WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonelastic nuclear reactions

  1. Nonelastic nuclear reactions induced by light ions with the BRIEFF code

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, H

    2010-01-01

    The intranuclear cascade (INC) code BRIC has been extended to compute nonelastic reactions induced by light ions on target nuclei. In our approach the nucleons of the incident light ion move freely inside the mean potential of the ion in its center-of-mass frame while the center-of-mass of the ion obeys to equations of motion dependant on the mean nuclear+Coulomb potential of the target nucleus. After transformation of the positions and momenta of the nucleons of the ion into the target nucleus frame, the collision term between the nucleons of the target and of the ion is computed taking into account the partial or total breakup of the ion. For reactions induced by low binding energy systems like deuteron, the Coulomb breakup of the ion at the surface of the target nucleus is an important feature. Preliminary results of nucleon production in light ion induced reactions are presented and discussed.

  2. The role of non-elastic nuclear processes for intermediate-energy protons in silicon targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormaza, Joel Mesa, E-mail: jmesa@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Cesar E., E-mail: cgarcia@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), Havana (Cuba); Arruda Neto, Joao D.T.; Rodrigues, Tulio E., E-mail: arruda@if.usp.br, E-mail: tulio@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valery, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paschuck, Sergei A.; Evseev, Ivan, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: evseev@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The transportation of energetic ions in bulk matter is of direct interest in several areas including shielding against ions originating from either space radiations or terrestrial accelerators, cosmic ray propagation studies in galactic medium, or radiobiological effects resulting from the work place or clinical exposures. For carcinogenesis, terrestrial radiation therapy, and radiobiological research, knowledge of beam composition and interactions is necessary to properly evaluate the effects on human and animal tissues. For the proper assessment of radiation exposures both reliable transport codes and accurate input parameters are needed. In the last years efforts have been increasing in order to develop more effective models to describe and predict the damages induced by radiation in electronic devices. In this sense, the interaction of protons with those devices, particularly which operate in space, is a topic of paramount importance, mainly because although the majority of them are made with silicon, experimental data on p+Si nuclear processes is very sparse. In this work we have used a new quite sophisticated Monte Carlo multicollisional intranuclear cascade (MCMC) code for pre-equilibrium emission, plus de-excitation of residual nucleus by two ways: evaporation of particles (mainly nucleons, but also composites) and possibly fragmentation/fission in the case of heavy residues, in order to study some observable of nuclear interaction of protons between 100-200 MeV in a {sup 28}Si target. The code has been developed with very recent improvements that take into account Pauli blocking effects in a novel and more precise way, as well as a more rigorous energy balance, an energy stopping time criterion for pre-equilibrium emission and the inclusion of deuteron, triton and 3He emissions in the evaporation step, which eventually concurs with fragmentation/break-up stage. The fragment mass distributions, as well as the multiplicities and the spectra of secondary

  3. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  4. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  5. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Rayet, M. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (BE))

    1990-06-01

    At all times and at all astrophysical scales, nuclear reactions have played and continue to play a key role. This concerns the energetics as well as the production of nuclides (nucleosynthesis). After a brief review of the observed composition of various objects in the universe, and especially of the solar system, the basic ingredients that are required in order to build up models for the chemical evolution of galaxies are sketched. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the stellar yields through an overview of the important burning episodes and nucleosynthetic processes that can develop in non-exploding or exploding stars. Emphasis is put on the remaining astrophysical and nuclear physics uncertainties that hamper a clear understanding of the observed characteristics, and especially compositions, of a large variety of astrophysical objects.

  6. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  7. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang, Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-12-01

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 1019W/cm2. In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that μCi of 62Cu can be generated via the (γ,n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 1019Wcm-2.

  8. Nonelastic electron scattering in mercury telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, O P

    2002-01-01

    By exact solution of the Boltzmann equation, the nonequilibrium charge carrier distribution function is obtained. In the temperature range 4.2 - 300 K, main electron scattering mechanisms are considered by taking into account the nonelastic electron interaction with optical vibrations of the crystal lattice.

  9. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Mahir S. [DCTA, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, C. P. 72012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C. P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)

  10. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahir S.

    2017-05-01

    In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a ( d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory.

  11. Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A; Luu, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low- energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path ...

  12. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-02-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three-nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between LQCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from LQCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  13. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Radhey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5 to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  14. Nuclear reaction studies: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, R.M.

    1986-11-19

    A principal focus of recent research has been the three-body problem. A great deal of effort has been devoted to the creation of a computer program to calculate physical observables in the three body problem below 1 GeV. Successful results have been obtained for the triton. Additional work concerns scattering of K/sup +/ mesons from nuclei, antinucleon physics, relativistic nuclear physics and inclusive reactions. (DWL)

  15. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  16. Photo nuclear reactions by QMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Niita, Koji; Chiba, Satoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    QMD (Quantum Molecular Dynamics) was applied to photo nuclear reaction. Advantages of QMD were explained. The cross section of (Cr, pX) at 375 MeV/c was simulated. The results showed three peaks, the peak in the lowest momentum indicated contribution of statistics decay and the middle one, the largest peak, was contribution of quasi-free process (QF) which consisted of two-step process. Then, the total cross section of {pi} photoproduction for three target nuclei (C, Al and Cu) was simulated by QMD. The obtained values were larger than the experimental values, so that the present QMD calculation showed small {pi} adsorption. (S.Y.)

  17. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  18. Nuclear reaction database on Meme Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide; Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Information Processing Center, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi [Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Division of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed the system of charged particle nuclear reaction data (CPND) on the IntelligentPad architecture. We called the system CONTIP, which is an abbreviation of 'Creative, Cooperative and Cultural Objects for Nuclear data and Tools'. NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File), which is a kind of CPND compilation, is applied as an application example. Although CONTIP is currently applied to NRDF, the framework can be generalized to use the othernuclear database. We will develop CONTIP to give the framework for effective utilization of nuclear data. (author)

  19. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  20. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  1. Multilayer network analysis of nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Liang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, $^4$He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the $\\beta$-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  2. A comprehensive survey of nuclear reactions; Panorama des reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugnon, J. [Liege Univ., IFPA, AGO Dept. (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The various mechanisms of nuclear reactions are surveyed and classified in different regimes, based on the notions of coherent mechanisms and hard versus soft processes. The emphasis is put on the concepts at the basis of the understanding of these regimes and on the elements of nuclear structure which are involved in these different regimes, as well as the on the possibility of extracting this information. Due to lack of space and for pedagogical reasons, the discussion is limited to nucleon-induced and light-ion-induced reactions. However, a few remarks are given concerning some specific probes, such as weakly bound projectiles or neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  3. A Nuclear Reactions Primer with Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Roach, Jennifer A.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a microcomputer software program NUCLEAR REACTIONS designed for college level students and in use at Sweet Briar College (Sweet Briar, VA). The program is written in Microsoft Basic Version 2.1 for the Apple Macintosh Microcomputer. It introduces two conservation principles: (1) conservation of charge; and (2) conservation of nucleon…

  4. Random Matrices and Chaos in Nuclear Physics: Nuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, G E; Weidenmueller, H A

    2010-01-01

    The application of random-matrix theory (RMT) to compound-nucleus (CN) reactions is reviewed. An introduction into the basic concepts of nuclear scattering theory is followed by a survey of phenomenological approaches to CN scattering. The implementation of a random-matrix approach into scattering theory leads to a statistical theory of CN reactions. Since RMT applies generically to chaotic quantum systems, that theory is, at the same time, a generic theory of quantum chaotic scattering. It uses a minimum of input parameters (average S-matrix and mean level spacing of the CN). Predictions of the theory are derived with the help of field-theoretical methods adapted from condensed-matter physics and compared with those of phenomenological approaches. Thorough tests of the theory are reviewed, as are applications in nuclear physics, with special attention given to violation of symmetries (isospin, parity) and time-reversal invariance.

  5. Towards Quantum Transport for Central Nuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Barker, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium Green's functions represent a promising tool for describing central nuclear reactions. Even at the single-particle level, though, the Green's functions contain more information that computers may handle in the foreseeable future. In this study, we explore slab collisions in one dimension, first in the mean field approximation and demonstrate that only function elements close to the diagonal in arguments are relevant, in practice, for the reaction calculations. This bodes well for the application of the Green's functions to the reactions. Moreover we demonstrate that an initial state for a reaction calculation may be generated through adiabatic transformation of interactions. Finally, we report on our progress in incorporating correlations into the dynamic calculations.

  6. New methods in nuclear reaction theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Standard nuclear reaction methods are limited to treating problems that generalize two-body scattering. These are problems with only one continuous (vector) degree of freedom (CDOF). The difficulty in extending these methods to cases with two or more CDOFs is not just the additional numerical complexity: the mathematical problem is usually not well-posed. It is hard to guarantee that the proper boundary conditions (BCs) are satisfied. Since this is not generally known, the discussion is begun by considering the physics of this problem in the context of coupled-channel calculations. In practice, the difficulties are usually swept under the rug by the use of a highly developed phenomenology (or worse, by the failure to test a calculation for convergence). This approach limits the kind of reactions that can be handled to ones occurring on the surface of where a second CDOF can be treated perturbatively. In the past twenty years, the work of Faddeev, the quantum three-body problem has been solved. Many techniques (and codes) are now available for solving problems with two CDOFs. A method for using these techniques in the nuclear N-body problem is presented. A set of well-posed (connected kernal) equations for physical scattering operators is taken. Then it is shown how approximation schemes can be developed for a wide range of reaction mechanisms. The resulting general framework for a reaction theory can be applied to a number of nuclear problems. One result is a rigorous treatment of multistep transfer reactions with the possibility of systematically generating corrections. The application of the method to resonance reactions and knock-out is discussed. 12 figures.

  7. Hadron Cancer Therapy: Role of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2000-06-20

    Recently it has become feasible to calculate energy deposition and particle transport in the body by proton and neutron radiotherapy beams, using Monte Carlo transport methods. A number of advances have made this possible, including dramatic increases in computer speeds, a better understanding of the microscopic nuclear reaction cross sections, and the development of methods to model the characteristics of the radiation emerging from the accelerator treatment unit. This paper describes the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved, and how the cross sections have been evaluated from theory and experiment, for use in computer simulations of radiation therapy. The simulations will allow the dose delivered to a tumor to be optimized, whilst minimizing the dos given to nearby organs at risk.

  8. $^{12}$C nuclear reaction measurements for hadrontherapy.

    CERN Document Server

    B. Braunn, B; G. Ban, G; J.Colin, J; D. Cussol, D; J.M. Fontbonne, J M; F.R.. Lecolley, F R; C. Pautard, C; Haas, F; Lebhertz, D; Rousseau, M; Stuttge, L; Chevallier, M; Dauvergne, D; Le Foulher, F; Ray, C; Testa, E; Testa, M; Salsac, M D

    2010-01-01

    Hadrontherapy treatments require a very high precision on the dose deposition ( 2.5% and 1-2mm) in order to keep the benefits of the precise ions’ ballistic. The largest uncertainty on the physical dose deposition is due to ion fragmentation. Up to now, the simulation codes are not able to reproduce the fragmentation process with the required precision. To constraint the nuclear models and complete fragmentation cross sections databases; our collaboration has performed an experiment on May 2008 at GANIL with a 95 MeV/u 12C beam. We have measured the fluence, energy and angular distributions of charged fragments and neutrons coming from nuclear reactions of incident 12C on thick water-like PMMA targets. Preliminary comparisons between GEANT4 (G4BinaryLightIonReaction) simulations and experimental data show huge discrepancies.

  9. Direct nuclear reaction experiments for stellar nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, S.

    2017-09-01

    During the last two decades indirect methods where proposed and used in many experiments in order to measure nuclear cross sections between charged particles at stellar energies. These are among the lowest to be measured in nuclear physics. One of these methods, the Trojan Horse method, is based on the Quasi-Free reaction mechanism and has proved to be particularly flexible and reliable. It allowed for the measurement of the cross sections of various reactions of astrophysical interest using stable beams. The use and reliability of indirect methods become even more important when reactions induced by Radioactive Ion Beams are considered, given the much lower intensity generally available for these beams. The first Trojan Horse measurement of a process involving the use of a Radioactive Ion Beam dealt with the ^{18} F(p, α ^{15} O process in Nova conditions. To obtain pieces of information on this process, in particular about its cross section at Nova energies, the Trojan Horse method was applied to the ^{18} F(d, α ^{15} O)n three body reaction. In order to establish the reliability of the Trojan Horse method approach, the Treiman-Yang criterion is an important test and it will be addressed briefly in this paper.

  10. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    2016-06-01

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e' p) reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e' p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV) and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  11. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickhoff W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e′ p reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e′ p and (p, 2p reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  12. Nuclear effects in neutrino induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Vacas, M J Vicente; Geng, L S; Nieves, J; Valverde, M; Hirenzaki, S

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the relevance of nuclear medium effects in the analysis of some low and medium energy neutrino reactions of current interest. In particular, we study the Quasi-Elastic (QE) process, where RPA correlations and Final State Interactions (FSI) are shown to play a crucial role. We have also investigated the neutrino induced coherent pion production. We find a strong reduction of the cross section due to the distortion of the pion wave function and the modification of the production mechanisms in the nucleus. The sensitivity of the results to the axial $N\\Delta$ coupling $C_5^A(0)$ has been also investigated.

  13. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzoon, M H; Charity, R J; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Waldecker, S J

    2014-04-25

    A comprehensive description of all single-particle properties associated with the nucleus Ca40 is generated by employing a nonlocal dispersive optical potential capable of simultaneously reproducing all relevant data above and below the Fermi energy. The introduction of nonlocality in the absorptive potentials yields equivalent elastic differential cross sections as compared to local versions but changes the absorption profile as a function of angular momentum suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential to allow for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e'p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly incorporated, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum nucleons, as experimentally determined by data from Jefferson Lab. These high-momentum nucleons provide a substantial contribution to the energy of the ground state, indicating a residual attractive contribution from higher-body interactions for Ca40 of about 0.64  MeV/A.

  14. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: nuclear structure; fusion reactions near and below the barrier; incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and instrumentation and analysis. (LSP).

  15. Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Parameterization for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jacob; Kozub, Raymond L.; Smith, Michael S.; Scott, Jason; Lingerfelt, Eric

    2004-10-01

    The knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is vital to simulate novae, supernovae, X-ray bursts, and other astrophysical events. To facilitate dissemination of this knowledge, a set of tools has been created for managing reaction rates, located at www.nucastrodata.org. One tool is a rate parameterizer, which provides a parameterization for nuclear reaction rate vs. temperature values in the most widely used functional form. Currently, the parameterizer uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method (LMM), which requires an initial estimate of the best-fit parameters. The initial estimate is currently provided randomly from a preselected pool. To improve the quality of fits, a new, active method of selecting parameters has been developed. The parameters of each set in the pool are altered for a few iterations to replicate the input data as closely as possible. Then, the set which most nearly matches the input data (based on chi squared) is used in the LMM as the initial estimate for the final fitting procedure. A description of the new, active algorithm and its performance will be presented. Supported by the U. S. Department of Energy.

  16. Towards Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Raul

    2012-10-01

    In this talk I will motivate the evaluation of nuclear reactions cross sections from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) and discuss challenges associated with such calculations. In particular, I will explore the connection between the energy spectrum of a three-body system in a finite volume and infinite volume scattering matrix elements using an effective field theoretical approach. The implication of this formalism for studying systems composed of a particle and a bound-state below the bound-state break- up, as well as a trimer state will be discussed. I will show that one in fact recovers a Luscher-like quantization condition for sufficiently low-energy up to exponential corrections in the volume due to the size of the two-particle bound-state. I will briefly discuss the similarities of the three-body problem and that of two- body coupled-channels systems and will comment on challenges in applying the formalism above the inelastic threshold.

  17. Nuclear reactions in Monte Carlo codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Sala, P R

    2002-01-01

    The physics foundations of hadronic interactions as implemented in most Monte Carlo codes are presented together with a few practical examples. The description of the relevant physics is presented schematically split into the major steps in order to stress the different approaches required for the full understanding of nuclear reactions at intermediate and high energies. Due to the complexity of the problem, only a few semi-qualitative arguments are developed in this paper. The description will be necessarily schematic and somewhat incomplete, but hopefully it will be useful for a first introduction into this topic. Examples are shown mostly for the high energy regime, where all mechanisms mentioned in the paper are at work and to which perhaps most of the readers are less accustomed. Examples for lower energies can be found in the references.

  18. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of plutonium at energy range ... Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research ... Their choice is as a result of their importance in the modern day nuclear reactor and the energy range 10 ...

  19. Theoretical descriptions of compound-nuclear reactions: open problems & challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Brett V; Hussein, Mahir S

    2014-01-01

    Compound-nuclear processes play an important role for nuclear physics applications and are crucial for our understanding of the nuclear many-body problem. Despite intensive interest in this area, some of the available theoretical developments have not yet been fully tested and implemented. We revisit the general theory of compound-nuclear reactions, discuss descriptions of pre-equilibrium reactions, and consider extensions that are needed in order to get cross section information from indirect measurements.

  20. Reaction Rate Parameterization for Nuclear Astrophysics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. P.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Smith, M. S.; Hix, W. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Sharp, J. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Meyer, R. A.

    2004-11-01

    Libraries of thermonuclear reaction rates are used in element synthesis models of a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena, such as exploding stars and the inner workings of our sun. These computationally demanding models are more efficient when libraries, which may contain over 60000 rates and vary by 20 orders of magnitude, have a uniform parameterization for all rates. We have developed an on-line tool, hosted at www.nucastrodata.org, to obtain REACLIB parameters (F.-K. Thielemann et al., Adv. Nucl. Astrophysics 525, 1 (1987)) that represent reaction rates as a function of temperature. This helps to rapidly incorporate the latest nuclear physics results in astrophysics models. The tool uses numerous techniques and algorithms in a modular fashion to improve the quality of the fits to the rates. Features, modules, and additional applications of this tool will be discussed. * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. D.O.E. under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 + Supported by U.S. D.O.E. under Grant No. DE-FG02-96ER40955

  1. Feynman's Proof and Non-Elastic Displacement Fields: Relationship Between Magnetic Field and Defects Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nozomu; Yamasaki, Kazuhito

    2016-08-01

    We consider the relationship between the magnetic field and the non-elastic displacement field including defects, from the viewpoints of non-commutativity of the positions and non-commutativity of the derivatives. The former non-commutativity is related to the magnetic field by Feynman's proof (1948), and the latter is related to the defect fields by the continuum theory of defects. We introduce the concept of differential geometry to the non-elastic displacement field and derive an extended relation that includes basic equations, such as Gauss's law for magnetism and the conservation law for dislocation density. The relation derived in this paper also extends the first Bianchi identity in linear approximation to include the effect of magnetism. These findings suggest that Feynman's approach with a non-elastic displacement field is useful for understanding the relationship between magnetism and non-elastic mechanics.

  2. Feynman's Proof and Non-Elastic Displacement Fields: Relationship Between Magnetic Field and Defects Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nozomu; Yamasaki, Kazuhito

    2016-12-01

    We consider the relationship between the magnetic field and the non-elastic displacement field including defects, from the viewpoints of non-commutativity of the positions and non-commutativity of the derivatives. The former non-commutativity is related to the magnetic field by Feynman's proof (1948), and the latter is related to the defect fields by the continuum theory of defects. We introduce the concept of differential geometry to the non-elastic displacement field and derive an extended relation that includes basic equations, such as Gauss's law for magnetism and the conservation law for dislocation density. The relation derived in this paper also extends the first Bianchi identity in linear approximation to include the effect of magnetism. These findings suggest that Feynman's approach with a non-elastic displacement field is useful for understanding the relationship between magnetism and non-elastic mechanics.

  3. A fast GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation of proton transport with detailed modeling of non-elastic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Tseung, H Wan Chan; Beltran, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Very fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of proton transport have been implemented recently on GPUs. However, these usually use simplified models for non-elastic (NE) proton-nucleus interactions. Our primary goal is to build a GPU-based proton transport MC with detailed modeling of elastic and NE collisions. Methods: Using CUDA, we implemented GPU kernels for these tasks: (1) Simulation of spots from our scanning nozzle configurations, (2) Proton propagation through CT geometry, considering nuclear elastic scattering, multiple scattering, and energy loss straggling, (3) Modeling of the intranuclear cascade stage of NE interactions, (4) Nuclear evaporation simulation, and (5) Statistical error estimates on the dose. To validate our MC, we performed: (1) Secondary particle yield calculations in NE collisions, (2) Dose calculations in homogeneous phantoms, (3) Re-calculations of head and neck plans from a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), and compared with Geant4.9.6p2/TOPAS. Results: Yields, en...

  4. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdt, J. A.; Brown, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  5. Deexcitation Modes in Spallation Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, F. G.; Guzmán, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Tumbarell, O.; Souza, D. A.; Samana, A. R.; Andrade-II, E.; Bernal Castillo, J. L.; Deppman, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spallation nuclear reactions in the range of 0.2 to 1.2 GeV are studied using the CRISP code. A new approach for the deexcitation stage of the compound nucleus was introduced. For the calculations of the level densities, this approach is based on the Back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFG), which takes into account pairing effects and shell corrections, whereas the calculation of the fission barriers were performed by means of the Extended Thomas-Fermi plus Strutinsky Integral (ETFSI) method, which is a high-speed approximation to the Hartree-Fock method with pairing correlations treated as in the usual BCS plus blocking approach. This procedure is more appropriate to calculate level densities for exotic nuclei. Satisfactory results were obtained and compared with experimental data obtained in the GSI experiments. As another important result, we highlight some directions for the development of a qualitatively superior version of the CRISP code with the implementation of more realistic and suitable physical models to be applied in stable and exotic nuclei that participate in the process. This new version of the code includes several substantial changes in the decay of the hot compound nucleus which allow satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and a reduction of the adjustment parameters.

  6. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  7. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  8. Nuclear reaction modeling, verification experiments, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, F.S.

    1995-10-01

    This presentation summarized the recent accomplishments and future promise of the neutron nuclear physics program at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scatter Center (MLNSC) and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility. The unique capabilities of the spallation sources enable a broad range of experiments in weapons-related physics, basic science, nuclear technology, industrial applications, and medical physics.

  9. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, M; Goriely, S; Jorissen, A; Takahashi, K

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measure or calculate them. The present paper presents for the first time a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN so as to make these nuclear data packages easily accessible to astrophysicists for a large variety of applications. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models is utterl...

  10. Studying Nuclear Level Densities of 238U in the Nuclear Reactions within the Macroscopic Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Rohallah; Rahmatinejad, Azam; Kakavand, Tayeb; Taheri, Fariba; Aghajani, Maghsood; Khooy, Asghar

    2016-02-01

    In this work the nuclear level density parameters of 238U have been extracted in the back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), as well as the constant temperature model (CTM), through fitting with the recent experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. The excitation functions for 238U(p,2nα)233Pa, and 238U(p,4n)235Np reactions and the fragment yields for the fragments of the 238U(p,f) reaction have been calculated using obtained level density parameters. The results are compared to their corresponding experimental values. It was found that the extracted excitation functions and the fragment yields in the CTM coincide well with the experimental values in the low-energy region. This finding is according to the claim made by the Oslo group that the extracted level densities of 238U show a constant temperature behaviour.

  11. Key nuclear reaction experiments discoveries and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this book the author charts the developments in nuclear physics since its inception around a century ago by reviewing the key experiments that helped drive and shape our understanding of the field, especially in the context of the wider developments in physics in the early 20th Century. In addition to providing a path through the field and the crucial events it looks at how these experiments not only answered key questions at the time but presented new challenges to the contemporary perception of the nuclear and sub-atomic worlds and how they helped develop our present understanding of nuclear physics.

  12. Direct Reactions for Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine Louise [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Experimental Low-Energy Nuclear Physics Group

    2014-12-18

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106Sn at the NSCL, and on 131Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  13. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersman, F. W.; Dawson, J. F.; Heisenberg, J. H.; Calarco, J. R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation.

  14. Research on Nuclear Reaction Network Equation for Fission Product Nuclides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Reaction Network Equation calculation system for fission product nuclides was developed. With the system, the number of the fission product nuclides at different time can be calculated in the different neutron field intensity and neutron energy spectra

  15. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  16. The nuclear structure and low-energy reactions (NSLER) collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. J.; NSLER Collaboration

    2006-09-01

    The long-term vision of the Nuclear Structure and Low-Energy Reactions (NSLER) collaboration is to arrive at a comprehensive and unified description of nuclei and their reactions that is grounded in the interactions between the constituent nucleons. For this purpose, we will develop a universal energy density functional for nuclei and replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that will deliver maximum predictive power with minimal uncertainties that are well quantified. Nuclear structure and reactions play an essential role in the science to be investigated at rare isotope facilities, and in nuclear physics applications to the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship Program, next-generation reactors, and threat reduction. We anticipate an expansion of the computational techniques and methods we currently employ, and developments of new treatments, to take advantage of petascale architectures and demonstrate the capability of the leadership class machines to deliver new science heretofore impossible.

  17. Opportunities in nuclear structure and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Filomena

    2015-10-01

    The last decade has seen important advances in the area of low energy nuclear physics. New measurements have provided crucial insight into the behavior of nuclei at the limits of stability, including the mapping of the neutron dripline up to Oxygen, investigations of unbound nuclear states, and the discovery of new super-heavy elements. In parallel we have seen a revolution in low-energy nuclear theory, moving toward quantified predictability, rooted in the underlying inter-nucleon forces. But the next decade offers even more opportunities with a new generation factory of rare isotopes, and the anticipated developments in high performance computing. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams coupled with new state-of-the-art detectors will allow us to access a large fraction of the necessary information for the r-process responsible for making at least half of the heavy elements in our universe. FRIB will provide the needed intensities to study global nuclear properties, shell structure, and collective phenomena far from stability. Key measurements are anticipated, at various facilities, which will inform symmetry tests with rare isotopes. We expect to put strict constraints on the equation of state. These and many other opportunities will be highlighted in this overview talk.

  18. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron in nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1990-06-01

    We estimate that the electrodisintegration of the deuteron contributes at least 25% of the total reaction cross section when the deuteron interacts with a nucleus of charge Z>~40 at a kinetic energy lower than 50 MeV. The neglect of this breakup channel in deuteron-nucleus optical potentials might lead to unrealistic predictions for the mass and energy dependence of the total deuteron reaction cross sections.

  19. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.C. (Theoretical Division, T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA)); Thaler, R.M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA) Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (USA))

    1990-06-01

    We estimate that the electrodisintegration of the deuteron contributes at least 25% of the total reaction cross section when the deuteron interacts with a nucleus of charge {ital Z}{approx gt}40 at a kinetic energy lower than 50 MeV. The neglect of this breakup channel in deuteron-nucleus optical potentials might lead to unrealistic predictions for the mass and energy dependence of the total deuteron reaction cross sections.

  20. Microscopic effective reaction theory for direct nuclear reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some recent activities with the microscopic effective reaction theory (MERT on elastic, inelastic, breakup, transfer, and knockout processes are reviewed briefly. As a possible alternative to MERT, a description of elastic and inelastic scattering with the continuum particle-vibration coupling (cPVC method is also discussed.

  1. Physical Mechanism of Nuclear Reactions at Low Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Oleinik, V P; Arepjev, Yu.D

    2002-01-01

    The physical mechanism of nuclear reactions at low energies caused by spatial extension of electron is considered. Nuclear reactions of this type represent intra-electronic processes, more precisely, the processes occurring inside the area of basic localization of electron. Distinctive characteristics of these processes are defined by interaction of the own field produced by electrically charged matter of electron with free nuclei. Heavy nucleus, appearing inside the area of basic localization of electron, is inevitably deformed because of interaction of protons with the adjoining layers of electronic cloud, which may cause nuclear fission. If there occur "inside" electron two or greater number of light nuclei, an attractive force appears between the nuclei which may result in the fusion of nuclei. The intra-electronic mechanism of nuclear reactions is of a universal character. For its realization it is necessary to have merely a sufficiently intensive stream of free electrons, i.e. heavy electric current, an...

  2. Derivation of Energy Generated by Nuclear Fission-Fusion Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kayano, Hideo; Teshigawara, Makoto; Konashi, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takuya

    1994-01-01

    In the solids which contain fissionable elements and deuterium, it is expected that the energy generated by nuclear fission contributes to the promotion of the D-D nuclear fusion in the solids. When nuclear fission occurs by neutrons in the solid, the fissionable elements divide into two fission product nuclei having the energy of 100MeV, respectively. It is expected that the hige energy fission products promote rapidly nuclear fision reaction by knocking out the D atoms in the solids and by ...

  3. Particle production in antiproton induced nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The quantum molecular dynamics model has been improved to investigate the reaction dynamics induced by antiprotons. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca, $^{112}$Sn, $^{181}$Ta, $^{197}$Au and $^{238}$U from a low to high incident momentum. The rapidity and momentum distributions of $\\pi^{+}$ and protons from the LEAR measurements can be well reproduced. The impacts of system size and incident momentum on particle emissions are investigated from the inclusive spectra, transverse momentum and rapidity distributions. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the particle production. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions when the incident moment...

  4. Opportunities for nuclear reaction studies at future facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin; Vujisicova, Nikoleta; Souliotis, Georgios A

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for investigations of nuclear reactions at the future nuclear physics facilities such as radioactive ion beam facilities and high-power laser facilities are considered. Post-accelerated radioactive ion beams offer possibilities for study of the role of isospin asymmetry in the reaction mechanisms at various beam energies. Fission barrier heights of neutron-deficient nuclei can be directly determined at low energies. Post-accelerated radioactive ion beams, specifically at the future facilities such as HIE-ISOLDE, SPIRAL-2 or RAON-RISP can be also considered as a candidate for production of very neutron-rich nuclei via mechanism of multi-nucleon transfer. High-power laser facilities such as ELI-NP offer possibilities for nuclear reaction studies with beams of unprecedented properties. Specific cases such as ternary reactions or even production of super-heavy elements are considered.

  5. Stochastic Nuclear Reaction Theory: Breit-Wigner nuclear noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the application of various statistical tests for the detection of the intermediate structure, which lies immersed in the Breit-Wigner ''noise'' arising from the superposition of many compound nucleus resonances. To this end, neutron capture cross sections are constructed by Monte-Carlo simulations of the compound nucleus, hence providing the ''noise'' component. In a second step intermediate structure is added to the Breit-Wigner noise. The performance of the statistical tests in detecting the intermediate structure is evaluated using mocked-up neutron cross sections as the statistical samples. Afterwards, the statistical tests are applied to actual nuclear cross section data. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Microscopic calculations for solar nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Csoto, A; Csoto, Attila; Langanke, Karlheinz

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the 4He(3He,gamma)7Be, 3He(3He,2p)4He, and 7Be(p,gamma)8B reactions of the solar p-p chain, using microscopic cluster models. Among other results, we showed that the 6Li+p channel has a nontrivial effect on the 7Be-producing reaction, that the existence of a resonance in 6Be close to the 3He+3He threshold is rather unlikely, and that the correlations between some properties of 7Be/8B and the low-energy cross section of 7Be(p,gamma)8B might help one to constrain the value of the S_17(0) astrophysical S-factor.

  7. Excitation function calculations for α + 93Nb nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Sarpün, İ. H.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the excitation functions of alpha-induced reactions on the 93Nb target nucleus were calculated by using ALICE-ASH code. The hybrid model, Weisskopf-Ewing model and geometry dependent hybrid model in this code were used to understand the alpha-niobium interaction. The contribution on the nuclear interaction of compound and pre-compound processes, with variation of the incident alpha particle energy, was presented. Furthermore, the reaction cross sections were calculated by using different level density models such as Superfluid nuclear model, Fermi gas model and Kataria-Ramamurthy Fermi gas model. Obtaining a good agreement between the calculated and the measured cross sections, the exciton numbers and the nuclear level density models were varied. Finally, the proper choice of the exciton numbers and the nuclear level density models was found to be quite important in order to obtain the more realistic cross section values.

  8. Development of the Experimental Photo-Nuclear Reaction Database in Hokkaido University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinaga, A.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear databases are important tools to apply nuclear phenomena to various fields of nuclear engineering. It is now recognized that the databases must be further developed for photo-nuclear reaction data for nuclear security, safety and nonproliferation applications. Hokkaido University Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG) has contributed to the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Library (EXFOR) which is developed by the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres under coordination by IAEA. We report here on the recent compilation of the nuclear data files for the photonuclear reaction.

  9. EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

  10. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The research program of our group touches five areas of nuclear physics: (1) Nuclear structure studies at high spin; (2) Studies at the interface between structure and reactions; (3) Production and study of hot nuclei; (4) Incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and (5) Development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in the above areas of research. The papers from these areas are discussed in this report.

  11. Towards many-body based nuclear reaction modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, Stéphane; Goriely, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematic expressions. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical principles, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all the ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. This concerns nuclear masses, optical model potential, nuclear level densities, photon strength functions, as well as fission barriers. All these nuclear model ingredients, traditionally given by phenomenological expressions, now have a microscopic counterpart implemented in the TALYS nuclear reaction code. We are thus now able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. Perspectives for the coming years will be drawn on the improvements one can expect.

  12. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  13. Development of nuclear reaction data retrieval system on Meme media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbayasi, Yosihide; Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Lab., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Information Processing Center, Kitami Inst. of Tech., Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi [Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Division of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A newly designed retrieval system of charged particle nuclear reaction data is developed on Meme media architecture. We designed the network-based (client-server) retrieval system. The server system is constructed on a UNIX workstation with a relational database, and the client system is constructed on Microsoft Windows PC using an IntelligentPad software package. The IntelligentPad is currently available as developing Meme media. We will develop the system to realize effective utilization of nuclear reaction data: I. 'Re-production, Re-edit, Re-use', II. 'Circulation, Coordination and Evolution', III. 'Knowledge discovery'. (author)

  14. Physics with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE: nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, A.; Riisager, K.; Van Duppen, P.

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear-reaction studies have until now constituted a minor part of the physics program with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE, mainly due to the maximum energy of REX-ISOLDE of around 3 MeV/u that limits reaction work to the mass region below A = 100. We give an overview of the current experimental status and of the physics results obtained so far. Finally, the improved conditions given by the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade are described.

  15. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  16. A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y N Srivastava; A Widom; L Larsen

    2010-10-01

    Under special circumstances, electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low-energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can – under appropriate circumstances – be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons via weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low-energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge upon various examples analysed previously, present order of magnitude estimates for each and to illuminate a common unifying theme amongst all of them.

  17. Effect of nuclear-reaction mechanisms on the population of excited nuclear states and isomeric ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental data on the cross sections for channels of fusion and transfer reactions induced by beams of radioactive halo nuclei and clustered and stable loosely bound nuclei were analyzed, and the results of this analysis were summarized. The interplay of the excitation of single-particle states in reaction-product nuclei and direct reaction channels was established for transfer reactions. Respective experiments were performed in stable (6Li) and radioactive (6He) beams of the DRIBs accelerator complex at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, and in deuteron and 3He beams of the U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy Sciences of Czech Republic (Řež and Prague, Czech Republic). Data on subbarrier and near-barrier fusion reactions involving clustered and loosely bound light nuclei (6Li and 3He) can be described quite reliably within simple evaporation models with allowance for different reaction Q-values and couple channels. In reactions involving halo nuclei, their structure manifests itself most strongly in the region of energies below the Coulomb barrier. Neutron transfer occurs with a high probability in the interactions of all loosely bound nuclei with light and heavy stable nuclei at positive Q-values. The cross sections for such reactions and the respective isomeric ratios differ drastically for nucleon stripping and nucleon pickup mechanisms. This is due to the difference in the population probabilities for excited single-particle states.

  18. Nuclear reaction rates and opacity in massive star evolution calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena, D [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, BocnI II 1401, 14131 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Klapp, J [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, 52750 Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Dehnen, H, E-mail: jaime.klapp@inin.gob.m [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, Fach M568, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear reaction rates and opacity are important parameters in stellar evolution. The input physics in a stellar evolution code determines the main theoretical characteristics of the stellar structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis of a star. For different input physics, in this work we calculate stellar evolution models of very massive first stars during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. We have considered 100 and 200M{sub s}un galactic and pregalactic stars with metallicity Z = 10{sup -6} and 10{sup 9}, respectively. The results show important differences from old to new formulations for the opacity and nuclear reaction rates, in particular the evolutionary tracks are significantly affected, that indicates the importance of using up to date and reliable input physics. The triple alpha reaction activates sooner for pregalactic than for galactic stars.

  19. Neutrino-induced Reactions and Neutrino Scattering with Nuclear Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja; Yang, Ghil-Seok; Kim, Kyungsik; Kajino, T.

    2016-02-01

    We reviewed present status regarding experimental data and theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data. Finally, we discussed that one step-process in the reaction is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis.

  20. Neutrino-induced Reactions and Neutrino Scattering with Nuclear Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheoun Myung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed present status regarding experimental data and theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data. Finally, we discussed that one step-process in the reaction is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis.

  1. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-10-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measuring or calculating them. This paper presents a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. BRUSLIB provides an electronic link to the published, as well as to a large body of unpublished, NACRE data containing adopted rates, as well as lower and upper limits. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions to complement the experimentally-based rates. An electronic access is provided to tables of rates calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models makes the BRUSLIB rate library unique. A description of the Nuclear Network Generator NETGEN that complements the BRUSLIB package is also presented. NETGEN is a tool to generate nuclear reaction rates for temperature grids specified by the user. The information it provides can be used for a large variety of applications, including Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the energy generation and nucleosynthesis associated with the non-explosive and explosive hydrogen to silicon burning stages, or the synthesis of the heavy nuclides through the s-, α- and r-, rp- or p-processes.

  2. Exploratory study of nuclear reaction data utility framework of Japan charged particle reaction data group (JCPRG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Kato, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ohbayasi, Yosihide [Hokkaido Univ., Meme Media Lab., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Kitami Institute of Technology, Information Processing Center, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Faculty of Social Information, Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Compilation, evaluation and dissemination are essential pieces of work for the nuclear data activities. We, Japan charged particle data group, have researched the utility framework for the nuclear reaction data on the basis of recent progress of computer and network technologies. These technologies will be not only for the data dissemination but for the compilation and evaluation assistance among the many corresponding researchers of all over the world. In this paper, current progress of our research and development is shown. (author)

  3. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2008-06-24

    The authors present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  4. Insights into nuclear reactions through fusion barrier distribution measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hinde, D J; Morton, C R; Berriman, A C; Butt, R D; Newton, J O

    1999-01-01

    The study of nuclear fusion has been greatly enhanced following the realisation that an experimental fusion barrier distribution can be determined from precisely measured fusion cross-sections. Experimental fusion barrier distributions for different reactions have shown clear signatures of a range of nuclear structure effects, for example those of static quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, and of coupling to single- and double-phonon states. Applications of this improved quantitative understanding of fusion in the fields of fission, and fusion of weakly bound nuclei are discussed.

  5. Supporting the Josephson Interpretation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Stabilization of Nuclear Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Osman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brian Josephson appealed at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004 against the ignorance of physicist to the phenomenon of cold fusion. Though there are good reasons against many publications on this topic but not for all what was reported. It seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on the reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium, nickel and other metals. We underline the confusing discovery by Cockroft and Oliphant with the anomalous low energy for nuclear reactions which was hundred times lower than in the usual cases when smashing nuclei against their Coulomb potential. A similar unexpected result was that of Otto Hahn’s-the chemist!-Discovery of fission that had changed the world. A significant result of cold fusion was seen in gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant and fully reproducible, e.g. From the “life after death” heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect-preferably in the swimming electron layer-may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U off about mega seconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the generation of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross sections is used to confirm the picometer-mega second reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nucleus generation, magic numbers and to quark

  6. Novel Role of Superfluidity in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Magierski, Piotr; Wlazłowski, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate, within symmetry unrestricted time dependent density functional theory, the existence of new effects in low-energy nuclear reactions which originate from superfluidity. The dynamics of the pairing field induces solitonic excitations in the colliding nuclear systems, leading to qualitative changes in the reaction dynamics. The solitonic excitation prevents collective energy dissipation and effectively suppresses capture cross section. We demonstrate how the variations of the total kinetic energy of the fragments can be traced back to the energy stored in the superfluid junction of colliding nuclei. Both contact time and scattering angle in non-central collisions are significantly affected. The modification of the capture cross section and possibilities for its experimental detection are discussed.

  7. Massive Star Evolution Nucleosynthesis and Nuclear Reaction Rate Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Heger, A; Rauscher, T; Hoffman, R D; Boyes, M M

    2002-01-01

    We present a nucleosynthesis calculation of a 25 solar mass star of solar composition that includes all relevant isotopes up to polonium. In particular, all stable isotopes and necessary nuclear reaction rates are covered. We follow the stellar evolution from hydrogen burning till iron core collapse and simulate the explosion using a ``piston'' approach. We discuss the influence of two key nuclear reaction rates, C12(a,g) and Ne22(a,n), on stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. The former significantly influences the resulting core sizes (iron, silicon, oxygen) and the overall presupernova structure of the star. It thus has significant consequences for the supernova explosion itself and the compact remnant formed. The later rate considerably affects the s-process in massive stars and we demonstrate the changes that different currently suggested values for this rate cause.

  8. Target preparation by the precipitation method for nuclear reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, K; Ohtsuki, T; Yuki, H; Mitsugashira, T; Sato, N; Suzuki, T; Fujita, M; Shinozuka, T; Kasamatsu, Y; Kikunaga, H; Shinohara, A; Shibata, S; Nakanishi, T

    2007-01-01

    A technique for preparing nuclear reaction targets of various thicknesses was developed by using common filtration technique of hydroxide precipitates with a porous Al(2)O(3) membrane filter. Uniformity was found to be within a few % in each thickness. Durability for beam irradiation was also confirmed. The preparation procedure is convenient and the method is appropriate for several target materials, including not only precious materials but also radioactive materials with low contamination.

  9. Complex signal amplitude analysis for complete fusion nuclear reaction products

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, Yu S

    2015-01-01

    A complex analysis has been performed on the energy amplitude signals corresponding to events of Z=117 element measured in the 249Bk+48Ca complete fusion nuclear reaction. These signals were detected with PIPS position sensitive detector. The significant values of pulse height defect both for recoils (ER) and fission fragments (FF) were measured. Comparison with the computer simulations and empirical formulae has been performed both for ER and FF signals.

  10. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Descouvemont, Pierre; Hussein, Mahir S

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-body Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term, and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li + 208Pb. For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the alpha + t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the 'Coulomb' and 'nuclear' breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest...

  11. Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Navratil, Petr; Hupin, Guillaume; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Calci, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in {\\em ab initio} nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches - built upon the No-Core Shell Model - that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the $^6$He halo nucleus, of five- and six...

  12. Measurement of anomalous nuclear reaction in deuterium-loaded metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Song-Sheng; Li Jing-Huai; Wang Jian-Qing; He Ming; Wu Shao-Yong; Zhang Hong-Tao; Yao Shun-He; Zhao Yong-Gang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment for testing natural nuclear fusion at low temperature searching for evidence of the origin of 3He from natural nuclear fusion in deep Earth.The experiment was carried out using deuterium-loaded titanium foil samples and powder sample.Detection of charged particle was carried out using a low-level charged particle spectrometer.An Al foil was used as an energy absorber for identification of charged particle.Although the counting rate is very low in the experiment,the emission of energetic particle from the sample is obscrved and the particle is identified as a proton having energy about 2.8 MeV after exiting the titanium sample.This work provides a positive result for the emission of charged particle in the deuterium-loaded titanium foil samples at low temperature,but a negative result for the deuterium-loaded titanium powder sample.The average reaction yield is deduced to be(0.46±0.08)protons/h for the foil samples.With the suggestion that the proton originates from d-d reaction,we of the deuterium-loaded titanium powder sample suggests that the reaction yield might be correlated with the density or microscopic variables of deuterium-loaded titanium materials.The negative result also indicates that d-d reaction catalysed by μ-meson from cosmic ray can be excluded in the samples in this experiment.

  13. Mean-field instabilities and cluster formation in nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Colonna, M; Baran, V

    2016-01-01

    We review recent results on intermediate mass cluster production in heavy ion collisions at Fermi energy and in spallation reactions. Our studies are based on modern transport theories, employing effective interactions for the nuclear mean-field and incorporating two-body correlations and fluctuations. Namely we will consider the Stochastic Mean Field (SMF) approach and the recently developed Boltzmann-Langevin One Body (BLOB) model. We focus on cluster production emerging from the possible occurrence of low-density mean-field instabilities in heavy ion reactions. Within such a framework, the respective role of one and two-body effects, in the two models considered, will be carefully analysed. We will discuss, in particular, fragment production in central and semi-peripheral heavy ion collisions, which is the object of many recent experimental investigations. Moreover, in the context of spallation reactions, we will show how thermal expansion may trigger the development of mean-field instabilities, leading to...

  14. Visualized kinematics code for two-body nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. J.; Chae, K. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The one or few nucleon transfer reaction has been a great tool for investigating the single-particle properties of a nucleus. Both stable and exotic beams are utilized to study transfer reactions in normal and inverse kinematics, respectively. Because many energy levels of the heavy recoil from the two-body nuclear reaction can be populated by using a single beam energy, identifying each populated state, which is not often trivial owing to high level-density of the nucleus, is essential. For identification of the energy levels, a visualized kinematics code called VISKIN has been developed by utilizing the Java programming language. The development procedure, usage, and application of the VISKIN is reported.

  15. Low-energy nuclear reactions in crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagulya, A. V.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Negodaev, M. A.; Rusetskii, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Results of studying low-energy nuclear reactions at the HELIS facility (LPI) are presented. Investigations of yields from DD reactions in deuterated crystal structures at deuteron energies of 10 to 25 keV show a considerable enhancement effect. It is shown that exposure of the deuterated targets to the H+ (proton) and Ne+ beams with energies from 10 to 25 keV and an X-ray beam with the energy of 20 to 30 keV stimulates DD reaction yields. For the CVD diamond target, it is shown that its orientation with respect to the deuteron beam affects the neutron yield. The D+ beam is shown to cause much higher heat release in the TiDx target than the H+ and Ne+ beams, and this heat release depends on the deuterium concentration in the target and the current density of the deuteron beam.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (Aikawa+, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-07-01

    The present data is part of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (BRUSLIB) for astrophysics applications and concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within the statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation and making use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities (nuclear masses, nuclear structure properties, nuclear level densities, gamma-ray strength functions, optical potentials) entering the rate calculations. (4 data files).

  17. EMPIRE: Nuclear Reaction Model Code System for Data Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Obložinský, P.; Sin, M.; Trkov, A.; Wienke, H.; Zerkin, V.

    2007-12-01

    EMPIRE is a modular system of nuclear reaction codes, comprising various nuclear models, and designed for calculations over a broad range of energies and incident particles. A projectile can be a neutron, proton, any ion (including heavy-ions) or a photon. The energy range extends from the beginning of the unresolved resonance region for neutron-induced reactions (∽ keV) and goes up to several hundred MeV for heavy-ion induced reactions. The code accounts for the major nuclear reaction mechanisms, including direct, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus ones. Direct reactions are described by a generalized optical model (ECIS03) or by the simplified coupled-channels approach (CCFUS). The pre-equilibrium mechanism can be treated by a deformation dependent multi-step direct (ORION + TRISTAN) model, by a NVWY multi-step compound one or by either a pre-equilibrium exciton model with cluster emission (PCROSS) or by another with full angular momentum coupling (DEGAS). Finally, the compound nucleus decay is described by the full featured Hauser-Feshbach model with γ-cascade and width-fluctuations. Advanced treatment of the fission channel takes into account transmission through a multiple-humped fission barrier with absorption in the wells. The fission probability is derived in the WKB approximation within the optical model of fission. Several options for nuclear level densities include the EMPIRE-specific approach, which accounts for the effects of the dynamic deformation of a fast rotating nucleus, the classical Gilbert-Cameron approach and pre-calculated tables obtained with a microscopic model based on HFB single-particle level schemes with collective enhancement. A comprehensive library of input parameters covers nuclear masses, optical model parameters, ground state deformations, discrete levels and decay schemes, level densities, fission barriers, moments of inertia and γ-ray strength functions. The results can be converted into ENDF-6 formatted files using the

  18. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V. [ed.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  19. Ab Initio Calculations Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-05

    Our ultimate goal is to develop a fundamental theory and efficient computational tools to describe dynamic processes between nuclei and to use such tools toward supporting several DOE milestones by: 1) performing predictive calculations of difficult-to-measure landmark reactions for nuclear astrophysics, such as those driving the neutrino signature of our sun; 2) improving our understanding of the structure of nuclei near the neutron drip line, which will be the focus of the DOE’s Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) being constructed at Michigan State University; but also 3) helping to reveal the true nature of the nuclear force. Furthermore, these theoretical developments will support plasma diagnostic efforts at facilities dedicated to the development of terrestrial fusion energy.

  20. Effects of Neutron Skin Thickness in Peripheral Nuclear Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG De-Qing; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Hong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA) model. The reaction cross section, neutron (proton) removal cross section, one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied. It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness. Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.%Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA ) model.The reaction cross section,neutron (proton) removal cross section,one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied.It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei.The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness.Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.Determining the size and shape of a nucleus is one of the most important subjects since the discovery of atomic nuclei.The rms radii of the neutron (rn) and proton (rp) density distributions are among the most prominent observables for this purpose.Studies for stable nuclei have shown that the nuclear radii are proportional to A1/3,with A being the nuclear mass number.Meanwhile,the density distributions of neutrons and protons in stable nuclei are very similar.

  1. Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The goal of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is to relax the extreme pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion by magnetizing the fuel. Understanding the level of magnetization at stagnation is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. We show here that the secondary nuclear reactions in magnetized deuterium plasma can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The secondary neutron yields and spectra are examined and shown to be extremely sensitive to BR. In particular, embedded magnetic fields are shown to affect profoundly the isotropy of the secondary neutron spectra. Detailed modeling of these spectra along with the ratio of overall secondary to primary neutron yields is used to form the basis of a diagnostic technique used to infer BR at stagnation. Effects of gradients in density, temperature and magnetic field strength are examined, as well as other possible non-uniform fuel configurations. Computational results employing a fully kinetic treatment of charged reaction product transport and Monte Carlo treatment of secondary reactions are compared to results from recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine testing the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. The technique reveals that the charged reaction products were highly magnetized in these experiments. Implications for eventual ignition-relevant experiments with deuterium-tritium fuel are discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. (2+1)-Dimensional Combined Structures of Various Solitons with Completely Nonelastic Interaction Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie-Fang; MENG Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the variable separation solution obtained by using the extended homogenous balance method,a new class of combined structures, such as multi-peakon and multi-dromion solution, multi-compacton and multidromion solution, multi-peakon and multi-compacton solution, for the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are found by selecting appropriate functions. These new structures exhibit novel interaction features. Their interaction behavior is very similar to the completely nonelastic collisions between two classical particles.

  3. Multisoliton solutions, completely elastic collisions and non-elastic fusion phenomena of two PDEs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MST SHEKHA KHATUN; MD FAZLUL HOQUE; MD AZIZUR RAHMAN

    2017-06-01

    A direct rational exponential scheme is introduced and applied to construct exact multisoliton solutions of the clannish random walker’s parabolic and the Vakhnenko–Parkes equations. We discuss the nature of solitonsolutions before and after their interactions, and present their fusion (non-elastic) and elastic collisions of the soliton solutions. These soliton solutions of the equations are connected to physical phenomena: weakly non-linearsurface, internal waves in a rotating ocean and interacting population motions. In addition, some three-dimensional and contour plots of the soliton wave solutions are presented to visualize the dynamics of the models.

  4. Multisoliton solutions, completely elastic collisions and non-elastic fusion phenomena of two PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mst Shekha; Hoque, Md Fazlul; Rahman, Md Azizur

    2017-06-01

    A direct rational exponential scheme is introduced and applied to construct exact multisoliton solutions of the clannish random walker's parabolic and the Vakhnenko-Parkes equations. We discuss the nature of soliton solutions before and after their interactions, and present their fusion (non-elastic) and elastic collisions of the soliton solutions. These soliton solutions of the equations are connected to physical phenomena: weakly non-linear surface, internal waves in a rotating ocean and interacting population motions. In addition, some three-dimensional and contour plots of the soliton wave solutions are presented to visualize the dynamics of the models.

  5. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draayer, Jerry P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  6. On microscopic theory of radiative nuclear reaction characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Avdeenkov, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    A survey of some results in the modern microscopic theory of properties of nuclear reactions with gamma-rays is given. First of all, we discuss the impact of phonon coupling (PC) on the photon strength function (PSF) because it represents the most natural physical source of additional strength found for Sn isotopes in recent experiments that could not be explained within the stan- dard HFB+QRPA approach. The self-consistent version of the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems in the Quasiparticle Time Blocking Approximation, or simply QTBA, is applied. It uses the HFB mean field and includes both the QRPA and PC effects on the basis of the SLy4 Skyrme force. With our microscopic E1 PSFs, the following properties have been calculated for many stable and unstable even-even semi-magic Sn and Ni isotopes as well as for double-magic 132Sn and 208Pb using the reaction codes EMPIRE and TALYS with several nuclear level density (NLD) models: 1) the neutron capture cross sections, 2) the corresponding neutron capture...

  7. Isospin dynamics on neck fragmentation in isotopic nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The neck dynamics in Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions, to probe the nuclear symmetry energy in the domain of sub-saturation densities, is investigated within an isospin dependent transport model. The single and double ratios of neutron/proton from free nucleons and light clusters (complex particles) in the isotopic reactions are analyzed systematically. Isospin effects of particles produced from the neck fragmentations are explored, which are constrained within the midrapidities ($|y/y_{proj}|<$0.3) and azimuthal angles (70$^{o}\\sim$110$^{o}$, 250$^{o}\\sim$290$^{o}$) in semiperipheral nuclear collisions. It is found that the ratios of the energetic isospin particles strongly depend on the stiffness of nuclear symmetry energy and the effects increase with softening the symmetry energy, which would be a nice probe for extracting the symmetry energy below the normal density in experimentally. A flat structure appears at the tail spectra from the double ratio distributions. The neutron to proton ratio of ligh...

  8. Studying nuclear level densities of {sup 238}U in the nuclear reactions within the macroscopic nuclear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Rohallah; Aghajani, Maghsood; Khooy, Asghar [Imam Hossein Comprehensive Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Rahmatinejad, Azam; Taheri, Fariba [Univ. of Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Kakavand, Tayeb [Imam Khomeini International Univ., Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    2016-05-01

    In this work the nuclear level density parameters of {sup 238}U have been extracted in the back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), as well as the constant temperature model (CTM), through fitting with the recent experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. The excitation functions for {sup 238}U(p,2nα){sup 233}Pa, and {sup 238}U(p,4n){sup 235}Np reactions and the fragment yields for the fragments of the {sup 238}U(p,f) reaction have been calculated using obtained level density parameters. The results are compared to their corresponding experimental values. It was found that the extracted excitation functions and the fragment yields in the CTM coincide well with the experimental values in the low-energy region. This finding is according to the claim made by the Oslo group that the extracted level densities of {sup 238}U show a constant temperature behaviour.

  9. Probing anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibration by heavy-ion fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, N; Kuyucak, S

    1997-01-01

    Describing fusion reactions between ^{16}O and ^{154}Dy and, between ^{16}O and ^{144}Sm by the $sd-$ and $sdf-$ interacting boson model, we show that heavy-ion fusion reactions are strongly affected by anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibrations and nuclear shape, and thus provide a powerful method to study details of nuclear structure and dynamics.

  10. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  11. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  12. Nuclear microprobe and nuclear reaction spectrometry at a few square micrometer level: myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocellier, P. E-mail: ptrocel@nimitz.saclay.cea.fr; Berger, P.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Gallien, J.P.; Metrich, N.; Moreau, C.; Mosbah, M.; Varela, M.E

    1999-09-02

    Proton induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry are the most often used IBA methods in conjunction with a nuclear microprobe. Their main advantages derive both from the corresponding cross sections having relatively high values and their multielemental response. {mu}PIXE allows one to reach the spatial distribution of elements with Z>12 and {mu}RBS permits the study of multilayered solids with a good selectivity for thin heavy element layers deposited on light substrates. Nuclear reactions on the other hand generally exhibit low cross section values but are well adapted for light element isotope measurements in any substrate. This paper intends to provide an overview of nuclear reaction spectrometry analytical capabilities using {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He or {sup 4}He microbeams. Practical performances such as selectivity, sensitivity, total analysable depth and depth resolution are discussed. Finally, application examples are presented in the following areas: metallurgy and material sciences, earth sciences and cosmochemistry, biochemistry and archaeometry.

  13. A study on nuclear specific material detection technique using nuclear resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Ha, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Choi, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The non-destructive nuclear material detection technique is one of the novel methods under somewhat dangerous environments, for example, high level radiation or landmine areas. Specially, the detection of a landmine is a hot issue on the peaceful use of nuclear technology for human welfare. Generally, the explosives contain specific elements such as {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The photo-nuclear resonance gamma-rays are produced by nuclear reaction {sup 13}C(p , {gamma}){sup 14}N or {sup 34}S(p, {gamma}){sup 35}Cl in which target is bombarded by about 2MeV proton beam extracted from the proton accelerator. To avoid other neighboring resonant gamma-rays, we selected a higher resonant energy above 5MeV. The resonance gamma rays produced are absorbed or scattered when they react with {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl included in the mines and explosive. We can determine existence and position of mines or explosives by detecting the absorption and scattering gamma-ray signals.

  14. Separable Multichannel Momentum Space Potentials for Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, Linda; Elster, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Many nuclei are deformed and their properties can be described using a rotational model. This involves defining a deformed surface of the nucleus and constructing the nucleon-nucleus interaction as a function of distance to the surface. Such a potential has non-zero matrix elements between different nuclear rotational states which are characterized by the spin-parity Iπ, leading to channel couplings. For specific reaction calculations, it is advantageous to have separable representations of the interaction matrix elements available. We develop separable representations following a scheme suggested by Ernst, Shakin, and Thaler (EST). Since optical potentials are complex and energy-dependent, the multichannel EST scheme is generalized to complex, energy-dependent separable potentials. In the case of proton-nucleus interactions the EST scheme is further extended to include charged particles. The multichannel EST scheme is applied to nucleon scattering off 12C, where the first two excited states (Iπ =2+ ,4+) are taken into account. Research for this project was supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-FG02-93ER40756.

  15. Impact of phonon coupling on the radiative nuclear reaction characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Achakovskiy, Oleg; Kamerdzhiev, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance and photon strength functions (PSF) in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite fermi systems in the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The approach includes phonon coupling (PC) effects in addition to the standard QRPA approach. The Skyrme force SLy4 is used. A pygmy dipole resonance in 72Ni is predicted at the mean energy of 12.4 MeV exhausting 25.7% of the total energy-weighted sum rule. With our microscopic E1 PSFs in the EMPIRE 3.1 code, the following radiative nuclear reaction characteristics have been calculated for several stable and unstable even-even Sn and Ni isotopes: 1) neutron capture cross sections, 2) corresponding neutron capture gamma-spectra, 3) average radiative widths of neutron resonances. Here, three variants of the microscopic nuclear level density models have been used and a comparison with the phenomenological generalized superfluid model (GSM) has been perf...

  16. Impact of phonon coupling on the radiative nuclear reaction characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achakovskiy Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pygmy dipole resonance and photon strength functions (PSF in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The approach includes phonon coupling (PC effects in addition to the standard QRPA approach. The Skyrme force SLy4 is used. A pygmy dipole resonance in 72Ni is predicted at the mean energy of 12.4 MeV exhausting 25.7% of the total energy-weighted sum rule. With our microscopic E1 PSFs in the EMPIRE 3.1 code, the following radiative nuclear reaction characteristics have been calculated for several stable and unstable even-even Sn and Ni isotopes: 1 neutron capture cross sections, 2 corresponding neutron capture gamma-spectra, 3 average radiative widths of neutron resonances. Here, three variants of the microscopic nuclear level density models have been used and a comparison with the phenomenological generalized superfluid model has been performed. In all the considered properties, including the recent experimental data for PSF in Sn isotopes, the PC contributions turned out to be significant, as compared with the QRPA one, and necessary to explain the available experimental data.

  17. The US nuclear reaction data network. Summary of the first meeting, March 13 & 14 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The first meeting of the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN) was held at the Colorado School of Mines, March 13-14, 1996 chaired by F. Edward Cecil. The Agenda of the meeting is attached. The Network, its mission, products and services; related nuclear data and data networks, members, and organization are described in Attachment 1. The following progress reports from the members of the USNRDN were distributed prior to the meeting and are given as Attachment 2. (1) Measurements and Development of Analytic Techniques for Basic Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Applications; (2) Nuclear Reaction Data Activities at the National Nuclear Data Center; (3) Studies of nuclear reactions at very low energies; (4) Nuclear Reaction Data Activities, Nuclear Data Group; (5) Progress in Neutron Physics at Los Alamos - Experiments; (6) Nuclear Reaction Data Activities in Group T2; (7) Progress Report for the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network Meeting; (8) Nuclear Astrophysics Research Group (ORNL); (9) Progress Report from Ohio University; (10) Exciton Model Phenomenology; and (11) Progress Report for Coordination Meeting USNRDN.

  18. RIPL - Reference Input Parameter Library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Data Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Obložinský, P.; Young, P. G.; Goriely, S.; Belgya, T.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Koning, A. J.; Hilaire, S.; Plujko, V. A.; Avrigeanu, M.; Bersillon, O.; Chadwick, M. B.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han, Yinlu; Kailas, S.; Kopecky, J.; Maslov, V. M.; Reffo, G.; Sin, M.; Soukhovitskii, E. Sh.; Talou, P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in January 2009, and is available on the Web through http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/. This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and γ-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains

  19. Computer subroutines for the estimation of nuclear reaction effects in proton-tissue-dose calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    Calculational methods for estimation of dose from external proton exposure of arbitrary convex bodies are briefly reviewed. All the necessary information for the estimation of dose in soft tissue is presented. Special emphasis is placed on retaining the effects of nuclear reaction, especially in relation to the dose equivalent. Computer subroutines to evaluate all of the relevant functions are discussed. Nuclear reaction contributions for standard space radiations are in most cases found to be significant. Many of the existing computer programs for estimating dose in which nuclear reaction effects are neglected can be readily converted to include nuclear reaction effects by use of the subroutines described herein.

  20. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Jr., P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, Michael F.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  1. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  2. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  3. Nuclear-Pumped Lasers. [efficient conversion of energy liberated in nuclear reactions to coherent radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Nuclear pumped laser modeling, nuclear volume and foil excitation of laser plasmas, proton beam simulations, nuclear flashlamp excitation, and reactor laser systems studies are covered.

  4. Laser-initiated primary and secondary nuclear reactions in Boron-Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Yahia, V.; Neuville, C.; Rafelski, J.

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams are a promising new approach to many applications, from medical radioisotopes to aneutronic energy production. We present results demonstrating the occurrence of secondary nuclear reactions, initiated by the primary nuclear reaction products, using multicomponent targets composed of either natural boron (B) or natural boron nitride (BN). The primary proton-boron reaction (p + 11B → 3 α + 8.7 MeV), is one of the most attractive aneutronic fusion reaction. We report radioactive decay signatures in targets irradiated at the Elfie laser facility by laser-accelerated particle beams which we interpret as due to secondary reactions induced by alpha (α) particles produced in the primary reactions. Use of a second nanosecond laser beam, adequately synchronized with the short laser pulse to produce a plasma target, further enhanced the reaction rates. High rates and chains of reactions are essential for most applications.

  5. A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B; Marwan, Jan

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research, a field that has developed from one of the most controversial subjects in science, "cold fusion." Early in the history of this controversy, beginning in 1989, a strong polarity existed; many scientists fiercely defended the claim of new physical effects as well as a new process in which like-charged atomic nuclei overcome the Coulomb barrier at normal temperatures and pressures. Many other scientists considered the entire collection of physical observations-along with the hypothesis of a "cold fusion"--entirely a mistake. Twenty years later, some people who had dismissed the field in its entirety are considering the validity of at least some of the reported experimental phenomena. As well, some researchers in the field are wondering whether the underlying phenomena may be not a fusion process but a neutron capture/absorption process. In 2002, a related tabletop form of thermonuclear fusion was discovered in the field of acoustic inertial confinement fusion. We briefly review some of this work, as well.

  6. Nuclear structure and reaction studies at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, G.W.; Ray, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    This document constitutes the (1988--1991) technical progress report for the ongoing medium energy physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics;(2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  7. Power Installations based on Activated Nuclear Reactions of Fission and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    The general scheme of power installations based on nuclear reactions of fission and synthesis activated by external sources is analyzed. The external activation makes possible to support nuclear reactions at temperatures and pressures lower than needed for chain reactions, so simplifies considerably practical realization of power installations. The possibility of operation on subcritical masses allows making installations compact and safe at emergency situations. Installations are suitable for transmutation of radioactive nuclides, what solves the problem of utilization of nuclear waste products. It is proposed and considered schemes of power installations based on nuclear reactions of fission and fusion, activated by external sources, different from ADS systems. Variants of activation of nuclear reactions of fission (U-235, 238, Pu-239) and fusion (Li-6,7, B-10,11) are considered.

  8. Effect of a strong magnetic field on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekerzhitskii, V.S. [Pushkin Pedagogical Institute, Brest (Belarus)

    1995-01-01

    According to modern concepts, the electron-neutron-nuclear (Aen) phase of dense highly degenerate matter can be realized in the shells of neutron stars. This phase has relatively stable and absolutely stable states of thermodynamic equilibrium. Strong magnetic fields can exist in neutron stars. For this reason, analysis of their effect on the characteristics of the Aen phase is of great interest. It is specially important to study the influence of strong magnetic fields on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter because the transition to the absolute equilibrium state proceeds through these reactions.

  9. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yi; Jorissen, Alain; Chen, Guangling; Arnould, Marcel; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220537

    2012-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB+NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-HFB model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8<=Z<=110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100000 Hauser-Feshbach n-, p-, a-, and gamma-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer react...

  10. Development of a utility system for charged particle nuclear reaction data by using intelligentPad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Information Processing Center, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Faculty of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a utility system, WinNRDF2, for a nuclear charged particle reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on the IntelligentPad architecture. By using the system, we can search the experimental data of a charged particle reaction of NRDF. Furthermore, we also see the experimental data by using graphic pads which was made through the CONTIP project. (author)

  11. Multiple scattering and N-body approaches to nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P.C.; Thaler, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    The relationship between conventional multiple scattering approaches and the recently developed N-body approaches to nuclear reactions is considered with a view towards elastic scattering applications. Connectivity expansions in the N-body approach and multiple scattering expansions in the Watson approach are developed by a common technique so that a comparison of the physical content of each can be made. In the N-body case this leads to a new derivation of the equations of Bencze, Redish, and Sloan in both particle-labelled and partition-labelled form and this yields new insight into minimal dimensionality of these equations and into the role of channel coupling schemes within this formulation. The relative simplicity and generality with which these results are obtained is designed to be easily understood by those unfamiliar with N-body formalisms. The two approaches are contrasted first for the three-particle problem and subsequently for the many-body problem. We argue that a strict adherence to the connected-kernel property which is advantageous for the three-particle problem may not be so advantageous for the many-body elastic scattering problem. Undesirable physical characteristics of the connectivity expansion for elastic scattering are identified and their rectification is discussed. The off-shell transformation associated with the N-body approach is examined critically. The origin of the multiplicity of N-body coupling schemes is elucidated. It is shown that a modified concept of connectivity, called inclusive connectivity, can be introduced to guide expansions which can be truncated in a physically meaningful way. The inclusive connectivity expansion is seen to be identical to the spectator expansion for an elementary projectile but differs in the case of a composite projectile.

  12. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid- based radioactive nuclear beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valdir Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    The University of Notre Dame, USA (Becchetti et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A505, 377 (2003)) and later the University of São Paulo, Brazil (Lichtenthaler et al, Eur. Phys. J. A25, S-01, 733 (2005)) adopted a system based on superconducting solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems the solenoids act as thick lenses to collect, select, and focus the secondary beam into a scattering chamber. Many experiments with radioactive light particle beams (RNB) such as 6He, 7Be, 8Li, 8B have been performed at these two facilities. These low-energy RNB have been used to investigate low-energy reactions such as elastic scattering, transfer and breakup, providing useful information on the structure of light nuclei near the drip line and on astrophysics. Total reaction cross-sections, derived from elastic scattering analysis, have also been investigated for light system as a function of energy and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed.

  13. Effective interaction: From nuclear reactions to neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Basu

    2014-05-01

    An equation of state (EoS) for symmetric nuclear matter is constructed using the density-dependent M3Y effective interaction and extended for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompressibility, symmetry energy and its slope agree well with experimentally extracted values. Folded microscopic potentials using this effective interaction, whose density dependence is determined from nuclear matter calculations, provide excellent descriptions for proton, alpha and cluster radioactivities, elastic and inelastic scattering. The nuclear deformation parameters extracted from inelastic scattering of protons agree well with other available results. The high density behaviour of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter satisfies the constraints from the observed flow data of heavy-ion collisions. The neutron star properties studied using -equilibrated neutron star matter obtained from this effective interaction reconcile with the recent observations of the massive compact stars.

  14. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications. BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Chen, G. L.; Arnould, M.

    2013-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB + NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8 ≤ Z ≤ 110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100 000 Hauser-Feshbach neutron-, proton-, α-, and γ-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer reactions and 19 charged-particle radiative captures on stable targets with mass numbers A < 16. NACRE II features the inclusion of experimental data made available after the publication of NACRE in 1999 and up to 2011. In addition, the extrapolation of the available data to the very low energies of astrophysical relevance is improved through the systematic use of phenomenological potential models. Uncertainties in the rates are also evaluated on this basis. Finally, the latest release v10.0 of the web-based tool NETGEN is presented. In addition to the data already used in the previous NETGEN package, it contains in a fully documented form the new BRUSLIB and NACRE II data, as well as new experiment-based radiative neutron capture cross sections. The full new versions of BRUSLIB, NACRE II, and NETGEN are available electronically from the nuclear database at http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/NuclearData. The nuclear material is presented in

  15. Development of a utility system for nuclear reaction data file: WinNRDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Information Processing Center, Kitami Inst. of Tech., Hokkaido (Japan); Ohbayasi, Yosihide; Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Lab., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Akira [Faculty of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A utility system, WinNRDF, is developed for charged particle nuclear reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on the Windows interface. By using this system, we can easily search the experimental data of a charged particle nuclear reaction in NRDF than old retrieval systems on the mainframe and also see graphically the experimental data on GUI (Graphical User Interface). We adopted a mechanism of making a new index of keywords to put to practical use of the time dependent properties of the NRDF database. (author)

  16. Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measurement of the spectra and production cross sections of. gamma. -rays produced by 14 MeV neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Ronglin; Shi Xiamin; Wu Yongshun; Xing Jinjiang; Ding Dazhao

    1982-02-01

    A 42 cm/sup 3/ Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measuring the spectra and the production cross sections of ..gamma..-rays produced by fast neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei is described in this paper. The incident neutrons are produced by T(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction in an high tension set with the incident deuteron energy of 200 keV. The time of flight technique is used to discriminate between the scattered neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from nonelastic interaction. The ..cap alpha..-particles are picked up by a Si(Au) surface barrier detector and the ARC timing discriminaters are used in both Si(Au) and Ge(Li) channels. The overall time resolution (FWHM) of this system is 4.1 ns typically for energy selection threshold at 400keV. The block diagram of spectrometer system is described in detail. The complex complete shielding damage of Ge(Li) detector in this fast neutron field is well discussed.

  17. The effect of nuclear structure in the emission of reaction products in heavy-ion reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Kundu

    2014-04-01

    Study of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) and light charged particles (LCPs) emission has been carried out for a few reactions involving -cluster and non--cluster systems to see how the emission processes are affected by nuclear clustering. Li, Be, B and -particles have been studied from α-clustered system 16O + 12C for 117, 125, 145 and 160 MeV bombarding energies respectively. The enhanced yields of near-entrance channel fragment B and large quadrupole deformation of the produced composite 28Si* extracted from LCP spectra indicate the survival of orbiting-like process in 16O + 12C system at these energies. The same IMFs emitted from the -cluster system 12C (77 MeV) + 28Si and nearby non- cluster 11B (64 MeV) + 28Si and 12C (73 MeV) + 27Al (all having the same excitation energy of ∼67 MeV) have also been studied. The fully energy damped (fusion–fission) and the partially energy damped (deep inelastic) components of the fragment energy spectra have been extracted. It has been found that the yields of the fully energy damped fragments for all the above reactions are in conformity with the respective statistical model predictions. The time-scales of various deep inelastic fragment emissions have been extracted from the angular distribution data. The angular momentum dissipation in deep inelastic collisions has been estimated from the data and it has been found to be close to the corresponding sticking limit value.

  18. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm.

  19. Structure and evolution of strange attractors in non-elastic triangular billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo, Aubin; Sanders, David P

    2011-01-01

    We study pinball billiard dynamics in an equilateral triangular table. In such dynamics, collisions with the walls are non-elastic: the outgoing angle with the normal vector to the boundary is a uniform factor $\\lambda < 1$ smaller than the incoming angle. This leads to contraction in phase space for the discrete-time dynamics between consecutive collisions, and hence to attractors of zero Lebesgue measure, which are almost always fractal strange attractors with chaotic dynamics, due to the presence of an expansion mechanism. We study the structure of these strange attractors and their evolution as the contraction parameter $\\lambda$ is varied. For $\\lambda$ in the interval (0, 1/3), we prove rigorously that the attractor has the structure of a Cantor set times an interval, whereas for larger values of $\\lambda$ the billiard dynamics gives rise to nonaccessible regions in phase space. For $\\lambda$ close to 1, the attractor splits into three transitive components, the basins of attraction of which have fra...

  20. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm. PMID:27313372

  1. Resonance Conversion as a Catalyser of Nuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Karpeshin, Feodor; Zhang, Weining

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that resonance interal conversion offers a feasible tool for mastering nuclear processes with laser or synchrotron radiation. Physics of the process is discussed in detail in historical aspect. Possible way of experimental applicaytion is shown in the case of the $M1$ 70.6-keV transition in nuclei of $^{169}$Yb. Nuclear transition rate in hydrogenlike ions of this nuclide can be enhanced by up to four orders of magnitude.

  2. Resonance Conversion as a Catalyzer of Nuclear Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARPESHIN Feodor; ZHANG Jing-Bo; ZHANG Wei-Ning

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is shown that resonance internal conversion offers a feasible tool for mastering nuclear processes with laser or synchrotron radiation. The physics of the process is discussed in detail in a historical aspect. Possible experimental application is shown in the case of the M1 70.6-keV transition in nuclei of 169 Yb. The nuclear transition rate in hydrogen-like ions of this nuclide can be enhanced by up to four orders of magnitude.

  3. Probing the nuclear symmetry energy with heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lie-wen; KO Che-Ming; LI Bao-an; YONG Gao-chan

    2007-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei provide a unique means to investigate the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter,especially the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy.In particular,recent analyses of the isospin diffusion data in heavyion reactions have already put a stringent constraint on thenuclear symmetry energy around the nuclear matter saturation density.We review this exciting result and discuss its implications on nuclear effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei.In addition,we also review the theoretical progress on probing the high density behaviors of the nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by high energy radioactive beams.

  4. EXTENSION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION MODEL CODE EMPIRE TO ACTINIDES NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAPOTE,R.; SIN, M.; TRKOV, A.; HERMAN, M.; CARLSON, B.V.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2007-04-22

    Recent extensions and improvements of the EMPIRE code system are outlined. They add new capabilities to the code, such as prompt fission neutron spectra calculations using Hauser-Feshbach plus pre-equilibrium pre-fission spectra, cross section covariance matrix calculations by Monte Carlo method, fitting of optical model parameters, extended set of optical model potentials including new dispersive coupled channel potentials, parity-dependent level densities and transmission through numerically defined fission barriers. These features, along with improved and validated ENDF formatting, exclusive/inclusive spectra, and recoils make the current EMPIRE release a complete and well validated tool for evaluation of nuclear data at incident energies above the resonance region. The current EMPIRE release has been used in evaluations of neutron induced reaction files for {sup 232}Th and {sup 231,233}Pa nuclei in the fast neutron region at IAEA. Triple-humped fission barriers and exclusive pre-fission neutron spectra were considered for the fission data evaluation. Total, fission, capture and neutron emission cross section, average resonance parameters and angular distributions of neutron scattering are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.

  5. Helium mobility in SON68 borosilicate nuclear glass: A nuclear reaction analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bès, R., E-mail: rene.bes@cnrs-orleans.fr [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Sauvage, T. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Université d’Orléans, Faculté des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Peuget, S. [CEA/DEN/VRH/DTCD/SECM/LMPA Marcoule (France); Haussy, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Chamssedine, F. [Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences V, Nabatiyeh (Lebanon); Oliviero, E. [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 104-108, F-91405 Orsay (France); Fares, T. [CEA/DEN/VRH/DTCD/SECM/LMPA Marcoule (France); Vincent, L. [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-11-15

    The {sup 3}He behavior in the non active R7T7 type borosilicate glass called SON68 has been investigated using the implantation method to introduce helium in the material. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was performed to follow the helium concentration depth profile evolution as a function of annealing time and temperature. In addition, in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been implemented to study the formation of helium bubbles during both implantation and annealing processes. Numerical modeling with two different approaches is proposed and discussed to investigate the helium mobility mechanisms. Our study reveals for helium incorporation by implantation at low temperature the presence of several helium populations with disparate diffusivities. The most mobile helium fraction would be attributed to atomic diffusion. The corresponding activation energy value (0.61 eV) extracted from Arrhenius graphs is in good agreement with literature data. The results also highlight that the damages associated to helium sursaturation are the source of small helium clusters formation, with a reduced mobility instead of the atomic mobility measured by the infusion technique. Small cavities that support this assumption have been observed by TEM at low temperature.

  6. Nuclear Reaction Uncertainties, Massive Gravitino Decays and the Cosmological Lithium Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cyburt, Richard H; Fields, Brian D; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A; Spanos, Vassilis C

    2010-01-01

    We consider the effects of uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates on the cosmological constraints on the decays of unstable particles during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We identify the nuclear reactions due to non-thermal hadrons that are the most important in perturbing standard BBN, then quantify the uncertainties in these reactions and in the resulting light-element abundances. These results also indicate the key nuclear processes for which improved cross section data would allow different light-element abundances to be determined more accurately, thereby making possible more precise probes of BBN and evaluations of the cosmological constraints on unstable particles. Applying this analysis to models with unstable gravitinos decaying into neutralinos, we calculate the likelihood function for the light-element abundances measured currently, taking into account the current experimental errors in the determinations of the relevant nuclear reaction rates. We find a region of the gravitino mass and...

  7. Summary Report of the Workshop on The Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkova, V. [IAEA Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-10

    The Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database (EXFOR) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2014. The workshop was organized to discuss various aspects of the EXFOR compilation process including compilation rules, different techniques for nuclear reaction data measurements, software developments, etc. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop is reported here.

  8. Summary Report of the Workshop on The Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkova, V. [IAEA Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database (EXFOR) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2014. The workshop was organized to discuss various aspects of the EXFOR compilation process including compilation rules, different techniques for nuclear reaction data measurements, software developments, etc. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop is reported here.

  9. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning. Nuclear reaction rates for hydrogen burning in RGB, AGB and Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeltzig, A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Bruno, C.G.; Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cavanna, F.; Ferraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova (Italy); INFN, Genova (Italy); Cristallo, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, INAF, Teramo (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Depalo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); DeBoer, R.J.; Wiescher, M. [University of Notre Dame, Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, Indiana (United States); Di Leva, A.; Imbriani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Marigo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Terrasi, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Seconda Universita di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions. (orig.)

  10. EXFOR – a global experimental nuclear reaction data repository: Status and new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkova Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC have collaborated since the 1960s on the worldwide collection, compilation and dissemination of experimental nuclear reaction data. New publications are systematically complied, and all agreed data assembled and incorporated within the EXFOR database. Recent upgrades to achieve greater completeness of the contents are described, along with reviews and adjustments of the compilation rules for specific types of data.

  11. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  12. Nuclear coherences in photosynthetic reaction centers following light excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S.; Norris, J.R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Berthold, T.; Ohmes, E.; Kothe, G. [Univ. of Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Physical Chemistry; Thurnauer, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-07-01

    Transient electron paramagnetic resonance is used to study the secondary radical pair in plant photosystem I. Nuclear coherences are observed in the transverse magnetization at lower temperatures following light excitation. Comparative studies of deuterated and deuterated {sup 15}N-substituted cyanobacteria S. lividus indicate assignment of these coherences to nitrogen nuclei in the primary donor and deuterons in the secondary acceptor. The modulation amplitude of a deuteron matrix line, as a function of the microwave power, reveals a distinct resonance behavior. The maximum amplitude is obtained when the Rabi frequency equals the nuclear Zeeman frequency.

  13. Total Nuclear Reaction Cross Section Induced by Halo Nuclei and Stable Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-Jun; JIANG Huan-Qing; LIU Jian-Ye; ZUO Wei; REN Zhong-Zhou; LEE Xi-Guo

    2003-01-01

    We develop a method for calculation of the total reaction cross sections induced by the halo nuclei and stable. nuclei. This approach is based on the Glauber theory, which is valid for nuclear reactions at high energies. It is extended for nuclear reactions at low energies and intermediate energies by including both the quantum correction and Coulomb correction under the assumption of the effective nuclear density distribution. The calculated results of the total reaction cross section induced by stable nuclei agree well with 30 experimental data within 10 percent accuracy. The comparison between the numerical results and 20 experimental data for the total nuclear reaction cross section induced by the neutron halo nuclei and the proton halo nuclei indicates a satisfactory agreement after considering the halo structure of these nuclei, which implies quite different mean fields for the nuclear reactions induced by halo nuclei and stable nuclei. The halo nucleon distributions and the root-mean-square radii of these nuclei can be extracted from the above comparison based on the improved Glauber model, which indicates clearly the halo structures of these nuclei. Especially,it is clear to see that the medium correction of the nucleon-nucleon collision has little effect on the total reaction cross sections induced by the halo nuclei due to the very weak binding and the very extended density distribution.

  14. Total Nuclear Reaction Cross Section Induced by Halo Nuclei and Stable Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOWen-Jun; JIANGHuan-Qing; LIUJian-Ye; ZUOWei; RENZhong-Zhou; LEEXi-Guo

    2003-01-01

    We develop a method for calculation of the total reaction cross sections induced by the halo nuclei and stable nuclei. This approach is based on the Glauber theory, which is valid for nuclear reactions at high energies. It is extended for nuclear reactions at low energies and intermediate energies by including both the quantum correction and Coulomb correction under the assumption of the effective nuclear density distribution. The calculated results of the total reaction cross section induced by stable nuclei agree well with 30 experimental data within 10 percent accuracy.The comparison between the numerical results and 20 experimental data for the total nuclear reaction cross section induced by the neutron halo nuclei and the proton halo nuclei indicates a satisfactory agreement after considering the halo structure of these nuclei, which implies quite digerent mean fields for the nuclear reactions induced by halo nuclei and stable nuclei. The halo nucleon distributions and the root-mean-square radii of these nuclei can be extracted from the above comparison based on the improved Glauber model, which indicates clearly the halo structures of these nuclei. Especially,it is clear to see that the medium correction of the nucleon-nucleon collision has little effect on the total reaction cross sections, induced by the halo nuclei due to the very weak binding and the very extended density distribution.

  15. Ion beam analysis - development and application of nuclear reaction analysis methods, in particular at a nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeland, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    This thesis treats the development of Ion Beam Analysis methods, principally for the analysis of light elements at a nuclear microprobe. The light elements in this context are defined as having an atomic number less than approx. 13. The work reported is to a large extent based on multiparameter methods. Several signals are recorded simultaneously, and the data can be effectively analyzed to reveal structures that can not be observed through one-parameter collection. The different techniques are combined in a new set-up at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The various detectors for reaction products are arranged in such a way that they can be used for the simultaneous analysis of hydrogen, lithium, boron and fluorine together with traditional PIXE analysis and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy as well as photon-tagged Nuclear Reaction Analysis. 48 refs.

  16. A method of analysing experimental data of nuclear reaction cross sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengJun; ShenWen-Qing

    1997-01-01

    A method of analysing experimental data of nuclear reaction cross sections σr induced by radioactive beam is described.It can be used in analysis of experimental unclear reaction cross section data obtained by Na-isopope radioactive beams on different targets.Neutron halo has not been found in these nuclei.

  17. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Forrest, C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hohenberger, M.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R. M.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Craxton, R. S.; Dearborn, D.; Farrell, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Garcia, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hale, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hohensee, M.; Holunga, D. M.; Hoppe, M.; Janezic, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kohut, T. R.; Lahmann, B.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Masse, L.; McEvoy, A.; McKenty, P.; McNabb, D. P.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T. G.; Paris, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pino, J.; Radha, P. B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rosse, B.; Rubery, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Sanchez, J.; Schmitt, M.; Schoff, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Tipton, R. E.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle-producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. The potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. The goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellar-like plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.

  18. Dependence of X-Ray Burst Models on Nuclear Reaction Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyburt, R. H.; Amthor, A. M.; Heger, A.; Johnson, E.; Keek, L.; Meisel, Z.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes on the surface of accreting neutron stars, and reliable burst models are needed to interpret observations in terms of properties of the neutron star and the binary system. We investigate the dependence of X-ray burst models on uncertainties in (p, γ), (α, γ), and (α, p) nuclear reaction rates using fully self-consistent burst models that account for the feedbacks between changes in nuclear energy generation and changes in astrophysical conditions. A two-step approach first identified sensitive nuclear reaction rates in a single-zone model with ignition conditions chosen to match calculations with a state-of-the-art 1D multi-zone model based on the Kepler stellar evolution code. All relevant reaction rates on neutron-deficient isotopes up to mass 106 were individually varied by a factor of 100 up and down. Calculations of the 84 changes in reaction rate with the highest impact were then repeated in the 1D multi-zone model. We find a number of uncertain reaction rates that affect predictions of light curves and burst ashes significantly. The results provide insights into the nuclear processes that shape observables from X-ray bursts, and guidance for future nuclear physics work to reduce nuclear uncertainties in X-ray burst models.

  19. LDRD Final Report: Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements (04-ERD-057)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D; Burke, J; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Forssen, C; Gueorguiev, V; Hoffman, R D

    2007-02-23

    Research carried out in the framework of the LDRD project ''Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements'' (04-ERD-057) is summarized. The project was designed to address the challenge of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions involving unstable targets, with a particular emphasis on reactions that play a key role in the production of the elements between Iron and Uranium. This report reviews the motivation for the research, introduces the approach employed to address the problem, and summarizes the resulting scientific insights, technical findings, and related accomplishments.

  20. Neutron Transfer Reactions: Surrogates for Neutron Capture for Basic and Applied Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, A.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Becker, J. A.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K. A.; Erikson, L.; Gaddis, A.; Harlin, C.; Hatarik, R.; Howard, J.; Jandel, M.; Johnson, M. S.; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, F.; Livesay, R. J.; Ma, Z.; Matei, C.; Matthews, C.; Moazen, B.; Nesaraja, C. D.; O'Malley, P.; Patterson, N.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, D.; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, K.; Shapira, D.; Shriner, J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, M. S.; Swan, T.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, G. L.

    2009-03-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on 130,132Sn, 134Te and 75As are discussed.

  1. Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Adekola, Aderemi S [ORNL; Allen, J. [Rutgers University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee; Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Gaddis, A. L. [Furman University; Harlin, Christopher W [ORNL; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Howard, Joshua A [ORNL; Jandel, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnson, Micah [ORNL; Kapler, R. [University of Tennessee; Krolas, W. [University of Warsaw; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL; Ma, Zhanwen [ORNL; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Matthews, C. [Rutgers University; Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Patterson, N. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Paulauskas, Stanley [University of Tennessee; Pelham, T. [University of Surrey, UK; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Radford, David C [ORNL; Rogers, J. [Tennessee Technological University; Schmitt, Kyle [University of Tennessee; Shapira, Dan [ORNL; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Sissom, D. J. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Swan, T. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilhelmy, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilson, Gemma L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  2. Neutrino nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrinos by charge exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2014-09-01

    Neutrino nuclear responses are crucial for neutrino studies in nuclei. Charge exchange reactions (CER) are shown to be used to study charged current neutrino nuclear responses associated with double beta decays(DBD)and astro neutrino interactions. CERs to be used are high energy-resolution (He3 ,t) reactions at RCNP, photonuclear reactions via IAR at NewSUBARU and muon capture reactions at MUSIC RCNP and MLF J-PARC. The Gamow Teller (GT) strengths studied by CERs reproduce the observed 2 neutrino DBD matrix elements. The GT and spin dipole (SD) matrix elements are found to be reduced much due to the nucleon spin isospin correlations and the non-nucleonic (delta isobar) nuclear medium effects. Impacts of the reductions on the DBD matrix elements and astro neutrino interactions are discussed.

  3. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-12-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A {approx_equal} 182 region, structure of {sup 182}Hg and {sup 182}Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm and the anomalous h{sub 11/2} proton crossing in the A{approximately}135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier {alpha} particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4{pi} channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  4. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. [Dept. of Chemistry, Washington Univ. , St. Louis, Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A [approx equal] 182 region, structure of [sup 182]Hg and [sup 182]Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in [sup 136]Pm and the anomalous h[sub 11/2] proton crossing in the A[approximately]135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier [alpha] particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative [sup 209]Bi + [sup 136]Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4[pi] channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  5. Isospin transport and reaction mechanism in nuclear reactions in the range 20–40 MeV/n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlini, S., E-mail: barlini@fi.infn.it; Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdré, S.; Pastore, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell’Università and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Vient, E. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN et Université de Caen, F-14050 Caen-Cedex (France); Bonnet, E.; Chibhi, A.; Frankland, J. D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P.5027, F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the isospin degree of freedom in nuclear reactions. Comparing systems involving partners with different N/Z, it has been possible to investigate the isospin transport process and its influence on the final products population. This can be then related to the symmetry energy term of the nuclear EOS. From the experimental point of view, this task requires detectors able to measure both charge and mass of the emitted products, in the widest possible range of energy and size of the fragments. With this objective, the FAZIA and GARFIELD+RCo apparatus have been used with success in some recent experiments.

  6. Isospin transport and reaction mechanism in nuclear reactions in the range 20-40 MeV/n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlini, S.; Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Bougault, R.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Chibhi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Vient, E.; Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M.; Bruno, M.; Marchi, T.; Morelli, L.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kozik, T.; Twarog, T.; Fabris, D.; Valdré, S.; Pastore, G.

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the isospin degree of freedom in nuclear reactions. Comparing systems involving partners with different N/Z, it has been possible to investigate the isospin transport process and its influence on the final products population. This can be then related to the symmetry energy term of the nuclear EOS. From the experimental point of view, this task requires detectors able to measure both charge and mass of the emitted products, in the widest possible range of energy and size of the fragments. With this objective, the FAZIA and GARFIELD+RCo apparatus have been used with success in some recent experiments.

  7. Effect of gamma-strength on nuclear reaction calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Kadenko, Igor; Bondar, Borys; Gorbachenko, Oleksandr; Leshchenko, Borys; Solodovnyk, Kateryna; Tkach, Oleksandr; Zheltonozhskyi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The results of the study of gamma-transition description in fast neutron capture and photofission are presented. Recent experimental data were used, namely, the spectrum of prompt gamma-rays in the energy range 2{\\div}18 MeV from 14-MeV neutron capture in natural Ni and isomeric ratios in primary fragments of photofission of the isotopes of U, Np and Pu by bremsstrahlung with end-point energies $E_e$= 10.5, 12 and 18 MeV. The data are compared with the theoretical calculations performed within EMPIRE 3.2 and TALYS 1.6 codes. The mean value of angular momenta and their distributions were determined in the primary fragments $^{84}$Br, $^{97}$Nb, $^{90}$Rb, $^{131,133}$Te, $^{132}$Sb, $^{132,134}$I, $^{135}$Xe of photofissions. An impact of the characteristics of nuclear excited states on the calculation results is studied using different models for photon strength function and nuclear level density.

  8. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    P. B. Rose; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M; J. Nattress; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of act...

  9. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamers F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  10. Dynamical Behavior of Core 3 He Nuclear Reaction-Diffusion Systems and Sun's Gravitational Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jiulin; SHEN Hong

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of the sun's gravitational field with processes of diffusion and convection exerts a significant influence on the dynamical behavior of the core 3He nuclear reaction-diffusion system. Stability analyses of the system are made in this paper by using the theory of nonequilibrium dynamics. It is showed that, in the nuclear reaction regions extending from the center to about 0.38 times of the radius of the sun, the gravitational field enables the core 3He nuclear reaction-diffusion system to become unstable and, after the instability, new states to appear in the system have characteristic of time oscillation. This may change the production rates of both 7Be and 8B neutrinos.

  11. Absorption-Fluctuation Theorem for Nuclear Reactions: Brink-Axel, Incomplete Fusion and All That

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, M S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the connection between absorption, averages and fluctuations in nuclear reactions. The fluctuations in the entrance channel result in the compound nucleus, Hauser-Feshbach, cross section, the fluctuations in the intermediate channels, result in modifications of multistep reaction cross sections, while the fluctuations in the final channel result in hybrid cross sections that can be used to describe incomplete fusion reactions. We discuss the latter in details and comment on the validity of the assumptions used in the develpoment of the Surrogate method. We also discuss the theory of multistep reactions with regards to intermediate state fluctuations and the energy dependence and non-locality of the intermediate channels optical potentials.

  12. Nuclear Reaction Rates in a Plasma The Effect of Highly Damped Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Opher, M; Opher, Merav; Opher, Reuven

    2000-01-01

    The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is used to evaluate the screening factor of nuclear reactions due to the electromagnetic fluctuations in a plasma. We show that the commonly used Saltpeter factor is obtained if only fluctuations near the plasma eigenfrequency are assumed to be important (\\omega \\sim \\omega_{pe}\\ll T (\\hbar=k_{B}=1)). By taking into account all the fluctuations, the highly damped ones, with \\omega >\\omega_{pe}, as well as those with \\omega\\leq\\omega_{pe}, we find that nuclear reaction rates are higher than those obtained using the Saltpeter factor, for many interesting plasmas.

  13. Activation cross sections of $\\alpha$-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of $^{178}$W/$^{178m}$Ta generator

    CERN Document Server

    Tárk'anyi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178}$W-$^{178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  14. Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

  15. Euclidean resonance and a new type of nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, B I

    2003-01-01

    The extremely small probability of quantum tunneling through an almost classical potential barrier may become not small under the action of the specially adapted nonstationary field. The tunneling rate has a sharp peak as a function of the particle energy when it is close to the certain resonant value defined by the nonstationary field (Euclidean resonance). Alpha decay of nuclei has a small probability since the alpha particle should tunnel through a very nontransparent Coulomb barrier. The incident proton, due to the Coulomb interaction with the tunneling alpha particle, plays the role of a nonstationary field which may result in Euclidean resonance in tunneling of the alpha particle. At the resonant proton energy, which is of the order of 0.2 Mev, the alpha particle escapes the nucleus and goes to infinity with no influence of the nuclear Coulomb barrier. The process is inelastic since the alpha particle releases energy and the proton gains it. This stimulation of alpha decay by a proton constitutes a new ...

  16. Ranking the importance of nuclear reactions for activation and transmutation events

    CERN Document Server

    Arter, Wayne; Relton, Samuel D; Higham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Pathways-reduced analysis is one of the techniques used by the Fispact-II nuclear activation and transmutation software to study the sensitivity of the computed inventories to uncertainties in reaction cross-sections. Although deciding which pathways are most important is very helpful in for example determining which nuclear data would benefit from further refinement, pathways-reduced analysis need not necessarily define the most critical reaction, since one reaction may contribute to several different pathways. This work examines three different techniques for ranking reactions in their order of importance in determining the final inventory, viz. a pathways based metric (PBM), the direct method and one based on the Pearson correlation coefficient. Reasons why the PBM is to be preferred are presented.

  17. Cross Sections Calculations of ( d, t) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Yiğit, M.; Tanır, G.

    2013-04-01

    In nuclear fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In contrast with fission power, the fusion reaction processes does not produce radioactive nuclides. The fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2. So the fusion energy will not contribute to environmental problems such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. Fusion powered electricity generation was initially believed to be readily achievable, as fission power had been. However, the extreme requirements for continuous reactions and plasma containment led to projections being extended by several decades. In 2010, more than 60 years after the first attempts, commercial power production is still believed to be unlikely before 2050. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. In the fusion reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. Therefore, for self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( d, t) nuclear reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. Since the experimental data of charged particle induced reactions are scarce, self-consistent calculation and analyses using nuclear theoretical models are very important. In this study, ( d, t) cross sections for target nuclei 19F, 50Cr, 54Fe, 58Ni, 75As, 89Y, 90Zr, 107Ag, 127I, 197Au and 238U have been investigated up to 50 MeV deuteron energy. The excitation functions for ( d, t) reactions have been calculated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. Calculation results have been also compared with the available measurements in

  18. Impact of Nuclear Reaction Uncertainties on AGB Nucleosynthesis Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bisterzo, S; Kaeppeler, F; Wiescher, M; Travaglio, C

    2012-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with low initial mass (1 - 3 Msun) are responsible for the production of neutron-capture elements through the main s-process (main slow neutron capture process). The major neutron source is 13C(alpha, n)16O, which burns radiatively during the interpulse periods at about 8 keV and produces a rather low neutron density (10^7 n/cm^3). The second neutron source 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg, partially activated during the convective thermal pulses when the energy reaches about 23 keV, gives rise to a small neutron exposure but a peaked neutron density (Nn(peak) > 10^11 n/cm^3). At metallicities close to solar, it does not substantially change the final s-process abundances, but mainly affects the isotopic ratios near s-path branchings sensitive to the neutron density. We examine the effect of the present uncertainties of the two neutron sources operating in AGB stars, as well as the competition with the 22Ne(alpha, gamma)26Mg reaction. The analysis is carried out on AGB the main-s process...

  19. Open Problems in Applying Random-Matrix Theory to Nuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Weidenmueller, H A

    2014-01-01

    Problems in applying random-matrix theory (RMT) to nuclear reactions arise in two domains. To justify the approach, statistical properties of isolated resonances observed experimentally must agree with RMT predictions. That agreement is less striking than would be desirable. In the implementation of the approach, the range of theoretically predicted observables is too narrow.

  20. Open problems in applying random-matrix theory to nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenmüller, H. A.

    2014-09-01

    Problems in applying random-matrix theory (RMT) to nuclear reactions arise in two domains. To justify the approach, statistical properties of isolated resonances observed experimentally must agree with RMT predictions. That agreement is less striking than would be desirable. In the implementation of the approach, the range of theoretically predicted observables is too narrow.

  1. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics: Recent experimental and theoretical studies, and further quests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. (Inst. d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Univ. Libre, Brussels (Belgium))

    1992-03-09

    A brief review is presented of recent theoretical and experimental efforts that have led to an improvement in our knowledge of nuclear reaction rates of interest in astrophysics. Emphasis is also put on the still existing (sometimes very large) uncertainties that affect some important rates. This is especially the case when short-lived nuclei are involved in the entrance channel. (orig.).

  2. Toward Predictive Theories of Nuclear Reactions Across the Isotopic Chart: Web Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blackmon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elster, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Launey, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scielzo, N. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-12

    Recent years have seen exciting new developments and progress in nuclear structure theory, reaction theory, and experimental techniques, that allow us to move towards a description of exotic systems and environments, setting the stage for new discoveries. The purpose of the 5-week program was to bring together physicists from the low-energy nuclear structure and reaction communities to identify avenues for achieving reliable and predictive descriptions of reactions involving nuclei across the isotopic chart. The 4-day embedded workshop focused on connecting theory developments to experimental advances and data needs for astrophysics and other applications. Nuclear theory must address phenomena from laboratory experiments to stellar environments, from stable nuclei to weakly-bound and exotic isotopes. Expanding the reach of theory to these regimes requires a comprehensive understanding of the reaction mechanisms involved as well as detailed knowledge of nuclear structure. A recurring theme throughout the program was the desire to produce reliable predictions rooted in either ab initio or microscopic approaches. At the same time it was recognized that some applications involving heavy nuclei away from stability, e.g. those involving fi ssion fragments, may need to rely on simple parameterizations of incomplete data for the foreseeable future. The goal here, however, is to subsequently improve and refine the descriptions, moving to phenomenological, then microscopic approaches. There was overarching consensus that future work should also focus on reliable estimates of errors in theoretical descriptions.

  3. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd/D lattice: emission of charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Stanislaw; Mosier-Boss, Pamela A; Gordon, Frank E

    2007-06-01

    Almost two decades ago, Fleischmann and Pons reported excess enthalpy generation in the negatively polarized Pd/D-D2O system, which they attributed to nuclear reactions. In the months and years that followed, other manifestations of nuclear activities in this system were observed, viz. tritium and helium production and transmutation of elements. In this report, we present additional evidence, namely, the emission of highly energetic charged particles emitted from the Pd/D electrode when this system is placed in either an external electrostatic or magnetostatic field. The density of tracks registered by a CR-39 detector was found to be of a magnitude that provides undisputable evidence of their nuclear origin. The experiments were reproducible. A model based upon electron capture is proposed to explain the reaction products observed in the Pd/D-D2O system.

  4. Microscopic calculations of the characteristics of radiative nuclear reactions for double-magic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Achakovskiy, Oleg; Tselyaev, Victor; Shitov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections and average radiative widths of neutron resonances for two double-magic nuclei 132Sn and 208Pb have been calculated using the microscopic photon strength functions, which were obtained within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in the time blocking approximation. For the first time, the microscopic PSFs have been obtained within the fully self-consistent approach with exact accounting for the single particle continuum (for 208Pb). The approach includes phonon coupling effects in addition to the standard RPA approach. The known Skyrme force has been used. The calculations of nuclear reaction characteristics have been performed with the EMPIRE 3.1 nuclear reaction code. Here, three nuclear level density (NLD) models have been used: the so-called phenomenological GSM, the EMPIRE specific (or Enhanced GSM) and the microscopical combinatorial HFB NLD models. For both considered characteristics we found a significant disagreement ...

  5. Completing the nuclear reaction puzzle of the nucleosynthesis of 92Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Tveten, G M; Schwengner, R; Naqvi, F; Larsen, A C; Eriksen, T K; Garrote, F L Bello; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Campo, L Crespo; Guttormsen, M; Giacoppo, F; Görgen, A; Hagen, T W; Hadynska-Klek, K; Klintefjord, M; Meyer, B S; Nyhus, H T; Renstrøm, T; Rose, S J; Sahin, E; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest questions for modern physics to address is how elements heavier than iron are created in extreme, astrophysical environments. A particularly challenging part of that question is the creation of the so-called p-nuclei, which are believed to be mainly produced in some types of supernovae. The lack of needed nuclear data presents an obstacle in nailing down the precise site and astrophysical conditions. In this work, we present for the first time measurements on the nuclear level density and average strength function of $^{92}$Mo. State-of-the-art p-process calculations systematically underestimate the observed solar abundance of this isotope. Our data provide stringent constraints on the $^{91}$Nb$(p,{\\gamma})^{92}$Mo reaction rate, which is the last unmeasured reaction in the nucleosynthesis puzzle of $^{92}$Mo. Based on our results, we conclude that the $^{92}$Mo abundance anomaly is not due to the nuclear physics input to astrophysical model calculations.

  6. Completing the nuclear reaction puzzle of the nucleosynthesis of 92Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveten, G. M.; Spyrou, A.; Schwengner, R.; Naqvi, F.; Larsen, A. C.; Eriksen, T. K.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Crespo Campo, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Meyer, B. S.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    One of the greatest questions for modern physics to address is how elements heavier than iron are created in extreme astrophysical environments. A particularly challenging part of that question is the creation of the so-called p -nuclei, which are believed to be mainly produced in some types of supernovae. The lack of needed nuclear data presents an obstacle in nailing down the precise site and astrophysical conditions. In this work, we present for the first time measurements on the nuclear level density and average γ strength function of 92Mo. State-of-the-art p -process calculations systematically underestimate the observed solar abundance of this isotope. Our data provide stringent constraints on the 91Nb(p ,γ )92Mo reaction rate, which is the last unmeasured reaction in the nucleosynthesis puzzle of 92Mo. Based on our results, we conclude that the 92Mo abundance anomaly is not due to the nuclear physics input to astrophysical model calculations.

  7. Real-time electron dynamics simulation of two-electron transfer reactions induced by nuclear motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-04-01

    Real-time electron dynamics of two-electron transfer reactions induced by nuclear motion is calculated by three methods: the numerically exact propagation method, the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) method and the Ehrenfest method. We find that, as long as the nuclei move as localized wave packets, the TDH and Ehrenfest methods can reproduce the exact electron dynamics of a simple charge transfer reaction model containing two electrons qualitatively well, even when nonadiabatic transitions between adiabatic states occur. In particular, both methods can reproduce the cases where a complete two-electron transfer reaction occurs and those where it does not occur.

  8. Suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction because of the deceleration of alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmatov, M. L., E-mail: M.Shmatov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that a rapid deceleration of alpha particles in matter of electron temperature up to 100 keV leads a strong suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction with the reproduction of fast protons in the α+{sup 11}B and n+{sup 10}B reactions. The statement that the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction with an acceleration of {sup 11}B nuclei because of elastic alpha-particle scattering manifests itself in experiments at the PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System) facility is analyzed.

  9. Triple nuclear reactions (d, n) in laser-generated plasma from deuterated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2017-06-01

    Measurements performed at Prague Asterix Laser System laboratory have permitted to study nuclear reactions in plasma produced by high intensity laser pulses (1016 W/cm2) accelerating high energetic ions. In particular, the laser irradiation of deuterated polyethylene (CD2) primary target, as thin foils, has produced the ion acceleration of C and D ions, and the presence of a thick LiD secondary target has produced nuclear reaction events due to the deuteron-deuteron, deuterons-lithium, and deuteron-carbon interactions. Fast and slow neutrons have been obtained mainly from the nuclear reactions 7Li(d, n)8Be, 2H(d, n)3He, and 12C(d, n)13N. Plasma monitoring and measurements of kinetic energies of produced particles in different directions were obtained using many detectors. The analyses were based on a semiconductor time-of-flight technique, an electric and magnetic ion deflection in a Thomson spectrometer, and ion track detectors. The maximum yields of neutrons produced in the used experimental conditions were evaluated to be about 4 × 108 and 3 × 108 neutrons/laser shot at energies of 14 MeV and 2.4 MeV, from the D-Li and D-D reactions, respectively, while the production of low energy neutrons from the third D-C reaction was negligible.

  10. Investigating resonances above and below the threshold in nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cognata, M., E-mail: lacognata@lns.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Kiss, G. G. [ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Trippella, O. [Sezione di Perugia - INFN, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Resonances in nuclear cross sections dramatically change their trends. Therefore, the presence of unexpected resonances might lead to unpredicted consequences on astrophysics and nuclear physics. In nuclear physics, resonances allow one to study states in the intermediate compound systems, to evaluate their cluster structure, for instance, especially in the energy regions approaching particle decay thresholds. In astrophysics, resonances might lead to changes in the nucleosynthesis flow, determining different isotopic compositions of the nuclear burning ashes. For these reasons, the Trojan Horse method has been modified to investigate resonant reactions. Thanks to this novel approach, for the first time normalization to direct data might be avoided. Moreover, in the case of sub threshold resonances, the Trojan Horse method modified to investigate resonances allows one to deduce the asymptotic normalization coefficient, showing the close connection between the two indirect approaches.

  11. Challenges in describing nuclear reactions outcomes at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, M.; Simpson, E. C.; Kalkal, S.; Cook, K. J.; Carter, I. P.; Hinde, D. J.; Luong, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    The properties of light nuclei such as 6Li, 7Li, 9Be and 12C, and their reaction outcomes are known to be strongly influenced by their underlying α-cluster structure. Reaction models do not yet exist to allow accurate predictions of outcomes following a collision of these nuclei with another nucleus. As a result, reaction models within GEANT, and nuclear fusion models do not accurately describe measured products or cross sections. Recent measurements at the Australian National University have shown new reaction modes that lead to breakup of 6Li, 7Li into lighter clusters, again presenting a further challenge to current models. The new observations and subsequent model developments will impact on accurate predictions of reaction outcomes of 12C - a three α-cluster nucleus – that is used in heavy ion therapy.

  12. An accurate analytic representation of the temperature dependence of nonresonant nuclear reaction rate coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-12-01

    There has been intense interest for several decades by different research groups to accurately model the temperature dependence of a large number of nuclear reaction rate coefficients for both light and heavy nuclides. The rate coefficient, k(T) , is given by the Maxwellian average of the reactive cross section expressed in terms of the astrophysical factor, S(E) , which for nonresonant reactions is generally written as a power series in the relative energy E. A computationally efficient algorithm for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is required for fusion reactor research and for models of nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution. In this paper, an accurate analytical expression for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is provided in terms of τ = 3(b / 2) 2/3 or equivalently, T - 1/3 , where b = B /√{kB T }, B is the Gamow factor and kB is the Boltzmann constant. The methodology is appropriate for all nonresonant nuclear reactions for which S(E) can be represented as a power series in E. The explicit expression for the rate coefficient versus temperature is derived with the asymptotic expansions of the moments of w(E) = exp(- E /kB T - B /√{ E }) in terms of τ. The zeroth order moment is the familiar Gaussian approximation to the rate coefficient. Results are reported for the representative reactions D(d, p)T, D(d, n)3He and 7Li(p, α) α and compared with several different fitting procedures reported in the literature.

  13. Low-energy heavy-ion reactions: a link between nuclear structure and reaction dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, L; Beghini, S; Lin, C J; Montagnoli, G; Pollarolo, G; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Stefanini, A M; Zheng, L F

    1999-01-01

    High precision data recently obtained in the study of multinucleon transfer and sub-barrier fusion reactions at LNL are presented. The studies of transfer channels in the systems sup 4 sup 0 sup , sup 4 sup 8 Ca+ sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn and sup 6 sup 4 Ni+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U revealed important effects not identified in the past, and demonstrated the possibility of a quantitative understanding of the role played by the various degrees of freedom in the reaction mechanism. Evidence of their influence on the fusion enhancements seem to show-up in the systems sup 4 sup 0 Ca+ sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 sup , sup 1 sup 1 sup 6 Sn and sup 4 sup 0 Ca+ sup 9 sup 0 sup , sup 9 sup 6 Zr, but, in general, the data still escape a consistent treatment.

  14. Reaction dynamics and nuclear structure of moderately neutron-rich Ne isotopes by heavy ion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottoni S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The heavy ion reaction 22Ne+208Pb at 128 MeV of bombarding energy has been studied using the PRISMA-CLARA experimental setup at Legnaro National Laboratories. Elastic, inelastic and one nucleon transfer cross sections have been measured. The experimental results are presented in parallel with the analysis on existing data for the unstable 24Ne nucleus, from the reaction 24Ne+208Pb at 182 MeV (measured at SPIRAL with the VAMOS-EXOGAM setup. The β2C charge deformation parameter for both 22Ne and 24Ne has been determined by a DWBA analysis of the experimental angular dis- tributions, showing a strong reduction for 24Ne.

  15. Quasi-elastic reactions: an interplay of reaction dynamics and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilner, S; Jelavic-Malenica, D; Mijatovic, T; Soic, N [Ruder Botkovic Institute and University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia); Corradi, L; Fioretto, E; Gadea, A; Mengoni, D; Stefanini, A M; Valiente-Dobon, J J [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Pollarolo, G [INFN and Universita di Torino (Italy); Beghini, S; Farnea, E; Lunardi, S; Montagnoli, G; Scarlassara, F; Ur, C A [INFN and Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Courtin, S; Haas, F; Lebhertz, D, E-mail: szilner@irb.hr [IPHC, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-02-01

    The revival of transfer reaction studies benefited from the construction of the new generation large solid angle spectrometers based on trajectory reconstruction that reached an unprecedented efficiency and selectivity. The coupling of these spectrometers with large {gamma} arrays allowed the identification of individual excited states, their population pattern and decay modes via particle-{gamma} coincidences. In the present paper aspects of fragment-{gamma} coincidence studies measured with the Prisma-Clara set up in {sup 40}Ca+{sup 96}Zr and {sup 40}Ar+{sup 208}Pb are discussed. In particular, we report about states of particle-phonon character, supporting the idea that the relevant degrees of freedom acting in the reaction dynamics define the final yield distributions.

  16. Effect of compound nuclear reaction mechanism in 12C(6Li,d) reaction at sub-Coulomb energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Adhikari, S.; Basu, C.

    2017-09-01

    The angular distribution of the 12C(6Li,d) reaction populating the 6.92 and 7.12 MeV states of 16O at sub-Coulomb energy (Ecm=3 MeV) are analysed in the framework of the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). Recent results on excitation function measurements and backward angle angular distributions derive ANC for both the states on the basis of an alpha transfer mechanism. In the present work, we show that considering both forward and backward angle data in the analysis, the 7.12 MeV state at sub-Coulomb energy is populated from Compound nuclear process rather than transfer process. The 6.92 MeV state is however produced from direct reaction mechanism.

  17. The Legnaro National Laboratories and the SPES facility: nuclear structure and reactions today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Giacomo; Fiorentini, Gianni

    2016-11-01

    There is a very long tradition of studying nuclear structure and reactions at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics). The wide expertise acquired in building and running large germanium arrays has made the laboratories one of the most advanced research centers in γ-ray spectroscopy. The ’gamma group’ has been deeply involved in all the national and international developments of the last 20 years and is currently one of the major contributors to the AGATA project, the first (together with its American counterpart GRETINA) γ-detector array based on γ-ray tracking. This line of research is expected to be strongly boosted by the coming into operation of the SPES radioactive ion beam project, currently under construction at LNL. In this report, written on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Nobel prize awarded to Aage Bohr, Ben R Mottelson and Leo Rainwater and particularly focused on the physics of nuclear structure, we intend to summarize the different lines of research that have guided nuclear structure and reaction research at LNL in the last decades. The results achieved have paved the way for the present SPES facility, a new laboratories infrastructure producing and accelerating radioactive ion beams of fission fragments and other isotopes.

  18. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  19. Quasi-elastic reactions: an interplay of reaction dynamics and nuclear structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recchia F.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleon transfer reactions have been investigated in 40Ar+208Pb with the Prisma+Clara set-up. The experimental differential cross sections of different neutron transfer channels have been obtained at three different angular settings taking into account the transmission through the spectrometer. The experimental yields of the excited states have been determined via particle-γ coincidences. In odd Ar isotopes, we reported a signif cant population of 11/2− states, reached via neutron transfer. Their structure matches a stretched conf guration of the valence neutron coupled to vibration quanta.

  20. Uses of alpha particles, especially in nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, Syed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Scholten, Bernhard; Neumaier, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2016-11-01

    Alpha particles exhibit three important characteristics: scattering, ionisation and activation. This article briefly discusses those properties and outlines their major applications. Among others, α-particles are used in elemental analysis, investigation and improvement of materials properties, nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production. The latter two topics, dealing with activation of target materials, are treated in some detail in this paper. Measurements of excitation functions of α-particle induced reactions shed some light on their reaction mechanisms, and studies of isomeric cross sections reveal the probability of population of high-spin nuclear levels. Regarding medical radionuclides, an overview is presented of the isotopes commonly produced using α-particle beams. Consideration is also given to some routes which could be potentially useful for production of a few other radionuclides. The significance of α-particle induced reactions to produce a few high-spin isomeric states, decaying by emission of low-energy conversion or Auger electrons, which are of interest in localized internal radiotherapy, is outlined. The α-particle beam, thus broadens the scope of nuclear chemistry research related to development of non-standard positron emitters and therapeutic radionuclides.

  1. On the nuclear $(n;t)-$reaction in the three-electron ${}^{6}$Li atom

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Alexei M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear $(n;t)-$reaction of the three-electron ${}^{6}$Li atom with thermal/slow neutrons is considered. An effective method has been developed for determining the probabilities of formation of various atoms and ions in different bound states. We discuss a number of fundamental questions directly related to numerical computations of the final state atomic probabilities. A few appropriate variational expansions for atomic wave functions of the incident lithium atom and final helium atom and/or tritium negatively charged ion are discussed. It appears that the final ${}^4$He atom arising during the nuclear $(n,{}^{6}$Li; ${}^4$He$,t)$-reaction in the three-electron Li atom can also be created in its triplet states. The formation of the quasi-stable three-electron $e^{-}_3$ during the nuclear $(n; t)-$reaction at the Li atom is briefly discussed. Bremsstrahlung emitted by atomic electrons accelerated by the rapidly moving fragments from this reaction is analyzed. The frequency spectrum of the emitted radiatio...

  2. Dependence of X-Ray Burst Models on Nuclear Reaction Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Cyburt, R H; Heger, A; Johnson, E; Keek, L; Meisel, Z; Schatz, H; Smith, K

    2016-01-01

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes on the surface of accreting neutron stars and reliable burst models are needed to interpret observations in terms of properties of the neutron star and the binary system. We investigate the dependence of X-ray burst models on uncertainties in (p,$\\gamma$), ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$), and ($\\alpha$,p) nuclear reaction rates using fully self-consistent burst models that account for the feedbacks between changes in nuclear energy generation and changes in astrophysical conditions. A two-step approach first identified sensitive nuclear reaction rates in a single-zone model with ignition conditions chosen to match calculations with a state-of-the-art 1D multi-zone model based on the {\\Kepler} stellar evolution code. All relevant reaction rates on neutron deficient isotopes up to mass 106 were individually varied by a factor of 100 up and down. Calculations of the 84 highest impact reaction rate changes were then repeated in the 1D multi-zone model. We find a number of uncertain reac...

  3. Anomalous Nuclear Reaction in Earth's Interior: a New Field in Physics Science?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋崧生; 何明

    2012-01-01

    Tritium (3^H) in excess of the atmospheric values was found at volcanic Lakes Pavin (France), Laacher (Germany) and Nemrut (Turkey), as well as Kilauea Volcano at Hawaii (USA) and other volcanoes. Because 3^H has a short half-life of 12.3 years, the tritium and the resulting 3^He must have formed recently in the Earth. The result suggests that nuclear reactions may generate a significant amount of tritium in the interior of the Earth, although we have not yet learned what the reaction mechanism may be responsible. The nuclear reaction that can be responsible for tritium production in the Earth is probably a new research field in physics science. Nuclear reactions that generate tritium might be a source of "missing" energy (heat) in the interior of the Earth. Finding in-situ 3^H in the mantle may exhibit an alternative explanation of 3^He origin in the deep Earth.

  4. A study of stopping power in nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Lehaut, G; Lopez, O

    2010-01-01

    We show a systematic experimental study based on INDRA data of the stopping power in central symmetric nuclear reactions. Total mass of the systems goes from 80 to 400 nucleons while the incident energy range is from 12 AMeV to 100 AMeV. The role of isospin diffusion at 32 and 45 MeV/nucleon with 124,136Xe projectiles on 112,124Sn targets performed at GANIL is also discussed. Results suggest a strong memory of the entrance channel above 20 AMeV/A (nuclear transparency) and, as such, constitute valuable tests of the microscopic transport models.

  5. Nuclear reaction excitation functions in the interaction of protons with silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonchar, A.V.; Kondratyev, S.N.; Lobach, Yo.N.; Sklyarenko, V.D.; Tokarevsky, V.V.; Vysotsky, O.N. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear reaction excitation functions have been investigated which result in radioactive and stable nuclide formation following the proton bombardment of silicon with proton energies up to 100 MeV. Summarized experimental data and excitation function calculations have been performed regarding the mechanisms of pre-equilibrium emission and evaporation from compound nuclides based on the ALICE LIVERMORE code. With the aim of nuclear doping, transmutation coefficients for Al, Mg and Na have been calculated as well as the [gamma]-ray activities of the doped material. (Author).

  6. EXFOR basics: A short guide to the nuclear reaction data exchange format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear data compilation centers. This format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  7. Evolutionary implications of the new triple-alpha nuclear reaction rate for low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dotter, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Context: Ogata et al. (2009; hereafter OKK) presented a theoretical determination of the triple-alpha nuclear reaction rate. Their rate differs from the NACRE rate by many orders of magnitude at temperatures relevant for low mass stars. Aims: We explore the evolutionary implications of adopting the OKK triple-alpha reaction rate in low mass stars and compare the results with those obtained using the NACRE rate. Methods: The triple-alpha reaction rates are compared by following the evolution of stellar models at 1 and 1.5 Msol with Z=0.0002 and Z=0.02. Results: Results show that the OKK rate has severe consequences for the late stages of stellar evolution in low mass stars. Most notable is the shortening--or disappearance--of the red giant phase. Conclusions: The OKK triple-alpha reaction rate is incompatible with observations of extended red giant branches and He burning stars in old stellar systems.

  8. Compound-nuclear reactions with unstable nuclei: Constraining theory through innovative experimental approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escher J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have recently been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider three approaches that aim at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from the decay of the compound nucleus relevant to the desired reaction. Each method produces this compound nucleus in a different manner (via a light-ion reaction, a photon-induced reaction, or β-decay and requires additional ingredients to yield the sought-after cross section. We give a brief outline of the approaches and employ preliminary results from recent measurements to illustrate the methods. We discuss the main advantages and challenges of each approach.

  9. High-Spin Isomeric States in Nuclear Reactions Induced by He Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvilskaya, Tatjana; Shirokova, Alla

    2010-11-01

    The high-spin states production in nuclear reactions is reviewed. The analysis of various experiments, our estimates and calculations reveal that in different compound nucleus energy regions maximal relative yield of high-spin states can be realized by different projectiles: at low energies -- by neutrons, in ˜ 20 -- 50 MeV region -- by α-particles, at higher energies -- by heavy ions. It was predicted [1] that there are energy ranges in which neutron-rich radioactive ions (^6,8He, for example) are favorable. σm/σg (the ratio between the yields of high-spin Jm and low-spin Jg metastable states of a nucleus in one and the same reaction) e.g. the isomeric cross-section ratio is a very good indicator of high-spin states production capability of a nuclear reaction. These experiments demonstrate that maximal values of isomeric cross-section ratios (up to 30) are obtained in α-particle induced reactions. Experiment with ^6He beam [2] confirms the predictions of the work [1] concerning the prospects of neutron-rich radioactive-ion beams in high-spin states population. The results of calculations of the isomeric cross section ratios using the code EMPIRE-II-18 approach to statistical theory of nuclear reactions demonstrate rather good agreement with the experimental data. Due to that these prediction power of these calculation is confirmed. The results of widespread calculations of the isomeric cross-section ratios of the reactions with ^6,8He are presented. [1] T.V.Chvilskaya et al., AIP-Conference Proceedings ENAM-98 1998. V. 455. P. 482. [2] P.A.DeYoung et al., Phys.Rev.C. 2000. V. 62. P.047601.

  10. Multielectron SEFs for nuclear reactions involved in advanced stages of stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, T E

    2001-01-01

    Multielectron screening effects encountered in laboratory astrophysical reactions are investigated by considering the reactants Thomas-Fermi atoms. By means of that model, previous studies are extended to derive the corresponding screening enhancement factor (SEF), so that it takes into account ionization, thermal, exchange and relativistic effects. The present study, by imposing a very satisfactory constraint on the possible values of the screening energies and the respective SEFs, corrects the current (and the future) experimental values of the astrophysical factors associated with nuclear reactions involved in advanced stages of stellar evolution.

  11. Phase-space methods in nuclear reactions around the Fermi energy

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis; Durand, Dominique; Lehaut, Gregory; Lopez, Olivier; Vient, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Some prescriptions for in-medium complex particle production in nuclear reactions are proposed. They have been implemented in two models to simulate nucleon-nucleus (nIPSE) and nucleus-nucleus (HIPSE) reactions around the Fermi energy \\cite{Lac04,Lac05}. Our work emphasizes the effect of randomness in cluster formation, the importance of the nucleonic Fermi motion as well as the role of conservation laws. The key role of the phase-space exploration before and after secondary decay is underlin...

  12. Charged particle-induced nuclear fission reactions – Progress and prospects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kailas; K Mahata

    2014-12-01

    The nuclear fission phenomenon continues to be an enigma, even after nearly 75 years of its discovery. Considerable progress has been made towards understanding the fission process. Both light projectiles and heavy ions have been employed to investigate nuclear fission. An extensive database of the properties of fissionable nuclei has been generated. The theoretical developments to describe the fission phenomenon have kept pace with the progress in the corresponding experimental measurements. As the fission process initiated by the neutrons has been well documented, the present article will be restricted to charged particle-induced fission reactions. The progress made in recent years and the prospects in the area of nuclear fission research will be the focus of this review.

  13. Doorway states in nuclear reactions as a manifestation of the "super-radiant" mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Auerbach, N

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism is considered for generating doorway states and intermediate structure in low-energy nuclear reactions as a result of collectivization of widths of unstable intrinsic states coupled to common decay channels. At the limit of strong continuum coupling, the segregation of broad (''super-radiating") and narrow (''trapped") states occurs revealing the separation of direct and compound processes. We discuss the conditions for the appearance of intermediate structure in this process and doorways related to certain decay channels.

  14. Applications of nuclear reaction analysis for determining hydrogen and deuterium distribution in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstetter, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ion beams for materials analysis has made a successful transition from the domain of the particle physicist to that of the materials scientist. The subcategory of this field, nuclear reaction analysis, is just now undergoing the transition, particularly in applications to hydrogen in materials. The materials scientist must locate the nearest accelerator, because now he will find that using it can solve mysteries that do not yield to other techniques. 9 figures

  15. Status of The Facility for Experiments of Nuclear Reactions in Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longland, Richard; Kelley, John; Marshall, Caleb; Portillo, Federico; Setoodehnia, Kiana; Underwood, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To make connections between observations of stellar atmospheres and the processes occurring deep inside stars, me must rely on accurate nuclear cross sections. Often, the Coulomb barrier makes these cross sections immeasurably small in the laboratory. Particle transfer reactions are one tool in our inventory that can be used to infer the necessary properties of nuclear reactions, thus opening an avenue to calculate their cross sections. Enge split-pole magnetic spectrographs are one tool in our inventory that have been used successfully to perform these experiments. However, after a rash of closures, there were no operational spectrographs of this kind in North America to provide these valuable capabilities. Over the last few years, we have revived the Enge split-pole spectrograph at TUNL. We have also upgraded much of the equipment, ranging from the data acquisition system to the control system and detector package. These upgrades have enabled a powerful, flexible, and modern facility - the Facility for Experiments of Nuclear Reactions in Stars (FENRIS). In this talk, I will present a status upgrade of FENRIS, highlighting our upgrades, capabilities, and first science results. I will also highlight future upgrade plans for the facility.

  16. Experimental and phenomenological comparison between Piezonuclear reactions and Condensed Matter Nuclear Science phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, F; Petrucci, A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to place side by side the experimental results of Piezonu- clear reactions, which have been recently unveiled, and those collected during the last twenty years of experiments on low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). We will briefy re- port the results of our campaign of piezonuclear reactions experiments where ultrasounds and cavitation were applied to solutions of stable elements. These outcomes will be shown to be compatible with the results and evidences obtained from low energy nuclear reac- tion experiments. Some theoretical concepts and ideas, on which our experiments are grounded, will be sketched and it will be shown that, in order to trigger our measured effects, it exists an energy threshold, that has to be overcome, and a maximum inter- val of time for this energy to be released to the nuclear system. Eventually, a research hypothesis will be put forward about the chance to raise the level of analogy from the mere comparison of results up to the phenomenological level. H...

  17. Reaction intermediates in the catalytic Gif-type oxidation from nuclear inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Asthalter, T.; Rabe, V.; Laschat, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) of synchrotron radiation, also known as nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS), has been shown to provide valuable insights into metal-centered vibrations at Mössbauer-active nuclei. We present a study of the iron-centered vibrational density of states (VDOS) during the first step of the Gif-type oxidation of cyclohexene with a novel trinuclear Fe3(μ 3-O) complex as catalyst precursor. The experiments were carried out on shock-frozen solutions for different combinations of reactants: Fe3(μ 3-O) in pyridine solution, Fe3(μ 3-O) plus Zn/acetic acid in pyridine without and with addition of either oxygen or cyclohexene, and Fe3(μ 3-O)/Zn/acetic acid/pyridine/cyclohexene (reaction mixture) for reaction times of 1 min, 5 min, and 30 min. The projected VDOS of the Fe atoms was calculated on the basis of pseudopotential density functional calculations. Two possible reaction intermediates were identified as [Fe(III)(C5H5N)2(O2CCH3)2]+ and Fe(II)(C5H5N)4(O2CCH3)2, yielding evidence that NIS (NRVS) allows to identify the presence of iron-centered intermediates also in complex reaction mixtures.

  18. Nuclear halo effect on nucleon capture reaction rates at stellar energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zu-Hua; Zhou Hong-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The capture cross sections at stellar energies are very difficult to measure directly. Hence, data are usually evaluated by using indirect methods or extrapolations from the experimental data obtained at the lowest possible energies. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) approach of the transfer reactions provides a reliable way for the determination of the capture cross sections at stellar energies. By virtue of its reliability, we have calculated the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,γ)11Be reaction by using nuclear ANC method. 11Be is a well-known neutron halo nucleus with two weakly bound states. As a typical example, we have shown that the radiative cross sections for a nucleon captured into a halo state are obviously enhanced. The enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo. The 10Be(n,γ)11Be capture reaction is involved in the inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis. We have evaluated its reaction rates at stellar energies with the nuclear ANC method.

  19. The use of low energy, ion induced nuclear reactions for proton radiotherapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Segal, M.N. [Univ. of New Mexico Medical School, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Otolaryngology; Hamm, R.W. [Accsys Technology Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Adler, R.J. [North Star Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glatstein, E. [Univ. of Texas Southwest Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Medical radiotherapy has traditionally relied upon the use of external photon beams and internally implanted radioisotopes as the chief means of irradiating tumors. However, advances in accelerator technology and the exploitation of novel means of producing radiation may provide useful alternatives to some current modes of medical radiation delivery with reduced total dose to surrounding healthy tissue, reduced expense, or increased treatment accessibility. This paper will briefly overview currently established modes of radiation therapy, techniques still considered experimental but in clinical use, innovative concepts under study that may enable new forms of treatment or enhance existing ones. The potential role of low energy, ion-induced nuclear reactions in radiotherapy applications is examined specifically for the 650 keV d({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction. This examination will describe the basic physics associated with this reaction`s production of 17.4 MeV protons and the processes used to fabricate the necessary materials used in the technique. Calculations of the delivered radiation dose, heat generation, and required exposure times are presented. Experimental data are also presented validating the dose calculations. The design of small, lower cost ion accelerators, as embodied in `nested`-tandem and radio frequency quadrupole accelerators is examined, as is the potential use of high-output {sup 3}He and deuterium ion sources. Finally, potential clinical applications are discussed in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique with respect to current radiotherapy methods and equipment.

  20. Reaction intermediates in the catalytic Gif-type oxidation from nuclear inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, S., E-mail: rajagopalan78@hotmail.com [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Materials Science Group (India); Asthalter, T., E-mail: t.asthalter@web.de [Universität Stuttgart, Institute of Physical Chemistry (Germany); Rabe, V.; Laschat, S. [Universität Stuttgart, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) of synchrotron radiation, also known as nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS), has been shown to provide valuable insights into metal-centered vibrations at Mössbauer-active nuclei. We present a study of the iron-centered vibrational density of states (VDOS) during the first step of the Gif-type oxidation of cyclohexene with a novel trinuclear Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) complex as catalyst precursor. The experiments were carried out on shock-frozen solutions for different combinations of reactants: Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) in pyridine solution, Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) plus Zn/acetic acid in pyridine without and with addition of either oxygen or cyclohexene, and Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O)/Zn/acetic acid/pyridine/cyclohexene (reaction mixture) for reaction times of 1 min, 5 min, and 30 min. The projected VDOS of the Fe atoms was calculated on the basis of pseudopotential density functional calculations. Two possible reaction intermediates were identified as [Fe{sup (III)}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 2}(O{sub 2}CCH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and Fe{sup (II)}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 4}(O{sub 2}CCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, yielding evidence that NIS (NRVS) allows to identify the presence of iron-centered intermediates also in complex reaction mixtures.

  1. Nuclear Structure and Reaction Properties of Ne, Mg and Si Isotopes with RMF Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, R N; Patra, S K

    2013-01-01

    We have studied nuclear structure and reaction properties of Ne, Mg and Si isotopes, using relativistic mean field densities, in the frame work of Glauber model. Total reaction cross section $\\sigma_R$ for Ne isotopes on 12C target have been calculated at incident energy 240 MeV. The results are compared with the experimental data and with the recent theoretical study [W. Horiuchi et al., Phys. Rev. C, 86, 024614 (2012)]. Study of $\\sigma_R$ using deformed densities have shown a good agreement with the data. We have also predicted total reaction cross section $\\sigma_R$ for Ne, Mg and Si isotopes as projectiles and 12C as target at different incident energies.

  2. γ-Particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagatto, V.A.B., E-mail: vinicius.zagatto@gmail.com [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, J.R.B.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L.R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Lubian, J.; Linares, R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Brazil); Toufen, D.L. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G. [Centro Universitário da FEI (Brazil); Rossi, E.S. [Centro Universitário FIEO – UNIFIEO (Brazil); Nobre, G.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Saci-Perere γ ray spectrometer (located at the Pelletron AcceleratorLaboratory – IFUSP) was employed to implement the γ-particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reaction mechanisms. For this, the {sup 18}O+{sup 110}Pd reaction has been studied in the beam energy range of 45–54 MeV. Several corrections to the data due to various effects (energy and angle integrations, beam spot size, γ detector finite size and the vacuum de-alignment) are small and well controlled. The aim of this work was to establish a proper method to analyze the data and identify the reaction mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal the inelastic scattering to the first excited state of {sup 110}Pd has been extracted and compared to coupled channel calculations using the São Paulo Potential (PSP), being reasonably well described by it.

  3. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes: From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elster, Charlotte [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. Ohio University concentrates its efforts on the first part of the mission. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. While there exist several separable representations for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the optical potential between a neutron (proton) and a nucleus is not readily available in separable form. For this reason we first embarked in introducing a separable representation for complex phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type.

  4. Nuclear reactions with radioactive and stable beams (Part I); Reacciones nucleares con haces radiactivos y estables (Parte I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.; Gomez C, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-12-15

    At the present time there is a great interest at world level in experiments, with accelerated nuclei of short half life. The dispersion, fusion, transfer and break processes in the interaction of weakly light projectiles bounded with targets of Z great its have been object of intense recent investigation, at world level. Our group, in collaboration with the University of Notre Dame, it has measured and analyzed these processes for weakly bound systems as: {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi, {sup 8}Li + {sup 208}Pb, {sup 10}Be + {sup 208}Pb. On the other hand a research line that has wakened up great interest, it is that of studies of resonant reactions using the Inverse Kinematics technique with thick targets. The use of this technique allows to measure an entire excitation function with a single bombardment. Our group has carried out, in the ININ, preliminary bombardments for the system {sup 12}C + {sup 4}He. This allowed to establish the feasibility of implementing this technique in our Laboratory. The application of this and other techniques to different systems like {sup 18}O + {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C, {sup 12}C + {sup 16}O, {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O, it opens the possibility to measure the fusion of these systems at very low energy and to deepen in the knowledge of the nuclear structure and the nuclear astrophysics. In this technical report, the activities carried out by our group during 2004 are described.(Author)

  5. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: A tool toward 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondi, M. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial- and final-state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the {sup 40}Ca({sup 18}O,{sup 18}Ne){sup 40}Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0{sup +} → 0{sup +} transition to {sup 40}Ar{sub gs}, at least at very forward angles. (orig.)

  6. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format. Revision 97/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.

    1997-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Center Network. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility rather than optimization of data processing in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  7. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  8. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  9. Compound-nuclear reaction cross sections via the Surrogate method: considering the underlying assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Jutta; Dietrich, Frank

    2006-10-01

    The Surrogate Nuclear Reactions approach makes it possible to determine compound-nuclear reaction cross sections indirectly. The method has been employed to determine (n,f) cross sections for various actinides, including unstable species [1-4]; other, primarily neutron- induced, reactions are being considered also [5,6]. The extraction of the sought-after cross sections typically relies on approximations to the full Surrogate formalism [7]. This presentation will identify and critically examine the most significant assumptions underlying the experimental work carried out so far. Calculations that test the validity of the approximations employed will be presented. [1] J.D. Cramer and H.C. Britt, Nucl. Sci. and Eng. 41, 177(1970); H.C. Britt and J.B. Wilhelmy, ibid. 72, 222(1979) [2] M. Petit et al, Nucl. Phys. A735, 345(2004) [3] C. Plettner et al, Phys. Rev. C 71, 051602(2005); J. Burke et al, Phys. Rev. C. 73, 054604(2006) [4] W. Younes and H.C. Britt, Phys. Rev. C 67, 024610(2003); 68, 034610(2003) [5] L.A. Bernstein et al, AIP Conf. Proc. 769, 890(2005) [6] J. Escher et al, Nucl. Phys. A758, 43c(2005) [7] J. Escher and F.S. Dietrich, submitted (2006)

  10. Compound-nuclear Reactions with Unstable Isotopes: Constraining Capture Cross Sections with Indirect Data and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Jutta

    2016-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have recently been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. These methods aim at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from the decay of the compound nucleus relevant to the desired reaction. Each method produces this compound nucleus in a different manner (via a light-ion reaction, a photon-induced reaction, or β decay) and requires additional ingredients to yield the sought-after cross section. This contribution focuses on the process of determining capture cross sections from inelastic scattering and transfer experiments. Specifically, theoretical descriptions of the (p,d) transfer reaction have been developed to complement recent measurements in the Zr-Y region. The procedure for obtaining constraints for unknown capture cross sections is illustrated. The main advantages and challenges of this approach are compared to those of the proposed alternatives. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes. From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Filomena [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the Topical Collaboration on the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes (TORUS) was to develop new methods to advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes—particularly the (d,p) reaction in which a deuteron, composed of a proton and a neutron, transfers its neutron to an unstable nucleus. After benchmarking the state-of-the-art theories, the TORUS collaboration found that there were no exact methods to study (d,p) reactions involving heavy targets; the difficulty arising from the long-range nature of the well known, yet subtle, Coulomb force. To overcome this challenge, the TORUS collaboration developed a new theory where the complexity of treating the long-range Coulomb interaction is shifted to the calculation of so-called form-factors. An efficient implementation for the computation of these form factors was a major achievement of the TORUS collaboration. All the new machinery developed are essential ingredients to analyse (d,p) reactions involving heavy nuclei relevant for astrophysics, energy production, and stockpile stewardship.

  12. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromet, E.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.

    1982-06-01

    The reaction of patients in the community mental health system to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Middletown, Pa, were assessed. The sample was composed of 151 patients from the TMI area and 64 patients from a comparison site where a similar nuclear plant is located. Mental health status was determined for the period immediately after the accident, nine to ten months later, and one year later. No significant differences were found between the TMI group and the comparison group. To isolate risk factors within the TMI group, patients who were most distressed were compared with patients with the least distress. The results showed that quality of network support and viewing TMI as dangerous were significantly associated with mental health.

  13. New exclusive CHIPS-TPT algorithms for simulation of neutron-nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, M.; Savin, D.

    2015-05-01

    The CHIPS-TPT physics library for simulation of neutron-nuclear reactions on the new exclusive level is being developed in CFAR VNIIA. The exclusive modeling conserves energy, momentum and quantum numbers in each neutron-nuclear interaction. The CHIPS-TPT algorithms are based on the exclusive CHIPS library, which is compatible with Geant4. Special CHIPS-TPT physics lists in the Geant4 format are provided. The calculation time for an exclusive CHIPS-TPT simulation is comparable to the time of the corresponding Geant4- HP simulation. In addition to the reduction of the deposited energy fluctuations, which is a consequence of the energy conservation, the CHIPS-TPT libraries provide a possibility of simulation of the secondary particles correlation, e.g. secondary gammas, and of the Doppler broadening of gamma lines in the spectrum, which can be measured by germanium detectors.

  14. Unified description of structure and reactions: implementing the Nuclear Field Theory program

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, Ricardo A; Barranco, Francisco; Vigezzi, Enrico; Idini, Andrea; Potel, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The modern theory of the atomic nucleus results from the merging of the liquid drop (Niels Bohr and Fritz Kalckar) and of the shell model (Marie Goeppert Meyer and Axel Jensen), which contributed the concepts of collective excitations and of independent-particle motion respectively. The unification of these apparently contradictory views in terms of the particle-vibration (rotation) coupling (Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson) has allowed for an ever increasingly complete, accurate and detailed description of the nuclear structure, Nuclear Field Theory (NFT, developed by the Copenhagen-Buenos Aires collaboration) providing a powerful quantal embodiment. In keeping with the fact that reactions are not only at the basis of quantum mechanics (statistical interpretation, Max Born) , but also the specific tools to probe the atomic nucleus, NFT is being extended to deal with processes which involve the continuum in an intrinsic fashion, so as to be able to treat them on an equal footing with those associated with discret...

  15. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft- 2013 ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.; McDonald, Robert; Campbell, Robbie; Chase, Adam; Daniel, Jason; Darling, Michael; Green, Clayton; MacGregor, Collin; Sudak, Peter; Sykes, Harrison; hide

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the final written documentation for the Aeronautic Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Seedling Fund's Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) Aircraft Phase I project. The findings presented include propulsion system concepts, synergistic missions, and aircraft concepts. LENR is a form of nuclear energy that potentially has over 4,000 times the energy density of chemical energy sources. It is not expected to have any harmful emissions or radiation which makes it extremely appealing. There is a lot of interest in LENR, but there are no proven theories. This report does not explore the feasibility of LENR. Instead, it assumes that a working system is available. A design space exploration shows that LENR can enable long range and high speed missions. Six propulsion concepts, six missions, and four aircraft concepts are presented. This report also includes discussion of several issues and concerns that were uncovered during the study and potential research areas to infuse LENR aircraft into NASA's aeronautics research.

  16. A sensitivity study of s-process: the impact of uncertainties from nuclear reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, N.; Serenelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow neutron capture process (s-process) is responsible for the production of about half the elements beyond the Fe-peak. The production sites and the conditions under which the different components of s-process occur are relatively well established. A detailed quantitative understanding of s-process nucleosynthesis may yield light in physical processes, e.g. convection and mixing, taking place in the production sites. For this, it is important that the impact of uncertainties in the nuclear physics is well understood. In this work we perform a study of the sensitivity of s-process nucleosynthesis, with particular emphasis in the main component, on the nuclear reaction rates. Our aims are: to quantify the current uncertainties in the production factors of s-process elements originating from nuclear physics and, to identify key nuclear reactions that require more precise experimental determinations. In this work we studied two different production sites in which s-process occurs with very different neutron exposures: 1) a low-mass extremely metal-poor star during the He-core flash (nn reaching up to values of ∼ 1014cm-3); 2) the TP-AGB phase of a M⊙, Z=0.01 model, the typical site of the main s-process component (nn up to 108 — 109cm-3). In the first case, the main variation in the production of s-process elements comes from the neutron poisons and with relative variations around 30%-50%. In the second, the neutron poison are not as important because of the higher metallicity of the star that actually acts as a seed and therefore, the final error of the abundances are much lower around 10%-25%.

  17. Applications of computer simulation, nuclear reactions and elastic scattering to surface analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco de Carvalho, J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article involves computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. Both the “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions and elastic scattering are used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. The method is successfully applied to thick flat targets of graphite, quartz and sapphire and targets containing thin films of aluminium oxide. Depth profiles of 12C and 16O nuclei are determined using (d,p and (d,α deuteron induced reactions. Rutherford and resonance elastic scattering of (4He+ ions are also used.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energia” para reacciones nucleares, así como el de difusión elástica. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan com datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Este método se aplica con éxito em muestras espesas y planas de grafito, cuarzo y zafiro y muestras conteniendo películas finas de óxido de aluminio. Se calculan perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 16O a través de reacciones (d,p y (d,α inducidas por deuterones. Se utiliza también la difusión elástica de iones (4He+, tanto a Rutherford como resonante.

  18. Spin dipole nuclear matrix elements for double beta decay nuclei by charge-exchange reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ejiri, H

    2016-01-01

    Spin dipole (SD) strengths for double beta-decay (DBD) nuclei were studied experimentally for the first time by using measured cross sections of (3He,t) charge exchange reactions (CERs). Then SD nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) for low-lying 2- states were derived from the experimental SD strengths by referring to the experimental GT (Gamow-Teller) and F (Fermi) strengths. They are consistent with the empirical SD NMEs based on the quasi-particle model with the empirical effective SD coupling constant. The CERs are used to evaluate the SD NME, which is associated with one of the major components of the neutrino-less DBD NME.

  19. COMMENTS ON "A NEW LOOK AT LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION RESEARCH"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-12-30

    Cold fusion researchers have accumulated a large body of anomalous results over the last 20 years that they claim proves a new, mysterious nuclear reaction is active in systems they study. Krivit and Marwan give a brief and wholly positive view of this body of research. Unfortunately, cold fusion researchers routinely ignore conventional explanations of their observations, and claim much greater than real accuracy and precision for their techniques. This paper attempts to equally briefly address those aspects of the field with the intent of providing a balanced view of the field, and to establish some criteria for subsequent publications in this arena.

  20. Comparison between the entropy approach and Monte Carlo calculations for statistical nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, H.M.; Mertelmeier, T. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Mello, P.A. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City. Lab. del Acelerador); Seligman, T.H. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica)

    1981-12-14

    A comparison is presented between predictions of the entropy approach to statistical nuclear reactions, and numerical calculations performed by generating an ensemble of S-matrices in terms of K-matrices with specified statistical distributions for their parameters. The comparison is done for: (a) the 2nd, 3rd and 4th moments of S in a 4-channel case and (b) the actual distribution of the S-matrix elements in a 2-channel case. In both cases the agreement is found to be very good in the domain of strong absorption.

  1. Detection of submonolayer oxygen-18 on a gold surface by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Kenny, M.J.; Wieczorek, L. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    A gold substrate is the preferred solid surface for formation of an organic self-assembled monolayer ( SAM ). Device fabrication process may require the gold film to be exposed to photolithographic processing and plasma treatment prior to molecular assembly. It has been observed that oxygen plasma treatment prevents the formation of SAMs; however, subsequent treatment with an argon plasma allows assembly of the organic monolayers. To understand the mechanisms involved, a plasma containing 98% {sup 18}O was used and the film surface was analysed using the {sup 18}O (p,{alpha}){sup 15}N nuclear reaction. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Study for Nuclear Structures of 22-35Na Isotopes via Measurements of Reaction Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn., Kochi Univ. of Tech.) Reaction cross sections (σR) for 22-35Na isotopes have been measured at around 240 MeV/nucleon. The σR for 22-35Na were measured for the first time. Enhancement in cross sections is clearly observed from the systematics for stable nuclei, for isotopes with large mass numbers. These enhancement can be mainly ascribed to the nuclear deformation. We will discuss the nuclear structure (neutron skin, nuclear shell structure) for neutron-excess Na isotopes. T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn

  3. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on ytterbium up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)], E-mail: kiralyb@atomki.hu; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-01

    Cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on ytterbium were measured up to 70 MeV by using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross sections and derived integral yields are reported for the first time for the {sup nat}Yb(p,xn){sup 173,172mg,171mg,170,167}Lu, {sup nat}Yb(p,x){sup 175cum,166cum}Yb and {sup nat}Yb(p,x){sup 173ind,172ind,168,167cum,165cum}Tm reactions. No earlier experimental cross section data were found in the literature. The experimental data were compared to and analyzed with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE. Production routes of medical radioisotope {sup 167}Tm are discussed.

  4. Phase-space methods in nuclear reactions around the Fermi energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, D; Lehaut, G; López, O; Vient, E; Lacroix, Denis; Durand, Dominique; Lehaut, Gregory; Lopez, Olivier; Vient, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Some prescriptions for in-medium complex particle production in nuclear reactions are proposed. They have been implemented in two models to simulate nucleon-nucleus (nIPSE) and nucleus-nucleus (HIPSE) reactions around the Fermi energy \\cite{Lac04,Lac05}. Our work emphasizes the effect of randomness in cluster formation, the importance of the nucleonic Fermi motion as well as the role of conservation laws. The key role of the phase-space exploration before and after secondary decay is underlined. This is illustrated in the case of two debated issues: the memory loss of the entrance channel in central collisions and the $(N,Z)$ partitions after the pre-equilibrium stage.

  5. STARLIB: A Next-Generation Reaction-Rate Library for Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sallaska, A L; Champagne, A E; Goriely, S; Starrfield, S; Timmes, F X

    2013-01-01

    STARLIB is a next-generation, all-purpose nuclear reaction-rate library. For the first time, this library provides the rate probability density at all temperature grid points for convenient implementation in models of stellar phenomena. The recommended rate and its associated uncertainties are also included. Currently, uncertainties are absent from all other rate libraries, and, although estimates have been attempted in previous evaluations and compilations, these are generally not based on rigorous statistical definitions. A common standard for deriving uncertainties is clearly warranted. STARLIB represents a first step in addressing this deficiency by providing a tabular, up-to-date database that supplies not only the rate and its uncertainty but also its distribution. Because a majority of rates are lognormally distributed, this allows the construction of rate probability densities from the columns of STARLIB. This structure is based on a recently suggested Monte Carlo method to calculate reaction rates, w...

  6. Nuclear reaction measurements on tissue-equivalent materials and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations for hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Romano, F.; D'Urso, D.; Licciardello, T.; Agodi, C.; Candiano, G.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pandola, L.; Scuderi, V.

    2014-12-01

    When a carbon beam interacts with human tissues, many secondary fragments are produced into the tumor region and the surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, in hadrontherapy precise dose calculations require Monte Carlo tools equipped with complex nuclear reaction models. To get realistic predictions, however, simulation codes must be validated against experimental results; the wider the dataset is, the more the models are finely tuned. Since no fragmentation data for tissue-equivalent materials at Fermi energies are available in literature, we measured secondary fragments produced by the interaction of a 55.6 MeV u-1 12C beam with thick muscle and cortical bone targets. Three reaction models used by the Geant4 Monte Carlo code, the Binary Light Ions Cascade, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Liege Intranuclear Cascade, have been benchmarked against the collected data. In this work we present the experimental results and we discuss the predictive power of the above mentioned models.

  7. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium up to 80 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Csikai, J; Hermanne, A; Uddin, S; Baba, M

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium were measured up to 80 MeV by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma ray spectrometry. The beam intensity, the incident energy and the energy degradation were controlled by a method based on flux constancy via normalization to the excitation functions of monitor reactions measured in parallel. Excitation functions for direct and cumulative cross-sections were measured for the production of ${}^{104m,104g,105}$${}^{g,106m,110m}$Ag, ${}^{100,101}$Pd, ${}^{99m,99g,100,}$${}^{101m}$${}^{,101g,102m,102g,105}$Rh and ${}^{103,}$${}^{97}$Ru radioisotopes. The cross section data were compared with the theoretical predictions of TENDL-2014 and -2015 libraries. For practical applications thick target yields were derived from the measured excitation functions. Application in the field of medical radionuclide production is shortly discussed.

  8. Nuclear fragmentation and charge-exchange reactions induced by pions in the $\\Delta$-resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of the nuclear fragmentations and the charge exchange reactions in pion-nucleus collisions near the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance energies has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics (LQMD) transport model. An isospin, momentum and density-dependent pion-nucleon potential is implemented in the model, which influences the pion dynamics, in particular the kinetic energy spectra, but weakly impacts the fragmentation mechanism. The absorption process in pion-nucleon collisions to form the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance dominates the heating mechanism of target nucleus. The excitation energy transferred to the target nucleus increases with the pion kinetic energy and is similar for both $\\pi^{-}$ and $\\pi^{+}$ induced reactions. The magnitude of fragmentation of target nucleus weakly depends on the pion energy. The isospin ratio in the pion double charge exchange is influenced by the isospin ingredient of target nucleus.

  9. Nuclear reactions with radioactive and stable beams (Part II); Reacciones nucleares con haces radiactivos y estables (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.; Gomez C, A.; Lizcano, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-12-15

    At the present time there is a great interest at world level in experiments, with accelerated nuclei of short half life. The dispersion, fusion, transfer and break processes in the interaction of weakly light projectiles bounded with targets of Z great its have been object of intense recent investigation, at world level. Our group, in collaboration with the University of Notre Dame, it has measured and analyzed these processes for weakly bound systems as: {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi, {sup 8}Li + {sup 208}Pb, {sup 10}Be + {sup 208}Pb. On the other hand a research line that has wakened up great interest, it is that of studies of resonant reactions using the Inverse Kinematics technique with thick targets. The use of this technique allows to measure an entire excitation function with a single bombardment. Our group has carried out, in the ININ, preliminary bombardments for the system {sup 12}C + {sup 4}He. This allowed to establish the feasibility of implementing this technique in our Laboratory. The application of this and other techniques to different systems like {sup 18}O + {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C, {sup 12}C + {sup 16}O, {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O, it opens the possibility to measure the fusion of these systems at very low energy and to deepen in the knowledge of the nuclear structure and the nuclear astrophysics. In this technical report, the activities carried out by our group during the second stage of this project, considered for 2005 are described. Also in that year, our group carries out a research stay in the University of Notre Dame, during this stay, the angular distribution of the projectiles of {sup 8}B dispersed in an enriched target of {sup 58}Ni was measured. The same as in the previous experiments, in this occasion it was also possible to measure those angular distributions of the projectiles of {sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li dispersed in this same target. In this same one our stay group participates in other three experiments proposed by collaborators of

  10. Evaluation of the nuclear data on ({alpha}, n) reaction for F, Na, Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunobu, Hiroyuki [Data Engineering, Inc., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Yamamuro, Nobuhiro

    2002-08-01

    Evaluation of the nuclear data on ({alpha}, n) reaction, which are very important in analyzing radiation shielding and criticality safety relating to storage, transport, and handling of spent fuel was carried out for 18 nuclides, and the results were compared with the experimental data for ({alpha}, n) reaction cross section and thick target neutron yield. (author)

  11. Coupled-channels calculations of nonelastic cross sections using a density-functional structure model

    CERN Document Server

    Nobre, G P A; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Dupuis, M; Terasaki, J; Engel, J

    2010-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of the reaction cross-section for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all particle-hole (p-h) excitation states in the target and to all one-nucleon pickup channels. The p-h states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and subsequently to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. Target excitations for 40,48Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr and 144Sm were described in a QRPA framework using a Skyrme functional. Reaction cross sections calculated in this approach were compared to predictions of a fitted optical potential and to experimental data, reaching very good agreement. Couplings between inelastic states were found to be negligible, while the couplings to pickup channels contribute significantly. For the first time observed reaction cross-sections are completely accounted for by explicit channel coupling, for incident energies between 10 and 40 MeV.

  12. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Giuffrida, L; Cirrone, G A P; Picciotto, A; Korn, G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [1], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstr...

  13. Experimental approaches for determining in-medium properties of hadrons from photo-nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Metag, Volker; Berghäuser, Henning; Friedrich, Stefan; Lemmer, Boris; Mosel, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Properties of hadrons and their modification within strongly interacting matter provide a link between experimental observables and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the non-perturbative sector. The sensitivity of various observables to in-medium modifications of mesons is discussed. The transparency ratio, comparing the meson yield per nucleon within a nucleus relative to that on a free nucleon, is related to the in-medium width of the meson. While the transparency ratio can be determined for any meson lifetime the meson line shape only contains information on in-medium properties if the meson is so short-lived that it decays in the medium after production in a nuclear reaction. Light vector mesons are thus particularly suited for these investigations. The momentum distribution of mesons produced in a photo-nuclear reaction as well as the excitation function also show some sensitivity to different in-medium modification scenarios. As an example, high statistics data taken at MAMI-C on the photoproduction of \\o...

  14. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Picciotto, A.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014)], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  15. Unified description of structure and reactions: implementing the nuclear field theory program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, R. A.; Bortignon, P. F.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Idini, A.; Potel, G.

    2016-06-01

    The modern theory of the atomic nucleus results from the merging of the liquid drop model of Niels Bohr and Fritz Kalckar, and of the shell model of Marie Goeppert Meyer and Hans Jensen. The first model contributed the concepts of collective excitations. The second, those of independent-particle motion. The unification of these apparently contradictory views in terms of the particle-vibration and particle-rotation couplings carried out by Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson has allowed for an ever more complete, accurate and detailed description of nuclear structure. Nuclear field theory (NFT), developed by the Copenhagen-Buenos Aires collaboration, provided a powerful quantal embodiment of this unification. Reactions are not only at the basis of quantum mechanics (statistical interpretation, Max Born), but also the specific tools to probe the atomic nucleus. It is then natural that NFT is being extended to deal with processes which involve the continuum in an intrinsic fashion, so as to be able to treat them on an equal footing with those associated with bound states (structure). As a result, spectroscopic studies of transfer to continuum states could eventually make use of the NFT rules, properly extended to take care of recoil effects. In the present contribution we review the implementation of the NFT program of structure and reactions, setting special emphasis on open problems and outstanding predictions.

  16. Quantifying lithium in the solid electrolyte interphase layer and beyond using Lithium- Nuclear Reaction Analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Adam; Bakhru, Hassaram; DeRosa, Don; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Rane-Fondacaro, Manisha; Haldar, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of lithium content within the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and anode would significantly enhance the current understanding of the lithium ion battery (LIB) degradation mechanisms, enabling knowledge-based improvements in the technology. For the first time, we have demonstrated the capabilities of highly selective Lithium Nuclear Reaction Analysis (Li-NRA) as a non-destructive depth profiling technique for quantifying Li within the SEI and anode without accurate knowledge of the composition, which is unavailable with other depth profiling techniques. The Li-NRA technique detects the gamma radiation resulting from a nuclear reaction at characteristic resonance energy between an incident high-energy proton and Li. The intensity of γ-ray is directly proportional to the Li content, and the energy of the incident proton is increased stepwise to depth profile the sample. We performed Li-NRA on the carbonaceous negative electrodes of commercial LIB coin cells at varying states of charge (SOC) and states of health (SOH) conditions. We used three simple models for the composition of SEI and anode material to show concurrence between theoretical and experimental value for Li content at varying SOC conditions, estimated the average SEI layer thickness, and correlated the residual Li content within the SOH samples with electrochemical data.

  17. Compositional change of some first wall materials by considering multiple step nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako; Fujita, Mitsutane [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(SUS), 9Cr-2WLi{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}/He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V-SiC-RAF-SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  18. Carbon fragmentation measurements and validation of the Geant4 nuclear reaction models for hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Patera, V.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary when using heavy-ion beams in hadrontherapy to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Moreover, they are also fundamental to validate and improve the Monte Carlo codes for their use in planning tumor treatments. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections are being measured, and in particular, to our knowledge, no double-differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in the literature. In this work, we have measured the double-differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 A MeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before. In particular, we have compared the experimental data with the predictions of two Geant4 nuclear reaction models: the Binary Light Ions Cascade and the Quantum Molecular Dynamic. From the comparison, it has been observed that the Binary Light Ions Cascade approximates the angular distributions of the fragment production cross sections better than the Quantum Molecular Dynamic model. However, the discrepancies observed between the experimental data and the Monte Carlo simulations lead to the conclusion that the prediction capability of both models needs to be improved at intermediate energies.

  19. Mission to Mars by catalyzed nuclear reactions of the commercialized cold fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical compound source is deficient to reach to the power as much as the journey to Mars, unless the massive equipment is installed like the nuclear fusion reactor. However, there is very significant limitations of making up the facility due to the propellant power. Therefore, the light and cheap energy source, Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), powered rocket has been proposed. In this paper, the power conditions by LENRs are analyzed. After the successful Apollo mission to Moon of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. government, the civilian companies have proposed for the manned mission to Mars for the commercial journey purposes. The nuclear power has been a critical issue for the energy source in the travel, especially, by the LENR of LENUCO, Champaign, USA. As the velocity of the rocket increases, the mass flow rate decreases. It could be imaginable to take the reasonable velocity of spacecraft. The energy of the travel system is and will be created for the better one in economical and safe method. There is the imagination of boarding pass for spacecraft ticket shows the selected companies of cold fusion products. In order to solve the limitations of the conventional power sources like the chemical and solar energies, it is reasonable to design LENR concept. Since the economical and safe spacecraft is very important in the long journey on and beyond the Mars orbit, a new energy source, LENR, should be studied much more.

  20. Extension of PENELOPE to protons: Simulation of nuclear reactions and benchmark with Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterpin, E. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Sorriaux, J. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vynckier, S. [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Département de radiothérapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Describing the implementation of nuclear reactions in the extension of the Monte Carlo code (MC) PENELOPE to protons (PENH) and benchmarking with Geant4.Methods: PENH is based on mixed-simulation mechanics for both elastic and inelastic electromagnetic collisions (EM). The adopted differential cross sections for EM elastic collisions are calculated using the eikonal approximation with the Dirac–Hartree–Fock–Slater atomic potential. Cross sections for EM inelastic collisions are computed within the relativistic Born approximation, using the Sternheimer–Liljequist model of the generalized oscillator strength. Nuclear elastic and inelastic collisions were simulated using explicitly the scattering analysis interactive dialin database for {sup 1}H and ICRU 63 data for {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 31}P, and {sup 40}Ca. Secondary protons, alphas, and deuterons were all simulated as protons, with the energy adapted to ensure consistent range. Prompt gamma emission can also be simulated upon user request. Simulations were performed in a water phantom with nuclear interactions switched off or on and integral depth–dose distributions were compared. Binary-cascade and precompound models were used for Geant4. Initial energies of 100 and 250 MeV were considered. For cases with no nuclear interactions simulated, additional simulations in a water phantom with tight resolution (1 mm in all directions) were performed with FLUKA. Finally, integral depth–dose distributions for a 250 MeV energy were computed with Geant4 and PENH in a homogeneous phantom with, first, ICRU striated muscle and, second, ICRU compact bone.Results: For simulations with EM collisions only, integral depth–dose distributions were within 1%/1 mm for doses higher than 10% of the Bragg-peak dose. For central-axis depth–dose and lateral profiles in a phantom with tight resolution, there are significant deviations between Geant4 and PENH (up to 60%/1 cm for depth

  1. Determination of sulphur and copper depth distribution in patina layers using nuclear reaction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliabakos, G.; Kossionides, S.; Misailides, P.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Vlastou, R. E-mail: vlastou@central.ntua.gr

    2000-10-01

    A method for Cu and S profiling in patina layers was developed by applying a combination of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The copper profiling was performed by using the 1327 keV {gamma}-ray deexciting the third excited state to the ground state of {sup 63}Cu produced by the reaction {sup 63}Cu(p,p{sup '}{gamma}){sup 63}Cu. For the determination of sulphur the 2230 keV {gamma}-ray was used deexciting the first excited state to the ground state of {sup 32}S formed through the reaction {sup 32}S(p,p{sup '}{gamma}){sup 32}S, which exhibits three sharp resonances at projectile energies 3.094, 3.195 and 3.379 MeV. The relevant cross-sections were measured in the energy range between 3.0 and 3.7 MeV in steps of 20 keV at 125 deg. to the incident proton beam direction. The technique was tested using artificially produced and natural copper patina layers. Supporting information on the depth distribution of the constituent elements of the patina samples was obtained by p-RBS (E{sub p}: 1.5 MeV, {theta}: 160 deg.)

  2. Understanding the reaction of nuclear graphite with molecular oxygen: Kinetics, transport, and structural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Joshua J.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Smith, Rebecca E.; Strydom, Gerhard; Windes, William E.

    2017-09-01

    For the next generation of nuclear reactors, HTGRs specifically, an unlikely air ingress warrants inclusion in the license applications of many international regulators. Much research on oxidation rates of various graphite grades under a number of conditions has been undertaken to address such an event. However, consequences to the reactor result from the microstructural changes to the graphite rather than directly from oxidation. The microstructure is inherent to a graphite's properties and ultimately degradation to the graphite's performance must be determined to establish the safety of reactor design. To understand the oxidation induced microstructural change and its corresponding impact on performance, a thorough understanding of the reaction system is needed. This article provides a thorough review of the graphite-molecular oxygen reaction in terms of kinetics, mass and energy transport, and structural evolution: all three play a significant role in the observed rate of graphite oxidation. These provide the foundations of a microstructurally informed model for the graphite-molecular oxygen reaction system, a model kinetically independent of graphite grade, and capable of describing both the observed and local oxidation rates under a wide range of conditions applicable to air-ingress.

  3. Towards a nonequilibrium Green's function description of nuclear reactions: one-dimensional mean-field dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rios, Arnau; Buchler, Mark; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Nonequilibrium Green's function methods allow for an intrinsically consistent description of the evolution of quantal many-body body systems, with inclusion of different types of correlations. In this paper, we focus on the practical developments needed to build a Green's function methodology for nuclear reactions. We start out by considering symmetric collisions of slabs in one dimension within the mean-field approximation. We concentrate on two issues of importance for actual reaction simulations. First, the preparation of the initial state within the same methodology as for the reaction dynamics is demonstrated by an adiabatic switching on of the mean-field interaction, which leads to the mean-field ground state. Second, the importance of the Green's function matrix-elements far away from the spatial diagonal is analyzed by a suitable suppression process that does not significantly affect the evolution of the elements close to the diagonal. The relative lack of importance of the far-away elements is tied t...

  4. Study of Nuclear Reactions with 11C and 15O Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-14

    Nuclear reaction study with radioactive ion beams is one of the most exciting research topics in modern nuclear physics. The development of radioactive ion beams has allowed nuclear scientists and engineers to explore many unknown exotic nuclei far from the valley of nuclear stability, and to further our understanding of the evolution of the universe. The recently developed radioactive ion beam facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-inch cyclotron is denoted as BEARS and provides 11C, 14O and 15O radioactive ion beams of high quality. These moderate to high intensity, proton-rich radioactive ion beams have been used to explore the properties of unstable nuclei such as 12N and 15F. In this work, the proton capture reaction on 11C has been evaluated via the indirect d(11C, 12N)n transfer reaction using the inverse kinematics method coupled with the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient (ANC) theoretical approach. The total effective 12N → 11C+p ANC is found to be (C eff12N = 1.83 ± 0.27 fm-1. With the high 11C beam intensity available, our experiment showed excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and previous experimental studies. This study also indirectly confirmed that the 11C(p,γ) reaction is a key step in producing CNO nuclei in supermassive low-metallicity stars, bypassing the slow triple alpha process. The newly developed 15O radioactive ion beam at BEARS was used to study the poorly known level widths of 16F via the p(15O,15O)p reaction. Among the nuclei in the A=16, T=1 isobaric triad, many states in 16N and 16O have been well established, but less has been reported on 16F. Four states of 16F below 1 MeV have been identified experimentally: 0-, 1

  5. Spin dipole nuclear matrix elements for double beta decay nuclei by charge-exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, H.; Frekers, D.

    2016-11-01

    Spin dipole (SD) strengths for double beta-decay (DBD) nuclei were studied experimentally for the first time by using measured cross sections of (3He, t) charge-exchange reactions (CERs). Then SD nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) {M}α ({{SD}}) for low-lying 2- states were derived from the experimental SD strengths by referring to the experimental α = GT (Gamow-Teller) and α = F (Fermi) strengths. They are consistent with the empirical NMEs M({{SD}}) based on the quasi-particle model with the empirical effective SD coupling constant. The CERs are used to evaluate the SD NME, which is associated with one of the major components of the neutrino-less DBD NME.

  6. Feasibility study of nuclear transmutation by negative muon capture reaction using the PHITS code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Feasibility of nuclear transmutation of fission products in high-level radioactive waste by negative muon capture reaction is investigated using the Particle and Heave Ion Transport code System (PHITS). It is found that about 80 % of stopped negative muons contribute to transmute target nuclide into stable or short-lived nuclide in the case of 135Cs, which is one of the most important nuclide in the transmutation. The simulation result also indicates that the position of transmutation is controllable by changing the energy of incident negative muon. Based on our simulation, it takes approximately 8.5 × 108years to transmute 500 g of 135Cs by negative muon beam with the highest intensity currently available.

  7. Measurement and evaluation of the excitation functions for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on niobium

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkanyi, F; Szelecsenyi, F; Sonck, M; Hermanne, A

    2002-01-01

    Alpha particle induced nuclear reactions were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural niobium targets up to 43 MeV. Excitation functions were measured for the production of sup 9 sup 6 sup m sup g Tc, sup 9 sup 5 sup m Tc, sup 9 sup 5 sup g Tc, sup 9 sup 4 sup g Tc, sup 9 sup 5 sup m sup g Nb and sup 9 sup 2 sup m Nb. Cumulative cross-sections, thick target yields and activation functions were deduced and compared with available literature data. Applications of the excitation functions in the field of thin layer activation techniques and beam monitoring are also discussed.

  8. Information theory and statistical nuclear reactions. I. General theory and applications to few-channel problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, P.A.; Pereyra, P.; Seligman, T.H.

    1985-05-01

    Ensembles of scattering S-matrices have been used in the past to describe the statistical fluctuations exhibited by many nuclear-reaction cross sections as a function of energy. In recent years, there have been attempts to construct these ensembles explicitly in terms of S, by directly proposinng a statistical law for S. In the present paper, it is shown that, for an arbitrary number of channels, one can incorporate, in the ensemble of S-matrices, the conditions of flux conservation, time-reversal invariance, causality, ergodicity, and the requirement that the ensemble average coincide with the optical scattering matrix. Since these conditions do not specify the ensemble uniquely, the ensemble that has maximum information-entropy is dealt with among those that satisfy the above requirements. Some applications to few-channel problems and comparisons to Monte-Carlo calculations are presented.

  9. Investigation of phosphorous in thin films using the {sup 31}P(α,p){sup 34}S nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitthan, E., E-mail: eduardo.pitthan@ufrgs.br [PGMICRO, UFRGS, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gobbi, A.L. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Stedile, F.C. [PGMICRO, UFRGS, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Química, UFRGS, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Phosphorus detection and quantification were obtained, using the {sup 31}P(α,p){sup 34}S nuclear reaction and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in deposited silicon oxide films containing phosphorus and in carbon substrates implanted with phosphorus. It was possible to determine the total amount of phosphorus using the resonance at 3.640 MeV of the {sup 31}P(α,p){sup 34}S nuclear reaction in samples with phosphorus present in up to 23 nm depth. Phosphorous amounts as low as 4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} were detected. Results obtained by nuclear reaction were in good agreement with those from RBS measurements. Possible applications of phosphorus deposition routes used in this work are discussed.

  10. Investigation of phosphorous in thin films using the 31P(α,p)34S nuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitthan, E.; Gobbi, A. L.; Stedile, F. C.

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorus detection and quantification were obtained, using the 31P(α,p)34S nuclear reaction and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in deposited silicon oxide films containing phosphorus and in carbon substrates implanted with phosphorus. It was possible to determine the total amount of phosphorus using the resonance at 3.640 MeV of the 31P(α,p)34S nuclear reaction in samples with phosphorus present in up to 23 nm depth. Phosphorous amounts as low as 4 × 1014 cm-2 were detected. Results obtained by nuclear reaction were in good agreement with those from RBS measurements. Possible applications of phosphorus deposition routes used in this work are discussed.

  11. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuffrida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV. Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  12. An Adaptive QSE-reduced Nuclear Reaction Network for Silicon Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parete-Koon, Suzanne; Hix, W.; Thielemann, F.

    2008-03-01

    The nuclei of the "iron peak" are formed in massive stars shortly before core collapse and during their supernova outbursts as well as during thermonuclear supernovae. Complete and incomplete silicon burning during these events are responsible for the production of a wide range of nuclei with atomic mass numbers from 28 to 64. Because of the large number of nuclei involved, accurate modeling of silicon burning is computationally expensive. However, examination of the physics of silicon burning has revealed that the nuclear evolution is dominated by large groups of nuclei in mutual equilibrium. We present an improvement on our hybrid equilibrium-network scheme which takes advantage of this quasi-equilibrium in order to reduce the number of independent variables calculated. Because the size and membership of these groups vary as the temperature, density and electron faction change, achieving maximal efficiency requires dynamic adjustment of group number and membership. Toward this end, we are implementing a scheme beginning with a single QSE (NSE) group at appropriately high temperature, then progressing through 2, 3 and 4 group stages (with successively more independent variables) as temperature declines. This combination allows accurate prediction of the nuclear abundance evolution, deleptonization and energy generation at a further reduced computational cost when compared to a conventional nuclear reaction network or our previous 3 fixed group QSE-reduced network. During silicon burning, the resultant QSE-reduced network is up to 20 times faster than the full network it replaces without significant loss of accuracy. These reductions in computational cost and the number of species evolved make QSE-reduced networks well suited for inclusion within hydrodynamic simulations, particularly in multi-dimensional applications. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, by the Department of Energy's Scientic Discovery through Advanced Computing

  13. Exclusive CHIPS-TPT algorithms for simulation of neutron-nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, Mikhail; Savin, Dmitriy

    2016-09-01

    The CHIPS-TPT physics library for simulation of neutron-nuclear reactions on the new exclusive level is being developed in CFAR VNIIA. The exclusive modeling conserves energy, momentum and quantum numbers in each neutron-nuclear interaction. The CHIPS-TPT algorithms are based on the exclusive CHIPS library, which is compatible with Geant4. Special CHIPS-TPT physics lists in the Geant4 format are provided. The calculation time for an exclusive CHIPS-TPT simulation is comparable to the time of the corresponding inclusive Geant4-HP simulation and much faster for mono-isotopic simulations. In addition to the reduction of the deposited energy fluctuations, which is a consequence of the energy conservation, the CHIPS-TPT libraries provide a possibility of simulation of the secondary particles correlation, e.g. secondary gammas or n-γ correlations, and of the Doppler broadening of the γ-lines in the simulated spectra, which can be measured by germanium detectors.

  14. Ab initio nuclear structure and reactions with chiral three-body forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert; Calci, Angelo [Institut fuer Kernphysik - Theoriezentrum, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Navratil, Petr [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    One major ambition of ab initio nuclear theory is the description of nuclear-structure and reaction observables on equal footing. This is accomplished by combining the no-core shell model (NCSM) with the resonating-group method (RGM) to a unified ab initio approach to bound and continuum states, which is developed further to the no-core shell model with continuum (NCSMC). We present the formal developments to include three-nucleon interactions in both the NCSM/RGM and NCSMC formalism. This provides the possibility to assess the predictive power of chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in the variety of scattering observables. We study three-nucleon force effects on phase-shifts, cross sections and analyzing powers in first ab-initio studies of nucleon-{sup 4}He scattering with chiral two- and three-nucleon forces. Finally, we focus on heavier target nuclei using the NCSMC, e.g., in neutron-{sup 8}Be scattering and study the impact of the continuum on the spectrum of {sup 9}Be.

  15. Isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass and symmetry energy in isotopic nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ya-Fei; Niu, Fei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Jin, Gen-Ming; Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Within an isospin and momentum dependent transport model, the dynamics of isospin particles (nucleons and light clusters) in Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions are investigated for constraining the isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass and the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities. The mass splitting of $m^{*}_{n}>m^{*}_{p}$ and $m^{*}_{n}nuclear matter and the different stiffness of symmetry energy are used in the model. The single and double neutron to proton ratios of free nucleons and light particles are thoroughly investigated in the isotopic nuclear reactions of $^{112}$Sn+$^{112}$Sn and $^{124}$Sn+$^{124}$Sn at the incident energies of 50 and 120 MeV/nucleon, respectively. It is found that the both effective mass splitting and symmetry energy impact the kinetic energy spectra of the single ratios, in particular at the high energy tail (larger than 20 MeV). Specific constraints are obtained from the double ratio spectra, which are evaluated from the ratios of isospin observab...

  16. Uncertainty evaluation of nuclear reaction model parameters using integral and microscopic measurements. Covariances evaluation with CONRAD code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasi J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the [eV;MeV] energy range, modelling of the neutron induced reactions are based on nuclear reaction models having parameters. Estimation of co-variances on cross sections or on nuclear reaction model parameters is a recurrent puzzle in nuclear data evaluation. Major breakthroughs were asked by nuclear reactor physicists to assess proper uncertainties to be used in applications. In this paper, mathematical methods developped in the CONRAD code[2] will be presented to explain the treatment of all type of uncertainties, including experimental ones (statistical and systematic and propagate them to nuclear reaction model parameters or cross sections. Marginalization procedure will thus be exposed using analytical or Monte-Carlo solutions. Furthermore, one major drawback found by reactor physicist is the fact that integral or analytical experiments (reactor mock-up or simple integral experiment, e.g. ICSBEP, … were not taken into account sufficiently soon in the evaluation process to remove discrepancies. In this paper, we will describe a mathematical framework to take into account properly this kind of information.

  17. Strong screening effects on resonant nuclear reaction $^{23}$Mg $(p,\\gamma)$ $^{24}$Al in the surface of magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Based on the theory of relativistic superstrong magnetic fields(SMFs), by using the method of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximations, we investigate the problem of strong electron screening(SES) in SMFs, and the influence of SES on the nuclear reaction of $^{23}$Mg $(p, \\gamma)$$^{24}$Al. Our calculations show that the nuclear reaction will be markedly effected by the SES in SMFs in the surface of magnetars. Our calculated screening rates can increase two orders of magnitude due to SES in SMFs.

  18. New Evaluated Semi-Empirical Formula Using Optical Model for 14-15 MeV ( n, t) Reaction Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aydın, A.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Kaplan, A.; Okuducu, Ş.

    2009-12-01

    In the next century the world will face the need for new energy sources. Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and thus will not contribute to global warming or acid rain. Achieving acceptable performance for a fusion power system in the areas of economics, safety and environmental acceptability, is critically dependent on performance of the blanket and diverter systems which are the primary heat recovery, plasma purification, and tritium breeding systems. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. The hybrid reactor is a combination of the fusion and fission processes. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, we have calculated non-elastic cross-sections by using optical model for ( n, t) reactions at 14-15 MeV energy. We have investigated the excitation function character and reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have obtained new coefficients for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including optical model nonelastic effects by fitting two parameters for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 MeV. We have discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained cross-section formulas

  19. On-line monitoring of chemical reactions by using bench-top nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, E; Perlo, J; Duchateau, A L L; Verzijl, G K M; Litvinov, V M; Blümich, B; Casanova, F

    2014-10-06

    Real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements carried out with a bench-top system installed next to the reactor inside the fume hood of the chemistry laboratory are presented. To test the system for on-line monitoring, a transfer hydrogenation reaction was studied by continuously pumping the reaction mixture from the reactor to the magnet and back in a closed loop. In addition to improving the time resolution provided by standard sampling methods, the use of such a flow setup eliminates the need for sample preparation. Owing to the progress in terms of field homogeneity and sensitivity now available with compact NMR spectrometers, small molecules dissolved at concentrations on the order of 1 mmol L(-1) can be characterized in single-scan measurements with 1 Hz resolution. Owing to the reduced field strength of compact low-field systems compared to that of conventional high-field magnets, the overlap in the spectrum of different NMR signals is a typical situation. The data processing required to obtain concentrations in the presence of signal overlap are discussed in detail, methods such as plain integration and line-fitting approaches are compared, and the accuracy of each method is determined. The kinetic rates measured for different catalytic concentrations show good agreement with those obtained with gas chromatography as a reference analytical method. Finally, as the measurements are performed under continuous flow conditions, the experimental setup and the flow parameters are optimized to maximize time resolution and signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fanqing

    2004-12-09

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z

  1. Pump-shaped dump optimal control reveals the nuclear reaction pathway of isomerization of a photoexcited cyanine dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzek, Benjamin; Brüggemann, Ben; Pascher, Torbjörn; Yartsev, Arkady

    2007-10-31

    Using optimal control as a spectroscopic tool we decipher the details of the molecular dynamics of the essential multidimensional excited-state photoisomerization - a fundamental chemical reaction of key importance in biology. Two distinct nuclear motions are identified in addition to the overall bond-twisting motion: Initially, the reaction is dominated by motion perpendicular to the torsion coordinate. At later times, a second optically active vibration drives the system along the reaction path to the bottom of the excited-state potential. The time scales of the wavepacket motion on a different part of the excited-state potential are detailed by pump-shaped dump optimal control. This technique offers new means to control a chemical reaction far from the Franck-Condon point of absorption and to map details of excited-state reaction pathways revealing unique insights into the underlying reaction mechanism.

  2. α scattering and α -induced reaction cross sections of 64Zn at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, A.; Mohr, P.; Gyürky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Zs.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Galaviz, D.; Güray, R. T.; Korkulu, Z.; Özkan, N.; Yalçın, C.

    2016-11-01

    Background: α -nucleus potentials play an essential role for the calculation of α -induced reaction cross sections at low energies in the statistical model. Uncertainties of these calculations are related to ambiguities in the adjustment of the potential parameters to experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and to the energy dependence of the effective α -nucleus potentials. Purpose: The present work studies the total reaction cross section σreac of α -induced reactions at low energies which can be determined from the elastic scattering angular distribution or from the sum over the cross sections of all open nonelastic channels. Method: Elastic and inelastic 64Zn(α ,α )64Zn angular distributions were measured at two energies around the Coulomb barrier, at 12.1 and 16.1 MeV. Reaction cross sections of the (α ,γ ) , (α ,n ) , and (α ,p ) reactions were measured at the same energies using the activation technique. The contributions of missing nonelastic channels were estimated from statistical model calculations. Results: The total reaction cross sections from elastic scattering and from the sum of the cross sections over all open nonelastic channels agree well within the uncertainties. This finding confirms the consistency of the experimental data. At the higher energy of 16.1 MeV, the predicted significant contribution of compound-inelastic scattering to the total reaction cross section is confirmed experimentally. As a by-product it is found that most recent global α -nucleus potentials are able to describe the reaction cross sections for 64Zn around the Coulomb barrier. Conclusions: Total reaction cross sections of α -induced reactions can be well determined from elastic scattering angular distributions. The present study proves experimentally that the total cross section from elastic scattering is identical to the sum of nonelastic reaction cross sections. Thus, the statistical model can reliably be used to distribute the total reaction

  3. Study of the Nuclear Transparency in $\\alpha$ + A Reactions at Energies $\\geq$ 12 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The question about transparency is crucial for heavy ion reaction studies. If the transparency is low at 10-15 GeV per nucleon then very large baryon densities can be achieved in this energy range, maybe enough to produce quark-gluon plasma in U+U collisions. We propose to measure, event by event, pseudo-rapidity and multiplicity distributions of singly charged relativistic particles (@b~$>$~0.7) globally and in selected regions of rapidity as well as multiplicities of recoiling protons (30-400~Me charged nuclear fragments. These studies will explore general features of @a+A reactions at energies @$>$~12~GeV/nucleon. The main goal of the experiment is to measure the transparency of nuclear matter in this energy range. The detector will be nuclear emulsion.

  4. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watanabe, Takehito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on neodymium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Experimental excitation function of deuteron induced reactions on natural Nd. • Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS (TENDL-2012). • Physical yield calculation and comparison. • Discussion of medical and industrial applications. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rare earths, the reactions on neodymium for production of therapeutic radionuclides were measured for the first time. The excitation functions of the {sup nat}Nd(d,x) {sup 151,150,149,148m,148g,146,144,143}Pm, {sup 149,147,139m}Nd, {sup 142}Pr and {sup 139g}Ce nuclear reactions were assessed by using the stacked foil activation technique and high resolution γ-spectrometry. The experimental excitation functions were compared to the theoretical predictions calculated with the modified model codes ALICE-IPPE-D and EMPIRE-II-D and with the data in the TENDL-2012 library based on latest version of the TALYS code. The application of the data in the field of medical isotope production and nuclear reaction theory is discussed.

  6. Study of nuclear reactions producing 36Cl by micro-AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, H.; Jesus, A. P.; Fonseca, M.; Cruz, J.; Galaviz, D.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.

    2016-01-01

    36Cl is one of several short to medium lived isotopes (as compared to the earth age) whose abundances at the earlier solar system may help to clarify its formation process. There are two generally accepted possible models for the production of this radionuclide: it originated from the ejecta of a nearby supernova (where 36Cl was most probably produced in the s-process by neutron irradiation of 35Cl) and/or it was produced by in-situ irradiation of nebular dust by energetic particles (mostly, p, a, 3He -X-wind irradiation model). The objective of the present work is to measure the cross section of the 37Cl(p,d)36Cl and 35Cl(d,p)36Cl nuclear reactions, by measuring the 36Cl content of AgCl samples (previously bombarded with high energy protons and deuterons) with AMS, taking advantage of the very low detection limits of this technique for chlorine measurements. For that, the micro-AMS system of the LF1/ITN laboratory had to be optimized for chlorine measurements, as to our knowledge this type of measurements had never been performed in such a system (AMS with micro-beam). Here are presented the first results of these developments, namely the tests in terms of precision and reproducibility that were done by comparing AgCl blanks irradiated at the Portuguese National Reactor with standards produced by the dilution of the NIST SRM 4943 standard material.

  7. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasmaa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Kravarik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M.

    2012-02-01

    A 1016 W/cm2 Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD2 targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD2 targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  8. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L; Cavallaro, S; Cutroneo, M; Giuffrida, L; Krasa, J; Margarone, D; Velyhan, A; Kravarik, J; Ullschmied, J; Wolowski, J; Szydlowski, A; Rosinski, M

    2012-02-01

    A 10(16) W∕cm(2) Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD(2) targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD(2) targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  9. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kravarik, J. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Electro-Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 23 Hery Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-02-15

    A 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD{sub 2} targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD{sub 2} targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  10. Deuterium–deuterium nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.it [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Università di Messina, V.le F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Università di Messina, V.le F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kravarik, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University, Faculty of Electro-Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 23 Hery Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    A 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD{sub 2} targets placed into the high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deuterons and carbon ions emission with energy up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deuterium ions may induce high D–D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD{sub 2} targets can be availed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deuterons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  11. Deuterium-deuterium nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Kravarik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M.

    2013-05-01

    A 1016 W/cm2 Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD2 targets placed into the high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deuterons and carbon ions emission with energy up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deuterium ions may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD2 targets can be availed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deuterons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  12. Melter Feed Reactions at T ≤ 700°C for Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Jarrett A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Batch reactions and phase transitions in a nuclear waste feed heated at 5 K min-1 up to 600°C were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. Quenched samples were leached in deionized water at room temperature and 80°C to extract soluble salts and early glass-forming melt, respectively. To determine the content and composition of leachable phases, the leachates were analyzed by the inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy. By ~400°C, gibbsite and borax lost water and converted to amorphous and intermediate crystalline phases. Between 400°C and 600°C, the sodium borate early glass-forming melt reacted with amorphous aluminum oxide and calcium oxide to form intermediate products containing Al and Ca. At ~600°C, half Na and B converted to the early glass-forming melt, and quartz began to dissolve in the melt.

  13. Interplay between diffusion, accretion and nuclear reactions in the atmospheres of Sirius and Przybylski's star

    CERN Document Server

    Yushchenko, A; Goriely, S; Shavrina, A; Kang, Y W; Rostopchin, S; Valyavin, G; Mkrtichian, D; Hatzes, A; Lee, B C; Kim, C; Yushchenko, Alexander; Gopka, Vera; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon; Rostopchin, Sergey; Valyavin, Gennady; Mkrtichian, David; Hatzes, Artie; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Chulhee

    2006-01-01

    The abundance anomalies in chemically peculiar B-F stars are usually explained by diffusion of chemical elements in the stable atmospheres of these stars. But it is well known that Cp stars with similar temperatures and gravities show very different chemical compositions. We show that the abundance patterns of several stars can be influenced by accretion and (or) nuclear reactions in stellar atmospheres. We report the result of determination of abundances of elements in the atmosphere of hot Am star: Sirius A and show that Sirius A was contaminated by s-process enriched matter from Sirius B (now a white dwarf). The second case is Przybylski's star. The abundance pattern of this star is the second most studied one after the Sun with the abundances determined for about 60 chemical elements. Spectral lines of radioactive elements with short decay times were found in the spectrum of this star. We report the results of investigation on the stratification of chemical elements in the atmosphere of Przybylski's star ...

  14. Deuteron Induced ( d,p) and ( d,2p) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Kara, A.

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that the nuclear reactions of charged particles with nuclei are very important in many fields of nuclear physics. The interactions of deuterons with nuclei have been especially the subject of common research in the history of nuclear physics. Moreover, the knowledge of cross section for deuteron-nucleus interactions are required for various application such as space applications, accelerator driven sub-critical systems, nuclear medicine, nuclear fission reactors and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors. Particularly, the future of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors is largely dependent on the nuclear reaction cross section data and the selection of structural fusion materials. Finally, the reaction cross section data of deuteron induced reactions on fusion structural materials are of great importance for development and design of both experimental and commercial fusion devices. In this work, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as Al ( Aluminium), Ti ( Titanium), Cu ( Copper), Ni ( Nickel), Co ( Cobalt), Fe ( Iron), Zr ( Zirconium), Hf ( Hafnium) and Ta ( Tantalum) have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27 Al( d,2p) 27 Mg, 47 Ti( d,2p) 47 Sc, 65 Cu( d,2p) 65 Ni, 58 Ni( d,2p) 58 Co, 59 Co( d,2p) 59 Fe, 58 Fe( d,p) 59 Fe, 96 Zr( d,p) 97 Zr, 180 Hf ( d,p) 181 Hf and 181 Ta( d,p) 182 Ta have been carried out for incident deuteron energies up to 50 MeV. In these calculations, the equilibrium and pre-equilibrium effects for ( d,p) and ( d,2p) reactions have been investigated. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing ( WE) Model. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model ( GDH) and Hybrid Model. In the calculations the program code ALICE/ASH was used. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the

  15. Applications of dynamic nuclear polarization to the study of reactions and reagents in organic and biomolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Christian; Bowen, Sean

    2010-08-07

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is an important spectroscopic tool for the identification and structural characterization of molecules in chemistry and biochemistry. The most significant limitation of NMR compared to other spectroscopies is its relatively low sensitivity, which thus often requires long measurement times or large amounts of sample. A way of increasing sensitivity of single scan NMR spectra by several orders of magnitude is through hyperpolarization of nuclear spins. Dynamic nuclear polarization allows hyperpolarization of most spins in small molecules encountered in chemistry and biochemistry. NMR spectra of small amounts of samples from natural source, or from chemical synthesis can readily be acquired. Perhaps more interestingly, the availability of the entire hyperpolarized NMR signal in one single scan allows the measurement of transient processes in real time, if applied together with a stopped-flow technique. Through observation of chemical shift, different reactant and product species can be distinguished, and kinetics and mechanisms, for example in enzyme catalyzed reactions, can be elucidated. Real-time hyperpolarization-enhanced NMR is uniquely amenable to correlating atomic positions not only through space, but also over time between reactant and product species. Such correlations carry mechanistic information about a reaction, and can prove reaction pathways. Applications of this technique are emerging in different areas of chemistry concerned with rapid reactions, including not only enzymatic processes, but also chemical catalysis and protein folding.

  16. The role of nuclear reactions in Monte Carlo calculations of absorbed and biological effective dose distributions in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Brons, S; Elsässer, T; Ferrari, A; Gadioli, E; Mairani, A; Parodi, K; Sala, P; Scholz, M; Sommerer, F

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes are rapidly spreading among hadron therapy community due to their sophisticated nuclear/electromagnetic models which allow an improved description of the complex mixed radiation field produced by nuclear reactions in therapeutic irradiation. In this contribution results obtained with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA are presented focusing on the production of secondary fragments in carbon ion interaction with water and on CT-based calculations of absorbed and biological effective dose for typical clinical situations. The results of the simulations are compared with the available experimental data and with the predictions of the GSI analytical treatment planning code TRiP.

  17. Characterization of specific nuclear reaction channels by deconvolution in the energy space of the total nuclear cross-section of protons - applications to proton therapy and technical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, W

    2016-01-01

    The total nuclear cross-section Qtot(E) resulting from the interaction of protons with nuclei is decomposed in 3 different contributions: 1. elastic scatter at the complete nucleus, which adopts a part of the proton kinetic energy; 2. inelastic scatter at a nucleus, which changes its quantum numbers by vibrations, rotations, transition to highly excited states; 3. proper nuclear reactions with change of the mass and/or charge number. Then different particles leave the hit nucleus (neutrons, protons, etc.), which is now referred to as 'heavy recoil' nucleus. The scatter parts of Qtot(E) according to points 1 and 2 can be removed by a deconvolution acting at Qtot(E) in the energy space. The typical nuclear reaction channels are mainly characterized by resonances of a reduced cross-section function Qred(E). The procedure is applied to cross-sections of therapeutic protons and also to Cs55137 as an example with technical relevance (transmutations with the goal to drastically reduce its half-time).

  18. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemsitry in the region of Thulium, Lutetium, and Tantalum I. Results of Built in Spherical Symmetry in a Deformed Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-06

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from Terbium (Z = 65) to Rhenium (Z = 75). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Tm, Lu, and Ta including reactions on isomeric targets.

  19. International reactions after the resumption of nuclear tests: lot of noise for nothing?; Les reactions internationales a la reprise des essais nucleaires: beaucoup de bruit pour rien?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesquieu, E. de

    1996-07-01

    In 1995, the French President announced that France would perform an ultimate campaign of nuclear tests before a complete banishment as soon as spring 1996. The campaign effectively ended on time and six tests took place between September 5, 1995 and January 27, 1996. The disarmament process went on and the international negotiations in progress at that time were not affected by the French policy. However, this campaign has caused a strong emotion, if not in the entire World, at least in part of the planet and in particular in Western Europe. This report analyses the reactions from the different governments and from the public opinion and shows their impact on the French diplomacy. Content: Part 1 - general considerations: 1 - lot of noise for nothing?: the objectives of French diplomacy; the acts (a quasi lack of sanctions, a temporary degradation of our relations with a limited number of countries); the rhetoric (diplomatic regrets in first time, slip-ups in the second time, the public opinion weight); 2 - the lessons learnt: the opinion and the management of the foreign policy (the image of France, the communication fight); the geopolitical lessons (European Union: community solidarity and European defense; the South Pacific area); 3 - a case study: Japan: the time of uncertainties (domestic situation, external policy); the Japanese reactions after the tests resumption. Part 2 - synthesis of reactions after the resumption of nuclear tests by France: Pacific bordering countries (South Pacific, Latin America); Western Europe countries; non-European countries; Conclusions.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics deep underground the case of the 15N(p,γ)16O reaction at LUNA

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzocchi, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Measuring nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest at the relevant energies is not always possible on the Earth’s surface because of the cosmic-ray background that dominates the spectra. The LUNA collaboration exploits the lowbackground enviroment of Gran Sasso National Laboratory to study these reactions at or close to the Gamow peak. The latest experimental efforts included the measurement of the 15N(p,γ)16O at beam energies between 77 and 350 keV. The status of these measurements is summarised in this contribution.

  1. Proton-induced cross-sections of nuclear reactions on lead up to 37 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2014-01-01

    Excitation function of proton induced nuclear reactions on lead for production of $^{206,205,204,203,202,201g}$Bi, $^{203cum,202m,201cum}$Pb and $^{202cum,201cum,200cum,199cum}$Tl radionuclides were measured up to 36 MeV by using activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry. The new experimental data were compared with the few earlier experimental results and with the predictions of the EMPIRE3.1, ALICE-IPPE (MENDL2p) and TALYS (TENDL-2012) theoretical reaction codes.

  2. The Effect of Nuclear Reaction Rates & Convective Mixing on the Evolution of a 6M$_{\\odot}$ Star

    CERN Document Server

    Halabi, Ghina M

    2014-01-01

    We present the evolution of a 6M$_{\\odot}$ star, of solar-like initial metallicity, and investigate the effects of key nuclear reaction rates, as well as the treatment of the convective mixing on its evolution along the Cepheid instability strip. In particular, we study the effect of recent estimates of the $^{14}$N(p,{\\gamma})$^{15}$O reaction on the formation and extension of the blue loop during core helium burning. We also investigate the effects induced on this blue loop by the adoption of non-standard convective mixing prescriptions, as well as the implications of modifying the Mixing Length Theory.

  3. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold were measured up to 40 MeV by using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross-sections and derived integral yields are reported for the {sup 197}Au(d,xn){sup 197m,197g,195m,195g}Hg and {sup 197}Au(d,x){sup 198g,196m,196g,195,194}Au nuclear reactions. The experimental data are analyzed and compared to literature and predictions of the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS theoretical model codes. The application of the new cross-sections for accelerator technology, medical radioisotope production, thin layer activation and dose calculation is discussed.

  4. Sensitivity of (d,p) reactions to high n-p momenta and the consequences for nuclear spectroscopy studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, G W; Tostevin, J A

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models of low-energy (d,p) single-neutron transfer reactions are a crucial link between experimentation, nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysical studies. Whereas reaction models that use local optical potentials are insensitive to short-range physics in the deuteron, we show that including the inherent nonlocality of the nucleon-target interactions and realistic deuteron wave functions generates significant sensitivity to high n-p relative momenta and to the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. We quantify this effect upon the deuteron channel distorting potentials within the framework of the adiabatic deuteron breakup model. The implications for calculated (d,p) cross sections and spectroscopic information deduced from experiments are discussed.

  5. Lattice location of O18 in ion implanted Fe crystals by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, channeling and nuclear reaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavel, Mathayan; Sundaravel, Balakrishnan; Panigrahi, Binaykumar

    2016-09-01

    There are contradictory theoretical predictions of lattice location of oxygen interstitial atom at tetrahedral and octahedral interstices in bcc Fe. For validating these predictions, 300 keV O18 ions with fluence of 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 are implanted into bcc Fe single crystals at room temperature and annealed at 400 °C. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA)/channeling measurements are carried out with 850 keV protons. The lattice location of implanted O18 is analysed using the α-particles yield from O18(p,α)N15 nuclear reaction. The tilt angular scans of α-particle yield along and axial directions are performed at room temperature. Lattice location of O18 is found to be at tetrahedral interstitial site by comparing the experimental scan with simulated scans using FLUX7 software.

  6. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-04-30

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  7. Transmutation of nuclear wastes using photonuclear reactions triggered by Compton backscattering photons at the Shanghai laser electrongamma source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-Gen; YUAN Ren-Yong; XU Jia-Qiang; YAN Zhe; FAN Gong-Tao; SHEN Wen-Qing; XU Wang; WANG Hong-Wei; GUO Wei; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; LU Guang-Cheng; XU Yi; PAN Qiang-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the facility of the Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source (SLEGS),the transmutation for nuclear wastes such as 137Cs and 129I is investigated.It is found that nuclear waste can be transmuted efficiently via photonuclear reaction triggered by gamma photons generated from Compton backscattering between CO2 laser photons and 3.5 GeV electrons.The nuclear activities of 137Cs and 129I are evaluated and compared with the results of transmutation triggered by bremsstrahlung gamma photons driven by ultra intense laser.Due to the better character of gamma photon spectrum as well as the high brightness of gamma photons,the transmutation rate of Compton backscattering method is much higher than that of the bremsstrahlung method.

  8. Nuclear flux densities during a model pericyclic reaction with energies well above and below the potential barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredtmann, Timm; Kono, Hirohiko; Manz, Jörn; Nakamura, Kosuke; Stemmle, Christian

    2013-05-10

    Pericyclic reactions with energies E well above the potential energy barrier B (case E>B) proceed with quantum nuclear flux densities 〈j〉 which are essentially proportional to the nuclear densities ρ in the femtosecond time domain. This corresponds to the definition of classical (cl) mechanics, j(cl)=υ(cl) ρ(cl), with almost constant velocity v(cl). For the other case Evalue close to the barrier where ρ is a minimum (in fact where ρ is close to zero). The general conclusion is that quantum mechanical nuclear flux densities may be at variance from traditional expectations based on classical trajectories. This prediction calls for experimental demonstration. The counter-intuitive proof-of-principle is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional model of the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from fusion hindrance in reactions leading to the production of superheavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselsky, M.; Klimo, J.; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter K0=240 -260 MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy (γ >1 ) are rejected.

  10. Elastic fields induced by non-elastic eigenstrains in a plane elliptical inhomogeneity existing in orthotropic media under uniform tension at infinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lei; NIE GuoHua

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for the elastic fields induced by non-elastic eigenstrains in a plane elliptical inhomogeneity embedded in the orthotropic matrix under tension at infinity and inclined at any angle. The conformal transformation and complex function method for the snisotropic elastic material were used to determine the strain energies in the inhomogeneity and matrix, which were expressed by four undetermined coefficients characterizing the equilibrium boundary of the inhomogeneity due to the acting eigenstrains and external load. The use of the principle of the minimum potential energy led to analytical expres-sions for these coefficients and thus generated a closed-form solution for the elas-tic strain/stress fields. The resulting stress field in the inhomogeneity was exam-ined and verified by checking the continuity conditions for the normal and shear stresses on the interior boundary of the matrix.

  11. Elastic fields induced by non-elastic eigenstrains in a plane elliptical inhomogeneity existing in orthotropic media under uniform tension at infinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for the elastic fields induced by non-elastic eigenstrains in a plane elliptical inhomogeneity embedded in the orthotropic matrix under tension at infinity and inclined at any angle. The conformal transformation and complex function method for the anisotropic elastic material were used to determine the strain energies in the inhomogeneity and matrix, which were expressed by four undetermined coefficients characterizing the equilibrium boundary of the inhomogeneity due to the acting eigenstrains and external load. The use of the principle of the minimum potential energy led to analytical expres-sions for these coefficients and thus generated a closed-form solution for the elas-tic strain/stress fields. The resulting stress field in the inhomogeneity was exam-ined and verified by checking the continuity conditions for the normal and shear stresses on the interior boundary of the matrix.

  12. Activation cross sections of α-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of ¹⁷⁸W/(178m)Ta generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of (178m)Ta through (nat)Hf(α,xn)(178)W-(178m)Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions (nat)Hf(α,x)(179,177,176,175)W, (183,182,178g,177,176,175)Ta, (179m,177m,175)Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and γ-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the (nat)Ta(d,xn)(178)W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ((3)He,x)) production routes for (178)W. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An efficient nonclassical quadrature for the calculation of nonresonant nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-08-01

    Nonclassical quadratures based on a new set of half-range polynomials, Tn(x) , orthogonal with respect to w(x) =e - x - b /√{ x } for x ∈ [ 0 , ∞) are employed in the efficient calculation of the nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data. The parameter b = B /√{kB T } in the weight function is temperature dependent and B is the Gamow factor. The polynomials Tn(x) satisfy a three term recurrence relation defined by two sets of recurrence coefficients, αn and βn. These recurrence coefficients define in turn the tridiagonal Jacobi matrix whose eigenvalues are the quadrature points and the weights are calculated from the first components of the eigenfunctions. For nonresonant nuclear reactions for which the astrophysical function can be expressed as a lower order polynomial in the relative energy, the convergence of the thermal average of the reactive cross section with this nonclassical quadrature is extremely rapid requiring in many cases 2-4 quadrature points. The results are compared with other libraries of nuclear reaction rate coefficient data reported in the literature.

  14. Fragment Produced by Nuclear Reaction of Heavy Ions Interacted with Tissue-equivalent Biological Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In heavy ion therapy and radiation biological effects the nuclear fragments from the heavy ion collisions may cause a significant alteration of the radiation field. Nuclear collision between beam particles and tissue nuclei along the penetration path of high-energy ions in tissue or biological-equivalent material causes a loss

  15. Nuclear transparency in 90 °c.m. quasielastic A(p,2p) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averiche, Y.; Barton, D. S.; Baturin, V.; Buktoyarova, N.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A. S.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Durrant, S.; Fang, G.; Gabriel, K.; Gushue, S.; Heller, K. J.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, I.; Leksanov, A.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malki, A.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; Marshak, M. L.; Martel, D.; Minina, E.; Minor, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J. J.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Shupe, M. A.; Sutton, S.; Tanaka, M.; Tang, A.; Tsetkov, I.; Watson, J.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.; Zhalov, D.

    2004-07-01

    We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90° in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c , corresponding to 4.8< Q2 <12.7 (GeV/c)2 . Taking into account the motion of the target proton in the nucleus, the effective incident momenta extended from 5.0 to 15.8 GeV/c . First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which had more complete kinematic definition of quasielastic events. E850 covered a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provided more information regarding the nature of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency near 90° and the nuclear transparency deuterons were studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for lithium, aluminum, copper, and lead nuclei as well as for carbon. A determination of the ( π+ , π+ p) transparencies is also reported. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e, e' p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as predicted by Glauber calculations. The A(p,2p) nuclear transparency for carbon and aluminum increases by a factor of two between 5.9 and 9.5 GeV/c incident proton momentum. At its peak the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency is ˜80% of the constant A(e, e' p) nuclear transparency. Then the nuclear transparency falls back to a value at least as small as that at 5.9 GeV/c , and is compatible with the Glauber level again. This oscillating behavior is generally interpreted as an interplay between two components of the pN scattering amplitude; one short ranged and perturbative, and the other long ranged and

  16. $\\alpha$-scattering and $\\alpha$-induced reaction cross sections of $^{64}$Zn at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ornelas, A; Gyürky, Gy; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Zs; Halász, Z; Kiss, G G; Somorjai, E; Szücs, T; Takács, M P; Galaviz, D; Güray, R T; Korkulu, Z; Özkan, N; Yalçın, C

    2016-01-01

    Background: alpha-nucleus potentials play an essential role for the calculation of alpha-induced reaction cross sections at low energies in the statistical model... Purpose: The present work studies the total reaction cross section sigma_reac of alpha-induced reactions at low energies which can be determined from the elastic scattering angular distribution or from the sum over the cross sections of all open non-elastic channels. Method: Elastic and inelastic 64Zn(a,a)64Zn angular distributions were measured at two energies around the Coulomb barrier at 12.1 MeV and 16.1 MeV. Reaction cross sections of the (a,g), (a,n), and (a,p) reactions were measured at the same energies using the activation technique. The contributions of missing non-elastic channels were estimated from statistical model calculations. Results: The total reaction cross sections from elastic scattering and from the sum of the cross sections over all open non-elastic channels agree well within the uncertainties. This finding confirms the cons...

  17. New activation cross section data on longer lived radio-nuclei produced in proton induced nuclear reaction on zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Al-Abyad, M; Yamazaki, H; Baba, M; Mohammadi, M A

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178-178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  18. Solving The Longstanding Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At the Highest Microscopic Level - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    A 2011 DOE-NP Early Career Award (ECA) under Field Work Proposal (FWP) SCW1158 supported the project “Solving the Long-Standing Problem of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions at the Highest Microscopic Level” in the five-year period from June 15, 2011 to June 14, 2016. This project, led by PI S. Quaglioni, aimed at developing a comprehensive and computationally efficient framework to arrive at a unified description of structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. Specifically, the project had three main goals: 1) arriving at the accurate predictions for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; 2) realizing a comprehensive description of clustering and continuum effects in exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and 3) achieving fundamental understanding of the role of the 3N force in nuclear reactions and nuclei at the drip line.

  19. The multiple scattering and N-body approaches to nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1983-02-01

    The relationship between conventional multiple scattering approaches and the recently developed N-body approaches to nuclear reactions is considered with a view towards elastic scattering applications. Connectivity expansions in the N-body approach and multiple scattering expansions in the Watson approach are developed by a common technique so that a comparison of the physical content of each can be made. In the N-body case this leads to a new derivation of the equations of Bencze, Redish, and Sloan in both particle-labelled and partition-labelled form and this yields new insight into the minimal dimensionality of these equations and into the role of channel coupling schemes within this formulation. The relative simplicity and generality with which these results are obtained is designed to be easily understood by those unfamiliar with N-body formalisms. The two approaches are contrasted first for the three-particle problem and subsequently for the many-body problem. We argue that a strict adherence to the connected-kernel property which is advantageous for the three-particle problem may not be so advantageous for the many-body elastic scattering problem. Undesirable physical characteristics of the connectivity expansion for elastic scattering are identified and their rectification is discussed. The off-shell transformation associated with the N-body approach is examined critically. The origin of the multiplicity of N-body coupling schemes is elucidated. It is shown that a modified concept of connectivity, called inclusive connectivity, can be introduced to guide expansions which can be truncated in a physically meaningful way. The inclusive connectivity expansion is seen to be identical to the spectator expansion for an elementary projectile but differs in the case of a composite projectile. Extant elastic scattering optical potential formulations based on the two concepts of connectivity are compared and contrasted. We show that connected kernel integral equations

  20. TORUS: Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes.Topical Collaboration for Nuclear Theory Project. Period: June 1, 2010 - May 31, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbanas, Goran [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elster, Charlotte [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nunes, Filomena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, Ian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The work of this collaboration during its existence is summarized. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration was to develop new methods that advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct reaction calculations. This multi-institution collaborative effort was and remains directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability, microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory. The TORUS project focused on understanding the details of (d,p) reactions for neutron transfer to heavier nuclei. The bulk of the work fell into three areas: coupled channel theory, modeling (d,p) reactions with a Faddeev-AGS approach, and capture reactions.

  1. Characterizing Neutron-Proton Equilibration in Nuclear Reactions with Subzeptosecond Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedele, A.; McIntosh, A. B.; Hagel, K.; Huang, M.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; May, L. W.; McCleskey, E.; Youngs, M.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study neutron-proton equilibration in dynamically deformed atomic nuclei created in nuclear collisions. The two ends of the elongated nucleus are initially dissimilar in composition and equilibrate on a subzeptosecond time scale following first-order kinetics. We use angular momentum to relate the breakup orientation to the time scale of the breakup. The extracted rate constant is 3 zs-1 , which corresponds to a mean equilibration time of 0.3 zs. This technique enables new insight into the nuclear equation of state that governs many nuclear and astrophysical phenomena leading to the origin of the chemical elements.

  2. Measurement of Nuclear Transparency from A(e,e',π+) Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clasie, Benjamin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-08-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the A(e, e' π+) process in 2H,12C, 27Al, 63Cu and 197Au targets. These measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory over a four momen- tum transfer squared range Q2 = 1.1 to 4.7 (GeV/c)2. The nuclear transparency was extracted as the super-ratio of ( σA/ σH) from data to a model of pion-electroproduction from nuclei without N final state interactions. The Q2 and atomic number dependence of the nuclear transparency both show deviations from traditional nuclear physics expectations, and are consistent with calculations that include the quantum chromodynamical phenomenon of color transparency.

  3. Nuclear Transparency in 90 Degree c.m. Quasielastic A(p,2p) Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aclander, J; Asryan, G; Averiche, Y; Barton, D S; Baturin, V; Buktoyarova, N; Bunce, G M; Carroll, A S; Christensen, N; Courant, H; Durrant, S; Fang, G; Gabriel, K; Gushue, S; Heller, K J; Heppelmann, S; Kosonovsky, I; Leksanov, A; Makdisi, Y I; Malki, A; Mardor, I; Mardor, Y; Marshak, M L; Martel, D; Minina, E; Minor, E; Navon, I; Nicholson, H; Ogawa, A; Panebratsev, Yu A; Piasetzky, E; Roser, T; Russell, J J; Schetkovsky, A; Shimansky, S S; Shupe, M A; Sutton, S; Tanaka, M; Tang, A; Tsetkov, I; Watson, J; White, C; Wu, J Y; Zhalov, D

    2004-01-01

    We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90 Deg .in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 < Q^2 < 12.7 (GeV/c)^2. First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which had more complete kinematic definition of quasielastic events. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency near 90 Deg. c.m., and the nuclear transparency for deuterons was studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the Carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for Li, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei as well as for C. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e,e'p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as...

  4. Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the aqueous solution of Uranium salt

    CERN Document Server

    Simakin, A V

    2010-01-01

    Laser exposure of suspension of either gold or palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of UO2Cl2 of natural isotope abundance was experimentally studied. Picosecond Nd:YAG lasers at peak power from 1011 to 1013 W/cm2 at the wavelength of 1064 and 355 nm were used as well as a visible-range Cu vapor laser at peak power of 1010 W/cm2. The composition of colloidal solutions before and after laser exposure was analyzed using atomic absorption and gamma spectroscopy between 0.06 and 1 MeV range of photon energy. A real-time gamma-spectroscopy was used to characterize the kinetics of nuclear reactions during laser exposure. It was found that laser exposure initiated nuclear reactions involving both 238U and 235U nuclei via different channels in H2O and D2O. The influence of saturation of both the liquid and nanoparticles by gaseous H2 and D2 on the kinetics of nuclear transformations was found. Possible mechanisms of observed processes are discussed.

  5. Research on the Quantum Multistep Theory for Pre-equilibrium Nuclear Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) quantum multistep theory of the pre-equilibrium reaction is further improved and perfected, A unified description for the multistep compound (MSC) process of the pre-equilibrium reaction and the compound nucleus (CN) process of full equilibrium reaction can be presented. This formula can integrate MSC and CN theories with the optical model and Hauser-Feshbach formula, and can get self-consistent expression. In multistep direct (MSB) process of the pre-equilibrium reaction, the μ-step cross section can be expressed by the convolution of μ

  6. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Haba, H; Komori, Y; Aikawa, M

    2016-01-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2 MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. The radioisotope $^{117m}$Sn is a very important theranostic (therapeutic + diagnostic) radioisotope, so special care was taken to the results for that isotope. The well-established stacked foil technique followed by gamma-spectrometry with HPGe gamma spectrometers were used. The target and monitor foils in the stack were commercial high purity metal foils. From the irradiated targets $^{117m}$Sn, $^{113}$Sn, $^{110}$Sn, $^{117m,g}$In, $^{116m}$In, $^{115m}$In, $^{114m}$In, $^{113m}$In, $^{111}$In, $^{110m,g}$In, $^{109m}$I...

  7. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • We applied the TGA-GC–MS combination to perform EGA of glass batches. • We confirmed the proportionality between mass loss rate and gas evolution intensities. • Proportionality coefficients can be obtained via single-reaction calibration. • Quantitative EGA allows mass loss rates to be matched with evolution rates for gases. • Industrial and waste glass technology can benefit from quantitative EGA. - Abstract: In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TGA-GC–MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Along with identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighted sum of intensities of individual gases in linear proportion with the differential thermogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  8. Status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions for intermediate-energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Yamano, Naoki; Fukahori, Tokio

    1998-11-01

    The present status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions is reviewed, with particular attention to total reaction cross section, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section, double-differential particle production cross section, isotope production cross section, and activation cross section. (author)

  9. MCNPX simulations of the silicon carbide semiconductor detector response to fast neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Zat'ko, Bohumír; Nečas, Vladimír; Solar, Michael; Granja, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) has been long recognized as a suitable semiconductor material for use in nuclear radiation detectors of high-energy charged particles, gamma rays, X-rays and neutrons. The nuclear interactions occurring in the semiconductor are complex and can be quantified using a Monte Carlo-based computer code. In this work, the MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was employed to support detector design and analysis. MCNPX is widely used to simulate interaction of radiation with matter and supports the transport of 34 particle types including heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The code also supports complex 3D geometries and both nuclear data tables and physics models. In our model, monoenergetic neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction were assumed as a source of fast neutrons. Their energy varied between 16 and 18.2 MeV, according to the accelerating voltage of the deuterons participating in D-T reaction. First, the simulations were used to calculate the optimum thickness of the reactive film composed of High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE), which converts neutral particles to charged particles and thusly enhancing detection efficiency. The dependency of the optimal thickness of the HDPE layer on the energy of the incident neutrons has been shown for the inspected energy range. Further, from the energy deposited by secondary charged particles and recoiled ions, the detector response was modeled and the effect of the conversion layer on detector response was demonstrated. The results from the simulations were compared with experimental data obtained for a detector covered by a 600 and 1300 μm thick conversion layer. Some limitations of the simulations using MCNPX code are also discussed.

  10. Probing the nuclear equation of state by heavy-ion reactions and neutron star properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, P.K.; Cassing, W.; Thoma, M.H. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Giessen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    We discuss the nuclear equation of state (EOS) using a non-linear relativistic transport model. From the baryon flow for Ni + Ni as well as Au + Au systems we find that the strength of the vector potential has to be reduced at high density or at high relative momenta to describe the experimental flow data at 1-2 A GeV. We use the same dynamical model to calculate the nuclear EOS and then employ this EOS to neutron star structure calculations. We consider the core of the neutron star to be composed of neutrons with an admixture of protons, electrons, muons, sigmas and lambdas at zero temperature. We find that the nuclear equation of state is softer at high densities and hence the maximum mass and the radius of the neutron star are in the observable range of M {proportional_to} 1.7 M{sub s}un and R = 8 km, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Redox Chemistry in Radiation Induced Dissolution of Spent Nuclear Fuel : from Elementary Reactions to Predictive Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Olivia

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this doctoral thesis is the redox chemistry involved in radiation induced oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and UO2 (as a model substance for spent nuclear fuel). It is shown that two electron oxidants are more efficient than one electron oxidants in oxidative dissolution of UO2 at low oxidant concentrations. Furthermore, it is shown that H2O2 is the only oxidant that has to be taken into account in radiation induced dissolution of UO2 under deep repository conditions (...

  12. IAEA coordinated research project on nuclear data for charged-particle monitor reactions and medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Nortier, Francois Meiring; Carlson, Brett V.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Hermanne, Alex; Hussain, Mazhar; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Kellett, Mark A.; Kibédi, Tibor; Kim, Guinyun; Kondev, Filip G.; Lebeda, Ondrej; Luca, Aurelian; Naik, Haladhara; Nagai, Yasuki; Spahn, Ingo; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula V.; Tárkányi, Ferenc T.; Verpelli, Marco

    2017-09-01

    An IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish and improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions and extend data for medical radionuclide production. An international team was assembled to undertake work addressing the requirements for more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. These studies are nearing completion, and are briefly described below.

  13. Heavy flavours production in quark-gluon plasma formed in high energy nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskinski, J.

    1985-01-01

    Results on compression and temperatures of nuclear fireballs and on relative yield of strange and charmed hadrons are given . The results show that temperatures above 300 MeV and large compressions are unlikely achieved in average heavy ion collision. In consequence, thermal production of charm is low. Strange particle production is, however, substantial and indicates clear temperature - threshold behavior.

  14. Obtention of differential sections in nuclear reactions using a thick target; Obtencion de secciones diferenciales en reacciones nucleares usando un blanco grueso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez R, R

    2000-07-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique is used mainly for detecting the presence and concentration of light elements of great importance such as: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This work has the objective to obtain the differential sections of {sup 16} O and {sup 14} N starting from the irradiation with deuterons of TiSrO{sub 3} samples, of AIN and AIN{sub 2} at energies of 2000 KeV and 1800 KeV respectively. The present work have four chapters; chapter 1 is focused to the physical aspects which takes part in the NRA technique. The technical requirements as well as the necessary equipment for developing the techniques are described in the chapter 2. In chapter 3 it is described the algorithm developed for to obtain the differential sections starting from experimental data, and finally, in chapter 4 are given the results and conclusions. (Author)

  15. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will ...

  16. Nuclear structure of {sup 129}Te studied with (n, {gamma}), (d, p) and (d{yields}, t) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, H.-F. E-mail: hans-friedrich.wirth@lmu.de; Egidy, T. von; Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; Bucurescu, D.; Marginean, N.; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Hertenberger, R.; Eisermann, Y.; Graw, G

    2003-03-24

    The nuclear structure of {sup 129}Te has been investigated with the {sup 128}Te(n, {gamma}{gamma}){sup 129}Te reaction using thermal neutrons, with the {sup 128}Te(d, p){sup 129}Te reaction at E{sub d}=24 MeV and E{sub d}=18 MeV, and with the {sup 130}Te(d{yields}, t){sup 129}Te reaction at E{sub d}=24 MeV. More than 110 levels were identified already below 3 MeV excitation energy, in most cases including spin, parity, and {gamma} decay. The neutron binding energy was determined to be 6082.42(11) keV. The thermal neutron capture cross sections to the ground state and to the 11/2{sup -} isomer were found to be 0.165(20) b and 0.021(3) b, respectively. The mechanism of direct neutron capture was verified to play an important role in the {sup 128}Te(n, {gamma}){sup 129}Te reaction. The experimental level scheme is compared with predictions of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model (IBFM) and of the Quasiparticle Phonon Model (QPM)

  17. Nuclear structure of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 Te studied with (n, gamma), (d, p) and (d->, t) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, H F; Tomandl, I; Honzatko, J; Bucurescu, D; Marginean, N; Ponomarev, V Yu; Hertenberger, R; Eisermann, Y; Graw, G

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear structure of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 Te has been investigated with the sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te(n, gamma gamma) sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 Te reaction using thermal neutrons, with the sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te(d, p) sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 Te reaction at E sub d =24 MeV and E sub d =18 MeV, and with the sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 Te(d->, t) sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 Te reaction at E sub d =24 MeV. More than 110 levels were identified already below 3 MeV excitation energy, in most cases including spin, parity, and gamma decay. The neutron binding energy was determined to be 6082.42(11) keV. The thermal neutron capture cross sections to the ground state and to the 11/2 sup - isomer were found to be 0.165(20) b and 0.021(3) b, respectively. The mechanism of direct neutron capture was verified to play an important role in the sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 Te reaction. The experimental level scheme is compared with predictions of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model (IBFM) and of the Quasiparticle Phonon Model (QPM).

  18. Excitation functions for nuclear reactions with interaction of up to 47-MeV deuterons with tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonchar, A.V.; Kondratev, S.N.; Lobach, Y.N.; Nevskii, S.V.; Sklyarenko, V.D.; Tokarevskii, V.V. [Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    1994-03-01

    The investigations, initiated in, of the deuteron excitation functions for nuclear reactions with interaction energies of up to several tens of MeV were continued. The aim of the investigations is to obtain experimental data that can be used to determine the concentration of nuclides forming as a result of the transmutation of nuclei of the deuteron-irradiated material as well as to study the possibilities of predicting the data theoretically. In the present work we measured the excitation function for reactions in which long-lived nuclides are formed under irradiation of tin by deuterons. Calculations of the excitation functions were performed on the basis of the model of pre-equilibrium emission of nucleons and evaporation of nucleons and {gamma}-rays from the compound nucleus using the program ALICE LIVERMORE. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of a comparison of the measurements and calculations about the role of the compound-nucleus mechanism in reactions with deuterons on tin and the possibility of using the ALICE LIVERMORE program for predicting reaction excitation functions. Thus far the only such investigation for tin is the experiment performed with deuteron energies up to 13.6 MeV.

  19. Measurement of Nuclear Reaction Q-values with High Accuracy: 7Li(p, n)7Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. E.; Barker, P. H.; Lovelock, D. M. J.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is described for the measurement of nuclear reaction Q-values with an accuracy of a few parts in 105, in which the ultimate reference is a one-volt standard. As a test of the technique the accurately known threshold energy of the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, 1880.51 +/- 0.08 keV, has been remeasured. The value found using the present technique is 1880.443 +/- 0.020 keV, in good agreement with previous values. An attempt to see evidence for atomic excitation effects in the 27A1(p,n)27Si reaction is also discussed. This yielded a new value of 5803.73 +/- 0.12 keV for the threshold of this reaction, again in a good agreement with, but more accurate than, previous values. Further test measurements are summarized. The main application of the technique, in measurements related to the theory of weak interactions, is discussed briefly and the results obtained to date are presented.

  20. Absolute hydrogen depth profiling using the resonant $^{1}$H($^{15}$N,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{12}$C nuclear reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Tobias P; Bemmerer, Daniel; Stöckel, Klaus; Wagner, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Resonant nuclear reactions are a powerful tool for the determination of the amount and profile of hydrogen in thin layers of material. Usually, this tool requires the use of a standard of well-known composition. The present work, by contrast, deals with standard-less hydrogen depth profiling. This approach requires precise nuclear data, e.g. on the widely used $^{1}$H($^{15}$N,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{12}$C reaction, resonant at 6.4\\,MeV $^{15}$N beam energy. Here, the strongly anisotropic angular distribution of the emitted $\\gamma$-rays from this resonance has been re-measured, resolving a previous discrepancy. Coefficients of (0.38$\\pm$0.04) and (0.80$\\pm$0.04) have been deduced for the second and fourth order Legendre polynomials, respectively. In addition, the resonance strength has been re-evaluated to (25.0$\\pm$1.5)\\,eV, 10\\% higher than previously reported. A simple working formula for the hydrogen concentration is given for cases with known $\\gamma$-ray detection efficiency. Finally, the absolute approach i...

  1. Dynamical evolution of angular momentum in damped nuclear reactions (I). Accumulation of angular momentum by nucleon transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Døssing, Thomas; Randrup, Jørgen

    1985-02-01

    The dynamical accumulation of angular momentum in the course of a damped nuclear reaction is studied within the framework of the nucleon exchange transport model. The dinuclear spin distribution is described by the mean values and the covariances of the two prefragment spins and their orbital angular momentum overlineL. Using an intrinsic coordinate system aligned with the fluctuating direction of overlineL, the equations of motion for the spin distribution are derived and discussed. The ultimate transformation to an externally defined reference frame is also discussed. The evolution of other observables and their coupling to the spin variables are included and, by integrating conditional distributions over all impact parameters, results are obtained for differential cross sections corresponding to a specified loss of relative kinetic energy. The characteristic features of the evolution of the spin distribution is discussed in detail. First the stationary solution of the equations of motion is considered and its different appearance in the various relevant coordinate systems is exhibited. The dynamical evolution is discussed in terms of the time-dependent relaxation times associated with the six different intrinsic modes of rotation in the disphere. Due to the relative smallness of the window size the positive modes will dominate (for not too long times), resulting in a predominantly positive correlation between the fragment spin fluctuations. Illustrative applications to cases of experimental interest are made and a critical discussion is given of other models addressing angular momentum in damped nuclear reactions.

  2. Nuclear clusters as a probe for expansion flow in heavy ion reactions at 10-15A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mattiello, R; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W

    1996-01-01

    A phase space coalescence description based on the Wigner-function method for cluster formation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The momentum distributions of nuclear clusters d,t and He are predicted for central Au(11.6AGeV)Au and Si(14.6AGeV)Si reactions in the framework of the RQMD transport approach. Transverse expansion leads to a strong shoulder-arm shape and different inverse slope parameters in the transverse spectra of nuclear clusters deviating markedly from thermal distributions. A clear ``bounce-off'' event shape is seen: the averaged transverse flow velocities in the reaction plane are for clusters larger than for protons. The cluster yields --particularly at low p_t at midrapidities-- and the in-plane (anti)flow of clusters and pions change if suitably strong baryon potential interactions are included. This allows to study the transient pressure at high density via the event shape analysis of nucleons, nucleon clusters and other hadrons.

  3. Activation cross-sections of longer lived radioisotopes of proton induced nuclear reactions on terbium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Experimental cross sections are presented for the (159)Tb(p,xn)(153,155,157,159)Dy, (152,153,155,156m2,m1,g,158)Tb and (153,151)Gd nuclear reactions up to 65MeV. The experimental results are compared with the recently reported experimental data and with the results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS as reported in the TENDL-2015 on-line library. Integral thick-target yields are also derived for the reaction products used in practical applications and production routes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Progress report, 1 November 1979-30 September 1980. [Dept. of Physics, Brown Univ. , Providence, Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Among the topics investigated were the following: photon scattering and consistency condition between seagull quadrupole terms and the absorption sum rule; Raman scattering to negative-parity states; nonlocal terms due to exchange and retardation effects in charge-transfer reactions; consistency and meaning of various approximate channel coupling array equations; derivation of equations used in empirical nuclear reaction analyses; multicluster, n-particle scattering theory; converged molecular bound state calculations; consistency of approximate channel coupling array equations; derivations of equations used in empirical nuclear reaction analyses; and WKB-type approximation in angular momenta for central potentials. References to publications are given.

  5. Experimental study to explore the 8Be-induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan horse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qun-Gang; Li, Cheng-Bo; Zhou, Shu-Hua; Irgaziev, Bakhadir; Fu, Yuan-Yong; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Zhou, Jing; Meng, Qiu-Ying; Lamia, Livio; Lattuada, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    To explore a possible indirect method for 8Be induced astrophysical reactions, the 8Be=(8Be+n ) cluster structure has been studied via the Trojan horse method. For the first time a 8Be nucleus having an ultrashort lifetime is studied by the Trojan horse method and a 9Be nucleus in the ground state is used for this purpose. The 9Be nucleus is assumed to have a (8Be+n ) cluster structure and used as a Trojan horse nucleus. The 8Be nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual 8Be+d →α +6Li reaction via the 3-body reaction 8Be+d →α +6Li+n . The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside 9Be has been reconstructed. The agreement between the experimental momentum distribution and the theoretical one indicates that a (8Be+n ) cluster structure inside 9Be is very likely. Therefore, the experimental study of 8Be induced reactions, for example, the measurement of the 8Be+α →12C reaction proceeding through the Hoyle state, is possible.

  6. Nuclear pumping by the U-235 /n,ff/ FF reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    The quenching role of the UF6 in noble gas nuclear pumped lasers is examined. Detailed results are presented for He-UF6-Xe system. These results indicate that depletion of the atomic ion is the mechanism responsible for the observed behavior. Based on this it is concluded that UF6 is not compatible with noble gas lasers but should be compatible with molecular lasers.

  7. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  8. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  9. Disassembly of hot nuclear matter formed in Au-induced reactions near the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delis, Dimitrios Nicholas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Complex fragment emission has been studied in the 60 MeV/A 197Au + 12C, 27Al, 51V, natCu, and 197Au reactions. Velocity spectra, angular distributions and cross sections have been constructed for each target from the inclusive data. Coincidence data including 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-fold events have also been examined. Furthermore neutron multiplicity distributions have been obtained for the above reactions by utilizing a novel neutron calorimetric approach.

  10. Study of nuclear reaction method for the determination of protein content in wheat seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiao-Bing; ZHANG Ruan-Yu; CHEN Shi-Guo; LI Tai-Hua; AN Zhu; CAO Yang-Shu; HE Fu-Qing; PENG Xiu-Feng; PAN Shi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    A 13.4 MeV deuteron beam from the 1.2 meter cyclotron of Sichuan University was used to determine the protein content in wheat seeds on the basis of (d,p) reactions. The influence of the variation of the water content in seeds has been investigated.

  11. Experimental study to explore the $\\rm ^8Be$ induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Qun-Gang, Wen; Shu-Hua, Zhou; Irgaziev, Bakhadir; Yuan-Yong, Fu; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Jing, Zhou; Qiu-Ying, Meng; Lamia, Livio; Lattuada, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    To explore a possible indirect method for $\\rm ^8Be$ induced astrophysical reactions, the $\\rm ^9Be=({}^8Be+\\it n)$ cluster structure was studied via the Trojan Horse Method. It is the first time to study a super short life nucleus $\\rm ^8Be$ via the Trojan Horse Method, and it is the first time to make a valid test for $l=1$ Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^9Be$ nucleus is assumed to have a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure and used as the Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^8Be$ nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual $\\rm ^8Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li$ reaction via a suitable 3-body reaction $\\rm ^9Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li +\\it n$. The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside $\\rm ^9Be$ was reconstructed. The agreement between experimental and theoretical momentum distribution indicates that there should be a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure inside $\\rm ^9Be$. Therefor the experimental study of $\\rm ^8Be$ induced reactions, for ...

  12. Defense Nuclear Agency Reaction Rate Handbook. Second Edition. Revision Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    257 (1972). 17-55. Gilmore, F. R., J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer S_t 369(1965). 17-56. Herzberg , G., Electronic Spectra of...1F»O •BBS • \\ CHAPTER 19 19. NEUTRAL REACTIONS Frederick Kaufman, University of Pittsburgh (Latest Revision 14 May 1975) o 19.1

  13. Oxygen determination in materials by {sup 18}O(p,αγ){sup 15}N nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjiv, E-mail: sanjucccm@rediffmail.com [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials, BARC, ECIL Post, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Sunitha, Y.; Reddy, G.L.N.; Sukumar, A.A.; Ramana, J.V.; Sarkar, A. [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials, BARC, ECIL Post, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Verma, Rakesh [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents a proton induced γ-ray emission method based on {sup 18}O(p,αγ){sup 15}N nuclear reaction to determine bulk oxygen in materials. The determination involves the measurement of 5.27 MeV γ-rays emitted following the de-excitation of {sup 15}N nuclei. A description of the energetics of the reaction is given to provide an insight into the origin of 5.27 MeV γ-rays. In addition, thick target γ-ray yields and the limits of detection are measured to ascertain the analytical potential of the reaction. The thick-target γ-ray yields are measured with a high purity germanium detector and a bismuth germanate detector at 0° as well as 90° angles in 3.0–4.2 MeV proton energy region. The best limit of detection of about 1.3 at.% is achieved at 4.2 MeV proton energy for measurements at 0° as well 90° angles with the bismuth germanate detector while the uncertainty in quantitative analysis is <8%. The reaction has a probing depth of several tens of microns. Interferences can arise from fluorine due to the occurrence of {sup 19}F(p,αγ){sup 16}O reaction that emits 6–7 MeV γ-rays. The analytical potential of the methodology is demonstrated by determining oxygen in several oxide as well as non-oxide materials.

  14. Kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of air with nuclear grade graphites: IG-110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren Fuller, E.; Okoh, Joseph M.

    1997-02-01

    The work presented in this report is part of an ongoing effort in the microgravimetric evaluation of the intrinsic reaction parameters for air reactions with graphite over the temperature range of 450 to 750°C. Earlier work in this laboratory addressed the oxidation/etching of H-451 graphite by oxygen and steam. This report addresses the air oxidation of the Japanese formulated material, IG-110. Fractal analysis showed that each cylinder was remarkably smooth, with an average value, D, the fractal dimension of 0.895. The activation energy, Ea, was determined to be 187.89 kJ/mol indicative of reactions occurring in the zone II kinetic regime and as a result of the porous nature of the cylinders. IG-110 is a microporous solid. The low initial reaction rate of 9.8×10 -5 at 0% burn-off and the high value (764.9) of Φ, the structural parameter confirm this. The maximum rate, 1.35×10 -3 g/m 2s, was measured at 34% burn-off. Reactions appeared to proceed in three stages and transition between them was smooth over the temperature range investigated. Both Ea and ln A did not vary with burn-off. The value of Δ S, the entropy of activation, was -41.4 eu, suggesting oxygen adsorption through an immobile transition state complex. Additional work is recommended to validate the predictions that will be made in relation to accident scenarios for reactors such as the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor where fine grained graphites such as IG-110 could be used in structural applications.

  15. Colloid formation during waste form reaction: implications for nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. K.; Bradley, J.; Teetsov, A.; Bradley, C. R.; ten Brink, Marilyn Buchholtz

    1992-01-01

    Insoluble plutonium- and americium-bearing colloidal particles formed during simulated weathering of a high-level nuclear waste glass. Nearly 100 percent of the total plutonium and americium in test ground water was concentrated in these submicrometer particles. These results indicate that models of actinide mobility and repository integrity, which assume complete solubility of actinides in ground water, underestimate the potential for radionuclide release into the environment. A colloid-trapping mechanism may be necessary for a waste repository to meet long-term performance specifications.

  16. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  17. Inclusive deuteron-induced reactions and final neutron states

    CERN Document Server

    Potel, Gregory; Thompson, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper a formalism for deuteron-induced inclusive reactions. We disentangle direct elastic breakup contributions from other processes (which we generically call non-elastic breakup) implying a capture of the neutron both above and below the neutron emission threshold. The reaction is described as a two step process, namely the breakup of the deuteron followed by the propagation of the neutron-target system driven by an optical potential. The final state interaction between the neutron and the target can eventually form an excited compound nucleus. Within this context, the direct neutron transfer to a sharp bound state is a limiting case of the present formalism.

  18. Observation of nuclear scaling in the A(e,e') reaction at xB>1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egiyan, K.; Dashyan, N.; Sargsian, M.; Stepanyan, S.; Weinstein, L.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bedlinski, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonner, B.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W.; Brooks, W.; Burkert, V.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J.; Carman, D.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P.; Coleman, A.; Cords, D.; Connelly, J.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J.; Desanctis, E.; Devita, R.; Degtyarenko, P.; Demirchyan, R.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K.; Dhuga, K.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O.; Eckhause, M.; Egiyan, H.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R.; Ficenec, J.; Forest, T.; Funsten, H.; Gai, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gilad, S.; Gilfoyle, G.; Giovanetti, K.; Girard, P.; Gordon, C.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Heimberg, P.; Hersman, F.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Ilieva, Y.; Ito, M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Kelley, J.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.; Klimenko, A.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Kuang, Y.; Kuhn, S.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, Ji; Lukashin, K.; Manak, J.; Marchand, C.; Maximon, L.; McAleer, S.; McCarthy, J.; McNabb, J.; Mecking, B.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J.; Mestayer, M.; Meyer, C.; Mikhailov, K.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S.; Mozer, M.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L.; Mutchler, G.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Nelson, S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B.; Niyazov, R.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G.; Opper, A.; Osipenko, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B.; Price, J.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L.; Raue, B.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P.; Sabatié, F.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R.; Serov, V.; Sharabian, Y.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A.; Smith, E.; Smith, L.; Sober, D.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I.; Strauch, S.; Strikman, M.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Todor, L.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M.; Vlassov, A.; Wang, K.; Weisberg, A.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D.; Whisnant, C.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Zhang, B.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Z.

    2003-07-01

    The ratios of inclusive electron scattering cross sections of 4He, 12C, and 56Fe to 3He have been measured for the first time. It is shown that these ratios are independent of xB at Q2>1.4 GeV2 for xB>1.5, where the inclusive cross section depends primarily on the high momentum components of the nuclear wave function. The observed scaling shows that the momentum distributions at high-momenta have the same shape for all nuclei and differ only by a scale factor. The observed onset of the scaling at Q2>1.4 GeV2 and xB>1.5 is consistent with the kinematical expectation that two-nucleon short range correlations (SRC) dominate the nuclear wave function at pm≳300 MeV/c. The values of these ratios in the scaling region can be related to the relative probabilities of SRC in nuclei with A⩾3. Our data, combined with calculations and other measurements of the 3He/deuterium ratio, demonstrate that for nuclei with A⩾12 these probabilities are 4.9 5.9 times larger than in deuterium, while for 4He it is larger by a factor of about 3.8.

  19. Generalization of classical mechanics for nuclear motions on nonadiabatically coupled potential energy surfaces in chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2007-10-18

    Classical trajectory study of nuclear motion on the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces is now one of the standard methods of chemical dynamics. In particular, this approach is inevitable in the studies of large molecular systems. However, as soon as more than a single potential energy surface is involved due to nonadiabatic coupling, such a naive application of classical mechanics loses its theoretical foundation. This is a classic and fundamental issue in the foundation of chemistry. To cope with this problem, we propose a generalization of classical mechanics that provides a path even in cases where multiple potential energy surfaces are involved in a single event and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down. This generalization is made by diagonalization of the matrix representation of nuclear forces in nonadiabatic dynamics, which is derived from a mixed quantum-classical representation of the electron-nucleus entangled Hamiltonian [Takatsuka, K. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 064111]. A manifestation of quantum fluctuation on a classical subsystem that directly contacts with a quantum subsystem is discussed. We also show that the Hamiltonian thus represented gives a theoretical foundation to examine the validity of the so-called semiclassical Ehrenfest theory (or mean-field theory) for electron quantum wavepacket dynamics, and indeed, it is pointed out that the electronic Hamiltonian to be used in this theory should be slightly modified.

  20. Role of anharmonicities of nuclear vibrations in fusion reactions at subbarrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, K; Kuyucak, S

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the effects of double octupole and quadrupole phonon excitations in $^{144}$Sm on fusion reactions between $^{16}$O and $^{144}$Sm at subbarrier energies. The effects of anharmonicities of the vibrational states are taken into account by using the $sdf$-interacting boson model. We compare the results with those in the harmonic limit to show that anharmonicities play an essential role in reproducing the experimental fusion barrier distribution. From the analysis of the high quality fusion data available for this system, we deduce negative static quadrupole moments for both the first 2$^{+}$ and 3$^{-}$ states in $^{144}$Sm. This is the first time that the sign of static quadrupole moments of phonon states in a spherical nucleus is determined from the data of subbarrier fusion reactions.

  1. Proton induced nuclear reactions on natural antimony up to 17 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbinawi, Alaa; Al-abyad, Mogahed; Hassan, Khaled F. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Cyclotron Facility; Abd-Elmageed, Karima E. [Benha Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Ditroi, Ferenc [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI)

    2016-08-01

    The activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Sb target leading to the formation of the radioisotopes {sup 121m,g,123m}Te were measured. The experimental excitation functions were compared with the theoretical model calculations using the codes EMPIRE-3.1 and TALYS-1.4. The integral yields of the three radionuclides were calculated and the possibility of their production is discussed.

  2. Status and perspective of FARCOS: A new correlator array for nuclear reaction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano E.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of Heavy Ion reactions at Fermi energies requires an accurate measurement of observables, such as linear momentum and energy of the detected particles. In order to address this problem, dedicated and flexible correlator arrays are useful tools to be coupled with 4π detectors. One of these arrays is FARCOS, presently under construction at the INFN Sezione di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS.

  3. Status and perspective of FARCOS: A new correlator array for nuclear reaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, E. V.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Boiano, C.; Cardella, G.; Castoldi, A.; D'Andrea, M.; Dell'aquila, D.; De Filippo, E.; De Luca, S.; Fichera, F.; Francalanza, L.; Giudice, N.; Gnoffo, B.; Grimaldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Minniti, T.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Saccá, G.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of Heavy Ion reactions at Fermi energies requires an accurate measurement of observables, such as linear momentum and energy of the detected particles. In order to address this problem, dedicated and flexible correlator arrays are useful tools to be coupled with 4π detectors. One of these arrays is FARCOS, presently under construction at the INFN Sezione di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS).

  4. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifarth René

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,γ, (n,p, (n,α, (n,2n, or (n,f, could be investigated.

  5. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, René; Endres, Anne; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Glorius, Jan; Koloczek, Alexander; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Travaglio, Claudia; Weigand, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,$\\gamma$), (n,p), (n,$\\alpha$), (n,2n), or (n,f), could be investigated.

  6. Understanding fuel magnetization and mix using secondary nuclear reactions in magneto-inertial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P F; Knapp, P F; Hansen, S B; Gomez, M R; Hahn, K D; Sinars, D B; Peterson, K J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Awe, T J; Harding, E; Jennings, C A; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Cuneo, M E; Geissel, M; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Herrmann, M C; Hess, M H; Johns, O; Lamppa, D C; Martin, M R; McBride, R D; Porter, J L; Robertson, G K; Rochau, G A; Rovang, D C; Ruiz, C L; Savage, M E; Smith, I C; Stygar, W A; Vesey, R A

    2014-10-10

    Magnetizing the fuel in inertial confinement fusion relaxes ignition requirements by reducing thermal conductivity and changing the physics of burn product confinement. Diagnosing the level of fuel magnetization during burn is critical to understanding target performance in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) implosions. In pure deuterium fusion plasma, 1.01 MeV tritons are emitted during deuterium-deuterium fusion and can undergo secondary deuterium-tritium reactions before exiting the fuel. Increasing the fuel magnetization elongates the path lengths through the fuel of some of the tritons, enhancing their probability of reaction. Based on this feature, a method to diagnose fuel magnetization using the ratio of overall deuterium-tritium to deuterium-deuterium neutron yields is developed. Analysis of anisotropies in the secondary neutron energy spectra further constrain the measurement. Secondary reactions also are shown to provide an upper bound for the volumetric fuel-pusher mix in MIF. The analysis is applied to recent MIF experiments [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z Pulsed Power Facility, indicating that significant magnetic confinement of charged burn products was achieved and suggesting a relatively low-mix environment. Both of these are essential features of future ignition-scale MIF designs.

  7. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Endres, Anne; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Glorius, Jan; Koloczek, Alexander; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Travaglio, Claudia; Weigand, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,2n), or (n,f), could be investigated.

  8. Nuclear-reaction studies via the observation of unbound outgoing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bice, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the production of fast ..cap alpha..-particles in /sup 12/C induced reactions have been investigated for the /sup 12/C + /sup 208/Pb system at bombarding energies of E(/sup 12/C) = 132, 187 and 230 MeV. Absolute cross sections have been determined for the reactions /sup 208/Pb (/sup 12/C, /sup 8/Be (g.s.)), /sup 208/Pb(/sup 12/C, /sup 8/Be (2.94 MeV)) and /sup 208/Pb (/sup 12/C, /sup 12/C* ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. + /sup 8/Be) by double and triple coincidence measurements of the sequential decay ..cap alpha..-particles. Inclusive ..cap alpha..-particle production cross sections were also measured at E (/sup 12/C) = 187 MeV for comparison. It is found that the simple inelastic scattering process (/sup 12/C, /sup 12/C* ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. + /sup 8/Be) does not contribute significantly to the production of fast ..cap alpha..-particles but that the production of /sup 8/Be nuclei by projectile fragmentation is an important source of ..cap alpha..-particles. At the highest bombarding energy investigated (19 MeV/A) it appears that the /sup 12/C ..-->.. 3..cap alpha.. fragmentation reaction becomes more prominent at the expense of the /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. + /sup 8/Be fragmentation channel. It is concluded that projectile spectroscopic properties and/or final state interactions are important in fragmentation reactions for these bombarding energies. In a kinematically complete experiment the direct and the sequential breakup channels of 10 MeV/A /sup 7/Li projectiles have been investigated with /sup 12/C and /sup 208/Pb targets. By appropriate arrangement of detector telescopes it was possible to define a kinematical window which allowed for the unambigious observation of both the direct (to the ..cap alpha..-t continuum) and the sequential components of a heavy-ion projectile breakup reaction. A semiclassical Monte Carlo type projectile breakup calculation was constructed which qualitatively reproduced the measured ..cap alpha

  9. Nuclear-reaction studies via the observation of unbound outgoing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bice, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the production of fast ..cap alpha..-particles in /sup 12/C induced reactions have been investigated for the /sup 12/C + /sup 208/Pb system at bombarding energies of E(/sup 12/C) = 132, 187 and 230 MeV. Absolute cross sections have been determined for the reactions /sup 208/Pb (/sup 12/C, /sup 8/Be (g.s.)), /sup 208/Pb(/sup 12/C, /sup 8/Be (2.94 MeV)) and /sup 208/Pb (/sup 12/C, /sup 12/C* ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. + /sup 8/Be) by double and triple coincidence measurements of the sequential decay ..cap alpha..-particles. Inclusive ..cap alpha..-particle production cross sections were also measured at E (/sup 12/C) = 187 MeV for comparison. It is found that the simple inelastic scattering process (/sup 12/C, /sup 12/C* ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. + /sup 8/Be) does not contribute significantly to the production of fast ..cap alpha..-particles but that the production of /sup 8/Be nuclei by projectile fragmentation is an important source of ..cap alpha..-particles. At the highest bombarding energy investigated (19 MeV/A) it appears that the /sup 12/C ..-->.. 3..cap alpha.. fragmentation reaction becomes more prominent at the expense of the /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. + /sup 8/Be fragmentation channel. It is concluded that projectile spectroscopic properties and/or final state interactions are important in fragmentation reactions for these bombarding energies. In a kinematically complete experiment the direct and the sequential breakup channels of 10 MeV/A /sup 7/Li projectiles have been investigated with /sup 12/C and /sup 208/Pb targets. By appropriate arrangement of detector telescopes it was possible to define a kinematical window which allowed for the unambigious observation of both the direct (to the ..cap alpha..-t continuum) and the sequential components of a heavy-ion projectile breakup reaction. A semiclassical Monte Carlo type projectile breakup calculation was constructed which qualitatively reproduced the measured ..cap alpha

  10. Investigations of astrophysically interesting nuclear reactions by the use of gas target techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.W. [Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik, Univ. Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    A brief review of the common properties of windowless and recirculating gas targets is presented. As example the Stuttgart gas target facility Rhinoceros in the extended and in the supersonic jet mode with its properties and techniques is explained, also with respect to gas purification techniques. Furthermore several typical experiments from the field of nuclear astrophysics with characteristic results are described (D({alpha},{gamma}){sup 6}Li, {sup 15}N({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}F, {sup 16}O(p,{gamma}){sup 17}F, {sup 16}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 20}Ne, {sup 20}Ne({alpha},{gamma}){sup 24}Mg, {sup 21}Ne({alpha},n){sup 24}Mg, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne, {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne). In several cases the experimental sensitivity could be raised by up to a factor of 10{sup 6}. (orig.)

  11. PIXE characterization of CsI(Tl) scintillators used for particle detection in nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, N.; Casini, G.; Frosini, M.; Tobia, G.; Marchi, T.

    2008-05-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission has been used to measure Thallium concentration in several CsI(Tl) scintillators from different manufacturers, in order to check their nominal declared values and correlate their behaviour with actual Tl concentration. Indeed, both Tl doping level and its uniformity affect light emission of these detectors, which are largely employed in nuclear physics experiments. In some of the examined crystals Tl concentration values from PIXE measurements came out to be quite different from those declared. This allowed us to explain apparent anomalies in the trend of their α/γ-induced light yield ratio versus Tl content. In some cases, the presence of unexpected contaminants was also pointed out.

  12. PIXE characterization of CsI(Tl) scintillators used for particle detection in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@fi.infn.it; Casini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Frosini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Tobia, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Marchi, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission has been used to measure Thallium concentration in several CsI(Tl) scintillators from different manufacturers, in order to check their nominal declared values and correlate their behaviour with actual Tl concentration. Indeed, both Tl doping level and its uniformity affect light emission of these detectors, which are largely employed in nuclear physics experiments. In some of the examined crystals Tl concentration values from PIXE measurements came out to be quite different from those declared. This allowed us to explain apparent anomalies in the trend of their {alpha}/{gamma}-induced light yield ratio versus Tl content. In some cases, the presence of unexpected contaminants was also pointed out.

  13. Nuclear reaction measurements of 95 MeV/u 12C interactions on PMMA for hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunn, B.; Labalme, M.; Ban, G.; Chevallier, M.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Dauvergne, D.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Haas, F.; Guertin, A.; Lebhertz, D.; Le Foulher, F.; Pautard, C.; Ray, C.; Rousseau, M.; Salsac, M. D.; Stuttge, L.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.

    2011-11-01

    The ion dose deposition in tissues is characterized by a favorable depth dose profile (i.e. Bragg peak) and a small lateral spread. In order to keep these benefits of ions in cancer treatments, a very high accuracy is required on the dose deposition (±3%). For given target stoichiometry and geometry, the largest uncertainty on the physical dose deposition is due to the ion nuclear fragmentation. We have performed an experiment at GANIL with a 95 MeV/u 12C beam on thick tissue equivalent PMMA targets (thicknesses: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mm). The main goals of this experiment are to provide experimental fragmentation data for benchmarking the physical models used for treatment planning. Production rates, energy and angular distributions of charged fragments have been measured. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of this experiment.

  14. Nuclear model calculations of (n,p) and (n,n'p) reactions on molybdenum isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivascu, M.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    1983-06-01

    Cross sections for the (n,p) and (n,n'p) reactions on stable molybdenum isotopes have been calculated in the energy range from threshold up to 20 MeV. The calculations have involved the optical model (SCAT2 code), the statistical model (Kauser-Feshbach STAPRE code) and the preequilibrium decay exciton and hybrid models (incorporated in STAPRE). The input model parameters have been determined or checked analyzing against the available experimental data the calculated neutron strength functions, potential scattering radius, total, differential shape elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections (SPRT method), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 93/Nb(p,n)/sup 93/Mo, neutron resonance data and discrete levels at low excitation energies, neutron radiative capture cross sections on /sup 93/Nb and /sup 98,100/Mo target nuclei, the excitation function of the reaction /sup 92/Mo(n,2n)/sup 91/Mo cross section and isomer ratio, and the proton - emission spectrum for 15 MeV neutron incident energy on /sup 92/Mo target. The calculation of nuclear level density for excitation energies higher than approx.23 MeV are more reliable done by means of the liquid drop model predictions for the back - shifted Fermi gas model parameters. That enables also to use in a unified way the average level density parameter anti a = A/8 MeV/sup -1/ in both statistical and exciton models. The calculated (n,p) and (n,n'p) reaction cross sections are compared with the available experimental data and their sensitivity to the input parameter variations are discussed. 132 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. National Array of Neutron Detectors (NAND): A versatile tool for nuclear reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golda, K.S., E-mail: goldaks@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Jhingan, A.; Sugathan, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, Hardev [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Singh, R.P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Behera, B.R. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Mandal, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi University, New Delhi 110007 (India); Kothari, A.; Gupta, Arti; Zacharias, J.; Archunan, M.; Barua, P.; Venkataramanan, S.; Bhowmik, R.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Govil, I.M. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Datta, S.K.; Chatterjee, M.B. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-11-01

    The first phase of the National Array of Neutron Detectors (NAND) consisting of 26 neutron detectors has been commissioned at the Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. The motivation behind setting up of such a detector system is the need for more accurate and efficient study of reaction mechanisms in the projectile energy range of 5–8 MeV/n using heavy ion beams from a 15 UD Pelletron and an upgraded LINAC booster facility at IUAC. The above detector array can be used for inclusive as well as exclusive measurements of reaction products of which at least one product is a neutron. While inclusive measurements can be made using only the neutron detectors along with the time of flight technique and a pulsed beam, exclusive measurements can be performed by detecting neutrons in coincidence with charged particles and/or fission fragments detected with ancillary detectors. The array can also be used for neutron tagged gamma-ray spectroscopy in (HI, xn) reactions by detecting gamma-rays in coincidence with the neutrons in a compact geometrical configuration. The various features and the performance of the different aspects of the array are described in the present paper. -- Highlights: •We report the design, fabrication and installation of a 26 element modular neutron detection system (NAND). •The array has been designed for the fusion–fission studies at near and above the barrier energies. •The relevant characteristics of the array are studied exhaustively and reported. •The efficiency of the detectors are measured and compared with the monte carlo simulations. •The second phase of the array will be augmented with 80 more neutron detectors which will enable the system to measure the neutron multiplicity distribution.

  16. Effect of nuclear spin on chemical reactions and internal molecular rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterna, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    Part I of this dissertation is a study of the magnetic isotope effect, and results are presented for the separation of /sup 13/C and /sup 12/C isotopes. Two models are included in the theoretical treatment of the effect. In the first model the spin states evolve quantum mechanically, and geminate recombination is calculated by numerically integrating the collision probability times the probability the radical pair is in a singlet state. In the second model the intersystem crossing is treated via first-order rate constants which are average values of the hyperfine couplings. Using these rate constants and hydrodynamic diffusion equations, an analytical solution, which accounts for all collisions, is obtained for the geminate recombination. The two reactions studied are photolysis of benzophenone and toluene and the photolytic decomposition of dibenzylketone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone). No magnetic isotope effect was observed in the benzophenone reaction. /sup 13/C enrichment was observed for the dibenzylketone reaction, and this enrichment was substantially enhanced at intermediate viscosities and low temperatures. Part II of this dissertation is a presentation of theory and results for the use of Zeeman spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of methyl group rotation in the solid state. Experimental results are presented for the time and angular dependences of rotational polarization, the methyl group magnetic moment, and methyl-methyl steric interactions. The compounds studied are 2,6-dimethylphenol, methyl iodide, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylanthracene, 1,4,5,8-tetramethylnaphthalene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, and 2,3-dimethylmaleicanhydride.

  17. Nuclear structure of 126Te studied with the (n,/γ) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Egidy, T.; Doll, C.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N. V.; Kern, J.; Crittin, M.; Genilloud, L.

    2003-02-01

    The reaction 125Te(n, γ) 126Te has been measured at the neutron source SINQ of the Paul-Scherrer-Institut, Villigen, Switzerland. About 350 γ transitions have been placed in an extensive level scheme of 126Te with 83 levels, including many new ones. The neutron binding energy was determined to be 9113.69(8) keV. The thermal neutron capture cross section was found to be 1.09(17) barn. The level scheme is compared with IBM and particle-core coupling calculations.

  18. Trojan Horse as an indirect technique in nuclear astrophysics. Resonance reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Irgaziev, B F; Kadyrov, A S; La Cognata, M; Spitaleri, C; Tribble, R E

    2007-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique that provides information to determine astrophysical factors for binary rearrangement processes $x + A \\to b + B$ at astrophysically relevant energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse reaction $a + A \\to y+ b + B$ in quasi-free kinematics. We present the theory of the Trojan Horse method for resonant binary subreactions based on the half-off-energy-shell R matrix approach which takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions.

  19. Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, Klaus; Ottermann, Clemens R.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Rauch, Friedrich

    1990-08-01

    Electrochromic all-solid-state devices (ASSD) produced by reactive evaporation have been investigated by iaeans of reflectance measurements in the VIS/NIR range and cyclovoltammetry. Hydrogen depth proil were then by a NRA-technique employing the resonant reaction H( N, ar) C. Two different types of designs have been characterized. The electrochromic behaviour of ASSD's can not be described by models based on H transport for devices containing only W03 layers as active materials. Using NiOXH films as electrochromic substances, the injected/ejected charge corelates with changes in the H content.

  20. Evolution of nuclear shapes in odd-mass yttrium and niobium isotopes from lifetime measurements following fission reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, T. W.; Görgen, A.; Korten, W.; Grente, L.; Salsac, M.-D.; Farget, F.; Ragnarsson, I.; Braunroth, T.; Bruyneel, B.; Celikovic, I.; Clément, E.; de France, G.; Delaune, O.; Dewald, A.; Dijon, A.; Hackstein, M.; Jacquot, B.; Litzinger, J.; Ljungvall, J.; Louchart, C.; Michelagnoli, C.; Napoli, D. R.; Recchia, F.; Rother, W.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Sulignano, B.; Theisen, Ch.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Lifetimes of excited states in 99Y,101Y,101Nb,103Nb, and 105Nb were measured in an experiment using the recoil distance Doppler shift method at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds). The neutron-rich nuclei were produced in fission reactions between a 238U beam and a 9Be target. Prompt γ rays were measured with the EXOGAM array and correlated with fission fragments that were identified in mass and atomic number with the VAMOS++ spectrometer. The measured lifetimes, together with branching ratios, provide B (M 1 ) and B (E 2 ) values for the strongly coupled rotational bands built on the [422 ] 5 /2+ ground state in the Y and Nb nuclei with neutron number N ≥60 . The comparison of the experimental results with triaxial particle-rotor calculations provides information about the evolution of the nuclear shape in this mass region.

  1. Nuclear excitation functions of proton-induced reactions (Ep = 35-90 MeV) from Fe, Cu, and Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Nortier, Francois M.; Nickles, Robert J.; Engle, Jonathan W.

    2016-11-01

    Fe, Cu, and Al stacked foils were irradiated by 90 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's Isotope Production Facility to measure nuclear cross sections for the production of medically relevant isotopes, such as 52gMn, 54Mn, 48Cr, 55Co, 58mCo and 57Ni. The decay of radioactive isotopes produced during irradiation was monitored using high-purity germanium gamma spectroscopy over the months following irradiation. Proton fluence was determined using the natAl(p,x)22Na, natCu(p,x)62Zn natCu(p,x)65Zn, and natCu(p,x)56Co monitor reactions. Calculated cross sections were compared against literature values and theoretical TALYS predictions. Notably this work includes the first reported independent cross section measurements of natCu(p,x)58mCo and natCu(p,x)58gCo.

  2. Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements of Fusion-Reaction Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowska, A.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Sadowski, M. J.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Schweer, B.; Galkowski, A.

    2008-03-01

    The paper reports on measurements of the space distribution of fusion protons of energy equal to about 3-MeV, originating from the D(d, p)T reactions. The measurements were carried out on the TEXTOR facility by means of a small ion pinhole camera, which was equipped with a solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type. The results obtained in two series of successive discharges are compared. The first series was performed with an additional heating of TEXTOR plasmas with NBI of fast deuterons, whereas in the second series plasma was heated by ICRF and NBI of hydrogen neutrals. Computer simulations of different trajectories of charged particles have been performed with the Gourdon code and the detection efficiency has been calculated for various orientations of the measuring assembly.

  3. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  4. Continuous monitoring of the zinc-phosphate acid-base cement setting reaction by proton nuclear magnetic relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apih, T.; Lebar, A.; Pawlig, O.; Trettin, R.

    2001-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation is a well-established technique for continuous and non destructive monitoring of hydration of conventional Portland building cements. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of the setting reaction of zinc-phosphate acid-base dental cements, which harden in minutes as compared to days, as in the case of Portland cements. We compare the setting of cement powder (mainly, zinc oxide) prepared with clinically used aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid solution with the setting of a model system where cement powder is mixed with pure orthophosphoric acid solution. In contrast to previously published NMR studies of setting Portland cements, where a decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time is attributed to enhanced relaxation at the growing internal surface, spin-lattice relaxation time T1 increases during the set of clinically used zinc-phosphate cement. Comparison of these results with a detailed study of diffusion, viscosity, and magnetic-field dispersion of T1 in pure and aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid demonstrates that the increase of T1 in the setting cement is connected with the increase of molecular mobility in the residual phosphoric acid solution. Although not taken into account so far, such effects may also significantly influence the relaxation times in setting Portland cements, particularly when admixtures with an effect on water viscosity are used.

  5. Refined Calculations of Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Paul; Knapp, Patrick; Hansen, Stephanie; Gomez, Matthew; Hahn, Kelly; Sinars, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Slutz, Stephen; Sefkow, Adam; Awe, Thomas; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosing the degree of magnetic flux compression at stagnation in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. In pure deuterium plasma, the transport of high-energy tritons produced by the aneutronic DD fusion reaction depends strongly on the magnetic field. The tritons probe and occasionally react with the fuel, emitting secondary DT neutrons. We show that the DT/DD neutron yield ratio and the secondary DT neutron spectra can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The amount of fuel-pusher mix also can be constrained by secondary reactions. We discuss the sensitivity to plasma inhomogeneities of the calculations and outline methods to relate secondary yields to alpha particle energy deposition in ignition-relevant experiments employing DT fuel. We compare our calculations to recent tests of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept on the Z Pulsed Power Facility. Supported in part by the SNL Truman Fellowship, which is part of the LDRD Program, and sponsored by Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation) as Operator of SNL under its U.S. DoE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  7. Model of iodine transport and reaction kinetics in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W. Jr.

    1977-05-01

    A model is presented to describe the time-dependent flow and retention of stable iodine isotopes and the decay of /sup 131/I in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The plant consists of 16 units of equipment such as a voloxidizer or graphite burner, fuel dissolver, solvent extractors, storage tanks, vaporizers, primary iodine sorbers, and silver zeolite. The rate of accumulation of bulk and radioactive iodine in these units and in the environment is described using 19 differential equations. Reasonable time-dependence of iodine retention factors (RFs) by the plant were calculated. RFs for a new plant in excess of 10/sup 6/ for stable iodine and /sup 129/I decrease to the range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 2/ as plant operating times exceed 50 to 100 days. The RFs for /sup 131/I also decrease initially, for a period of approximately 10 days, but then increase by several orders of magnitude due to radioactive decay and isotopic exchange. Generally, the RFs for /sup 131/I exceed those for stable iodine by factors of 10/sup 4/ or more. 19 references, 13 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  8. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 65 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on gold for production of $^{197m,197g,195m,195g, 193m,193g,192}$Hg, $^{196m,196g(cum),195g(cum),194,191(cum)}$Au, $^{191(cum)}$Pt and $^{192}$Ir were measured up to 65 MeV proton energy, some of them for the first time. The new data are in acceptably good agreement with the recently published earlier experimental data in the overlapping energy region. The experimental data are compared with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 (results in TENDL-2015 on-line library) and EMPIRE 3.2 code.

  9. Determination of 13C/ 12C ratios with (d, p) nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Zhang, J.; Tesmer, J. R.; Li, Y. H.; Greco, R.; Grim, G. P.; Obst, A. W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios such as 13C/ 12C play an important role in many applications including environment and energy research. Since many surface analysis techniques are plagued with unavoidable hydrocarbon contamination issues during analysis, it is highly desirable that 13C and 12C isotopes be measured simultaneously especially in specimens with a minute amount of 13C, in order to reliably determine 13C/ 12C ratios. In this paper, we report that deuterium induced proton particle reactions, 13C(d, p) 14C and 12C(d, p) 13C, provide a convenient and reliable approach for 13C/ 12C ratio determination. Optimizations on experimental considerations and potential interferences from other common light isotopes are discussed as well as results from the application of this technique to diagnose the performance of a target debris collection in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment.

  10. Cross section measurement of the 159Tb(n, γ)Tb160 nuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, N.; Kadenko, I.; Gressier, V.; Koning, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    The cross section of the 159Tb(n, γ)Tb160 reaction was measured in four mono-energetic neutron fields of energy 3.7, 4.3, 5.4, and 6.85 MeV, respectively, with the activation technique applied to metal discs of natural composition. To ensure an acceptable precision of the results all major sources of uncertainties were taken into account. Calculations of detector efficiency, incident neutron spectrum and correction factors were performed with the Monte Carlo code (MCNPX), whereas theoretical excitation functions were calculated with the TALYS-1.2 code and compared to the experimental cross section values. This paper presents both measurements and calculation leading to the cross section values.

  11. Nuclear structure of light exotic nuclei from break-up reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fernandez-Vazquez, J. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aumann, T. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [and others

    2004-12-27

    One-nucleon removal reactions at relativistic energies have been used as a spectroscopic tool to characterise the ground state properties of several neutron-rich isotopes in the sd-shell. Using the FRS at GSI, the longitudinal momentum distributions of the emerging fragments after one-nucleon removal were measured. The relative contributions of the remaining fragments in their ground and excited states have been determined from measurements of {gamma} rays in coincidence with the longitudinal momentum distributions. In particular the breakup of {sup 23}O has been investigated. The interpretation of our measurements, in the framework of a simple theoretical model, favours a spin and parity assignment of 1/2{sup +} for the {sup 23}O ground state in agreement with shell model predictions.

  12. Nuclear structure effects on heavy-ion reactions with microscopic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo-Phuoc K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-consistent mean-field Hartree–Fock (HF theory, both static and time-dependent (TDHF versions, is used to study static and dynamic properties of fusion reactions between even 40–54Ca isotopes and 116Sn. The bare nucleus-nucleus potential, calculated with the frozen HF approach, is affected by the groundstate density of the nuclei. However, once dynamical effects are included, as in TDHF, the static effects on the barrier are essentially washed out. Dynamic properties of the nuclei, including low-lying vibrational modes, are calculated with TDHF and selectively used in coupled-channels calculations to identify which modes have the most effect on the TDHF fusion threshold. Vibrations cannot fully explain the difference between the static HF and TDHF fusion barriers trend so other dynamical effects such as transfer are considered.

  13. Investigation of (d,x) nuclear reactions on natural ytterbium up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@um.edu.my [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-15

    Production cross-sections of the {sup nat}Yb(d,x){sup 169,170,171,172,173,174m,174,176m,177g}Lu and {sup 169,175,177}Yb reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to their respective thresholds by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Our new experimental data extended the experimental database toward the lower energy region for {sup 169}Yb, {sup 171}Lu, {sup 172}Lu, and {sup 176m}Lu, and the higher region for {sup 174}Lu, {sup 176m}Lu, and {sup 177}Yb. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas a partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. The (d,p) channel contribution underestimated by the TENDL-2013 library is successfully reproduced in the global renormalization by Ignatyuk for the FENDL-3.0 library. The production cross-sections of {sup 175}Yb available in the literature were revised based on the latest γ-ray intensity adopted in 2004. Physical thick target yields for the investigated reaction products were also deduced and compared with the directly measured ones in the literature. The derived thick target yields for {sup 173}Lu and {sup 174g}Lu are higher than the directly measured ones by Dmitriev et al. at 22 MeV. The deduced yield curves indicate that a low energy (<11 MeV) cyclotron and a highly enriched {sup 176}Yb target could be used to obtain {sup 177g}Lu with negligible impurity from {sup 177m}Lu.

  14. Multiperipheral cross-sectional substructure of non-elastic proton interactions at high energies. [Below 20 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltochnik, S.N.; Konovalenko, A.I.; Kuchin, I.A.

    1974-01-01

    A computation is made of the partial contributions of eight primary multiperipheral diagrams in a broad interval of momenta from 1 to 400 GeV/c. It was shown that the complete cross section of an inelastic pp-interaction at momenta of P/sub L/ greater than 20 GeV/c can be reproduced with regard to complete cross sections of peak ..pi pi.. and ..pi..N-interactions. There is a correspondence to both analysis data on reactions forming one to two mesons as well as to the results of multiperipheral bootstrap. The results are compared to data obtained by the method based on the integral Bethe-Salpeter equation. 7 illustrations, Bibliography: 9 titles.

  15. Additive effects in halogen hot atom chemistry. I. Nuclear reaction (. gamma. ,n) in bromobenzene, fluorobenzene-amine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Fu, K.; Li, W.; Wang, T.

    1980-05-01

    (1) For observing the chemical effects of the nuclear reaction /sup 79/Br(..gamma..,n)/sup 78/Br in liquid bromobenzene, the nitrogen-containing compounds, such as aniline, diphenylamine, phenylhydrazine and pyridine, were used as additives respectively during irradiation. Similarly, aniline, diphenylamine, phenylhydrazine, dimethylaniline and pyridine were added in liquid fluorobenzene when the reaction /sup 19/F(..gamma..,n)/sup 18/F proceeded. The curves indicating the dependence of recoil atom retention to the additive mole concentration were plotted, and each curve typically showed the general characteristics of dropping sharply in low mol % of additive and gradually in high mol %. (2) The relative effectiveness of additives in depressing organic retention was revealed in the following order: phenylhydrazine > aniline greater than or equal to dimethylaniline > diphenylamine greater than or equal to pyridine. In our opinion the reactivity of nitrogen lone-pair electrons, which is influenced and bounded by the Pi-bond delocalization of the aromatic amine molecule, substantially determines this effectiveness order. (3) Adding the inert additive benzene or toluene to the fluorobenzene system, a linear dependence of retention to additive concentration was obtained. The contribution of the reactive functional group NHNH/sub 2/ of phenylhydrazine in reducing the retention chemically could be evaluated by the comparison of the benzene line with the phenylhydrazine curve.

  16. Excitation functions of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions on natural platinum up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 192,193,194,195,196m2,196,198m,198,199}Au, {sup 195m,197}Pt and {sup 190(g+m1+0.086m2),192(g+m1),194m}Ir nuclear reactions were measured from the respective threshold up to 24 MeV deuteron energy by using the stacked foil activation technique combined with HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured data were critically compared with the available literature data and theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library, and only partial agreement among them was found. Physical thick target yields for the investigated reaction products were also deduced and compared with the directly measured ones in the literature. The deduced yield curves indicate that a low energy cyclotron (<15 MeV) and a highly enriched {sup 198}Pt target could be used to obtain {sup 198,199}Au in no carrier added form. All cross-sections for {sup 190(g+m1+0.086m2),194m}Ir and those for {sup 193,194,196m2,196,199}Au, and {sup 195m,197}Pt in the lower energy region are reported for the first time.

  17. Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Ramos, M. A.; Skukan, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Jakšić, M.

    2015-04-01

    Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that boron-doped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm2 and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be at Ep = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α0 and 5.68 MeV for α1) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work.

  18. Excitation functions of (d,x) nuclear reactions on natural titanium up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei [Nishina Center for Accelerator-based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-02-01

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Ti(d,x){sup 48}V and {sup nat}Ti(d,x){sup 43,44m,44g,46,47,48}Sc nuclear reactions were measured up to a 24-MeV deuteron energy by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with γ-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector at the AVF cyclotron of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Wako, Japan. An overall good agreement is found between the measured cross-sections and the literature ones, whereas partial agreements are obtained for the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS code. Physical thick target yields, i.e., induced radioactivities per unit fluence of the 24-MeV deuteron were also deduced, and they were compared with the directly measured ones in the literature. The present results will have an important role in enrichment of the literature database of the deuteron-induced reactions on natural titanium leading to various applications.

  19. Photo-catalytic oxidation of a di-nuclear manganese centre in an engineered bacterioferritin 'reaction centre'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Brendon; Cox, Nicholas; Su, Ji-Hu; Hillier, Warwick; Messinger, Johannes; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Dutton, P Leslie; Wydrzynski, Tom

    2009-09-01

    Photosynthesis involves the conversion of light into chemical energy through a series of electron transfer reactions within membrane-bound pigment/protein complexes. The Photosystem II (PSII) complex in plants, algae and cyanobacteria catalyse the oxidation of water to molecular O2. The complexity of PSII has thus far limited attempts to chemically replicate its function. Here we introduce a reverse engineering approach to build a simple, light-driven photo-catalyst based on the organization and function of the donor side of the PSII reaction centre. We have used bacterioferritin (BFR) (cytochrome b1) from Escherichia coli as the protein scaffold since it has several, inherently useful design features for engineering light-driven electron transport. Among these are: (i.) a di-iron binding site; (ii.) a potentially redox-active tyrosine residue; and (iii.) the ability to dimerise and form an inter-protein heme binding pocket within electron tunnelling distance of the di-iron binding site. Upon replacing the heme with the photoactive zinc-chlorin e6 (ZnCe6) molecule and the di-iron binding site with two manganese ions, we show that the two Mn ions bind as a weakly coupled di-nuclear Mn2II,II centre, and that ZnCe6 binds in stoichiometric amounts of 1:2 with respect to the dimeric form of BFR. Upon illumination the bound ZnCe6 initiates electron transfer, followed by oxidation of the di-nuclear Mn centre possibly via one of the inherent tyrosine residues in the vicinity of the Mn cluster. The light dependent loss of the MnII EPR signals and the formation of low field parallel mode Mn EPR signals are attributed to the formation of MnIII species. The formation of the MnIII is concomitant with consumption of oxygen. Our model is the first artificial reaction centre developed for the photo-catalytic oxidation of a di-metal site within a protein matrix which potentially mimics water oxidation centre (WOC) photo-assembly.

  20. Applications of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) for fast ion and fusion reaction product measurements in TEXTOR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K.; Malinowska, A. [Association EURTOM-IPPLM Warsaw, The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wassenhove, G. Van [EURATOM-Belgium State Association, LPP, ERM/KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Schweer, B. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Institutte of Plasma Physicx, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on measurements of fusion reaction protons which were performed on TEXTOR facility in January 2009. The basic experimental scheme was similar to that applied in the previous measurements [1, 2]. The main experimental tool equipment was a small ion pinhole camera which was equipped with a PM-355 detector sample and was attached to a water cooled manipulator. The camera was placed below the plasma ring in the direction of ion drifts, at a distance of 4.4 cm from LCFS. However, in the described experiment it was aligned at an angle to the mayor TEXTOR radius (contrary to previous experiments), so that the input pinhole was oriented first at {gamma} = 45 degrees (shots 108799 - 108818) and then {gamma} = 600 (shots 108832 - 108847). The discharges were executed with one neutral beam of the total power 0.6 - 1.0 MW. In the first series (Nos 108799 - 108818) the plasma was additionally heated by ICRH of frequency 38 MHz. The irradiated detector samples were subjected to the same interrupted etching procedure as the samples used in the CR-39/PM-355 detector calibration measurements [1, 2]. After that, track density distributions and track diameter histograms were measured under an optical microscope. By the use of the calibration curves, it was possible to distinguish craters produced by protons from other craters and to convert the obtained histograms into proton energy spectra. The craters induced by lower energy ions appeared to be concentrated in narrower areas, whereas higher energy ions were registered in a more diffused detector fields. The paper shows again that the CR-39/PM-355 detector is an useful diagnostic tool for tokamak experiments, for measurement of charged ions. References: [1] A. Szydlowski, A. Malinowska, M. Jaskola, A. Korman, M.J. Sadowski, G. Van Wassenhove, B. Schweer and the TEXTOR team, A. Galkowski, 'Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements

  1. The Experimental Study of Nuclear Astrophysics Reaction Rate of 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, L.; Li, Z. H.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Guo, B.; Du, X. C.; Wu, Z. D.; Zeng, S.; Jin, S. J.; Wang, Y. B.; Bai, X. X.; Zhang, W. J.; Sun, H. B.; Li, E. T.

    The slow neutron capture (s-) process plays a very important role in the nucleosynthesis, which produces about half of the elements heavier than iron. 94Zr is mainly from 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr in the s-process, and the direct component of the 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr capture reaction can be derived from the neutron spectroscopic factor of 94Zr. As the existing neutron spectroscopic factors of 94Zr vary from each other up to 60%, a new work should be adopted to measure it exactly. In the present work, the angular distributions of 94Zr(13C,13C)94Zr, 94Zr(12C,12C)94Zr and 94Zr(12C,13C)93Zr were obtained using the highprecision Q3D magnetic spectrograph. In addition, distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations of the transfer differential cross sections were performed. The calculated result displays a good agreement with the experiment data, and a value of 2.60±0.20 for the neutron spectroscopic factor of 94Zr was extracted, and the direct capture cross section versus neutron energy of 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr for the ground state of 94Zr was obtained too.

  2. Improving Nuclear Safety of Fast Reactors by Slowing Down Fission Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kulikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light materials with small atomic mass (light or heavy water, graphite, and so on are usually used as a neutron reflector and moderator. The present paper proposes using a new, heavy element as neutron moderator and reflector, namely, “radiogenic lead” with dominant content of isotope 208Pb. Radiogenic lead is a stable natural lead. This isotope is characterized by extremely low micro cross-section of radiative neutron capture (~0.23 mb for thermal neutrons, which is smaller than graphite and deuterium cross-sections. The reflector-converter for a fast reactor core is the structure capable of transforming some part of prompt neutrons leaked from the core into the reflected neutrons with properties similar to those of delayed neutrons, that is, sufficiently large contribution to reactivity at the level of effective fraction of delayed neutrons and relatively long lifetime, comparable with lifetimes of radionuclides-emitters of delayed neutrons. It is evaluated that the use of radiogenic lead makes it possible to slow down the chain fission reaction on prompt neutrons in the fast reactor. This can improve the fast reactor safety and reduce some requirements to the technologies used to fabricate fuel for the fast reactor.

  3. Determination of {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios with (d, p) nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Q., E-mail: yqwang@lanl.go [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87544 (United States); Zhang, J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87544 (United States); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Gansu 730000 (China); Tesmer, J.R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87544 (United States); Li, Y.H. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87544 (United States); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Gansu 730000 (China); Greco, R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87544 (United States); Grim, G.P.; Obst, A.W. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87544 (United States); Rundberg, R.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87544 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Stable isotope ratios such as {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C play an important role in many applications including environment and energy research. Since many surface analysis techniques are plagued with unavoidable hydrocarbon contamination issues during analysis, it is highly desirable that {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C isotopes be measured simultaneously especially in specimens with a minute amount of {sup 13}C, in order to reliably determine {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios. In this paper, we report that deuterium induced proton particle reactions, {sup 13}C(d, p){sup 14}C and {sup 12}C(d, p){sup 13}C, provide a convenient and reliable approach for {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio determination. Optimizations on experimental considerations and potential interferences from other common light isotopes are discussed as well as results from the application of this technique to diagnose the performance of a target debris collection in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment.

  4. Effective field theory as a limit of R-matrix theory for light nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Gerald M.; Brown, Lowell S.; Paris, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    We study the zero channel radius limit of Wigner's R-matrix theory for two cases and show that it corresponds to nonrelativistic effective quantum field theory. We begin with the simple problem of single-channel np elastic scattering in the 1S0 channel. The dependence of the R-matrix width g2 and level energy Eλ on the channel radius a for fixed scattering length a0 and effective range r0 is determined. It is shown that these quantities have a simple pole for a critical value of the channel radius, ap=ap(a0,r0). The 3H(d ,n)4He reaction cross section, analyzed with a two-channel effective field theory in the previous paper [Phys. Rev. C 89, 014622 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.014622], is then examined using a two-channel, single-level R-matrix parametrization. The resulting S matrix is shown to be identical in these two representations in the limit that R-matrix channel radii are taken to zero. This equivalence is established by giving the relationship between the low-energy constants of the effective field theory (couplings gc and mass m*) and the R-matrix parameters (reduced width amplitudes γc and level energy Eλ). An excellent three-parameter fit to the observed astrophysical factor S¯ is found for "unphysical" values of the reduced widths, γc2<0.

  5. Effective field theory as a limit of R-matrix theory for light nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hale, Gerald M; Paris, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    We study the zero channel radius limit of Wigner's R-matrix theory for two cases, and show that it corresponds to non-relativistic effective quantum field theory. We begin with the simple problem of single-channel n-p elastic scattering in the 1S0 channel. The dependence of the R matrix width and level energy on the channel radius, "a" for fixed scattering length a0 and effective range r0 is determined. It is shown that these quantities have a simple pole for a critical value of the channel radius. The 3H(d,n)4He reaction cross section, analyzed with a two-channel effective field theory in the previous paper, is then examined using a two-channel, single-level R-matrix parametrization. The resulting S matrix is shown to be identical in these two representations in the limit that R-matrix channel radii are taken to zero. This equivalence is established by giving the relationship between the low-energy constants of the effective field theory (couplings and mass) and the R-matrix parameters (reduced width amplitu...

  6. The ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) reaction as a probe for nuclear spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondì, M.; Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Agodi, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Borello-Lewin, T.; Rodrigues, M. R. D. [Instituto de Física - Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão Travessa R Nr.187, 05508-090 Cidade Universitária, São Paulo (Brazil); De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Linares, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania, Italy and INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-11-11

    The response of nuclei to the ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) two-neutron transfer reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been systematically studied at the Catania INFN-LNS laboratory. The experiments were performed using several solid targets from light ({sup 9}Be, {sup 11}B, {sup 12,13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si) to heavy ones ({sup 58,64}Ni, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 208}Pb). The {sup 16}O ejectiles were detected at forward angles by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. Exploiting the large momentum acceptance (−10%, +14%) and solid angle (50 msr) of the spectrometer, energy spectra were obtained with a relevant yield up to about 20 MeV excitation energy. The application of the powerful trajectory reconstruction technique did allow to get energy spectra with energy resolution of about 150 keV and angular distributions with angular resolution better than 0.3°. A common feature observed with light nuclei is the appearance of unknown resonant structures at high excitation energy. The strong population of these latter together with the measured width can reveal the excitation of a collective mode connected with the transfer of a pair.

  7. Dipolar nuclear spin relaxation in liquids and plane fluids undergoing chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, P. H.

    We describe the correlated translational and rotational relative brownian motions of two reacting groups of atoms, alternatively bound and free, by the normalized solutions of a set of coupled diffusion equations. Under equilibrium conditions we calculate the spectral densities j(ω) characteristic of the fluctuations of the intermolecular dipolar coupling between spins of these diffusing groups of atoms. When ωτ density j2(ω) in three-dimensional liquids is j2(0) - α3ω1/2. The coefficient α3 is independent of the molecular local order, of the diffusional rotation speed of the spin-carrying groups of atoms and of their association and dissociation rates. In plane fluids, when ωτ density j(0)(ω) may be written as -a2 ln (ωτ) where the dependence of a2 on the average relative distribution of the interacting spins varies with the rate of the chemical reactions. In both three- and two-dimensional fluids spectral densities show an ω-3/2 or ω-2 behaviour for ωτ >> 1 according to the magnitude of the association rate of the reacting groups of atoms. In liquid glycerol we analyse the low- and high-frequency limits of the experimental proton relaxation rate 1/T1 and 1/T1ρ measured by Harmon, Harmon and Burnett, and Lenk. We also discuss the proton spin-lattice relaxation times measured by Kleinberg and Silbernagel in layered intercalation compounds TiS2-NH3 and TaS2-NH3.

  8. Primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions for DNA barcoding teleost fish based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear rhodopsin genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevilla, R.G.; Diez, A.; Noren, M.; Mouchel, O.; Jerome, M.; Verrez-Bagnis, V.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a set of 21 polymerase chain reaction primers and amplification conditions developed to barcode practically any teleost fish species according to their mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear rhodopsin gene sequences. The method was successfully tested in more than 200 marine

  9. Primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions for DNA barcoding teleost fish based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear rhodopsin genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevilla, R.G.; Diez, A.; Noren, M.; Mouchel, O.; Jerome, M.; Verrez-Bagnis, V.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a set of 21 polymerase chain reaction primers and amplification conditions developed to barcode practically any teleost fish species according to their mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear rhodopsin gene sequences. The method was successfully tested in more than 200 marine fi

  10. Study on Fitting Method for Nuclear Astrophysics Reaction Rate%核天体物理反应率拟合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 李志宏; 张海黔

    2015-01-01

    In large-scale nuclear astrophysics network computing,the nuclear astrophys-ics reaction rates were usually fitted to numerical reaction rates concerning temperature in order to reduce the input nuclear parameters.By analyzing the existing databases adopted internationally,a new fitting method was present in this paper,which can give much better fitting results than REACLIB and NACRE.This new fitting method can be applicable to direct reaction rates,isolated and narrow resonance reaction rates,multi-resonant reaction rates,subthreshold states and broad low energy resonances reaction rates,and is convenient to build nuclear astrophysics reaction rate data library.%为进行大规模核天体网络运算,通常将核天体物理反应率拟合为与温度相关的数值表达式,以简化程序中的核物理输入量。通过分析国际上常用的几种核天体物理数据库,本工作得到了一种新的拟合方法,其对反应率的拟合精度较目前国际上通用的 REACLIB和 NACRE 数据库的拟合方法的有明显改善。该拟合方法适用于直接反应和窄共振、宽共振、阈下共振和多谐共振反应,方便建立核天体物理反应率数据库。

  11. Experimental effects of dynamics and thermodynamics in nuclear reactions on the symmetry energy as seen by the CHIMERA 4 π detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A. [INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Heavy-ion collisions have been widely used in the last decade to constrain the parameterizations of the symmetry energy term of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) for asymmetric nuclear matter as a function of baryonic density. In the Fermi energy domain one is faced with variations of the density within a narrow range of values around the saturation density ρ{sub 0}=0.16 fm{sup -3} down towards sub-saturation densities. The experimental observables which are sensitive to the symmetry energy are constructed starting from the detected light particles, clusters and heavy fragments that, in heavy-ion collisions, are generally produced by different emission mechanisms at different stages and time scales of the reaction. In this review the effects of dynamics and thermodynamics on the symmetry energy in nuclear reactions are discussed and characterized using an overview of the data taken so far with the CHIMERA multi detector array. (orig.)

  12. Solving The Long-Standing Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At The Highest Microscopic Level. Annual Continuation And Progress Report, August 15, 2014 -- August 14, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, Sofia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-19

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive framework that will lead to a fundamental description of both structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. This project will provide the research community with the theoretical and computational tools what will enable: an accurate prediction for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; an improved description of the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and, a fundamental understanding of the three-nucleon force in nuclear reaction and nuclei at the drip line.

  13. Reaction System Design for NO2 Oxidation of Used Nuclear Fuel for the FY17 Hot Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jared A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-25

    A dry pretreatment process based on the oxidation of used nuclear fuel to convert it to a fine powder is being studied for the removal and capture of tritium and iodine before subsequent processing. The process converts oxide fuel into a fine powder at low temperature using NO2/O2 mixtures. The form of the powder product can be selected to be U3O8, UO3, or a nitrate by adjusting the processing conditions. All the fundamental tenets of the process have been successfully demonstrated as a proof of principle, and many aspects have been corroborated multiple times at laboratory scale. The present thrust is to develop the process to a technology-readiness level sufficient to evaluate and estimate the cost of an engineering-scale implementation. A previous roadmap analysis of the implementation determined that the most desirable approach would be based on kilogram-scale experiments using real fuel in parallel with multi-kg testing of prototype systems using surrogate material. Following the planned approach, kilogram-scale experiments will be conducted in FY 2017. This report describes the primary reaction system designs and the equipment that has been fabricated. Details related to instrumentation, data acquisition, and controls have been previously reported.

  14. Detection of fast neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction using a 4H-SiC radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatko, Bohumir; Sagatova, Andrea; Sedlackova, Katarina; Necas, Vladimir; Dubecky, Frantisek; Solar, Michael; Granja, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The particle detector based on a high purity epitaxial layer of 4H-SiC exhibits promising properties in detection of various types of ionizing radiation. Due to the wide band gap of 4H-SiC semiconductor material, the detector can reliably operate at room and also elevated temperatures. In this work we focused on detection of fast neutrons generated the by D-T (deuterium-tritium) nuclear reaction. The epitaxial layer with a thickness of 105 μm was used as a detection part. A circular Schottky contact of a Au/Ni double layer was evaporated on both sides of the detector material. The detector structure was characterized by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements, at first. The results show very low current density (SiC detector is caused by the elastic and inelastic scattering on the silicon or carbide component of the detector material. Another possibility that increases the detection efficiency is the use of a conversion layer. In our measurements, we glued a HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer on the detector Schottky contact to transform fast neutrons to protons. Hydrogen atoms contained in the conversion layer have a high probability of interaction with neutrons through elastic scattering. Secondary generated protons flying to the detector can be easily detected. The detection properties of detectors with and without the HDPE conversion layer were compared.

  15. R-Matrix Analysis of Structures in Economic Indices: from Nuclear Reactions to High-Frequency Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firk, Frank W. K.

    2014-03-01

    It is shown that the R-matrix theory of nuclear reactions is a viable mathematical theory for the description of the fine, intermediate and gross structure observed in the time-dependence of economic indices in general, and the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average in particular. A Lorentzian approximation to R-matrix theory is used to analyze the complex structures observed in the Dow Jones Industrial Average on a typical trading day. Resonant structures in excited nuclei are characterized by the values of their fundamental strength function, (average total width of the states)/(average spacing between adjacent states). Here, values of the ratios (average lifetime of individual states of a given component of the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average)/(average interval between the adjacent states) are determined. The ratios for the observed fine and intermediate structure of the index are found to be essentially constant throughout the trading day. These quantitative findings are characteristic of the highly statistical nature of many-body, strongly interacting systems, typified by daily trading. It is therefore proposed that the values of these ratios, determined in the first hour-or-so of trading, be used to provide valuable information concerning the likely performance of the fine and intermediate components of the index for the remainder of the trading day.

  16. Relationship between CT number and electron density, scatter angle and nuclear reaction for hadron-therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsufuji, N; Tomura, H; Futami, Y; Yamashita, H; Higashi, A; Minohara, S; Endo, M; Kanai, T

    1998-11-01

    The precise conversion of CT numbers to their electron densities is essential in treatment planning for hadron therapy. Although some conversion methods have already been proposed, it is hard to check the conversion accuracy during practical therapy. We have estimated the CT numbers of real tissues by a calculational method established by Mustafa and Jackson. The relationship between the CT numbers and the electron densities was investigated for various body tissues as well as some tissue-equivalent materials used for a conversion to check the accuracy of the current conversion methods. The result indicates a slight disagreement at the high-CT-number region. A precise estimation of the multiple scattering, nuclear reaction and range straggling of incident particles has been considered as being important to realize higher-level conformal therapy in the future. The relationship between these parameters and the CT numbers was also investigated for tissues and water. The result shows that it is sufficiently practical to replace these parameters for real tissues with those for water by adjusting the density.

  17. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fanqing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F

  18. On the investigation of resonances above and below the threshold in nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest using the Trojan Horse Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Indelicato, I.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Trippella, O.; Tumino, A.

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence of resonances in reactions of astrophysical interest might significantly enhance the astrophysical factor with respect to the direct reaction contribution, divert nucleosynthesis path and change the energy production, with significant impact on astrophysics. Moreover, the determination of resonance parameters, that is, energy, spin-parity and partial widths, allows one to perform nuclear structure studies leading, for instance, to determine the cluster structure of the state under investigation. However, nuclear reactions in stars take place at energies well below ~ 1 MeV owing to the typical temperatures characterising these environments. Therefore, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the electron screening effect, due to the shielding of nuclear charges by atomic electrons, make it very difficult to provide accurate astrophysical factors. The THM is an indirect method allowing to overcome such difficulties. It makes use of quasi-free reactions with three particles in the exit channel, a + A → c + C + s, to deduce the cross section of the reaction of astrophysical interest, a + x → c + C, under the hypothesis that A shows a strong x + s cluster structure, right at astrophysical energies. By using a generalised R-matrix approach, the resonance parameters can be deduced from THM data allowing one to perform a full spectroscopic study of low-energy and sub-threshold resonances. In this work, we will discuss two examples of reactions of astrophysical interest, whose cross sections show a resonant behaviour: the19F(p, α)16O cross section that displays resonances at energies above the particle emission threshold and the13C(α, n)16O reaction, dominated by the -3 keV sub-threshold resonance due to the 6.356 MeV level in17O.

  19. Study of nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and intermediate- and high-energy protons and an application in nuclear reactor physics (ADS); Estudo das reacoes nucleares envolvendo nucleos pesados e protons a energias intermediarias e altas de uma aplicacao em fisica de reatores nucleares (ADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuoka, Paula Fernanda Toledo

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, intermediate- and high-energy nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and protons were studied with the Monte Carlo CRISP (Rio - Ilheus - Sao Paulo Collaboration) model. The most relevant nuclear processes studied were intranuclear cascade and fission-evaporation competition. Preliminary studies showed fair agreement between CRISP model calculation and experimental data of multiplicity of evaporated neutrons (E < 20 MeV) from the p(1200 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction and of spallation residues from the p(1000 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction. The investigation of neutron multiplicity from proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th up to 85 MeV showed that it was being overestimated by CRISP model; on the other hand, fission cross section were being underestimated. This behavior is due to limitations of the intranuclear cascade model for low-energies (around 50 MeV). The p(1200 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction was selected for the study of a spallation neutron source. High-energy neutrons (E > 20 MeV) were emitted mostly in the intranuclear cascade stage, while evaporation presented larger neutron multiplicity. Fission cross section of 209 mb and spallation cross section of 1788 mb were calculated both in agreement with experimental data. The fission process resulted in a symmetric mass distribution. Another Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used for radiation transport in order to understand the role of a spallation neutron source in a ADS (Accelerator Driven System) nuclear reactor. Initially, a PWR reactor was simulated to study the isotopic compositions in spent nuclear fuel. As a rst attempt, a spallation neutron source was adapted to an industrial size nuclear reactor. The results showed no evidence of incineration of transuranic elements and modifications were suggested. (author)

  20. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  1. Quantification of Hydrogen Concentrations in Surface and Interface Layers and Bulk Materials through Depth Profiling with Nuclear Reaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Markus; Ohno, Satoshi; Ogura, Shohei; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-29

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) via the resonant (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C reaction is a highly effective method of depth profiling that quantitatively and non-destructively reveals the hydrogen density distribution at surfaces, at interfaces, and in the volume of solid materials with high depth resolution. The technique applies a (15)N ion beam of 6.385 MeV provided by an electrostatic accelerator and specifically detects the (1)H isotope in depths up to about 2 μm from the target surface. Surface H coverages are measured with a sensitivity in the order of ~10(13) cm(-2) (~1% of a typical atomic monolayer density) and H volume concentrations with a detection limit of ~10(18) cm(-3) (~100 at. ppm). The near-surface depth resolution is 2-5 nm for surface-normal (15)N ion incidence onto the target and can be enhanced to values below 1 nm for very flat targets by adopting a surface-grazing incidence geometry. The method is versatile and readily applied to any high vacuum compatible homogeneous material with a smooth surface (no pores). Electrically conductive targets usually tolerate the ion beam irradiation with negligible degradation. Hydrogen quantitation and correct depth analysis require knowledge of the elementary composition (besides hydrogen) and mass density of the target material. Especially in combination with ultra-high vacuum methods for in-situ target preparation and characterization, (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C NRA is ideally suited for hydrogen analysis at atomically controlled surfaces and nanostructured interfaces. We exemplarily demonstrate here the application of (15)N NRA at the MALT Tandem accelerator facility of the University of Tokyo to (1) quantitatively measure the surface coverage and the bulk concentration of hydrogen in the near-surface region of a H2 exposed Pd(110) single crystal, and (2) to determine the depth location and layer density of hydrogen near the interfaces of thin SiO2 films on Si(100).

  2. GCR Transport in the Brain: Assessment of Self-Shielding, Columnar Damage, and Nuclear Reactions on Cell Inactivation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Radiation shield design is driven by the need to limit radiation risks while optimizing risk reduction with launch mass/expense penalties. Both limitation and optimization objectives require the development of accurate and complete means for evaluating the effectiveness of various shield materials and body-self shielding. For galactic cosmic rays (GCR), biophysical response models indicate that track structure effects lead to substantially different assessments of shielding effectiveness relative to assessments based on LET-dependent quality factors. Methods for assessing risk to the central nervous system (CNS) from heavy ions are poorly understood at this time. High-energy and charge (HZE) ion can produce tissue events resulting in damage to clusters of cells in a columnar fashion, especially for stopping heavy ions. Grahn (1973) and Todd (1986) have discussed a microlesion concept or model of stochastic tissue events in analyzing damage from HZE's. Some tissues, including the CNS, maybe sensitive to microlesion's or stochastic tissue events in a manner not illuminated by either conventional dosimetry or fluence-based risk factors. HZE ions may also produce important lateral damage to adjacent cells. Fluences of high-energy proton and alpha particles in the GCR are many times higher than HZE ions. Behind spacecraft and body self-shielding the ratio of protons, alpha particles, and neutrons to HZE ions increases several-fold from free-space values. Models of GCR damage behind shielding have placed large concern on the role of target fragments produced from tissue atoms. The self-shielding of the brain reduces the number of heavy ions reaching the interior regions by a large amount and the remaining light particle environment (protons, neutrons, deuterons. and alpha particles) may be the greatest concern. Tracks of high-energy proton produce nuclear reactions in tissue, which can deposit doses of more than 1 Gv within 5 - 10 cell layers. Information on rates of

  3. Nuclear proliferation in the Near East. What is the reaction of the regional neighbors on Iran's nuclear program? An analysis based on the proliferation debate; Nukleare Proliferation im Nahen Osten. Wie reagieren die regionalen Nachbarn auf Irans Nuklearprogramm? Eine Analyse anhand der Proliferationsdebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erny, Matthias [Zuericher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften (ZHAW), Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The booklet on the reactions of the neighbor states on Iran's nuclear program covers the following topics: Iran's position in the Near East: historical aspects, Iran's nuclear program. The nuclear proliferation and the theory debate: the role of nuclear weapons in the international policy, proliferation optimism, proliferation pessimism. Analysis of the players and theory criticism: nuclear states (Israel, Pakistan), emerging nuclear states (Saudi Arab, Egypt, Turkey, Syria), states without nuclear weapons (Iraq, Jordan, GCC states); analysis, theory criticism.

  4. Effect of Nuclear Reactions on the Properties of Al-Mg-Si Alloys after Long-Time Exploitation in Research Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Szteke, W; Hajewska, E; Wagner, T; Semina, V K

    2004-01-01

    Effect of fast neutron ($E>$ 0.1~?eV) irradiation on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology of the Al-Mg-Si alloys (PAR-1 and ???-1) after 40 years of exploitation in research nuclear reactors has been studied. Tested specimens were cut from structural elements of reactor EWA ($\\acute{\\rm S}$wierk, Poland). Irradiation induces degradation in mechanical properties, namely yield strength and ultimate strength increase, but elongation reduces. The mechanical property changes are caused by ageing of Al--Mg--Si alloy. During irradiation Si is formed from Al by the Al($n, \\gamma $)Si reaction. The presence of Si might cause strengthening of the Al--Mg--Si alloys by increasing precipitation of Mg$_{2}$Si or pure Si in the Al matrix. Post-irradiation activity studies of EWA reactor structural elements show that the high-activity $^{60}$Co and $^{65}$Zn isotopes have been formed by the nuclear reactions.

  5. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from competition of fusion and quasi-fission in the reactions leading to production of the superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, Georgios A

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter $K_0 = 240 - 260$ MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy ($\\gamma>1.$) are rejected.

  6. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40 MeV up to 50 MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides $^{113,110}$Sn, $^{116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109}$In and $^{115}$Cd are reported in the 37-50 MeV energy range, for production of $^{110}$Sn and $^{110g,109}$In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014.

  7. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwe, Greife [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  8. Extension of activation cross section data of long lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on platinum up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural platinum up to 50 MeV. • Stacked foil irradiation technique. • Comparison with the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 calculations. • Cross section of Au, Pt and Ir radioisotopes. • Application for Thin Layer Activation (TLA). - Abstract: In the frame of a systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions on platinum, activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions were investigated. Excitation functions were measured in the 20.8–49.2 MeV energy range for the {sup nat}Pt(d,xn){sup 191,192,193,194,195,196m2,196g,198g,199}Au, {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 188,189,191,195m,197m,197g}Pt and {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 189,190,192,194m2}Ir reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with previous results from the literature and with the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 libraries. The applicability of the produced radio-tracers for wear measurements has been presented.

  9. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  10. Experimental study of the excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on (167)Er for production of medically relevant (167)Tm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Takács, S; Király, B; Spahn, I; Ignatyuk, A V

    2010-02-01

    (167)Tm (T(1/2)=9.25d) is a candidate radioisotope for medical therapy and diagnostics due to its Auger-electron and low-energy X- and gamma-ray emission. Excitation functions of the (167)Er(p,n)(167)Tm reaction and (168)Er(p,n)(168)Tm, (167)Er(p,2n)(166)Tm, (166)Er(p,2n)(165)Tm disturbing reactions were measured up to 15MeV by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured excitation functions agree well with the results of ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS nuclear reaction model codes. The thick target yield of (167)Tm in the 15-8MeV energy range is 6.9MBq/microAh. A short comparison of charged particle production routes of (167)Tm is given. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Model-based predictions for nuclear excitation functions of neutron-induced reactions on 64,66−68Zn targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yiğit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nuclear data for cross sections of the 64Zn(n,2n63Zn, 64Zn(n,3n62Zn, 64Zn(n,p64Cu, 66Zn(n,2n65Zn, 66Zn(n,p66Cu, 67Zn(n,p67Cu, 68Zn(n,p68Cu, and 68Zn(n,α65Ni reactions were studied for neutron energies up to 40 MeV. In the nuclear model calculations, TALYS 1.6, ALICE/ASH, and EMPIRE 3.2 codes were used. Furthermore, the nuclear data for the (n,2n and (n,p reaction channels were also calculated using various cross-section systematics at energies around 14–15 MeV. The code calculations were analyzed and obtained using the different level densities in the exciton model and the geometry-dependent hybrid model. The results obtained from the excitation function calculations are discussed and compared with literature experimental data, ENDF/B-VII.1, and the TENDL-2015 evaluated data.

  12. Nuclear level densities in 208Bi and 209Po from the neutron spectra in the ( p, n) reactions on 208Pb and 209Bi nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, B. V.; Lychagin, A. A.; Titarenko, N. N.; Demenkov, V. G.; Trykova, V. I.

    2010-07-01

    The spectra of neutrons from the ( p, n) reactions on the 208Pb and 209Bi nuclei were measured in the proton-energy range 8-11 MeV. These measurements were performed by using a time-of-flight spectrometer of fast neutrons on the basis of the pulsed tandem accelerator EGP-15 of the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk, Russian Federation). A high resolution and stability of the time-of-flight spectrometermade it possible to identify reliably low-lying discrete levels alongwith the continuum section of the neutron spectra. The measured data were analyzed on the basis of the statistical equilibrium and preequilibrium models of nuclear reactions. The respective calculations were performed by using the precise formalism of Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory together with the generalizedmodel of a superfluid nucleus and the back-shifted Fermi gas model for the nuclear-level density. The nuclear-level densities in 208Bi and 209Po were determined along with their energy dependences and model parameters. Our results are discussed together with available experimental data and recommendations of model systematics.

  13. Excitation function of the alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on enriched 116Cd, production of the theranostic isotope 117mSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.; Szűcs, Z.; Saito, M.

    2016-10-01

    117mSn is one of the radioisotopes can be beneficially produced through alpha particle irradiation. The targets were prepared by deposition of 116Cd metal onto high purity 12 μm thick Cu backing. The average deposited thickness was 21.9 μm. The beam energy was thoroughly measured by Time of Flight (TOF) methods and proved to be 51.2 MeV. For the experiment the well-established stacked foil technique was used. In addition to the Cd targets, Ti foils were also inserted into the stacks for energy and intensity monitoring. The Cu backings were also used for monitoring and as recoil catcher of the reaction products from the cadmium layer. The activities of the irradiated foils were measured with HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry and cross section values were determined. As a result excitation functions for the formation of 117mSn, 117m,gIn, 116mIn, 115mIn and 115m,gCd from enriched 116Cd were deduced and compared with the available literature data and with the results of the nuclear reaction model code calculations EMPIRE 3.2 and TALYS 1.8. Yield curves were also deduced for the measured nuclear reactions and compared with the literature.

  14. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Marcos V.; Silva, Tiago F. da; Added, Nemitala; Rizutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neira, John B.; Neto, Joao B. F. [Institute of Research Tecnology, Cidade Universitaria, SP, 05508-091 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction at 170 Degree-Sign scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  15. Simulations of H 2O 2 concentration profiles in the water surrounding spent nuclear fuel taking mixed radiation fields and bulk reactions into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fredrik; Jonsson, Mats

    2008-02-01

    To simulate the dynamics of the concentration gradient of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater surrounding spent nuclear fuel under various conditions, a model has been developed. The model treats the water volume as a sequence of volume elements, and applies the processes that affect hydrogen peroxide concentration to each volume element. The surface steady-state concentrations of H 2O 2, and the time to reach steady-state, have been determined under different conditions. The processes accounted for in the model are radiolytic production of H 2O 2 from α- and β-radiation, surface reactions consuming H 2O 2, homogeneous reactions consuming H 2O 2, and diffusion. The system has been modeled mainly for different surface reaction rate constants and homogeneous (bulk) reaction rate constants. The simulations show that the surface concentration of H 2O 2 approaches the steady-state concentration very rapidly and that the impact of homogeneous (bulk) reactions consuming H 2O 2 on the steady-state concentration is significant.

  16. Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization during the Thermolysis of Alkoxyamines: A New Approach to Detect the Occurrence of H-Transfer Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagryanskaya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of alkoxyamines in the presence of scavengers was found to proceed with the formation of chemically induced nuclear polarization detected by 1H NMR. The distinctive Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP features were studied using the example of three alkoxyamines: 4-nitrophenyl 2-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yloxy-2-methylpropanoate (1a, 4-nitrophenyl 2-(2,2-diphenyl-3-phenylimino-2,3-dihydroindol-1-yloxy-2-methylpropanoate (2a and 4-nitrophenyl 2-(2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-phenyl-2H-imidazol-1-oxy-2-methylpropanoate (3a in the presence of PhSH. The analysis of CIDNP signs of methacrylate protons allows us to conclude on the occurrence of hydrogen atom transfer reaction in geminate radical pair formed in alkoxyamine thermolysis. Thus, CIDNP is a fast and sensitive method to detect the occurrence of intra/intermolecular hydrogen transfer in alkoxyamine thermolysis.

  17. Low-energy fission investigated in reactions of 750 AMeV {sup 238}U-ions with Pb and Be targets. Pt. 1. Nuclear charge distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bernas, M. [IPN Orsay, 91 Orsay (France); Czajkowski, S. [IPN Orsay, 91 Orsay (France); Geissel, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Dessagne, P. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Donzaud, C. [IPN Orsay, 91 Orsay (France); Hanelt, E. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Heinz, A. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Hesse, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Kozhuharov, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Miehe, C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Muenzenberg, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Pfuetzner, M. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Schmidt, K.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Schwab, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Stephan, C. [IPN Orsay, 91 Orsay (France); Suemmerer, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Tassan-got, L. [IPN Orsay, 91 Orsay (France); Voss, B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1996-07-01

    Charge distributions of fragments from low energy nuclear fission are investigated in reactions of highly fissile {sup 238}U projectiles at relativistic energies (750 A.MeV) with a heavy (Pb) and a light (Be) target. The fully stripped fission fragments are separated by the fragment separator (FRS). Their high kinetic energies in the laboratory system allow the identification of all atomic numbers by using multiple-sampling ionization chambers (MUSIC). The elemental distributions of fragments observed at larger magnetic rigidities than the {sup 238}U projectiles show asymmetric break-up and odd-even effects. They indicate a low energy fission process, induced mainly by dissociation in the electro-magnetic field for the U/Pb-system, or by peripheral nuclear interactions for the U/Be-system. (orig.)

  18. Formation of the isomeric pairs 139m,gNd and 141m,gNd in proton and 3He-particle induced nuclear reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgers, K.; Sudár, S.; Qaim, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    Cross sections were measured by the activation technique for the nuclear reactions Pr-141(p,n)Nd-141(m),Pr-141(p,3n)Nd-139(m),Ce-nat(He-3,xn)Nd-141(m), and Ce-nat(He-3,xn)Nd-139(m) up to proton energies of 44 MeV and He-3-particle energies of 35 MeV. Using the present data and some of our earlier experimental results the isomeric cross-section ratios for the nuclide pairs Nd-139(m,g) and Nd-141(m,g) were calculated. The experimental data were compared with the results of nuclear model calcula...

  19. Low-energy fission investigated in reactions of 750 AMeV238U-ions with Pb and Be targets. I. Nuclear charge distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Geissel, H.; Aumann, T.; Dessagne, Ph.; Donzaud, C.; Hanelt, E.; Heinz, A.; Hesse, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Miehe, Ch.; Münzenberg, G.; Pfützner, M.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schwab, W.; Stéphan, C.; Sümmerer, K.; Tassan-Got, L.; Voss, B.

    1996-12-01

    Charge distributions of fragments from low energy nuclear fission are investigated in reactions of highly fissile238U projectiles at relativistic energies (750 A·MeV) with a heavy (Pb) and a light (Be) target. The fully stripped fission fragments are separated by the Fragment Separator (FRS). Their high kinetic energies in the laboratory system allow the identification of all atomic numbers by using Multiple-Sampling Ionization Chambers (MUSIC). The elemental distributions of fragments observed at larger magnetic rigidities than the238U projectiles show asymmetric break-up and odd-even effects. They indicate a low energy fission process, induced mainly by dissociation in the electro-magnetic field for the U/Pb-system, or by peripheral nuclear interactions for the U/Be-system.

  20. Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (, ) at 17.9 MeV and (, ) at 22.3 MeV reaction cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eyyup Tel; Abdullah Aydin; E Gamze Aydin; Abdullah Kaplan; Ömer Yavaş; İskender A Reyhancan

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we have investigated the asymmetry term effect for the (, ) and (, ) reaction cross-sections and obtained new coefficients for the (, ) and (, ) reaction cross-sections at 17.9 and 22.3 MeV energies. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including the non-elastic effects of optical model found by fitting two parameters for proton-induced reactions. The coefficients were determined by least-square fitting method. The obtained cross-section formulas with new coefficients have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  1. A model for particle production in nuclear reactions at intermediate energies: application to C-C collisions at 95 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Dudouet, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    A model describing nuclear collisions at intermediate energies is presented and the results are compared with recently measured double differential cross sections in C-C reactions at 95 MeV/nucleon. Results show the key role played by geometrical effects and the memory of the entrance channel, in particular the momentum distributions of the two incoming nuclei. Special attention is paid to the description of processes occurring at mid-rapidity. To this end, a random particle production mechanism by means of a coalescence process in velocity space is considered in the overlap region of the two interacting nuclei.

  2. Coherent-states dynamics of the H + + HF reaction at ELab = 30 eV: A complete electron nuclear dynamics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Buddhadev; Sadeghi, Raymond; Austin, Anthony; Morales, Jorge A.

    2007-11-01

    Results of a complete investigation of the H + + HF reaction at ELab = 30 eV with the electron nuclear dynamics (END) and the coherent-states dynamics (CSD) theories are herein presented. Current END-CSD methodology employs frozen Gaussian wave packet in the semiclassical limit of ℏ → 0 for the nuclei, and a single-determinantal Thouless coherent state (CS) for the electrons. The simulated 400 CS trajectories from five independent HF target orientations provide a complete description of the reactive processes in this system, including: non-charge-transfer scattering (NCTS), charge-transfer scattering (CTS), hydrogen fluoride dissociation (H-F D), and hydrogen rearrangement (HR). Several aspects of the reactions dynamics, such as mechanistic details and rainbow angles effects, are discussed. Differential and integral cross sections are evaluated via a novel CS formulation of those properties in conjunction with semiclassical techniques. The calculated total differential cross section shows an excellent agreement with available experimental results.

  3. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs and 90Sr on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products 137Cs and 90Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of 137Cs and 90Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  4. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on proton and deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghe@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D.S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawakami, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Koyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Maeda, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Makinaga, A. [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-14, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 (Japan); Momiyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakano, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Niikura, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiga, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2016-03-10

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  5. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs and 90Sr on proton and deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D. S.; Aikawa, M.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T.; Kawakami, S.; Koyama, S.; Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G.; Maeda, Y.; Makinaga, A.; Momiyama, S.; Nakano, K.; Niikura, M.; Shiga, Y.; Söderström, P.-A.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Taniuchi, R.; Watanabe, Ya.; Watanabe, Yu.; Yamasaki, H.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products 137Cs and 90Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of 137Cs and 90Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  6. Characterization of the InN conversion layer in InP surface by ammonia gas: Nuclear reaction analysis, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuki, Y. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Onoue, A. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kuriyama, K. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)]. E-mail: kuri@ionbeam.hosei.ac.jp; Hasegawa, M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Sakamoto, I. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    The surface layer of InP(1 0 0) wafer is converted into {alpha}-InN phase (wurtzite) by annealing it at around 510 {sup o}C for 5 h under NH{sub 3} gas flow. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the conversion layer is a (1 1 -2 0) oriented InN. This result is also supported by E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(LO) phonon modes observed by a Raman scattering method, originated from the (1 1 -2 0) face of {alpha}-InN. The converted layer evaluated by nuclear reaction analysis using a {sup 14}N(d, p){sup 15}N reaction includes a N concentration of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}.

  7. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section data for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y via proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced transmutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneb, H; Hussain, M; Amjad, N; Qaim, S M

    2016-06-01

    Proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced reactions on (87,88)Sr, (nat)Zr and (85)Rb targets were evaluated for the production of (87,88)Y. The literature data were compared with nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The evaluated cross sections were generated; therefrom thick target yields of (87,88)Y were calculated. Analysis of radio-yttrium impurities and yield showed that the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y and (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reactions are the best routes for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y respectively. The calculated yield for the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y reaction is 104 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 14→2.7MeV. Similarly, the calculated yield for the (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reaction is 3.2 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 15→7MeV.

  8. Contribution to the study of deformed heavy nuclei by means of nuclear reactions; Contribution a l'etude des noyaux lourds deformes au moyen de reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastebois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The experimental results obtained in the study of the (d,p) reactions, at E{sub d} = 12 MeV, on the three even-even deformed nuclei {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb and {sup 174}Yb have been analysed in terms of DWBA calculations. The spectroscopic information relative to the odd final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the collective model and of the Nilsson's model. The effect of various parameters used in the DWBA analysis (form factors, optical wave functions) has been carefully studied. The observed differences between the three final nuclei are qualitatively reproduced in the experimental study of resonances, seen in excitation functions of elastically and inelastically scattered protons on the same target nuclei, and corresponding to analogue states in the three nuclei {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu and {sup 175}Lu. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de l'etude des reactions (d.p) a E{sub d} = 12 MeV, sur les noyaux deformes pairs-pairs {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb et {sup 174}Yb ont ete interpretes dans le cadre de l'approximation de Born des ondes deformees. Les informations spectroscopiques relatives aux noyaux impairs finals ont ete comparees aux predictions du modele collectif et du modele de Nilsson, apres avoir examine avec soin l'influence des differents parametres (facteurs de forme, fonctions d'onde 'optiques') utilises lors de l'analyse. Les differences observees entre les trois noyaux finals sont qualitativement reproduites par les resultats experimentaux de l'etude de resonances dans les fonctions d'excitation de diffusion elastique et inelastique de protons sur les memes noyaux-cibles, lors de la recherche d'etats analogues dans les noyaux {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu et {sup 175}Lu. (auteur)

  9. Anomalously High Isotope Ratio 3He/4He and Tritium in Deuterium-Loaded Metal: Evidence for Nuclear Reaction in Metal Hydrides at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Song-Sheng; HE Ming; WU Shao-Yong; QI Bu-Jia

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4x10-1, much greater than the values (<10~4) in natural objects. Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out, but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed. In addition, anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed. To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples, it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.%Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4×10-1,much greater than the values (≤10-4) in natural objects.Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out,but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed.In addition,anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed.To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples,it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Plutonium Content in Particles Collected from a Certified Reference Material by Total Nuclear Reaction Energy (Q Value) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. P.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Bond, E. M.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-08-01

    Microcalorimeters with embedded radioisotopes are an emerging category of sensor with advantages over existing methods for isotopic analysis of trace-level nuclear materials. For each nuclear decay, the energy of all decay products captured by the absorber (alpha particles, gamma rays, X-rays, electrons, daughter nuclei, etc.) is measured in one pulse. For alpha-decaying isotopes, this gives a measurement of the total nuclear reaction energy (Q value) and the spectra consist of well-separated, narrow peaks. We have demonstrated a simple mechanical alloying process to create an absorber structure consisting of a gold matrix with small inclusions of a radioactive sample. This absorber structure provides an optimized energy thermalization environment, resulting in high-resolution spectra with minimal tailing. We have applied this process to the analysis of particles collected from the surface of a plutonium metal certified reference material (CRM-126A from New Brunswick Laboratory) and demonstrated isotopic analysis by microcalorimeter Q value spectroscopy. Energy resolution from the Gaussian component of a Bortels function fit was 1.3 keV FWHM at 5244 keV. The collected particles were integrated directly into the detector absorber without any chemical processing. The ^{238}Pu/^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu mass ratios were measured and the results confirmed against the certificate of analysis for the reference material. We also demonstrated inter-element analysis capability by measuring the ^{241}Am/^{239}Pu mass ratio.

  11. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plutonium characterisation with prompt high energy gamma-rays from (n,gamma) reactions for nuclear warhead dismantlement verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postelt, Frederik; Gerald, Kirchner [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron induced gammas allow the characterisation of fissile material (i.e. plutonium and uranium), despite self- and additional shielding. Most prompt gamma-rays from radiative neutron capture reactions in fissile material have energies between 3 and 6.5 MeV. Such high energy photons have a high penetrability and therefore minimise shielding and self-absorption effects. They are also isotope specific and therefore well suited to determine the isotopic composition of fissile material. As they are non-destructive, their application in dismantlement verification is desirable. Disadvantages are low detector efficiencies at high gamma energies, as well as a high background of gammas which result from induced fission reactions in the fissile material, as well as delayed gammas from both, (n,f) and(n,gamma) reactions. In this talk, simulations of (n,gamma) measurements and their implications are presented. Their potential for characterising fissile material is assessed and open questions are addressed.

  13. Calculation of three-body nuclear reactions with angular-momentum and parity-dependent optical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Deltuva, A

    2016-01-01

    Angular-momentum or parity-dependent nonlocal optical potentials for nucleon-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering able to fit differential cross section data over the whole angular regime are developed and applied to the description of deuteron-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering in the framework of three-body Faddeev-type equations for transition operators. Differential cross sections and deuteron analyzing powers for elastic scattering and ${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}(d,p){}^{17}\\mathrm{O}$ transfer reactions are calculated using a number of local and nonlocal optical potentials and compared with experimental data. Angular-momentum or parity-dependence of the optical potential turns out to be quite irrelevant in the considered three-body reactions while nonlocality is essential for a successful description of the differential cross section data, especially in transfer reactions.

  14. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  15. Activation cross-sections of longer lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on ytterbium up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: •Experimental excitation function of deuteron induced reactions on natural ytterbium up to 40 MeV. •Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS (TENDL-2011 and 2012). •Physical yield calculation. •Tabulated experimental results. •Discussion of medical and industrial applications. -- Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of the deuteron induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the {sup nat}Yb(d,xn){sup 177,173,172mg,171mg,170,169}Lu, {sup nat}Yb(d,x){sup 175,169}Yb and {sup nat}Yb(d,x){sup 173,172,168,167,165}Tm reactions are studied up to 40 MeV, a few of them for the first time. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The experimental data are analyzed and compared to the results of the theoretical model codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated. Applications of the new cross-sections are discussed.

  16. An Investigation of the 40Ar(n,p)40Cl Reaction Cross-Section below 50MeV at Crocker Nuclear Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas Ian

    Large underground liquid argon detectors are poised to detect neutrinos from the next galactic supernova. Liquid argon detectors are uniquely sensitive to the electron neutrino, thus giving them the capability to detect neutronization neutrinos for the first time. One background that may mimic the signal of this low-energy neutrino interaction in argon is the beta-decay of Cl-40 which is produced in argon by a fast neutron reaction. Previous measurements of this 40Ar+n->40Cl+p reaction cross section exist only below 15 MeV and the measurements differ by a factor of two. Using the U.C. Davis Crocker Nuclear Laboratory neutron beam this cross-section is determined by fitting to a parametrized model for neutron energies up to 50 MeV. Neutrons at this facility are generated from mono-energetic protons impinging on a thick beryllium target. Then, the neutrons that pass through the collimator are measured by time-of-flight and a fast-neutron activation technique. Using the neutron fluxes generated from five different proton energies, including 50 MeV protons, the 40Ar(n,p)40Cl reaction cross section is measured by irradiating liquid argon in each beam and counting the subsequent gammas from the Cl-40 decay in a high-purity germanium detector.

  17. The pi pi interaction in nuclear matter from a study of the pi sup + A-> pi sup +pi sup+-A' reactions 25.80.Hp

    CERN Document Server

    Bonutti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Grion, N; Rui, R; Brack, J T; Felawka, L; Gibson, E F; Hofman, G J; Kermani, M; Mathie, E L; Meier, R; Ottewell, D; Raywood, K; Sevior, M E; Smith, G R; Tacik, R

    2000-01-01

    The pion-production reactions pi sup + A-> pi sup +pi sup+-A' were studied on sup 2 H, sup 1 sup 2 C, sup 4 sup 0 Ca, and sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb nuclei at an incident pion energy of T subpi sub sup + =283 MeV. Pions were detected in coincidence using the CHAOS spectrometer. The experimental results are reduced to differential cross sections and compared to both theoretical predictions and the reaction phase space. The composite ratio C subpi subpi sup A between the pi sup +pi sup+- invariant masses on nuclei and on the nucleon is also presented. Near the 2m subpi threshold pion pairs couple to (pi pi) sub I sub = sub J sub = sub 0 when produced in the pi sup +-> pi sup +pi sup - reaction channel. There is a marked near-threshold enhancement of C subpi sub sup + subpi sub sup - sup A which is consistent with theoretical predictions addressing the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter. Furthermore, the behaviour of C subpi sub sup + subpi sub sup - sup A is well described when the restoration o...

  18. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  19. Nuclear transparency and effective kaon-nucleon cross section from the A(e, e'K+) reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nuruzzaman,; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Clasie, B; Christy, M E; Chudakov, E; Dalton, M M; Daniel, A; Day, D; Fassi, L El; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Ferrer, J; Fomin, N; Gao, H; Garrow, K; Gaskel, D; Gray, C; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Jones, M K; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kramer, K; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; Matsumura, A; Meekins, D G; Mertens, T; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Monson, R; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Rauf, A W; Rodriquez, V M; Rohe, D; Seely, J; Segbefia, E; Smith, G R; Sumihama, M; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Yuan, L; Zheng, X C

    2011-01-01

    We have determined the transparency of the nuclear medium to kaons from $A(e,e^{'} K^{+})$ measurements on $^{12}$C, $^{63}$Cu, and $^{197}$Au targets. The measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory and span a range in four-momentum-transfer squared Q$^2$=1.1 -- 3.0 GeV$^2$. The nuclear transparency was defined as the ratio of measured kaon electroproduction cross sections with respect to deuterium, ($\\sigma^{A}/\\sigma^{D}$). We further extracted the atomic number ($A$) dependence of the transparency as parametrized by $T= (A/2)^{\\alpha-1}$ and, within a simple model assumption, the in-medium effective kaon-nucleon cross sections. The effective cross sections extracted from the electroproduction data are found to be smaller than the free cross sections determined from kaon-nucleon scattering experiments, and the parameter $\\alpha$ was found to be significantly larger than those obtained from kaon-nucleus scattering. We have included similar comparisons between pion- and proton-nucleon effective c...

  20. Microanalysis of Fluorine Contamination and its Depth Distribution in Zircaloy by the Use of a Charged Particle Nuclear Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E.; Starfelt, N.

    1966-07-15

    Fluorine contamination on and below the surface of zircaloy has been studied by means of proton irradiation using a Van de Graaff accelerator and the detection of prompt gamma radiation from the {sup 19}F (p, {alpha}{gamma}) {sup 16}O reaction. Formulae for deriving depth distributions of impurities from the measured counting rates have been derived. The influence of energy straggling on the depth resolution has been studied. Both the total amount and the depth distribution have been measured in samples, which have undergone different treatments. Because of the high yield from the reaction used, a quantity of fluorine less than 0. 01 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} can be detected by this method.

  1. Random-matrix approach to the statistical compound nuclear reaction at low energies using the Monte-Carlo technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-10

    This theoretical treatment of low-energy compound nucleus reactions begins with the Bohr hypothesis, with corrections, and various statistical theories. The author investigates the statistical properties of the scattering matrix containing a Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) Hamiltonian in the propagator. The following conclusions are reached: For all parameter values studied, the numerical average of MC-generated cross sections coincides with the result of the Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller, Zirnbauer triple-integral formula. Energy average and ensemble average agree reasonably well when the width I is one or two orders of magnitude larger than the average resonance spacing d. In the strong-absorption limit, the channel degree-of-freedom ν a is 2. The direct reaction increases the inelastic cross sections while the elastic cross section is reduced.

  2. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on manganese up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study on activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions experimental excitation functions on {sup 55}Mn were measured with the activation method using the stacked foil irradiation technique up to 40 MeV. By using high resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry, cross-section data for the production of {sup 56,54,52}Mn and {sup 51}Cr were determined. Comparison with the earlier published data and with the results predicted by the ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE-II theoretical codes - improved for more reliable calculations for d-induced reactions - and with data in the TENDL 2010 libraries are also included. Thick target yields were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves and implications for practical applications in industrial (Thin Layer Activation) accelerator technology are discussed.

  3. Two-dimensional simulation of hydrogen iodide decomposition reaction using fluent code for hydrogen production using nuclear technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Sik Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The operating characteristics of hydrogen iodide (HI decomposition for hydrogen production were investigated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, and various factors, such as hydrogen production, heat of reaction, and temperature distribution, were studied to compare device performance with that expected for device development. Hydrogen production increased with an increase of the surface-to-volume (STV ratio. With an increase of hydrogen production, the reaction heat increased. The internal pressure and velocity of the HI decomposer were estimated through pressure drop and reducing velocity from the preheating zone. The mass of H2O was independent of the STV ratio, whereas that of HI decreased with increasing STV ratio.

  4. Validation of nuclear reaction models of 180 MeV proton-induced fragmentation of {sup 27}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabra, M.S., E-mail: m.sabra@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Clemens, M.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Weller, R.A.; Mendenhall, M.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Barghouty, A.F. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Malik, F.B. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Kinetic energy, angular distribution, and isobaric cross section data for A = 7-25 fragments formed in p + {sup 27}Al reaction at bombarding energy of 180 MeV are compared with the calculations of the Binary Cascade Model (BIC), the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM), JQMD/PHITS, as well as the Statistical Model with Final State Interaction (SMFSI). For completeness, the kinetic energy spectra of light particles (n, p, {alpha}) formed in p + {sup 27}Al reaction at bombarding energy of 156 MeV are also presented. A general agreement between the data and predictions of these models is found. However, disagreement with the data for the yields of light-mass fragments as well as near-target fragments is also found and discussed. The importance of this comparative study to simulation and analysis of radiation effects on microscopic electrical components operating in space is also discussed.

  5. Excitation functions of (nat)Zn(p,x) nuclear reactions with proton beam energy below 18 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Ali H; Chan, Sun; Morandeau, Laurence; Cryer, David; Smith, Suzanne V; Price, Roger I

    2014-12-01

    We measured the excitation functions of (nat)Zn (p,x) reactions up to 17.6MeV, using the stacked-foils activation technique. High-purity natural zinc (and copper) foils were irradiated with proton beams generated by an 18MeV isochronous cyclotron. Activated foils were measured using high-purity Ge gamma spectroscopy to quantify the radionuclides (61)Cu, (66)Ga, (67)Ga, and (65)Zn produced from the reactions. Thick-target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radioisotopes. These results were compared with the published literature and were found to be in good agreement with most reports, particularly those most recently compiled.

  6. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2013-11-01

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys.0008-420410.1139/p65-139 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.

  7. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rhenium up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Excitation function measurement of deuteron induced reactions on rhenium up to 40 MeV. ► Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS (TENDL-2011). ► Integral production yield calculation. ► Thin layer activation (TLA) curves; {sup 185}Os and {sup 186}Re. -- Abstract: As a part of a thorough work of excitation functions on deuteron induced reactions, experimental cross-sections of {sup 185,183m,183g,182}Os and {sup 188,186,184m,184g,183}Re activation products on {sup nat}Re were measured up to 40 MeV for the first time with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution γ-spectrometry. Comparison with the former results of other laboratories and with the predictions of the ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE-3 model codes, modified for improved calculations for deuteron reactions, and with data in the TENDL-2011 library are also presented. Thick target yields were given deduced from our experimental cross-sections and compared with the few literature values. For practical applications (thin layer activation) also activity versus depth distributions were calculated for selected isotopes.

  8. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  9. Nuclear reaction measurements of 95 MeV/u {sup 12}C interactions on PMMA for hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunn, B. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Labalme, M., E-mail: labalme@lpccaen.in2p3.fr [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Chevallier, M. [IPN Lyon (France); Colin, J.; Cussol, D. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Dauvergne, D. [IPN Lyon (France); Fontbonne, J.M. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Haas, F. [IPHC Strasbourg (France); Guertin, A. [SUBATECH, CNRS/IN2P3, Ecole des Mines et Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lebhertz, D. [IPHC Strasbourg (France); Le Foulher, F. [IPN Lyon (France); Pautard, C. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Ray, C. [IPN Lyon (France); Rousseau, M. [IPHC Strasbourg (France); Salsac, M.D. [CEA/IRFU/SPhN Saclay (France); Stuttge, L. [IPHC Strasbourg (France); Testa, E.; Testa, M. [IPN Lyon (France)

    2011-11-15

    The ion dose deposition in tissues is characterized by a favorable depth dose profile (i.e. Bragg peak) and a small lateral spread. In order to keep these benefits of ions in cancer treatments, a very high accuracy is required on the dose deposition ({+-}3%). For given target stoichiometry and geometry, the largest uncertainty on the physical dose deposition is due to the ion nuclear fragmentation. We have performed an experiment at GANIL with a 95 MeV/u {sup 12}C beam on thick tissue equivalent PMMA targets (thicknesses: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mm). The main goals of this experiment are to provide experimental fragmentation data for benchmarking the physical models used for treatment planning. Production rates, energy and angular distributions of charged fragments have been measured. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of this experiment.

  10. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Probing the Dissipation Mechanism in Ternary Reactions of 197Au+197Au by Mean Free Path of Nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Long; Li, Xian; Yan, Shi-Wei; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Li, Zhu-Xia

    2009-08-01

    the collision of very heavy nuclei 197Au+197Au at 15 A MeV has been studied within the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. A class of ternary events satisfying nearly complete balance of mass numbers is selected. The experimental mass distributions for the system 197Au+197Au ternary fission fragments, the heaviest (A1), the intermediate (A2) and the lightest (A3), are reproduced well. The mean free path of nucleons in the reaction system is studied and the shorter mean free path is responsible for the ternary fission with three mass comparable fragments, in which the two-body dissipation mechanism plays a dominant role.

  11. Activation cross-sections of longer lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on manganese up to 70 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Yamazaki, H; Baba, M; Mohammadi, A

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of the proton induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the 55Mn(p,x)154,152gMn,51Cr and 48V were measured up to 70 MeV. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The experimental data are analyzed and compared to the earlier results and to the prediction of the EMPIRE-3 as well as the TALYS theoretical model code in the TENDL-2012 library. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated. Practical applications of the cross-sections are discussed.

  12. Uncertainty study of nuclear model parameters for the n+ ^{56}Fe reactions in the fast neutron region below 20 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Junfeng; Sjöstrand, Henrik; Alhassan, Erwin; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Österlund, Michael; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the uncertainty of nuclear model parameters for neutron induced ^{56}Fe reactions in fast neutron region by using the Total Monte Carlo method. We perform a large number of TALYS runs and compare the calculated results with the experimental data of the cross sections to obtain the uncertainties of the model parameters. Based on the derived uncertainties another 1000 TALYS runs have been performed to create random cross section files. For comparison with the experimental data we calculate a weighted \\chi^2 value for each random file as well as the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF3.1, JENDL4.0 and CENDL3.1 data libraries. Furthermore, we investigate the optical model parameters correlation obtained by way of this procedure.

  13. Non-destructive characterization of vertical ZnO nanowire arrays by slow positron implantation spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, G [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Anwand, W [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Grambole, D [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Skorupa, W [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hou, Y [Institut fuer Physik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz Josef Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Andreev, A [Institut fuer Physik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz Josef Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Teichert, C [Institut fuer Physik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz Josef Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Tam, K H [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Djurisic, A B [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-05-16

    ZnO nanorods, grown by a hydrothermal method, have been characterized by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been demonstrated that such non-destructive characterization techniques can provide a comprehensive picture of the nanorod structure (including its length, shape, orientation, and seed layer thickness), as well as provide additional information about defects present in the structure. Nanorods were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and it was found that the SPIS/AFM combination is more sensitive to the nanorod orientation and the thickness of the seed layer. To obtain still more information about defects in the nanorods, as well as to confirm the findings on the sample structure, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was performed and a large concentration of bound hydrogen was found. The results obtained by different characterization techniques are discussed.

  14. Calculation of (p,γ and (p,α nuclear reaction cross sections in stars up to 10 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel Eyyup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Knowledge of the proton-proton (p-p chain and CNO cycle are required for the evolution of main sequence stars during the early formation of the universe. In this study, we summarized the excitation functions of (p,γ and (p,α reactions for 7Be(p,γ8B, 12C(p,γ13N, 13C(p,γ14N, 14N(p,γ15O and 15N(p,α15O in p-p chain and CNO cycle using EMPIRE and TALYS computer up to 10 MeV. The calculated data on nuclear fusion cross sections in hydrogen-burning stars were compared with theoretical TENDL-2014 and ENDF/B-VII data from EXFOR. The calculation results show closed agreement between the calculations and the data from literature.

  15. Investigation of activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natTl up to 42 MeV: review, new data and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Takács, S; Adam-Rebeles, R; Walravens, N; Cichelli, O; Ignatyuk, A V

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural thallium have been studied for investigation of the production of the medical important 201Tl diagnostic radioisotope. The excitation functions of 204mPb, 203Pb, 202mPb, 201Pb, 200Pb, 199Pb, 202Tl (direct, cumulative), 201Tl (direct, cumulative), 200Tl(direct), and 203Hg were measured up to 42 MeV proton energy by stacked foil technique and activation method. The experimental data were compared with the critically analyzed experimental data in the literature, with the IAEA recommended data and with the results of model calculations by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes.

  16. Apparent Polyploidization after Gamma Irradiation: Pitfalls in the Use of Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the Estimation of Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Gene Copy Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Winnie W. Y.; Lake, Vanessa; Banos, Connie; Davies, Justin; Banati, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been widely used to quantify changes in gene copy numbers after radiation exposure. Here, we show that gamma irradiation ranging from 10 to 100 Gy of cells and cell-free DNA samples significantly affects the measured qPCR yield, due to radiation-induced fragmentation of the DNA template and, therefore, introduces errors into the estimation of gene copy numbers. The radiation-induced DNA fragmentation and, thus, measured qPCR yield varies with temperature not only in living cells, but also in isolated DNA irradiated under cell-free conditions. In summary, the variability in measured qPCR yield from irradiated samples introduces a significant error into the estimation of both mitochondrial and nuclear gene copy numbers and may give spurious evidence for polyploidization. PMID:23722662

  17. Calculation of (p,γ) and (p,α) nuclear reaction cross sections in stars up to 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Eyyup; Sahan, Muhittin; Sarpun, Ismail Hakki; Okur, Sureyya Gulistan

    2016-11-01

    In Knowledge of the proton-proton (p-p) chain and CNO cycle are required for the evolution of main sequence stars during the early formation of the universe. In this study, we summarized the excitation functions of (p,γ) and (p,α) reactions for 7Be(p,γ)8B, 12C(p,γ)13N, 13C(p,γ)14N, 14N(p,γ)15O and 15N(p,α)15O in p-p chain and CNO cycle using EMPIRE and TALYS computer up to 10 MeV. The calculated data on nuclear fusion cross sections in hydrogen-burning stars were compared with theoretical TENDL-2014 and ENDF/B-VII data from EXFOR. The calculation results show closed agreement between the calculations and the data from literature.

  18. Measurement of activation cross-section of long-lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on palladium in the 30-50MeV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-10-01

    Excitation functions were measured in the 31-49.2MeV energy range for the (nat)Pd(d,xn)(111,110m,106m,105,104g,103)Ag, (nat)Pd(d,x) (111m,109,101,100)Pd, (nat)Pd(d,x), (105,102m,102g,101m,101g,100,99m,99g)Rh and (nat)Pd(d,x)(103,97)Ru nuclear reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with our previous results and with the theoretical predictions calculated with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (TENDL libraries) codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation.; Katsaus ydinonnettomuuksien psykologisiin seurauksiin sekae empiirinen tutkimus saeteilysuojelutoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista kaeyttaeytymiseen kuvitteelisessa tilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, A.; Eraenen, L. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.).

  20. Determination of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the ImQMD model by nuclear reaction at the Fermi energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Qin, Yujiao; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction is investigated by using the ImQMD model with the three sets of parameters IQ1, IQ2 and IQ3 in which the corresponding incompressibility coefficients of nuclear matter are different. The charge distribution of fragments for various reaction systems are calculated at different incident energies. The parameters strongly affect the charge distribution below the threshold energy of nuclear multifragmentation. The fragment multiplicity spectrum for $^{238}$U+$^{197}$Au at 15 AMeV and the charge distribution for $^{129}$Xe+$^{120}$Sn at 32 and 45 AMeV, and $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au at 35 AMeV are reproduced by the ImQMD model with the set of parameter IQ3. It is concluded that charge distribution of the fragments and the fragment multiplicity spectrum are good observables for studying N-N interaction, the Fermi energy region is a sensitive energy region to explore the N-N interaction, and IQ3 is a suitable set of parameters for the ImQMD model.

  1. Extension of activation cross-section data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on cadmium up to 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.

    2016-10-01

    The excitation functions for 109,110g,111m+g,113m,114m,115mIn, 107,109,115m,115gCd and 105g,106m,110g,111Ag are presented for stacked foil irradiations on natCd targets in the 49-33 MeV deuteron energy domain. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by determining incident particle flux and energy scale relative to re-measured monitor reactions natAl(d,x)22,24Na. The results were compared to our earlier studies on natCd and on enriched 112Cd targets. The merit of the values predicted by the TALYS 1.6 code (resulting from a weighted combination of reaction cross-section data on all stable Cd isotopes as available in the on-line libraries TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015) is discussed. Influence on optimal production routes for several radionuclides with practical applications (111In, 114mIn, 115Cd, 109,107Cd….) is reviewed.

  2. Nuclear structure of sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 Te studied with (n,gamma) and (d->,p) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Tomandl, I; Honzatko, J; Bondarenko, V; Wirth, H F; Bucurescu, D; Ponomarev, V Yu; Graw, G; Hertenberger, R; Eisermann, Y; Raman, S

    2003-01-01

    The structure of sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 Te has been investigated with the sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 Te(n,gamma gamma) sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 Te reaction using thermal neutrons and with the sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 Te(d,p) sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 Te reaction using polarized deuterons with energy E sub d =18 MeV. About 290 levels were identified in most cases including spin, parity and gamma-decay. The gamma-decay scheme after neutron capture is essentially complete containing about 100% of the decay of the capture state and about 100% of the population of the 11/2 sup - isomer and of the ground state. The scheme includes 42 primary transitions with energies between 750 keV and 2500 keV. The experimental level scheme is compared with predictions of the Interacting Boson-Fermion model (IBFM) and of the Quasiparticle Phonon Model (QPM). The isomeric ratio of the 11/2 sup - isomer at 182.31(5) keV was determined to be 0.054(2). The neutron binding energy is 5929.38(6) keV. The total thermal neutron capture cross section was found to be 186(13) ...

  3. Thick target yield measurement of {sup 211}At through the nuclear reaction {sup 209}Bi({alpha}, 2n)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarano, A [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, IHCP, Joint Research Centre, via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra, Varese (Italy); Abbas, K [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, IHCP, Joint Research Centre, via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra, Varese (Italy); Holzwarth, U [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, IHCP, Joint Research Centre, via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra, Varese (Italy); Bonardi, M [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Groppi, F [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Alfassi, Z [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel); Menapace, E [ENEA, Applied Physics Division, Bologna (Italy); Gibson, P N [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, IHCP, Joint Research Centre, via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra, Varese (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    Radionuclide Therapy (RNT) and Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) are potentially of great interest for cancer therapy. In many therapeutic applications alpha emitters should be much more effective than already-approved beta emitters due to the short range and high linear energy transfer of alpha particles. {sup 213}Bi is an important alpha emitter already used in clinical trials but the half-life of this radioisotope is short (46 minutes) and so its use is limited for certain therapies. {sup 211}At is potentially very interesting for medical purposes because of its longer half-life of 7.2 hours, and suitable decay scheme. We have studied the cyclotron-based production of {sup 211}At via the reaction {sup 209}Bi({alpha}, 2n), this production route probably being the most promising in the long term. The energy dependence of thick target yields and the reaction cross sections for the production of {sup 211}At and {sup 210}At were determined and found to be in good agreement with literature. The best energy to produce {sup 211}At is 28-29 MeV. The possible production of the undesired, highly radiotoxic, and long-lived alpha-emitting {sup 210}Po (138.38 days), which is produced from decay of {sup 210}At, is also discussed.

  4. Nuclear structure studies of 125Te with (n,γ), (d,p) and ( 3He,α) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzátko, J.; Tomandl, I.; Bondarenko, V.; Bucurescu, D.; von Egidy, T.; Ott, J.; Schauer, W.; Wirth, H.-F.; Doll, C.; Gollwitzer, A.; Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Valnion, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    Levels in 125Te were investigated in the range up to 3.3 MeV excitation energy by the (n,γ), (d,p) and ( 3He,α) reactions. Over 160 levels and about 360 γ-transitions were established, most for the first time. The states below 2.3 MeV with the most complete spectroscopic information were interpreted in terms of the interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM). Unitary treatment of both positive- and negative-parity states is achieved with the same model parameter close to the intermediate case between O(6) and U(5) limits. Excitation energies, electromagnetic transition rates, γ-branchings and spectroscopic factors are discussed in connection with the possible structures. A family of low-spin negative-parity states has been identified and understood by the IBFM proving their antialigned origin.

  5. The Astrophysical S-factor for the 2H(, )6Li Nuclear Reaction at Low-Energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. Sadeghi; A. Moghadasi; M. Ghamary

    2014-12-01

    The alpha radiative capture reactions are the key to understand about primordial nucleosynthesis and the observed abundance of light nucleus in stars. The astrophysical S-factor for the process 2H(, )6Li has been calculated at the low-energies relevant to big-bang nucleosynthesis and in comparison with laboratory data. On the basis of the model, the alpha radiative capture process is studied by using the two-and three-body electromagnetic currents. The bound and resonance states of 6Li are calculated via an inverse process, deuteron- photodisintegration of a 6Li nucleus. In comparison with other theoretical approaches and available laboratory data, excellent agreement is achieved for the astrophysical S-factor of this process.

  6. The ^12 C(,)^16 O Nuclear Reaction Rate from Asteroseismology of the DBV White Dwarf CBS 114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Handler, G.

    We have identified seven independent pulsation modes in the helium-atmosphere variable (DBV) white dwarf star CBS 114, based on 65 hours of time-resolved CCD photometry from the 0.75-m telescope at SAAO. We interpret these pulsations as non-radial g-modes with the same spherical degree l=1, as suggested by the mean period spacing of 37.1+/-0.7 seconds. We use a genetic-algorithm-based fitting method to find the globally optimal model parameters, including the stellar mass (M_* = 0.73 M_sun), the effective temperature (T_eff = 21,000 K), the mass of the atmospheric helium layer (log[M_He/M_*] = -6.66), and the central oxygen mass fraction (X_O = 0.61). The latter value implies a rate for the ^12C(alpha,gamma)^16O reaction near S_300 = 180 keV b, consistent with laboratory measurements.

  7. Measurements and Evaluation of Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections Leading to Various Practical Applications in Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik

    2008-07-15

    This report contains the measurements and evaluation of production cross sections of some medically and technologically important radionuclides over the energy range 1-40 MeV by using a conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe) -ray spectrometry. The irradiations were done by using the external beam line of the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The standard cross sections for monitor reactions were taken from IAEA web site. Integral yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections. Reported data were compared with the available literature data, theoretical calculations by the codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE, and a good overall agreement among them was found.

  8. Migration of nuclear shell gaps studied in the d(24Ne,p gamma)25Ne reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Catford, W N; Lemmon, R C; Labiche, M; Orr, N A; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Chapman, R; Freer, M; Chartier, M; Savajols, H; Rejmund, M; Achouri, N L; Amzal, N; Ashwood, N I; Baldwin, T D; Burns, M; Caballero, L; Casadjian, J M; Curtis, N; de France, G; Gelletly, W; Liang, X; Pain, S D; Pucknell, V P E; Rubio, B; Sorlin, O; Spohr, K; Theisen, Ch; Warner, D D

    2010-01-01

    The transfer of neutrons onto 24Ne has been measured using a reaccelerated radioactive beam of 24Ne to study the (d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics. The unusual raising of the first 3/2+ level in 25Ne and its significance in terms of the migration of the neutron magic number from N=20 to N=16 is put on a firm footing by confirmation of this state's identity. The raised 3/2+ level is observed simultaneously with the intruder negative parity 7/2- and 3/2- levels, providing evidence for the reduction in the N=20 gap. The coincident gamma-ray decays allowed the assignment of spins as well as the transferred orbital angular momentum. The excitation energy of the 3/2+ state shows that the established USD shell model breaks down well within the sd model space and requires a revised treatment of the proton-neutron monopole interaction.

  9. Nuclear structures near and beyond the neutron drip line studied by breakup reactions at SAMURAI at RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    Some of the first results from kinematically complete measurements of breakup reactions on neutron-rich boron to oxygen isotopes, along and beyond the neutron drip line, are presented and discussed. These experiments were performed at the recently-commissioned large-acceptance multi-purpose spectrometer SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyser for MUlti-particles from Radio-Isotope Beam) at the new-generation RI beam facility, RIBF, at RIKEN. The experiments aimed at probing the two-neutron Borromean halo nuclei, 19B and 22C, and at exploring the heavy oxygen isotopes, 25,26O, which are beyond the neutron drip line. The study of 19B and 22C has been made primarily by the Coulomb breakup, which is sensitive to the halo states and associated two-neutron correlations. 22C has drawn much attention due to the possibility that it has the largest halo known. In addition, 22C may also exhibit features consistent with the new magic number N=16, as was recently suggested by our inclusive measurement of the momentum distribution of 20C following breakup on a C target. 25O and 26O have drawn much attention since these unbound nuclei may have keys to understand why the neutron drip line ends anomalously closer to the stability for oxygen isotopes. 25O and 26O have been produced by the proton removal reactions on 26F,27Ne, and 27F,28Ne, respectively, at 220-250 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary data are shown and discussed. Finally, some perspectives on future projects using the SAMURAI facility are presented.

  10. Experimental verification of proton beam monitoring in a human body by use of activity image of positron-emitting nuclei generated by nuclear fragmentation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Teiji; Miyatake, Aya; Inoue, Kazumasa; Gomi-Miyagishi, Tomoko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kameoka, Satoru; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ogino, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Proton therapy is a form of radiotherapy that enables concentration of dose on a tumor by use of a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair-annihilation gamma rays from positron-emitting nuclei generated by the nuclear fragmentation reaction of the incident protons on target nuclei using a PET apparatus. The activity of the positron-emitting nuclei generated in a patient was measured with a PET-CT apparatus after proton beam irradiation of the patient. Activity measurement was performed in patients with tumors of the brain, head and neck, liver, lungs, and sacrum. The 3-D PET image obtained on the CT image showed the visual correspondence with the irradiation area of the proton beam. Moreover, it was confirmed that there were differences in the strength of activity from the PET-CT images obtained at each irradiation site. The values of activity obtained from both measurement and calculation based on the reaction cross section were compared, and it was confirmed that the intensity and the distribution of the activity changed with the start time of the PET imaging after proton beam irradiation. The clinical use of this information about the positron-emitting nuclei will be important for promoting proton treatment with higher accuracy in the future.

  11. Coherent-states dynamics of the H{sup +} + HF reaction at E{sub Lab} = 30 eV: A complete electron nuclear dynamics investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Buddhadev [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Sadeghi, Raymond [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0698 (United States); Austin, Anthony [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Morales, Jorge A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States)], E-mail: jorge.morales@ttu.edu

    2007-11-09

    Results of a complete investigation of the H{sup +} + HF reaction at E{sub Lab} = 30 eV with the electron nuclear dynamics (END) and the coherent-states dynamics (CSD) theories are herein presented. Current END-CSD methodology employs frozen Gaussian wave packet in the semiclassical limit of h {yields} 0 for the nuclei, and a single-determinantal Thouless coherent state (CS) for the electrons. The simulated 400 CS trajectories from five independent HF target orientations provide a complete description of the reactive processes in this system, including: non-charge-transfer scattering (NCTS), charge-transfer scattering (CTS), hydrogen fluoride dissociation (H-F D), and hydrogen rearrangement (HR). Several aspects of the reactions dynamics, such as mechanistic details and rainbow angles effects, are discussed. Differential and integral cross sections are evaluated via a novel CS formulation of those properties in conjunction with semiclassical techniques. The calculated total differential cross section shows an excellent agreement with available experimental results.

  12. Activation cross-sections of longer lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on manganese up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Highlights: •Experimental excitation function of proton induced reactions on manganese up to 70 MeV. •Model code calculations with EMPIRE-3 and TALYS (TENDL-2012). •Integral production yield calculation. •Thin Layer Activation (TLA) curves for {sup 54}Mn and {sup 51}Cr. •Tabulated experimental results. -- Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of the proton induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the {sup 55}Mn(p,x){sup 54,52g}Mn, {sup 51}Cr and {sup 48}V were measured up to 70 MeV. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using the stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The experimental data are analyzed and compared to the earlier results and to the prediction of the EMPIRE-3 as well as the TALYS theoretical model code in the TENDL-2012 library. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated. Practical applications of the cross-sections e.g. for thin layer activation are discussed.

  13. Depth profile of production yields of natPb(p, xn) 206,205,204,203,202,201Bi nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila; Jung, Nam-Suk; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Arim; Bae, Oryun; Lee, Hee-Seock

    2016-11-01

    Experimental and simulation studies on the depth profiles of production yields of natPb(p, xn) 206,205,204,203,202,201Bi nuclear reactions were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed at the high-intensity proton linac facility (KOMAC) in Korea. The targets, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, were arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using 27Al(p, 3p1n)24Na, 197Au(p, p1n)196Au, and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au monitor reactions and also by Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in the natPb activation foils and monitor foils were measured by HPGe spectroscopy system. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS/DCHAIN-SP, and MCNPX/FISPACT codes and the calculated data were compared with the experimental results. A satisfactory agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations.

  14. Comparison of two analysis methods for nuclear reaction measurements of 12C +12C interactions at 95 MeV/u for hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Dudouet, J; Labalme, M; Angélique, J C; Braunn, B; Colin, J; Cussol, D; Finck, Ch; Fontbonne, J M; Guérin, H; Henriquet, P; Krimmer, J; Rousseau, M; Saint-Laurent, M G

    2013-01-01

    During therapeutic treatment with heavier ions like carbon, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation and secondary light charged particles, in particular protons and alpha particles, are produced. To estimate the dose deposited into the tumors and the surrounding healthy tissues, the accuracy must be higher than ($\\pm$3% and$\\pm$1 mm). Therefore, measurements are performed to determine the double differential cross section for different reactions. In this paper, the analysis of data from 12C +12C reactions at 95 MeV/u are presented. The emitted particles are detected with \\DeltaEthin-\\DeltaEthick-E telescopes made of a stack of two silicon detectors and a CsI crystal. Two different methods are used to identify the particles. One is based on graphical cuts onto the \\DeltaE-E maps, the second is based on the so-called KaliVeda method using a functional description of \\DeltaE versus E. The results of the two methods will be presented in this paper as well as the comparison between both.

  15. Comparison of two analysis methods for nuclear reaction measurements of 12C +12C interactions at 95 MeV/u for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudouet, J.; Juliani, D.; Labalme, M.; Angélique, J. C.; Braunn, B.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Finck, Ch.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Guérin, H.; Henriquet, P.; Krimmer, J.; Rousseau, M.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.

    2013-07-01

    During therapeutic treatment with heavier ions like carbon, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation and secondary light charged particles, in particular protons and alpha particles, are produced. To estimate the dose deposited into the tumors and the surrounding healthy tissues, the accuracy must be higher than ±3% and±1 mm. Therefore, measurements are performed to determine the double differential cross-section for different reactions. In this paper, the analysis of data from 12C +12C reactions at 95 MeV/u are presented. The emitted particles are detected with ΔEthin-ΔEthick-E telescopes made of a stack of two silicon detectors and a CsI crystal. Two different methods are used to identify the particles. One is based on graphical cuts onto the ΔE-E maps, the second is based on the so-called KaliVeda method using a functional description of ΔE versus E. The results of the two methods will be presented in this paper as well as the comparison between both.

  16. Comparison of two analysis methods for nuclear reaction measurements of {sup 12}C +{sup 12}C interactions at 95 MeV/u for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudouet, J. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Juliani, D. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien Strasbourg (France); Labalme, M., E-mail: labalme@lpccaen.in2p3.fr [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Angélique, J.C. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Braunn, B. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Colin, J.; Cussol, D. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Finck, Ch. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien Strasbourg (France); Fontbonne, J.M.; Guérin, H. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Henriquet, P.; Krimmer, J. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1 and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822 F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Rousseau, M. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien Strasbourg (France); Saint-Laurent, M.G. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3 BP5027,F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France)

    2013-07-01

    During therapeutic treatment with heavier ions like carbon, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation and secondary light charged particles, in particular protons and alpha particles, are produced. To estimate the dose deposited into the tumors and the surrounding healthy tissues, the accuracy must be higher than ±3% and±1 mm. Therefore, measurements are performed to determine the double differential cross-section for different reactions. In this paper, the analysis of data from {sup 12}C +{sup 12}C reactions at 95 MeV/u are presented. The emitted particles are detected with ΔE{sub thin}−ΔE{sub thick}−E telescopes made of a stack of two silicon detectors and a CsI crystal. Two different methods are used to identify the particles. One is based on graphical cuts onto the ΔE−E maps, the second is based on the so-called KaliVeda method using a functional description of ΔE versus E. The results of the two methods will be presented in this paper as well as the comparison between both.

  17. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  18. A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study of post-plasma reactions in organosilicone microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colin J; Ponnusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Murphy, Peter J; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-06-11

    Plasma-polymerized organosilicone coatings can be used to impart abrasion resistance and barrier properties to plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. Coating rates suitable for industrial-scale deposition, up to 100 nm/s, can be achieved through the use of microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), with optimal process vapors such as tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) and oxygen. However, it has been found that under certain deposition conditions, such coatings are subject to post-plasma changes; crazing or cracking can occur anytime from days to months after deposition. To understand the cause of the crazing and its dependence on processing plasma parameters, the effects of post-plasma reactions on the chemical bonding structure of coatings deposited with varying TMDSO-to-O2 ratios was studied with (29)Si and (13)C solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) using both single-pulse and cross-polarization techniques. The coatings showed complex chemical compositions significantly altered from the parent monomer. (29)Si MAS NMR spectra revealed four main groups of resonance lines, which correspond to four siloxane moieties (i.e., mono (M), di (D), tri (T), and quaternary (Q)) and how they are bound to oxygen. Quantitative measurements showed that the ratio of TMDSO to oxygen could shift the chemical structure of the coating from 39% to 55% in Q-type bonds and from 28% to 16% for D-type bonds. Post-plasma reactions were found to produce changes in relative intensities of (29)Si resonance lines. The NMR data were complemented by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Together, these techniques have shown that the bonding environment of Si is drastically altered by varying the TMDSO-to-O2 ratio during PECVD, and that post-plasma reactions increase the cross-link density of the silicon-oxygen network. It appears that Si-H and Si-OH chemical groups are the most susceptible to post-plasma reactions. Coatings produced at a

  19. ANOMALOUS REACTION MEAN FREE PATHS OF NUCLEAR PROJECTILE FRAGMENTS FROM HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT 2 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlander, E.M.; Gimpel, R.W.; Heckman, H.H.; Karant, Y.J.; Judek, B.; Ganssauge, E.

    1982-08-01

    We present in detail the description and the analysis of two independent experiments using Bevalac beams of {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Fe. From their results it is concluded that the reaction mean free paths of relativistic projectile fragments, 3 {<=} Z {<=} 26, are shorter for a few centimeters after emission than at large distances where they are compatible with values predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. The probability that this effect is due to a statistical fluctuation is <10{sup -3}. The effect is enhanced in later generations of fragments, the correlation between successive generations suggesting a kind of "memory" for the anomaly. Various systematic and spurious effects as well as conventional explanations are discussed mainly on the basis of direct experimental observations internal to our data, and found not to explain our results. The data can be interpreted by the relatively rare occurrence of anomalous fragments that interact with an unexpectedly large cross section. The statistical methods used in the analysis of the observations are fully described.

  20. Nuclear Structure of the Closed Subshell Nucleus 90Zr Studied with the (n,n'(gamma)) Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, P E; Younes, Y; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Baum, E M; DiPrete, D P; Gatenby, R A; Johnson, E L; McGrath, C A; Yates, S W; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Brown, B A

    2003-06-12

    States in {sup 90}Zr have been observed with the (n,n{prime}{gamma}) reaction using both spallation and monoenergetic accelerator-produced neutrons. A scheme comprised of 81 levels and 157 transitions was constructed concentrating on levels below 5.6 MeV in excitation energy. Spins have been determined by considering data from all experimental studies performed for {sup 90}Zr. Lifetimes have been deduced using the Doppler-shift attenuation method for many of the states and transition rates have been obtained. A spherical shell-model interpretation in terms of particle-hole excitations assuming a {sup 88}Sr closed core is given. In some cases, enhancements in B(M1) and B(E2) values are observed that cannot be explained by assuming simple particle-hole excitations. Shell-model calculations using an extended f pg-shell model space reproduce the spectrum of excited states very well, and the gross features of the B(M1) and B(E2) transition rates. Transition rates for individual levels show discrepancies between calculations and experimental values.