-01-01
The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite- mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena
Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruqiang Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature.
A steady state tokamak operation by use of magnetic monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narihara, K.
1991-12-01
A steady state tokamak operation based on a magnetic monopole circuit is considered. Circulation of a chain of iron cubes which trap magnetic monopoles generates the needed loop voltage. The monopole circuit is enclosed by a series of solenoid coils in which magnetic field is feedback controlled so that the force on the circuit balance against the mechanical friction. The driving power is supplied through the current sources of poloidal, ohmic and solenoid coils. The current drive efficiency is same as that of the ohmic current drive. (author)
Feasibility study of steady state magnetic field measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawahata, Kazuo; Fujita, Junji; Matsuura, Kiyokata; Sakata, Masataka; Fujiwaka, Setsuya; Matoba, Tohru.
1995-08-01
A rotating magnetic probe testing system has been designed and constructed for the purpose of establishing a technique of the plasma current measurement on a steady state tokamak. An air turbine is employed to drive the rotating magnetic coil from the viewpoint of avoiding the use of an electric motor in the vicinity of the tokamak device. The signal induced on the rotating probe is transmitted to the amplifier through a transformer coupling. A long term testing on mechanical as well as electrical characteristics has been carried out to find key technical issues on this system. A continuous operation for more than one week has successfully been achieved. (author)
Steady state heat transfer of helium cooled cable bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, A.
1982-01-01
In the present study nucleate and film boiling heat transfer characteristics of horizontal conductor bundles are investigated at steady state conditions. The effect of gaps between wires, number of wires, wire position, wire size and bundle orientation on the departure from nucleate boiling and transition to film boiling is studied. For gaps close to the bubble departure diameter, the critical heat flux can approach up to 90% of the single wire value. Consequently, the maximum stable current for a given bundle can be significantly increased above the single conductor value for the same cross-sectional area. (author)
Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris
2017-01-01
Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we...... examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power...
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-01-01
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels
On the minimum circulating power of steady state tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.
1995-07-01
Circulating power for the sustenance and profile control of the steady state tokamak plasmas is discussed. The simultaneous fulfillment of the MHD stability at high beta value, the improved confinement and the stationary equilibrium requires the rotation drive as well as the current drive. In addition to the current drive efficiency, the efficiency for the rotation drive is investigated. The direct rotation drive by the external torque, such as the case of beam injection, is not efficient enough. The mechanism and the magnitude of the spontaneous plasma rotation are studied. (author)
Steady State Analysis of Stochastic Systems with Multiple Time Delays
Xu, W.; Sun, C. Y.; Zhang, H. Q.
In this paper, attention is focused on the steady state analysis of a class of nonlinear dynamic systems with multi-delayed feedbacks driven by multiplicative correlated Gaussian white noises. The Fokker-Planck equations for delayed variables are at first derived by Novikov's theorem. Then, under small delay assumption, the approximate stationary solutions are obtained by the probability density approach. As a special case, the effects of multidelay feedbacks and the correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noises on the response of a bistable system are considered. It is shown that the obtained analytical results are in good agreement with experimental results in Monte Carlo simulations.
Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM
Page, M.; Beaudoin, M.; Giroux, A. M.
2010-08-01
The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R&D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Québec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.
Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Page, M; Beaudoin, M; Giroux, A M, E-mail: page.maryse@ireq.c [Hydro-Quebec, Institut de recherche 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S1 (Canada)
2010-08-15
The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.
Full steady state LH scenarios in Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.
1995-01-01
Lower Hybrid discharge have been realised in Tore Supra using feed-back control of the primary circuit voltage such that the loop voltage was maintained exactly to zero near the plasma surface. This new scenario allows the plasma current to float and quickly reach an equilibrium value determined by the current drive efficiency and Lower Hybrid power. Recent experimental results show that, with the new constant flux scenario the coupled plasma and primary currents reach a steady state in less than 10 s which is a good agreement with theoretical expectations. A complete analysis of this scenario is presented. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs
Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert
2012-01-01
— suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures......Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...
Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, M; Beaudoin, M; Giroux, A M
2010-01-01
The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.
System studies for quasi-steady-state advanced physics tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y.K.M.
1983-11-01
Parametric studies were conducted using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak Systems Code to investigate the impact of veriation in physics parameters and technology limits on the performance and cost of a low q/sub psi/, high beta, quasi-steady-state tokamak for the purpose of fusion engineering experimentation. The features and characteristics chosen from each study were embodied into a single Advanced Physics Tokamak design for which a self-consistent set of parameters was generated and a value of capital cost was estimated
Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Herbert, F. William; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.
2015-01-01
The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr 1+ , Zr 2+ , and Zr 3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr 4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO 2 . This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr 0 and Zr 4+ at the metal-oxide interface. The presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr
Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride
Peppin, S. S. L.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Worster, M. Grae
We report on a series of experiments in which a Hele-Shaw cell containing aqueous solutions of NH4Cl was translated at prescribed rates through a steady temperature gradient. The salt formed the primary solid phase of a mushy layer as the solution solidified, with the salt-depleted residual fluid driving buoyancy-driven convection and the development of chimneys in the mushy layer. Depending on the operating conditions, several morphological transitions occurred. A regime diagram is presented quantifying these transitions as a function of freezing rate and the initial concentration of the solution. In general, for a given concentration, increasing the freezing rate caused the steady-state system to change from a convecting mushy layer with chimneys to a non-convecting mushy layer below a relatively quiescent liquid, and then to a much thinner mushy layer separated from the liquid by a region of active secondary nucleation. At higher initial concentrations the second of these states did not occur. At lower concentrations, but still above the eutectic, the mushy layer disappeared. A simple mathematical model of the system is developed which compares well with the experimental measurements of the intermediate, non-convecting state and serves as a benchmark against which to understand some of the effects of convection. Movies are available with the online version of the paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustova, Elena V.; Kremer, Gilberto M.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N 2 flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kustova, Elena V., E-mail: e.kustova@spbu.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr. 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kremer, Gilberto M., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-980 Curitiba (Brazil)
2014-12-05
Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N{sub 2} flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure.
Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hau, L.N.; Wolf, R.A.; Voigt, G.H.; Wu, C.C.
1989-01-01
The authors present a two-dimensional, force-balanced magnetic field model in which flux tubes have constant pVγ throughout an extended region of the nightside plasma sheet, between approximately 36 R E geocentric distance and the region of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. They have thus demonstrated the theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and also consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD (isotropic pressure, perfect conductivity). The numerical solution was constructed for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The primary characteristics of the steady state convection solution are (1) a pressure maximum just tailward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet and (2) a deep, broad minimum in equatorial magnetic field strength B ze , also just tailward of the inner edge. The results are consistent with Erickson's (1985) convection time sequences, which exhibited analogous pressure peaks and B ze minima. Observations do not indicate the existence of a B ze minimum, on the average. They suggest that the configurations with such deep minima in B ze may be tearing-mode unstable, thus leading to substorm onset in the inner plasma sheet
Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janos, A.
1984-04-01
A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation
Diffusion-driven steady states of the Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1988-01-01
Steady states of a Z-pinch where no electric field is imposed along the pinch axis by external means are investigated. In this case, diffusion-driven states become possible when imposed volume sources of particles and heat drive a radial diffusion velocity that, in its turn, generates the electric plasma current. The particle sources can be from pellet injection or a neutral gas blanket, and the heat sources provided by thermonuclear reactions or auxiliary heating. The present analysis and associated kinetic considerations indicate that steady diffusion-driven operation should become possible for certain classes of plasma profiles, without running into singularity problems at the pinch axis. Such operation leads to higher axial currents in a Z-pinch without an axial magnetic field than in a tokamaklike case under similar plasma conditions. The technical difficulty in realizing a volume distribution of particle sinks introduces certain constraints on the plasma and current profiles. This fact has to be taken into account in a stability analysis. Neoclassical or anomalous diffusion will increase the diffusion velocity of the plasma but is not expected to affect the main physical features of the present results
MARS input data for steady-state calculation of ATLAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Hyun Sik; Euh, D. J.; Choi, K. Y.; Kwon, T. S.; Jeong, J. J.; Baek, W. P.
2004-12-01
An integral effect test loop for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is under construction by Thermal-Hydraulics Safety Research Division in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). This report includes calculation sheets of the input for the best-estimate system analysis code, the MARS code, based on the ongoing design features of ATLAS. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400. The contents of this report are divided into three parts: (1) core and reactor vessel, (2) steam generator and steam line, and (3) primary piping, pressurizer and reactor coolant pump. The steady-state analysis for the ATLAS facility will be performed based on these calculation sheets, and its results will be applied to the detailed design of ATLAS. Additionally, the calculation results will contribute to getting optimum test conditions and preliminary operational test conditions for the steady-state and transient experiments
Steady-state creep of discontinuous fibre composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boecker Pedersen, O.
1975-07-01
A review is given of the relevant literature on creep of composites, including a presentation of existing models for the steady-state creep of composites containing aligned discontinuous fibres where creep of the matrix and fibres is assumed to follow a power law. A model is suggested for predicting the composite creep law from a matrix creep law given in a general form, in the case where the fibres do not creep. The composite creep law predicted by this model is compared with those predicted by previous models, when these are extended to comprise a general matrix creep law. Experimentally, pure copper and composites consisting of aligned discontinuous tungsten fibres in a copper matrix were creep tested at a temperature of 500 deg C. The results indicate a relatively low stress sensitivity of the steady-state creep-rate for pure copper and relatively high stress sensitivity for the composites. This may be explained by the creep models based upon a general matrix creep law. A quantitative prediction shows promising agreement with the present experimental results. (author)
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution
Foot, R.
2018-02-01
Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.
Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.
Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P
2010-06-07
The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adaptively locating unknown steady states: Formalism and basin of attraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yu; Lin, Wei
2011-01-01
The adaptive technique, which includes both dynamical estimators and coupling gains, has been recently verified to be practical for locating the unknown steady states numerically. This Letter, in the light of the center manifold theory for dynamical systems and the matrix spectrum principle, establishes an analytical formalism of this adaptive technique and reveals a connection between this technique and the original adaptive controller which includes only the dynamical estimator. More interestingly, in study of the well-known Lorenz system, the selections of the estimator parameters and initial values are found to be crucial to the successful application of the adaptive technique. Some Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures are found quantitatively. All the results obtained in the Letter can be further extended to more general dynamical systems of higher dimensions. -- Highlights: → Establishing a new and rigorous formalism for the adaptive stabilization technique. → Showing a close connection between the adaptive technique and the original controller. → Providing feasible algorithms for simultaneous stabilization of multiple steady states. → Finding Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures in adaptive control.
Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, D.
2001-01-01
This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)
Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, D.; Voitsekhovitch, I.
1999-01-01
This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)
Steady state operation of the superconducting tokamak TRIAM-1M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, K.; Itoh, S.; Sato, K.; Nakamura, K.; Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Jotaki, E.; Makino, K.
2000-01-01
A 2-hour limiter discharge in circular configuration was successfully maintained using both Hall generators to be free from the drift of integrator and position control by TV image to avoid the concentration of heat load. The property of wall saturation is discussed as the serious issue for steady state operation, which strongly depends on electron density. In the high density region, the discharges sometimes terminate due to uncontrollable increase in electron density caused by wall saturation. The plasmas with high k ∼1.5 can be demonstrated for longer than 1 min. The duration of discharge is limited by vertical displacement event (VDE). The avoidance of VDE is a crucial point to achieve long discharges with high k. A new technique to monitor the accurate magnetic field with high time resolution for a long time is required to achieve the longer discharge with high k. A high ion temperature (HIT) discharge characterized by high ion temperature up to 5 keV and by steep temperature gradient up to 85 keV/m is successfully sustained for longer than 30 sec by 2.45 GHz LHCD on single null divertor configuration. This indicates that the transport barrier of ion temperature can be maintained in steady state. (author)
Concept study of the Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-06-01
The Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR) concept has been proposed as a realistic fusion power reactor to be built in the near future. An overall concept of SSTR is introduced which is based on a small extension of the present day physics and technologies. The major feature of SSTR is the maximum utilization of a bootstrap current in order to reduce the power required for the steady state operation. This requirement leads to the choice of moderate current (12 MA), and high βp (2.0) for the device, which are achieved by selecting high aspect ratio (A=4) and high toroidal magnetic field (16.5 T). A negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system is used both for heating and central current drive. Notable engineering features of SSTR are: the use of a uniform vacuum vessel and periodical replacements of the first wall and blanket layers and significant reduction of the electromagnetic force with the use of functionally gradient material. It is shown that a tokamak machine comparable to ITER in size can become a power reactor capable of generating about 1 GW of electricity with a plant efficiency of ∼30%. (author)
Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam eTomkins
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.
MHD stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.
1994-02-01
A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 /B 2 that is compatible with MHD stability. This value depends upon the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near one, I bs /I p ∼ 1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal beta to be near unity, ε β p ∼ 1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during the ARIES I, II/IV, and III and the PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements on the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies is also discussed
Magnetohydrodynamic stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.
1994-01-01
A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 left angle p right angle /B 2 that is compatible with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability. This value depends on the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near unity, I BS /I P ∼1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal β to be near unity, arepsilonβ P ∼1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during ARIES I, II/IV, and III and PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements in the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies, is also discussed. ((orig.))
Nonequilibrium behavior of fission gas bubbles with emphasis on the effects of the equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steele, W.G.
1976-12-01
The paper presents a computer code designed to estimate fission gas behavior during transient fuel conditions, allowing for nonequilibrium bubble states, with emphasis on equation of state sensitivity. The computer code is a modification of the original code by R. G. Esteves, A. R. Wazzan, and D. Okrent, which in its present form includes the following: resolution, coalescence, leakage to the grain boundary, bubble volume adjustment from a nonequilibrium state by vacancy diffusion, a choice of equation of state between the Van der Waals and the perfect gas equation, the incorporation of hydrostatic pressure values, if known, and conservation of gas atoms. Also, there is a version of the code that allows the existence of single gas atoms in solution in the lattice. The original code is discussed to provide a model of the physical processes and to show a general numerical approach to the estimation of the fission gas behavior. The incorporation of various new features into the original work, such as the option of the Van der Waals gas equation, is described. The various physical models are examined for sensitivity to equation of state for both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium bubble descriptions. Selected computer results of a transient simulation are also presented and general conclusions are drawn upon these results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thingna, Juzar; Zhou, Hangbo; Wang, Jian-Sheng
2014-01-01
We present a general theory to calculate the steady-state heat and electronic currents for nonlinear systems using a perturbative expansion in the system-bath coupling. We explicitly demonstrate that using the truncated Dyson-series leads to divergences in the steady-state limit, thus making it impossible to be used for actual applications. In order to resolve the divergences, we propose a unique choice of initial condition for the reduced density matrix, which removes the divergences at each order. Our approach not only allows us to use the truncated Dyson-series, with a reasonable choice of initial condition, but also gives the expected result that the steady-state solutions should be independent of initial preparations. Using our improved Dyson series we evaluate the heat and electronic currents up to fourth-order in system-bath coupling, a considerable improvement over the standard quantum master equation techniques. We then numerically corroborate our theory for archetypal settings of linear systems using the exact nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Finally, to demonstrate the advantage of our approach, we deal with the nonlinear spin-boson model to evaluate heat current up to fourth-order and find signatures of cotunnelling process
Steady-State Ion Beam Modeling with MICHELLE
Petillo, John
2003-10-01
There is a need to efficiently model ion beam physics for ion implantation, chemical vapor deposition, and ion thrusters. Common to all is the need for three-dimensional (3D) simulation of volumetric ion sources, ion acceleration, and optics, with the ability to model charge exchange of the ion beam with a background neutral gas. The two pieces of physics stand out as significant are the modeling of the volumetric source and charge exchange. In the MICHELLE code, the method for modeling the plasma sheath in ion sources assumes that the electron distribution function is a Maxwellian function of electrostatic potential over electron temperature. Charge exchange is the process by which a neutral background gas with a "fast" charged particle streaming through exchanges its electron with the charged particle. An efficient method for capturing this is essential, and the model presented is based on semi-empirical collision cross section functions. This appears to be the first steady-state 3D algorithm of its type to contain multiple generations of charge exchange, work with multiple species and multiple charge state beam/source particles simultaneously, take into account the self-consistent space charge effects, and track the subsequent fast neutral particles. The solution used by MICHELLE is to combine finite element analysis with particle-in-cell (PIC) methods. The basic physics model is based on the equilibrium steady-state application of the electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) approximation employing a conformal computational mesh. The foundation stems from the same basic model introduced in codes such as EGUN. Here, Poisson's equation is used to self-consistently include the effects of space charge on the fields, and the relativistic Lorentz equation is used to integrate the particle trajectories through those fields. The presentation will consider the complexity of modeling ion thrusters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, I.
1977-01-01
We have studied the nonequilibrium state of superconductors by injecting large numbers of quasiparticles from an external current source into a superconducting film of a tunnel junction with low tunnel resistance (typically 0.1--1 Ω for junction area approx. = 10 -4 cm 2 ). It was observed that there was a critical tunnel current density at which a voltage appeared locally in the part of a superconducting film confined to the junction area. Its values ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 A/cm 2 for bath temperatures well below T/sub c/. Followed by this voltage onset, a transition region corresponding to the nonequilibrium intermediate resistive state was also observed. For further increase of the tunnel current, the local film resistance developed beyond the value of its normal resistance, suggesting that the nonequilibrium state extends far beyond the voltage onset point. A theory based on the modified Rothwarf-Taylor equations and Parker's T* model is presented to compare with the experimental results. The calculated critical current density yielded almost the same order of magnitude as those found experimentally. The detailed behavior, however, deviates from the theoretical predictions although the film makes a second-order transition in the broad range of temperatures. It is also shown using four-terminal analysis that our observations and those by Wong, Yeh, and Langenberg are essentially the same
Physical mechanism for biopolymers to aggregate and maintain in non-equilibrium states.
Ma, Wen-Jong; Hu, Chin-Kun
2017-06-08
Many human or animal diseases are related to aggregation of proteins. A viable biological organism should maintain in non-equilibrium states. How protein aggregate and why biological organisms can maintain in non-equilibrium states are not well understood. As a first step to understand such complex systems problems, we consider simple model systems containing polymer chains and solvent particles. The strength of the spring to connect two neighboring monomers in a polymer chain is controlled by a parameter s with s → ∞ for rigid-bond. The strengths of bending and torsion angle dependent interactions are controlled by a parameter s A with s A → -∞ corresponding to no bending and torsion angle dependent interactions. We find that for very small s A , polymer chains tend to aggregate spontaneously and the trend is independent of the strength of spring. For strong springs, the speed distribution of monomers in the parallel (along the direction of the spring to connect two neighboring monomers) and perpendicular directions have different effective temperatures and such systems are in non-equilibrium states.
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberthur, R.C.
1984-01-01
The use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) for the study of systems under non-equilibrium conditions is illustrated by three types of experiments in the field of polymer research: - the relaxation of a system from an initial non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium, - the cyclic or repetitive installation of a series of non-equilibrium states in a system, - the steady non-equilibrium state maintained by a constant dissipation of energy within the system. Characteristic times obtained in these experiments with SANS are compared with the times obtained from quasi-elastic neutron and light scattering, which yield information about the equilibrium dynamics of the system. The limits of SANS applied to non-equilibrium systems for the measurement of relaxation times at different length scales are shown and compared to the limits of quasielastic neutron and light scattering
Steady State Thermal Analyses of SCEPTOR X-57 Wingtip Propulsion
Schnulo, Sydney L.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Dubois, Arthur
2017-01-01
Electric aircraft concepts enable advanced propulsion airframe integration approaches that promise increased efficiency as well as reduced emissions and noise. NASA's fully electric Maxwell X-57, developed under the SCEPTOR program, features distributed propulsion across a high aspect ratio wing. There are 14 propulsors in all: 12 high lift motor that are only active during take off and climb, and 2 larger motors positioned on the wingtips that operate over the entire mission. The power electronics involved in the wingtip propulsion are temperature sensitive and therefore require thermal management. This work focuses on the high and low fidelity heat transfer analysis methods performed to ensure that the wingtip motor inverters do not reach their temperature limits. It also explores different geometry configurations involved in the X-57 development and any thermal concerns. All analyses presented are performed at steady state under stressful operating conditions, therefore predicting temperatures which are considered the worst-case scenario to remain conservative.
Steady-state optimization of ore-dressing plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemi, A.J.
1989-01-01
The ore-dressing plant consists of the steps of grinding and flotation. Its optimization is based on steady state simulation of the mass balances with a plant model. The model data are obtained by tracer tests and analysis. An evaluation of performance of the plant has to observe the recovery of the valuable mineral, the throughput of the system and the grade of the concentrate which are outputs of the flotation plant. Simulation with the flotation plant model yields that combination of values of controllable inputs to flotation which corresponds to an optimal operation of the conditioning an flotation system, for a specified feed and its fractional composition. Simulations for other feeds and compositions advise how they should be chosen, for a better overall performance. (author)
Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian
1999-01-01
The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which...... the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....
Steady state and transient power handling in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, G.F.
2002-01-01
Recent JET experiments and analysis have demonstrated the importance of edge collisionality for the physics of divertor power loading both during and between ELMs. Since collisionality decreases strongly with machine size, JET routinely operates in an ITER relevant regime which is difficult or impossible to access in smaller devices. This new understanding has enabled us to develop more physically justifiable scalings for static and transient power deposition in ITER and demonstrates a need for kinetic models when simulating edge behaviour in JET and ITER. Steady state power loading in ITER is likely to be within limits provided that the divertor plasma is kept in the high recycling or detached regime. Extrapolations of the typical type I ELMs found in JET to ITER highlight the importance of developing regimes characterised by small ELMs, if surface ablation is to be avoided. Disruptive power loads measured in the JET divertor appear far more benign than would be expected from current ITER assumptions. (author)
BR2 reactor core steady state transient modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarenko, A.; Petrova, T.
2000-01-01
A coupled neutronics/hydraulics/heat-conduction model of the BR2 reactor core is under development at SCK-CEN. The neutron transport phenomenon has been implemented as steady state and time dependent nodal diffusion. The non-linear heat conduction equation in-side fuel elements is solved with a time dependent finite element method. To allow coupling between functional modules and to simulate subcooled regimes, a simple single-phase hydraulics has been introduced, while the two-phase hydraulics is under development. Multiple tests, general benchmark cases as well as calculation/experiment comparisons demonstrated a good accuracy of both neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, numerical reliability and full code portability. A refinement methodology has been developed and tested for better neutronic representation in hexagonal geometry. Much effort is still needed to complete the development of an extended cross section library with kinetic data and two-phase flow representation. (author)
Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R.Raman
2003-01-01
The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs
Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Duanming; He Minhua; Yu Xiaoling; Pan Guijun; Sun Hongzhang; Su Xiangying; Sun Fan; Yin Yanping; Li Rui; Liu Dan
2006-01-01
We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady states of epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δ c and p c below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δ c , it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.
Modular first wall concept for steady state operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotzlowski, H.E.
1981-01-01
On the basis of the limiter design proposed for ZEPHYR a first wall concept has been developed which can also be used as a large area limiter, heat shield or beam pump. Its specific feature is the thermal contact of the wall armour elements with the water-cooled base plates. The combination of radiation and contact cooling, compared with radiation only, helps to lower the steady state temperatures of the first wall by approximately 50 % and to reduce the cooling-time between discharges. Particulary the lower wall temperature give a larger margin for additional heating of the wall by plasma disruption or neutral beams until excessive erosion or damage of the armour takes place
Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.
Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias
2018-02-28
We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.
An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis
Ismail, Azhar Bin
2016-02-29
The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.
Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi
2000-01-01
Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance
Conceptual design of the steady state tokamak reactor (SSTR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oikawa, A.; Kikuchi, M.; Seki, Y.; Nishio, S.; Ando, T.; Ohara, Y.; Takizuka, Tani, K.; Ozeki, T.; Koizumi, K.; Ikeda, B.; Suzuki, Y.; Ueda, N.; Kageyama, T.; Yamada, M.; Mizoguchi, T.; Iida, F.; Ozawa, Y.; Mori, S.; Yamazaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Adachi, H.J.; Shinya, K.; Ozaki, A.; Asahara, M.; Konishi, K.; Yokogawa, N.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that on the basis of a high bootstrap current fraction observation with JT-60, the concept of steady state tokamak reactor , the SSTR, was conceived and was evolved with the design activity of the SSTR at JAERI. Also results of ITER/FER design activities has enhanced the SSTR design. Moreover the remarkable progress of R and D for fusion reactor engineering, especially in the development of superconducting coils and negative ion based NBI at JAERI have promoted the SSTR conceptual design as a realistic power reactor. Although present fusion power reactor designs are currently considered to be too large and costly, results of the SSTR conceptual design suggest that an efficient and promising tokamak reactor will be feasible. The conceptual design of the SSTR provides a realistic reference for a demo tokamak reactor
Determining "small parameters" for quasi-steady state
Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva
2015-08-01
For a parameter-dependent system of ordinary differential equations we present a systematic approach to the determination of parameter values near which singular perturbation scenarios (in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel) arise. We call these special values Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values. The principal application we intend is to equations that describe chemical reactions, in the context of quasi-steady state (or partial equilibrium) settings. Such equations have rational (or even polynomial) right-hand side. We determine the structure of the set of Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values as a semi-algebraic set, and present an algorithmic approach to their explicit determination, using Groebner bases. Examples and applications (which include the irreversible and reversible Michaelis-Menten systems) illustrate that the approach is rather easy to implement.
Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection
Wáng, Yì
2012-03-14
A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture
Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.
2013-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given
Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N., E-mail: bnwan@ipp.ac.cn; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2015-12-10
Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.
State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows
Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar
2011-05-01
Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Jiawei, E-mail: hujiawei@nbu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Yu, Hongwei, E-mail: hwyu@hunnu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)
2015-12-15
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
Entropy and density of states from isoenergetic nonequilibrium processes
Adib, Artur B.
2005-05-01
Two identities in statistical mechanics involving entropy differences (or ratios of densities of states) at constant energy are derived. The first provides a nontrivial extension of the Jarzynski equality to the microcanonical ensemble [C. Jarzynski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997)], which can be seen as a “fast-switching” version of the adiabatic switching method for computing entropies [M. Watanabe and W. P. Reinhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3301 (1990)]. The second is a thermodynamic integration formula analogous to a well-known expression for free energies, and follows after taking the quasistatic limit of the first. Both identities can be conveniently used in conjunction with a scaling relation (herein derived) that allows one to extrapolate measurements taken at a single energy to a wide range of energy values. Practical aspects of these identities in the context of numerical simulations are discussed.
Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO: an improved state to state approach
Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.
2017-12-01
Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO for conditions typically met in microwave discharges have been developed based on the coupling of excited state kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Particular attention is given to the insertion in the vibrational kinetics of a complete set of electron molecule resonant processes linking the whole vibrational ladder of the CO molecule, as well as to the role of Boudouard reaction, i.e. the process of forming CO2 by two vibrationally excited CO molecules, in shaping the vibrational distribution of CO and promoting reaction channels assisted by vibrational excitation (pure vibrational mechanisms, PVM). PVM mechanisms can become competitive with electron impact dissociation processes (DEM) in the activation of CO. A case study reproducing the conditions of a microwave discharge has been considered following the coupled kinetics also in the post discharge conditions. Results include the evolution of EEDF in discharge and post discharge conditions highlighting the role of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in shaping the EEDF. Moreover, PVM rate coefficients and DEM ones are studied as a function of gas temperature, showing a non-Arrhenius behavior, i.e. the rate coefficients increase with decreasing gas temperature as a result of a vibrational-vibrational (V-V) pumping up mechanism able to form plateaux in the vibrational distribution function. The accuracy of the results is discussed in particular in connection to the present knowledge of the activation energy of the Boudouard process.
Machine Control System of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masand, Harish, E-mail: harish@ipr.res.in; Kumar, Aveg; Bhandarkar, M.; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.; Dhongde, J.; Patel, K.; Chudasma, H.; Pradhan, S.
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Central Control System. • SST-1. • Machine Control System. - Abstract: Central Control System (CCS) of the Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) controls and monitors around 25 plant and experiment subsystems of SST-1 located remotely from the Central-Control room. Machine Control System (MCS) is a supervisory system that sits on the top of the CCS hierarchy and implements the CCS state diagram. MCS ensures the software interlock between the SST-1 subsystems with the CCS, any subsystem communication failure or its local error does not prohibit the execution of the MCS and in-turn the CCS operation. MCS also periodically monitors the subsystem’s status and their vital process parameters throughout the campaign. It also provides the platform for the Central Control operator to visualize and exchange remotely the operational and experimental configuration parameters with the sub-systems. MCS remains operational 24 × 7 from the commencement to the termination of the SST-1 campaign. The developed MCS has performed robustly and flawlessly during all the last campaigns of SST-1 carried out so far. This paper will describe various aspects of the development of MCS.
Temperature in non-equilibrium states: a review of open problems and current proposals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casas-Vazquez, J; Jou, D
2003-01-01
The conceptual problems arising in the definition and measurement of temperature in non-equilibrium states are discussed in this paper in situations where the local-equilibrium hypothesis is no longer satisfactory. This is a necessary and urgent discussion because of the increasing interest in thermodynamic theories beyond local equilibrium, in computer simulations, in non-linear statistical mechanics, in new experiments, and in technological applications of nanoscale systems and material sciences. First, we briefly review the concept of temperature from the perspectives of equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Afterwards, we explore which of the equilibrium concepts may be extrapolated beyond local equilibrium and which of them should be modified, then we review several attempts to define temperature in non-equilibrium situations from macroscopic and microscopic bases. A wide review of proposals is offered on effective non-equilibrium temperatures and their application to ideal and real gases, electromagnetic radiation, nuclear collisions, granular systems, glasses, sheared fluids, amorphous semiconductors and turbulent fluids. The consistency between the different relativistic transformation laws for temperature is discussed in the new light gained from this perspective. A wide bibliography is provided in order to foster further research in this field
Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou
2015-07-01
Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving (Open Source)
2016-05-18
construction does not require the solution of any differential equations , only linear algebraic equations . By contrast, a mapping in the opposite...set of algebraic linear equations . The mapping between NESS and SP presented above was not intended as a set of operational instructions for... differential equations with time-periodic parameters. Typically, this can only be done numerically. In some applications, transition rates are constrained by
Nonequilibrium steady state of a weakly-driven Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation
Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.; Vilenkin, Arkady
2018-05-01
We consider an infinite interface of d > 2 dimensions, governed by the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang (KPZ) equation with a weak Gaussian noise which is delta-correlated in time and has short-range spatial correlations. We study the probability distribution of the interface height H at a point of the substrate, when the interface is initially flat. We show that, in stark contrast with the KPZ equation in d statistics of directed polymers in random potential.
Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, R.J.; SooHoo, J.B.; Kiefer, D.A.
1980-01-01
Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using 15 N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which 15 N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea
NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tower, L.K.
1992-06-01
The NASA Lewis heat pipe code has been developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or, with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which the monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user
Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan
2016-01-01
The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1 -background, for d=2,4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d=2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d=6.
Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.
Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily
2016-08-15
During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses
Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun
2014-01-01
Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021
Steady state and transient power handling in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, G.F.
2003-01-01
Steady state and transient power deposition profiles have been measured in the JET MIIGB divertor using improved diagnostics techniques involving the use of fast infra-red, thermocouples and Langmuir probe arrays. In unfuelled type I ELMy H-modes a very narrow power profile is observed at the outer target which we associate with the ion channel. Systematic parameter scans have been carried out and our analysis shows that the average power width scaling is consistent with a classical dependence of perpendicular transport in the SOL. Using the fast IR capability the factors such as rise time, broadening, variability and in/out asymmetry have been studied and lead to the conclusion that type I ELMs in ITER may fall just below the material ablation limits. JET disruptions are very different from type I ELMs in that only a small fraction of the thermal energy reaches the divertor and what does arrive is distributed uniformly over the divertor area. This is very different from the current ITER assumption which puts most of the energy from the thermal quench onto the divertor strike points. (author)
Steady-state VEP responses to uncomfortable stimuli.
O'Hare, Louise
2017-02-01
Periodic stimuli, such as op-art, can evoke a range of aversive sensations included in the term visual discomfort. Illusory motion effects are elicited by fixational eye movements, but the cortex might also contribute to effects of discomfort. To investigate this possibility, steady-state visually evoked responses (SSVEPs) to contrast-matched op-art-based stimuli were measured at the same time as discomfort judgements. On average, discomfort reduced with increasing spatial frequency of the pattern. In contrast, the peak amplitude of the SSVEP response was around the midrange spatial frequencies. Like the discomfort judgements, SSVEP responses to the highest spatial frequencies were lowest amplitude, but the relationship breaks down between discomfort and SSVEP for the lower spatial frequency stimuli. This was not explicable by gross eye movements as measured using the facial electrodes. There was a weak relationship between the peak SSVEP responses and discomfort judgements for some stimuli, suggesting that discomfort can be explained in part by electrophysiological responses measured at the level of the cortex. However, there is a breakdown of this relationship in the case of lower spatial frequency stimuli, which remains unexplained. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Attentional modulation of auditory steady-state responses.
Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun
2014-01-01
Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex.
3D steady-state MR cisternography in CSF rhinorrhoea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, P.N.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Srikanth, S.G.; Praharaj, S.S.
2001-01-01
Purpose: To determine the utility of 3D steady-state MR cisternography in the demonstration and localisation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea. Material and Methods: Six consecutive patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea were examined with routine MR evaluation and MR cisternography (MRC). All MR examinations included fast spin-echo (SE) T1WI in axial and sagittal planes, fast SE T2WI in axial and coronal planes and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in the axial plane. 3D evaluation was done using the CISS technique with 0.7-mm thickness in the sagittal and coronal planes. The site and extent of the defect, and any brain herniation detected on MRC were correlated with surgical findings. Results: In the 6 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defect revealed by MRC in all cases. Conclusion: In clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea, MRC is highly accurate in localising the site and extent of CSF fistula and may be used as the first investigation due to its efficacy and non-invasive nature
Attentional modulation of auditory steady-state responses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yatin Mahajan
Full Text Available Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR. The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence. The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex.
Fault Wear by Damage Evolution During Steady-State Slip
Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Sagy, Amir; Boneh, Yuval; Reches, Ze'ev
2014-11-01
Slip along faults generates wear products such as gouge layers and cataclasite zones that range in thickness from sub-millimeter to tens of meters. The properties of these zones apparently control fault strength and slip stability. Here we present a new model of wear in a three-body configuration that utilizes the damage rheology approach and considers the process as a microfracturing or damage front propagating from the gouge zone into the solid rock. The derivations for steady-state conditions lead to a scaling relation for the damage front velocity considered as the wear-rate. The model predicts that the wear-rate is a function of the shear-stress and may vanish when the shear-stress drops below the microfracturing strength of the fault host rock. The simulated results successfully fit the measured friction and wear during shear experiments along faults made of carbonate and tonalite. The model is also valid for relatively large confining pressures, small damage-induced change of the bulk modulus and significant degradation of the shear modulus, which are assumed for seismogenic zones of earthquake faults. The presented formulation indicates that wear dynamics in brittle materials in general and in natural faults in particular can be understood by the concept of a "propagating damage front" and the evolution of a third-body layer.
Steady-state deformation of some lithium ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poeppel, R.B.; Routbort, J.L.; Billone, M.C.; Applegate, D.S.; Buchmann, E.; Londschien, B.
1987-05-01
The stress-strain behavior of Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 polycrystals, with densities varying from 0.70 to 0.95 of the theoretical, has been measured in constant-crosshead-speed compression tests at temperatures of 700 to 1000 0 C with strain rates ranging from about 10 -6 to 10 -4 s -1 . A steady-state stress, σ/sub s/, for which the work-hardening rate becomes zero, was achieved. These results, therefore, yield information equivalent to that obtained from creep experiments. Limited data on LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 were obtained. Nevertheless, under comparable conditions the lithium aluminate and zirconate were considerably stronger than the Li 2 O. This finding may be related to differences in crystal structure. It is, however, likely that in operation as a function breeder blanket material, the oxide will swell whereas the aluminate and the zirconate will crack. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Simulation of steady-state natural convection using CFD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zitzmann, T.; Pfrommer, P. [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coberg (Germany); Cook, M.; Rees, S.; Marjanovic, L. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development
2005-07-01
Building materials play an important role in the creation of comfortable indoor environments and can reduce dependence on high energy use mechanical systems. Correct predictions between building structure and heat transfer are needed in order to achieve optimal conditions. Heat transfer is dependent on the velocity and temperature distribution in a room, particularly in the wall boundary layer. This paper discussed the modeling of air flow and heat transfer over a heated vertical plate in a differentially-heated cavity using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Guidelines on the use of CFD with unstructured meshes to model buoyancy-driven flow in a cavity were presented. Benchmark CFD results were compared with published analytical data. The finite volume method was employed using an unstructured mesh containing tetrahedral and prism elements, so that local numerical diffusion was reduced and therefore suitable for complex flows. The code was based on a couple solver for solving the differential equations using the fully implicit discretization method. Hydrodynamic equations were treated as one single system. A false time stepping method was used to reduce the number of iterations required for convergence, which also guided the solutions to a steady-state solution. It was concluded that the methodology achieves accurate predictions, and is suitable for the modeling of heat transfer optimizations. 13 refs., 7 figs.
Steady-state operation requirements of tokamak fusion reactor concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knobloch, A.F.
1991-06-01
In the last two decades tokamak conceptual reactor design studies have been deriving benefit from progressing plasma physics experiments, more depth in theory and increasing detail in technology and engineering. Recent full-scale reactor extrapolations such as the US ARIES-I and the EC Reference Reactor study provide information on rather advanced concepts that are called for when economic boundary conditions are imposed. The ITER international reactor design activity concentrated on defining the next step after the JET generation of experiments. For steady-state operation as required for any future commercial tokamak fusion power plants it is essential to have non-inductive current drive. The current drive power and other internal power requirements specific to magnetic confinement fusion have to be kept as low as possible in order to attain a competitive overall power conversion efficiency. A high plasma Q is primarily dependent on a high current drive efficiency. Since such conditions have not yet been attained in practice, the present situation and the degree of further development required are characterized. Such development and an appropriately designed next-step tokamak reactor make the gradual realization of high-Q operation appear feasible. (orig.)
Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vedder, P.W.; Trester, J.J.; Canizares, C.R.
1988-01-01
A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount. 37 references
Continuous cryopump for steady state mirror fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.
1983-01-01
The characteristics of mirror fusion reactors, i.e., steady state operation, a low neutral gas density, and a large gas throughput require unique vacuum pumping capabilities. One approach that appears to meet these requirements is a liquid helium-cooled cryopump system in which a fixed portion can be isolated and degassed while the remainder continues to pump. The time to degas a rotating, fixed portion of the pumping area and the ratio of that area to the total area fixes the gas inventory in the chamber. It follows that the active pump area maintains the required neutral gas density and the time-averaged degassing rate equals the gas throughput. We have built such a cryopump whereby the gas condensed (deuterium) on the liquid helium-cooled panel can be transferred to a collector pump and subsequently to an exterior mechanical pump and exhausted. At panel loadings as high as 0.55 Torr-/lcm 2 the gas leakage during degassing is less than 8% and the degassing time is less than 10 min. Scaling to reactor size appears to be feasible
Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Patel
2016-08-01
Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.
Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.
2007-01-01
For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers
Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.
Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina
2017-01-01
Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (pintelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (pincrease in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.
Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Horwitz
Full Text Available Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR in the alpha (8Hz and gamma (36Hz bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years. Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01. Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05. In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01. Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.
Sensitivity Analysis for Steady State Groundwater Flow Using Adjoint Operators
Sykes, J. F.; Wilson, J. L.; Andrews, R. W.
1985-03-01
Adjoint sensitivity theory is currently being considered as a potential method for calculating the sensitivity of nuclear waste repository performance measures to the parameters of the system. For groundwater flow systems, performance measures of interest include piezometric heads in the vicinity of a waste site, velocities or travel time in aquifers, and mass discharge to biosphere points. The parameters include recharge-discharge rates, prescribed boundary heads or fluxes, formation thicknesses, and hydraulic conductivities. The derivative of a performance measure with respect to the system parameters is usually taken as a measure of sensitivity. To calculate sensitivities, adjoint sensitivity equations are formulated from the equations describing the primary problem. The solution of the primary problem and the adjoint sensitivity problem enables the determination of all of the required derivatives and hence related sensitivity coefficients. In this study, adjoint sensitivity theory is developed for equations of two-dimensional steady state flow in a confined aquifer. Both the primary flow equation and the adjoint sensitivity equation are solved using the Galerkin finite element method. The developed computer code is used to investigate the regional flow parameters of the Leadville Formation of the Paradox Basin in Utah. The results illustrate the sensitivity of calculated local heads to the boundary conditions. Alternatively, local velocity related performance measures are more sensitive to hydraulic conductivities.
Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saxena, Y.C.
2000-01-01
SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)
Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule
Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin
2018-03-01
We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.
Itineration of the Internet over nonequilibrium stationary states in Tsallis statistics.
Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu
2003-01-01
The cumulative probability distribution of sparseness time interval in the Internet is studied by the method of data analysis. Round-trip time between a local host and a destination host through ten odd routers is measured using the ping command, i.e., doing an echo experiment. The data are found to be well described by q-exponential distributions, which maximize the Tsallis entropy indexed by q less or larger than unity, showing a scale-invariant feature of the system. The network is observed to itinerate over a series of the nonequilibrium stationary states characterized by Tsallis statistics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salkola, M.I.; Schrieffer, J.R.
1998-01-01
Nonequilibrium properties of short-coherence-length s-wave superconductors are analyzed in the presence of extrinsic and intrinsic inhomogeneities. In general, the lowest-energy configurations of quasiparticle excitations are topological textures into which quasiparticles segregate and that are described as antiphase domain walls between superconducting regions whose order parameter phases differ by π. Antiphase domain walls can be probed by various experimental techniques, for example, by optical absorption and NMR. At zero temperature, quasiparticles seldom appear as self-trapped bag states. However, for low concentrations of quasiparticles, they may be stabilized in superconductors by extrinsic defects. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes at 100 μA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, G.J.
1989-01-01
The ''maximum'' unperturbed, steady state thermal neutron flux for LANSCE is calculated to be 2 /times/ 10 13 n/cm 2 -s for 100 μA of 800-MeV protons. This LANSCE neutron flux is a comparable entity to a steady state reactor thermal neutron flux. LANSCE perturbed steady state thermal neutron fluxes have also been calculated. Because LANSCE is a pulsed neutron source, much higher ''peak'' (in time) neutron fluxes can be generated than at a steady state reactor source. 5 refs., 5 figs
Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya
2005-05-01
The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.
Rod Bundle Heat Transfer: Steady-State Steam Cooling Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M.
2006-01-01
Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local
COOLOD, Steady-State Thermal Hydraulics of Research Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminaga, Masanori
1997-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: The COOLOD-N2 code provides a capability for the analyses of the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of research reactors. This code is a revised version of the COOLOD-N code, and is applicable not only for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted, but also for research reactors in which rod-type fuel is adopted. In the code, subroutines to calculate temperature distribution in rod-type fuel have been newly added to the COOLOD-N code. The COOLOD-N2 code can calculate fuel temperatures under both forced convection cooling mode and natural convection cooling mode. A 'Heat Transfer package' is used for calculating heat transfer coefficient, DNB heat flux etc. The 'Heat Transfer package' is a subroutine program and is especially developed for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted. In case of rod-type fuel, DNB heat flux is calculated by both the 'Heat Transfer package' and Lund DNB heat flux correlation which is popular for TRIGA reactor. The COOLOD-N2 code also has a capability of calculating ONB temperature, the heat flux at onset of flow instability as well as DNB heat flux. 2 - Method of solution: The 'Heat Transfer Package' is a subprogram for calculating heat transfer coefficients, ONB temperature, heat flux at onset of flow instability and DNB heat flux. The 'Heat transfer package' was especially developed for research reactors which are operated under low pressure and low temperature conditions using plate-type fuel, just like the JRR-3M. Heat transfer correlations adopted in the 'Heat Transfer Package' were obtained or estimated based on the heat transfer experiments in which thermal-hydraulic features of the upgraded JRR-3 core were properly reflected. The 'Heat Transfer Package' is applicable to upward and downward flow
Phencyclidine Disrupts the Auditory Steady State Response in Rats.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emma Leishman
Full Text Available The Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR in the electroencephalogram (EEG is usually reduced in schizophrenia (SZ, particularly to 40 Hz stimulation. The gamma frequency ASSR deficit has been attributed to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR hypofunction. We tested whether the NMDAR antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP, produced similar ASSR deficits in rats. EEG was recorded from awake rats via intracranial electrodes overlaying the auditory cortex and at the vertex of the skull. ASSRs to click trains were recorded at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 55 Hz and measured by ASSR Mean Power (MP and Phase Locking Factor (PLF. In Experiment 1, the effect of different subcutaneous doses of PCP (1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg on the ASSR in 12 rats was assessed. In Experiment 2, ASSRs were compared in PCP treated rats and control rats at baseline, after acute injection (5 mg/kg, following two weeks of subchronic, continuous administration (5 mg/kg/day, and one week after drug cessation. Acute administration of PCP increased PLF and MP at frequencies of stimulation below 50 Hz, and decreased responses at higher frequencies at the auditory cortex site. Acute administration had a less pronounced effect at the vertex site, with a reduction of either PLF or MP observed at frequencies above 20 Hz. Acute effects increased in magnitude with higher doses of PCP. Consistent effects were not observed after subchronic PCP administration. These data indicate that acute administration of PCP, a NMDAR antagonist, produces an increase in ASSR synchrony and power at low frequencies of stimulation and a reduction of high frequency (> 40 Hz ASSR activity in rats. Subchronic, continuous administration of PCP, on the other hand, has little impact on ASSRs. Thus, while ASSRs are highly sensitive to NMDAR antagonists, their translational utility as a cross-species biomarker for NMDAR hypofunction in SZ and other disorders may be dependent on dose and schedule.
Very high flux steady state reactor and accelerator based sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Simos, N.; Shapiro, S.; Hastings, J.
2004-01-01
With the number of steady state neutron sources in the US declining (including the demise of the Bnl HFBR) the remaining intense sources are now in Europe (i.e. reactors - ILL and FMR, accelerator - PSI). The intensity of the undisturbed thermal flux for sources currently in operation ranges from 10 14 n/cm 2 *s to 10 15 n/cm 2 *s. The proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) was to be a high power reactor (about 350 MW) with a projected undisturbed thermal flux of 7*10 15 n/cm 2 *s but never materialized. The objective of the current study is to explore the requirements and implications of two source concepts with an undisturbed flux of 10 16 n/cm 2 *s. The first is a reactor based concept operating at high power density (10 MW/l - 15 MW/l) and a total power of 100 MW - 250 MW, depending on fissile enrichment. The second is an accelerator based concept relying on a 1 GeV - 1.5 GeV proton Linac with a total beam power of 40 MW and a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target. In the reactor source study, the effects of fissile material enrichment, coolant temperature and pressure drop, and estimates of pressure vessel stress levels will be investigated. The fuel form for the reactor will be different from all other operating source reactors in that it is proposed to use an infiltrated graphitic structure, which has been developed for nuclear thermal propulsion reactor applications. In the accelerator based source the generation of spallation products and their activation levels, and the material damage sustained by the beam window will be investigated. (authors)
Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats.
Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P
2005-03-01
Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.
Majeed, Muhammad Usman
2017-01-01
the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jepps, Owen G; Rondoni, Lamberto
2010-01-01
Deterministic 'thermostats' are mathematical tools used to model nonequilibrium steady states of fluids. The resulting dynamical systems correctly represent the transport properties of these fluids and are easily simulated on modern computers. More recently, the connection between such thermostats and entropy production has been exploited in the development of nonequilibrium fluid theories. The purpose and limitations of deterministic thermostats are discussed in the context of irreversible thermodynamics and the development of theories of nonequilibrium phenomena. We draw parallels between the development of such nonequilibrium theories and the development of notions of ergodicity in equilibrium theories. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maes, Christian
2012-01-01
In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Hong
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.
Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.S.; Diem, S.J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Garstka, G.D.; Gates, D.A.; Gray, T.; Grisham, L.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.H.; Kissick, M.W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.G.; Lewicki, B.T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S.S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C.N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H.K.; Park, W.; Paul, S.F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P.H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Sontag, A.C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K.L.; Unterberg, E.A.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S.J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J.M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carter, M.D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L.L.; Levinton, F.M.; Luhmann, N.C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M.M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G.D.; Ram, A.K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Wurden, G.A.
2003-01-01
Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (∼60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted
40 CFR 86.1363-2007 - Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. 86.1363-2007 Section 86.1363-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1363-2007 Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. This section...
40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...
40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...
Steady-state models in electrophoresis: from isotachophoresis to capillary zone electrophoresis
Beckers, J.L.
1995-01-01
Although all electrophoretic techniques are closely allied and controlled by the same rules, we often distinguish between steady-state and dynamic models in the modeling of electrophoretic processes, whereby steady-state models are applied for isotachophoresis (ITP) and dynamic models are applied
Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers
Development of synchronous generator saturation model from steady-state operating data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jadric, Martin; Despalatovic, Marin; Terzic, Bozo [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Split (Croatia)
2010-11-15
A new method to estimate and model the saturated synchronous reactances of hydroturbine generators from operating data is presented. For the estimation process, measurements of only the generator steady-state variables are required. First, using a specific procedure, the field to armature turns ratio is estimated from measured steady-state variables at constant power generation and various excitation conditions. Subsequently, for each set of steady-state operating data, saturated synchronous reactances are identified. Fitting surfaces, defined as polynomial functions in two variables, are later used to model these saturated reactances. It is shown that the simpler polynomial functions may be used to model saturation at the steady-state than at the dynamic conditions. The developed steady-state model is validated with measurements performed on the 34 MVA hydroturbine generator. (author)
Entropy production and thermodynamics of nonequilibrium stationary states: a point of view.
Gallavotti, Giovanni
2004-09-01
Entropy might be a not well defined concept if the system can undergo transformations involving stationary nonequilibria. It might be analogous to the heat content (once called "caloric") in transformations that are not isochoric (i.e., which involve mechanical work): it could be just a quantity that can be transferred or created, like heat in equilibrium. The text first reviews the philosophy behind a recently proposed definition of entropy production in nonequilibrium stationary systems. A detailed technical attempt at defining the entropy of a stationary states via their variational properties follows: the unsatisfactory aspects of the results add arguments in favor of the nonexistence of a function of state to be identified with entropy; at the same time new aspects and properties of the phase space contraction emerge. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics
Mode locking and mode competition in a nonequilibrium solid-state condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastham, P. R.
2008-01-01
A trapped polariton condensate with continuous pumping and decay is analyzed using a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii model. Whereas an equilibrium condensate is characterized by a macroscopic occupation of a ground state, here the steady states take more general forms. Some are characterized by a large population in an excited state; others by large populations in several states, which may overlap spatially. In the latter case, the highly populated states synchronize to a common frequency above a critical density. At intermediate densities, they can drive condensation in other trap modes by parametric scattering. Estimates for the critical density of the synchronization transition are consistent with experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Rui; Zhang Jiaxing; Hou Shimin; Qian Zekan; Shen Ziyong; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan
2007-01-01
We discuss two problems in the conventional approach for studying charge transport in molecular electronic devices that is based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and density functional theory, i.e., the bound states and the numerical integration of the non-equilibrium density matrix. A scheme of filling the bound states in the bias window and a method of patching the non-equilibrium integration are proposed, both of which are referred to as the non-equilibrium correction. The discussion is illustrated by means of calculations on a model system consisting of a 4,4 bipyridine molecule connected to two semi-infinite gold monatomic chains
GRASS-SST, Fission Products Gas Release and Fuel Swelling in Steady-State and Transients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zawadzki, S.
2001-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: GRASS-SST is a comprehensive, mechanistic model for the prediction of fission-gas behaviour in UO 2 -base fuels during steady-state and transient conditions. GRASS-SST treats fission-gas release and fuel swelling on an equal basis and simultaneously treats all major mechanisms that influence fission-gas behaviour. Models are included for intra- and inter-granular fission-gas bubble behaviour as well as a mechanistic description of the role of grain-edge inter-linked porosity on fission-gas release and swelling. GRASS-SST calculations include the effects of gas production from fissioning uranium atoms, bubble nucleation, a realistic equation of state for xenon, lattice bubble diffusivities based on experimental observations, bubble migration, bubble coalescence, re-solution, temperature and temperature gradients, inter-linked porosity, and fission-gas interaction with structural defects (dislocations and grain boundaries) on both the distribution of fission-gas within the fuel and on the amount of fission-gas released from the fuel. GRASS-SST includes the effects of the degree of nonequilibrium in the UO 2 lattice on fission-gas bubble mobility and bubble coalescence and also accounts for the observed formation of grain-surface channels. GRASS-SST also includes mechanistic models for grain-growth/grain boundary sweeping and for the behaviour of fission gas during liquefaction/dissolution and fuel melting conditions. 2 - Method of solution: A system of coupled equations for the evolution of the fission-gas bubble-size distributions in the lattice, on dislocations, on grain faces, and grain edges is derived based on the GRASS-SST models. Given a set of operating conditions, GRASS-SST calculates the bubble radii for the size classes of bubbles under consideration using a realistic equation of state for xenon as well as a generalised capillary relation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of : 1 axial section
Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghorui, S; Das, A K
2012-01-01
Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.
Assessing Quasi-Steady State in Evaporation of Sessile Drops by Diffusion Models
Martin, Cameron; Nguyen, Hoa; Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Chris
2017-11-01
The vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops of methanol are modeled as the solutions of the steady-state and transient diffusion equations using Matlab's PDE Toolbox. The goal is to determine how quickly the transient diffusive transport reaches its quasi-steady state as the droplet geometry is varied between a Weber's disc, a real droplet shape, and a spherical cap with matching thickness or contact angle. We assume that the only transport mechanism at work is diffusion. Quasi-steady state is defined using several metrics, such as differences between the transient and steady-state solutions, and change in the transient solution over time. Knowing the vapor distribution, the gradient is computed to evaluate the diffusive flux. The flux is integrated along the surface of a control volume surrounding the drop to obtain the net rate of diffusion out of the volume. Based on the differences between the transient and steady-state diffusive fluxes at the discrete points along the control-volume surface, the time to reach quasi-steady state evaporation is determined and is consistent with other proposed measurements. By varying the dimensions of the control volume, we can also assess what regimes have equivalent or different quasi-steady states for different droplet geometries. Petroleum Research Fund.
Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Sung Jong; Kim, Bongsoo
2007-02-01
We present an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study on the nonequilibrium kinetics of triangular antiferromagnetic Ising model within the ground state ensemble which consists of sectors, each of which is characterized by a unique value of the string density p through a dimer covering method. Building upon our recent work [Phys. Rev. E 68, 066127 (2003)] where we considered the nonequilibrium relaxation observed within the dominant sector with p=2/3, we here focus on the nonequilibrium kinetics within the minor sectors with psimple scaling behavior A(t)=A(t/tau(A)(p)), where the time scale tau(A)(p) shows a power-law divergence with vanishing p as tau(A)(p) approximately p(-phi) with phi approximately or equal to 4. These features can be understood in terms of random walk nature of the fluctuations of the strings within the typical separation between neighboring strings.
X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105
Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy
2016-05-01
We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color-color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.
A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Mitton, Simon
2015-01-01
We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein’s steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi...
Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Duan-Ming; LIU Dan; HE Min-Hua; YU Xiao-Ling; PAN Gui-Jun; SUN Hong-Zhang; SU Xiang-Ying; SUN Fan; YIN Yan-Ping; LI Rui
2006-01-01
We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady statesof epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δc and pc below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δc, it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.
A steady-state fluid model of the coaxial plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herziger, G.; Krompholz, H.; Schneider, W.; Schoenbach, K.
1979-01-01
The plasma layer in a coaxial plasma gun is considered as a shock front driven by expanding magnetic fields. Analytical steady-state solutions of the fluid equations yield the plasma properties, allowing the scaling of plasma focus devices. (Auth.)
Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations
Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.
2016-01-01
Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.
Navier-Stokes Predictions of Dynamic Stability Derivatives: Evaluation of Steady-State Methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
DeSpirito, James; Silton, Sidra I; Weinacht, Paul
2008-01-01
The prediction of the dynamic stability derivatives-roll-damping, Magnus, and pitch-damping moments-were evaluated for three spin-stabilized projectiles using steady-state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations...
A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady-State Operation: A JAEA Contribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuru Kikuchi
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR best utilizing the bootstrap current was developed. Since then, significant efforts have been made in major tokamaks, including JT-60U, exploring advanced regimes relevant to the steady state operation of tokamaks. In this paper, the fundamentals of fusion and plasma confinement, and the concepts and research on current drive and MHD stability of advanced tokamaks towards realization of a steady-state tokamak reactor are reviewed, with an emphasis on the contributions of the JAEA. Finally, a view of fusion energy utilization in the 21st century is introduced.
A generalised correlation for the steady state flow in single-phase natural circulation loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijayan, P.K.; Bade, M.H.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
2000-08-01
To establish the heat transport capability of natural circulation loops, it is essential to know the flow rate. A generalized correlation for steady state flow valid for uniform and non-uniform diameter loops has been theoretically derived
Rowan, D J
2013-07-01
Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any
Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: from quiescence to steady state.
Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen
2014-10-01
Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.
Accuracy of the calculations of the ionization-state densities in a steady-state plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salzmann, D.
1980-01-01
A quantitative definition is given to the accuracy of the computation of the partial densities of the ionization states in a steady-state plasma when there is an inaccuracy in the rate coefficients used in the rate equation. It is found that the partial density of the most abundant ion species is almost independent of the exact form of the rate coefficients, but large errors may occur for the rare species. The effect of the variation of the total ion density on the partial densities is also calculated. For low-ion densities the partial ionization-state densities grow proportionally to the change of the total density, but at high densities there is an alteration of the charge-state distribution as well
Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth
2017-11-01
Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamai, H.; Kurita, G.; Matsukawa, M.; Urata, K.; Sakurai, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Morioka, A.; Miura, Y.M.; Kizu, K.; Kamada, Y.; Sakasai, A.; Ishida, S.
2004-01-01
Plasma control on high-β N steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting modification is discussed. Accessibility to high-β N exceeding the free-boundary limit is investigated with the stabilising wall of reduced-activated ferritic steel and the active feedback control of the in-vessel non-axisymmetric field coils. Taking the merit of superconducting magnet, advanced plasma control for steady-state high performance operation could be expected. (authors)
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.
Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sedmak Aleksandar S.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.
Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari
2015-01-01
High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...
Burn cycle requirements comparison of pulsed and steady-state tokamak reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.
1983-12-01
Burn cycle parameters and energy transfer system requirements were analyzed for an 8-m commercial tokamak reactor using four types of cycles: conventional, hybrid, internal transformer, and steady state. Not surprisingly, steady state is the best burn mode if it can be achieved. The hybrid cycle is a promising alternative to the conventional. In contrast, the internal transformer cycle does not appear attractive for the size tokamak in question
Evidence for forcing-dependent steady states in a turbulent swirling flow.
Saint-Michel, B; Dubrulle, B; Marié, L; Ravelet, F; Daviaud, F
2013-12-06
We study the influence on steady turbulent states of the forcing in a von Karman flow, at constant impeller speed, or at constant torque. We find that the different forcing conditions change the nature of the stability of the steady states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities to low-dimensional systems. We suggest that this forcing dependence may be applicable to other turbulent systems.
Determination of the Steady State Leakage Current in Structures with Ferroelectric Ceramic Films
Podgornyi, Yu. V.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.
2018-03-01
Steady state leakage currents have been investigated in capacitor structures with ferroelectric solgel films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) formed on silicon substrates with a lower Pt electrode. It is established that Pt/PZT/Hg structures, regardless of the PZT film thickness, are characterized by the presence of a rectifying contact similar to p-n junction. The steady state leakage current in the forward direction increases with a decrease in the film thickness and is determined by the ferroelectric bulk conductivity.
Steady states of a diode with counterstreaming electron and positron beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ender, A. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. I., E-mail: victor.kuznetsov@mail.ioffe.ru; Gruzdev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-10-15
Steady states of a plasma layer with counterstreaming beams of oppositely charged particles moving without collisions in a self-consistent electric field are analyzed. The study is aimed at clarifying the mechanism of generation and reconstruction of pulsar radiation. Such a layer also models the processes occurring in Knudsen plasma diodes with counterstreaming electron and ion beams. The steady-state solutions are exhaustively classified. The existence of several solutions at the same external parameters is established.
Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulkami, Makarand
2011-01-01
Full text: High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, par ticularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve patholo gies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.
Wessels, Philipp; Ewald, Johannes; Wieland, Marek; Nisius, Thomas; Vogel, Andreas; Viefhaus, Jens; Meier, Guido; Wilhein, Thomas; Drescher, Markus
2014-11-01
The destruction and formation of equilibrium multidomain patterns in permalloy (Ni80Fe20 ) microsquares has been captured using pump-probe x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectromicroscopy at a new full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy endstation with subnanosecond time resolution. The movie sequences show the dynamic magnetization response to intense Oersted field pulses of approximately 200-ps root mean square (rms) duration and the magnetization reorganization to the ground-state domain configuration. The measurements display how a vortex flux-closure magnetization distribution emerges out of a nonequilibrium uniform single-domain state. During the destruction of the initial vortex pattern, we have traced the motion of the central vortex core that is ejected out of the microsquare at high velocities exceeding 1 km/s. A reproducible recovery into a defined final vortex state with stable chirality and polarity could be achieved. Using an additional external bias field, the transient reversal of the square magnetization direction could be monitored and consistently reproduced by micromagnetic simulations.
Differences between automatically detected and steady-state fractional flow reserve.
Härle, Tobias; Meyer, Sven; Vahldiek, Felix; Elsässer, Albrecht
2016-02-01
Measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) has become a standard diagnostic tool in the catheterization laboratory. FFR evaluation studies were based on pressure recordings during steady-state maximum hyperemia. Commercially available computer systems detect the lowest Pd/Pa ratio automatically, which might not always be measured during steady-state hyperemia. We sought to compare the automatically detected FFR and true steady-state FFR. Pressure measurement traces of 105 coronary lesions from 77 patients with intermediate coronary lesions or multivessel disease were reviewed. In all patients, hyperemia had been achieved by intravenous adenosine administration using a dosage of 140 µg/kg/min. In 42 lesions (40%) automatically detected FFR was lower than true steady-state FFR. Mean bias was 0.009 (standard deviation 0.015, limits of agreement -0.02, 0.037). In 4 lesions (3.8%) both methods lead to different treatment recommendations, in all 4 cases instantaneous wave-free ratio confirmed steady-state FFR. Automatically detected FFR was slightly lower than steady-state FFR in more than one-third of cases. Consequently, interpretation of automatically detected FFR values closely below the cutoff value requires special attention.
40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...
Structural evaluation of FHX for PGSFR at steady state condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Nak-Hyun; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
Liquid sodium flows inside the heat transfer tubes and atmospheric air flows over the finned tubes. The configuration and overall shape of the unit are shown in Figure 1. The unit is placed in the upper region of the reactor building and has function of dumping the system heat load into the final heat sink, i.e., the atmosphere. Heat is transmitted from the primary cold sodium pool into the ADHRS sodium loop via DHX (Decay Heat Exchanger), and a direct heat exchange occurs between the tube-side sodium and the shell-side air through the FHX tube wall. Cold atmospheric air is introduced into the air inlet duct at the lower part of the unit by using an electrically operated air blower or by the natural circulation force. Air flows across the finned tube bank rising upward direction to make uniform air flow with perfect mixing across the tubes. The finned tube bundle is placed inside a well-insulated casing. The air heated at the tube bank region is collected at the top of the unit and then is discharged through the air stack above the unit. Although a blower supplies atmospheric cooling air into the FHX unit, a tall air stack of 30 m in height is also provided to secure natural draft head of natural circulation air flow against a loss of power supply. The structural analysis of a FHX are carried out and its structural integrity under the given service levels is evaluated per ASME Code rule. The design loads according to design condition and normal operating steady condition are classified and stresses calculated from stress analyses are linearized and summarized in their stress components.
Fiedler, Anna; Raeth, Sebastian; Theis, Fabian J; Hausser, Angelika; Hasenauer, Jan
2016-08-22
Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters. However, implementing steady-state constraints in the optimization often results in convergence problems. In this manuscript, we propose two new methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. The first method exploits ideas from optimization algorithms on manifolds and introduces a retraction operator, essentially reducing the dimension of the optimization problem. The second method is based on the continuous analogue of the optimization problem. This continuous analogue is an ODE whose equilibrium points are the optima of the constrained optimization problem. This equivalence enables the use of adaptive numerical methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. Both methods are tailored to the problem structure and exploit the local geometry of the steady-state manifold and its stability properties. A parameterization of the steady-state manifold is not required. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods is evaluated using one toy example and two applications. The first application example uses published data while the second uses a novel dataset for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. The proposed methods demonstrated better convergence properties than state-of-the-art methods employed in systems and computational biology. Furthermore, the average computation time per converged start is significantly lower. In addition to the theoretical results, the
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of shear flow: invariant quantities and current relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baule, A; Evans, R M L
2010-01-01
In modeling nonequilibrium systems one usually starts with a definition of the microscopic dynamics, e.g., in terms of transition rates, and then derives the resulting macroscopic behavior. We address the inverse question for a class of steady state systems, namely complex fluids under continuous shear flow: how does an externally imposed shear current affect the microscopic dynamics of the fluid? The answer can be formulated in the form of invariant quantities, exact relations for the transition rates in the nonequilibrium steady state, as discussed in a recent letter (Baule and Evans, 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 240601). Here, we present a more pedagogical account of the invariant quantities and the theory underlying them, known as the nonequilibrium counterpart to detailed balance (NCDB). Furthermore, we investigate the relationship between the transition rates and the shear current in the steady state. We show that a fluctuation relation of the Gallavotti–Cohen type holds for systems satisfying NCDB
Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2014-06-26
A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for
Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1998-01-01
The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...
Zaher, Ashraf A
2008-03-01
A technique is introduced for identifying uncertain and/or unknown parameters of chaotic dynamical systems via using simple state feedback. The proposed technique is based on bringing the system into a stable steady state and then solving for the unknown parameters using a simple algebraic method that requires access to the complete or partial states of the system depending on the dynamical model of the chaotic system. The choice of the state feedback is optimized in terms of practicality and causality via employing a single feedback signal and tuning the feedback gain to ensure both stability and identifiability. The case when only a single scalar time series of one of the states is available is also considered and it is demonstrated that a synchronization-based state observer can be augmented to the state feedback to address this problem. A detailed case study using the Lorenz system is used to exemplify the suggested technique. In addition, both the Rössler and Chua systems are examined as possible candidates for utilizing the proposed methodology when partial identification of the unknown parameters is considered. Finally, the dependence of the proposed technique on the structure of the chaotic dynamical model and the operating conditions is discussed and its advantages and limitations are highlighted via comparing it with other methods reported in the literature.
Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho
2012-01-01
This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results
Non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems and fluctuation-dissipation theorems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Špička, Václav; Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla
2017-01-01
Roč. 65, 6-8 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 1700032. ISSN 0015-8208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * fluctuation-dissipation theorems * non-equilibrium Greens function * transient and steady state magnetic current * molecular bridge Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2016
Tovbin, Yu. K.
2017-08-01
The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).
Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems
Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric
We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.
Fluctuation relations in non-equilibrium stationary states of Ising models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piscitelli, A; Gonnella, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Corberi, F [Dipartimento di Matematica ed Informatica, via Ponte don Melillo, Universita di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Pelizzola, A [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, and CNISM, Politecnico di Torino, c. Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2009-01-15
Fluctuation relations for the entropy production in non-equilibrium stationary states of Ising models are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Systems in contact with heat baths at two different temperatures or subject to external driving will be studied. In the first case, considering different kinetic rules and couplings with the baths, the behaviors of the probability distributions of the heat exchanged in time {tau} with the thermostats, both in the disordered phase and in the low temperature phase, are discussed. The fluctuation relation is always followed in the large {tau} limit and deviations from linear response theory are observed. Finite {tau} corrections are shown to obey a scaling behavior. In the other case the system is in contact with a single heat bath, but work is done by shearing it. Also for this system, using the statistics collected for the mechanical work we show the validity of the fluctuation relation and the preasymptotic corrections behave analogously to those for the case with two baths.
Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems
Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar
Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the
Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, T.J.
1986-01-01
Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during steady-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K hot-leg fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations
The non-local Fisher–KPP equation: travelling waves and steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berestycki, Henri; Nadin, Grégoire; Perthame, Benoit; Ryzhik, Lenya
2009-01-01
We consider the Fisher–KPP equation with a non-local saturation effect defined through an interaction kernel φ(x) and investigate the possible differences with the standard Fisher–KPP equation. Our first concern is the existence of steady states. We prove that if the Fourier transform φ-circumflex(ξ) is positive or if the length σ of the non-local interaction is short enough, then the only steady states are u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1. Next, we study existence of the travelling waves. We prove that this equation admits travelling wave solutions that connect u = 0 to an unknown positive steady state u ∞ (x), for all speeds c ≥ c * . The travelling wave connects to the standard state u ∞ (x) ≡ 1 under the aforementioned conditions: φ-circumflex(ξ) > 0 or σ is sufficiently small. However, the wave is not monotonic for σ large
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Criado-Sancho, M.; Casas-Vazquez, J.; Jou, D.
1997-01-01
In the literature, the shift of the spinodal line of polymer solutions under flow is attributed either to an actual shift of the spinodal due to a nonequilibrium modification of the equation of state for the chemical potential, or to an apparent shift due to an increase of hydrodynamic fluctuations owing to the flow. Here we see that both approaches are compatible and that both effects add up. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P
2015-12-01
High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.
Feasibility study for improved steady-state initialization algorithms for the RELAP5 computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Katsma, K.R.
1993-04-01
A design for a new steady-state initialization method is presented that represents an improvement over the current method used in RELAP5. Current initialization methods for RELAP5 solve the transient fluidflow balance equations simulating a transient to achieve steady-state conditions. Because the transient solution is used, the initial conditions may change from the desired values requiring the use of controllers and long transient running times to obtain steady-state conditions for system problems. The new initialization method allows the user to fix thermal-hydraulic values in volumes and junctions where the conditions are best known and have the code compute the initial conditions in other areas of the system. The steady-state balance equations and solution methods are presented. The constitutive, component, and specialpurpose models are reviewed with respect to modifications required for the new steady-state initialization method. The requirements for user input are defined and the feasibility of the method is demonstrated with a testbed code by initializing some simple channel problems. The initialization of the sample problems using, the old and the new methods are compared
A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehta, Mitaxi P., E-mail: mitaxi.mehta@ahduni.edu.in [IICT, Ahmedabad University, Opp. IIM, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu [BITS-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa campus, Goa (India)
2014-01-17
We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.
A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu
2014-01-01
We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.
Cell kinetics of GM-CFC in the steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagan, M.P.; MacVittie, T.J.; Dodgen, D.P.
1985-01-01
The kinetics of cell turnover for myeloid/monocyte cells that form colonies in agar (GM-CFC) were measured through the progressive increase in their sensitivity to 313-nm light during a period of cell labeling with BrdCyd. Two components of cell killing with distinctly separate labeling kinetics revealed both the presence of two generations within the GM-CFC compartment and the properties of the kinetics of the precursors of the GM-CFC. These precursors of the GM-CFC were not assayable in a routine GM-CFC assay when pregnant mouse uterus extract and mouse L-cell-conditioned medium were used to stimulate colony formation but were revealed by the labeling kinetics of the assayable GM-CFC. Further, these precursor cells appeared to enter the assayable GM-CFC population from a noncycling state. This was evidenced by the failure of the majority of these cells to incorporate BrdCyd during five days of infusion. The half-time for cell turnover within this precursor compartment was measured to be approximately 5.5 days. Further, these normally noncycling cells proliferated rapidly in response to endotoxin. High-proliferative-potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) were tested as a candidate for this precursor population. The results of the determination of the kinetics for these cells showed that the HPP-CFC exist largely in a Go state, existing at an average rate of once every four days. The slow turnover time for these cells and their response to endotoxin challenge are consistent with a close relationship between the HPP-CFC and the Go pool of cells that is the direct precursor of the GM-CFC
Unsteady steady-states: central causes of unintentional force drift.
Ambike, Satyajit; Mattos, Daniela; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L
2016-12-01
We applied the theory of synergies to analyze the processes that lead to unintentional decline in isometric fingertip force when visual feedback of the produced force is removed. We tracked the changes in hypothetical control variables involved in single fingertip force production based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, namely the fingertip referent coordinate (R FT ) and its apparent stiffness (C FT ). The system's state is defined by a point in the {R FT ; C FT } space. We tested the hypothesis that, after visual feedback removal, this point (1) moves along directions leading to drop in the output fingertip force, and (2) has even greater motion along directions that leaves the force unchanged. Subjects produced a prescribed fingertip force using visual feedback and attempted to maintain this force for 15 s after the feedback was removed. We used the "inverse piano" apparatus to apply small and smooth positional perturbations to fingers at various times after visual feedback removal. The time courses of R FT and C FT showed that force drop was mostly due to a drift in R FT toward the actual fingertip position. Three analysis techniques, namely hyperbolic regression, surrogate data analysis, and computation of motor-equivalent and non-motor-equivalent motions, suggested strong covariation in R FT and C FT stabilizing the force magnitude. Finally, the changes in the two hypothetical control variables {R FT ; C FT } relative to their average trends also displayed covariation. On the whole, the findings suggest that unintentional force drop is associated with (a) a slow drift of the referent coordinate that pulls the system toward a low-energy state and (b) a faster synergic motion of R FT and C FT that tends to stabilize the output fingertip force about the slowly drifting equilibrium point.
Coagulation profile of children with sickle cell anemia in steady state ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Sickle cell anemia is associated with a hypercoagulable state that may lead to alterations in a coagulation profile. Measurements of coagulation factors are known to have some predictive value for clinical outcome. Objectives: To determine the coagulation profile of children with SCA in steady state and crisis ...
Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoehne-Moench, Daniel
2010-01-01
One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) γ-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE γ-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F X >2 μJy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z X-γ between the X-ray range at 1 keV and the VHE γ-ray regime at 200 GeV were calculated. The majority of objects show a spectral behaviour as expected from the source class of HBLs: The energy output in the VHE regime is in general lower than in X-rays. For the stacked blazar sample the broad-band spectral index was calculated to α X-γ =1.09, confirming the result found for the individual objects. Another evidence for the revelation of the baseline emission is the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) comprising archival as well as contemporaneous multi-wavelength data from the radio to the VHE band. The SEDs of known VHE γ-ray sources in low flux states matches well the SED of the stacked blazar sample. (orig.)
Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoehne-Moench, Daniel
2010-07-01
One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018
Model study on steady heat capacity in driven stochastic systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Jiří; Boksenbojm, E.; Netočný, Karel
2012-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 3 (2012), 692-701 ISSN 1895-1082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium steady state * quasistatic process * heat capacity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2012
Optical orientation of the homogeneous nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons
Korenev, V. L.
2012-07-01
A simple model, describing the steady state of the nonequilibrium polarization of a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons, is considered. It explains the suppression of spin splitting of a nonequilibrium polariton condensate in an external magnetic field, the linear polarization, the linear-to-circular polarization conversion, and the unexpected sign of the circular polarization of the condensate all on equal footing. It is shown that inverse effects are possible, to wit, spontaneous circular polarization and the enhancement of spin splitting of a nonequilibrium condensate of polaritons.
Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil
2012-01-01
The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...... to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen
2016-01-01
AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...
Kitazumi, Yuki; Hamamoto, Katsumi; Noda, Tatsuo; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji
2015-01-01
The fabrication of ultrathin-ring electrodes with a diameter of 2 mm and a thickness of 100 nm is established. The ultrathin-ring electrodes provide a large density of pseudo-steady-state currents, and realize pseudo-steady-state amperometry under quiescent conditions without a Faraday cage. Under the limiting current conditions, the current response at the ultrathin-ring electrode can be well explained by the theory of the microband electrode response. Cyclic voltammograms at the ultrathin-ring electrode show sigmoidal characteristics with some hysteresis. Numerical simulation reveals that the hysteresis can be ascribed to the time-dependence of pseudo-steady-state current. The performance of amperometry with the ultrathin-ring electrode has been verified in its application to redox enzyme kinetic measurements.
Rapid mixing and short storage timescale in the magma dynamics of a steady-state volcano
Petrone, Chiara Maria; Braschi, Eleonora; Francalanci, Lorella; Casalini, Martina; Tommasini, Simone
2018-06-01
Steady-state volcanic activity implies equilibrium between the rate of magma replenishment and eruption of compositionally homogeneous magmas, lasting for tens to thousands of years in an open conduit system. The Present-day activity of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy) has long been recognised as typical of a steady-state volcano, with a shallow magmatic reservoir (highly porphyritic or hp-magma) continuously refilled by more mafic magma (with low phenocryst content or lp-magma) at a constant rate and accompanied by mixing, crystallisation and eruption. Our aim is to clarify the timescale and dynamics of the plumbing system at the establishment of the Present-day steady-state activity (volcanoes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mbagwu, J.S.C.
1993-10-01
A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, i c = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R 2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, i c = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R 2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, i c 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R 2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where i c is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm 3 /cm 3 ). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gormezano, C.
1999-01-01
The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects
Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonon, G
1994-12-31
The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.
1980-08-01
Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K
1999-01-01
We wanted to investigate whether time to steady state was reached within 2 h of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, comparing the glucose uptake index (M/IG) with Bergman's insulin sensitivity index (Sip). We performed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h isoglycemic....... Because the 2-h M/IG correlated strongly with the 3-h Sip with relatively narrow limits of agreement, it is a good measure of insulin sensitivity. However, a 2-h clamp results in lower insulin sensitivity values in elderly, hypertensive patients due to the fact that steady state is not reached...
Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.
Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex
2011-09-01
We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.
ATC calculation with steady-state security constraints using Benders decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaaban, M.; Yan, Z.; Ni, Y.; Wu, F.; Li, W.; Liu, H.
2003-01-01
Available transfer capability (ATC) is an important indicator of the usable amount of transmission capacity accessible by assorted parties for commercial trading, ATC calculation is nontrivial when steady-state security constraints are included. In hie paper, Benders decomposition method is proposed to partition the AC problem with steady-state security constraints into a base case master problem and a series of subproblems relevant to various contingencies to include their impacts on ATC. The mathematical model is formulated and the two solution schemes are presented. Computer testing on the 4-bus system and IEEE 30-bus system shows the effectiveness of the proposed method and the solution schemes. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-01-01
This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts
Transient and steady-state analyses of an electrically heated Topaz-II Thermionic Fuel Element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Genk, M.S.; Xue, H.
1992-01-01
Transient and steady-state analyses of electrically heated, Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) for Topaz-II space power system are performed. The calculated emitter and collector temperatures, load electric power and conversion efficiency are in good agreement with reported data. In this paper the effects or Cs pressure, thermal power input, and load resistance on the steady-state performance of the TFE are also investigated. In addition, the thermal response of the ZrH moderator during a startup transient and following a change in the thermal power input is examined
S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downum, W.B.
1983-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code
Analysis on the steady-state coherent synchrotron radiation with strong shielding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, R.; Bohn, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.
1997-01-01
There are several papers concerning shielding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by a Gaussian line charge on a circular orbit centered between two parallel conducting plates. Previous asymptotic analyses in the frequency domain show that shielded steady-state CSR mainly arises from harmonics in the bunch frequency exceeding the threshold harmonic for satisfying the boundary conditions at the plates. In this paper the authors extend the frequency-domain analysis into the regime of strong shielding, in which the threshold harmonic exceeds the characteristic frequency of the bunch. The result is then compared to the shielded steady-state CSR power obtained using image charges
Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonon, G.
1994-01-01
The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faiz, J.; Shafagh, E.
1999-01-01
In order to obtain more accurate predicted dynamic steady-state performance with shorter computation time, an available mathematical model is modified and presented. Using this modified model, performance of a typical switched reluctance motor under a wide range of variations of operating conditions is obtained and discussed. These include variations of speed, voltage, load and switching angle. The static test characteristics of the motor are carefully measured and measured flux-linkage data are then used to predict the steady-state performance
SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.
1980-08-01
Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries
Steady-state evoked potentials possibilities for mental-state estimation
Junker, Andrew M.; Schnurer, John H.; Ingle, David F.; Downey, Craig W.
1988-01-01
The use of the human steady-state evoked potential (SSEP) as a possible measure of mental-state estimation is explored. A method for evoking a visual response to a sum-of-ten sine waves is presented. This approach provides simultaneous multiple frequency measurements of the human EEG to the evoking stimulus in terms of describing functions (gain and phase) and remnant spectra. Ways in which these quantities vary with the addition of performance tasks (manual tracking, grammatical reasoning, and decision making) are presented. Models of the describing function measures can be formulated using systems engineering technology. Relationships between model parameters and performance scores during manual tracking are discussed. Problems of unresponsiveness and lack of repeatability of subject responses are addressed in terms of a need for loop closure of the SSEP. A technique to achieve loop closure using a lock-in amplifier approach is presented. Results of a study designed to test the effectiveness of using feedback to consciously connect humans to their evoked response are presented. Findings indicate that conscious control of EEG is possible. Implications of these results in terms of secondary tasks for mental-state estimation and brain actuated control are addressed.
An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fathikalajahi, J.; Baniadam, M.; Rahimpour, M.R.
2008-01-01
An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model
Quasi-steady state natural convection in a tilted porous layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada))
1992-12-01
Natural convection in an inclined porous layer heated or cooled on one side, when its other walls are insulated, has several important engineering applications. These include solar power collection, regenerative heat exchangers, and high performance insulation for buildings and cold storage. Although the problem is basically an unsteady state one, it is known that if the heating (or cooling) process is maintained for a sufficiently long time, a quasi-steady state is approached. Quasi-steady state laminar natural convection in an inclined porous layer is studied analytically and numerically. On the basis of the Darcy-Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, the problem is solved analytically in the limit of a thin porous layer heated on one side by a heat flux while the other boundaries are maintained adiabatic. For quasi-steady state, the flow and temperature fields overall heat transfer rates are obtained in terms of the controlling parameters and the onset of convection in a bottom heated horizantal system is predicted. It is also demonstrated for the case of a bottom-heated layer that for sufficiently small inclinations, multiple unicellular quasi-steady states exist, some of which are unstable. A numerical study of the same phenomenon, obtained by solving the complete set of governing equations, is conducted. Good agreement is found between the analytical predictions and the numerical simulation. 22 refs., 6 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Wildt, Morten; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef
1999-01-01
A biased superconductor-normal metal-superconductor junction is known to be a strong nonequilibrium system, where Andreev scattering at the interfaces creates a quasiparticle distribution function far from equilibrium, a manifestation of this is the well-known subgap structure in the I...
The Matrix model, a driven state variables approach to non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Jongschaap, R.J.J.
2001-01-01
One of the new approaches in non-equilibrium thermodynamics is the so-called matrix model of Jongschaap. In this paper some features of this model are discussed. We indicate the differences with the more common approach based upon internal variables and the more sophisticated Hamiltonian and GENERIC
On the nonequilibrium segregation state of a two-phase mixture in a porous column
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
1996-01-01
The problem of segregation of a two-phase multicomponent mixture under the action of thermal gradient, gravity and capillary forces is studied with respect to component distribution in a thick oil-gas-condensate reservoir. Governing equations are derived on the basis of nonequilibrium...
Spear, Tyler J; Stromp, Tori A; Leung, Steve W; Vandsburger, Moriel H
2017-11-01
Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time. To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions. Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D acquisitions spanned two slices above and below selected slice locations. Changes in myocardial signal intensity were measured across the cardiac cycle and compared to longitudinal shortening. For 2D cine bSSFP, 46% ± 9% of all frames and 84% ± 13% of end-diastolic frames remained within 10% of initial signal intensity. For 3D cine bSSFP the proportions increased to 87% ± 8% and 97% ± 5%. There was no correlation between longitudinal shortening and peak changes in myocardial signal. The initial slice position significantly impacted peak changes in signal intensity for 2D sequences ( P cine bSSFP that is only restored at the center of a 3D excitation volume. During diastole, a transient steady-state is established similar to that achieved with 3D cine bSSFP regardless of slice location.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juwairia Obaid
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.
Physical design of MW-class steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, K.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Higashizono, Y.; Yoshida, N.; Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Ogawa, Y.; Ono, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Mitarai, O.; Maekawa, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Ishiguro, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Igami, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Ando, A.; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Matsukawa, Makoto; Ishida, A.; Ohno, N.; Peng, M.
2008-10-01
QUEST (R=0.68 m, a=0.4 m) focuses on the steady state operation of the spherical tokamak (ST) by controlled PWI and electron Bernstain wave (EBW) current drive (CD). The QUEST project will be developed along two phases, phase I: steady state operation with plasma current, I p =20-30 kA on open divertor configuration and phase II: steady state operation with I p = 100 kA and β of 10% in short pulse on closed divertor configuration. Feasibility of the missions on QUEST was investigated and the suitable machine size of QUEST was decided based on the physical view of plasma parameters. Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) current drive are planned to establish the maintenance of plasma current in steady state. Mode conversion efficiency to EBW was calculated and the conversion of 95% will be expected. A new type antenna for QUEST has been fabricated to excite EBW effectively. The situation of heat and particle handling is challenging, and W and high temperature wall is adopted. The start-up scenario of plasma current was investigated based on the driven current by energetic electron and the most favorable magnetic configuration for start-up is proposed. (author)
Steady-state pharmacokinetics of pravastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia
Wiersma, Heleen E.; Wiegman, Albert; Koopmans, Richard P.; Bakker, Henk D.; Kastelein, John J. P.; van Boxtel, Chris J.
2004-01-01
Objective: To determine pharmacokinetic data for pravastatin in children, since current data are insufficient in this age group. Subjects and methods: A 2-week, multiple-dose, steady-state pharmacokinetic study was carried out with pravastatin 20mg daily in 24 children with familial
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N
1992-01-01
Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...
Walkway Length Determination for Steady State Walking in Young and Older Adults
Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.
2008-01-01
The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…
TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP
The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...
Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik
2007-01-01
Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...
Algorithm for determining two-periodic steady-states in AC machines directly in time domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sobczyk Tadeusz J.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for finding steady states in AC machines for the cases of their two-periodic nature. The algorithm enables to specify the steady-state solution identified directly in time domain despite of the fact that two-periodic waveforms are not repeated in any finite time interval. The basis for such an algorithm is a discrete differential operator that specifies the temporary values of the derivative of the two-periodic function in the selected set of points on the basis of the values of that function in the same set of points. It allows to develop algebraic equations defining the steady state solution reached in a chosen point set for the nonlinear differential equations describing the AC machines when electrical and mechanical equations should be solved together. That set of those values allows determining the steady state solution at any time instant up to infinity. The algorithm described in this paper is competitive with respect to the one known in literature an approach based on the harmonic balance method operated in frequency domain.
Linked tandem mirror configuration as a possible steady state high β plasma container
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1982-04-01
A possibility of achieving steady state high β plasma confinement in toroidal geometry is considered in detail by closing off the ends of tandem mirrors entirely by flux bridges, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure. The key problem of this approach seems to be the magnetic design of magneto-hydrodynamically stabilized, preferentially leaky bridges. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HU TA
2009-10-26
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma
Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attaya, H.
1994-06-01
Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices
Yatskou, M.M.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.; Schaafsma, T.J.
2001-01-01
Aggregation of zinc mono-(4-pyridyl)-triphenylporphyrin (ZnPyP) in toluene and polystyrene/toluene mixtures has been investigated by steady-state optical spectroscopy. The Q-band absorption spectra, as well as the fluorescence spectra, show a temperature-dependent red shift as a result of ligation
Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.
1980-03-01
Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22 0 C to 200 0 C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Loula, A.F.D.
1988-12-01
The mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to transiente and steady state creep problems. Numerical analysis has shown additional stability of this method compared to classical Galerkin formulations. The accuracy of the new formulation is confirmed in some representative examples of two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. (author) [pt
Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
Bosch, H. S.; R C Wolf,; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Birus, D.; Bluhm, T.; Brauer, T.; Braune, H.; Bykov, V.; Cardella, A.; Durodie, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hennig, C.; Hirsch, M.; Holtum, D.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Klinger, T.; Konig, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kroiss, H.; Krom, J. G.; Kuhner, G.; Laqua, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lewerentz, M.; Maier, J.; McNeely, P.; Messiaen, A.; Michel, G.; Ongena, J.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, H.; Rong, P.; Rust, N.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schweer, B.; Spring, A.; Stabler, A.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Wegener, L.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.; Zilker, M.; Akijama, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Balden, M.; Banduch, M.; Baylard, C.; Behr, W.; Beidler, C.; Benndorf, A.; Bergmann, T.; Biedermann, C.; Bieg, B.; Biel, W.; Borchardt, M.; Borowitz, G.; Borsuk, V.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Brand, H.; Brown, T.; Brucker, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buscher, K. P.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cappa, A.; Cardella, A.; Carls, A.; Carvalho, P.; Ciupinski, L.; Cole, M.; Collienne, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Czymek, G.; Dammertz, G.; Dhard, C. P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dinklage, A.; Drevlak, M.; Drotziger, S.; Dudek, A.; Dumortier, P.; Dundulis, G.; von Eeten, P.; Egorov, K.; Estrada, T.; Faugel, H.; Fellinger, J.; Feng, Y.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fischer, F.; Fontdecaba, J.; Freund, A.; Funaba, T.; Funfgelder, H.; Galkowski, A.; Gates, D.; Giannone, L.; Regana, J. M. G.; Geiger, J.; Geissler, S.; Greuner, H.; Grahl, M.; Gross, S.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Grulke, O.; R. Jaspers,; Szabo, V.
2013-01-01
The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate
Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Elías-Zúñiga
2013-01-01
oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.
Non-existence of Steady State Equilibrium in the Neoclassical Growth Model with a Longevity Trend
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermansen, Mikkel Nørlem
of steady state equilibrium when considering the empirically observed trend in longevity. We extend a standard continuous time overlapping generations model by a longevity trend and are thereby able to study the properties of mortality-driven population growth. This turns out to be exceedingly complicated...
Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2014-09-01
We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul
2010-01-01
A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine...
Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.
Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R
2011-02-01
The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.
Robust periodic steady state analysis of autonomous oscillators based on generalized eigenvalues
Mirzavand, R.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Beelen, T.G.J.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Abdipour, A.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a new gauge technique for the Newton Raphson method to solve the periodic steady state (PSS) analysis of free-running oscillators in the time domain. To find the frequency a new equation is added to the system of equations. Our equation combines a generalized eigenvector
Robust periodic steady state analysis of autonomous oscillators based on generalized eigenvalues
Mirzavand, R.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Beelen, T.G.J.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Abdipour, A.; Michielsen, B.; Poirier, J.R.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a new gauge technique for the Newton Raphson method to solve the periodic steady state (PSS) analysis of free-running oscillators in the time domain. To find the frequency a new equation is added to the system of equations. Our equation combines a generalized eigenvector
Molecular control of steady-state dendritic cell maturation and immune homeostasis.
Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil
2013-01-01
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation-the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease.
Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M
2007-09-01
We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.
A asymptotic numerical method for the steady-state convection diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Qiguang
1988-01-01
In this paper, A asymptotic numerical method for the steady-state Convection diffusion equation is proposed, which need not take very fine mesh size in the neighbourhood of the boundary layer. Numerical computation for model problem show that we can obtain the numerical solution in the boundary layer with moderate step size
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen
2016-01-01
The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...... model, and closely matched by the Gibson-Ashby compression and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam creep models. [All rights reserved Elsevier]....
Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, T.J.
1983-01-01
A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines
Steady-State PMU Compliance Test under C37.118.1a-2014
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghiga, Radu; Wu, Qiuwei; Martin, Kenneth E.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a flexible testing method and the steady-state compliance of PMUs under the C37.118.1a amendment. The work is focused on the changes made to the standard for the harmonic rejection and out-of-band interference tests for which the ROCOF Error limits have been suspended. The paper...
Post-CHF heat transfer during steady-state and transient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, K.K.
1978-06-01
This review extends previous reviews of steady-state post-CHF literature by Groeneveld, Gardiner, and Fung by including more recent data. A review of the literature on transient post-CHF data is also included by extending the work of Yadigaroglu
Theory of life time measurements with the scanning electron microscope: steady state
Berz, F.; Kuiken, H.K.
1976-01-01
A theoretical steady state analysis is given of the scanning electron microscope method of measuring bulk life time in diodes, where the plane of the junction is perpendicular to the surface. The current in the junction is obtained as a function of the beam power, the beam penetration into the
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma
Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Dobes
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.
40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
2010-07-01
...-modal cycle. 86.1362-2007 Section 86.1362-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1362-2007 Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle. This section...
40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
2010-07-01
...-modal cycle. 86.1362-2010 Section 86.1362-2010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1362-2010 Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle. This section...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann
2008-01-01
The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar m...
Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2012-01-01
The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...
H.R. Barnard; C.B. Graham; W.J. van Verseveld; J.R. Brooks; B.J. Bond; J.J. McDonnell
2010-01-01
Mechanistic assessment of how transpiration influences subsurface flow is necessary to advance understanding of catchment hydrology. We conducted a 24-day, steady-state irrigation experiment to quantify the relationships among soil moisture, transpiration and hillslope subsurface flow. Our objectives were to: (1) examine the time lag between maximum transpiration and...
Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.
1999-01-01
The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...
Quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Quasi-steady state thermal performance of a solar air heater with a combined absorber is studied. The whole energy balance equations related to the system were articulated as a linear system of temperature equations. Solutions to this linear system were assessed from program based on an iterative process. The mean ...
A comparison of steady-state ARIES and pulsed PULSAR tokamak power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.
1994-01-01
The multi-institutional ARIES study has completed a series of three steady-state and two pulsed cost-optimized conceptual designs of commercial tokamak fusion power plants that vary the level of assumed advances in technology and physics. The cost benefits of various design options are compared quantitatively. Possible means to improve the economic competitiveness of fusion are suggested
Steady-state heat transfer to boiling liquid helium in simulated coil windings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walstrom, P.L.
1981-01-01
The present data show that the worst case steady-state stability in the GE/LCT magnet windings is at a horizontal conductor orientation. The heat transfer improves with inclination of the conductor from horizontal. Calculations show that for these small regions normal zones will recover by cold-end conduction from the inclined conductor on either end
The total quasi-steady-state approximation for complex enzyme reactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bersani, A. M.; Bersani, E.
2008-01-01
) approximation (or standard quasi-steady-state approximation (sQSSA)), which is valid when the enzyme concentration is sufficiently small. This condition is usually fulfilled for in vitro experiments, but often breaks down in vivo. The total QSSA (tQSSA), which is valid for a broader range of parameters covering...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Place, A.R.; Eccleston, J.F.
1987-01-01
The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isolated from Drosophila is unique among alcohol metabolizing enzymes by not requiring metals for catalysis, by showing 4-pro-S (B-sided) hydride transfer stereospecificity, and by possessing a greater catalytic turnover rate for secondary alcohols than for primary alcohols. They have extended their studies on the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme by examining the pre-steady state transients of ternary complex interconversion using stopped-flow fluorescence methods. When enzyme and a 30-fold molar excess of NADH is mixed with excess acetadehyde, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or cyclohexanone a rapid (> 100 s -1 ) transient is observe before the steady-state. The rates are insensitive to isotope substitution. With the substrate MEK, the rate and amplitude suggests a single turnover of the enzyme. Similar pre-steady state transients are observed when enzyme and a 50-fold molar excess of NAD + is mixed with ethanol, 2-propanol, and cyclohexanol. The rates show a hyperbolic concentration dependence and a deuterium isotope effect. With d 6 -deuteroethanol the transient no longer occurs in the pre-steady state. When the optical isomers of secondary alcohols are used as substrates, transients are observed only in the R-(-) isomers for all chain lengths. With 2-S(+)-heptanol and 2-S(+)-octanol no transients occur
Steady-state response of periodically supported structures to a moving load
Metrikine, A.V.; Wolfert, A.R.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.
1999-01-01
Steady-state vibrations of periodically supported structures under a moving load are analytically investigated. The following three structures are considered: an overhead power line for a train, a long suspended bridge and a railway track. The study is based on the application of so-called
A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524 t...
Modeling steady state and transient fission gas behaviour with the Karlsruhe code LAKU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaeth, L.
1984-08-01
The programme LAKU models the behaviour of gaseous fission products in reactor fuel under steady state and transient conditions, including molten fuel. A presentation of the full model is given, starting with gas behaviour in the grains and on grain faces and including the treatment of release from porosity. The results of some recent calculations are presented. (orig.) [de
Incorporation of wind generation to the Mexican power grid: Steady state analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tovar, J.H.; Guardado, J.L.; Cisneros, F. [Inst. Tecnologico de Morelia (Mexico); Cadenas, R.; Lopez, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)
1997-09-01
This paper describes a steady state analysis related with the incorporation of large amounts of eolic generation into the Mexican power system. An equivalent node is used to represent individual eolic generators in the wind farm. Possible overloads, losses, voltage and reactive profiles and estimated severe contingencies are analyzed. Finally, the conclusions of this study are presented.
Capitalist Diversity and De-growth Trajectories to Steady-state Economies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buch-Hansen, Hubert
2014-01-01
Growth-critical scholarship has done much to both expose the environmentally unsustainable nature of the capitalist growth-economies of the overdeveloped part of the world and to develop an alternative vision of a degrowth transition leading to a steady-state economy. However, this scholarship fa...
Effect of stacking fault energy on steady-state creep rate of face ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...
Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mercier, B.
1985-10-01
A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gal'perin, Y.M.; Kozub, V.I.; Spivak, B.Z.
1981-01-01
The stability of the nonequilibrium states of a superconductor with a finite difference between the populations of the electron- and hole-like spectral branches is investigated. It is shown that an instability similar to the Cooper instability of a normal metal arises at a sufficiently large value of the imbalance. This eliminates the imbalance within quantum-mechanical (nonkinetic) time periods. The consistency of the allowance for the imbalance in the nonequilibrium Ginzburg-Landau equations is discussed
Steady-state bifurcations of the three-dimensional Kolmogorov problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Min Chen
2000-08-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the spatially periodic incompressible fluid motion in $mathbb R^3$ excited by the external force $k^2(sin kz, 0,0$ with $kgeq 2$ an integer. This driving force gives rise to the existence of the unidirectional basic steady flow $u_0=(sin kz,0, 0$ for any Reynolds number. It is shown in Theorem 1.1 that there exist a number of critical Reynolds numbers such that $u_0$ bifurcates into either 4 or 8 or 16 different steady states, when the Reynolds number increases across each of such numbers.
Khlebnikov, Vitaly; Geades, Nicolas; Klomp, DWJ; Hoogduin, Hans; Gowland, Penny; Mougin, Olivier
PURPOSE: To compare two pulsed, volumetric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) acquisition schemes: steady state (SS) and pseudosteady state (PS) for the same brain coverage, spatial/spectral resolution and scan time. METHODS: Both schemes were optimized for maximum sensitivity to amide
Breden, Maxime; Castelli, Roberto
2018-05-01
In this paper, we present and apply a computer-assisted method to study steady states of a triangular cross-diffusion system. Our approach consist in an a posteriori validation procedure, that is based on using a fixed point argument around a numerically computed solution, in the spirit of the Newton-Kantorovich theorem. It allows to prove the existence of various non homogeneous steady states for different parameter values. In some situations, we obtain as many as 13 coexisting steady states. We also apply the a posteriori validation procedure to study the linear stability of the obtained steady states, proving that many of them are in fact unstable.
Multiple solutions of steady-state Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations with steric effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Tai-Chia; Eisenberg, Bob
2015-01-01
Experiments measuring currents through single protein channels show unstable currents. Channels switch between ‘open’ or ‘closed’ states in a spontaneous stochastic process called gating. Currents are either (nearly) zero or at a definite level, characteristic of each type of protein, independent of time, once the channel is open. The steady state Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations with steric effects (PNP-steric equations) describe steady current through the open channel quite well, in a wide variety of conditions. Here we study the existence of multiple solutions of steady state PNP-steric equations to see if they themselves, without modification or augmentation, can describe two levels of current. We prove that there are two steady state solutions of PNP-steric equations for (a) three types of ion species (two types of cations and one type of anion) with a positive constant permanent charge, and (b) four types of ion species (two types of cations and their counter-ions) with a constant permanent charge but no sign condition. The excess currents (due to steric effects) associated with these two steady state solutions are derived and expressed as two distinct formulas. Our results indicate that PNP-steric equations may become a useful model to study spontaneous gating of ion channels. Spontaneous gating is thought to involve small structural changes in the channel protein that perhaps produce large changes in the profiles of free energy that determine ion flow. Gating is known to be modulated by external structures. Both can be included in future extensions of our present analysis. (paper)
STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2016-04-01
A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.
Progress on advanced tokamak and steady-state scenario development on DIII-D and NSTX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doyle, E J [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kaye, S M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Menard, J E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Murakami, M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bell, R E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ferron, J R [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Gates, D A [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J; Hyatt, A W; Luce, T C; Petty, C C; Wade, M R; Waltz, R E [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kinsey, J E [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); LeBlanc, B P [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); McKee, G R [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Peng, Y-K M [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2006-12-15
Advanced tokamak (AT) research seeks to develop steady-state operating scenarios for ITER and other future devices from a demonstrated scientific basis. Normalized target parameters for steady-state operation on ITER are 100% non-inductive current operation with a bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} {>=} 60%, q{sub 95} {approx} 4-5 and G {identical_to}{beta}{sub N}H{sub scaling}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {>=}0.3. Progress in realizing such plasmas is considered in terms of the development of plasma control capabilities and scientific understanding, leading to improved AT performance. NSTX has demonstrated active resistive wall mode stabilization with low, ITER-relevant, rotation rates below the critical value required for passive stabilization. On DIII-D, experimental observations and GYRO simulations indicate that ion internal transport barrier (ITB) formation at rational-q surfaces is due to equilibrium zonal flows generating high local E ? B shear levels. In addition, stability modelling for DIII-D indicates a path to operation at {beta}{sub N} {>=} 4 with q{sub min} {>=} 2, using broad, hollow current profiles to increase the ideal wall stability limit. Both NSTX and DIII-D have optimized plasma performance and expanded AT operational limits. NSTX now has long-pulse, high performance discharges meeting the normalized targets for an spherical torus-based component test facility. DIII-D has developed sustained discharges combining high beta and ITBs, with performance approaching levels required for AT reactor concepts, e.g. {beta}{sub N} = 4, H{sub 89} = 2.5, with f{sub BS} > 60%. Most importantly, DIII-D has developed ITER steady-state demonstration discharges, simultaneously meeting the targets for steady-state Q {>=} 5 operation on ITER set out above, substantially increasing confidence in ITER meeting its steady-state performance objective.
Theory of steady state plasma flow and confinement in a periodic magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, M.G.
1981-02-01
The steady flow of plasmas through spatially periodic magnetic fields is examined, and a theoretical model is developed for the case of axisymmetric geometry. The externally applied magnetic fields can be cusps or mirrors joined end to end; electrons are then localised by these fields because of their small Larmor radius, while the ions can traverse the magnetic mirrors. The properties of the model equations are studied and dimensionless parameters which appear are interpreted. Numerical methods used in steady flow applications are reviewed, and some techniques of solution for the model equations are discussed. A solution method involving numerical integration of time-dependent equations is described, which approaches the steady state asymptotically; results from this method are presented and compared with the results from perturbation theory. (author)
The analysis of the annular fuel performance in steady state condition by using AFPAC code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xiaojun; Ji Songtao; Zhang Yingchao
2012-01-01
The fuel performance code AFPAC v1.0 is used to analyze annular fuel's behavior under steady state conditions, including neutronics, thermal hydraulic, rod deformation, fission gas release and rod internal pressure. The calculation results show that: 1) Annular fuel has a good steady irradiation performance at 150% power level as current LWRs' with burnup up to 50 GWd/t, and all parameters, such as temperature, rod internal pressure and rod deformation, are meet the rod design criteria for current fuel of PWRs: 2) Compared to the solid fuel under the same irradiation condition. annular fuel has lower temperature, smaller deformation, lower fission gas release and lower pressure at EOL. From the point of view of steady irradiation performance, the safety of reactors can significantly improved by u sing the annular fuel. (authors)
Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, T.J.
1987-01-01
Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during stead-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K steam generator inlet plenum fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The Semiscale (MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations
Energy flow in non-equilibrium conformal field theory
Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin
2012-09-01
We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiina, S.; Yagi, Y.; Sugimoto, H.; Ashida, H.; Hirano, Y.; Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Taguchi, M.; Nagamine, Y.; Osanai, Y.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, M.; Aizawa, M.
2005-01-01
Dominant plasma self-induced current equilibrium is achieved together with the high β for the steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch (RFP) equilibrium with low aspect ratio by broadening the plasma pressure profile. The RF-driven current, when the safety factor is smaller than unity, is much less than the self-induced current, which dominates (96%) the toroidal current. This neoclassical RFP equilibrium has strong magnetic shear or a high-stability beta (β t = 63%) due to its hollow current profile. It is shown that the obtained equilibrium is close to the relaxed-equilibrium state with a minimum energy, and is also robust against microinstabilities. These attractive features allow the economical design of compact steady-state fusion power plants with low cost of electricity (COE). (author)
Majeed, Muhammad Usman
2017-07-19
Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.
Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah
2015-08-21
We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis
2011-01-01
To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pryor, R.J.; Maloney, K.J.
1990-10-01
This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs
Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
2017-01-01
The elementary reaction sequence A ? I ? Products is the simplest mechanism for which the steady-state and quasi-equilibrium kinetic approximations can be applied. The exact integrated solutions for this chemical system allow inferring the conditions that must fulfill the rate constants for the different approximations to hold. A graphical…
Comparing Interval Management Control Laws for Steady-State Errors and String Stability
Weitz, Lesley A.; Swieringa, Kurt A.
2018-01-01
Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that leverages avionics to provide speed guidance to an aircraft to achieve and maintain a specified spacing interval from another aircraft. The design of a speed control law to achieve the spacing goal is a key aspect in the research and development of the IM concept. In this paper, two control laws that are used in much of the contemporary IM research are analyzed and compared to characterize steady-state errors and string stability. Numerical results are used to illustrate how the choice of control laws gains impacts the size of steady-state errors and string performance and the potential trade-offs between those performance characteristics.
Description of a stable scheme for steady-state coupled Monte Carlo–thermal–hydraulic calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufek, Jan; Eduard Hoogenboom, J.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A stable coupling scheme for steady-state MC–TH calculations is described. • The coupling scheme is based on the stochastic approximation method. • The neutron flux (or power) distribution is relaxed using a variable step-size. - Abstract: We provide a detailed description of a numerically stable and efficient coupling scheme for steady-state Monte Carlo neutronic calculations with thermal–hydraulic feedback. While we have previously derived and published the stochastic approximation based method for coupling the Monte Carlo criticality and thermal–hydraulic calculations, its possible implementation has not been described in a step-by-step manner. As the simple description of the coupling scheme was repeatedly requested from us, we have decided to make it available via this note
Composing problem solvers for simulation experimentation: a case study on steady state estimation.
Leye, Stefan; Ewald, Roland; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M
2014-01-01
Simulation experiments involve various sub-tasks, e.g., parameter optimization, simulation execution, or output data analysis. Many algorithms can be applied to such tasks, but their performance depends on the given problem. Steady state estimation in systems biology is a typical example for this: several estimators have been proposed, each with its own (dis-)advantages. Experimenters, therefore, must choose from the available options, even though they may not be aware of the consequences. To support those users, we propose a general scheme to aggregate such algorithms to so-called synthetic problem solvers, which exploit algorithm differences to improve overall performance. Our approach subsumes various aggregation mechanisms, supports automatic configuration from training data (e.g., via ensemble learning or portfolio selection), and extends the plugin system of the open source modeling and simulation framework James II. We show the benefits of our approach by applying it to steady state estimation for cell-biological models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tipireddy, R.; Stinis, P.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2017-12-01
We present a novel approach for solving steady-state stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) with high-dimensional random parameter space. The proposed approach combines spatial domain decomposition with basis adaptation for each subdomain. The basis adaptation is used to address the curse of dimensionality by constructing an accurate low-dimensional representation of the stochastic PDE solution (probability density function and/or its leading statistical moments) in each subdomain. Restricting the basis adaptation to a specific subdomain affords finding a locally accurate solution. Then, the solutions from all of the subdomains are stitched together to provide a global solution. We support our construction with numerical experiments for a steady-state diffusion equation with a random spatially dependent coefficient. Our results show that highly accurate global solutions can be obtained with significantly reduced computational costs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Shinzaburo
2000-01-01
This paper reports on the progress of the fusion reactor technologies developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and expected to lead to a future steady state operation reactor. In particular, superconducting coil technology for plasma confinement, NBI and RF systems technology for plasma control and current drive, fueling and pumping systems technology for particle control, heat removal technology, and development of long life materials are highlighted as the important key elements for the future steady state operation. It will be discussed how these key technologies have already been developed by the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) technology R and D as well as by the Japanese domestic program, and which technologies are planned for the near future
Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Z. L.; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lun Yang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The existing studies on probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated energy systems (IES are limited to integrated electricity and gas networks or integrated electricity and heating networks. This paper proposes a probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated electricity, gas and heating networks (EGH-IES. Four typical operation modes of an EGH-IES are presented at first. The probabilistic energy flow problem of the EGS-IES considering its operation modes and correlated uncertainties in wind/solar power and electricity/gas/heat loads is then formulated and solved by the Monte Carlo method based on Latin hypercube sampling and Nataf transformation. Numerical simulations are conducted on a sample EGH-IES working in the “electricity/gas following heat” mode to verify the probabilistic analysis proposed in this paper and to study the effects of uncertainties and correlations on the operation of the EGH-IES, especially uncertainty transmissions among the subnetworks.
Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bhagat
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.
New Modeling of Steady-State Modes of Complex Electrical Grids of Power Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akhmetbayev Arman
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Classical methods for modeling the steady-state modes of complex electrical networks and systems are based on the application of nonlinear node equations. Nonlinear equations are solved by iterative methods, which are connected by known difficulties. To a certain extent, these difficulties can be weakened by applying topological methods. In this paper, we outline the theoretical foundations for the formation of the inverse form of nodal stress equations based on the topology of electrical networks and systems. A new topological method for calculating the distribution coefficients of node currents is proposed based on all possible trees of a directed graph of a complex electrical network. A complex program for calculating current distribution coefficients and forming steady-state parameters in the MATLAB environment has been developed.
Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taler Dawid
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.
Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state pellet supply system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Azuma, K.; Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K.
1995-01-01
A railgun system for repetitive high-speed pellet acceleration and steady-state pellet supply system has been developed and investigated. Using a 2m-long railgun system, the hydrogen pellet was accelerated to 2.6km/sec by the supplied energy of 1.7kJ. It is expected that the hydrogen pellet can be accelerated to 3km/sec using the present pneumatic pellet accelerator and a 2m-long augment railgun. Screw-driven hydrogen-isotope filament extruding system has been fabricated and will be tested to examine its applicability to the steady-state extrusion of the solid hydrogen-isotope filament
Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.; Onozuka, M.; Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K.
1995-01-01
Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.)
Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)
1995-12-31
Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.).
Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state pellet supply system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)
1995-12-31
A railgun system for repetitive high-speed pellet acceleration and steady-state pellet supply system has been developed and investigated. Using a 2m-long railgun system, the hydrogen pellet was accelerated to 2.6km/sec by the supplied energy of 1.7kJ. It is expected that the hydrogen pellet can be accelerated to 3km/sec using the present pneumatic pellet accelerator and a 2m-long augment railgun. Screw-driven hydrogen-isotope filament extruding system has been fabricated and will be tested to examine its applicability to the steady-state extrusion of the solid hydrogen-isotope filament.
Establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the safe and efficient steady-following state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Deng; Zheng Ying-Ping
2015-01-01
We present an integrated mathematical model of vehicle-following control for the establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the previous or new safe and efficient steady-following state. The hyperbolic functions are introduced to establish the corresponding mathematical models, which can describe the behavioral adjustment of the following vehicle steered by a well-experienced driver under complex vehicle following situations. According to the proposed mathematical models, the control laws of the following vehicle adjusting its own behavior can be calculated for its moving in safety, efficiency, and smoothness (comfort). Simulation results show that the safe and efficient steady-following state can be well established, maintained, and re-established by its own smooth (comfortable) behavioral adjustment with the synchronous control of the following vehicle’s velocity, acceleration, and the actual following distance. (paper)
Steady-state and transient fission gas release and swelling model for LIFE-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villalobos, A.; Liu, Y.Y.; Rest, J.
1984-06-01
The fuel-pin modeling code LIFE-4 and the mechanistic fission gas behavior model FASTGRASS have been coupled and verified against gas release data from mixed-oxide fuels which were transient tested in the TREAT reactor. Design of the interface between LIFE-4 and FASTGRASS is based on an earlier coupling between an LWR version of LIFE and the GRASS-SST code. Fission gas behavior can significantly affect steady-state and transient fuel performance. FASTGRASS treats fission gas release and swelling in an internally consistent manner and simultaneously includes all major mechanisms thought to influence fission gas behavior. The FASTGRASS steady-state and transient analysis has evolved through comparisons of code predictions with fission-gas release and swelling data from both in- and ex-reactor experiments. FASTGRASS was chosen over other fission-gas behavior models because of its availability, its compatibility with the LIFE-4 calculational framework, and its predictive capability
Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2008-01-01
This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalent...... SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate both when SVC is operating within and on the limits. The latter two models give inaccurate results of the equivalent SVC susceptance as compared to the generator model due to the assumption of constant voltage when the SVC...... is operating within the limits. This may underestimate or overestimate the SVC regulating capability. Two modified models are proposed to improve the SVC regulated voltage according to its steady-state characteristic. The simulation results of the two modified models show the improved accuracy...
Methods of computing steady-state voltage stability margins of power systems
Chow, Joe Hong; Ghiocel, Scott Gordon
2018-03-20
In steady-state voltage stability analysis, as load increases toward a maximum, conventional Newton-Raphson power flow Jacobian matrix becomes increasingly ill-conditioned so power flow fails to converge before reaching maximum loading. A method to directly eliminate this singularity reformulates the power flow problem by introducing an AQ bus with specified bus angle and reactive power consumption of a load bus. For steady-state voltage stability analysis, the angle separation between the swing bus and AQ bus can be varied to control power transfer to the load, rather than specifying the load power itself. For an AQ bus, the power flow formulation is only made up of a reactive power equation, thus reducing the size of the Jacobian matrix by one. This reduced Jacobian matrix is nonsingular at the critical voltage point, eliminating a major difficulty in voltage stability analysis for power system operations.
Dynamic fluid connectivity during steady-state multiphase flow in a sandstone.
Reynolds, Catriona A; Menke, Hannah; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin J; Krevor, Samuel
2017-08-01
The current conceptual picture of steady-state multiphase Darcy flow in porous media is that the fluid phases organize into separate flow pathways with stable interfaces. Here we demonstrate a previously unobserved type of steady-state flow behavior, which we term "dynamic connectivity," using fast pore-scale X-ray imaging. We image the flow of N 2 and brine through a permeable sandstone at subsurface reservoir conditions, and low capillary numbers, and at constant fluid saturation. At any instant, the network of pores filled with the nonwetting phase is not necessarily connected. Flow occurs along pathways that periodically reconnect, like cars controlled by traffic lights. This behavior is consistent with an energy balance, where some of the energy of the injected fluids is sporadically converted to create new interfaces.
Stability of periodic steady-state solutions to a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system
Liu, Cunming; Peng, Yue-Jun
2017-06-01
We study the stability of periodic smooth solutions near non-constant steady-states for a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system without temperature damping term. The system arises in the theory of semiconductors for which the doping profile is a given smooth function. In this stability problem, there are no special restrictions on the size of the doping profile, but only on the size of the perturbation. We prove that small perturbations of periodic steady-states are exponentially stable for large time. For this purpose, we introduce new variables and choose a non-diagonal symmetrizer of the full Euler equations to recover dissipation estimates. This also allows to make the proof of the stability result very simple and concise.
Steady state operation of tokamaks. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2000-10-01
The first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Steady State Operation of Tokamaks was organized to discuss the operations of present long-pulse tokamaks (TRIAM-1M, TORE SUPRA, MT-7, HT-7M, HL-1M) and the plans for future steady-state tokamaks such as SST-1, CIEL, and HT-7U. This meeting, held from 13-15 October 1998, was hosted by the Academia Sinica Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP), Hefei, China. Participants from China, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the IAEA participated in the meeting. There were 18 individual presentations plus general discussions on many topics, including superconducting magnet systems, cryogenics, plasma position control, non-inductive current drive, auxiliary heating, plasma-wall interactions, high heat flux components, particle control, and data acquisition
Steady-state pulses and superradiance in short-wavelength, swept-gain amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonifacio, R.; Hopf, F.A.; Meystre, P.; Scully, M.O.
1975-01-01
The steady-state behavior of amplifiers in which the excitation is swept at the speed of light is discussed in the semiclassical approximation. In the present work the case where the decay time of the population is comparable to that of the polarization is examined. Pulse propagation is shown to obey a generalized sine-Gordon equation which contains the effects of atomic relaxations. The analytical expression of the steady-state pulses (SSP) gives two threshold conditions. In the region of limited gain the SSP is a broad pulse with small area which can be obtained by small signal theory. In the second region of high gain the SSP is the superradiant π pulse. Its pulse power is not limited as in usual superradiant theory because, as is shown, for a swept excitation the cooperation-length limit does not exist
Rheological behavior of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy at steady state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Yageng
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The further application of semi-solid processing lies in the in-depth fundamental study like rheological behavior. In this research, the apparent viscosity of the semi-solid slurry of 7075 alloy was measured using a Couette type viscometer. The effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity of this alloy were investigated under different processing conditions. It can be seen that the apparent viscosity increases with an increase in the solid fraction from 10% to 50% (temperature 620 篊 to 630 篊 at steady state. When the solid fraction was fixed, the apparent viscosity can be decreased by altering the shearing rate from 61.235 s-1 to 489.88 s-1 at steady state. An empirical equation that shows the effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity is fitted. The microstructure of quenched samples was examined to understand the alloy抯 rheological behavior.
Green's theorem and Green's functions for the steady-state cosmic-ray equation of transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G.M.; Gleeson, L.J.
1977-01-01
Green's Theorem is developed for the spherically-symmetric steady-state cosmic-ray equation of transport in interplanetary space. By means of it the momentum distribution function F 0 (r,p), (r=heliocentric distance, p=momentum) can be determined in a region rsub(a) 0 . Examples of Green's functions are given for the case rsub(a)=0, rsub(b)=infinity and derived for the cases of finite rsub(a) and rsub(b). The diffusion coefficient kappa is assumed of the form kappa=kappa 0 (p)rsup(b). The treatment systematizes the development of all analytic solutions for steady-state solar and galactic cosmic-ray propagation and previous solutions form a subset of the present solutions. (Auth.)
Theoretical studying the stability of steady-state regime of a channel with a coolant condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savikhin, O.G.
1987-01-01
Based on the boiling channel stability theory, the channel steady-state stability with the coolant condensation is studied. Condensable coolants are used in the NPP steam-separator superheaters as well as in cryogenic technique. Under certain conditions the coolant flow rate and temperature fluctuations may be excited in the parallel channel system with coolant condensation, which produce a sufficient effect on the heat exchange equipment operation reliability. To describe unsteady processes of heat and mass transfer in the channel, a homogeneous two-phase flow one dimensional model is used. The results obtained allow one to make a conclusion concerning the effect of some parameters on condensing channel steady-state regime stability: reduction of inlet and outlet unheated communication length, pressure drop increase at the outlet plate and its reduction at the inlet one lead to the increase of stability margin
On the optimization of a steady-state bootstrap-reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polevoy, A.R.; Martynov, A.A.; Medvedev, S.Yu.
1993-01-01
A commercial fusion tokamak-reactor may be economically acceptable only for low recirculating power fraction r 0 ≡ P CD /P α BS ≡I BS /I > 0.9 to sustain the steady-state operation mode for high plasma densities > 1.5 10 20 m -3 , fulfilled the divertor conditions. This paper presents the approximate expressions for the optimal set of reactor parameters for r BS /I∼1, based on the self-consistent plasma simulations by 1.5D ASTRA code. The linear MHD stability analysis for ideal n=1 kink and ballooning modes has been carried out to determine the conditions of stabilization for bootstrap steady state tokamak reactor BSSTR configurations. (author) 10 refs., 1 tab
Steady-state cerebral glucose concentrations and transport in the human brain
Gruetter, R.; Ugurbil, K.; Seaquist, E. R.
1998-01-01
Understanding the mechanism of brain glucose transport across the blood- brain barrier is of importance to understanding brain energy metabolism. The specific kinetics of glucose transport nave been generally described using standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These models predict that the steady- state glucose concentration approaches an upper limit in the human brain when the plasma glucose level is well above the Michaelis-Menten constant for half-maximal transport, K(t). In experiments wh...
Differential equation methods for simulation of GFP kinetics in non-steady state experiments.
Phair, Robert D
2018-03-15
Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, combined with fluorescence microscopy, are widely used in cell biology to collect kinetic data on intracellular trafficking. Methods for extraction of quantitative information from these data are based on the mathematics of diffusion and tracer kinetics. Current methods, although useful and powerful, depend on the assumption that the cellular system being studied is in a steady state, that is, the assumption that all the molecular concentrations and fluxes are constant for the duration of the experiment. Here, we derive new tracer kinetic analytical methods for non-steady state biological systems by constructing mechanistic nonlinear differential equation models of the underlying cell biological processes and linking them to a separate set of differential equations governing the kinetics of the fluorescent tracer. Linking the two sets of equations is based on a new application of the fundamental tracer principle of indistinguishability and, unlike current methods, supports correct dependence of tracer kinetics on cellular dynamics. This approach thus provides a general mathematical framework for applications of GFP fluorescence microscopy (including photobleaching [FRAP, FLIP] and photoactivation to frequently encountered experimental protocols involving physiological or pharmacological perturbations (e.g., growth factors, neurotransmitters, acute knockouts, inhibitors, hormones, cytokines, and metabolites) that initiate mechanistically informative intracellular transients. When a new steady state is achieved, these methods automatically reduce to classical steady state tracer kinetic analysis. © 2018 Phair. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Steady-state fission gas behavior in uranium-plutonium-zirconium metal fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steele, W.G.; Wazzan, A.R.; Okrent, D.
1989-01-01
An analysis of fission gas release and induced swelling in steady state irradiated U-Pu-Zr metal fuels is developed and computer coded. The code is used to simulate, with fair success, some gas release and induced swelling data obtained under the IFR program. It is determined that fuel microstructural changes resulting from zirconium migration, anisotropic swelling, and thermal variations are major factors affecting swelling and gas release behavior. (orig.)
Steady State Entanglement and Saturation Effects in Correlated Spontaneous Emission Lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fei, Wang; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Wen-Xing, Shi
2009-01-01
It has recently been shown that correlated spontaneous emission lasers (CEL) exhibit transient entanglement in the linear regime. Here we re-examine the quantum correlations in two-photon CEL and explore the saturation effects on continuous variable entanglement. It is shown that the steady state entanglement is obtainable in the weak or moderate saturation regime, while is washed out in the deep saturation regime. (general)
A Method for Online Steady State Energy Minimization with Application to Refrigeration Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Thybo, Claus; Stoustrup, Jakob
2004-01-01
Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with the help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components; the efficiency is though yet far from optimal. The flexibility initiates a higher degree of freedom in choosing the operating set points while obtaining...... applies to a broader range of process systems where the lower level set-points (in the control hierarchy) can be chosen within a degree of freedom allowing an optimization of a steady state performance index....
Steady-state coupled transport of HNO3 through a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noble, R.D.; Danesi, P.R.
1987-01-01
Nitric acid removal from an aqueous stream was accomplished by continuously passing the fluid through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (SLM). The nitric acid was extracted through the membrane wall by coupled transport. The system was modeled as a series of (SLM)-continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) pairs. An approximate technique was used to predict the steady state nitric acid concentration in the system. The comparison with experimental data was very good
Use of wiener nonlinear MPC to control a CSTR with multiple steady state
Lusson Cervantes, A.; Agamennoni, O.E.; Figueroa, J.L.
2003-01-01
In this paper a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control based on a Wiener Model with a Piecewise Linear gain is presented. The major advantages of this algorithm is that it retains all the interesting properties of the classical linear MPC and the computations are easy to solve due to the canonical structure of the nonlinear gain. The proposed control scheme is applied to a nonlinear CSTR that presents multiple steady states.
Instability of the Null Steady State: The Fundamental Problem of Inhibiting Malignant Cell Growth
Varfolomeev, S. D.; Lukovenkov, A. V.
2018-07-01
Mathematical modeling of the process of inhibiting malignant growth by common chemotherapeutic agents and biological therapeutics is used to investigate the effect kinetic parameters of the model have on the outcome of treatment. It is shown that the ultimate suppression of growth, i.e., the formation of a stable steady-state with no cancer cells, cannot be attained if only the means of classical chemotherapy are used.
Investigation of hydrocephalus with three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurihara, N.; National Sendai Hospital; Takahashi, S.; Higano, S.; Furuta, S.; Umetsu, A.; Tamura, H.; Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita; Jokura, H.
2000-01-01
We report four patients with various types of hydrocephalus in whom constructive interference in steady state (CISS) MRI disclosed the cause of the hydrocephalus. The imaging clearly delineated an abnormal contour of the ventricular system and intraventricular septa, essential information for surgical planning, including endoscopic surgery. Postoperative CISS images were useful for showing not only regression of hydrocephalus but also the patency of small fenestrations. (orig.)
Evaluating steady-state soil thickness by coupling uranium series and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclides
Vanacker, Veerle; Schoonejans, Jerome; Opfergelt, Sophie; Granet, Matthieu; Christl, Marcus; Chabaux, Francois
2017-04-01
Within the Critical Zone, the development of the regolith mantle is controlled by the downwards propagation of the weathering front into the bedrock and denudation at the surface of the regolith by mass movements, water and wind erosion. When the removal of surface material is approximately balanced by the soil production, the soil system is assumed to be in steady-state. The steady state soil thickness (or so-called SSST) can be considered as a dynamic equilibrium of the system, where the thickness of the soil mantle stays relatively constant over time. In this study, we present and compare analytical data from two independent isotopic techniques: in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides and U-series disequilibria to constrain soil development under semi-arid climatic conditions. The Spanish Betic Cordillera (Southeast Spain) was selected for this study, as it offers us a unique opportunity to analyze soil thickness steady-state conditions for thin soils of semiarid environments. Three soil profiles were sampled across the Betic Ranges, at the ridge crest of zero-order catchments with distinct topographic relief, hillslope gradient and 10Be-derived denudation rate. The magnitude of soil production rates determined based on U-series isotopes (238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) is in the same order of magnitude as the 10Be-derived denudation rates, suggesting steady state soil thickness in two out of three sampling sites. The results suggest that coupling U-series isotopes with in-situ produced radionuclides can provide new insights in the rates of soil development; and also illustrate the potential frontiers in applying U-series disequilibria to track soil production in rapidly eroding landscapes characterized by thin weathering depths.
On the relationship of steady states of continuous and discrete models arising from biology.
Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Arthur, Joseph; Hochstetler, Laura; Klomps, Victoria; Korpi, Erikka
2012-12-01
For many biological systems that have been modeled using continuous and discrete models, it has been shown that such models have similar dynamical properties. In this paper, we prove that this happens in more general cases. We show that under some conditions there is a bijection between the steady states of continuous and discrete models arising from biological systems. Our results also provide a novel method to analyze certain classes of nonlinear models using discrete mathematics.
Mode of recording and modulation frequency effects of auditory steady state response thresholds
Jalaei, Bahram; Shaabani, Moslem; Zakaria, Mohd Normani
2017-01-01
Abstract Introduction The performance of auditory steady state response (ASSR) in threshold testing when recorded ipsilaterally and contralaterally, as well as at low and high modulation frequencies (MFs), has not been systematically studied. Objective To verify the influences of mode of recording (ipsilateral vs. contralateral) and modulation frequency (40 Hz vs. 90 Hz) on ASSR thresholds. Methods Fifteen female and 14 male subjects (aged 18–30 years) with normal hearing bilaterally were ...
Steady-state tokamak reactor with non-divertor impurity control: STARFIRE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, C.C.
1980-01-01
STARFIRE is a conceptual design study of a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant. Particular emphasis has been placed on simplifying the reactor concept by developing design concepts to produce a steady-state tokamak with non-divertor impurity control and helium ash removal. The concepts of plasma current drive using lower hybrid rf waves and a limiter/vacuum system for reactor applications are described
Stability of racemic and chiral steady states in open and closed chemical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribo, Josep M. [Departament de Quimica Organica, Universitat de Barcelona, c. Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona (Spain); Hochberg, David [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: hochbergd@inta.es
2008-12-22
The stability properties of models of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in chemistry are characterized algebraically. The models considered here all derive either from the Frank model or from autocatalysis with limited enantioselectivity. Emphasis is given to identifying the critical parameter controlling the chiral symmetry breaking transition from racemic to chiral steady-state solutions. This parameter is identified in each case, and the constraints on the chemical rate constants determined from dynamic stability are derived.
Stability of racemic and chiral steady states in open and closed chemical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribo, Josep M.; Hochberg, David
2008-01-01
The stability properties of models of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in chemistry are characterized algebraically. The models considered here all derive either from the Frank model or from autocatalysis with limited enantioselectivity. Emphasis is given to identifying the critical parameter controlling the chiral symmetry breaking transition from racemic to chiral steady-state solutions. This parameter is identified in each case, and the constraints on the chemical rate constants determined from dynamic stability are derived
Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration.
Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James
2017-06-01
The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM - to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce susceptibility to sustained VF. Dependence on
Sevim, S; Sorrenti, A; Franco, C; Furukawa, S; Pané, S; deMello, A J; Puigmartí-Luis, J
2018-05-01
Self-assembly is a crucial component in the bottom-up fabrication of hierarchical supramolecular structures and advanced functional materials. Control has traditionally relied on the use of encoded building blocks bearing suitable moieties for recognition and interaction, with targeting of the thermodynamic equilibrium state. On the other hand, nature leverages the control of reaction-diffusion processes to create hierarchically organized materials with surprisingly complex biological functions. Indeed, under non-equilibrium conditions (kinetic control), the spatio-temporal command of chemical gradients and reactant mixing during self-assembly (the creation of non-uniform chemical environments for example) can strongly affect the outcome of the self-assembly process. This directly enables a precise control over material properties and functions. In this tutorial review, we show how the unique physical conditions offered by microfluidic technologies can be advantageously used to control the self-assembly of materials and of supramolecular aggregates in solution, making possible the isolation of intermediate states and unprecedented non-equilibrium structures, as well as the emergence of novel functions. Selected examples from the literature will be used to confirm that microfluidic devices are an invaluable toolbox technology for unveiling, understanding and steering self-assembly pathways to desired structures, properties and functions, as well as advanced processing tools for device fabrication and integration.
Maximum Entropy Production Is Not a Steady State Attractor for 2D Fluid Convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stuart Bartlett
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Multiple authors have claimed that the natural convection of a fluid is a process that exhibits maximum entropy production (MEP. However, almost all such investigations were limited to fixed temperature boundary conditions (BCs. It was found that under those conditions, the system tends to maximize its heat flux, and hence it was concluded that the MEP state is a dynamical attractor. However, since entropy production varies with heat flux and difference of inverse temperature, it is essential that any complete investigation of entropy production allows for variations in heat flux and temperature difference. Only then can we legitimately assess whether the MEP state is the most attractive. Our previous work made use of negative feedback BCs to explore this possibility. We found that the steady state of the system was far from the MEP state. For any system, entropy production can only be maximized subject to a finite set of physical and material constraints. In the case of our previous work, it was possible that the adopted set of fluid parameters were constraining the system in such a way that it was entirely prevented from reaching the MEP state. Hence, in the present work, we used a different set of boundary parameters, such that the steady states of the system were in the local vicinity of the MEP state. If MEP was indeed an attractor, relaxing those constraints of our previous work should have caused a discrete perturbation to the surface of steady state heat flux values near the value corresponding to MEP. We found no such perturbation, and hence no discernible attraction to the MEP state. Furthermore, systems with fixed flux BCs actually minimize their entropy production (relative to the alternative stable state, that of pure diffusive heat transport. This leads us to conclude that the principle of MEP is not an accurate indicator of which stable steady state a convective system will adopt. However, for all BCs considered, the quotient of
Loss less real-time data compression based on LZO for steady-state Tokamak DAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pujara, H.D.; Sharma, Manika
2008-01-01
The evolution of data acquisition system (DAS) for steady-state operation of Tokamak has been technology driven. Steady-state Tokamak demands a data acquisition system which is capable enough to acquire data losslessly from diagnostics. The needs of loss less continuous acquisition have a significant effect on data storage and takes up a greater portion of any data acquisition systems. Another basic need of steady state of nature of operation demands online viewing of data which loads the LAN significantly. So there is strong demand for something that would control the expansion of both these portion by a way of employing compression technique in real time. This paper presents a data acquisition systems employing real-time data compression technique based on LZO. It is a data compression library which is suitable for data compression and decompression in real time. The algorithm used favours speed over compression ratio. The system has been rigged up based on PXI bus and dual buffer mode architecture is implemented for loss less acquisition. The acquired buffer is compressed in real time and streamed to network and hard disk for storage. Observed performance of measure on various data type like binary, integer float, types of different type of wave form as well as compression timing overheads has been presented in the paper. Various software modules for real-time acquiring, online viewing of data on network nodes have been developed in LabWindows/CVI based on client server architecture
Mao, Hanling; Zhang, Yuhua; Mao, Hanying; Li, Xinxin; Huang, Zhenfeng
2018-06-01
This paper presents the study of applying the nonlinear ultrasonic wave to evaluate the stress state of metallic materials under steady state. The pre-stress loading method is applied to guarantee components with steady stress. Three kinds of nonlinear ultrasonic experiments based on critically refracted longitudinal wave are conducted on components which the critically refracted longitudinal wave propagates along x, x1 and x2 direction. Experimental results indicate the second and third order relative nonlinear coefficients monotonically increase with stress, and the normalized relationship is consistent with simplified dislocation models, which indicates the experimental result is logical. The combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is proposed, and three stress evaluation models at x direction are established based on three ultrasonic nonlinear parameters, which the estimation error is below 5%. Then two stress detection models at x1 and x2 direction are built based on combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter, the stress synthesis method is applied to calculate the magnitude and direction of principal stress. The results show the prediction error is within 5% and the angle deviation is within 1.5°. Therefore the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on LCR wave could be applied to nondestructively evaluate the stress of metallic materials under steady state which the magnitude and direction are included.
Steady-state and dynamic models for particle engulfment during solidification
Tao, Yutao; Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.
2016-06-01
Steady-state and dynamic models are developed to study the physical mechanisms that determine the pushing or engulfment of a solid particle at a moving solid-liquid interface. The mathematical model formulation rigorously accounts for energy and momentum conservation, while faithfully representing the interfacial phenomena affecting solidification phase change and particle motion. A numerical solution approach is developed using the Galerkin finite element method and elliptic mesh generation in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian implementation, thus allowing for a rigorous representation of forces and dynamics previously inaccessible by approaches using analytical approximations. We demonstrate that this model accurately computes the solidification interface shape while simultaneously resolving thin fluid layers around the particle that arise from premelting during particle engulfment. We reinterpret the significance of premelting via the definition an unambiguous critical velocity for engulfment from steady-state analysis and bifurcation theory. We also explore the complicated transient behaviors that underlie the steady states of this system and posit the significance of dynamical behavior on engulfment events for many systems. We critically examine the onset of engulfment by comparing our computational predictions to those obtained using the analytical model of Rempel and Worster [29]. We assert that, while the accurate calculation of van der Waals repulsive forces remains an open issue, the computational model developed here provides a clear benefit over prior models for computing particle drag forces and other phenomena needed for the faithful simulation of particle engulfment.
Study of impurity effects on CFETR steady-state scenario by self-consistent integrated modeling
Shi, Nan; Chan, Vincent S.; Jian, Xiang; Li, Guoqiang; Chen, Jiale; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Shengyu; Kong, Defeng; Liu, Xiaoju; Mao, Shifeng; Xu, Guoliang
2017-12-01
Impurity effects on fusion performance of China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) due to extrinsic seeding are investigated. An integrated 1.5D modeling workflow evolves plasma equilibrium and all transport channels to steady state. The one modeling framework for integrated tasks framework is used to couple the transport solver, MHD equilibrium solver, and source and sink calculations. A self-consistent impurity profile constructed using a steady-state background plasma, which satisfies quasi-neutrality and true steady state, is presented for the first time. Studies are performed based on an optimized fully non-inductive scenario with varying concentrations of Argon (Ar) seeding. It is found that fusion performance improves before dropping off with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} , while the confinement remains at high level. Further analysis of transport for these plasmas shows that low-k ion temperature gradient modes dominate the turbulence. The decrease in linear growth rate and resultant fluxes of all channels with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} can be traced to impurity profile change by transport. The improvement in confinement levels off at higher {{Z}\\text{eff}} . Over the regime of study there is a competition between the suppressed transport and increasing radiation that leads to a peak in the fusion performance at {{Z}\\text{eff}} (~2.78 for CFETR). Extrinsic impurity seeding to control divertor heat load will need to be optimized around this value for best fusion performance.
Steady State and Transient Fuel Rod Performance Analyses by Pad and Transuranus Codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slyeptsov, O.; Slyeptsov, S.; Kulish, G.; Ostapov, A.; Chernov, I.
2013-01-01
The report performed under IAEA research contract No.15370/L2 describes the analysis results of WWER and PWR fuel rod performance at steady state operation and transients by means of PAD and TRANSURANUS codes. The code TRANSURANUS v1m1j09 developed by Institute for of Transuranium Elements (ITU) was used based on the Licensing Agreement N31302. The code PAD 4.0 developed by Westinghouse Electric Company was utilized in the frame of the Ukraine Nuclear Fuel Qualification Project for safety substantiation for the use of Westinghouse fuel assemblies in the mixed core of WWER-1000 reactor. The experimental data for the Russian fuel rod behavior obtained during the steady-state operation in the WWER-440 core of reactor Kola-3 and during the power transients in the core of MIR research reactor were taken from the IFPE database of the OECD/NEA and utilized for assessing the codes themselves during simulation of such properties as fuel burnup, fuel centerline temperature (FCT), fuel swelling, cladding strain, fission gas release (FGR) and rod internal pressure (RIP) in the rod burnup range of (41 - 60) GWD/MTU. The experimental data of fuel behavior at steady-state operation during seven reactor cycles presented by AREVA for the standard PWR fuel rod design were used to examine the code FGR model in the fuel burnup range of (37 - 81) GWD/MTU. (author)
Ideal MHD stability and performance of ITER steady-state scenarios with ITBs
Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Chance, M. S.; Jardin, S. C.; Manickam, J.
2012-06-01
Non-inductive steady-state scenarios on ITER will need to operate with internal transport barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. The large pressure gradients at the location of the internal barrier are conducive to the development of ideal MHD instabilities that may limit the plasma performance and may lead to plasma disruptions. Fully non-inductive scenario simulations with five combinations of heating and current drive sources are presented in this work, with plasma currents in the range 7-10 MA. For each configuration the linear, ideal MHD stability is analysed for variations of the Greenwald fraction and of the pressure peaking factor around the operating point, aiming at defining an operational space for stable, steady-state operations at optimized performance. It is shown that plasmas with lower hybrid heating and current drive maintain the minimum safety factor above 1.5, which is desirable in steady-state operations to avoid neoclassical tearing modes. Operating with moderate ITBs at 2/3 of the minor radius, these plasmas have a minimum safety factor above 2, are ideal MHD stable and reach Q ≳ 5 operating above the ideal no-wall limit.
Steady-State and Transient Analysis for Design Validation of SMART-ITL Secondary System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, Eunkoo; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
SMART can prevent large-break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) inherently. SMART-ITL is an experimental simulation facility designed to perform integral effect tests for the SMART plant. In terms of the secondary system of SMART-ITL, the design has been simplified from that of reference plant by replacing several components, such as expansion device and condenser, with an appropriate device to be functional as the alternatives. In this paper, in order to understand the operational characteristics as well as design concept, the secondary system of SMRAT-ITL is analyzed in steady-state and transient aspects, and the results are compared with relevant experimental results. This study focuses on the understanding of thermal-hydraulic behavior of SMART-ITL secondary system, which is simplified from that of reference plant. To identify the behaviors of the secondary system, the steady-state and transient analysis were conducted based on experimental results. In steady-state analysis, the results clearly showed that the system pressure is related to the temperature of condensation tank which varies depending on mixture enthalpy. In transient analysis, the dynamic behavior during heat-up process has been investigated. The results reveal that we can reasonably assume the fluid filled in TK-CD-01 be in a saturated condition. The results showed that the design of SMART-ITL secondary system is appropriate, and the system is being properly operated to match the design intent.
Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Guo, H Y; Li, J G; Wan, B N; Wang, H Q; Ding, S Y; Xu, G S; Liang, Y F; Mansfield, D K; Maingi, R; Zou, X L; Wang, L; Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Zhang, L; Duan, Y M; Shi, T H; Hu, L Q
2015-02-06
A critical challenge facing the basic long-pulse high-confinement operation scenario (H mode) for ITER is to control a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability, known as the edge localized mode (ELM), which leads to cyclical high peak heat and particle fluxes at the plasma facing components. A breakthrough is made in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak in achieving a new steady-state H mode without the presence of ELMs for a duration exceeding hundreds of energy confinement times, by using a novel technique of continuous real-time injection of a lithium (Li) aerosol into the edge plasma. The steady-state ELM-free H mode is accompanied by a strong edge coherent MHD mode (ECM) at a frequency of 35-40 kHz with a poloidal wavelength of 10.2 cm in the ion diamagnetic drift direction, providing continuous heat and particle exhaust, thus preventing the transient heat deposition on plasma facing components and impurity accumulation in the confined plasma. It is truly remarkable that Li injection appears to promote the growth of the ECM, owing to the increase in Li concentration and hence collisionality at the edge, as predicted by GYRO simulations. This new steady-state ELM-free H-mode regime, enabled by real-time Li injection, may open a new avenue for next-step fusion development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari
2015-12-01
Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.
Steady-state ozone concentrations in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.
1985-01-01
Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O/sub 2/ and noble gas-o/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . s/sup -1/. The experimental apparatus and procedure were previously described. The experimentally observed steady-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF/sub 6/ addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF/sub 6/ addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges
On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.
Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie
2016-01-01
The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size.
Effects of governing parameters on steady-state inter-wrapper flow in an LMFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriya, Shoichi
2001-01-01
Hydraulic experiments were performed using a 1/8th scale rectangular model, based on a Japanese demonstration fast breeder reactor design, in order to study fundamental characteristics of interwrapper flows occurring under steady state conditions in an LMFBR. The steady state interwrapper flow of which direction was downward in the center region and upward in the peripheral region of a core barrel was observed because of the radial static pressure gradient in the upper part of the core barrel, produced by a core blockage effect resulting from an above core structure with a perforated skirt. Thermal stratification phenomena were moreover observed in the interwrapper region, created by the hot steady state interwrapper flow from an upper plenum and the cold leakage flow through the separated plate of the core barrel. The thermal interface was generated in higher part of the core barrel when the core blockage effect was smaller and Richardson number and the leakage flow rate ratio were larger. Significant temperature fluctuations occurred in the peripheral region of the core barrel, when the difference between the interface elevations in the center and peripheral regions of the core barrel was enough large. (author)
Steady-state free precession with myocardial tagging: CSPAMM in a single breathhold.
Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Kuijer, Joost P A; Marcus, J Tim; Heethaar, Robert M
2003-04-01
A method is presented that combines steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine imaging with myocardial tagging. Before the tagging preparation at each ECG-R wave, the steady-state magnetization is stored as longitudinal magnetization by an alpha/2 flip-back pulse. Imaging is continued immediately after tagging preparation, using linearly increasing startup angles (LISA) with a rampup over 10 pulses. Interleaved segmented k-space ordering is used to prevent artifacts from the increasing signal during the LISA rampup. First, this LISA-SSFP method was evaluated regarding ghost artifacts from the steady-state interruption by comparing LISA with an alpha/2 startup method. Next, LISA-SSFP was compared with spoiled gradient echo (SGRE) imaging, regarding tag contrast-to-noise ratio and tag persistence. The measurements were performed in phantoms and in six subjects applying breathhold cine imaging with tagging (temporal resolution 51 ms). The results show that ghost artifacts are negligible for the LISA method. Compared to the SGRE reference, LISA-SSFP was two times faster, with a slightly better tag contrast-to-noise. Additionally, the tags persisted 126 ms longer with LISA-SSFP than with SGRE imaging. The high efficiency of LISA-SSFP enables the acquisition of complementary tagged (CSPAMM) images in a single breathhold. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Ako, Olga Y; Kitamura, Y; Intabon, K; Satake, T
2008-09-01
A Monod model has been used to describe the steady state characteristics of the acclimated mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens in experimental chemostat reactors. The bacteria were fed with mineral salts and specific trace metals and a H(2)/CO(2) supply was used as a single limited substrate. Under steady state conditions, the growth yield (Y(CH4)) reached 11.66 g cells per mmol of H(2)/CO(2) consumed. The daily cells generation average was 5.67 x 10(11), 5.25 x 10(11), 4.2 x 10(11) and 2.1 x 10(11) cells/l-culture for the dilutions 0.071/d, 0.083/d, 0.1/d and 0.125/d, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) and the Monod half-saturation coefficient (K(S)) were 0.15/d and 0.82 g/L, respectively. Using these results, the reactor performance was simulated. During the steady state, the simulation predicts the dependence of the H(2)/CO(2) concentration (S) and the cell concentration (X) on the dilution rate. The model fitted the experimental data well and was able to yield a maximum methanogenic activity of 0.24 L CH(4)/g VSS.d. The dilution rate was estimated to be 0.1/d. At the dilution rate of 0.14/d, the exponential cells washout was achieved.