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Sample records for nondestructive assay techniques

  1. Statistical precision of delayed-neutron nondestructive assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; McNeany, S.R.

    1979-02-01

    A theoretical analysis of the statistical precision of delayed-neutron nondestructive assay instruments is presented. Such instruments measure the fissile content of nuclear fuel samples by neutron irradiation and delayed-neutron detection. The precision of these techniques is limited by the statistical nature of the nuclear decay process, but the precision can be optimized by proper selection of system operating parameters. Our method is a three-part analysis. We first present differential--difference equations describing the fundamental physics of the measurements. We then derive and present complete analytical solutions to these equations. Final equations governing the expected number and variance of delayed-neutron counts were computer programmed to calculate the relative statistical precision of specific system operating parameters. Our results show that Poisson statistics do not govern the number of counts accumulated in multiple irradiation-count cycles and that, in general, maximum count precision does not correspond with maximum count as first expected. Covariance between the counts of individual cycles must be considered in determining the optimum number of irradiation-count cycles and the optimum irradiation-to-count time ratio. For the assay system in use at ORNL, covariance effects are small, but for systems with short irradiation-to-count transition times, covariance effects force the optimum number of irradiation-count cycles to be half those giving maximum count. We conclude that the equations governing the expected value and variance of delayed-neutron counts have been derived in closed form. These have been computerized and can be used to select optimum operating parameters for delayed-neutron assay devices

  2. Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2

  3. Multimodality characterization of nuclear waste drums using emerging techniques for nondestructive examination and assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    We are developing an x-ray imaging system that incorporates several inspection technologies for complete, nondestructive evaluation of containers of nuclear waste. In Phase I and Phase II SBIR programs for the DOE, we proved the feasibility of using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR)-imaging techniques using x-rays transmitted through the object-for container inspection. Now, with further funding from DOE and working with scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Lab., we are designing a mobile inspection system that will use CT and DR as well as two x-ray emission imaging techniques-single photon emission computed tomography and nondestructive assay. This system will provide much more information about the contents of containers than currently used inspection methods, and will provide archiving of digital data. In this paper, we describe inspection system and present recent results from the CT and DR evaluations

  4. Experimental program for development and evaluation of nondestructive assay techniques for plutonium holdup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, S.B.

    1977-05-01

    An outline is presented for an experimental program to develop and evaluate nondestructive assay techniques applicable to holdup measurement in plutonium-containing fuel fabrication facilities. The current state-of-the-art in holdup measurements is reviewed. Various aspects of the fuel fabrication process and the fabrication facility are considered for their potential impact on holdup measurements. The measurement techniques considered are those using gamma-ray counting, neutron counting, and temperature measurement. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed. Potential difficulties in applying the techniques to holdup measurement are identified. Experiments are proposed to determine the effects of such problems as variation in sample thickness, in sample distribution, and in background radiation. These experiments are also directed toward identification of techniques most appropriate to various applications. Also proposed are experiments to quantify the uncertainties expected for each measurement

  5. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  6. Development of an analytical theory to describe the PNAR and CIPN nondestructive assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolind, Alan Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutron albedo is modeled by a discrete and iterative reflection process. • The theory enables the PNAR and CIPN NDA techniques to be compared quantitatively. • Improvements to the data analysis and to the CIPN instrument design are suggested. • A correction to translate real no-reflection PNAR data into ideal data is provided. - Abstract: This paper develops an analytical theory to describe how neutron albedo (reflection) increases the multiplication of neutrons by a used fuel assembly. With this theory, the two nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques of Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and Californium-252 Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection (CIPN) can be compared directly. Specifically, the theory derives expressions for the PNAR and CIPN metrics in terms of the physical properties of the used fuel assembly, such as the neutron multiplications and fate probabilities. The theory thus clarifies the interpretation of these two NDA techniques and suggests ways to improve both the design of the NDA instruments and the algorithms for analyzing the measurement results

  7. Relative mass resolution technique for optimum design of a gamma nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Duck Joon

    1995-02-01

    Nondestructive assay(NDA) is a widely used nuclear technology for quantitative elemental and isotopic assay. Nondestructive assay is performed by the detection of an identifying radiation emerging from the sample, which can be unambiguously related to the element or isotope of interest. In every assay we can identify two distinct factors that lead to measurement uncertainty. We refer to these as statistical and spatial uncertainties. If the spatial distribution of the analyte and the matrix material in the sample are known and fairly constant from sample to sample, then the major source of measurement uncertainty is the statistical uncertainty resulting from randomness in the counting process. The spatial uncertainty is independent of the measurement time and therefore sets a lower limit to the measurement uncertainty, which is inherent in the assay system in conjunction with the population of samples to be measured. The only way to minimize the spatial uncertainty is an optimized design of the assay system. Therefore we have to decide on the type and number of detectors to be used, their deployment around the sample, the type of radiation to be measured, the duration of each measurement, the size and shape of the sample drum. The design procedure leading to the optimal assay system should be based on a quantitative(RMR:Relative Mass Resolution) comparison of the performance of each proposed design. For NDA system design of low level radwaste, a specific purpose Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate point-source responses for sources within an assayed radwaste drum and to analyze the effect of scattered gammas from higher energy gammas on the spectrum of a low energy gamma-ray. We could use the well-known Monte Carlo code, such as MCNP for the simulation of NDA in the case of low level radwaste. But, MCNP is a multi-purpose Monte Carlo transport code for several geometries which requires large memory and long CPU time. For some cases in nuclear

  8. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, Wayne D.; Lee, R. Stephen; Ottmar, Herbert; Guardini, Sergio

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants [ru

  9. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques

  10. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, S.J.; Fensin, M.L.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Quiter, B.J.; Sandoval, N.P.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Thompson, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of 'Pu isotopic correlation' is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  11. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  12. Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.; Bruggeman, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes: (1) various activities to assure nuclear materials accountancy; (2) contributes to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards measures in Belgium and to assist the IAEA through the Belgian Support Programme; (3) renders services to internal and external customers in the field of safeguards; (4) improves passive neutron coincidence counting techniques for waste assay and safeguards verification measurements by R and D on correlation algorithms implemented via software or dedicated hardware; (5) improves gamma assay techniques for waste assay by implementing advanced scanning techniques and different correlation algorithms; and (6) develops numerical calibration techniques. Major achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  13. Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.; Ensslin, N.; Smith, H. Jr.; Kreiner, S.

    1991-03-01

    The term nondestructive assay (NDA) is applied to a series of measurement techniques for nuclear fuel materials. The techniques measure radiation induced or emitted spontaneously from the nuclear material; the measurements are nondestructive in that they do not alter the physical or chemical state of the nuclear material. NDA techniques are characterized as passive or active depending on whether they measure radiation from the spontaneous decay of the nuclear material or radiation induced by an external source. This book emphasizes passive NDA techniques, although certain active techniques like gamma-ray absorption densitometry and x-ray fluorescence are discussed here because of their intimate relation to passive assay techniques. The principal NDA techniques are classified as gamma-ray assay, neutron assay, and calorimetry. Gamma-ray assay techniques are treated in Chapters 1--10. Neutron assay techniques are the subject of Chapters 11--17. Chapters 11--13 cover the origin of neutrons, neutron interactions, and neutron detectors. Chapters 14--17 cover the theory and applications of total and coincidence neutron counting. Chapter 18 deals with the assay of irradiated nuclear fuel, which uses both gamma-ray and neutron assay techniques. Chapter 19 covers perimeter monitoring, which uses gamma-ray and neutron detectors of high sensitivity to check that no unauthorized nuclear material crosses a facility boundary. The subject of Chapter 20 is attribute and semiquantitative measurements. The goal of these measurements is a rapid verification of the contents of nuclear material containers to assist physical inventory verifications. Waste and holdup measurements are also treated in this chapter. Chapters 21 and 22 cover calorimetry theory and application, and Chapter 23 is a brief application guide to illustrate which techniques can be used to solve certain measurement problems

  14. Elements of nondestructive assay (NDA) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.; Smith, H.

    1984-01-01

    A thorough introduction to nondestructive assay methods and instruments as they are applied to nuclear safeguards is presented. The general principles and major applications of NDA are discussed and situations in which NDA is particularly useful for nuclear safeguards purposes are described. Various passive and active γ-ray and neutron methods are examined and assay situations particularly suited to γ-ray techniques, or to neutron techniques are identified. The role of calorimetry in the NDA of plutonium-bearing materials is also discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various NDA methods for different types of nuclear materials are mentioned

  15. Proceedings for the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination waste characterization conference. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report contains paper presented at the 5th Nondestructive Assay and nondestructive Examination Waste Characterization conference. Topics included compliance, neutron NDA techniques, gamma NDA techniques, tomographic methods, and NDA modality and information combination techniques. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  16. Proceedings for the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination waste characterization conference. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains paper presented at the 5th Nondestructive Assay and nondestructive Examination Waste Characterization conference. Topics included compliance, neutron NDA techniques, gamma NDA techniques, tomographic methods, and NDA modality and information combination techniques. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases

  17. Elements of nondestructive assay (NDA) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session provides an introduction to nondestructive assay methods and instruments as they are applied to nuclear safeguards. The purpose of the sessions is to enable participants to: (1) discuss the general principles and major applications of NDA; (2) describe situations in which NDA is particularly useful for nuclear safeguards purposes; (3) distinguish between various passive and active gamma-ray and neutron NDA methods; (4) describe several NDA instruments that measure gamma rays, and identify assay situations particularly suited to gamma-ray techniques; (5) describe several NDA instruments that measure neutrons, and identify assay situations particularly suited to neutron techniques; (6) discuss the role of calorimetry in the NDA of plutonium-bearing materials; and (7) compare the advantages and disadvantages of various NDA methods for different types of nuclear materials

  18. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  19. Characterization of legacy low level waste at the Svafo facility using gamma non-destructive assay and X-ray non-destructive examination techniques - 59289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen; Mottershead, Gary; Ekenborg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Over 7000 drums containing legacy, low level radioactive waste are stored at four SVAFO facilities on the Studsvik site which is located near Nykoeping, Sweden. The vast majority of the waste drums (>6000) were produced between 1969 and 1979. The remainder were produced from 1980 onwards. Characterization of the waste was achieved using a combination of non-destructive techniques via mobile equipment located in the AU building at the Studsvik site. Each drum was weighed and a dose rate measurement was recorded. Gamma spectroscopy was used to measure and estimate radionuclide content. Real time xray examination was performed to identify such prohibited items as free liquids. (authors)

  20. Nondestructive assay methods for irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Crane, T.W.; Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Lee, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a review of the status of nondestructive assay (NDA) methods used to determine burnup and fissile content of irradiated nuclear fuels. The gamma-spectroscopy method measures gamma activities of certain fission products that are proportional to the burnup. Problems associated with this method are migration of the fission products and gamma-ray attenuation through the relatively dense fuel material. The attenuation correction is complicated by generally unknown activity distributions within the assemblies. The neutron methods, which usually involve active interrogation and prompt or delayed signal counting, are designed to assay the fissile content of the spent-fuel elements. Systems to assay highly enriched spent-fuel assemblies have been tested extensively. Feasibility studies have been reported of systems to assay light-water reactor spent-fuel assemblies. The slowing-down spectrometer and neutron resonance absorption methods can distinguish between the uranium and plutonium fissile contents, but they are limited to the assay of individual rods. We have summarized the status of NDA techniques for spent-fuel assay and present some subjects in need of further investigation. Accuracy of the burnup calculations for power reactors is also reviewed

  1. Performance Values for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Technique Applied to Wastes: Evaluation by the ESARDA NDA Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackham, Jamie; Weber, Anne-Laure; Chard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The first evaluation of NDA performance values was undertaken by the ESARDA Working Group for Standards and Non Destructive Assay Techniques and was published in 1993. Almost ten years later in 2002 the Working Group reviewed those values and reported on improvements in performance values and new measurement techniques that had emerged since the original assessment. The 2002 evaluation of NDA performance values did not include waste measurements (although these had been incorporated into the 1993 exercise), because although the same measurement techniques are generally applied, the performance is significantly different compared to the assay of conventional Safeguarded special nuclear material. It was therefore considered more appropriate to perform a separate evaluation of performance values for waste assay. Waste assay is becoming increasingly important within the Safeguards community, particularly since the implementation of the Additional Protocol, which calls for declaration of plutonium and HEU bearing waste in addition to information on existing declared material or facilities. Improvements in the measurement performance in recent years, in particular the accuracy, mean that special nuclear materials can now be accounted for in wastes with greater certainty. This paper presents an evaluation of performance values for the NDA techniques in common usage for the assay of waste containing special nuclear material. The main topics covered by the document are: 1- Techniques for plutonium bearing solid wastes 2- Techniques for uranium bearing solid wastes 3 - Techniques for assay of fissile material in spent fuel wastes. Originally it was intended to include performance values for measurements of uranium and plutonium in liquid wastes; however, as no performance data for liquid waste measurements was obtained it was decided to exclude liquid wastes from this report. This issue of the performance values for waste assay has been evaluated and discussed by the ESARDA

  2. Performance Values for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Technique Applied to Wastes: Evaluation by the ESARDA NDA Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackham, Jamie [Babcock International Group, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, (United Kingdom); Weber, Anne-Laure [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Chard, Patrick [Canberra, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The first evaluation of NDA performance values was undertaken by the ESARDA Working Group for Standards and Non Destructive Assay Techniques and was published in 1993. Almost ten years later in 2002 the Working Group reviewed those values and reported on improvements in performance values and new measurement techniques that had emerged since the original assessment. The 2002 evaluation of NDA performance values did not include waste measurements (although these had been incorporated into the 1993 exercise), because although the same measurement techniques are generally applied, the performance is significantly different compared to the assay of conventional Safeguarded special nuclear material. It was therefore considered more appropriate to perform a separate evaluation of performance values for waste assay. Waste assay is becoming increasingly important within the Safeguards community, particularly since the implementation of the Additional Protocol, which calls for declaration of plutonium and HEU bearing waste in addition to information on existing declared material or facilities. Improvements in the measurement performance in recent years, in particular the accuracy, mean that special nuclear materials can now be accounted for in wastes with greater certainty. This paper presents an evaluation of performance values for the NDA techniques in common usage for the assay of waste containing special nuclear material. The main topics covered by the document are: 1- Techniques for plutonium bearing solid wastes 2- Techniques for uranium bearing solid wastes 3 - Techniques for assay of fissile material in spent fuel wastes. Originally it was intended to include performance values for measurements of uranium and plutonium in liquid wastes; however, as no performance data for liquid waste measurements was obtained it was decided to exclude liquid wastes from this report. This issue of the performance values for waste assay has been evaluated and discussed by the ESARDA

  3. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlin, Jeremy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Jianwei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanc, Pauline C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koehler, William E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, N P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, T H [KAERI; Cambell, L W [PNNL; Cheatham, J R [ORNL; Gesh, C J [PNNL; Hunt, A [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Ludewigt, B A [LBNL; Smith, L E [PNNL; Sterbentz, J [INL

    2010-09-15

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  4. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSI research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Stephen J.; Conlin, Jeremy L.; Evans, Louise G.; Hu, Kianwei; Blanc, P.C.; Lafleur, Am; Menlove, H.O.; Schear, M.A.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Croft, S.; Fensin, M.L.; Freeman, C.R.; Koehler, W.E.; Mozin, V.; Sandoval, N.P.; Lee, T.H.; Cambell, L.W.; Cheatham, J.R.; Gesh, C.J.; Hunt, A.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Smith, L.E.; Sterbentz, J.

    2010-01-01

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies (burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)). The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: 252 Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  5. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  6. Do's and dont's of nondestructive assay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    Some of the problem areas and recommended procedures in the application of nondestructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation are discussed. To limit the scope of the present guide, only radiometric NDA techniques employing neutron and gamma signatures are considered. Thus, measurement techniques which primarily make use of alpha particles, beta particles, muonic x rays, heat signatures, etc., are not included. (U.S.)

  7. Nondestructive assay instrument for measurement of plutonium in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, D.G.; Hsue, F.; Li, T.K.; Canada, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    A nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument that measures the 239 Pu content in solutions, using a passive gamma-ray spectroscopy technique, has been developed and installed in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. A detailed evaluation of this instrument has been performed. The results show that the instrument can routinely determine 239 Pu concentrations of 1 to 500 g/l with accuracies of 1 to 5% and assay times of 1 to 2 x 10 3 s

  8. Nondestructive assay methodologies in nuclear forensics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present chapter, the nondestructive assay (NDA) methodologies used for analysis of nuclear materials as a part of nuclear forensic investigation have been described. These NDA methodologies are based on (i) measurement of passive gamma and neutrons emitted by the radioisotopes present in the nuclear materials, (ii) measurement of gamma rays and neutrons emitted after the active interrogation of the nuclear materials with a source of X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons

  9. ARIES nondestructive assay system operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, Teresa L.; Hansen, Walter J.; Herrera, Gary D.; Nelson, David C.; Sampson, Thomas E.; Scheer, Nancy L.

    2000-01-01

    The ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) Project is an integrated system at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for the dismantlement of nuclear weapons. The plutonium produced by the ARIES process was measured by an integrated nondestructive assay (NDA) system. The performance of the NDA systems was monitored by a measurement control program which is a part of a nuclear material control and accountability system. In this paper we will report the results of the measurements of the measurement control standards as well as an overview of the measurement of the ARIES process materials

  10. Kalman filter analysis of delayed neutron nondestructive assay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to nondestructively determine the presence and quantity of fissile and fertile nuclei in various matrices is important in several nuclear applications including international and domestics safeguards, radioactive waste characterization and nuclear facility operations. Material irradiation followed by delayed neutron counting is a well known and useful nondestructive assay technique used to determine the fissile-effective content of assay samples. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using Kalman filters to unfold individual isotopic contributions to delayed neutron measurements resulting from the assay of mixes of uranium and plutonium isotopes. However, the studies in question used simulated measurement data and idealized parameters. We present the results of the Kalman filter analysis of several measurements of U/Pu mixes taken using Argonne National Laboratory's delayed neutron nondestructive assay device. The results demonstrate the use of Kalman filters as a signal processing tool to determine the fissile and fertile isotopic content of an assay sample from the aggregate delayed neutron response following neutron irradiation

  11. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications

  12. Development of a numerical experiment technique to solve inverse gamma-ray transport problems with application to nondestructive assay of nuclear waste barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.J.; Anghaie, S.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical experimental technique is presented to find an optimum solution to an undetermined inverse gamma-ray transport problem involving the nondestructive assay of radionuclide inventory in a nuclear waste drum. The method introduced is an optimization scheme based on performing a large number of numerical simulations that account for the counting statistics, the nonuniformity of source distribution, and the heterogeneous density of the self-absorbing medium inside the waste drum. The simulation model uses forward projection and backward reconstruction algorithms. The forward projection algorithm uses randomly selected source distribution and a first-flight kernel method to calculate external detector responses. The backward reconstruction algorithm uses the conjugate gradient with nonnegative constraint or the maximum likelihood expectation maximum method to reconstruct the source distribution based on calculated detector responses. Total source activity is determined by summing the reconstructed activity of each computational grid. By conducting 10,000 numerical simulations, the error bound and the associated confidence level for the prediction of total source activity are determined. The accuracy and reliability of the simulation model are verified by performing a series of experiments in a 208-ell waste barrel. Density heterogeneity is simulated by using different materials distributed in 37 egg-crate-type compartments simulating a vertical segment of the barrel. Four orthogonal detector positions are used to measure the emerging radiation field from the distributed source. Results of the performed experiments are in full agreement with the estimated error and the confidence level, which are predicted by the simulation model

  13. Nondestructive assay system development for a plutonium scrap recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Baker, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    A plutonium scrap recovery facility is being constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The safeguards groups of the Los Alamos National Laboratory have been working since the early design stage of the facility with SRP and other national laboratories to develop a state-of-the-art assay system for this new facility. Not only will the most current assay techniques be incorporated into the system, but also the various nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments are to be integrated with an Instrument Control Computer (ICC). This undertaking is both challenging and ambitious; an entire assay system of this type has never been done before in a working facility. This paper will describe, in particular, the effort of the Los Alamos Safeguards Assay Group in this endeavor. Our effort in this project can be roughly divided into three phases: NDA development, system integration, and integral testing. 6 references

  14. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted

  15. A portable nondestructive assay measurement control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Portable nondestructive assay (NDA) of plutonium processing hoods, solvent extraction columns, glove boxes, filters, and other items is required for both nuclear materials accountability and criticality control purposes. The Plutonium Finishing Plant has hundreds of such items that require routine portable NDA measurement. Previous recordkeeping of NDA measurements consisted of boxes of papers containing results and notebooks containing notes for each item to be measured. If the notes for any item were lost, new measurement parameters had to be calculated for that item. As a result, subsequent measurements could no longer be directly compared with previous results for that item due to possible changes in measurement parameters. The new portable NDA management system keeps all the necessary information in a computerized data base. Technicians are provided with a computer-generated drawing of each item to be measured, which also contains comments, measurement points, measurement parameters, and a form for filling in the raw data. After the measurements are made, the technician uses the computer to calculate and print out the results

  16. Potential development of non-destructive assay for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, R.; Cuypers, M.; Guardini, S.

    1983-01-01

    After a brief summary on the role of non-destructive assay in safeguarding the nuclear fuel cycle, its evolution from NDA methods development to other areas is illustrated. These areas are essentially: a) the evaluation of the performances of NDA techniques in field conditions; b) introduction of full automation of measurement instrument operation, using interactive microprocessors and of measurement data handling evaluation and retrieval features; c) introduction of the adequate link and compatibility to assure NDA measurement data transfer in an integrated safeguards data evaluation scheme. In this field, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is developing and implementing a number of techniques and methodologies allowing an integrated and rational treatment of the large amount of safeguards data produced. In particular for the non-destructive assay measurements and techniques, the JRC has studied and tested methodologies for the automatic generation and validation of data of inventory verification. In order to apply these techniques successfully in field, the JRC has studied the design requirements of NDA data management and evaluation systems. This paper also discusses the functional requirements of an integrated system for NDA safeguards data evaluation

  17. Fundamentals of passive nondestructive assay of fissionable material: laboratory workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.; Augustson, R.H.; Parker, J.L.; Walton, R.B.; Atwell, T.L.; Umbarger, C.J.; Burns, C.E.

    1975-02-01

    This workbook is a supplement to LA-5651-M, ''Fundamentals of Passive Nondestructive Assay of Fissionable Material'' which is the text used during the Nondestructive Assay Training Session given by Group A-1 of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It contains the writeups used during the six laboratory sessions covering basic gamma-ray principles, quantitative gamma-ray measurements, uranium enrichment measurements, equipment holdup measurements, basic neutron principles, and quantitative neutron assay

  18. Fundamentals of passive nondestructive assay of fissionable material: laboratory workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, T.D.; Augustson, R.H.; Parker, J.L. Walton, R.B.; Atwell, T.L.; Umbarger, C.J.; Burns, C.E.

    1975-02-01

    This workbook is a supplement to LA-5651-M, ''Fundamentals of Passive Nondestructive Assay of Fissionable Material'' which is the text used during the Nondestructive Assay Training Session given by Group A-1 of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It contains the writeups used during the six laboratory sessions covering basic gamma-ray principles, quantitative gamma-ray measurements, uranium enrichment measurements, equipment holdup measurements, basic neutron principles, and quantitative neutron assay.

  19. Nondestructive assay technology and automated ''real-time'' materials control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances in nondestructive assay techniques and instrumentation now enable rapid, accurate and direct in-plant measurement of nuclear material on a continuous or ''real-time'' basis as it progresses through a nuclear facility. A variety of passive and active assay instruments are required for the broad range of materials measurement problems encountered by safeguards inspectors and facility operators in various types of nuclear plants. Representative NDA techniques and instruments are presented and reviewed with special attention to their assay capabilities and areas of applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle. An advanced system of materials control - called ''DYMAC'', for Dynamic Materials Control - is presently under development by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration; the DYMAC program integrates new nondestructive assay instrumentation and modern data-processing methods, with the overall objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent safeguards and materials control in various generic types of facilities found in the nuclear fuel cycle. Throughout the program, emphasis will be placed on devloping practical solutions to generic measurement problems so that resulting techniques and instrumentation will have widespread utility. Projected levels of safeguards assurance, together with other vital - and cost-sensitive - plant operational factors such as process and quality control, criticality safety and waste management are examined in an evaluation of the impact of future advanced materials control systems on overall plant operations, efficiency and productivity. The task of implementing effective and stringent safeguards includes the transfer of new safeguards technology to the nuclear industry. Clearly the training of inspectors (both IAEA and national), plant people, etc., in the effective use of new NDA equipment is of paramount importance; thus in the United States, the Energy Research and Development

  20. Nondestructive assay uncertainties - present status and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role in nuclear safeguards by providing rapid, noninvasive measurements of many nuclear materials. The development of these techniques has proceeded in parallel with the increasing need for near-real-time accountability and the increasing use of automation and robotics to save time and labor in all aspects of nuclear materials processing. Gamma-ray counting, neutron counting, and calorimetry are the most common NDA techniques. This paper discusses the random and systematic measurement uncertainties associated with the first two. It is worth nothing that the random and systematic error components encountered in NDA often have a very different origin from those encountered in destructive analysis; the random component in NDA, for example, is dominated by counting statistics

  1. Experimental 233U nondestructive assay with a random driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goris, P.

    1979-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) of 233 U in quantities up to 15 grams containing 7 ppM 232 U age 2 years was investigated with a random driver. A passive singles counting technique showed a reproducibility within 0.2% at the 95% confidence level. This technique would be applicable throughout a process in which all of the 233 U had the same 232 U content at the same age. Where the 232 U content varies, determination of 233 U fissile content would require active NDA. Active coincidence counting utilizing a 238 Pu, Li neutron source and a plastic scintillator detector system showed a reproducibility limit within 15% at the 95% confidence limit. The active technique was found to be very dependent on the detector system resolving time in order to make proper random coincidence corrections associated with the high gamma activity from the 232 U decay chain

  2. Field nondestructive assay measurements as applied to process inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    An annual process equipment holdup inventory measurement program for a plutonium processing plant was instituted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) at Richland, Washington. The inventories, performed in 1977 and 1978, were designed to improve plutonium accountability and control. The inventory method used field nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement techniques with portable electronics and sodium iodide detectors. Access to and movement of plutonium in work areas was curtailed during the inventory process using administrative controls. Comparison of the two annual inventories showed good reproducibility of results within the calculated error ranges. For items where no plutonium movement occurred and which contained greater than 20 grams plutonium, the average measurement difference between the two inventories was 22%. The procedures and equipment used and the operational experience from the inventories are described

  3. Techniques for laser processing, assay, and examination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Mitchell, R.C.; Rogell, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Fuel examination studies were performed which have application to interim spent fuel storage. These studies were in three areas, i.e., laser drilling and rewelding demonstration, nondestructive assay techniques survey, and fuel examination techniques survey

  4. Nondestructive examination techniques on Candu fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, G.; Man, I.

    2013-01-01

    During irradiation in nuclear reactor, fuel elements undergo dimensional and structural changes, and changes of surface conditions sheath as well, which can lead to damages and even loss of integrity. Visual examination and photography of Candu fuel elements are among the non-destructive examination techniques, next to dimensional measurements that include profiling (diameter, bending, camber) and length, sheath integrity control with eddy currents, measurement of the oxide layer thickness by eddy current techniques. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 tubes were used for calibration purposes, whereas irradiated Zircaloy-4 tubes were actually subjected to visual inspection and dimensional measurements. We present results of measurements done by eddy current techniques on Zircaloy- 4 tubes, unirradiated, but oxidized in an autoclave prior to examinations. The purpose of these nondestructive examination techniques is to determine those parameters that characterize the behavior and performance of nuclear fuel operation. (authors)

  5. Nondestructive assay of HTGR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1974-01-01

    Performance characteristics of three different radioactive source NDA systems are compared for the assay of HTGR fuel rods and stacks of rods. These systems include the fast neutron Sb-Be assay system, the 252 Cf ''Shuffler,'' and the thermal neutron PAPAS assay system. Studies have been made to determinethe perturbation on the measurements from particle size, kernel Th/U ratio, thorium content, and hydrogen content. In addition to the total 235 U determination, the pellet-to-pellet or rod-to-rod uniformity of HTGR fuel rod stacks has been measured by counting the delayed gamma rays with a NaI through-hole in the PAPAS system. These measurements showed that rod substitutions can be detected easily in a fuel stack, and that detailed information is available on the loading variations in a uniform stack. Using a 1.0 mg 252 Cf source, assay rates of 2 to 4 rods/s are possible, thus facilitating measurement of 100 percent of a plant's throughput. (U.S.)

  6. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Guidicini, Olga; Llacer, Carlos D.; Rojo, Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  7. Design of an error-free nondestructive plutonium assay facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.B.; Steward, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    An automated, at-line nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory is installed in facilities recently constructed at the Savannah River Plant. The laboratory will enhance nuclear materials accounting in new plutonium scrap and waste recovery facilities. The advantages of at-line NDA operations will not be realized if results are clouded by errors in analytical procedures, sample identification, record keeping, or techniques for extracting samples from process streams. Minimization of such errors has been a primary design objective for the new facility. Concepts for achieving that objective include mechanizing the administrative tasks of scheduling activities in the laboratory, identifying samples, recording and storing assay data, and transmitting results information to process control and materials accounting functions. These concepts have been implemented in an analytical computer system that is programmed to avoid the obvious sources of error encountered in laboratory operations. The laboratory computer exchanges information with process control and materials accounting computers, transmitting results information and obtaining process data and accounting information as required to guide process operations and maintain current records of materials flow through the new facility

  8. Nondestructive assay of plutonium residue in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous plutonium recovery and purification processes often involve the temporary storage of plutonium solutions in holding tanks. Because plutonium is known to precipitate from aqueous solutions under certain conditions, there is a continuing need to assay emptied tanks for plutonium residue. A portable gamma spectrometer system, specifically designed for this purpose, provides rapid assay of such plutonium residues in horizontal storage tanks. A means is thus available for the nondestructive analysis of these tanks on a regular schedule to ensure that significant deposits of plutonium are not allowed to accumulate. 5 figs

  9. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.

    1982-04-01

    This is an interim report of a study concerning the potential application of nondestructive measurements on irradiated light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels at spent-fuel storage facilities. It describes nondestructive measurement techniques and instruments that can provide useful data for more effective in-plant nuclear materials management, better safeguards and criticality safety, and more efficient storage of spent LWR fuel. In particular, several nondestructive measurement devices are already available so that utilities can implement new fuel-management and storage technologies for better use of existing spent-fuel storage capacity. The design of an engineered prototype in-plant spent-fuel measurement system is approx. 80% complete. This system would support improved spent-fuel storage and also efficient fissile recovery if spent-fuel reprocessing becomes a reality

  10. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly

  11. Magnetic Nondestructive Testing Techniques of Constructional Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Er-gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel is a kind of ferromagnetic material, which is extensively applied in such fields as buildings, bridges, railways, machines and lifeline engineering etc. Those engineering structures built of constructional steel will unavoidably experience some damages during their service lifetime, thus which will influence the distribution regularity of internal forces in structures, result in over-stresses, cause the local failure of structures, and even lead to collapse of the whole structure. Therefore, it is a pressing topic to study how to directly evaluate the real-time stressed states of structural members, damages and steel characteristics in present structural health monitoring and diagnosing fields. And the achievements of this research will be of theoretical significance and of application value of engineering. This paper summarizes varieties of new magnetic nondestructive testing techniques used in constructional steel, respectively investigates the testing principles, characteristics and application for the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique, magnetic acoustic emission technique, magnetic flux leakage technique, magnetic memory technique and magnetic absorption technique, and points out the problems present in the application of these new techniques to actual testing and the further research objective.

  12. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  13. NDA [nondestructive assay] for a facility at SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studley, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    A near-real-time accountability system with associated high accuracy assay measurements has recently been placed in service at a Savannah River Plant (SRP) facility. A computer cluster provides facility wide communication between personnel and the accountability, process control, and laboratory data systems. The cluster is also connected to communicate with process, accountability, and laboratory instrumentation and process controls plus an item tracking bar code printer/reader system. Eight high performance microprocessor-based nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for this process are also connected to this cluster. With standards developed for them, these instruments are achieving the highest currently known NDA measurement accuracies

  14. Challenges of Non-Destructive Assay Waste Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Historically, the Savannah River Site (SRS) routinely produced special nuclear material (SNM), which provided stable measurement conditions for the non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. However, the main mission of SRS has changed from the production of SNM to the processing of waste and material stabilization. Currently, the purpose of processing is to recover the SNM from the waste and stabilization materials, much of which is from other DOE facilities. These missions are usually of a short duration, but require non-destructive assay (NDA) accountability measurements on materials of varying composition and geometric configuration. These missions usually have cost and time constraints, which sometimes require re-application of existing NDA methods to waste measurements. Usually, each new material or re-application of the NDA method to a different SNM campaign requires new standards and timely re-calibration of the method. These constraints provide numerous challenges for the NDA methods, particularly in the area of measurement uncertainty. This paper will discuss the challenges of these situations, mainly from a measurement and statistical point of view and provide some possible solutions to the problems encountered. Specific examples will be discussed for the segmented gamma scanner (SGS), neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and passive neutron coincidence counter (PNCC), which are some of the most common NDA instruments at SRS

  15. Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    1997-01-01

    A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility's nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities

  16. Nondestructive Assay Data Integration with the SKB-50 Assemblies - FY16 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph; Fugate, Michael Lynn; Trellue, Holly Renee; DeBaere, Paul; Sjoland, Anders; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Hu, Jianwei; Backstrom, Ulrika; Bengtsson, Martin; Burr, Tomas; Eliasson, Annika; Favalli, Andrea; Gauld, Ian; Grogan, Brandon; Jansson, Peter; Junell, Henrik; Schwalbach, Peter; Vaccaro, Stefano; Vo, Duc Ta; Wildestrand, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    A project to research the application of non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent fuel assemblies is underway at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (for which the Swedish acronym is Clab) in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The research goals of this project contain both safeguards and non-safeguards interests. These nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies are designed to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguard inspectors and others to determine the following technical goals more accurately; Verify initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration for spent fuel assemblies; Detect replaced or missing pins from a given spent fuel assembly to confirm its integrity; and Estimate plutonium mass and related plutonium and uranium fissile mass parameters in spent fuel assemblies. Estimate heat content, and measure reactivity (multiplication).

  17. Nondestructive Assay Data Integration with the SKB-50 Assemblies - FY16 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeBaere, Paul [DG Energy, Luxembourg (Germany); Sjoland, Anders [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Backstrom, Ulrika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bengtsson, Martin [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Burr, Tomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Eliasson, Annika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gauld, Ian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Grogan, Brandon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Junell, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Schwalbach, Peter [DG Energy, Luxembourg (Germany); Vaccaro, Stefano [DG Energy, Luxembourg (Germany); Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wildestrand, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-10-28

    A project to research the application of non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent fuel assemblies is underway at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (for which the Swedish acronym is Clab) in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The research goals of this project contain both safeguards and non-safeguards interests. These nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies are designed to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguard inspectors and others to determine the following technical goals more accurately; Verify initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration for spent fuel assemblies; Detect replaced or missing pins from a given spent fuel assembly to confirm its integrity; and Estimate plutonium mass and related plutonium and uranium fissile mass parameters in spent fuel assemblies. Estimate heat content, and measure reactivity (multiplication).

  18. Non destructive assay techniques applied to nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nondestructive assay is a suite of techniques that has matured and become precise, easily implementable, and remotely usable. These techniques provide elaborate safeguards of nuclear material by providing the necessary information for materials accounting. NDA techniques are ubiquitous, reliable, essentially tamper proof, and simple to use. They make the world a safer place to live in, and they make nuclear energy viable. (author)

  19. Selection of non-destructive assay methods: Neutron counting or calorimetric assay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, T.L.; Wachter, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to D ampersand D has lead to more measurements of product, waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. Some of these materials are difficult to analyze by either neutron counting or calorimetric assay. To determine the most efficacious analysis method, variety of materials, impure salts and hydrofluorination residues have been assayed by both calorimetric assay and neutron counting. New data will be presented together with a review of published data. The precision and accuracy of these measurements are compared to chemistry values and are reported. The contribution of the gamma ray isotopic determination measurement to the overall error of the calorimetric assay or neutron assay is examined and discussed. Other factors affecting selection of the most appropriate non-destructive assay method are listed and considered

  20. Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

  1. Nondestructive hall coefficient measurements using ACPD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2018-04-01

    Hall coefficient measurements offer great opportunities as well as major challenges for nondestructive materials characterization. The Hall effect is produced by the magnetic Lorentz force acting on moving charge carriers in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The magnetic perturbation gives rise to a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution. Therefore, Hall coefficient measurements usually exploit the so-called transverse galvanomagnetic potential drop effect that arises when the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen and thereby produce a measurable potential drop. In contrast, no Hall potential is produced in a large plate in the presence of a uniform normal field at quasi-static low frequencies. In other words, conventional Hall coefficient measurements are inherently destructive since they require cutting the material under tests. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop (ACPD) techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurements in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies, constraining the bias magnetic field can replace constraining the dimensions of the specimen, which is inherently destructive. For example, when a cylindrical permanent magnet is used to provide the bias magnetic field, the peak Hall voltage is produced when the diameter of the magnet is equal to the diagonal of the square ACPD probe. Although this method is less effective than cutting the specimen to a finite size, the loss of sensitivity is less than one order of magnitude even at very low frequencies. In contrast, at sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a

  2. Experience of developing an integrated nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Baker, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A consortium of laboratories is collaborating with the Savannah River Plant to develop an integrated system of state-of-the-art nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation to provide nuclear materials accounting and process control information for a new plutonium scrap recovery facility. Individual instruments report assay results to an instrument control computer (ICC); the ICC, in turn, is part of a larger computer network that includes computers that perform process control and materials accounting functions. The design of the integrated NDA measurement system is shown. Each NDA instrument that is part of the integrated system is microcomputer-based and thus is capable of stand-alone operation if the central computer is out of service. Certain hardware features, such as microcomputers, pulse processing modules, and multichannel analyzers, are standardized throughout the system. Another standard feature is the communication between individual NDA instruments and the ICC. The most unique phase of the project is the integral staging. The primary purpose of this phase is to check the communications between various computers and to verify the ICC software during the operation of the NDA instruments. Implementing this integrated system in a process environment represents a major step in realizing the full capabilities of modern NDA instrumentation

  3. Use of neutron-capture plastic fibers for nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, A.S.; Grazioso, R.F.; Mayo, D.R.; Ensslin, N.; Miller, M.C.; Huang, H.Y.; Russo, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron-capture plastic fibers can be used as a nondestructive assay tool. The detectors consist of an active region assembled from ribbons of boron-( 10 B) loaded optical fibers. The mixture of the moderator and thermal neutron absorber in the fiber yields a detector with high efficiency (var-epsilon) and a short die-away time (τ). The deposited energy of the resultant charged particles is converted to light that is collected by photomultiplier tubes mounted at both ends of the fiber. Thermal neutron coincidence counters (TNCC) made of these fibers can serve to verify fissile materials generated from the nuclear fuel cycle. This type of detector may extend the range of materials now accessible to assay by 3 He detectors. Experiments with single fibers of diameters 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mm test their ability to distinguish between the signals generated from neutron interactions and those from gamma rays. These results are compared with those obtained from simulation analyses for the same purpose. Light output and attenuation, neutron detection efficiency, and the signal-to-noise ratios of these fibers have also been investigated. The experimental results for light attenuation and neutron detection efficiency are consistent with the values obtained from simulation studies. A comparison of the performance of various configurations of the plastic scintillating fibers with that of other neutron-capture devices such as 3 He detectors is also discussed

  4. Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later

  5. Performance in the WIPP nondestructive assay performance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, C.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Connolly, M.J.; Becker, G.K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Measurement facilities performing nondestructive assay (NDA) of wastes intended for disposal at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are required to demonstrate their ability to meet specific Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). This demonstration is performed, in part, by participation in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP is funded and managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) of DOE and is conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It tests the characteristics of precision, system bias and/or total uncertainty through the measurement of variable, blind combinations of simulated waste drums and certified radioactive standards. Each facility must successfully participate in the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP was completed in July 1996 and the second is scheduled for completion by December 1996. Seven sites reported data in cycle 1 for 11 different measurement systems. This paper describes the design and operation of the PDP and provides the performance data from cycle 1. It also describes the preliminary results from cycle 2 and updates the status and future plans for the NDA PDP. 4 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Feasibility of nondestructive assay measurements in uranium enrichment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.B.

    1978-04-01

    Applications of nondestructive assay methods to measurement problems in uranium enrichment facilities are reviewed. The results of a number of test and evaluation projects that were performed over the last decade at ORGDP and Portsmouth are presented. Measurements of the residual holdup in the top enrichment portion of the shut-down K-25 cascade were made with portable neutron and gamma-ray detectors, and inventory estimates based on these data were in good agreement with ORGDP estimates. In the operating cascade, the tests showed that portable NaI detectors are effective for monitoring NaF and alumina media for gaseous effluent traps and that gas phase enrichments and inventories, as well as large deposits of uranium, can be detected with portable neutron and gamma-ray instrumentation. A wide variety of scrap and waste materials, including barrier and compressor blades, incinerator ash and trapping media, and miscellaneous waste, were measured using passive gamma-ray and neutron methods and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. Methods developed for rapid verification of UF/sub 6/ in shipping containers with portable neutron and gamma-ray instruments are now used routinely by safeguards inspectors. Passive assay methods can also be used to measure continuously the enrichments of /sup 235/U and /sup 234/U in the UF/sub 6/ product and tails withdrawals of a gaseous diffusion plant. A system that was developed and installed in the extended-range product withdrawal station of the Portsmouth facility measures enrichment with a relative accuracy of 0.5%. A stand-alone neutron detector has also been successfully evaluated for the measurement of the isotopic abundance of /sup 234/U in UF/sub 6/ in sample cylinders, an application of potential importance to Minor Isotope Safeguards Technology. Recommendations are made on the role of NDA measurements for enrichment plant safeguards, including additional tests and evaluations that may be needed, particularly for advanced uranium

  7. Nondestructive assay technology and in-plant dynamic materials control: ''DYMAC''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppin, G.R.; Maraman, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced system of in-plant materials control known as DYMAC, Dynamic Materials Control, is being developed. This major safeguards R and D effort merges state-of-the-art nondestructive assay instrumentation and computer technology, with the clear objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent, real time control of nuclear materials in a modern plutonium processing facility. Emphasis is placed on developing practical solutions to generic problems of materials measurement and control, so that resulting safeguards techniques and instrumentation will have widespread applicability throughout the nuclear community. (auth)

  8. Standard guide for the selection, training and qualification of nondestructive assay (NDA) personnel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide contains good practices for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of personnel performing analysis, calibration, physical measurements, or data review using nondestructive assay equipment, methods, results, or techniques. The guide also covers NDA personnel involved with NDA equipment setup, selection, diagnosis, troubleshooting, or repair. Selection, training, and qualification programs based on this guide are intended to provide assurance that NDA personnel are qualified to perform their jobs competently. This guide presents a series of options but does not recommend a specific course of action.

  9. Development of hotcell non-destructive examination techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Uhn; Yu, S. C.; Kang, B. S.; Byun, K. S. [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to establish non-destructive examination techniques which needs to determine the status of spent nuclear fuel and/or bundles. Through the project, we will establish an image reconstruction tomography which is a kind of non-destructive techniques in Hotcell. The tomography technique can be used to identify the 2-dimensional density distribution of fission products in the spent fuel rods and/or bundles. And form results of the measurement and analysis of magnetic properties of neutron irradiated material in the press vessel and reactor, we will develop some techniques to test its hardness and defects. In 2001, the first year, we have established mathematical background and necessary data and informations to develop the techniques. We will try to find some experimental results that are necessary in developing the Hotcell non-destructive examination techniques in the coming year. 14 refs., 65 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  10. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs

  12. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-01-01

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ( 3 H, 3 He, 239 Pu, 241 Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO 2 and UO 2 systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of 1 H NMR detection of H 2 O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96

  13. Commissioning of calorimeter in radiochemical laboratory for non-destructive assay of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, S.; Mhatre, A.M.; Agarwal, C.; Chaudhury, S.; Pujari, P.K.

    2017-01-01

    Accounting of special nuclear materials (SNM) in every stages of nuclear fuel cycle is a necessity where one needs the quantitative estimation of SNM in variety of samples like sealed containers or finished products without altering its physical and chemical form. Non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques are capable of assaying such samples by the way of measuring passive/active neutrons/gamma rays or by the measurement of decay heat. Radiochemistry Division has been actively involved in the development and deployment of various NDA methodologies for meeting the demand of nuclear material accounting as and when required. Recently a radiometric calorimeter, developed by Reactor Control Division, E and I Group, BARC, has been installed in Lab C-33, Radiochemistry Division

  14. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  15. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates

  16. Applying thermal neutron radiography to non-destructive assays of dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, Maria I.; Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Goncalves, Marcelo J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic processes or systems frequently can not have their behavior directly analyzed due to safety reasons or because they require destructive assays, which can not be always afforded when high-cost equipment, devices and components are involved. Under these circumstances, some kind of non-destructive technique should be applied to preserve the safety of the personnel performing the assay, as well as the integrity of the piece being inspected. Thermal neutrons are specially suited as a tool for this purpose, thanks to their capability to pass through metallic materials, which could be utterly opaque to X-rays. This paper describes the accomplishments achieved at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear / CNEN, Brazil, aiming at the development of an Image Acquisition System capable to perform non-destructive assays using thermal neutrons. It is comprised of a thermal neutron source provided by the Argonauta research reactor, a converter-scintillating screen, and a CCD-based video camera optically coupled to the screen through a dark chamber equipped with a mirror. The developed system has been used to acquire 2D neutron radiographic images of static devices to reveal their inner structure, as well as movies of running systems and working devices to verify its functioning and soundness. Radiographic images of objects taken at different angles would be later on used as projections to retrieve - through a proper unfolding software - their 3D images expressed as attenuation coefficients for thermal neutrons. A quantitative performance of the system has been assessed through its Modulation Transfer Function - MTF. In order to determine this curve, unique collimators designed to simulate different spatial frequencies have been manufactured. Besides that, images of some objects have been acquired with the system being developed as well as using the conventional radiographic film, allowing thus a qualitative comparison between them. (author)

  17. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  18. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards

  19. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurement of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, we have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. We therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  1. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of radioactive material by tomographic gamma scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma ray emitting radionuclides inside containers using tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify the radionuclides of interest. The attenuation of an external gamma ray transmission source is used to correct the measurement of the emission gamma rays from radionuclides to arrive at a quantitative determination of the radionuclides present in the item. 1.2 The TGS technique covered by the test method may be used to assay scrap or waste material in cans or drums in the 1 to 500 litre volume range. Other items may be assayed as well. 1.3 The test method will cover two implementations of the TGS procedure: (1) Isotope Specific Calibration that uses standards of known radionuclide masses (or activities) to determine system response in a mass (or activity) versus corrected count rate calibration, that applies to only those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Respo...

  2. Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques. 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of radiation technology, including non-destructive testing (NDT), through activities such as Technical Cooperation Projects (national and regional) and Coordinated Research Projects. Through this cooperation, Member States have initiated national programmes for the training and certification of NDT personnel. National certifying bodies have also been established based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. As part of these efforts, the IAEA has been actively involved in developing training materials. Consequently, IAEA-TECDOC-407, Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques, was published in 1987, then revised and expanded as IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991. Revisions of IAEA-TECDOC-628 were considered essential to meet the demands of end-user industries in Member States, and revised and expanded versions were issued in 2002 and 2008. These latter versions included work conducted by the International Committee for Non-Destructive Testing (ICNDT) and many national NDT societies. It is one of the publications referred to in ISO 9712:2005, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel, which in turn is an internationally accepted standard, revised as ISO 9712:2012, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel. This publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The content of which has been revised following the changes of ISO 9712 converging with EN 473 and becoming EN ISO 9712:2012, based on the experience of experts and comments from end-user industries. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the respective methods. The incorporated changes will assist the end-user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes and course materials. This publication, like the previous versions, will continue to play an important role in international harmonization

  3. A 252Cf based nondestructive assay system for fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Crane, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    A modulated 252 Cf source assay system 'Shuffler' based on fast-or-thermal-neutron interrogation combined with delayed-neutron counting has been developed for the assay of fissile material. The 252 Cf neutron source is repetitively transferred from the interrogation position to a shielded position while the delayed neutrons are counted in a high efficiency 3 He neutron well-counter. For samples containing plutonium, this well-counter is also used in the passive coincidence mode to assay the effective 240 Pu content. The design of an optimized neutron tailoring assembly for fast-neutron interrogation using a Monte Carlo Neutron Computer Code is described. The Shuffler system has been applied to the assay of fuel pellets, inventory samples, irradiated fuel and plutonium mixed-oxide fuel. The system can assay samples with fissile contents from a few milligrams up to several kilograms using thermal-neutron interrogation for the low mass samples and fast-neutron interrogation for the high mass samples. Samples containing 235 U- 238 U, or 233 U-Th, or UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel mixtures have been assayed with the Shuffler system. (Auth.)

  4. Gamma ray scanner systems for nondestructive assay of heterogeneous waste barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Decman, B.J.; Roberson, G.P.; Levai, F.

    1997-01-01

    Traditional gamma safeguards measurements have usually been performed using a segmented gamma scanning (SGS) system. The accuracy of this technique relies on the assumption that the sample matrix and the activity are both uniform for a segment. Waste barrels are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of composition and matrix type. The primary sources of error are all directly or indirectly related to a non-uniform measurement response associated with unknown radioactive source spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the matrix. These errors can be significantly reduced by some imaging techniques that measure exact spatial locations of sources and attenuation maps. In this paper we describe a joint R ampersand D effort between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Institute of Nuclear Techniques (INT) of the Technical University, Budapest, to compare results obtained by two different gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) systems used for imaging waste barrels. The basic principles are the same, but the approaches are different. Key factors to judge the adequacy of a method are the detection limit and the accuracy. Test drums representing waste to be measured are used to determine basic parameters of these techniques

  5. Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft 3 boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites

  6. Nondestructive techniques for the control of conditioned radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delprato, U.

    1987-01-01

    The final product of the radwaste conditioning process must satisfy certain requirments and physico-chemical properties in order to assure its safe long-term behaviour. Of course, the foreseen quality assurance and quality control should be conducted by means of non-destructive techniques. This work presents an over-view of various applicable non-destructive methods of analysis, showing their fields of investigation in testing waste packages, together with some arising practical problems. The most promising methods, such as eddy current testing, ultrasonic testing, γ-scanning, γ-spectroscopy, neutron counting and computerized tomography, are treated more deeply and some applications are presented. Particular attention is devoted to the development of a device based on computerized tomography; its essential components are reported and some design problems are also discussed

  7. Guidance on meeting DOE order requirements for traceable nondestructive assay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Purpose of this guide is to facilitate accuracy and precision of nondestructive assay measurements through improvement of the materials and process of traceability. This document provides DOE and its contractor facilities with guidance to establish traceability to the national measurement base for site-prepared NDA working reference materials

  8. NDA [nondestructive assay] training for new IAEA inspectors at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Reilly, T.D.; Belew, W.; Woelfl, E.; Fager, J.

    1987-01-01

    The history of the evolution of nondestructive assay (NDA) training for international inspectors at Los Alamos is described. The current NDA training course for International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors is presented in terms of structure, content, and rationale. Results of inspector measurement exercises are given along with projections for future developments in NDA inspector training. 3 refs

  9. Reference materials for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material. Volume 1. Uranium oxide plus graphite powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Likes, R.N.; Parker, J.L.; Smith, H.A.

    1983-10-01

    This manual describes the fabrication of reference materials for use in gamma-ray-based nondestructive assay of low-density uranium-bearing samples. The sample containers are 2-l bottles. The reference materials consist of small amounts of UO 2 spread throughout a graphite matrix. The 235 U content ranges from 0 to 100 g. The manual also describes the far-field assay procedure used with low-resolution detectors

  10. Portable calorimeter system for nondestructive assay of mixed-oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    Calorimetric assay provides a precise, nondestructive method to determine sample Pu content based on the heat emitted by decaying radionuclides. This measurement, in combination with a gamma-spectrometer analysis of sample isotopic content, yields the total sample Pu mass. The technique is applicable to sealed containers and is essentially independent of sample matrix configuration and elemental composition. Conventional calorimeter designs employ large water-bath heat sinks and lack the portability needed by inspection personnel. The ANL air-chamber isothermal calorimeters are low-thermal-capacitance devices which eliminate the need for large constant-temperature heat sinks. These instruments are designed to use a feedback system that applies power to maintain the sample chamber at a constant electrical resistance and, therefore, at a constant temperature. The applied-power difference between a Pu-containing sample and a blank determines the radioactive-decay power. The operating characteristics of a calorimeter designed for assaying mixed-oxide powders, fuel pellets, and Pu-containing solutions are discussed. This device consists of the calorimeter, sample preheatr, and a microprocessor-controlled data-acquisition system. The small-sample device weighs 18 kg and has a measurement cycle of 20 min, with a precision of 0.1% at 10 mW. A 100-min gamma-ray measurement gives the specific power with a precision of better than 1% for samples containing 1 to 2 g of plutonium

  11. Bremsstrahlung-induced highly penetrating probes for nondestructive assay and defect analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Selim, F A; Harmon, J F; Kwofie, J; Spaulding, R; Erickson, G; Roney, T

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive assay and defect analysis probes based on bremsstrahlung-induced processes have been developed to identify elements and probe defects in large volume samples. Bremsstrahlung beams from (electron accelerators) with end-point energies both above and below neutron emission threshold have been used. Below neutron emission threshold these beams (from 6 MeV small pulsed linacs), which exhibit high penetration, create positrons via pair production inside the material and produce X-ray fluorescence (XRF) radiation. Chemical assays of heavy elements in thick samples up to 10 g/cm sup 2 thick are provided by energy dispersive XRF measurements. The pair-produced positrons annihilate within the material, thereby emitting 511 keV gamma radiation. Doppler broadening spectroscopy of the 511 keV radiation can be performed to characterize the material and measure defects in samples of any desired thickness. This technique has successfully measured induced strain due to tensile stress in steel samples of 0.64 cm...

  12. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Connolly, M.; McIlwain, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types

  13. Techniques involving extreme environment, nondestructive techniques, computer methods in metals research, and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A number of different techniques which range over several different aspects of materials research are covered in this volume. They are concerned with property evaluation of 4 0 K and below, surface characterization, coating techniques, techniques for the fabrication of composite materials, computer methods, data evaluation and analysis, statistical design of experiments and non-destructive test techniques. Topics covered in this part include internal friction measurements; nondestructive testing techniques; statistical design of experiments and regression analysis in metallurgical research; and measurement of surfaces of engineering materials

  14. Design of an integrated non-destructive plutonium assay facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy requires improved technology for nuclear materials accounting as an essential part of new plutonium processing facilities. New facilities are being constructed at the Savannah River Plant by the Du Pont Company, Operating Contractor, to recover plutonium from scrap and waste material generated at SRP and other DOE contract processing facilities. This paper covers design concepts and planning required to incorporate state-of-the-art plutonium assay instruments developed at several national laboratories into an integrated, at-line nuclear material accounting facility operating in the production area. 3 figures

  15. Operational experience in the non-destructive assay of fissile material in General Electric's nuclear fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Operational experience in the non-destructive assay of fissile material in a variety of forms and containers and incorporation of the assay devices into the accountability measurement system for General Electric's Wilmington Fuel Fabrication Facility measurement control programme is detailed. Description of the purpose and related operational requirements of each non-destructive assay system is also included. In addition, the accountability data acquisition and processing system is described in relation to its interaction with the various non-destructive assay devices and scales used for accountability purposes within the facility. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Kalman filters and genetic algorithms for delayed-neutron nondestructive assay data analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Forsmann, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to nondestructively determine the presence and quantity of fissile/fertile nuclei in various matrices is important in several areas of nuclear applications, including international and domestic safeguards, radioactive waste characterization, and nuclear facility operations. An analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of identifying the masses of individual fissionable isotopes from a cumulative delayed-neutron signal resulting form the neutron irradiation of several uranium and plutonium isotopes. The feasibility of two separate data-processing techniques was studied: Kalman filtering and genetic algorithms. The basis of each technique is reviewed, and the structure of the algorithms as applied to the delayed-neutron analysis problem is presented. The results of parametric studies performed using several variants of the algorithms are presented. The effect of including additional constraining information such as additional measurements and known relative isotopic concentration is discussed. The parametric studies were conducted using simulated delayed-neutron data representative of the cumulative delayed-neutron response following irradiation of a sample containing 238 U, 235 U, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu. The results show that by processing delayed-neutron data representative of two significantly different fissile/fertile fission ratios, both Kalman filters and genetic algorithms are capable of yielding reasonably accurate estimates of the mass of individual isotopes contained in a given assay sample

  17. Isotope techniques in non-destructive testing of dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gursharan; Pant, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    A few applications of gamma scanning and radiotracer techniques for Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of dynamic systems in chemical and petrochemical industries are briefly discussed in this paper. Examples of gamma scanning inspections carried out for troubleshooting of various types of columns such as vacuum, extraction, separator and rectifier, with trays and packed beds and having diameters from 1 meter to 8.4 meters are given. Radiotracer applications for Residence Time Distribution (RTD) studies on different systems like an aniline production reactor in a chemical industry and a laboratory scale solid-liquid fluidized bed column are mentioned. (author)

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of reinforced plastics by a radiometric measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, Gerald; Afshari, Sia; Verlinden, Matt

    1990-01-01

    The demand for new high-performance plastics has greatly increased with advances in the performance characteristics of sophisticated reinforced engineering resins. However, conventional methods for the evaluation of the glass and filler contents of reinforced plastics are destructive, labor intensive, and time consuming. We have developed a new instrument, to address this problem, which provides for the rapid, accurate, and nondestructive measurement of glass or filler content in reinforced plastics. This instrument utilizes radiation transmission and scattering techniques for analytical measurement of glass, graphite and other fillers used in reinforced plastics. (author)

  19. Nondestructive assay of subassemblies of various spent or fresh fuels by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.L.; Ricker, C.W.; Chiles, M.M.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Slaughter, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies show that subassemblies containing various spent fuels could be assayed rapidly and accurately by a nondestructive assay system using active neutron interrogation and prompt-neutron detection. Subassembly penetration is achieved by 24-keV (Sb--Be) interrogation neutrons; the spent-fuel neutron background is overridden by using strong interrogating sources and prompt-neutron signals, and background gammas are absorbed by lead. Experiments have demonstrated the potential for assaying with better than 5% accuracy, three spent plutonium-fueled subassemblies per hour. Calculations, validated by experiments, predict even better performance for fresh or uranium-fueled subassemblies; several performance estimates are given

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barker, Alan M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Albright, Austin P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  1. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed

  2. Statistical signal processing and artificial intelligence applications in the nondestructive assay of U/Pu bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Forsmann, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Over the years a number of techniques have been developed to determine the quantity and distribution of radiative isotopes contained in given assay samples through the measurement and analysis of penetrating characteristic radiations. An active technique of particular utility when assaying samples containing very small quantities of fissionable material or when high gamma ray backgrounds are encountered is the delayed neutron nondestructive assay (DN-NDA) technique. Typically, analysis of the delayed neutron signal involves relating the gross delayed neutron count observed following neutron irradiation of an assay sample to total fissionable material present via a linear calibration curve. In this way, the technique is capable of yielding the mass of a single dominant fissionable isotope or the total fissionable mass contained in a sample. Using this approach the only way to determine the mass of individual fissionable isotopes contained in a sample is to correlate total fissionable mass to individual isotopics via calculations or other means, yielding an indirect measure of isotopics. However, there is isotope specific information in the temporal delayed neutron signal due to differences in the delayed neutron precursor yields resulting from the fissioning of different isotopes. The authors present the results of an analysis to evaluate the feasibility of using Kalman filters and genetic algorithms to determine multiple specific fissionable isotopic masses contained in an assay sample from a cumulative delayed neutron signal measured following neutron irradiation of the sample

  3. Application of positron annihilation techniques in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Hui; Chen Zhiqiang; Jiang Jing; Xue Xudong; Wu Yichu; Liang Jianping; Liu Xiangbing; Wang Rongshan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The investigation of the material damage state is very important for industrial application. Most mechanical damage starts with a change in the microstructure of the material. Positron annihilation techniques are very sensitive probes for detecting defects and damage on an atomic scale in materials, which are of great concern in the engineering applications. Additionally they are apparatus of non-destruction, high-sensitivity and easy-use. Purpose: Our goal is to develop a system to exploit new non-destructive testing (NDT) methods using positron annihilation spectroscopy, a powerful tool to detect vacancy-type defects and their chemical environment. Methods: A positron NDT system was designed and constructed by modifying the 'sandwich structure' of sample-source-sample in conventional Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectrometers. Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectra of a single sample can be measured and analyzed by subtracting the contribution of a reference sample. Results: The feasibility and reliability of positron NDT system have been tested by analyzing nondestructively deformation and damage caused by mechanical treatment or by irradiation of metal alloys. This system can be used for detecting defects and damage in thick or large-size samples, as well as for measuring the two-dimension distribution of defects in portable, sensitive, fast way. Conclusion: Positron NDT measurement shows changes in real atomic-scale defects prior to changes in the mechanical properties, which are detectable by other methods of NDT, such as ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. This system can be developed for use in both the laboratory and field in the future. (authors)

  4. Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

    1991-09-01

    Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF 6 with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % 235 U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab

  5. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  6. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  7. HPAT: A nondestructive analysis technique for plutonium and uranium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Mattia, B.; Zeppa, P.; Pagliai, V.; Frazzoli, F.V.

    1989-03-01

    Two experimental approaches for the nondestructive characterization of mixed solutions of plutonium and uranium, developed at BNEA - C.R.E. Casaccia, with the goal of measuring low plutonium concentration (<50 g/l) even in presence of high uranium content, are described in the following. Both methods are referred to as HPAT (Hybrid Passive-Active Technique) since they rely on the measurement of plutonium spontaneous emission in the LX-rays energy region as well as the transmission of KX photons from the fluorescence induced by a radioisotopic source on a suitable target. Experimental campaigns for the characterization of both techniques have been carried out at EUREX Plant Laboratories (C.R.E. Saluggia) and at Plutonium Plant Laboratories (C.R.E. Casaccia). Experimental results and theoretical value of the errors are reported. (author)

  8. Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe automated and integrated NDA systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the DOE complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and MOX fuel programs. These systems are typified by the ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) nondestructive assay system which is under construction at Los Alamos to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system

  9. Integrated nondestructive assay solutions for plutonium measurement problems of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    The authors describe automated and integrated nondestructive assay (NDA) systems configured to measure many of the materials that will be found in the Department of Energy complex in the dismantlement, disposition, residue stabilization, immobilization, and mixed oxide fuel programs. These systems are typified by the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System NDA system which is under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure the outputs of a weapon component dismantlement system

  10. Nonlinear Wave Mixing Technique for Nondestructive Assessment of Infrastructure Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Taeho

    To operate safely, structures and components need to be inspected or monitored either periodically or in real time for potential failure. For this purpose, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used extensively. Most of these ultrasonic NDE techniques utilize only the linear behavior of the ultrasound. These linear techniques are effective in detecting discontinuities in materials such as cracks, voids, interfaces, inclusions, etc. However, in many engineering materials, it is the accumulation of microdamage that leads to degradation and eventual failure of a component. Unfortunately, it is difficult for linear ultrasonic NDE techniques to characterize or quantify such damage. On the other hand, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (ANLP) of a material is often positively correlated with such damage in a material. Thus, nonlinear ultrasonic NDE methods have been used in recently years to characterize cumulative damage such as fatigue in metallic materials, aging in polymeric materials, and degradation of cement-based materials due to chemical reactions. In this thesis, we focus on developing a suit of novel nonlinear ultrasonic NDE techniques based on the interactions of nonlinear ultrasonic waves, namely wave mixing. First, a noncollinear wave mixing technique is developed to detect localized damage in a homogeneous material by using a pair of noncollinear a longitudinal wave (L-wave) and a shear wave (S-wave). This pair of incident waves make it possible to conduct NDE from a single side of the component, a condition that is often encountered in practical applications. The proposed noncollinear wave mixing technique is verified experimentally by carrying out measurements on aluminum alloy (AA 6061) samples. Numerical simulations using the Finite Element Method (FEM) are also conducted to further demonstrate the potential of the proposed technique to detect localized damage in structural components. Second, the aforementioned nonlinear

  11. A maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm for tomographic gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Estep, R.J.; Cole, R.A.; Sheppard, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new tomographic reconstruction algorithm for nondestructive assay with high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy (HRGS) is presented. The reconstruction problem is formulated using a maximum-likelihood approach in which the statistical structure of both the gross and continuum measurements used to determine the full-energy response in HRGS is precisely modeled. An accelerated expectation-maximization algorithm is used to determine the optimal solution. The algorithm is applied to safeguards and environmental assays of large samples (for example, 55-gal. drums) in which high continuum levels caused by Compton scattering are routinely encountered. Details of the implementation of the algorithm and a comparative study of the algorithm's performance are presented

  12. Conceptual design of the special nuclear material nondestructive assay and accountability system for the HTGR fuel refabrication pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.D.; McNeany, S.R.; Rushton, J.E.

    1975-07-01

    The conceptual design of the fissile material assay and accountability system for the HTGR refabrication pilot plant has been established. The primary feature affecting the design is the high, time varying, gamma activity of the process material due to the unavoidable presence of uranium-232. This imposes stringent requirements for remote operation and remote maintainability of system components. At the same time, the remote operation lends itself to implementation of an automated data collection and processing system for real-time accountability. The high time-varying gamma activity of the material also precludes application of a number of techniques presently employed for light-water reactor fuel assay. The techniques selected for application in the refabrication facility are (1) active thermal neutron interrogation with fast-fission or delayed-neutron counting for fuel-rod and small-sample assay, (2) calorimetry for high-level waste assay, and (3) passive gamma scanning for low-level waste assay, and rapid on-line relative rod-loading measurements. The principal nondestructive assay subsystems are identified as (1) on-line devices for 100 percent product fuel rod assay and quality control, (2) a multipurpose device in the sample inspection laboratory for small- sample assay and secondary standards calibration, and (3) equipment for assay of high- and low-uranium content scrap and waste materials. A data processing system, which coordinates data from these subsystems with information from other process control sensors, is included to provide real-time material balance information. (U.S.)

  13. System for nondestructive assay of spent fuel subassemblies: comparison of calculations and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.L; Ricker, C.W.; Chiles, M.M.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Slaughter, G.G.; Williams, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    A nondestructive assay system was developed for determining the total fissile content of spent fuel subassemblies at the head end of a reprocessing plant. The system can perform an assay in 20 min with an uncertainty of <5%. Antimony-beryllium neutrons interrogate the subassemblies, and proton recoil counters detect the resulting fission neutrons. Pulse-height discrimination differentiates between the low-energy interrogation neutrons and the higher-energy fission neutrons. Calculated and measured results were compared for (1) interrogation-neutron penetrability, (2) fission-neutron detectability, (3) radial variation of assay sensitivity, (4) axial variation of assay sensitivity, and (5) the variation of detector count rate as a function of the number of fuel rods in a special 61-rod, LMFBR-type subassembly

  14. Non-destructive technique to verify clearance of pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savidou Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical, non-destructive technique to evaluate the activity of gamma ray emitters in contaminated pipes is discussed. The technique is based on in-situ measurements by a portable NaI gamma ray spectrometer. The efficiency of the detector for the pipe and detector configuration was evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations performed using the MCNP code. Gamma ray detector full-energy peak efficiency was predicted assuming a homogeneous activity distribution over the internal surface of the pipe for 344 keV, 614 keV, 662 keV, and 1332 keV photons, representing Eu-152, Ag-118m, Cs-137, and Co-60 contamination, respectively. The effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was also examined. The model was validated against experimental measurements performed using a Cs-137 volume calibration source representing a contaminated pipe and good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results. The technique represents a sensitive and cost-effective technology for calibrating portable gamma ray spectrometry systems and can be applied in a range of radiation protection and waste management applications.

  15. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Hunt, Alan W.; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather

    2015-01-01

    High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-energy delayed gamma rays from 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241 Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239 Pu. The 241 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235 U data set. De-convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-rate LaBr 3 detectors was investigated as a potential alternative to HPGe detectors. Modeling capabilities were added to an

  16. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  17. Nondestructive assay of spent fuel rods from a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessler, G.; Beaudoin, B.R.; Beggs, W.J.; Freeman, L.B.; Schick, W.C. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    A gauge, called the Production Irradiated Fuel Assay Gauge (PIFAG), has been developed and utilized to measure, nondestructively, the fissile fuel content of spent fuel rods from the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core. The PIFAG was in operation from November 1983 to May 1987. During this period, assay data were obtained for two irradiated test rods used for initial qualification of the gauge and 524 spent LWBR core rods. A review of PIFAG operations is given, including hot cell operations, calibration, assay operations, and methods used to monitor the data quality and verify the precision and accuracy of the data. The analytical model used to determine the core rod fissile fuel content from the data and the results for the 524 LWBR spent fuel rods are given

  18. Survey of EEC solid waste arisings and performance of non-destructive assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, W.B.; Adaway, D.W.; Yates, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the work carried out during an one-year contract which surveyed the radioactive solid waste arisings in EEC Member States and also tabulated information on the performance of the non-destructive assay (NDA) system used. The work was jointly carried out with CEA partners at Cadarache and Paris. The tabulated data give information on types, packaging, associated activity, and NDA capability of the utilities or research organisations. Some short comings in NDA capabilities are identified and possible solutions are given

  19. Selected nondestructive assay instrumentation for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Baker, M.P.; Strittmatter, R.; Jain, M.; Evans, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A selected set of nondestructive assay instruments for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants is currently under development. These instruments are of three types: in-line enrichment meters for feed, product, and tails streams; area radiation monitors for direct detection of high-enriched uranium production, and an enrichment meter for spent alumina trap material. The current status of the development of each of these instruments is discussed, with supporting data, as well as the role each would play in a total international safeguards system. 5 figures

  20. Nondestructive characterization of metal-matrix-composites by ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    1992-01-01

    Nondestructive characterizations using ultrasonic technique were conducted systematically on Al 2 O 3 short fiber reinforced pure Al and AC8A aluminium metal-matrix composites. In order to determine the elastic moduli of metal-matrix composites(MMCs), Al 2 O 3 /AC8A composites with volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 short fiber varying up to 30% were fabricated by squeeze casting technique. Pure Al and AC8A reinforced with Al 2 O 3 short fiber were also fabricated by changing the fabrication parameters such as the applied pressure, the volume fraction of fiber. The Influences of texture change associated with change of fabrication parameters were investigated using the sophisticated LFB acoustic microscope with the frequency of 225 MHz. Ultrasonic velocities of longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves of the composites were measured by pulse-echo method and line-focus-beam(LBF) acoustic microscope. Ultrasonic velocities of the longitudinal, the shear and Rayleigh waves were found to correlate primarily with the volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 . The elastic constants of composites including Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, Bulk Modulus and Poisson's ratio were determined on the basis of the longitudinal and the shear wave velocities measured by an ultrasonic pulse-echo method. The Young's Modulus of the composites obtained by ultrasonic technique were slightly lower than those measured by 4-point-bend test and also showed relatively good agreements with the calculated results derived from the equal stress condition. The applicability of LFB acoustic microscope on material characterization of the MMCs was discussed on the basis of the relationships between Rayleigh wave velocity as a function of rotated angle of specimen and fabrication parameters of the MMCs.

  1. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques. 2002 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a dynamic technology and progresses with time. Since the issuance of IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991, the technology has experienced numerous changes. Advancements in knowledge about the behaviour of materials have led to changes in the applicable NDT codes, standards and specifications. In addition, over the last ten years, as a result of extensive research and development activities worldwide, new NDT techniques and equipment have been developed which are accepted by engineering community. To accommodate the latest developments, modifications are required to training materials. The present publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The modifications were made during an Advisory Group Meeting, held in Vienna from 25-29 June 2001. The content of the first edition of IAEA-TECDOC-628 has been revised based on the experience of the experts, as well as comments of the end-user industries. The time allotment for different topics has been changed without changing the total duration. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the individual fields. The incorporated changes will help end-the user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes, and course material

  2. Complex Archaeological Prospection Using Combination of Non-destructive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnová, M.; Pavelka, K.; Nový, P.; Šedina, J.

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the use of a combination of non-destructive techniques for the complex documentation of a fabulous historical site called Devil's Furrow, an unusual linear formation lying in the landscape of central Bohemia. In spite of many efforts towards interpretation of the formation, its original form and purpose have not yet been explained in a satisfactory manner. The study focuses on the northern part of the furrow which appears to be a dissimilar element within the scope of the whole Devil's Furrow. This article presents detailed description of relics of the formation based on historical map searches and modern investigation methods including airborne laser scanning, aerial photogrammetry (based on airplane and RPAS) and ground-penetrating radar. Airborne laser scanning data and aerial orthoimages acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre were used. Other measurements were conducted by our laboratory. Data acquired by various methods provide sufficient information to determine the probable original shape of the formation and proves explicitly the anthropological origin of the northern part of the formation (around village Lipany).

  3. Complex Archaeological Prospection Using Combination of Non-destructive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faltýnová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the use of a combination of non-destructive techniques for the complex documentation of a fabulous historical site called Devil’s Furrow, an unusual linear formation lying in the landscape of central Bohemia. In spite of many efforts towards interpretation of the formation, its original form and purpose have not yet been explained in a satisfactory manner. The study focuses on the northern part of the furrow which appears to be a dissimilar element within the scope of the whole Devil’s Furrow. This article presents detailed description of relics of the formation based on historical map searches and modern investigation methods including airborne laser scanning, aerial photogrammetry (based on airplane and RPAS and ground-penetrating radar. Airborne laser scanning data and aerial orthoimages acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre were used. Other measurements were conducted by our laboratory. Data acquired by various methods provide sufficient information to determine the probable original shape of the formation and proves explicitly the anthropological origin of the northern part of the formation (around village Lipany.

  4. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-6, Radiography Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains radiographic inspection as a means of nondestructively examining components, assemblies, structures, and fabricated piping. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  5. A study of the effect of measurement error in predictor variables in nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, Tom L.; Knepper, Paula L.

    2000-01-01

    It is not widely known that ordinary least squares estimates exhibit bias if there are errors in the predictor variables. For example, enrichment measurements are often fit to two predictors: Poisson-distributed count rates in the region of interest and in the background. Both count rates have at least random variation due to counting statistics. Therefore, the parameter estimates will be biased. In this case, the effect of bias is a minor issue because there is almost no interest in the parameters themselves. Instead, the parameters will be used to convert count rates into estimated enrichment. In other cases, this bias source is potentially more important. For example, in tomographic gamma scanning, there is an emission stage which depends on predictors (the 'system matrix') that are estimated with error during the transmission stage. In this paper, we provide background information for the impact and treatment of errors in predictors, present results of candidate methods of compensating for the effect, review some of the nondestructive assay situations where errors in predictors occurs, and provide guidance for when errors in predictors should be considered in nondestructive assay

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage

  7. Innovative Applications of In Situ Gamma Spectroscopy for Non-destructive Assay of Transuranic Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, D.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Duke, S.J.; Nicosia, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Cabrera Services (CABRERA), under contract to National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), supported the transuranic (TRU) waste reduction initiative at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CABRERA developed advanced NDA techniques for oversized boxes (OSB) and drums using in situ gamma spectroscopy during several phases of the project. A more thorough characterization method was employed during the planning phase of the project to better understand the TRU content and distribution within each container, while a comprehensive NDA program was designed and implemented during the intrusive phase that guided waste segregation and re-packaging of both TRU and low-level wastes (LLW). NSTec took receipt of 58 oversized boxes of suspect TRU waste from Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). TRU waste is defined as greater than 3.7 kilobecquerels per gram [kBq/g] (100 nanocuries (nCi)/g) activity from alpha-emitting radionuclides with atomic number greater than 92 having a half-life greater than 20 years. Each box was custom-made to house a variety of suspect TRU wastes resulting from years of weapons program research, development, and testing. Since their arrival at NTS, the boxes have undergone several iterations of non-destructive assay (NDA) in preparation for the comprehensive repackaging effort. NDA has included two rounds of in situ gamma spectroscopy and real-time radiography (RTR) scans that were videotaped. Contents have been confirmed to include glove boxes, HEPA filters and their housings, and assorted process equipment and piping. TRU content was determined via directly measuring plutonium-239 (Pu-239), americium-241 (Am-241), and other radionuclides, while adding calculated results for non-measurable nuclides using reliable scaling factors developed from acceptable knowledge (AK). Advantages of CABRERA's NDA methods included: - More NDA information is available in the same amount of counting time, allowing NSTec to make more

  8. Non-destructive isotopic uranium assay by multiple delayed neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, N.N.; Tsagas, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    The high accuracy and precision required in nuclear safeguards measurements can be achieved by an improved neutron activation technique based on multiple delayed fission neutron counting under various experimental conditions. For the necessary ultrahigh counting statistics required, cyclic activation of multiple subsamples has been applied. The home-made automated flexible analytical system with neutron flux and spectrum differentiation by irradiation position adjustment and cadmium screening, permits the non-destructive determination of the U235 abundance and the total U element concentration needed in nuclear safeguards sample analysis, with a high throughout and a low operational cost. Careful experimental optimization led to considerable improvement of the results

  9. Design of an electron-accelerator-driven compact neutron source for non-destructive assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, A.; Ikeda, S.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2017-09-01

    The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism remains one of the greatest challenges to international security, and the threat is constantly evolving. In order to prevent nuclear terrorism, it is important to avoid unlawful import of nuclear materials, such as uranium and plutonium. Development of technologies for non-destructive measurement, detection and recognition of nuclear materials is essential for control at national borders. At Tokyo Institute of Technology, a compact neutron source system driven by an electron-accelerator has been designed for non-destructive assay (NDA). This system is composed of a combination of an S-band (2.856 GHz) RF-gun, a tungsten target to produce photons by bremsstrahlung, a beryllium target, which is suitable for use in generating neutrons because of the low threshold energy of photonuclear reactions, and a moderator to thermalize the fast neutrons. The advantage of this system can accelerate a short pulse beam with a pulse width less than 1 μs which is difficult to produce by neutron generators. The amounts of photons and neutron produced by electron beams were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS 2.82. When the RF-gun is operated with an average electron beam current of 0.1 mA, it is expected that the neutron intensities are 1.19 × 109 n/s and 9.94 × 109 n/s for incident electron beam energies of 5 MeV and 10 MeV, respectively.

  10. Quality Assistance Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Word Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOE/WIPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed

  11. Non-destructive techniques in the conservation field in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta de Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive evaluation techniques are extensively used in the field of architectural heritage conservation in the United States. This paper outlines the most used techniques, classifying them in visual assessment techniques, and techniques based on wave propagation. Depending on the type of wave, the latter group is subdivided in electromagnetic and acoustic techniques. The final section includes a two nondestructive techniques facilitators: unmanned aerial vehicles and Tablet PC Annotation System.

  12. Automated nondestructive assay system for the measurement of irradiated Rover fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustson, R.H.; Menlove, H.O.; Smith, D.B.; Bond, A.L.; Durrill, D.C.; Hollowell, W.P.; Bromley, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    With the termination of the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion (Rover) Program, and associated reactor testing at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS), Nevada, plans are progressing to recover the 93 percent enriched uranium contained in irradiated fuel from twenty various test reactors. This fuel is being packaged into 7-cm-dia by 137-cm-long cardboard tubes, using the remote handling facilities (E-MAD Bldg) of NRDS. After packaging, the fuel is shipped to Allied Chemical Corporation, Idaho Falls, Idaho, for uranium recovery. About 4000 tubes will be needed to package and ship the inventory of fuel elements presently at NRDS. This represents a total of approximately 2500 kg of enriched uranium. To complete the accounting records each tube is being nondestructively assayed and records kept on a reactor-by-reactor basis where possible. The assayed values for a reactor are then compared with original input inventory values and discrepancies resolved. The tubes are being assayed by an active neutron interrogation system designed and fabricated by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and operated by Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory (WANL)-Nevada Operations personnel. WANL is the operating contractor in charge of loading and shipping this fuel. (U.S.)

  13. Radioactive wastes assay technique and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Hong, D. S; Kim, T. K.; Bae, S. M.; Shon, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment

  14. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  15. Non-destructive analysis of archaeological bronzes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respaldiza, M.A.; Gomez-Tubio, B.M.; Sanchez del Junco, A.; Barranco, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies a method for overcoming the difficulty of corroded surfaces by means of nondestructive nuclear methods in the determination of the composition of archaeological bronzes. It consists of the combination of PIXE or XRF information with Gamma Ray Transmission (GRT) data. A wide range applicability of this combined method is established by comparison with profiles of concentrations along the bronzes' patina obtained by SEM-EDAX. (orig.)

  16. Non-destructive assay of leached hulls in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Henderson, B.C.; Gray, J.H.; Huff, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The hull monitor at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) will be a remotely controlled, fully automated system designed to quantitatively assay leached hulls for undissolved U and Pu. The hull monitor will assay the hulls from one metric ton of fuel per dissolver basket with the design goal of detecting 0.1% undissolved fuel and yet remain within the framework of the BNFP materials flow of five hull baskets per day. The non-destructive assay will be accomplished using a computer-based gamma-ray pulse height analysis system employing a 5 x 5 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The intense radiations from the fission product isotopes and the activation product isotopes produced in the reactor prevent direct assay of the undissolved fuel left in the hulls. The measurement will be made indirectly by demonstrating a correlation between the amount of 144 Ce undissolved and the remaining U. The isotope 144 Ce is a direct fission product with high cumulative yield. The daughter isotope 144 Pr has a gamma ray at 2.18 MeV well above other predominant radiations in the spectrum from the major interferences 60 Co, 58 Co, 95 Zr( 95 Nb), 137 Cs and 106 Ru( 106 Rh). Segmented scanning operation of the hull monitor is accomplished by rotation and vertical transversal of the hulls container past the detector station. Proper collimation and absorbers are required to maximize the 144 Ce( 144 Pr) to background ratio. A basket indexer is provided which monitors the scanning rate and ensures repositioning. The leached hull monitor system will be interfaced to a computer-based multichannel analyzer for ease of operation and data handling. A calibration basket has been fabricated to accomodate radioactive sources and inactive Zircaloy hulls

  17. Evaluation of three gentamicin serum assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, G.R.; Gwizdala, C.; Wery, J.; Ferry, D.; Starnes, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation was designed to compare the enzyme-modified immunoassay (Syva--EMIT) with a radioimmunoassay (New England Nuclear--RIA) and the radiometric assay (Johnston--BACTEC) to determine the optimal assay for use in our aminoglycoside dosing service. The serum concentration determinations obtained via the three assay methods were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Significant positive correlations were noted between the three assay techniques (p less than 0.005) during both sample collection phases. The coefficients of determination for EMIT vs BACTEC and RIA vs BACTEC were 0.73 and 0.83 during phase 1, respectively, and 0.65 and 0.68 during phase 2, respectively. The slope of the regression lines also varied markedly during the two phases; 0.49 and 0.42 for EMIT and for RIA vs BACTEC, respectively, during phase 1 compound with 1.12 and 0.77, respectively, during phase 2. The differences noted in these relationships during phase 1 and 2 may be related to the alteration of the pH of the control sera utilized in the BACTEC assay. In contrast, RIA vs EMIT regression analysis indicated that existence of a highly significant relationship (p less than 0.0005 and r2 . 0.90). The EMIT technique was the easiest and most accurate for determination of serum gentamicin concentrations, whereas the BACTEC method was judged unacceptable for clinical use

  18. National seminar on non-destructive evaluation techniques: proceedings cum souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, N.G.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Purushotham, D.S.C.

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the National Seminar on Non-Destructive Evaluation Techniques held at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai during December 8-9, 1994. The papers covered a wide spectrum of non-destructive evaluation activities including that for quality assurance of various nuclear components and structures with the focal theme being computerization and robotics. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. An integrated approach for determining plutonium mass in spent fuel assemblies with nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Fensin, Mike L.; Menlove, Howard O.

    2009-01-01

    be part of a system that cost-effectively meets the burnup credit needs of a repository. Behind each of these reasons is a regulatory structure with MC and A requirements. In the case of the IAEA, the accountable quantity is elemental plutonium. The material in spent fuel (fissile isotopes, fission products, etc.) emits signatures that provide information about the content and history of the fuel. A variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available to quantify these signatures. The effort presented in this paper is investigation of the capabilities of 12 NDA techniques. For these 12, none is conceptually capable of independently determining the Pu content in a spent fuel assembly while at the same time being able to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of rods. For this reason the authors are investigating the capability of 12 NDA techniques with the end goal of integrating a few techniques together into a system that is capable of measuring Pu mass in an assembly. The work described here is the beginning of what is anticipated to be a five year effort: (1) two years of modeling to select the best technologies, (2) one year fabricating instruments and (3) two years measuring spent fuel. This paper describes the first two years of this work. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of the 12 NDA techniques, an 'assembly library' was created. The library contains the following: (a) A diverse range of PWR spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future. (b) Diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options. (c) The spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. It is our intention to make this library available to other researchers in the field for inter-comparison purposes. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full

  20. Performance values of nondestructive analysis techniques in safeguards and nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardini, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques have, in the past few years, become more and more important in nuclear material accountancy and control. This is essentially due to two reasons: (1) The improvements made in most NDA techniques led some of them to have performances close to destructive analysis (DA) (e.g., calorimetry and gamma spectrometry). (2) The parallel improvement of statistical tools and procedural inspection approaches led to abandoning the following scheme: (a) NDA for semiqualitative or consistency checks only (b) DA for quantitative measurements. As a consequence, NDA is now frequently used in scenarios that involve quantitative (by variable) analysis. On the other hand, it also became evident that the performances of some techniques were different depending on whether they were applied in the laboratory or in the field. It has only recently been realized that, generally speaking, this is due to objective reasons rather than to an incorrect application of the instruments. Speaking of claimed and actual status of NDA performances might be in this sense misleading; one should rather say: performances in different conditions. This paper provides support for this assumption

  1. A new facility for non-destructive assay using a 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Hao, Xin; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viesti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new laboratory facility for non-destructive analysis (NDA) using a time-tagged 252 Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 20×25 cm 2 , the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously total and energy dependent transmission of neutrons and gamma rays. The equipment technical characteristics and performances of the NDA system are presented, exploring also limits due to the sample thickness. Some recent applications in the field of cultural heritage are presented. - Highlights: ► Tagged 252 Cf source setup. ► Material recognition and sample imaging with measurements of gamma ray and neutron transmission. ► Material identification via energy dependent neutron and gamma ray transmission measurements. ► Identification of layered material. ► Effects due to the sample thickness on the above identification techniques

  2. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    With the conclusion in 1979 of a successful Agency executed UNDP project in Argentina, whose aim was the establishment of a national non-destructive testing centre, the Agency was asked by other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean Region to evaluate the possibility of transferring this success to the whole region. In 1982, with the financial cooperation of UNFSSTD and UNIDO, a regional project was started with the principal objective of assisting the countries in the region to reinforce autonomous NDT capability through regional cooperation. One essential component of this project has been the harmonization of training through the development and use of course syllabi by the 17 countries now participating in the project. To this end, a Regional Working Group was formed and one of its tasks is the development of these syllabi for the more common NDT methods. This publication is a collection of the training programmes elaborated to date which have so far been followed by some 10,000 persons in the region who have received training in NDT as a direct result of the project. These syllabi take into account the development work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing and many national training programmes, and are meant to be an objective guide to assist in the formation of NDT personnel

  3. The states of the art of the nondestructive assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. A critical review of the Spent Fuel NDA Project of the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolind, Alan Michael; Seya, Michio

    2015-12-01

    The state of the art of the nondestructive assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies is represented by the results of the Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration. This report surveys the fourteen advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques that were examined by the NGSI. For each technique, it explains how the technique operates, the NGSI's design of an instrument that uses the technique, how the data are analyzed, and the technique's chief limitations. After this survey of the NDA techniques, the report then discusses and critiques the current paradigm of the practice of NDA of spent fuel assemblies. It shows how the current main problem in the NDA of spent fuel assemblies—namely, an unacceptably large uncertainty in the assay results—is caused primarily by using too few independent NDA measurements. Because the physics of the NDA of spent fuel assemblies is three dimensional, at least three independent NDA measurements are required. Thus, NDA results should be able to be improved dramatically by combining the fourteen advanced NDA techniques plus other existing NDA techniques into appropriate combinations of three techniques. This report evaluates the NGSI's proposed NDA combinations according to these principles. (author)

  4. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required

  5. Statistical uncertainties of nondestructive assay for spent nuclear fuel by using nuclear resonance fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki, E-mail: shizuma.toshiyuki@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hayakawa, Takehito; Angell, Christopher T.; Hajima, Ryoichi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Minato, Futoshi; Suyama, Kenya [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Seya, Michio [Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1198 (Japan); Johnson, Micah S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave. Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 9519 (United States); McNabb, Dennis P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave. Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2014-02-11

    We estimated statistical uncertainties of a nondestructive assay system using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) for spent nuclear fuel including low-concentrations of actinide nuclei with an intense, mono-energetic photon beam. Background counts from radioactive materials inside the spent fuel were calculated with the ORIGEN2.2-UPJ burn-up computer code. Coherent scattering contribution associated with Rayleigh, nuclear Thomson, and Delbrück scattering was also considered. The energy of the coherent scattering overlaps with that of NRF transitions to the ground state. Here, we propose to measure NRF transitions to the first excited state to avoid the coherent scattering contribution. Assuming that the total NRF cross-sections are in the range of 3–100 eV b at excitation energies of 2.25, 3.5, and 5 MeV, statistical uncertainties of the NRF measurement were estimated. We concluded that it is possible to assay 1% actinide content in the spent fuel with 2.2–3.2% statistical precision during 4000 s measurement time for the total integrated cross-section of 30 eV b at excitation energies of 3.5–5 MeV by using a photon beam with an intensity of 10{sup 6} photons/s/eV. We also examined both the experimental and theoretical NRF cross-sections for actinide nuclei. The calculation based on the quasi-particle random phase approximation suggests the existence of strong magnetic dipole resonances at excitation energies ranging from 2 to 6 MeV with the scattering cross-sections of tens eV b around 5 MeV in {sup 238}U.

  6. Development of a Nondestructive Evaluation Technique for Degraded Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shoji, T.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been widely used in gas turbine engines in order to protect substrate metal alloy against high temperature and to enhance turbine efficiency. Currently, there are no reliable nondestructive techniques available to monitor TBC integrity over lifetime of the coating. Hence, to detect top coating (TC) and TGO thicknesses, a microwave nondestructive technique that utilizes a rectangular waveguide was developed. The phase of the reflection coefficient at the interface of TC and waveguide varies for different TGO and TC thicknesses. Therefore, measuring the phase of the reflection coefficient enables us to accurately calculate these thicknesses. Finally, a theoretical analysis was used to evaluate the reliability of the experimental results.

  7. Review of Micro/Nano Nondestructive Evaluation Technique (II): Measurement of Acoustic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Seok; Park, Ik Keun

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews the micro and nano nondestructive evaluation(NDE) technique that is possible to investigate the surface and measure the acoustic properties. The technical theory, features and applications of the ultrasonic atomic force microscopy(UAFM) and scanning acoustic microscopy(SAM) are illustrated. Especially, these technologies are possible to evaluate the mechanical properties in micro/nano structure and surface through the measurement of acoustic properties in addition to the observation of surface and subsurface. Consequently, it is thought that technique developments and applications of these micro/nano NDE in advanced industrial parts together with present nondestructive industry are widely possible hereafter.

  8. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques: 2008 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-628/Rev.1 and provides the basic syllabus for systems for training and certification programmes of non-destructive testing (NDT) personnel in accordance with the requirements of international standard ISO 9712 (2005). The training guidelines developed to date have been used by Member States in formulating their national NDT programmes and to provide local end user industries with a skilled workforce. The present publication accommodates the latest advancements in technology and will continue to play an important role towards international harmonization in the field of NDT. This publication contains a body of knowledge for non-destructive testing. It was developed to provide guidelines for trainers, training organizations and certification bodies, detailing the subject matter and the content for each level of certification. It is general in nature but the contents of the training should be adapted to the needs, procedures, materials and products of the customer. The recommended training hours are consistent with the edition of the standard ISO 9712 in effect at the time of preparation. All formal training described in this publication contains a theoretical portion and a practical portion. Guidance is included on the range of equipment and materials needed for instruction in each method. There is a common core of material that is required by level 3 personnel in every method. This common material has been removed from the content for the particular method and included as a separate section. All training should end with an examination and can lead to a certification. Examination and certification are not covered by this publication, but detailed information about this can be found in ISO 9712. This publication is applicable for the following methods: eddy current testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. NDT methods are now widely used in civil engineering

  9. The role of Monte Carlo burnup calculations in quantifying plutonium mass in spent fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Jack D.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Trellue, Holly R.; Fensin, Michael L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiate (NGSI) of the United States Department of Energy has funded a multi-laboratory/university collaboration to quantify plutonium content in spent fuel (SF) with non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques and quantify the capability of these NDA techniques to detect pin diversions from SF assemblies. The first Monte Carlo based spent fuel library (SFL) developed for the NGSI program contained information for 64 different types of SF assemblies (four initial enrichments, burnups, and cooling times). The maximum amount of fission products allowed to still model a 17x17 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly with four regions per fuel pin was modelled. The number of fission products tracked was limited by the available memory. Studies have since indicated that additional fission product inclusion and asymmetric burning of the assembly is desired. Thus, an updated SFL has been developed using an enhanced version of MCNPX, more powerful computing resources, and the Monte Carlo-based burnup code Monteburns, which links MCNPX to a depletion code and models a representative 1 Division-Slash 8 core geometry containing one region per fuel pin in the assemblies of interest, including a majority of the fission products with available cross sections. Often in safeguards, the limiting factor in the accuracy of NDA instruments is the quality of the working standard used in calibration. In the case of SF this is anticipated to also be true, particularly for several of the neutron techniques. The fissile isotopes of interest are co-mingled with neutron absorbers that alter the measured count rate. This paper will quantify how well working standards can be generated for PWR spent fuel assemblies and also describe the spatial plutonium distribution across an assembly. More specifically we will demonstrate how Monte Carlo gamma measurement simulations and a Monte Carlo burnup code can be used to characterize the emitted gamma

  10. Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 Activities for the Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McMath, Garrett Earl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Grogan, Brandon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-11

    The main focus of research in the NA-241 spent fuel nondestructive assay (NDA) project in FY17 has been completing the fabrication and testing of two prototype instruments for upcoming spent fuel measurements at the Clab interim storage facility in Sweden. One is a passive instrument: Differential Die-away Self Interrogation-Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (DDSI), and one is an active instrument: Differential Die-Away-Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron (DDA). DDSI was fabricated and tested with fresh fuel at Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY15 and FY16, then shipped to Sweden at the beginning of FY17. Research was performed in FY17 to simplify results from the data acquisition system, which is complex because signals from 56 different 3He detectors must be processed using list mode data. The DDA instrument was fabricated at the end of FY16. New high count rate electronics better suited for a spent fuel environment (i.e., KM-200 preamplifiers) were built specifically for this instrument in FY17, and new Tygon tubing to house electrical cables was purchased and installed. Fresh fuel tests using the DDA instrument with numerous configurations of fuel rods containing depleted uranium (DU), low enriched uranium (LEU), and LEU with burnable poisons (Gd) were successfully performed and compared to simulations.1 Additionally, members of the spent fuel NDA project team travelled to Sweden for a “spent fuel characterization and decay heat” workshop involving simulations of spent fuel and analysis of uncertainties in decay heat calculations.

  11. Cryogenic gamma detectors enable direct detection of 236U and minor actinides for non-destructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel Velazquez; Jonathan Dreyer; Drury, O.B.; Friedrich, Stephan; Saleem Salaymeh

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) γ-ray detector with high energy resolution and low Compton background for nondestructive assay (NDA) of a uranium sample from reprocessed nuclear fuel. We show that TES γ-detectors can separate low-energy actinide γ-emissions from the background and nearby lines, even from minor isotopes whose signals are often obscured in NDA with conventional Ge detectors. Superconducting γ-detectors may therefore bridge the gap between high-accuracy destructive assay (DA) and easier-to-use NDA. (author)

  12. An improved technique for non-destructive measurement of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that the standard volume model based on the non-destructive measurement technique meets the requirements for precision in forest surveys. The precision of the standard volume model for L. gmelinii (a coniferous tree) was superior to that of the model for P. tomentosa (a broad-leaved tree). The electronic ...

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-5, Fundamentals of Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fifth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains the radiographic process, from radiation source selection to equipment and specimen selection and arrangement, and film processing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  14. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of green wood using stress wave and transverse vibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya B. Halabe; Gangadhar M. Bidigalu; Hota V.S. GangaRao; Robert J. Ross

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal stress wave and transverse vibration nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques have proven to be accurate means of evaluating the quality of wood based products. Researchers have found strong relationships between stress wave and transverse vibration parameters (e.g., wave velocity and modulus of elasticity predicted using NDT measurements) with the actual...

  16. Portable non-destructive assay methods for screening and segregation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Alan; Jones, Stephanie; Clapham, Martin; Lucero, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Significant cost-savings and operational efficiency may be realised by performing rapid non-destructive classification of radioactive waste at or near its point of retrieval or generation. There is often a need to quickly categorize and segregate bulk containers (drums, crates etc.) into waste streams defined at various boundary levels (based on its radioactive hazard) in order to meet disposal regulations and consignor waste acceptance criteria. Recent improvements in gamma spectroscopy technologies have provided the capability to perform rapid in-situ analysis using portable and hand-held devices such as battery-operated medium and high resolution detectors including lanthanum halide and high purity germanium (HPGe). Instruments and technologies that were previously the domain of complex lab systems are now widely available as touch-screen 'off-the-shelf' units. Despite such advances, the task of waste stream screening and segregation remains a complex exercise requiring a detailed understanding of programmatic requirements and, in particular, the capability to ensure data quality when operating in the field. This is particularly so when surveying historical waste drums and crates containing heterogeneous debris of unknown composition. The most widely used portable assay method is based upon far-field High Resolution Gamma Spectroscopy (HRGS) assay using HPGe detectors together with a well engineered deployment cart (such as the PSC TechniCART TM technology). Hand-held Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors are often also deployed and may also be used to supplement the HPGe measurements in locating hot spots. Portable neutron slab monitors may also be utilised in cases where gamma measurements alone are not suitable. Several case histories are discussed at various sites where this equipment has been used for in-situ characterization of debris waste, sludge, soil, high activity waste, depleted and enriched uranium, heat source and weapons grade plutonium, fission products

  17. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  18. Nondestructive characterization of hydrogen concentration in zircaloy cladding tubes with laser ultrasound technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Che Hua; Lai, Yu An

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a laser ultrasound technique (LUT) for nondestructive characterization of hydrogen concentration (HC) in Zircaloy cladding tubes. With the LUT, guided ultrasonic waves are generated remotely and then propagate in the axial direction of Zircaloy tubes, and finally detected remotely by an optical probe. By measuring the dispersion spectra with the LUT, relations between the dispersion spectra and the HC of the Zircaloy tubes can be established. The LUT is non-contact, capable of remote inspection, and therefore suitable for nondestructive inspection of HC in Zircaloy cladding tubes used in nuclear power plant.

  19. Evaluation of corrosion of prestressing steel in concrete using non-destructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.G.; Maddocks, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Use of high strength steel in pre-stressed concrete structures has been in use in Australia for many decades. Highway bridges, among other structures, have extensively used pre-stress-ing and post-tensioning techniques. Although prestressing offers many competitive edges to it's traditional rival reinforced concrete, the consequence of damage to prestressing tendons could be catastrophic. Periodic visual inspections of prestressed concrete bridges throughout the world have demonstrated the growing problem of deterioration of prestressing steel as a result of corrosion. Early detection of damage to prestressing steel therefore is of paramount importance. Unfortunately no reliable and practical non-destructive evaluation technique has been available for assessing the condition of prestressing steel within concrete although a number of techniques appear promising. The following inspection methods have been highlighted in recent literature for their use as non-destructive inspection methods for prestressed concrete structures. In addition to the techniques discussed, a number of destructive, or invasive techniques also exist for determination of the corrosion status of prestressing tendons in prestressed structures. The following non-destructive techniques are discussed in some detail: Radiography; Computed Tomography; Surface Penetrating Radar; Impact Echo; Acoustic Emission Monitoring; Magnetic Field Disturbance Technique; Remnant Magnetism Method; Linear Polarisation Method; Electrical Resistance and Surface Potential Survey. The portability, limitations and use in Australia of these techniques are summarised in a table

  20. APNEA/WIT system nondestructive assay capability evaluation plan for select accessibly stored INEL RWMC waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1997-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research Inc. (BIR) and Lockheed Martin Speciality Components (LMSC) are engaged in a Program Research and Development Agreement and a Rapid Commercialization Initiative with the Department of Energy, EM-50. The agreement required BIR and LMSC to develop a data interpretation method that merges nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination (NDA/NDE) data and information sufficient to establish compliance with applicable National TRU Program (Program) waste characterization requirements and associated quality assurance performance criteria. This effort required an objective demonstration of the BIR and LMSC waste characterization systems in their standalone and integrated configurations. The goal of the test plan is to provide a mechanism from which evidence can be derived to substantiate nondestructive assay capability and utility statement for the BIT and LMSC systems. The plan must provide for the acquisition, compilation, and reporting of performance data thereby allowing external independent agencies a basis for an objective evaluation of the standalone BIR and LMSC measurement systems, WIT and APNEA respectively, as well as an expected performance resulting from appropriate integration of the two systems. The evaluation is to be structured such that a statement regarding select INEL RWMC waste forms can be made in terms of compliance with applicable Program requirements and criteria

  1. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  2. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP for boxed waste assay systems. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the boxed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a modified standard waste box (SWB) emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. An SWB is a waste box with ends designed specifically to fit the TRUPACT-II shipping container. SWB's will be used to package a substantial volume of the TRU waste for disposal. These PDP sample components

  3. Nondestructive assay system for use in decommissioning a plutonium-handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Vronich, J.J.; Bellinger, F.O.; Perry, R.B.

    1979-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is decommissioning a facility used to fabricate reactor fuel elements. The equipment is contaminated with alpha emitters at levels up to 10 12 dpm/100 cm 2 . The objective of decontamination is to reduce the TRU concentrations below 10 nCi/g of waste. A portable NDA procedure using NaI(T1) gamma-spectrometric techniques was selected to measure the residual Pu and 241 Am in the glove boxes. Assays were performed at different stages in the decontamination process to estimate the detection system sensitivity and the effectiveness of the cleaning efforts

  4. SQUIDs and inverse problem techniques in nondestructive evaluation of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, A C

    2001-01-01

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices coupled to gradiometers were used to defect flaws in metals. We detected flaws in aluminium samples carrying current, measuring fields at lift-off distances up to one order of magnitude larger than the size of the flaw. Configured as a susceptometer we detected surface-braking flaws in steel samples, measuring the distortion on the applied magnetic field. We also used spatial filtering techniques to enhance the visualization of the magnetic field due to the flaws. In order to assess its severity, we used the generalized inverse method and singular value decomposition to reconstruct small spherical inclusions in steel. In addition, finite elements and optimization techniques were used to image complex shaped flaws.

  5. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  6. OR14-V-Uncertainty-PD2La Uncertainty Quantification for Nuclear Safeguards and Nondestructive Assay Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Andrew D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically provide error bars and also partition total uncertainty into “random” and “systematic” components so that, for example, an error bar can be developed for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed and achievable using modern statistical methods.

  7. Significantly improving nuclear resonance fluorescence non-destructive assay by using the integral resonance transmission method and photofission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, Christopher T.; Hayakawa, Takehito; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive assay (NDA) of 239 Pu in spent nuclear fuel or melted fuel using a γ-ray beam is possible using self absorption and the integral resonance transmission method. The method uses nuclear resonance absorption where resonances in 239 Pu remove photons from the beam, and the selective absorption is detected by measuring the decrease in scattering in a witness target placed in the beam after the fuel, consisting of the isotope of interest, namely 239 Pu. The method is isotope specific, and can use photofission or scattered γ-rays to assay the 239 Pu. It overcomes several problems related to NDA of melted fuel, including the radioactivity of the fuel, and the unknown composition and geometry. This talk will explain the general method, and how photofission can be used to assay specific isotopes, and present example calculations. (author)

  8. Neutron Based Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Measurement Systems for Safeguard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    The objectives of this project are to introduce the assay methods for plutonium measurements using the HLNC; introduce the assay method for bulk uranium measurements using the AWCC; and introduce the assay method for fuel assembly measurements using the UNCL.

  9. A weighted least-squares lump correction algorithm for transmission-corrected gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Sheppard, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    With transmission-corrected gamma-ray nondestructive assay instruments such as the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and the Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) that is currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the amount of gamma-ray emitting material can be underestimated for samples in which the emitting material consists of particles or lumps of highly attenuating material. This problem is encountered in the assay of uranium and plutonium-bearing samples. To correct for this source of bias, we have developed a least-squares algorithm that uses transmission-corrected assay results for several emitted energies and a weighting function to account for statistical uncertainties in the assay results. The variation of effective lump size in the fitted model is parameterized; this allows the correction to be performed for a wide range of lump-size distributions. It may be possible to use the reduced chi-squared value obtained in the fit to identify samples in which assay assumptions have been violated. We found that the algorithm significantly reduced bias in simulated assays and improved SGS assay results for plutonium-bearing samples. Further testing will be conducted with the TGS, which is expected to be less susceptible than the SGS to systematic source of bias

  10. Feasibility Study of Non-Destructive Techniques to Measure Corrosion in SAVY Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Matthew Nicholas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Stainless Steel SAVY containers are used to transport and store nuclear material. They are prone to interior corrosion in the presence of certain chemicals and a low-oxygen environment. SAVY containers also have relatively thin walls to reduce their weight, making their structural integrity more vulnerable to the effects of corrosion. A nondestructive evaluation system that finds and monitors corrosion within containers in use would improve safety conditions and preclude hazards. Non-destructive testing can determine whether oxidation or corrosion is occurring inside the SAVY containers, and there are a variety of non-destructive testing methods that may be viable. The feasibility study described will objectively decide which method best fits the requirements of the facility and the problem. To improve efficiency, the containers cannot be opened during the non-destructive examination. The chosen technique should also be user-friendly and relatively quick to apply. It must also meet facility requirements regarding wireless technology and maintenance. A feasibility study is an objective search for a new technology or product to solve a particular problem. First, the design, technical, and facility feasibility requirements are chosen and ranked in order of importance. Then each technology considered is given a score based upon a standard ranking system. The technology with the highest total score is deemed the best fit for a certain application.

  11. Radiometric measurements on the fabrication of non-destructive assay standards for WIPP-Performance Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Marshall, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The Inorganic Elemental Analysis Group of LANL has prepared several different sets of working reference materials (WRMs). These WRMs are prepared by blending quantities of nuclear materials (plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium) with diatomaceous earth. The blends are encapsulated in stainless steel cylinders. These WRMs are being measured as blind controls in neutron and gamma based non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. Radiometric measurements on the blending homogeneity and verification on a set of sixty three plutonium based WRMs are discussed in this paper

  12. Application of novel hall sensor technique to evaluate internal defect nondestructively in squirrel cage rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myung Ju; Lee, Joon Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Development of Nondestructive Tester for industrial application to detect flaws in aluminum die-casted squirrel case rotor is reported in this paper. Electronic currents are supplied to the end-ring and Hall effect sensors are used to detect the variation of currents which flow in the bar of the rotor. Some signal processing techniques are introduced to classify the signals due to the defects in the bars

  13. A simple nondestructive technique for monitoring the bond gas in sealed fast reactor nuclear fuel pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriwastwa, B B; Mehrotra, R S; Ghosh, J K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiometallurgy Div.

    1994-12-31

    A simple nondestructive testing technique has been developed to identify bond gas inside a welded fuel pin. The technique is based on the accurate surface temperature measurement of fuel pins heated in a constant temperature water bath. This technique can be applied in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) fuel pin production line due to simplicity of the set up, simple operation and quick response time. An attempt was made to develop a non destructive test method for monitoring the bond gas composition. Preliminary development work carried out in this connection, the test method adopted and the test results are presented. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Enhancing the capabilities of eddy current techniques for non-destructive evaluation of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.P.C.; Thirunavukkarasu, S.; Sasi, B.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj

    2010-01-01

    Eddy current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques find many applications during fabrication and in-service inspection of components made of stainless steel. In recent years, concurrent developments in electromagnetic field detection sensors such as giant magneto-resistive (GMR), giant-magneto impedance (GMI) and SQUIDs sensors, computers, microelectronics, and incorporating advanced signal and image processing techniques, have paved the way for enhancing the capabilities of existing eddy current (EC) techniques for examination of austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates, tubes and other geometries and several innovative methodologies have been developed. This paper highlights a few such applications in EC testing to austenitic stainless steel components used in fast reactors. (author)

  15. Quantifying the passive gamma signal from spent nuclear fuel in support of determining the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel with nondestructive assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The objective of safeguarding nuclear material is to deter diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials by timely monitoring and detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel (SF), by means of nondestructive assay (NDA), in order to meet this goal. These motivations include the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguard nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from SF; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium in SF. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of 13 NDA techniques for characterizing Pu mass in spent fuel. This paper focuses on the development of a passive gamma measurement system in support the spent fuel assay system. Gamma ray detection for fresh nuclear fuel focuses on gamma ray emissions that directly coincide with the actinides of interest to the assay. For example, the 186-keV gamma ray is generally used for {sup 235}U assay and the 384-keV complex is generally used for assaying plutonium. In spent nuclear fuel, these signatures cannot be detected as the Compton continuum created from the fission products dominates the signal in this energy range. For SF, the measured gamma signatures from key fission products ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu) are used to ascertain burnup, cooling time, and fissile content information. In this paper the Monte Carlo modeling set-up for a passive gamma spent fuel assay system will be described. The set-up of the system includes a germanium detector and an ion chamber and will be used to gain passive gamma information that will be integrated into a system for determining Pu in SF. The passive gamma signal will be determined from a library of {approx} 100 assemblies that have been

  16. Non-destructive test of lock actuator component using neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliyanti; Setiawan; Sutiarso

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive test of lock actuator using neutron radiography technique has been done. The lock actuator is a mechanical system which is controlled by central lock module consisting of electronic circuit which drives the lock actuator works accordingly to open and lock the vehicle door. The non-destructive test using neutron radiography is carried out to identify the type of defect is presence by comparing between the broken and the brand new one. The method used to test the lock actuator component is film method (direct method). The result show that the radiography procedure has complied with the ASTM standard for neutron radiography with background density of 2.2, 7 lines and 3 holes was seen in the sensitivity indicator (SI) and the quite good image quality was obtained. In the brand new actuator is seen that isolator part which separated the coils has melted. By this non-destructive test using neutron radiography technique is able to detect in early stage the type of component's defect inside the lock actuator without to dismantle it. (author)

  17. Use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition. 17 references, 18 figures, 2 tables

  18. The use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition

  19. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.N.; Narsaiah, K.; Sharma, A.D.; Singh, M.; Bansal, S.; Kumar, R.

    2010-01-01

    The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

  20. Korean round-robin result for new international program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Kim, Jin Gyum; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  1. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reedy, Edward T.E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Seipel, Heather [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    High-­energy, beta-delayed gamma-­ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-­destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-­neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-­energy delayed gamma rays from 235U, 239Pu, and 241Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239Pu. The 241Pu/239Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-­3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-­ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235U data set. De-­convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-­rate LaBr3 detectors

  2. The passive nondestructive assay of the plutonium content of spent-fuel assemblies from the BN-350 fast-breeder reactor in the city of Aqtau, Kazakhstan

    CERN Document Server

    Lestone, J P; Rennie, J A; Sprinkle, J K; Staples, P; Grimm, K N; Hill, R N; Cherradi, I; Islam, N; Koulikov, J; Starovich, Z

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is presently interested in developing equipment and techniques to measure the plutonium content of breeder reactor spent-fuel assemblies located in storage ponds before they are relocated to more secure facilities. We present the first quantitative nondestructive assay of the plutonium content of fast-breeder reactor spent-fuel assemblies while still underwater in their facility storage pond. We have calibrated and installed an underwater neutron coincidence counter (Spent Fuel Coincidence Counter (SFCC)) in the BN-350 reactor spent-fuel pond in Aqtau, Kazakhstan. A procedure has been developed to convert singles and doubles (coincidence) neutron rates observed by the SFCC into the total plutonium content of a given BN-350 spent-fuel assembly. The plutonium content has been successfully determined for spent-fuel assemblies with a contact radiation level as high as approx 10 sup 5 Rads/h. Using limited facility information and multiple measurements along the length of spe...

  3. Non-destructive radiometry inspection technique for locating reinforcements and void/porosity in bridge bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya bin Jafar; Jaafar bin Abdullah; Mohamad Azmi bin Ismail.

    1989-01-01

    Defects detection in bridge bearings is very important in controlling quality and safety. Typical manufacturing defects include misalligned or bent steel plates and the presence of voids/porosity within the rubber. A non-destructive radiometry inspection technique was used to locate steel plates position and the presence of voids/porosity in bridge bearing samples provided by the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia (RRIM). Preliminary studies show that the mentioned defects can readily be determined by this technique. Some of the results are also presented. (author)

  4. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A new facility for non-destructive assay using a 252Cf source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato, L; Caldogno, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Hao, Xin; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Pino, F; Sajo-Bohus, L; Viesti, G

    2013-03-01

    A new laboratory facility for non-destructive analysis (NDA) using a time-tagged (252)Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 20 × 25 cm(2), the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously total and energy dependent transmission of neutrons and gamma rays. The equipment technical characteristics and performances of the NDA system are presented, exploring also limits due to the sample thickness. Some recent applications in the field of cultural heritage are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nondestructive techniques for characterizing mechanical properties of structural materials: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.; Klima, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is presented to indicate the availability and application potentials of techniques for quantitative characterization of the mechanical properties of structural materials. The purpose is to review NDE techniques that go beyond the usual emphasis on flaw detection and characterization. Discussed are current and emerging NDE techniques that can verify and monitor entrinsic properties (e.g., tensile, shear, and yield strengths; fracture toughness, hardness, ductility; elastic moduli) and underlying microstructural and morphological factors. Most of the techniques described are, at present, neither widely applied nor widely accepted in commerce and industry because they are still emerging from the laboratory. The limitations of the techniques may be overcome by advances in applications research and instrumentation technology and perhaps by accommodations for their use in the design of structural parts.

  7. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, D.J.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably

  8. Standard test method for non-destructive assay of nuclear material in waste by passive and active neutron counting using a differential Die-away system

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a system that performs nondestructive assay (NDA) of uranium or plutonium, or both, using the active, differential die-away technique (DDT), and passive neutron coincidence counting. Results from the active and passive measurements are combined to determine the total amount of fissile and spontaneously-fissioning material in drums of scrap or waste. Corrections are made to the measurements for the effects of neutron moderation and absorption, assuming that the effects are averaged over the volume of the drum and that no significant lumps of nuclear material are present. These systems are most widely used to assay low-level and transuranic waste, but may also be used for the measurement of scrap materials. The examples given within this test method are specific to the second-generation Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) passive-active neutron assay system. 1.1.1 In the active mode, the system measures fissile isotopes such as 235U and 239Pu. The neutrons from a pulsed, 14-MeV ne...

  9. Inspection with non destructive assay techniques of the aluminium coating of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes A, A.I.; Gonzalez M, A.; Castaneda J, G.; Rivera M, H.; Sandoval G, I.

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000, the Reactor Department assigned to the Scientific Research Direction of the National Institute of Nuclear Research requested to the Non-destructive Assays Laboratory (LEND), assigned to the Materials Science Management, the inspection and measurement of thickness of the aluminium coating (liner) of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat with non-destructive assay techniques, due to that the aluminium coating is exposed mainly to undergo slimming on its back side due to corrosion phenomena. Activity that was able to be carried out from april until august 2001. It is worth pointing out that this type of inspection with these techniques was realized by first time. The non-destructive assays (NDA) are techniques which use indirect physical methods for inspecting the sanitation of components in process or in service, for detect lack of continuity or defects which affect their quality or usefulness. The application of those do not alter the physical, chemical, mechanical or dimensional properties of the part subject of inspection. The results of the application of the ultrasound inspection techniques, industrial radiography and penetrating liquids are presented. (Author)

  10. Non-destructive high-resolution thermal imaging techniques to evaluate wildlife and delicate biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, C; Franklin, P; Franklin, P; Plowman, A; Sayers, G; Bol, J; Shepard, D; Fields, D

    2009-01-01

    Thermal imaging cameras now allows routine monitoring of dangerous yet endangered wildlife in captivity. This study looks at the potential applications of radiometrically calibrated thermal data to wildlife, as well as providing parameters for future materials applications. We present a non-destructive active testing technique suitable for enhancing imagery contrast of thin or delicate biological specimens yielding improved thermal contrast at room temperature, for analysis of sample thermal properties. A broad spectrum of animals is studied with different textured surfaces, reflective and emissive properties in the infra red part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some surface features offer biomimetic materials design opportunities.

  11. Non-destructive high-resolution thermal imaging techniques to evaluate wildlife and delicate biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavers, C; Franklin, P; Franklin, P; Plowman, A; Sayers, G; Bol, J; Shepard, D; Fields, D, E-mail: brnc-radarcomms1@nrta.mod.u [Sensors Team, Plymouth University at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, Devon (United Kingdom) and Paignton Zoological Park, Paignton, Devon (United Kingdom); Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc., 845 Livernoise St, Ferndale, MI (United States); Buckfast Butterfly and Otter Sanctuary, Buckfast, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Thermal imaging cameras now allows routine monitoring of dangerous yet endangered wildlife in captivity. This study looks at the potential applications of radiometrically calibrated thermal data to wildlife, as well as providing parameters for future materials applications. We present a non-destructive active testing technique suitable for enhancing imagery contrast of thin or delicate biological specimens yielding improved thermal contrast at room temperature, for analysis of sample thermal properties. A broad spectrum of animals is studied with different textured surfaces, reflective and emissive properties in the infra red part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some surface features offer biomimetic materials design opportunities.

  12. Nondestructive assay of TRU waste using gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Decman, D.; Martz, H.; Keto, E.R.; Johansson, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed an active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) scanner for assaying radioactive waste drums. Here they describe the hardware components of their system and the software used for data acquisition, gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, and image reconstruction. They have measured the performance of the system using ''mock'' waste drums and calibrated radioactive sources. They also describe the results of measurements using this system to assay a real TRU waste drum with relatively low Pu content. The results are compared with X-ray NDE studies of the same TRU waste drum as well as assay results from segmented gamma scanner (SGS) measurements

  13. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausová, Ivana [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež 130, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Mizera, Jiří, E-mail: mizera@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež 130, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, V Holešovičkách 41, 182 09 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež 130, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron–electron annihilation line of {sup 18}F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction {sup 19}F(γ, n){sup 18}F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from {sup 45}Ti and {sup 34m}Cl, whereas those from {sup 44}Sc and {sup 89}Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10–100 μg g{sup −1}.

  14. Specific binding assay technique; standardization of reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, K.G.; Roitt, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The standardization of a labelled constituent, such as anti-IgE, for use in a specific binding assay method is disclosed. A labelled ligand, such as IgE, is standardized against a ligand reference substance, such as WHO standard IgE, to determine the weight of IgE protein represented by the labelled ligand. Anti-light chain antibodies are contacted with varying concentrations of the labelled ligand. The ligand is then contacted with the labelled constituent which is then quantitated in relation to the amount of ligand protein present. The preparation of 131 I-labelled IgE is described. Also disclosed is an improved specific binding assay test method for determining the potency of an allergen extract in serum from an allergic individual. The improvement involved using a parallel model system of a second complex which consisted of anti-light chain antibodies, labelled ligand and the standardized labelled constituent (anti-IgE). The amount of standardized labelled constituent bound to the ligand in the first complex was determined, as described above, and the weight of ligand inhibited by addition of soluble allergen was then used as a measure of the potency of the allergen extract. (author)

  15. Nondestructive technique application for corrosion evaluation by hydrogen charging of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Kyung, E-mail: leejink@deu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Dong Su [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Pill; Hwang, Sung Guk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have studied on the nondestructive technique application for corrosion evaluation by hydrogen charging of stainless steel. An ultrasonic test (UT) is an useful method to evaluate the mechanical properties of material. By measuring the velocity and the attenuation of ultrasonic wave propagating the hydrogen charged stainless steel, the relation of ultrasonic wave and mechanical properties of hydrogen charged 316L stainless steel was discussed. However, in order to evaluate the dynamic behavior of materials, an acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to investigate the corrosion characteristics of hydrogen charged specimen. Acoustic emission is one of elastic waves caused by dislocation, cracks initiation and propagation within material from loading outside. The waveform of the acoustic emission is different depending on the damage mechanism of material. Lots of AE parameters such as energy, duration time, event and amplitude were used to analyze the dynamic behavior of the hydrogen charged specimen. • A conventional 316L stainless steel was used in this study, and electrochemical treat system for hydrogen charging of the specimen. ASTM (G142) type tensile specimens (diameter 6.0 mm, gage length 28.6 mm) were prepared, and sulfuric acid(H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and arsenic trioxide(As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were used as the electrolyte, and potentiostat(HA 151) supplied the current to platinum wire and specimen. • Tensile strength and attenuation coefficient has a relation to some extent. Therefore, we could estimate the tensile strength and the hydrogen charging time by measuring the attenuation coefficient using ultrasonic wave nondestructively. • Acoustic emission technique was useful to evaluate the dynamic damage because AE parameters of AE event, average energy and average frequency showed various change by external loading at the specimens with and without hydrogen. - Abstract: Caused corrosion by hydrogen on stainless steel using

  16. Analysis of corrosion-product transport using nondestructive XRF and MS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Sawicki, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the application of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) techniques to monitor corrosion-product transport (CPT) in water circuits of nuclear reactors. The combination of XRF and MS techniques was applied in studies of CPT crud filters from both primary- and secondary-side water circuits (i.e., radioactive and nonradioactive specimens) of CANDU reactors. The XRF-MS method allows nondestructive analysis of species collected on filters and provides more complete information about corrosion products than commonly used digestive methods of chemical analysis. Recent analyses of CPT specimens from the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) primary side and the Bruce B NGS feedwater system are shown as examples. Some characteristics of primary and secondary water circuits are discussed using these new data. (author)

  17. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  18. Opportunities and applications of medical imaging and image processing techniques for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Samuel Moon Ho; Cho, Jung Ho; Son, Sang Rock; Sung, Je Jonng; Ahn, Hyung Keun; Lee, Jeong Soon

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) of structures strives to extract all relevant data regarding the state of the structure without altering its form or properties. The success enjoyed by imaging and image processing technologies in the field of modem medicine forecasts similar success of image processing related techniques both in research and practice of NDT. In this paper, we focus on two particular instances of such applications: a modern vision technique for 3-D profile and shape measurement, and ultrasonic imaging with rendering for 3-D visualization. Ultrasonic imaging of 3-D structures for nondestructive evaluation purposes must provide readily recognizable 3-D images with enough details to clearly show various faults that may or may not be present. As a step towards Improving conspicuity and thus detection of faults, we propose a pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging technique to generate a 3-D image of the 3-D object under evaluation through strategic scanning and processing of the pulse-echo data. This three-dimensional processing and display improves conspicuity of faults and in addition, provides manipulation capabilities, such as pan and rotation of the 3-D structure. As a second application, we consider an image based three-dimensional shape determination system. The shape, and thus the three-dimensional coordinate information of the 3-D object, is determined solely from captured images of the 3-D object from a prescribed set of viewpoints. The approach is based on the shape from silhouette (SFS) technique and the efficacy of the SFS method is tested using a sample data set. This system may be used to visualize the 3-D object efficiently, or to quickly generate initial CAD data for reverse engineering purposes. The proposed system potentially may be used in three dimensional design applications such as 3-D animation and 3-D games.

  19. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  20. Application of optical interferometric techniques for non-destructive evaluation of novel "green" composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, Vito; Russo, Pietro; Bianco, Vittorio; Ferraro, Pietro; Simeoli, Giorgio; Cimino, Francesca; Ruggiero, Berardo

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays the use of advanced composite materials in aeronautics, both civil and military, in automotive and in sport applications, citing some, is well established. The characteristics of composite materials in terms of weight, fatigue resistance and corrosion resistance make them competitive with respect to conventional ones. On the other side, the fabrication process of the most employed composites reinforced by carbon fibers or glass fibers, needs of complex steps that not always are environmental complaisant. Moreover, such fibers are not themselves "green". For these reasons, in the last decades, the use of natural reinforcing fibers has gained an increasing attention allowing the development of new materials with the same advantages of composite systems but respecting the environment. Furthermore, such materials for their structural complexity are not always compatible with the use of standard non-destructive evaluation as the ultrasounds methods. In this work the efficiency of the employment of optical interferometric techniques as nondestructive evaluation methods in full field modality is proved on novel "green" composite materials. In particular, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been tested on different kinds of specimens after flexural tests.

  1. A comparison between destructive and non-destructive techniques in determining coating thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, F. I.; Suryanto; Ani, M. H.; Mahmood, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring coating thickness is an important part in research works related to coating applications. In general, techniques for measuring coating thickness may be divided into destructive and non-destructive methods which are commonly used depending on the applications. The objective of this study is to compare two methods measuring the coating thickness of electroplating copper coating on the austenitic stainless-steel substrate. The electroplating was carried out in a solution containing 200 g/L CuSO4, 100 g/L H2SO4 at room temperature and current of 40mA/cm2 during 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mins as coating periods. And the coating thickness was measured by two methods, cross sectional analysis as a destructive technique and weight gain as a non-destructive technique. The results show that at 20 mins coating time interval, the thickness measured by cross sectional method was 16.67 μm and by weight gain method was 17.37 μm, with difference of 0.7 μm and percentage error of 4.11%. This error increased to 5.27% at 100mins time interval, where the values of the thickness measured by cross sectional and weight gain were 86.33 μm and 81.9 μm respectively, and the difference was 4.43 μm. Moreover, though the weight gain method is fast and gives the indication for the termination of a coating process, information regarding the uniformity, porosity and the presence of cracks cannot be obtained. On the other hand, determining the coating thickness using destructive method will damage the sample.

  2. A technical review of non-destructive assay research for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies being conducted under the US DOE NGSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    There is a growing belief that expansion of nuclear energy generation will be needed in the coming decades as part of a mixed supply chain to meet global energy demand. At stake is the health of the economic engine that delivers human prosperity. As a consequence renewed interest is being paid to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the plutonium it contains. In addition to being an economically valuable resource because it can be used to construct explosive devices, Pu must be placed on an inventory and handled securely. A multiinstitutional team of diverse specialists has been assembled under a project funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to address ways to nondestructively quantify the plutonium content of spent nuclear fuel assemblies, and to also detect the potential diversion of pins from those assemblies. Studies are underway using mostly Monte Carlo tools to assess the feasibility, individual and collective performance capability of some fourteen nondestructive assay methods. Some of the methods are familiar but are being applied in a new way against a challenging target which is being represented with a higher degree of realism in simulation space than has been done before, while other methods are novel. In this work we provide a brief review of the techniques being studied and highlight the main achievements to date. We also draw attention to the deficiencies identified in for example modeling capability and available basic nuclear data. We conclude that this is an exciting time to be working in the NDA field and that much work, both fundamental and applied, remains ahead if we are to advance the state of the practice to meet the challenges posed to domestic and international safeguards by the expansion of nuclear energy together with the emergence of alternative fuel cycles.

  3. A technical review of non-destructive assay research for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies being conducted under the US DOE NGSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, Stephen; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing belief that expansion of nuclear energy generation will be needed in the coming decades as part of a mixed supply chain to meet global energy demand. At stake is the health of the economic engine that delivers human prosperity. As a consequence renewed interest is being paid to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the plutonium it contains. In addition to being an economically valuable resource because it can be used to construct explosive devices, Pu must be placed on an inventory and handled securely. A multiinstitutional team of diverse specialists has been assembled under a project funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to address ways to nondestructively quantify the plutonium content of spent nuclear fuel assemblies, and to also detect the potential diversion of pins from those assemblies. Studies are underway using mostly Monte Carlo tools to assess the feasibility, individual and collective performance capability of some fourteen nondestructive assay methods. Some of the methods are familiar but are being applied in a new way against a challenging target which is being represented with a higher degree of realism in simulation space than has been done before, while other methods are novel. In this work we provide a brief review of the techniques being studied and highlight the main achievements to date. We also draw attention to the deficiencies identified in for example modeling capability and available basic nuclear data. We conclude that this is an exciting time to be working in the NDA field and that much work, both fundamental and applied, remains ahead if we are to advance the state of the practice to meet the challenges posed to domestic and international safeguards by the expansion of nuclear energy together with the emergence of alternative fuel cycles.

  4. Nondestructive assay of plutonium in empty stainless steel boxes by apparent mass method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, C.; Chaudhury, S.; Nathaniel, T.N.; Goswami, A.

    2012-01-01

    Apparent mass method (Venkataraman and Croft, Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 505:527, 2003), initially standardized for the assay of Pu (Agarwal et al., J Nucl Mater 651:386, 2007) has been used to get Pu amount in empty stainless steel boxes generally used for storing and transferring plutonium oxide powders. The results have been compared with the neutron coincidence counting results and have been found to match well. The advantage of the method is that it can be used for any sample with nonstandard geometry and with uncertain source distribution. (author)

  5. Calorimetric systems designed for in-field nondestructive assay of plutonium-bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional calorimetric design measures the temperature rise of a plutonium-containing sample chamber in contact with a large water-bath heat sink. This design lacks the mobility needed by inspection personnel. The Argonne National Laboratory air-chamber isothermal calorimeters are low-thermal capacitance devices which eliminate the need for large, constant-temperature heat sinks. A bulk calorimeter designed to measure sealed containers holding up to 3 kg Pu, and a small-sample calorimeter designed to measure mixed-oxide fuel pellets and powders are discussed. The operational characteristics of these instruments are described, and the results of sample assays are presented

  6. Non-destructive assay of 242Pu by resonance neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, W.R.; Lu, Ming-Shih; Aronson, A.; Forman, L.; Vanier, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    For the accurate assay of plutonium by neutron correlation measurements, especially for material derived from high-burnup reactor fuel, the content of 242 Pu in a sample must be determined. Since 242 Pu has a long half-life (387,000 yr) and decays to 238 U by alpha particle emission with the accompanying emission of only weak, low-energy gamma rays, gamma-ray spectrometry methods which are ordinarily employed to determine the isotopic composition of a plutonium sample are not feasible for 242 Pu. The existence of a resonance in the neutron capture cross section of 242 Pu at an energy of 2.67 electron volts (eV) with a large (72, 000 barn) cross section affords the possibility for the quantitative assay of this isotope by epithermal neutron capture. Essential for this purpose is an appropriately designed geometry of neutron moderators and absorbers which will provide maximum flux in the eV region while suppressing thermal neutron capture by the fissile plutonium isotopes. Signatures for neutron capture in 242 Pu include the decay of 243 Pu (4.9 hr), prompt capture gamma rays (total energy 5.034 MeV), and the decay of an isomeric state (330 nanosecond). Experiments to determine the feasibility of this approach are currently in progress

  7. Onsite nondestructive examination techniques for irradiated water-cooled power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, in response to the recommendations from several Member States, has prepared this Guidebook on Onsite Non-Destructive Techniques for Irradiated Water-Cooled Power Reactor Fuel with the assistance of a number of experts and organizations in this field. During the preparation of this report it became evident that a comparison between different techniques is a most difficult task and depends on a number of factors related to fuel design, plant characteristics and operating conditions. Consequently the emphasis of the report is on the survey of different techniques presently available. It is also to be noted that because the degree of development for any given technique varies significantly among organizations, it is understood that the report should not be used as consensus standard of the minimum capabilities for each class of techniques, nor does it give recommendations in the regulatory sense. Furthermore, the inclusion of some commercial pieces of equipment, services and other products are for illustrative purposes only and neither implies any preference by the Agency nor can the Agency be liable for any material presented in the report

  8. Developing nondestructive techniques for managing conflicts between fisheries and double-crested cormorant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuko; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Courtot, Karen; Collis, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have been identified as the source of significant mortality to juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River Basin. Management plans for reducing the size of a large colony on East Sand Island (OR, USA) in the Columbia River estuary are currently being developed. We evaluated habitat enhancement and social attraction as nondestructive techniques for managing cormorant nesting colonies during 2004–2007. We tested these techniques on unoccupied plots adjacent to the East Sand Island cormorant colony. Cormorants quickly colonized these plots and successfully raised young. Cormorants also were attracted to nest and raised young on similar plots at 2 islands approximately 25 km from East Sand Island; 1 island had a history of successful cormorant nesting whereas the other was a site where cormorants had previously nested unsuccessfully. On a third island with no history of cormorant nesting or nesting attempts, these techniques were unsuccessful at attracting cormorants to nest. Our results suggest that some important factors influencing attraction of nesting cormorants using these techniques include history of cormorant nesting, disturbance, and presence of breeding cormorants nearby. These techniques may be effective in redistributing nesting cormorants away from areas where fish stocks of conservation concern are susceptible to predation, especially if sites with a recent history of cormorant nesting are available within their foraging or dispersal range. Published 2015. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  9. Non-destructive assay of fissile materials by detection and multiplicity analysis of spontaneous neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosdocimi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A method for determining the absolute reaction rate of nuclear events giving rise to neutron emission, according to their neutron multiplicity, is proposed. A typical application is the measurement of the (α, n) and spontaneous fission rates in a fissile material sample, particularly of Pu oxide composition. An analysis of random and correlated neutron pulses is carried out on the basis of sequential order without requiring any time interval analysis, then the primary nuclear events are sorted versus their neutron multiplicity. Suitable theoretical relationships enable to derive the absolute (α, n) and SF reaction rates when the physical parameters of the neutron detector and the multiplicity spectrumm of pulses are known. A typical device is described and the results of experiments leading to Pu-239 and Pu-240 assay are given

  10. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Reedy, Edward T. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Seipel, Heather A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-specific assay concepts including simulation of measurements over many short irradiation/spectroscopy cycles. The code package was benchmarked against the data collected at the IAC for small targets and assembly-scale data collected at LANL. A study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards was performed for a variety of assemblies in the extensive NGSI spent fuel library. The modeling results indicate that delayed gamma-ray responses can be collected from spent fuel assemblies with statistical quality sufficient for analyzing their isotopic composition using a 1011 n/s neutron generator and COTS detector instrumentation.

  11. Sampling methods and non-destructive examination techniques for large radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.H.; Smith, D.L.; Burgoyne, K.E.; Maxwell, D.J.; Norris, G.H.; Billington, D.M.; Pipe, R.G.; Smith, J.E.; Inman, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress is reported on work undertaken to evaluate quality checking methods for radioactive wastes. A sampling rig was designed, fabricated and used to develop techniques for the destructive sampling of cemented simulant waste using remotely operated equipment. An engineered system for the containment of cooling water was designed and manufactured and successfully demonstrated with the drum and coring equipment mounted in both vertical and horizontal orientations. The preferred in-cell orientation was found to be with the drum and coring machinery mounted in a horizontal position. Small powdered samples can be taken from cemented homogeneous waste cores using a hollow drill/vacuum section technique with the preferred subsampling technique being to discard the outer 10 mm layer to obtain a representative sample of the cement core. Cement blends can be dissolved using fusion techniques and the resulting solutions are stable to gelling for periods in excess of one year. Although hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are promising solvents for dissolution of cement blends, the resultant solutions tend to form silicic acid gels. An estimate of the beta-emitter content of cemented waste packages can be obtained by a combination of non-destructive and destructive techniques. The errors will probably be in excess of +/-60 % at the 95 % confidence level. Real-time X-ray video-imaging techniques have been used to analyse drums of uncompressed, hand-compressed, in-drum compacted and high-force compacted (i.e. supercompacted) simulant waste. The results have confirmed the applicability of this technique for NDT of low-level waste. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Development of Techniques for Spent Fuel Assay - Differential Dieaway Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Goodsell, Alison; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Desimone, David J.; Rael, Carlos D.; Henzl, Vladimir; Polk, Paul John

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under a DNDO R&D funded project on the development of the differential dieaway method to measure plutonium in spent fuel. There are large amounts of plutonium that are contained in spent fuel assemblies, and currently there is no way to make quantitative non-destructive assay. This has led NA24 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a multi-year program to investigate, develop and implement measurement techniques for spent fuel. The techniques which are being experimentally tested by the existing NGSI project do not include any pulsed neutron active techniques. The present work covers the active neutron differential dieaway technique and has advanced the state of knowledge of this technique as well as produced a design for a practical active neutron interrogation instrument for spent fuel. Monte Carlo results from the NGSI effort show that much higher accuracy (1-2%) for the Pu content in spent fuel assemblies can be obtained with active neutron interrogation techniques than passive techniques, and this would allow their use for nuclear material accountancy independently of any information from the operator. The main purpose of this work was to develop an active neutron interrogation technique for spent nuclear fuel.

  13. Development of Techniques for Spent Fuel Assay – Differential Dieaway Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodsell, Alison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Iliev, Metodi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rael, Carlos D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Polk, Paul John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-28

    This report summarizes the work done under a DNDO R&D funded project on the development of the differential dieaway method to measure plutonium in spent fuel. There are large amounts of plutonium that are contained in spent fuel assemblies, and currently there is no way to make quantitative non-destructive assay. This has led NA24 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a multi-year program to investigate, develop and implement measurement techniques for spent fuel. The techniques which are being experimentally tested by the existing NGSI project do not include any pulsed neutron active techniques. The present work covers the active neutron differential dieaway technique and has advanced the state of knowledge of this technique as well as produced a design for a practical active neutron interrogation instrument for spent fuel. Monte Carlo results from the NGSI effort show that much higher accuracy (1-2%) for the Pu content in spent fuel assemblies can be obtained with active neutron interrogation techniques than passive techniques, and this would allow their use for nuclear material accountancy independently of any information from the operator. The main purpose of this work was to develop an active neutron interrogation technique for spent nuclear fuel.

  14. A Study on Nondestructive Technique Using Laser Technique for Evaluation of Carbon fiber Reinforced Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Hyun; Seo, Kyeong Cheol; Byun, Joon Hyung

    2005-01-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic material should be inspected in fabrication process in order to enhance quality by prevent defects such as delamination and void. Generally, ultrasonic technique is widely used to evaluate FRP. In conventional ultrasonic techniques, transducer should be contacted on FRP. However, conventional contacting method could not be applied in fabrication process and novel non-contact evaluating technique was required. Laser-based ultrasonic technique was tried to evaluate CFRP plate. Laser-based ultrasonic waves propagated on CFRP were received with various transducers such as accelerometer and AE sensor in order to evaluate the properties of waves due to the variation of frequency. Velocities of laser-based ultrasonic waves were evaluated for various fiber orientation. In addition, laser interferometry was used to receive ultrasonic wave in CFRP and frequency was analysed

  15. Performance values for non destructive assay (NDA) techniques applied to safeguards: the 2002 evaluation by the ESARDA NDA Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardini, S.

    2003-01-01

    The first evaluation of NDA performance values undertaken by the ESARDA Working Group for Standards and Non Destructive Assay Techniques (WGNDA) was published in 1993. Almost 10 years later the Working Group decided to review those values, to report about improvements and to issue new performance values for techniques which were not applied in the early nineties, or were at that time only emerging. Non-Destructive Assay techniques have become more and more important in recent years, and they are used to a large extent in nuclear material accountancy and control both by operators and control authorities. As a consequence, the performance evaluation for NDA techniques is of particular relevance to safeguards authorities in optimising Safeguards operations and reducing costs. Performance values are important also for NMAC regulators, to define detection levels, limits for anomalies, goal quantities and to negotiate basic audit rules. This paper presents the latest evaluation of ESARDA Performance Values (EPVs) for the most common NDA techniques currently used for the assay of nuclear materials for Safeguards purposes. The main topics covered by the document are: techniques for plutonium bearing materials: PuO 2 and MOX; techniques for U-bearing materials; techniques for U and Pu in liquid form; techniques for spent fuel assay. This issue of the performance values is the result of specific international round robin exercises, field measurements and ad hoc experiments, evaluated and discussed in the ESARDA NDA Working Group. (author)

  16. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

  17. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the 239 Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a 239 Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in 239 Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of 239 Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of 238 U and 235 U. This large difference allows small changes in the 239 Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and 239 Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the 239 Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of 239 Pu up to approximately two weight percent

  18. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Reedy, Edward T.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Seipel, Heather A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    This project has been a collaborative effort of researchers from four National Laboratories, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Idaho State University’s (ISU) Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). Experimental measurements at the Oregon State University (OSU) were also supported. The research included two key components, a strong experimental campaign to characterize the delayed gamma-ray signatures of the isotopes of interests and of combined targets, and a closely linked modeling effort to assess system designs and applications. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Detailed signature knowledge is essential for analyzing the capabilities of the delayed gamma technique, optimizing measurement parameters, and specifying neutron source and gamma-ray detection system requirements. The research was divided into three tasks: experimental measurements, characterization of fission yields, and development of analysis methods (task 1), modeling in support of experiment design and analysis and for the assessment of applications (task 2), and high-rate gamma-ray detector studies (task 3).

  19. Ultrasonic C-scan Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Spot Weld Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Gun

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of ultrasonic C-scan technique for nondestructive evaluation of spot weld quality. Ultrasonic evaluation for spot weld quality was performed by immersion method with the mechanical and the electronic scanning of point-focussed ultrasonic beam(25 MHz). For the sake of the approach to the quantitative measurement of nugget diameter and the discrimination of the corona bond from nugget, preliminary infinitesimal gap experiment by newton ring is tried in order to set up the optimum ultrasonic test condition. Ultrasonic image data obtained were confirmed and compared by optical microscope and SAM(Scanning Acoustic Microscope) observation of the spot-weld cross section. The results show that the nugget diameter can be measured with the accuracy of 1.0mm, and voids included in nugget can be detected to 10μm extent with simplicity and accuracy. Finally, it was found that it is necessary to make a profound study of definite discrimination of corona bond from nugget and the approach of quantitative evaluation of nugget diameter by utilizing the various image processing techniques

  20. Review of non-destructive techniques for the quality checking of encapsulated radioactive waste: 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunderson, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for non-destructively evaluating the condition of encapsulated ILW cement/waste monoliths, sealed within a drum, may form one component of a quality checking system. The QCTF have commissioned a wide-ranging survey of techniques that might be applicable to this problem. As a result of previously reported work, high-energy radiography has been identified as being most likely to satisfy the requirements for determining the physical condition of the monolith after encapsulation. Nucleonic methods such as neutron interrogation and high-resolution-spectroscopy can be applied to check on the contents of the drum. Ultrasonic methods were seen to have potential in monitoring the setting and curing processes during the forming of the monolith. The study of various ultrasonic methods for subsequent inspection of sealed drums, ILWRP(85)P27, concluded that they were not likely to be of use for the quality checking process. For completeness, this report covers the remaining techniques that have been considered during the course of the survey, however unlikely their application might be. (author)

  1. First-time observation of Mastro Giorgio masterpieces by means of non-destructive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padeletti, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Bouquillon, A.; Pages-Camagna, S.; Aucouturier, M.; Roehrs, S.; Fermo, P.

    2006-06-01

    For the first time some excellent pieces belonging to the majolica production of the great master Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio (Central Italy) have been characterized from a chemical and structural point of view with the aim to identify the composition of both pigments and lustres. A series of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Raman analyses have been performed on some plates coming from Museo del Palazzo dei Consoli (Gubbio) and several French museums (Louvre, Musée National de la Céramique, Musée National de la Renaissance) lustred by Giorgio Andreoli and decorated by famous majolica painters such as Francesco Xanto Avelli. The three techniques are complementary and useful in the investigation of art objects since they are non-destructive. Furthermore, the low detection limits allow the identification of all elements and compounds present, and RBS allows concentration profiling, too. It is worth noticing that the examined objects are characterized by the presence of both gold and ruby-red lustres, a peculiarity of Mastro Giorgio’s technique. The measurements by PIXE and RBS have been carried out on the AGLAE accelerator at C2RMF, Louvre Palace.

  2. Advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive testing of austenitic and dissimilar welds in nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Homann, Tobias; Mitzscherling, Steffen; Prager, Jens; Pudovikov, Sergey; Schwender, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steel welds as well as dissimilar metal welds with nickel alloy filler material, used in safety relevant parts of nuclear power plants, still challenge the ultrasonic inspection. The weld material forms large oriented grains that lead, on the one hand, to high sound scattering and, on the other hand, to inhomogeneity and to the acoustic anisotropy of the weld structure. The ultrasonic wave fronts do not propagate linearly, as in ferritic weld joints, but along the curves, which depend on the specific grain structure of the weld. Due to the influence of these phenomena, it is difficult to analyze the inspection results and to classify the ultrasonic indications, which could be both from the weld geometry and from the material defects. A correct flaw sizing is not possible. In an ongoing research project, different techniques to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing at these kinds of welds are investigated. In a first step (in the previous research project) two ultrasonic inspection techniques were developed and validated on plane test specimens with artificial and realistic flaws. In the ongoing project, these techniques are applied to circumferential pipe welds with longitudinal and transverse flaws. The technique developed at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Germany uses a combination of ray tracing and synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). To investigate the unknown grain structure, the velocity distribution of weld-transmitting ultrasound waves is measured and used to model the weld by ray tracing. The second technique, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP) in Germany, uses Sampling Phased Array (Full Matrix Capture) combined with the reverse phase matching (RPM) and the gradient elastic constant descent algorithm (GECDM). This inspection method is able to estimate the elastic constants of the columnar grains in the weld and offers an improvement of the

  3. The use of portable Non-Destructive Techniques for material decay characterisation of palaeontological Geosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Ortega-Becerril, Jose A.; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Maestro, Adolfo

    2017-04-01

    The conservation of both natural and cultural heritage is regarded as a priority for humankind and it is therefore recognised by the UNESCO since the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1972. The International Union of Geological Sciences launched in 1995 in collaboration with UNESCO the Global Geosites programme to create an inventory of geological heritage sites. Although the conservation of Geosites may face different issues to those of stone-built cultural heritage, much could be learnt from techniques initially used to characterise weathering and material decay in stone-built cultural heritage. This is especially the case for portable Non-Destructive Techniques (NDT). Portable NDT allow characterising on-site the degree of material decay and are, therefore, a good way to assess the state of conservation of certain Geosites whose relevance lies on localised features. Geosites chosen for the outstanding occurrence of dinosaur ichnites, such as those in the Cameros Massif (north-western part of the Iberian Range, Spain), are a good example of this. This communication explores the potential of portable NDT to characterise the state of decay and susceptibility to further decay of dinosaur ichnites in the Cameros Massif. These techniques included: Ultrasound Pulse Velocity determination, Leeb hardness rebound test, colour determination by means of a spectrophotometer and thermal imaging obtained with an infrared camera. Results will show the potential of these techniques to characterise differential weathering patterns in both individual ichnites as well as on tracks in addition to assessing the possible effects of conservation strategies on the long-term preservation of the mentioned Geosites. Research funded by Madrid's Regional Government project Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914

  4. Nondestructive determination of plutonium mass in spent fuel: preliminary modeling results using the passive neutron Albedo reactivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Schear, Melissa A.; Menlove, Howard O.; Lee, Sang Y.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capability of the International Atomic Energy Agency (LAEA) to safeguard nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at pyrochemical processing facilities, providing quantitative input to burnup credit and final safeguards measurements at a long-term repository. In order to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, thirteen NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key motivation of the present research is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of rods. It is therefore anticipated that a combination of techniques will be required. A 5 year effort funded by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE was recently started in pursuit of these goals. The first two years involves researching all thirteen techniques using Monte Carlo modeling while the final three years involves fabricating hardware and measuring spent fuel. Here, we present the work in two main parts: (1) an overview of this NGSI effort describing the motivations and approach being taken; (2) The preliminary results for one of the NDA techniques - Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR). The PNAR technique functions by using the intrinsic neutron emission of the fuel (primarily from the spontaneous fission of curium) to self-interrogate any fissile material present. Two separate measurements of the spent fuel are made, both with and without cadmium (Cd) present. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are analyzed; known as the Cd ratio. The primary differences between the two measurements are the neutron energy spectrum

  5. Characterization of Old Nuclear Waste Packages Coupling Photon Activation Analysis and Complementary Non-Destructive Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, Frederick; Coulon, Romain; Laine, Frederic; Normand, Stephane; Sari, Adrien; Charbonnier, Bruno; Salmon, Corine

    2013-06-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste packages is an industrial issue in order to select the best mode of storage. The characterization becomes crucial particularly for waste packages produced at the beginning of the French nuclear industry. For the latter, available information is often incomplete and some key parameters are sometimes missing (content of the package, alpha-activity, fissile mass...) In this case, the use of non-destructive methods, both passive and active, is an appropriate solution to characterize nuclear waste packages and to obtain all the information of interest. In this article, we present the results of a complete characterization carried out on the TE 1060 block, which is a nuclear waste package produced during the 1960's in Saclay. This characterization is part of the DEMSAC (Dismantling of Saclay's facilities) project (ICPE part). It has been carried out in the SAPHIR facility, located in Saclay and housing a linear electron accelerator. This work enables to show the great interest of active methods (photon activation analysis and high-energy imaging) as soon as passive techniques encounter severe limitations. (authors)

  6. Advanced nondestructive techniques applied for the detection of discontinuities in aluminum foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchadjian, Pablo; García, Alejandro; Brizuela, Jose; Camacho, Jorge; Chiné, Bruno; Mussi, Valerio; Britto, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    Metal foams are finding an increasing range of applications by their lightweight structure and physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Foams can be used to fill closed moulds for manufacturing structural foam parts of complex shape [1]; foam filled structures are expected to provide good mechanical properties and energy absorption capabilities. The complexity of the foaming process and the number of parameters to simultaneously control, demand a preliminary and hugely wide experimental activity to manufacture foamed components with a good quality. That is why there are many efforts to improve the structure of foams, in order to obtain a product with good properties. The problem is that even for seemingly identical foaming conditions, the effective foaming can vary significantly from one foaming trial to another. The variation of the foams often is related by structural imperfections, joining region (foam-foam or foam-wall mold) or difficulties in achieving a complete filling of the mould. That is, in a closed mold, the result of the mold filling and its structure or defects are not known a priori and can eventually vary significantly. These defects can cause a drastic deterioration of the mechanical properties [2] and lead to a low performance in its application. This work proposes the use of advanced nondestructive techniques for evaluating the foam distribution after filling the mold to improve the manufacturing process. To achieved this purpose ultrasonic technique (UT) and cone beam computed tomography (CT) were applied on plate and structures of different thicknesses filled with foam of different porosity. UT was carried out on transmission mode with low frequency air-coupled transducers [3], in focused and unfocused configurations.

  7. Determination of in-depth contamination in concrete using a non-destructive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, S.; Cantrel, E.

    2007-01-01

    The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase, in which the building structures are being decontaminated and either denuclearized for possible reuse or demolished. Apart from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, other radionuclides might be present due to activation or contamination. The BR3 bioshield has been exposed to rather high neutron leakage fluxes during the reactor operation and is therefore activated. Building structure contamination usually results from leakages during reactor operation, releases due to maintenance works or even dismantling operations. In case of in-depth contamination in concrete it is important to know the exact in-depth profile before decontamination, in order to minimize the amount of radioactive waste that will be produced during the decontamination process and to optimize both the decontamination process and the final control measurements. Common non-destructive analyses used in decommissioning are usually based on the measurement of beta radiation, using e.g. hand-held plastic scintillators. This kind of measurement technique can not be used to determine in-depth contamination. Therefore, most of the decontamination specialists currently base themselves on the results of the radiological analysis of samples taken by core drilling. The use of such a destructive method implies a number of disadvantages: it is time consuming and therefore costly and the different sample preparation steps can conceivably lead to cross-contamination. Moreover, one only receives results of a limited number of points, while the in-depth contamination is usually very inhomogeneously distributed and the relationship between in-depth contamination and surface contamination and/or dose rate (hotspot detection) is generally rather poor.The objective therefore is to test the use of the ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) for the determination of contamination depth

  8. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  9. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel—Design concept and experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H.O.; Rael, C.D.; Trellue, H.R.; Tobin, S.J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  10. Nondestructive examination of irradiated fuel rods by pulsed eddy current techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, W.C.; Quapp, W.J.; Martin, M.R.; Gibson, G.W.

    1976-02-01

    A number of fuel rods and unfueled zircaloy cladding tubes which had been irradiated in the Saxton reactor have undergone extensive nondestructive and corroborative destructive examinations by Aerojet Nuclear Company as part of the Water Reactor Safety Research Program, Irradiation Effects Test Series. This report discusses the pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive examinations on the fuel rods and tubing and the metallography results on two fuel rods and one irradiated zircaloy tube. The PEC equipment, designed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory and Aerojet, performed very satisfactorily the functions of diameter, profile, and wall thickness measurements and OD and ID surface defect detection. The destructive examination provided reasonably good confirmation of ''defects'' detected in the nondestructive examination

  11. Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Haff, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed

  12. An accurate method for determining residual stresses with magnetic non-destructive techniques in welded ferromagnetic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourna, P

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the present research work was to investigate the proper selection criteria for developing a suitable methodology for the accurate determination of residual stresses existing in welded parts. Magnetic non-destructive testing took place by the use of two magnetic non-destructive techniques: by the measurement of the magnetic Barkhausen noise and by the evaluation of the magnetic hysteresis loop parameters. The spatial distribution of residual stresses in welded metal parts by both non-destructive magnetic methods and two diffraction methods was determined. The conduction of magnetic measurements required an initial calibration of ferromagnetic steels. Based on the examined volume of the sample, all methods used were divided into two large categories: the first one was related to the determination of surface residual stress, whereas the second one was related to bulk residual stress determination. The first category included the magnetic Barkhausen noise and the X-ray diffraction measurements, while the second one included the magnetic permeability and the neutron diffraction data. The residual stresses determined by the magnetic techniques were in a good agreement with the diffraction ones. (paper)

  13. Multi-Wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE , structure health monitoring (SHM and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions.

  14. Measurement of mango firmness by non-destructive limited compression technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penchaiya, P.; Uthairatanakij, A.; Srilaong, V.; Kanlayanarat, S.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Tansakul, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thai mango 'Nam Dok Mai Si-Thong' has an attractive golden yellow skin colour even in immature fruit, not ready for consumption. Firmness becomes an important quality attribute to assess the ripening stage of the fruit during storage. In this study, the possibility of a non-destructive method

  15. The investigation of non-destructive techniques for the examination and quality assurance of cemented radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1985-08-01

    Three nondestructive tests for quality assurance of cemented radioactive wastes are considered. These are electrical impedance measurement, paddle torque measurement and gas permeability. Electrical impedance has the advantage that it can be used throughout the mixing, casting and setting processes. The measurement of paddle torque during mixing indicates a measure of the characteristics of the mix. Helium leak rate and total pressure rise techniques have been employed, but leakages at or near the surface due to cracks is a fundamental factor which limits the assessment of cement quality by gas permeation techniques. (U.K.)

  16. Analysis of nifedipine content in transdermal drug delivery system using non-destructive visible spectrophotometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normaizira Hamidi; Normaizira Hamidi; Normaizira Hamidi; Mohd Nasir Taib; Mohd Nasir Taib; Wui, Wong Tin; Wui, Wong Tin

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of visible spectrophotometry technique as a tool to determine the drug content of polymeric film for use as a transdermal drug delivery system was investigated. Hydroxypropylmethycellulose (HPMC) was selected as the matrix polymer and nifedipine as the model drug. Blank and nifedipine-loaded HPMC films were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The absorbance spectra of these films under the visible wavelengths between 400 and 800 nm were assessed and compared against the drug content values obtained by means of the conventional destructive UV- spectrophotometry technique. The latter required the use of a solvent system which contained methanol, a harmful organic component in pharmaceutical applications. The results indicated that the absorbance values, attributed to nifedipine, at the wavelengths of 545, 585, 638 and 755nm were significantly correlated to the drug content values obtained using the chemical assay method (Pearson correlation value: r = 0.990 and p < 0.01). The visible spectrophotometry technique is potentially suitable for use to determine the nifedipine content of films owing to its nature of characterization of transdermal drug delivery system which does not require sample destruction during the process of measurement. The samples are recoverable from test and analysis of the entire batch of samples is possible without the need of solvents and chemical reagents. (author)

  17. Development of versatile universal reagent immunoradiometric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    Immunoradiometric assays, which make use of labelled antibodies, potentially offer better sensitivity and specificity than do radioimmunoassays, which use labelled antigens. In addition, they can in principle be performed in a particularly convenient scheme wherein the same labelled reagent may be used for many different analytes - thus serving as a ''universal'' labelled reagent. Thus if the specific antibody for every analyte is raised in rabbits, and an anti-rabbit antibody is labelled, the latter may be added after the specific antibody to quantify the amount of specific antibody bound to analyte and thereby the amount of analyte present. The potential greater sensitivity and specificity of the immunoradiometric procedure, coupled with the potential convenience of the ''universal'' labelled reagent, might allow such immunoradiometric techniques to be used effectively in the study of communicable diseases in developing countries. Development of these procedures was the subject of this investigation. Many components of these procedures had to be explored and provisionally optimized, including coating of assay tubes with ''extraction'' antibody, immunological purification of antibodies, labelling of antibodies, and intermediate steps toward these goals. Applications were thereupon tested using those provisionally optimized components. The ''universal'' labelled reagent, a donkey anti-rabbit antiserum, was successfully used in the assay of TSH; however, cross reactions of the reagent with non-rabbit immunoglobulins and other materials present seriously limited the sensitivity of the method. Using conventional immunoradiometric procedures, circulating TB and amoebic antibodies could be detected in patients suffering from these diseases. Similarly, circulating antigens in the same patients could also be detected, but not with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to provide a reliable analytical system. Numerous improvements will be required before these techniques

  18. Non-destructive techniques for biomonitoring of spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns of mercury bioaccumulation and maternal transfer in turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Brittney C.; Hepner, Mark J.; Hopkins, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally ubiquitous pollutant that has received much attention due to its toxicity to humans and wildlife. The development of non-destructive sampling techniques is a critical step for sustainable monitoring of Hg accumulation. We evaluated the efficacy of non-destructive sampling techniques and assessed spatial, temporal, and demographic factors that influence Hg bioaccumulation in turtles. We collected muscle, blood, nail, and eggs from snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) inhabiting an Hg contaminated river. As predicted, all Hg tissue concentrations strongly and positively correlated with each other. Additionally, we validated our mathematical models against two additional Hg contaminated locations and found that tissue relationships developed from the validation sites did not significantly differ from those generated from the original sampling site. The models provided herein will be useful for a wide array of systems where biomonitoring of Hg in turtles needs to be accomplished in a conservation-minded fashion. -- Highlights: ► Non-lethal sampling is critical for sustainable monitoring of mercury in wildlife. ► We evaluated the efficacy of non-lethal sampling techniques in turtles. ► We created mathematical models between egg, muscle, blood, and nail tissues. ► Mathematical tissue models were applicable to other mercury contaminated areas. ► Non-lethal techniques will be useful for monitoring contamination in other systems. -- We developed and validated mathematical models that will be useful for biomonitoring Hg accumulation in turtles in a conservation-minded fashion

  19. Application of novel techniques of medical imaging to the non-destructive analysis of carbon-carbon composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Nicole; Basse-Cathalinat, Bernard; Baquey, Charles; Lacroix, Francis; Ducassou, Dominique

    1983-09-01

    Rigorous control of all stages of the fabrication of a composite material is vital. It is best if this control uses non-destructive methods, so allowing the same item to be studied during the different stages of its manufacture. Much research has already been done to perfect such investigations in medicine, so providing a minimum of trauma to the patient. Most of these medical applications use radioactive isotopes. The present work describes the application of currently available techniques, employed in nuclear medicine, for the analysis of the density and porosity of carbon-carbon composite materials. Two most powerful medical techniques are applied to measure variations of density of a composite material. These are transmission computed tomography using X-rays and the absorption of photons. The quantitative measurement of porosity can be derived from a scintigraphic technique which allows a detailed non-invasive study of the interior of the composite and the spatial variation of porosity at every stage of its fabrication. For each type of investigation, the principle of the method, a description of the apparatus and several examples of results obtained are presented. The advantages and limitations of these techniques which complement those currently available are discussed, together with future possibilities for non-destructive control of industrial processes. It is likely that their proven success in medicine will be extended to the other fields described.

  20. Holographic interferometry - a nondestructive inspection technique for early detection of construction element damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachutka, H.; Fritzsch, W.; Gruenewald, K.

    1977-01-01

    After a short introduction into the fundamentals of holographic interferometry, the application of this process to non-destructive material testing is explained. Practical examples of qualitative and quantitative deformation measurements carried out on building elements of different materials as well as on metallic and nonmetallic combinations show the possibilities of early recognition of manufacturing flaws and weak points due to the construction and also the determination of construction material characteristic coefficients. (orig.) [de

  1. Nondestructive Testing Technique to Quantify Deterioration from Marine Borer Attack in Sitka Spruce and Western Hemlock Logs: Observations from a Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Ross; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Allen M. Brackley

    2014-01-01

    Stress-wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are used widely in the forest products industry—from the grading of wood veneer to inspection of timber structures. Inspection professionals frequently use stress-wave NDE techniques to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. Although these techniques have proven useful, little...

  2. Emission computer tomography on a Dodewaard mixed oxide fuel pin. Comparative PIE work with non-destructive and destructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buurveld, H.A.; Dassel, G.

    1993-12-01

    A nondestructive technique as well as a destructive PIE technique have been used to verify the results obtained with a newly 8-e computer tomography (GECT) system. Multi isotope Scanning (MIS), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and GECT were used on a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rod from the Dodewaard reactor with an average burnup of 24 MWd/kg fuel. GECT shows migration of Cs to the periphery of fuel pellets and to radial cracks and pores in the fuel, whereas MIS shows Cs migration to pellet interfaces. The EPMA technique appeared not to be useful to show migration of Cs but, it shows the distribution of fission products from Pu. EPMA clearly shows the distribution of fission products from Pu, but did not reveal the Cs-migration. (orig./HP)

  3. Logging technique for assaying for uranium in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1973-01-01

    A uranium exploration technique is described for determining the uranium content of a formation traversed by borehole. A delayed fission neutron assay log is obtained by irradiating the formation with repetitive bursts of fast neutrons and detecting delayed neutrons resulting from neutron fission of uranium at time intervals between the fast neutron bursts and after dissipation of the neutrons originating in the bursts. In addition, a response log is obtained by irradiating the formation with a source of fast neutrons whereby the neutrons from this source are moderated in the formation to lower energy levels and are subject to absorption. Secondary radiation attendant to these lower energy neutrons is recorded in order to obtain a log representative of the response of the formation to moderation and absorption of the neutrons. The two logs thus obtained are correlated in order to determine a corrected value of uranium content of the formation. (author)

  4. Note of non-destructive detection of voids by a high frequency inversion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.K.; Bleistein, N.

    1978-01-01

    An inverse method for nondestructive detection of scatterers of high contrast, such as voids or strongly reflecting inclusions, is described. The phase and range normalized far field scattering amplitude is shown to be directly proportional to the Fourier transform of the characteristic function of the scatterer. The characteristic function is equal to unity inside the region occupied by the scatterer and is zero outside. Thus, knowledge of this function provides a description of the scatterer. The method is applied to flaws in a sphere

  5. Nondestructive Online Detection of Welding Defects in Track Crane Boom Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive detection of structural component of track crane is a difficult and costly problem. In the present study, acoustic emission (AE was used to detect two kinds of typical welding defects, that is, welding porosity and incomplete penetration, in the truck crane boom. Firstly, a subsidiary test specimen with special preset welding defect was designed and added on the boom surface with the aid of steel plates to get the synchronous deformation of the main boom. Then, the AE feature information of the welding defect could be got without influencing normal operation of equipment. As a result, the rudimentary location analysis can be attained using the linear location method and the two kinds of welding defects can be distinguished clearly using AE characteristic parameters such as amplitude and centroid frequency. Also, through the comparison of two loading processes, we concluded that the signal produced during the first loading process was mainly caused by plastic deformation damage and during the second loading process the stress release and structure friction between sections in welding area are the main acoustic emission sources. Thus, the AE is an available tool for nondestructive online detection of latent welding defects of structural component of track crane.

  6. Nondestructive Techniques to Evaluate the Characteristics and Development of Engineered Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Joseph M.; Lee, Zhenghong; Welter, Jean F.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, methods for evaluating the properties of tissue engineered (TE) cartilage are described. Many of these have been developed for evaluating properties of native and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. However, with the increasing interest in engineering cartilage, specialized methods are needed for nondestructive evaluation of tissue while it is developing and after it is implanted. Such methods are needed, in part, due to the large inter- and intra-donor variability in the performance of the cellular component of the tissue, which remains a barrier to delivering reliable TE cartilage for implantation. Using conventional destructive tests, such variability makes it near-impossible to predict the timing and outcome of the tissue engineering process at the level of a specific piece of engineered tissue and also makes it difficult to assess the impact of changing tissue engineering regimens. While it is clear that the true test of engineered cartilage is its performance after it is implanted, correlation of pre and post implantation properties determined non-destructively in vitro and/or in vivo with performance should lead to predictive methods to improve quality-control and to minimize the chances of implanting inferior tissue. PMID:26817458

  7. Feasibility on fiber orientation detection on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using nondestructive evaluation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Cha, Cheon-Seok; Lee, Kil-Sung; Hsu, David K.; Im, Kwang-Hee

    2007-07-01

    In particular, CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) composite materials have found wide applicability because of their inherent design flexibility and improved material properties. CFRP composites were manufactured from uni-direction prepreg sheet in this paper. It is important to assess fiber orientation, material properties and part defect in order to ensure product quality and structural integrity of CFRP because strength and stiffness of composites depend on fiber orientation. It is desirable to perform nondestructive evaluation which is very beneficial. An new method for nondestructively determining the fiber orientation in a composite laminate is presented. A one-sided pitch-catch setup was used in the detection and evaluation of flaws and material anomalies in the unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Two Rayleigh wave transducers were joined head-to-head and used in the pitch-catch mode on the surface of the composites. The pitch-catch signal was found to be more sensitive than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to subtle flaw conditions in the composite. Especially, ultrasonic waves were extensively characterized in the CFRP composite laminates both normal to fiber and along to fiber with using a one-sided direction of Rayleigh wave transducers. Also, one-sided ultrasonic measurement was made with using a Rayleigh wave transducers and a conventional scanner was used in an immersion tank for extracting fiber orientation information from the ultrasonic reflection in the unidirectional laminate. Therefore, it is thought that the proposed method is useful to evaluate integrity of CFRP laminates.

  8. Two Inexpensive and Non-destructive Techniques to Correct for Smaller-Than-Gasket Leaf Area in Gas Exchange Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Savvides

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology, like the widely-used off-the-shelf portable photosynthesis systems, for the quantification of leaf gas exchange rates and chlorophyll fluorescence offered photosynthesis research a massive boost. Gas exchange parameters in such photosynthesis systems are calculated as gas exchange rates per unit leaf area. In small chambers (<10 cm2, the leaf area used by the system for these calculations is actually the internal gasket area (AG, provided that the leaf covers the entire AG. In this study, we present two inexpensive and non-destructive techniques that can be used to easily quantify the enclosed leaf area (AL of plant species with leaves of surface area much smaller than the AG, such as that of cereal crops. The AL of the cereal crop species studied has been measured using a standard image-based approach (iAL and estimated using a leaf width-based approach (wAL. iAL and wAL did not show any significant differences between them in maize, barley, hard and soft wheat. Similar results were obtained when the wAL was tested in comparison with iAL in different positions along the leaf in all species studied. The quantification of AL and the subsequent correction of leaf gas exchange parameters for AL provided a precise quantification of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance especially with decreasing AL. This study provides two practical, inexpensive and non-destructive solutions to researchers dealing with photosynthesis measurements on small-leaf plant species. The image-based technique can be widely used for quantifying AL in many plant species despite their leaf shape. The leaf width-based technique can be securely used for quantifying AL in cereal crop species such as maize, wheat and barley along the leaf. Both techniques can be used for a wide range of gasket shapes and sizes with minor technique-specific adjustments.

  9. Delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy with lanthanum bromide detector for non-destructive assay of nuclear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Andrea; Iliev, Metodi; Ianakiev, Kiril; Hunt, Alan W.; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    High-energy delayed γ-ray spectroscopy is a potential technique for directly assaying spent fuel assemblies and achieving the safeguards goal of quantifying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Requirements for the γ-ray detection system, up to ∼6 MeV, can be summarized as follows: high efficiency at high γ-ray energies, high energy resolution, good linearity between γ-ray energy and output signal amplitude, ability to operate at very high count rates, and ease of use in industrial environments such as nuclear facilities. High Purity Germanium Detectors (HPGe) are the state of the art and provide excellent energy resolution but are limited in their count rate capability. Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3) scintillation detectors offer significantly higher count rate capabilities at lower energy resolution. Thus, LaBr3 detectors may be an effective alternative for nuclear spent-fuel applications, where count-rate capability is a requirement. This paper documents the measured performance of a 2" (length) × 2" (diameter) of LaBr3 scintillation detector system, coupled to a negatively biased PMT and a tapered active high voltage divider, with count-rates up to ∼3 Mcps. An experimental methodology was developed that uses the average current from the PMT's anode and a dual source method to characterize the detector system at specific very high count rate values. Delayed γ-ray spectra were acquired with the LaBr3 detector system at the Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, where samples of ∼3g of 235U were irradiated with moderated neutrons from a photo-neutron source. Results of the spectroscopy characterization and analysis of the delayed γ-ray spectra acquired indicate the possible use of LaBr3 scintillation detectors when high count rate capability may outweigh the lower energy resolution.

  10. Measurement of void swelling in thick non-uniformly irradiated 304 stainless steel blocks using nondestructive ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Okita, T.; Isobe, Y.; Etoh, J.; Sagisaka, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Freyer, P.D.; Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J.M.K.; Porter, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Void swelling is of potential importance in PWR austenitic internals, especially in components that will see higher doses during plant lives beyond 40 years. Proactive surveillance of void swelling is required to identify its emergence before swelling reaches levels that cause high levels of embrittlement and distortion. Non-destructive measurements of ultrasonic velocity can measure swelling at fractions of a percent. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for PWR application we have investigated five blocks of 304 stainless steel that were irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor. These blocks were of hexagonal cross-section, with thickness of about 50 mm and lengths of about 218-245 mm. They were subjected to significant axial and radial gradients in gamma heating, temperature and dpa rate, producing complex internal distributions of swelling, reaching about 3.5% maximum at an off-center mid-core position. Swelling decreases both the density and the elastic moduli, thereby impacting the ultrasonic velocity. Concurrently, carbide precipitates form, producing increases in density and decreases in elastic moduli. Using blocks from both low and high dpa levels it was possible to separate the ultrasonic contributions of voids and carbides. Time-of-flight ultrasonic measurements were used to non-destructively measure the internal distribution of void swelling. These distributions were confirmed using non-destructive profilometry followed by destructive cutting to provide density change and electron microscopy data. It was demonstrated that the four measurement types produce remarkably consistent results. Therefore ultrasonic measurements offer great promise for in-situ surveillance of voids in PWR core internals. (authors)

  11. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material holdup using Gamma-Ray spectroscopic methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes gamma-ray methods used to nondestructively measure the quantity of 235U, or 239Pu remaining as holdup in nuclear facilities. Holdup occurs in all facilities where nuclear material is processed, in process equipment, in exhaust ventilation systems and in building walls and floors. 1.2 This test method includes information useful for management, planning, selection of equipment, consideration of interferences, measurement program definition, and the utilization of resources (1, 2, 3, 4). 1.3 The measurement of nuclear material hold up in process equipment requires a scientific knowledge of radiation sources and detectors, transmission of radiation, calibration, facility operations and error analysis. It is subject to the constraints of the facility, management, budget, and schedule; plus health and safety requirements; as well as the laws of physics. The measurement process includes defining measurement uncertainties and is sensitive to the form and distribution of the material...

  12. Elemental chemical characterization of coins of currently national circulating by X-ray fluorescence non-destructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, Paula; Calcina, Esly

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent counterfeit bills and coins is proposed in this paper to identify the elemental chemical composition; for now, the current official currencies circulating in our country, by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique and non-destructive methods, the goal is to compare with the false and establish the differences that could help identify them immediately taking advantage of the fast response of this technique. Have been identified the elements Al in the coins of 5 cents, Cu and Zn for 10 and 20 cents, Ni, Cu and Zn for 50 cents and a Un Nuevo Sol and Cr, Cu and Zn 2 coins 5 Nuevos Soles. 57 Peruvian coins of different production years and a counterfeit coin of 5 Nuevos Soles have been analyzed, finding Cu and Zn in central part and Fe in circulating edge ring, looking for this one the absence of Ni and Cr, which in the official currency was found. (authors).

  13. Aging material evaluation and studies by non-destructive techniques (AMES-NDT) - a European network project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobmann, Gerd; Debarberis, Luigi; Coste, Jean-Francois

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained in a round-robin action organized in a concerted action of ten partners in the EURATOM program of the European Community. The objective of the research was to document the state of the art of available non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques in order to characterize material aging phenomena based on a reduction of Charpy-V energy and a shift in the fracture appearance transition temperature. Therefore, samples from the Japanese nuclear reactor pressure vessel JRQ-steel (ASMT Standard A533-B Class 1) have been thermally treated at 700 deg. C for 18 h with a subsequent water quenching. Besides micromagnetic and electromagnetic NDT, the positron annihilation technique, ultrasonic reverberation by using Laser ultrasonics and the thermo-electrical power have been applied to characterize the aged material states

  14. Non-destructive and micro-invasive testing techniques for characterizing materials, structures and restoration problems in mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Mariagrazia; Sfarra, Stefano; Chiarini, Marco; Daniele, Valeria; Taglieri, Giuliana; Cerichelli, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, chemical and structural studies of medieval wall paintings in Ocre (L'Aquila, Italy) are presented. During the latest restoration campaign, non-destructive (Near-Infrared Reflectography and Infrared Thermography) and micro-invasive (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, μ-Raman, Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-ray Microanalysis, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence, Optical Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Thermogravimetry) analyses were performed in order to determine the detachments of wall surfaces and the characterization of original and restoration materials. Data integration allowed to reconstruct the conservative history, the execution techniques and the conservation problems of the artefact, as well as to assess the effectiveness of restoration activities adopted. The combined use of physical and micro-chemical techniques proved to be effective for an in-depth study of materials stratification of paintings.

  15. Non-destructive electrochemical techniques applied to the corrosion evaluation of the liner structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, I.; Castillo, A.; Andrade, C.

    2008-01-01

    The liner structure in nuclear power plants provides containment for the operation and therefore the study of its durability and integrity during its service life is an important issue. There are several causes for the deterioration of the liner, which in general involve corrosion due to its metallic nature. The present paper is aimed at describing the assessment of corrosion problems of two liners from two different nuclear power plants, which were evaluated using non-destructive electrochemical techniques. In spite of the testing difficulties arisen, from the results extracted it can be concluded that the electrochemical techniques applied are adequate for the corrosion evaluation. They provide important information about the integrity of the structure and allow for its evolution with time to be assessed

  16. Reliability of non-destructive test techniques in the inspection of pipelines used in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.A.; Rebello, J.M.A.; Souza, M.P.V.; Sagrilo, L.V.S.; Soares, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the reliability of non-destructive test (NDT) techniques for the inspection of pipeline welds employed in the petroleum industry. Radiography, manual and automatic ultrasonic techniques using pulse-echo and time of flight diffraction (TOFD) were employed. Three classes of defects were analyzed: lack of penetration (LP), lack of fusion (LF) and undercut (UC). The tests were carried out on specimen made from pipelines containing defects, which had been artificially inserted on laying the weld bead. The results showed the superiority of the automatic ultrasonic tests for defect detection compared with the manual ultrasonic and radiographic tests. Additionally, artificial neural networks (ANN) were used in the detection and automatic classification of the defects

  17. Enhancement of nondestructive evaluation techniques for magnetic and nonmagnetic structural components (Final report for doctoral fellowship)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenmao

    2000-03-01

    In this report, research works performed in the Structural Safety Engineering Group of OEC/JNC are summarized as the final report of the doctoral fellowship. The main objective of this study is for the enhancement of the nondestructive evaluation techniques for structural components of both magnetic and nonmagnetic material. Studies in three topics have been carried out aiming at the quantitative evaluation of crack with the eddy current testing and the validation of a natural magnetic field based NDE method for detecting mechanical damages in a paramagnetic material. In the first part of the study, an approach to the reconstruction of the natural crack was proposed and implemented with an idealized crack model for its validation. In the second part, the correlation of the natural magnetization and the mechanical damages in the SUS304 stainless steel was investigated by using an experimental approach. In part 3, an inverse method of the measured magnetic fields is proposed for the reconstruction of magnetic charges in the inspected material by using an optimization method and wavelet. As the first work, an approach to the reconstruction of an idealized natural crack of non-vanishing conductivity is proposed with use of signals of eddy current testing. Two numerical models are introduced at first for modeling the natural crack in order to represented it with a set of crack parameters. A method for the rapid prediction of the eddy current testing signals coming from these idealized cracks is given then by extending a knowledge based fast forward solver to the case of a non-vanishing conductivity. Based on this fast forward solver, the inverse algorithm of conjugate gradient method is updated to identify the crack parameters. Several examples are presented finally as a validation of the proposed strategy. The results show that both the two numerical models can give reasonable reconstruction results for signal of low noise. The model concerning the touch of crack

  18. Vibration technique for non-destructive testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    For nondestructive testing of structures of KFK (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) Adams and a group at the English University of Bristol, Department of Mechanical Engineering have developed a vibrational testing method. It is based on the fact that the decreasing self-oscillations of a structure can be measured in connection with a dynamical analysis at only one particular location of that structure. This way a damage can be localized and be quantized rawly. The mathematical model is simple and for every tested structure only one analysis is needed. Many kinds of damages in structures can be determined and reproduced especially in structures that represent typical cases of application of KFK in air and aerospace industry. (orig.) [de

  19. High-resolution X-ray imaging - a powerful nondestructive technique for applications in semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschech, Ehrenfried; Yun, Wenbing; Schneider, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The availability of high-brilliance X-ray sources, high-precision X-ray focusing optics and very efficient CCD area detectors has contributed essentially to the development of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) with sub-50 nm resolution. Particularly, the fabrication of high aspect ratio Fresnel zone plates with zone widths approaching 15 nm has contributed to the enormous improvement in spatial resolution during the previous years. Currently, Fresnel zone plates give the ability to reach spatial resolutions of 15 to 20 nm in the soft and of about 30 to 50 nm in the hard X-ray energy range. X-ray microscopes with rotating anode X-ray sources that can be installed in an analytical lab next to a semiconductor fab have been developed recently. These unique TXM/XCT systems provide an important new capability of nondestructive 3D imaging of internal circuit structures without destructive sample preparation such as cross sectioning. These lab systems can be used for failure localization in micro- and nanoelectronic structures and devices, e.g., to visualize voids and residuals in on-chip metal interconnects without physical modification of the chip. Synchrotron radiation experiments have been used to study new processes and materials that have to be introduced into the semiconductor industry. The potential of TXM using synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray energy range is shown for the nondestructive in situ imaging of void evolution in embedded on-chip copper interconnect structures during electromigration and for the imaging of different types of insulating thin films between the on-chip interconnects (spectromicroscopy). (orig.)

  20. Training Guidelines in Non-Destructive Testing Techniques: Manual for Visual Testing at Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology for many decades. The prime reason for this interest has been the need for stringent quality control standards for safe operation of nuclear as well as other industrial installations. The IAEA has successfully executed a number of projects, including technical cooperation projects (national and regional) and coordinated research projects, in which NDT was an important part. Through these projects, a large number of persons have been trained in numerous Member States, leading to the establishment of national certifying bodies responsible for training and certification of NDT personnel. Consequently a state of self-sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many of these States. All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines and related books, in order, first, to guide IAEA experts involved in this training programme and, second, to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and consequent competence of NDT personnel. The syllabuses for training courses have been published in the form of TECDOC publications. The first was IAEA-TECDOC-407 (1987), which contained syllabuses for the five basic NDT methods: liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, eddy current testing, radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing. To accommodate advancements in NDT technology, later versions of this publication were issued in 1991, 2002 and 2008, with the current version being IAEA-TECDOC- 628/Rev.2 (2008), which includes additional and more advanced NDT methods. The next logical step was to compile textbooks and training manuals in accordance with these syllabuses. Manuals on liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic, ultrasonic and eddy current testing have already been published in the Training Course Series. These play a vital role in

  1. Development of non-destructive Young's modulus measurement techniques in non-oriented CeF$_{3}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Pietroni, P; Lebeau, M; Majni, G; Rinaldi, D

    2005-01-01

    For a reliable mechanical assembly of scintillating crystals for the application to radiographic systems such as Positron Emission Tomographer (PET) and high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. in CMS at CERN LHC), the evaluation of the monocrystal elastic constant (Young's modulus) is needed. Its knowledge is also essential in the photoelastic analysis for the determination of residual stresses. In this work non-destructive techniques based on elastic wave propagation are tested. They differ in the mechanical excitation device: instrumented hammer, traditional ultrasonic probes and laser- generated ultrasound. We have analysed three non-oriented cerium fluoride crystal samples produced for scintillation applications. Finally, we have validated the experimental results comparing them with the elastic constant calculated by using the stiffness matrix.

  2. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P. [Riso National Lab. (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  3. Non-Destructive Evaluation for Corrosion Monitoring in Concrete: A Review and Capability of Acoustic Emission Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Alver, Ninel

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been one of the major causes of structural failure. Early detection of the corrosion process could help limit the location and the extent of necessary repairs or replacement, as well as reduce the cost associated with rehabilitation work. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods have been found to be useful for in-situ evaluation of steel corrosion in RC, where the effect of steel corrosion and the integrity of the concrete structure can be assessed effectively. A complementary study of NDT methods for the investigation of corrosion is presented here. In this paper, acoustic emission (AE) effectively detects the corrosion of concrete structures at an early stage. The capability of the AE technique to detect corrosion occurring in real-time makes it a strong candidate for serving as an efficient NDT method, giving it an advantage over other NDT methods. PMID:26251904

  4. Structural characterization of selective area growth GaN nanowires by non-destructive optical and electrical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secco, Eleonora; Minj, Albert; Garro, Núria; Cantarero, Andrés; Colchero, Jaime; Urban, Arne; Oppo, Carla Ivana; Malindretos, Joerg; Rizzi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The growth selectivity and structural quality of GaN nanowires obtained by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on pre-patterned GaN(0001) templates are investigated by means of non-destructive techniques. Optimum control over the nanowire arrangement and size requires a pitch between the mask apertures below twice the diffusion length of Ga atoms. Lower pitches, however, seem to slightly diminish the structural quality of the material, as revealed by the increase of the Raman peak linewidths. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanowires show a considerable presence of basal plane stacking faults, whose density increases for decreasing nanowire diameter. The capabilities of Kelvin probe force microscopy for imaging these kind of defects are also demonstrated. (paper)

  5. Structural characterization of selective area growth GaN nanowires by non-destructive optical and electrical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, Eleonora; Minj, Albert; Garro, Núria; Cantarero, Andrés; Colchero, Jaime; Urban, Arne; Ivana Oppo, Carla; Malindretos, Joerg; Rizzi, Angela

    2015-08-01

    The growth selectivity and structural quality of GaN nanowires obtained by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on pre-patterned GaN(0001) templates are investigated by means of non-destructive techniques. Optimum control over the nanowire arrangement and size requires a pitch between the mask apertures below twice the diffusion length of Ga atoms. Lower pitches, however, seem to slightly diminish the structural quality of the material, as revealed by the increase of the Raman peak linewidths. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanowires show a considerable presence of basal plane stacking faults, whose density increases for decreasing nanowire diameter. The capabilities of Kelvin probe force microscopy for imaging these kind of defects are also demonstrated.

  6. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today

  7. Non-Destructive Evaluation for Corrosion Monitoring in Concrete: A Review and Capability of Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of reinforced concrete (RC structures has been one of the major causes of structural failure. Early detection of the corrosion process could help limit the location and the extent of necessary repairs or replacement, as well as reduce the cost associated with rehabilitation work. Non-destructive testing (NDT methods have been found to be useful for in-situ evaluation of steel corrosion in RC, where the effect of steel corrosion and the integrity of the concrete structure can be assessed effectively. A complementary study of NDT methods for the investigation of corrosion is presented here. In this paper, acoustic emission (AE effectively detects the corrosion of concrete structures at an early stage. The capability of the AE technique to detect corrosion occurring in real-time makes it a strong candidate for serving as an efficient NDT method, giving it an advantage over other NDT methods.

  8. Development of non-destructive Young's modulus measurement techniques in non-oriented CeF3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroni, P.; Paone, N.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Rinaldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    For a reliable mechanical assembly of scintillating crystals for the application to radiographic systems such as Positron Emission Tomographer (PET) and high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. in CMS at CERN LHC), the evaluation of the monocrystal elastic constant (Young's modulus) is needed. Its knowledge is also essential in the photoelastic analysis for the determination of residual stresses. In this work non-destructive techniques based on elastic wave propagation are tested. They differ in the mechanical excitation device: instrumented hammer, traditional ultrasonic probes and laser-generated ultrasound. We have analysed three non-oriented cerium fluoride crystal samples produced for scintillation applications. Finally, we have validated the experimental results comparing them with the elastic constant calculated by using the stiffness matrix

  9. Training Guidelines in Non-Destructive Testing Techniques: Leak Testing at Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology for many decades. The prime reason for this interest has been the need for stringent standards for quality assurance for safe operation of nuclear and other industrial installations. The IAEA successfully executed a number of programmes, including technical cooperation projects (national and regional) and coordinated research projects (CRPs), in which NDT was an important part. Through these programmes, a large number of personnel have been trained in Member States, leading to the establishment of national certifying bodies responsible for the training and certification of NDT personnel. Consequently, a state of self-sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many Member States. All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines, in order to orient the IAEA experts who were involved in training and certification programmes, and to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and certification processes, and consequent competence of NDT personnel.

  10. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

  11. Integrated five station nondestructive assay system for the support of decontamination and decommissioning of a former plutonium mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Bieri, J.M.; Hastings, R.D.; Horton, W.S.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Plettenberg, K.; Smith, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of a safe, efficient and economic decontamination and decommissioning of plutonium facilities can be greatly enhanced through the intelligent use of an integrated system of nondestructive assay equipment. We have designed and fabricated such a system utilizing five separate NDA stations integrated through a single data acquisition and management personal computer-based controller. The initial station utilizes a passive neutron measurement to determine item Pu inventory to the 0.1 gm level prior to insertion into the decontamination cell. A large active neutron station integrated into the cell is used to measure decontamination effectiveness at the 10 nci/gm level. Cell Pu buildup at critical points is monitored with passive neutron detectors. An active neutron station having better than 1 mg Pu assay sensitivity is used to quantify final compacted waste pucks outside the cell. Bulk Pu in various forms and isotopic enrichments is quantified in a combined passive neutron coincidence and high resolution gamma ray spectrometer station outside the cell. Item control and Pu inventory are managed with bar code labeling and a station integrating algorithm. Overall economy is achieved by multiple station use of the same expensive hardware such as the neutron generator

  12. Nondestructive Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Harold [Argonne National Laboratory

    1969-01-01

    A nondestructive test is an examination of an object in any manner which will not impair the future usefulness of the object. This booklet discusses a few basic methods of nondestructive testing, and some of their characteristics. In addition, it discusses possible future methods for nondestructive testing by taking a quick look at some of the methods now under study.

  13. Nondestructive characterization of materials (ultrasonic and micromagnetic techniques) for strength and toughness prediction and the detection of early creep damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobmann, G.; Kroening, M.; Theiner, W.; Willems, H.; Fiedler, U.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, nondestructive testing techniques for materials characterization have been developed in Germany under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Research and Development, as part of the Reactor Safety Research Programme, in order to provide techniques for PSI and ISI that are sensitive and reliable, in particular with respect to the prediction of strength and toughness. As ferritic steels (pressure vessels and pipelines in the primary circuit) are of special interest, R and D was concentrated on micromagnetic techniques which are sensitive to the microstructure and its changes under service and/or repair conditions. In order to characterize microstructural states superimposed by residual stresses in an unambiguous way, numerical modelling was applied using advanced tools of mathematical approximation theory, i.e. multiregression algorithms and neural networks.For the detection of early creep damage in fossil power plant applications, i.e. micropores and their subsequent development to linked pores and microcracks, besides the micromagnetic techniques an ultrasonic technique was also applied and optimized for in situ applications on components such as pipe bends. Whereas the ultrasonic technique is sensitive to pore concentrations as small as about 0.2%, the parameters of the micromagnetic techniques are mainly influenced by temperature- and load-induced microstructural changes occurring in service, dependent on the steel quality. The techniques are applied at two pipe bends (steel grades 14MoV63 and X20CrMoV121) loaded under near practical conditions during seven inspection intervals between 2048h and 21000h to evaluate the progress of damage. (orig.)

  14. Non-destructive and micro-invasive testing techniques for characterizing materials, structures and restoration problems in mural paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, Mariagrazia; Sfarra, Stefano; Chiarini, Marco; Daniele, Valeria; Taglieri, Giuliana; Cerichelli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography allowed to identify structural damage and rising damp effect. • The present approach provided insights on the used pigments and painting techniques. • FT-IR, XRF and XRD analyses of the mortar sample showed the peculiar composition. • 1D, 2D NMR analyses were useful for the identification of the restoration polymer. • NMR technique also allowed to characterize the plasticizing agents. - Abstract: In this paper, chemical and structural studies of medieval wall paintings in Ocre (L’Aquila, Italy) are presented. During the latest restoration campaign, non-destructive (Near-Infrared Reflectography and Infrared Thermography) and micro-invasive (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, μ-Raman, Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-ray Microanalysis, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence, Optical Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Thermogravimetry) analyses were performed in order to determine the detachments of wall surfaces and the characterization of original and restoration materials. Data integration allowed to reconstruct the conservative history, the execution techniques and the conservation problems of the artefact, as well as to assess the effectiveness of restoration activities adopted. The combined use of physical and micro-chemical techniques proved to be effective for an in-depth study of materials stratification of paintings.

  15. Non-destructive and micro-invasive testing techniques for characterizing materials, structures and restoration problems in mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, Mariagrazia, E-mail: Mariagrazia.Tortora@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), I-67100, Loc. Coppito, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy); Sfarra, Stefano, E-mail: Stefano.Sfarra@univaq.it [Las.E.R. Laboratory, University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Piazzale E. Pontieri 1, I-67100, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, Roio Poggio, L’Aquila, AQ, Italy, (Italy); Chiarini, Marco, E-mail: mchiarini@unite.it [University of Teramo, Department of Bioscience and Technology for Food Agriculture and Environment, Via Carlo Lerici 1, I-64023, Mosciano Sant’Angelo, Teramo, TE, Italy, (Italy); Daniele, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Daniele@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Piazzale E. Pontieri 1, I-67100, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, Roio Poggio, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy); Taglieri, Giuliana, E-mail: Giuliana.Taglieri@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Piazzale E. Pontieri 1, I-67100, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, Roio Poggio, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy); Cerichelli, Giorgio, E-mail: Giorgio.Cerichelli@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), I-67100, Loc. Coppito, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography allowed to identify structural damage and rising damp effect. • The present approach provided insights on the used pigments and painting techniques. • FT-IR, XRF and XRD analyses of the mortar sample showed the peculiar composition. • 1D, 2D NMR analyses were useful for the identification of the restoration polymer. • NMR technique also allowed to characterize the plasticizing agents. - Abstract: In this paper, chemical and structural studies of medieval wall paintings in Ocre (L’Aquila, Italy) are presented. During the latest restoration campaign, non-destructive (Near-Infrared Reflectography and Infrared Thermography) and micro-invasive (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, μ-Raman, Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-ray Microanalysis, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence, Optical Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Thermogravimetry) analyses were performed in order to determine the detachments of wall surfaces and the characterization of original and restoration materials. Data integration allowed to reconstruct the conservative history, the execution techniques and the conservation problems of the artefact, as well as to assess the effectiveness of restoration activities adopted. The combined use of physical and micro-chemical techniques proved to be effective for an in-depth study of materials stratification of paintings.

  16. Nondestructive measurement of refractive index profile of optical fiber preforms using moire technique and phase shift method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Samaneh; Khalesifard, Hamid R.; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2006-01-01

    The refractive index profile of optical fiber preform is measured by a nondestructive technique based on Talbot interferometry. In this technique the preform is placed between two ronchi ruling gratings of 10 lines/mm and the system is illuminated by an expanded and collimated beam of He-Ne laser. In this arrangement the 2nd grating is positioned in the Talbot image of the 1st grating and the preform axis is parallel to the gratings planes. To eliminate the effect of clad on the light beam deflection during the measurements, the preform is immersed in an index matching liquid. The phase front of the laser light over the 2nd grating can be monitored by analysis of the moire pattern which is formed over there. The analysis is done by means of 4-step phase shift technique. In this technique the second grating is moved in four steps of 1/4 of the grating vector and in each step the intensity profile of the moire pattern is recorded. The phasefront can be specified by using the recorded intensities. The refractive index profile of the preform can be calculated from the changes on phasefront while the preform is placed between the gratings respect to the case when it is absent. The whole procedure is automated and computer controlled by using a CCD camera to record the moire fringes, a stepper motor for linear translation of the 2nd grating and a code in MATLAB to control the system and measurements.

  17. Application of non-destructive liner thickness measurement technique for manufacturing and inspection process of zirconium lined cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Norio; Fukuda, Akihiro; Fujii, Noritsugu; Inoue, Koichi

    1986-01-01

    Recently, in order to meet the difference of electric power demand owing to electric power situation, large scale load following operation has become necessary. Therefore, the development of the cladding tubes which withstand power variation has been carried out, as the result, zirconium-lined zircaloy 2 cladding tubes have been developed. In order to reduce the sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking, these zirconium-lined cladding tubes require uniform liner thickness over the whole surface and whole length. Kobe Steel Ltd. developed the nondestructive liner thickness measuring technique based on ultrasonic flaw detection technique and eddy current flaw detection technique. These equipments were applied to the manufacturing and inspection processes of the zirconium-lined cladding tubes, and have demonstrated superiority in the control and assurance of the liner thickness of products. Zirconium-lined cladding tubes, the development of the measuring technique for guaranteeing the uniform liner thickness and the liner thickness control in the manufacturing and inspection processes are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Evalution of NDA techniques and instruments for assay of nuclear waste at a waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeman, E.D.; Allen, E.J.; Jenkins, J.D.

    1978-05-01

    The use of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) instrumentation at a nuclear waste terminal storage facility for purposes of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) accountability is evaluated. Background information is given concerning general NDA techniques and the relative advantages and disadvantages of active and passive NDA methods are discussed. The projected characteristics and amounts of nuclear wastes that will be delivered to a waste terminal storage facility are presented. Wastes are divided into four categories: High Level Waste, Cladding Waste, Intermediate Level Waste, and Low Level Waste. Applications of NDA methods to the assay of these waste types is discussed. Several existing active and passive NDA instruments are described and, where applicable, results of assays performed on wastes in large containers (e.g., 55-gal drums) are given. It is concluded that it will be difficult to routinely achieve accuracies better than approximately 10--30% with ''simple'' NDA devices or 5--20% with more sohpisticated NDA instruments for compacted wastes. It is recommended that NDA instruments not be used for safeguards accountability at a waste storage facility. It is concluded that item accountability methods be implemented. These conclusions and recommendations are detailed in a concurrent report entitled ''Recommendations on the Safeguards Requirements Related to the Accountability of Special Nuclear Material at Waste Terminal Storage Facilities'' by J.D. Jenkins, E.J. Allen and E.D. Blakeman

  19. The nondestructive assay of 55-gallon drums containing uranium and transuranic waste using passive-active shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1992-11-01

    This study has been completed to characterize and improve the performance of passive-active neutron (PAN) shufflers in assaying 55gal. drums of nuclear facility waste for uranium and transuranic elements. Over 1700 active measurements and 800 passive measurements were made using 28 different matrices. Some of the matrices had homogeneous distributions of known amounts of moderating and absorbing materials, whereas others were less well characterized. Some of the well-characterized matrices simulate facility waste better than the others,especially matrices of paper, iron, polyethylene in nine different densities (with and without neutron poisons), alumina trap material, and concrete blocks

  20. Holocene Temperature Reconstructions from Arctic Lakes based on Alkenone Paleothermometry and Non-Destructive Scanning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, W. J.; Balascio, N. L.; Bradley, R. S.; Bakke, J.; Gjerde, M.; Kaufman, D. S.; Briner, J. P.; von Gunten, L.

    2014-12-01

    Generating continuous, accurate and quantitative Holocene temperature estimates from the Arctic is an ongoing challenge. In many Arctic regions, tree ring-based approaches cannot be used and lake sediments provide the most valuable repositories for extracting paleotemperature information. Advances in lacustrine alkenone paleothermometry now allow for quantitative reconstruction of lake-water temperature based on the UK37 values of sedimentary alkenones. In addition, a recent study demonstrated the efficacy of non-destructive scanning reflectance spectroscopy in the visible range (VIS-RS) for high-resolution quantitative temperature reconstruction from arctic lake sediments1. In this presentation, I will report a new UK37-based temperature reconstruction and a scanning VIS-RS record (using the RABD660;670 index as a measure of sedimentary chlorin content) from Kulusuk Lake in southeastern Greenland (65.6°N, 37.1°W). The UK37 record reveals a ~3°C increase in summer lake water temperatures between ~10ka and ~7ka followed by sustained warmth until ~4ka and a gradual (~3°C) cooling until ~400 yr BP. The strong correlation between UK37 and RABD660;670 measured in the same sediment core provides further evidence that in arctic lakes where temperature regulates primary productivity, and thereby sedimentary chlorin content, these proxies can be combined to develop high-resolution quantitative temperature records. The Holocene temperature history of Kulusuk Lake determined using this approach corresponds to changes in the size of the glaciers adjacent to the lake, as inferred from sediment minerogenic properties measured with scanning XRF. Glaciers retreated during early Holocene warming, likely disappeared during the period of mid-Holocene warmth, and advanced after 4ka. I will also discuss new UK37 and RABD660;670 reconstructions from northwestern Svalbard and the central Brooks Range of Alaska within the framework of published regional temperature reconstructions and

  1. Development and optimization of thermographic techniques for Non-Destructive Evaluation of multilayered structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Dmitry J.

    Quality control of modern materials is of the utmost importance in science and industry. Methods for nondestructive evaluation of material properties and the presence of defects are numerous. They differ in terms of their sensitivity and applicability in various conditions, and they provide different kinds of data such as the speed of sound in the material, its hardness, radiation absorption, etc. Based on measured characteristics an analyst makes a decision on the material studied. This work addresses a class of methods known as active thermographic analysis. Thermography analyzes the temperature of the surface of the sample under different external conditions. By keeping track of temperature changes at the surface caused by a deposition of heat on the sample one can determine its material properties such as theand processing the data captured it is possible to make decisions on parameters of this sample. Among the data which can be acquired are such important information as the location of internal defects (e.g., detachments, hollows, inclusions), thickness of the material layers, thermal parameters of the material and the location of internal defects (e.g., detachments, hollows, inclusions). The first part of this research investigates a method for analysis of layered composite materials using the approach based on interference of so called temperature waves. As demonstrated using the expressions derived, one can determine the thermal properties of the layers of the sample by applying a harmonically modulated heat flux to the surfaces and measuring the phase of the periodically changing surface temperature. This approach can be of use in the field of designing and analysis of composite thermal insulation coatings. In the second part of this work a method of analyzing objects of fine art was investigated, particularly - detection of subsurface defects. In the process of preserving art it is of primary importance to determine whether restoration is necessary

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of a cermet coating using ultrasonic and eddy current techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roge, B.; Fahr, A.; Giguere, J.S.R.; McRae, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments conducted to characterize cermet coatings using conventional ultrasonic and eddy current techniques as well as an ultrasonic leaky surface wave method. The results demonstrate the ability of these techniques to detect the presence of artificial defects on the surface or beneath the surface of the coating. In addition, ultrasonic tests in particular ultrasonic leaky surface waves demonstrate the ability to detect the presence of manufacturing flaws. Ultrasonic time-of-flight and eddy current quadrature measurements also show sensitivity to variations in coating thickness

  3. Mantle biopsy: a technique for nondestructive tissue-sampling of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Berg; Wendell R. Haag; Sheldon I. Guttman; James B. Sickel

    1995-01-01

    Mantle biopsy is a means of obtaining tissue samples for genetic, physiological, and contaminant studies of bivalves; but the effects of this biopsy on survival have not been determined. We describe a simple technique for obtaining such samples from unionacean bivalves and how we compared survival among biopsied and control organisms in field experiments. Survival was...

  4. Nondestructive techniques to control the quality and quantity of oil flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. М. Проскуряков

    2016-08-01

    Results are presented of testing the technique on an operating oil field; the relative error margin of measuring free gas content was 0.2 %. The range is reviewed of possible applications for the measurement system of multi-phase multi-component flows, developed in the Saint Petersburg Mining University.

  5. Radiation shielding material characterization by non-destructive neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizal Yazid; Azali Muhammad; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Rafhayudi Jamro; Hishamuddin Husain

    2007-01-01

    Shielding property of boronated rubber was characterized easily by the use of neutron radiography technique. For 10 phr of boron carbide in the natural rubber composite, the ability to completely shield against neutron was found to have 8mm thickness and above for the neutron flux of 1.04 x 10 5 n/cm 2 s (author)

  6. Identification of purple dye from molluscs on an excavated textile by non-destructive analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Allen, Norman

    2013-01-01

    been preserved in association with copper. The techniques applied were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis, Cathodoluminescence and micro Raman. For the first time Cathodoluminescence from an indigoid compound is reported. Comparison of the analysis results...

  7. Inspection with non destructive assay techniques of the aluminium coating of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat; Inspeccion con tecnicas de ensayos no destructivos del recubrimiento de aluminio de la tina del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes A, A.I.; Gonzalez M, A.; Castaneda J, G.; Rivera M, H.; Sandoval G, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In June 2000, the Reactor Department assigned to the Scientific Research Direction of the National Institute of Nuclear Research requested to the Non-destructive Assays Laboratory (LEND), assigned to the Materials Science Management, the inspection and measurement of thickness of the aluminium coating (liner) of the TRIGA Mark III reactor vat with non-destructive assay techniques, due to that the aluminium coating is exposed mainly to undergo slimming on its back side due to corrosion phenomena. Activity that was able to be carried out from april until august 2001. It is worth pointing out that this type of inspection with these techniques was realized by first time. The non-destructive assays (NDA) are techniques which use indirect physical methods for inspecting the sanitation of components in process or in service, for detect lack of continuity or defects which affect their quality or usefulness. The application of those do not alter the physical, chemical, mechanical or dimensional properties of the part subject of inspection. The results of the application of the ultrasound inspection techniques, industrial radiography and penetrating liquids are presented. (Author)

  8. Application of probability generating function to the essentials of nondestructive nuclear materials assay system using neutron correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoma, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In the previous research (JAEA-Research 2015-009), essentials of neutron multiplicity counting mathematics were reconsidered where experiences obtained at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility were taken into, and formulae of multiplicity distribution were algebraically derived up to septuplet using a probability generating function to make a strategic move in the future. Its principle was reported by K. Böhnel in 1985, but such a high-order expansion was the first case due to its increasing complexity. In this research, characteristics of the high-order correlation were investigated. It was found that higher-order correlation increases rapidly in response to the increase of leakage multiplication, crosses and leaves lower-order correlations behind, when leakage multiplication is > 1.3 that depends on detector efficiency and counter setting. In addition, fission rates and doubles count rates by fast neutron and by thermal neutron in their coexisting system were algebraically derived using a probability generating function again. Its principle was reported by I. Pázsit and L. Pál in 2012, but such a physical interpretation, i.e. associating their stochastic variables with fission rate, doubles count rate and leakage multiplication, is the first case. From Rossi-alpha combined distribution and measured ratio of each area obtained by Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) and conventional assay data, it is possible to estimate: the number of induced fissions per unit time by fast neutron and by thermal neutron; the number of induced fissions (< 1) by one source neutron; and individual doubles count rates. During the research, a hypothesis introduced in their report was proved to be true. Provisional calculations were done for UO_2 of 1∼10 kgU containing ∼ 0.009 wt% "2"4"4Cm. (author)

  9. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques

  10. Adaptation and Implementation of Predictive Maintenance Technique with Nondestructive Testing for Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gye Jo; Jung, Nam Gun

    2010-01-01

    Many forces are pressuring utilities to reduce operating and maintenance costs without cutting back on reliability or availability. Many utility managers are re-evaluating maintenance strategies to meet these demands. To utilities how to reduce maintenance costs and extent the effective operating life of equipment, predictive maintenance technique can be adapted. Predictive maintenance had three types program which are in-house program, engineering company program and mixed program. We can approach successful predictive maintenance program with 'smart trust' concept

  11. A non-destructive scattering technique for investigation of pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    In many biomedical studies, the density of a biological system is of great importance to investigate its structure or functioning. In the present work, for the density measurement of lung phantom, the scattering of 59.54 and 662 keV gamma photons are studied using HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors, respectively. Phantoms simulating lung density are prepared by mixing appropriate amount of saw dust and distilled water. The regression lines, obtained from experimental data of scattered spectra, provide the amount of excessive water storage in lungs, hence the technique has the potential for a measure of pathological state like pulmonary edema. The technique is quite sensitive for small change (∼23 Kg m −3 ) in the density of lung phantom. Also, Compton scatter profile measurements (in case of 59.54 keV) results that the technique is less sensitive beyond chest wall thickness of ∼26 mm due to overlying scatter components in the measured spectrum. A portable non-invasive system described presently may be used for various industrial applications also. - Highlights: ► Measurements specify the pathological state like pulmonary edema. ► Rayleigh to Compton ratio, Wing ratio and Compton profile authenticate the results. ► The radiation dose available to chest will be lesser in comparison to chest X-ray. ► Portable system can be used for density measurements in industrial applications.

  12. Critical and subcritical damage monitoring of bonded composite repairs using innovative non-destructive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikos, S. A.; Kordatos, E. Z.; Aggelis, D. G.; Matikas, T. E.; Paipetis, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Infrared Thermography (IrT) has been shown to be capable of detecting and monitoring service induced damage of repair composite structures. Full-field imaging, along with portability are the primary benefits of the thermographic technique. On-line lock-in thermography has been reported to successfully monitor damage propagation or/and stress concentration in composite coupons, as mechanical stresses in structures induce heat concentration phenomena around flaws. During mechanical fatigue, cyclic loading plays the role of the heating source and this allows for critical and subcritical damage identification and monitoring using thermography. The Electrical Potential Change Technique (EPCT) is a new method for damage identification and monitoring during loading. The measurement of electrical potential changes at specific points of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs) under load are reported to enable the monitoring of strain or/and damage accumulation. Along with the aforementioned techniques Finally, Acoustic Emission (AE) method is well known to provide information about the location and type of damage. Damage accumulation due to cyclic loading imposes differentiation of certain parameters of AE like duration and energy. Within the scope of this study, infrared thermography is employed along with AE and EPCT methods in order to assess the integrity of bonded repair patches on composite substrates and to monitor critical and subcritical damage induced by the mechanical loading. The combined methodologies were effective in identifying damage initiation and propagation of bonded composite repairs.

  13. Isotope correlation and mass spectrometry techniques for irradiated fuel assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deron, S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper outlines the methods used to account for fissionable materials in irradiated nuclear fuel elements entering reprocessing plants. Verification is accomplished at three mass balance stations in the plant. Techniques employed fall into two categories: isotopic and isotope dilution analyses by mass spectometry and isotope correlation techniques. These methods are discussed in some detail

  14. Effective combination of DIC, AE, and UPV nondestructive techniques on a scaled model of the Belgian nuclear waste container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Areias, Lou; Pyl, Lincy; Vantomme, John; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the environment and future generations against the potential hazards arising from high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern. Following this direction, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the reference design which considers the geological disposal of the waste in purely indurated clay. In this design the wastes are first post-conditioned in massive concrete structures called Supercontainers before being transported to the underground repositories. The Supercontainers are cylindrical structures which consist of four engineering barriers that from the inner to the outer surface are namely: the overpack, the filler, the concrete buffer and possibly the envelope. The overpack, which is made of carbon steel, is the place where the vitrified wastes and spent fuel are stored. The buffer, which is made of concrete, creates a highly alkaline environment ensuring slow and uniform overpack corrosion as well as radiological shielding. In order to evaluate the feasibility to construct such Supercontainers two scaled models have so far been designed and tested. The first scaled model indicated crack formation on the surface of the concrete buffer but the absence of a crack detection and monitoring system precluded defining the exact time of crack initiation, as well as the origin, the penetration depth, the crack path and the propagation history. For this reason, the second scaled model test was performed to obtain further insight by answering to the aforementioned questions using the Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity nondestructive testing techniques.

  15. Investigation of selective corrosion resistance of aged lean duplex stainless steel 2101 by non-destructive electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Juan; Jiang Yiming; Deng Bo; Zhang Wei; Zhong Cheng; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    Lean duplex stainless steel 2101 (LDX2101) shows wide application potential due to its better corrosion performance and lower cost than traditional 304 austenite steel. This paper investigates the effects of thermal aging treatments at 700 deg. C for various aging times up to 100 h on the selective corrosion resistance of LDX2101 by two non-destructive electrochemical measurements: double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The evolution of microstructure was examined by optical microscopy, SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). The results showed that the two applied electrochemical measurements agreed very well. Both methods were able to reveal the relationship between microstructure and selective corrosion resistance, which was related to the formation of chromium- and molybdenum-depleted zones around the precipitates, especially the σ phase, during aging. Nevertheless, more information could be obtained using EIS methods, including the interfacial charge transfer reaction and the corrosion product adsorption process. The results suggest that the susceptibility of the aged alloy to selective corrosion is presumably codetermined by the formation of chromium- and molybdenum-depleted areas, as well as by the replenishment of them, in these areas from the bulk during aging.

  16. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Logistics institude, CJ Korea Express, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability.

  17. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Dae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability

  18. Non-Destructive Techniques in the Tacis and Phare Nuclear Safety Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Decisions regarding the verification of design plant lifetime and potential license renewal periods involve a determination of the component and circuit condition. In Service Inspection of key reactor components becomes a crucial consideration for continued safe plant operation. The determination of the equipment properties by Non Destructive Techniques during periodic intervals is an important aspect of the assessment of fitness-for-service and safe operation of nuclear power plants The Tacis and Phare were established since 1991 by the European Union as support mechanisms through which projects could be identified and addressed satisfactorily. In Nuclear Safety, the countries mainly concerned are Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, and Kazakhstan for the Tacis programme, and Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Lithuania, Romania and Slovenia for the Phare programme. The Tacis and Phare programs concerning the Nuclear Power Plants consist of: - On Site Assistance and Operational Safety, - Design Safety, - Regulatory Authorities, - Waste management, and are focused on reactor safety issues, contributing to the improvement in the safety of East European reactors and providing technology and safety culture transfer. The main parts of these programmes are related to the On-Site Assistance and to the Design Safety of VVER and RBMK Nuclear power plants where Non Destructive Techniques for In Service Inspection of the primary circuit components are addressed. (authors)

  19. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmire, V.L.; Hurd, J.R.; Sedlacek, W.E.; Scarborough, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen molten salt extraction residues were assayed by conventional and prototype nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to be compared with destructive chemical analysis in an effort to identify acceptable NDA measurement methods for this matrix. NDA results on seven samples and destructive results on four samples are presented

  20. Beginning of fish defrosting by using non-destructive ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malainine, M; Faiz, B; Izbaim, D; Aboudaoud, I; Moudden, A; Maze, G

    2012-01-01

    During the experiments carried out on the monitoring and the study of fish defrosting by an ultrasonic technique, we have difficulties in detecting the beginning of the thawing which is an important criterion of fish quality control. To address this problem, we use the Singular Value Decomposition method (SVD) which is a mathematical tool that permits to separate the high and low energies of an histogram. The image representing low energy signals indicates the start of the thawing by showing an echo that was hidden in the original image for cod fish. Using transducers for central frequencies above 500 kHz the observed results are not very good. Therefore, this method is suitable for fish which fat content is medium or low.

  1. Non-destructive evaluation of nuclear material storage container integrity using an acoustic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.F.; Pechersky, M.J.; Raju, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    A non-intrusive method for determining the gas mixture in a sealed container using acoustics has been conceived. Analysis has shown that it is possible to both excite the acoustic resonance of the gas cavity, and detect when resonance occurs from the outside surface of the container. The resonant frequency of the acoustic cavity is dependent on the molecular weight of the gas that fills it. A change in the mixture of gases within the cavity alters the gas molecular weight and can produce a detectable change in the resonant frequency of the cavity. This concept provides a method of monitoring and/or analyzing the gas mixture in a sealed container without taking physical samples. An advantage of this technique is that it eliminates safety and contamination risks associated with breaching a pressure boundary and taking a sample of potentially hazardous gases in order to monitor or analyze the mixture

  2. Porosity study of synthetic sandstones by non-destructive nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Leonardo Carmezini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, nuclear techniques have been used to describe structural characteristics of ceramic samples. These samples were produced to serve as simulates of sandstones and their mainly component was silica (SiO 2 ). Three sets of these samples with different characteristics were analyzed with the gamma ray transmission and the X-ray microtomography. They had the function to describe parameters as porosity point to point and total average porosity, for the transmission case, and 2D sections average porosity, total average porosity and size porous distribution for microtomography, as well as to investigate possible irregularities in bulk sample. The experimental set up for the Gamma Ray Transmission technique consisted of: a 2'' x 2'' crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an 241 Am radioactive source (59.54 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Lead collimators with 2 mm diameter were placed on the source way out and on the detector entrance. The microtomographic measurements were done with a Skyscan system, model 1172, with a X -ray tube with 20 - 100 kV of voltage range and a CCD camera. Employing gamma ray transmission method was possible to obtain overall porosity values from 25.8 to 34.0 % and from 24.8 to 29.2 % for samples with parallelepiped and cylinder shape, respectively, for ceramic I set; from 58.5 to 61.0 % and from 57.1 to 61.7 % for the same geometric shape of ceramic II set. The samples analyzed by the microtomography achieved resolutions of 1.73 μm, 0.64 μm and 1.28 μm for samples of ceramic set I, II and III, respectively. This methodology provided average total porosity values from 26.6 to 29.4 %, from 48.4 to 51.0 % and from 28.2 to 30.6 % to I, II and III ceramic sets, respectively. The porous size profiles of each ceramic sample were also measured. (author)

  3. Study of the porosity of synthetic sandstones by nondestructive nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Leonardo Carmezini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, nuclear techniques have been used to describe structural characteristics of ceramic samples. These samples were produced to serve as simulates of sandstones and their mainly component was silica (SiO 2 ). Three sets of these samples with different characteristics were analyzed with the gamma ray transmission and the X-ray microtomography. They had the function to describe parameters as porosity point to point and total average porosity, for the transmission case, and 2D sections average porosity, total average porosity and size porous distribution for microtomography, as well as to investigate possible irregularities in bulk sample. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of: a 2 x 2 crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an 241 Am radioactive source (59.54 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Lead collimators with 2 mm diameter were placed on the source way out and on the detector entrance. The microtomographic measurements were done with a Skyscan system, model 1172, with a X-ray tube with 20-100 kV of voltage range and a CCD camera. Employing gamma ray transmission method was possible to obtain overall porosity values from 25.8 to 34.0 % and from 24.8 to 29.2 % for samples with parallelepiped and cylinder shape, respectively, for ceramic I set; from 58.5 to 61.0 % and from 57.1 to 61.7 % for the same geometric shape of ceramic II set. The samples analyzed by the microtomography achieved resolutions of 1.73 μm, 0.64 μm and 1.28 μm for samples of ceramic set I, II and III, respectively. This methodology provided average total porosity values from 26.6 to 29.4 %, from 48.4 to 51.0 % and from 28.2 to 30.6 % to I, II and III ceramic sets, respectively. The porous size profiles of each ceramic sample were also measured. (author)

  4. A non-destructive technique for qualitative and attribute verification of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.

    1982-08-01

    Some results of spent fuel measurements at Halden HWR (Norway) are described. Three irradiated assemblies were measured by using solid state track records (SSTR), thermo luminescent detectors (TLD) and small ion (IC) and fission chambers (FC). The burn-up range was from 5 to 40 GWd/t, cooling time varied from approximately 3.5 months to 12 years. The gross gamma and neutron burn-up profiles, obtained by using the above mentioned techniques are identical. The exposure time for SSTR's varied from 10 to 50 minutes. One should note that SSTR's were quite sensitive and allowed the authors to observe an ''enrichment'' effect: at nearly the same burn-up values (approximately 37 GWd/t), the assembly with lower U-235 enrichment (5.08%) had higher neutron emission than the assembly with 8% enrichment. A simple power function relationship between the neutron rate and burn-up were derived: neutron rate = α.(burn-up)sup(β), where α approximately equals 7.10 -14 ; β approximately equals 3.1 +- 47% for enrichment epsilon = 5.1% and α approximately equals 6.10 -12 ; β approximately equals 2.5 +- 62% for enrichment epsilon = 8%. These data are in qualitative agreement with the IAEA spent fuel measurements at Loviisa (Finland) and Kozloduy (Bulgaria). They also agree with the Los Alamos calculations of the neutron emission due mainly to the spontaneous fission of some curium isotopes: Cm-242 and Cm-244

  5. Photothermal and thermoelastic microscopies: two alternative techniques for the non-destructive testing of materials; Microscopies photothermiques et thermoelastiques: deux techniques alternatives pour le CND des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Ridouane, H. [Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, LPPPC, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2002-07-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of application of photothermal and thermoelastic microscopies to the non-destructive testing of materials, such as niobium used in the fabrication of superconductive RF cavities. The theoretical results obtained in this study show the diagnostic potentialities of these techniques when applied to niobium sheets or directly to cavities. The microscopes that use an intensity modulated laser as excitation source have a lateral resolution comprised between 1 {mu}m for f{sub mod} = 10 MHz and 30 to 50 {mu}m for f{sub mod} = 10 kHz with a 1 {mu}m diameter beam. These techniques allow the detection, localization, and sometimes the characterization, of subsurface and deep defects and inclusions. In far field regime the resolution of the method depends on the thermal diffusion depth. Thanks to the strong dependence between the laser induced stress and the thickness of the target, the photothermal and thermoelastic microscopes can be used also for the measurement of cavities thickness and internal profile. (J.S.)

  6. Nondestructive examination - radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    First the basic principles of radiography are to be treated, especially the different radiation sources (X-ray, gamma-ray, neutrons, heat). In the second part those radiographic methods are shown, which are in common use for technical purposes, especially under the aspect of flaw recognition. (orig./RW)

  7. NDA technique for the assay of wet plutonium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Canada, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitatively measure batches of wet plutonium oxalate. The method is based on a count of coincidence neutrons to which a correction is applied for the effects of neutron moderation by water. A therma-neutron coincidence counter (TNC) with two concentric rings of 3 He detectors provides the signal needed for the water correction. The signal is the ratio of neutron counts between the detector rings that changes with the percent of water in plutonium oxalate. To evaluate the measurement technique, 26 batches of plutonium oxalate were measured in an in-line TNC. The evaluation showed the measurements to be essentially unbiased and precise to 2.2%

  8. Positron lifetime measurements as a non-destructive technique to monitor fatigue damage. Final report, January 1, 1971--June 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.G.

    1978-06-01

    Positron studies were applied successfully to cyclic fatigue in steel and copper and have shown a capability to nondestructively detect fatigue softening and fatigue hardening. In the case of elastic high cycle fatigue in initially soft steel the fatigue hardening is identified with point defects. For cyclic plastic range, high cycle fatigue cyclic hardening and softening are correlated with changes in dislocation substructure. Positron measurements during the pulse annealing of copper single crystals following electron irradiation at 77 0 K have revealed the formation of multi-vacancy complexes which constitute the precursors of radiation induced voids. Positron studies have been applied to hydrogen embrittlement in 4340 steel and more recently in nickel. The technique can non-destructively detect hydrogen embrittlement and gage its extent. U.S. Patent No. 4064438 was issued on this basis

  9. Nondestructive Examination of Inside Surfaces of Small Holes in a Steel Structure Using a Laser Scan Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED i CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Experimental Procedure 1 Results and Discussion 2 Scan Statistics 5 Pit Definition...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 1 INTRODUCTION Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of small spaces such as...squared algebraic distances. If the parameters of the ellipse are denoted as = [, , , , , ] and the sampled points by {, , …

  10. Non-destructive failure analysis and measurement for molded devices and complex assemblies with X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Liew, Seaw Jia; Jiang, Ting Ying; Xu, Jian; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    In both automotive and healthcare sectors, reliable failure analysis and accurate measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies are important. Current methods of failure analysis and measurement require these molded parts to be cross-sectioned so that internal features or dimensions can be accessible. As a result, the parts are deemed unusable and additional failure introduced by sectioning may cause misinterpretation of the results. X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques provide a new nondestructive solution for failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies. These techniques simplify failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and assemblies, and improve the productivity of molding manufacturing significantly.

  11. Non-destructive analysis of sensory traits of dry-cured loins by MRI-computer vision techniques and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés; Ávila, María Del Mar; G Rodríguez, Pablo; Perez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with computer vision techniques have been proposed as an alternative or complementary technique to determine the quality parameters of food in a non-destructive way. The aim of this work was to analyze the sensory attributes of dry-cured loins using this technique. For that, different MRI acquisition sequences (spin echo, gradient echo and turbo 3D), algorithms for MRI analysis (GLCM, NGLDM, GLRLM and GLCM-NGLDM-GLRLM) and predictive data mining techniques (multiple linear regression and isotonic regression) were tested. The correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the prediction results. The combination of spin echo, GLCM and isotonic regression produced the most accurate results. In addition, the MRI data from dry-cured loins seems to be more suitable than the data from fresh loins. The application of predictive data mining techniques on computational texture features from the MRI data of loins enables the determination of the sensory traits of dry-cured loins in a non-destructive way. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Nondestructive characterization of low-level transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.; Reinhardt, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    The use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is proposed for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These NDE methods include real-time x-ray radiography, real-time neutron radiography, x-ray and neutron computed tomography, thermal imaging, container weighing, visual examination, and acoustic measurements. An integrated NDE system is proposed for characterization and certification of TRU waste destined for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Methods for automating both the classification waste and control of a complete nondestructive evaluation/nondestructive assay system are presented. Feasibility testing of the different NDE methods, including real-time x-ray radiography, and development of automated waste classification techniques are covered as part of a five year effort designed to yield a production waste characterization system

  13. Non-destructive inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppinen, P.; Sarkimo, M.; Lahdenperae, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the possible damages occurring in the components and structures of operating nuclear power plants during service the main components and structures are periodically inspected by non-destructive testing techniques. The reliability of non-destructive testing techniques applied in these inservice inspections is of major importance because the decisions concerning the needs for repair of components are mainly based on the results of inspections. One of the targets of this research program has been to improve the reliability of non-destructive testing. This has been addressed in the sub-projects which are briefly summarised here. (author)

  14. Further Evaluation of the Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) Technique for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2011-09-01

    This is an end-of-year report (Fiscal Year (FY) 2011) for the second year of effort on a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The second-year goals for this project included: (1) assessing the neutron source strength needed for the NRTA technique, (2) estimating count times, (3) assessing the effect of temperature on the transmitted signal, (4) estimating plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly, (5) providing a preliminary assessment of the neutron detectors, and (6) documenting this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes work performed over a nine month period from January-September 2011 and is to be considered a follow-on or add-on report to our previous published summary report from December 2010 (INL/EXT-10-20620).

  15. A Direct, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina

    2012-01-01

    ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of small molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…

  16. Primary water stress corrosion cracks in nickel alloy dissimilar metal welds: Detection and sizing using established and emerging nondestructive examination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, B.G.; Doctor, S.R.; Cumblidge, S.E.; Prokofiev, I.G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (∼400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (∼900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for

  17. Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracks in Nickel Alloy Dissimilar Metal Welds: Detection and Sizing Using Established and Emerging Nondestructive Examination Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2012-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (≈400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (≈900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for

  18. Diurnal activity of four species of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and efficiencies of three nondestructive sampling techniques for thrips in mango inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, H; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2010-06-01

    Thrips cause considerable economic loss to mango, Mangifera indica L., in Penang, Malaysia. Three nondestructive sampling techniques--shaking mango panicles over a moist plastic tray, washing the panicles with ethanol, and immobilization of thrips by using CO2--were evaluated for their precision to determine the most effective technique to capture mango flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in an orchard located at Balik Pulau, Penang, Malaysia, during two flowering seasons from December 2008 to February 2009 and from August to September 2009. The efficiency of each of the three sampling techniques was compared with absolute population counts on whole panicles as a reference. Diurnal flight activity of thrips species was assessed using yellow sticky traps. All three sampling methods and sticky traps were used at two hourly intervals from 0800 to 1800 hours to get insight into diurnal periodicity of thrips abundance in the orchard. Based on pooled data for the two seasons, the CO2 method was the most efficient procedure extracting 80.7% adults and 74.5% larvae. The CO2 method had the lowest relative variation and was the most accurate procedure compared with the absolute method as shown by regression analysis. All collection techniques showed that the numbers of all thrips species in mango panicles increased after 0800 hours, reaching a peak between 1200 and 1400 hours. Adults thrips captured on the sticky traps were the most abundant between 0800-1000 and 1400-1600 hours. According to results of this study, the CO2 method is recommended for sampling of thrips in the field. It is a nondestructive sampling procedure that neither damages flowers nor diminishes fruit production. Management of thrips populations in mango orchards with insecticides would be more effectively carried out during their peak population abundance on the flower panicles at midday to 1400 hours.

  19. Non-destructive and non-invasive analyses shed light on the realization technique of ancient polychrome prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striová, Jana; Coccolini, Gabriele; Micheli, Sara; Lofrumento, Cristiana; Galeotti, Monica; Cagnini, Andrea; Castellucci, Emilio Mario

    2009-08-01

    Five polychrome prints representing famous painters, such as Albrecht Dürer, were analyzed using a non-destructive and non-invasive methodology as required by the artwork typology. The diagnostic strategy includes X-ray fluorescence (XRF), reflectance micro-infrared (μFTIR) and micro-Raman (μRaman) spectroscopy. These prints were realized with a la poupée method that involves application of the polychrome inks on a single copper plate, before the printing process. A broad range of compounds (i.e., cinnabar, red lead, white lead, umber earth, hydrated calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, amorphous carbon, and Prussian blue) was employed as chalcographic inks, using linseed oil as a binding medium. Gamboge was identified in the delicate finishing brush touches realized in watercolor.

  20. Nondestructive analysis and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

  1. Improvement of interfacial adhesion and nondestructive damage evaluation for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers/epoxy composites using micromechanical techniques and surface wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ryong

    2003-08-15

    Comparison of interfacial properties and microfailure mechanisms of oxygen-plasma treated poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO, Zylon) and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) fibers/epoxy composites were investigated using a micromechanical technique and nondestructive acoustic emission (AE). The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and work of adhesion, Wa, of PBO or Kevlar fiber/epoxy composites increased with oxygen-plasma treatment, due to induced hydrogen and covalent bondings at their interface. Plasma-treated Kevlar fiber showed the maximum critical surface tension and polar term, whereas the untreated PBO fiber showed the minimum values. The work of adhesion and the polar term were proportional to the IFSS directly for both PBO and Kevlar fibers. The microfibril fracture pattern of two plasma-treated fibers appeared obviously. Unlike in slow cooling, in rapid cooling, case kink band and kicking in PBO fiber appeared, whereas buckling in the Kevlar fiber was observed mainly due to compressive and residual stresses. Based on the propagation of microfibril failure toward the core region, the number of AE events for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers increased significantly compared to the untreated case. The results of nondestructive AE were consistent with microfailure modes.

  2. Nondestructive sensing and stress transferring evaluation of carbon nanotube, nanofiber, and Ni nanowire strands/polymer composites using an electro-micromechanical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Sung-Ju; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Hansen, George; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2006-03-01

    Nondestructive damage sensing and load transfer mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT), nanofiber (CNF), and Ni nanowire strands/epoxy composites were investigated using electro-micromechanical technique. Electrospun PVDF nanofiber was also prepared as a piezoelectric sensor. High volume% CNT/epoxy composites showed significantly higher tensile properties than neat and low volume% CNT/epoxy composites. CNF /epoxy composites with smaller aspect ratio showed higher apparent modulus due to high volume content in case of shorter aspect ratio. Using Ni nanowire strands/silicone composites with different content, load sensing response of electrical contact resistivity was investigated under tensile and compression condition. The mechanical properties of Ni nanowire strands with different type and content/epoxy composites were indirectly measured apparent modulus using uniformed cyclic loading and electro-pullout test. CNT or Ni nanowire strands/epoxy composites showed humidity and temperature sensing within limited ranges, 20 vol% reinforcement. Thermal treated electrospun PVDF nanofiber showed higher mechanical properties than the untreated case due to increased crystallization, whereas load sensing decreased in heat treated case. Electrospun PVDF nanofiber web also responded the sensing effect on humidity and temperature. Nanocomposites using CNT, CNF, Ni nanowire strands, and electrospun PVDF nanofiber web can be applicable practically for multifunctional applications nondestructively.

  3. Nondestructive testing: welding industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Subramanian, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter highlights various conventional and advanced nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques that have been used for weld evaluation. Welding Codes and Standards of International and National organisations that have been followed in India for various weld evaluation purposes are also included. The chapter also emphasises the importance of NDT by way of a few case studies that have been carried out on important critical welded components. (author). 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 appendix

  4. [The Non-Destructive Analysis of Some Ancient Jade Artifacts Unearthed from Henan Province by a Variety of Optical Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Dong, Jun-qing; Zhao, Hong-xia; Gan, Fu-xi; Hu, Yong-qing; Pan, Wen-quan

    2015-09-01

    A total of 14 pieces of ancient jade artifact unearthed from Henan Province were non-destructively analyzed by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF), laser Raman spectroscopy (portable and mobile) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, comprehensively. The raw materials of ancient jade artifacts could be determined accurately through the combination of pXRF and portable Raman spectrometer in a short time. With the advantages of small size and easy-operation, these two instruments are suitable to in situ non-destructive analysis of ancient jade artifacts. The results of the pXRF shows that these ancient jade artifacts can be divided into 6 categories such as rich in Si Al K, rich in Ca, rich in Si Ca, rich in Si Mg, rich in Si, rich in Ca P. Their main phases have been successfully identified by the portable Raman spectrometer. In the lab, the mobile confocal laser Raman spectrometer, which help us find the Raman vibration peak of [OH] in the tremolite jade, is used to make up the disadvantages of the portable Raman spectrometer such as lower spectral resolution, lower accuracy and narrower measuring range. We can use the OCT to analyze the transparency, fiber fineness and inclusion etc. of the jade artifacts. The confocal laser Raman spectroscopy combined with OCT is used to analyze 2 containing inclusion of tremolite jade samples. OCT image can visually display the distribution characteristics of the inclusion in these 2 samples. Confocal laser Raman spectroscopy can accurately locate the sample surface of inclusion, then we can observe the micro morphology and analyze its phase. The results show that the black inclusion is graphite. This work is very significant to study the geographical origin of jade. Through the study we find, the use of pXRF, laser Raman spectroscopy (portable and mobile) and OCT can be achieved on the identification and analysis of cultural relic's phase composition and texture feature and meet the basic

  5. Nondestructive measurement of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork meat by integrating near infrared spectroscopy, computer vision and electronic nose techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-02-15

    Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content is an important reference index for evaluating pork freshness. This paper attempted to measure TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), computer vision (CV), and electronic nose (E-nose) techniques. In the experiment, 90 pork samples with different freshness were collected for data acquisition by three different techniques, respectively. Then, the individual characteristic variables were extracted from each sensor. Next, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to achieve data fusion based on these characteristic variables from 3 different sensors data. Back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was used to construct the model for TVB-N content prediction, and the top principal components (PCs) were extracted as the input of model. The result of the model was achieved as follows: the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) = 2.73 mg/100g and the determination coefficient (R(p)(2)) = 0.9527 in the prediction set. Compared with single technique, integrating three techniques, in this paper, has its own superiority. This work demonstrates that it has the potential in nondestructive detection of TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating NIRS, CV and E-nose, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve TVB-N prediction performance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The effect of varying incubation times for hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisyah Yusof; Noriah Jamal; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended that incubation time for the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique to be between 15 to 20 minutes. Incubation time will effect the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes and thus, the breakage of cytoplasmic membrane. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of varying incubation times for hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique. In this study, we choose to use our standard protocol for dicentric assay technique. However, for the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes, the incubation times were varied from 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes respectively. Lymphocytes were then fixed and stained with Giemsa. The cells were then analyzed for clear background that indicates good metaphases. We found that incubation time of 30 minutes gives the best metaphase images. This incubation time is longer than what has been recommended by the IAEA. This maybe explained by the fact that our country's climate is of higher humidity compared with the European countries. (author)

  7. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernström, J.; Eriksson, M.; Simon, R.; Tamborini, G.; Bildstein, O.; Marquez, R. Carlos; Kehl, S. R.; Hamilton, T. F.; Ranebo, Y.; Betti, M.

    2006-08-01

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low 240Pu/ 239Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of 137Cs ( 239 + 240 Pu/ 137Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average 241Am/ 239Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 × 10 - 3 ± 0.2 × 10 - 3 (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  8. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstroem, J. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jussi.jernstrom@helsinki.fi; Eriksson, M. [IAEA-MEL, International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Simon, R. [Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tamborini, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bildstein, O. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquez, R. Carlos [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kehl, S.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Hamilton, T.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Ranebo, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Betti, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: maria.betti@ec.europa.eu

    2006-08-15

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of {sup 137}Cs ({sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average {sup 241}Am/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 x 10{sup -3} {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup -3} (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  9. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P; Ananthanarayanan, R; Malathi, N; Rajiniganth, M P; Murali, N; Swaminathan, P

    2010-06-11

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 microg L(-1) levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L(-1) levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 microg L(-1) levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 microg L(-1) O(2). Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L(-1) to microg L(-1) levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 microg L(-1) O(2) level is 0.14 (n=5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 microg L(-1) levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Malathi, N.; Rajiniganth, M.P.; Murali, N.; Swaminathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 μg L -1 levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L -1 levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 μg L -1 levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 μg L -1 O 2 . Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L -1 to μg L -1 levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 μg L -1 O 2 level is 0.14 (n = 5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 μg L -1 levels.

  11. Machine-assisted verification of latent fingerprints: first results for nondestructive contact-less optical acquisition techniques with a CWL sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Krapyvskyy, Dmytro; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-11-01

    A machine-assisted analysis of traces from crime scenes might be possible with the advent of new high-resolution non-destructive contact-less acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints. This requires reliable techniques for the automatic extraction of fingerprint features from latent and exemplar fingerprints for matching purposes using pattern recognition approaches. Therefore, we evaluate the NIST Biometric Image Software for the feature extraction and verification of contact-lessly acquired latent fingerprints to determine potential error rates. Our exemplary test setup includes 30 latent fingerprints from 5 people in two test sets that are acquired from different surfaces using a chromatic white light sensor. The first test set includes 20 fingerprints on two different surfaces. It is used to determine the feature extraction performance. The second test set includes one latent fingerprint on 10 different surfaces and an exemplar fingerprint to determine the verification performance. This utilized sensing technique does not require a physical or chemical visibility enhancement of the fingerprint residue, thus the original trace remains unaltered for further investigations. No particular feature extraction and verification techniques have been applied to such data, yet. Hence, we see the need for appropriate algorithms that are suitable to support forensic investigations.

  12. Feasibility on Ultrasonic Velocity using Contact and Non-Contact Nondestructive Techniques for Carbon/Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K. H.; Chang, M.; Hsu, D. K.; Song, S. J.; Cho, H.; Park, J. W.; Kweon, Y. S.; Sim, J. K.; Yang, I. Y.

    2007-03-01

    Advanced materials are to be required to have specific functions associated with extremely environments. One of them is carbon/carbon(C/C) composite material, which has obvious advantages over conventional materials. The C/Cs have become to be utilized as parts of aerospace applications and its low density, high thermal conductivity and excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures make it an ideal material for aircraft brake disks. Because of permeation of coupling medium such as water, it is desirable to perform contact-less nondestructive evaluation to assess material properties and part homogeneity. In this work, a C/C composite material was characterized with non-contact and contact ultrasonic methods using a scanner with automatic-data acquisition function. Also through transmission mode was performed because of the main limitation for air-coupled transducers, which is the acoustic impedance mismatch between most materials and air. Especially ultrasonic images and velocities for C/C composite disk brake were compared and found to be consistent to some degree with the non-contact and contact ultrasonic measurement methods. Low frequency through-transmission scans based on both amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse was used for mapping out the material property inhomogeneity. Measured results were compared with those obtained by the dry-coupling ultrasonic UT system and through transmission method in immersion. Finally, feasibility has been found to measure and compare ultrasonic velocities of C/C composites with using the contact/noncontact peak-delay measurement method based on the pulse overlap method.

  13. Evaluation of the veracity of one work by the artist Di Cavalcanti through non-destructive techniques: XRF, imaging and brush stroke analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiya, E.A.M.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Appoloni, C.R.; Lopes, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents systematic studies and analysis that contributed to the identification of the forgery of a work by the artist Emiliano Augusto Cavalcanti de Albuquerque e Melo, known as Di Cavalcanti. The use of several areas of expertise such as brush stroke analysis (“pinacologia”), applied physics, and art history resulted in an accurate diagnosis for ascertaining the authenticity of the work entitled “Violeiro” (1950). For this work we used non-destructive methods such as techniques of infrared, ultraviolet, visible and tangential light imaging combined with chemical analysis of the pigments by portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and graphic gesture analysis. Each applied method of analysis produced specific information that made possible the identification of materials and techniques employed and we concluded that this work is not consistent with patterns characteristic of the artist Di Cavalcanti. - Highlights: • Identification of the forgery of an easel painting of Di Cavalcanti. • Diagnosis for ascertaining the authenticity of the work entitled “Violeiro” (1950). • X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy and image analysis. • Image analyses allow some identification as hidden underlying lines. • Materials and techniques not characteristic of the artist

  14. A comparison of high-throughput techniques for assaying circadian rhythms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Andrew J; Waller, Jade; Greenwood, Mark; Gould, Peter D; Hartwell, James; Hall, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the development of high-throughput techniques has enabled us to probe the plant circadian clock, a key coordinator of vital biological processes, in ways previously impossible. With the circadian clock increasingly implicated in key fitness and signalling pathways, this has opened up new avenues for understanding plant development and signalling. Our tool-kit has been constantly improving through continual development and novel techniques that increase throughput, reduce costs and allow higher resolution on the cellular and subcellular levels. With circadian assays becoming more accessible and relevant than ever to researchers, in this paper we offer a review of the techniques currently available before considering the horizons in circadian investigation at ever higher throughputs and resolutions.

  15. Comparison of sediment pollution in the rivers of the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region using non-destructive analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Janos; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Alsecz, Anita; Falkenberg, Gerald; Baik, Soo Yeun; Van Grieken, Rene

    2007-01-01

    The rivers in the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region are frequently polluted mainly due to mining activities in the catchment area. At the beginning of 2000, two major mining accidents occurred in the Romanian part of the catchment area due to the failure of a tailings dam releasing huge amounts of cyanide and heavy metals to the rivers. Surface sediment as well as water samples were collected at six sites in the years 2000-2003, from the northeast-Hungarian section of the Tisza, Szamos and Tur rivers. The sediment pollution of the rivers was compared based on measurements of bulk material and selected single particles, in order to relate the observed compositions and chemical states of metals to the possible sources and weathering of pollution. Non-destructive X-ray analytical methods were applied in order to obtain different kinds of information from the same samples or particles. In order to identify the pollution sources, their magnitude and fate, complementary analyses were carried out. Heterogeneous particulate samples were analyzed from a large geographical territory and a 4-year time period. Individual particles were analyzed only from the 'hot' samples that showed elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Particles that were classified as anthropogenic were finally analyzed to identify trace concentrations and chemical states of heavy metals. Although the Tisza river was affected by water pollution due to the two major mining accidents at the beginning of 2000, the concentration of heavy metals in sediments decreased to the mineral background level 1 year after the pollution event. In the tributaries Szamos and Tur, however, no significant decrease of the heavy metal concentrations was observed in the recent years, indicating a continuous pollution. Among the water suspended particles collected from river Tur, fibers of unknown origin were observed by electron microscopy; these particles were aluminosilicates enriched in Zn and Mn. Cd was also concentrated in

  16. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one.

  17. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Sklyarov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM) in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW) has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  18. Defects detection and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques in paintings: a unified approach through measurements of deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2013-05-01

    The present study is focused on two topics. The first one is a mathematical model, useful to understand the deformation of paintings, which uses straining devices, adjustable and micrometrically controlled via a pin supported in a hollow cylinder. Strains were analyzed by holographic interferometry (HI) technique using an appropriate frame. The second one concerns the need to improve the conservator's knowledge about the defect's detection and defect's propagation in acrylic painting characterized of underdrawings and pentimenti. To fulfill this task, a sample was manufactured to clarify the several uncertainties inherent the influence of external factors on their conservation. Subsurface anomalies were also retrieved by near-infrared reflectography (NIRR) and transmittography (NIRT) techniques, using LED lamps and several narrow-band filters mounted on a CMOS camera, working at different wavelengths each other and in combination with UV imaging. In addition, a sponge glued on the rear side of the canvas was impregnated with a precise amount of water by means of a syringe to verify the "stretcher effect" by the digital speckle photography (DSP) technique (using MatPIV). The same effect also affects the sharp transition of the canvas at the stretcher's edge. In this case, a possible mechanism is a direct mechanical contact between stretcher and canvas that was investigated by HI technique. Finally, advanced algorithms applied to the square heating thermography (SHT) data were very useful to detect three Mylar® inserts simulating different type of defects. These fabricated defects were also identified by optical techniques, while the visual inspection was the only one capable of detecting a biological damage.

  19. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  20. Non-destructive testing at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    In 1969 CRNL recognized the need for a strong group skilled in non-destructive test procedures. Within two years a new branch called Quality Control Branch was staffed and working. This branch engages in all aspects of non-destructive testing including development of new techniques, new applications of known technology, and special problems in support of operating reactors. (author)

  1. Nondestructive radioassay for waste management: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, G.D.

    1981-06-01

    Nondestructive Assay (NDA) for Transuranic Waste Management is used to mean determining the amount of transuranic (TRU) isotopes in crates, drums, boxes, cans, or other containers without having to open the container. It also means determining the amount of TRU in soil, bore holes, and other environmental testing areas without having to go through extensive laboratory wet chemistry analyses. it refers to radioassay techniques used to check for contamination on objects after decontamination and to determine amounts of TRU in waste processing streams without taking samples to a laboratory. Gednerally, NDA instrumentation in this context refers to all use of radioassay which does not involve taking samples and using wet chemistry techniques. NDA instruments have been used for waste assay at some sites for over 10 years and other sites are just beginning to consider assay of wastes. The instrumentation used at several sites is discussed in this report. Almost all these instruments in use today were developed for special nuclear materials safeguards purposes and assay TRU waste down to the 500 nCi/g range. The need for instruments to assay alpha particle emitters at 10 nCi/g or less has risen from the wish to distinguish between Low Level Waste (LLW) and TRU Waste at the defined interface of 10 nCi/g. Wastes have historically been handled as TRU wastes if they were just suspected to be transuranically contaminated but their exact status was unknown. Economic and political considerations make this practice undesirable since it is easier and less costly to handle LLW. This prompted waste generators to want better instrumentation and led the Transuranic Waste Management Program to develop and test instrumentation capable of assaying many types of waste at the 10 nCi/g level. These instruments are discussed.

  2. Digital Recording and Non-Destructive Techniques for the Understanding of Structural Performance for Rehabilitating Historic Structures at the Kathmandu Valley after Gorkha Earthquake 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S.; Reina Ortiz, M.; Gutland, M.; Napolitano, R.; Morris, I. M.; Santana Quintero, M.; Erochko, J.; Kawan, S.; Shrestha, R. G.; Awal, P.; Suwal, S.; Duwal, S.; Maharjan, D. K.

    2017-08-01

    On 25 April 2015, the Gorkha earthquake of magnitude 7.8, severely damaged the cultural heritage sites of Nepal. In particular, the seven monument zones of the Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Site suffered extensive damage. Out of 195 surveyed monuments, 38 have completely collapsed and 157 partially damaged (DoA, 2015). In particular, the world historic city of Bhaktapur was heavily affected by the earthquake. There is, in general, a lack of knowledge regarding the traditional construction technology used in many of the most important temple monuments in Bhaktapur. To address this limitation and to assist in reconstruction and rehabilitation of the area, this study documents the existing condition of different historic structures in the Kathmandu Valley. In particular, the Nyatapola Temple is studied in detail. To record and document the condition of this temple, a combination of laser scanning and terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry are used. By also including evaluation of the temple and its supporting plinth structure using non-destructive evaluation techniques like geo-radar and micro-tremor dynamic analysis, this study will form the basis of a structural analysis study to assess the anticipated future seismic performance of the Nyatapola Temple.

  3. Combining non-destructive nuclear techniques to study Roman leaded copper coins from Ilipa (II–I centuries B.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Suárez, A.I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Chaves, F.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M.Á.; Ager, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    A set of 32 bronze coins (II–I centuries B.C.) from the Roman city of Ilipa Magna (present-day Alcalá del Río, Seville) have been analyzed by means of non-destructive techniques. These coins are classified in different series according to their numismatic characteristics. They are very interesting from the archaeological point of view because a freshwater fish is depicted on the obverse (unusual in Mediterranean Cultures) and a spike on the reverse (also unusual but frequent in the South of the Iberian Peninsula). A comparative study has been made by PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) both corrected by GRT (Gamma Ray Transmission) in order to avoid the polishing of the coins. The results show that after the correction with GRT both independent methods give compatible concentrations for all of the coins that can be assumed as the actual bulk compositions . The average concentrations of the different series have been calculated and they could help to classify the series of coins chronologically.

  4. Influence of porosity and relative humidity on consolidation of dolostone with calcium hydroxide nanoparticles: Effectiveness assessment with non-destructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arce, P., E-mail: plopezar@geo.ucm.es [Group of Applied Petrology to Heritage Conservation, Institute of Economic Geology (CSIC-UCM), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gomez-Villalba, L.S. [Group of Applied Petrology to Heritage Conservation, Institute of Economic Geology (CSIC-UCM), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pinho, L. [Center of Construction Studies, Engineering Faculty, Oporto University, Oporto 4200-465 (Portugal); Fernandez-Valle, M.E. [Research Assistance Center, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (Pluridisciplinar Institute), Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R. [Group of Applied Petrology to Heritage Conservation, Institute of Economic Geology (CSIC-UCM), Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Slaked lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) nanoparticles were exposed at 33% and 75% relative humidity (RH) to consolidate dolostone samples used in historical buildings. Non-destructive techniques (NDT) were applied to determine the chemical, morphological, physical and hydric properties of the stone samples, before and after 20 days treatment. Morphological and mineralogical characterisation of the nanoparticles was performed. 75% RH favors the consolidation process studied under Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM-EDS), spectrophotometry, capillarity, water absorption under vacuum, ultrasound velocity, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (imaging and relaxometry) and Optical Surface Roughness analyses. At 75% RH the nanoparticles fill the pores and inter-crystalline dolomite grain contacts but do not favor calcite re-crystallization as it occurs at 33% RH. The ESEM, XRD and TEM analyses under 75% RH reveal the fast transformation of portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}) into vaterite (CaCO{sub 3}), monohydrocalcite (CaCO{sub 3} . H{sub 2}O) and calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), and eventually the physical and hydric properties of the stones significantly improve. New insights are provided for the assessment of consolidation effectiveness of porous carbonate stones with calcium hydroxide nanoparticles under optimum RH conditions combining several NDT.

  5. Influence of porosity and relative humidity on consolidation of dolostone with calcium hydroxide nanoparticles: Effectiveness assessment with non-destructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Gomez-Villalba, L.S.; Pinho, L.; Fernandez-Valle, M.E.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2010-01-01

    Slaked lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) nanoparticles were exposed at 33% and 75% relative humidity (RH) to consolidate dolostone samples used in historical buildings. Non-destructive techniques (NDT) were applied to determine the chemical, morphological, physical and hydric properties of the stone samples, before and after 20 days treatment. Morphological and mineralogical characterisation of the nanoparticles was performed. 75% RH favors the consolidation process studied under Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM-EDS), spectrophotometry, capillarity, water absorption under vacuum, ultrasound velocity, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (imaging and relaxometry) and Optical Surface Roughness analyses. At 75% RH the nanoparticles fill the pores and inter-crystalline dolomite grain contacts but do not favor calcite re-crystallization as it occurs at 33% RH. The ESEM, XRD and TEM analyses under 75% RH reveal the fast transformation of portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ) into vaterite (CaCO 3 ), monohydrocalcite (CaCO 3 . H 2 O) and calcite (CaCO 3 ), and eventually the physical and hydric properties of the stones significantly improve. New insights are provided for the assessment of consolidation effectiveness of porous carbonate stones with calcium hydroxide nanoparticles under optimum RH conditions combining several NDT.

  6. A simple, sensitive and non-destructive technique for characterizing bovine dental enamel erosion: attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Son, Jun Sik; Min, Bong Ki; Kim, Young Kyoung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-03-30

    Although many techniques are available to assess enamel erosion in vitro, a simple, non-destructive method with sufficient sensitivity for quantifying dental erosion is required. This study characterized the bovine dental enamel erosion induced by various acidic beverages in vitro using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Deionized water (control) and 10 acidic beverages were selected to study erosion, and the pH and neutralizable acidity were measured. Bovine anterior teeth (110) were polished with up to 1 200-grit silicon carbide paper to produce flat enamel surfaces, which were then immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 30 min at 37 °C. The degree of erosion was evaluated using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Vickers' microhardness measurements. The spectra obtained were interpreted in two ways that focused on the ν1, ν3 phosphate contour: the ratio of the height amplitude of ν3 PO4 to that of ν1 PO4 (Method 1) and the shift of the ν3 PO4 peak to a higher wavenumber (Method 2). The percentage changes in microhardness after the erosion treatments were primarily affected by the pH of the immersion media. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between the surface hardness change and the degree of erosion, as detected by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (Perosion.

  7. Issues in the analyze of low content gold mining samples by fire assay technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetean, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The classic technique analyze of samples with low gold content - below 0.1 g/t (=100 ppb = parts per billion), either ore or gold sediments, involves the preparation of sample by fire assay extraction, followed by the chemical attack with aqua regia (hydrochloric and nitric acid) and measuring the gold content by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The issues raised by this analysis are well known for the world laboratories, commercial or research ones. The author's knowledge regarding this method of determining the gold content, accumulated in such laboratory from Romania (with more than 40 years of experience, even if not longer available from 2014) confirms the obtaining of reliable results required a lot of attention, amount of work and the involving of an experienced fire assayer specialist. The analytical conclusion for a research laboratory is that most reliable and statistically valid results are till reached for samples with more than 100 ppb gold content; the degree of confidence below this value is lower than 90%. Usually, for samples below 50 ppb, it does not exceed 50-70 %, unless without very strictly control of each stage, that involve additional percentage of hours allocated for successive extracting tests and knowing more precisely the other compounds that appear in the sample (Cu, Sb, As, sulfur / sulphides, Te, organic matter, etc.) or impurities. The most important operation is the preparation, namely: - grinding and splitting of sample (which can cause uneven distribution of gold flakes in the double samples for analyzed); - pyro-metallurgical recovery of gold = fire assay stage, involving the more precise temperature control in furnace during all stages (fusion and cupellation) and adjusting of the fire assay flux components to produce a successful fusion depending of the sample matrix and content; - reducing the sample weight to decrease the amount of impurities that can be concentrated in the lead button

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of differently doped InP wafers by time-resolved four-wave mixing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadys, A.; Sudzius, M.; Jarasiunas, K.; Mao Luhong; Sun Niefeng

    2006-01-01

    Photoelectric properties of semi-insulating, differently doped, and undoped indium phosphide wafers, grown by the liquid encapsulation Czochralski method, have been investigated by time-resolved picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Deep defect related carrier generation, recombination, and transport properties were investigated experimentally by measuring four-wave mixing kinetics and exposure characteristics. The presence of deep donor states in undoped InP was confirmed by a pronounced effect of a space charge electric field to carrier transport. On the other hand, the recharging dynamics of electrically active residual impurities was observed in undoped and Fe-doped InP through the process of efficient trapping of excess carriers. The bipolar diffusion coefficients and mobilities were determined for the all wafers

  9. Recent improvements concerning nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.

    1984-12-01

    Rare are the techniques of which development is not already touched by microelectronics and micro-data processing. Nondestructive testing and more particularly ultrasonic and Foucault current testing follow this general rule. With some examples, this paper focuses on the potential of numerical signal processing [fr

  10. Nondestructive testing at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, J.; Lucas, G.

    1976-01-01

    The different nondestructive testing methods used at the CEA are presented: X-ray or gamma radiography, X-ray stress analysis, neutron radiography, ultrasonic testing, eddy currents, electrical testing, microwaves, thermal testing, acoustic emission, optical holography, tracer techniques. (102 references are cited) [fr

  11. Aloe vera is non-toxic to cells: A microculture tetrazolium technique colorimetric assay study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera (Av, a succulent of Liliaceae family is now a widely used medicinal plant. Its′ application covers a wide spectrum of human diseases, including oral mucosa, gastric mucosa and skin. Aloe vera preparations in the form of gel, mouth washes and cream are applied topically for many oral diseases. The applications include oral lichen planus, candidiasis, oral submucous fibrosis, geographic tongue, etc. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Av on human fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Aloe vera preparation (70% was applied on the fibroblast cell lineage and the cell viability was evaluated by microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT colorimetric assay. Results: The cell viability at different concentrations was measured. The cells have maintained their viability at different concentrations used in the study. Conclusion: Our study shows the cell viability at different sample concentrations of Av. This could open up wide clinical applications of Av for reactive, inflammatory and potentially malignant oral and other mucocutaneous diseases.

  12. A FIFO based neutron arrival time collection technique for assay of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Saisubalakshmi, D.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    The system assays plutonium by counting the time correlated neutrons emitted by the spontaneous fissions of the even-even Pu isotopes in the presence of random neutron background, originating principally from (a,n) reactions in the material. The correlation technique discussed in this paper utilizes twofold neutron coincidence counting but the system is proposed to be enhanced for neutron multiplicity counting. A microcontroller based data acquisition system has been developed using a couple of fast FIFO 2kX9 bit memory ICs and a 16 bit counter for identifying time-correlated neutrons. Since the neutron pulses are arriving at a rapid rate, the incoming pulses are buffered in the FIFO and then transferred to PC by the microcontroller through the parallel port. The correlation analysis based on this time arrival information is done in the PC off-line. (author)

  13. Effect of soil contamination due to wastewater irrigation on total cesium as determined by destructive and nondestructive analytical techniques in some soils of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Lattif, A.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations to represent different soils irrigated with different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Sequential extraction experiment was carried out to determine different forms of Cs in soils. Moreover, Soil samples were analyzed for total Cs using two analytical methods i.e. destructive wet digestion technique (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, AAS or by summation of all sequential extracted fractions, SUM) and non-destructive technique (Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA). The aim of this study was to evaluate soil total Cs-forms (especially, bio-available fraction) as affected by soil pollution. Cesium was mostly concentrated in the residual fraction, and its values ranged from 57.4% to 82.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils and from 31.5% to 64.5 % of total Cs in tested clayey soil. Then organically bound Cs- fraction followed by Cs-occluded in Fe-Mn fraction, carbonate, exchangeable and water soluble fractions. Results suggested that, Cs level is affected by soil organic matter content, Fe-Mn oxides and clay content. The mobile Cs fraction (the sum of soluble and exchangeable fractions) ranged from 2% up to 9.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils. However, a higher value (9.82% to 15.31 %) could be observed in case of the tested clayey soils. Soils D and E were more contaminated than other tested soils. Data show obviously, that soil contaminated due to the irrigation with either sewage effluent or industrial wastewater has resulted in a drastic increase in both metal-organic and occluded in Fe and Mn oxide fractions followed by the carbonate fraction

  14. Non-destructive technique for determining the viability of soybean (Glycine max) seeds using FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Dewi; Lee, Hoonsoo; Lohumi, Santosh; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-03-01

    The viability of seeds is important for determining their quality. A high-quality seed is one that has a high capability of germination that is necessary to ensure high productivity. Hence, developing technology for the detection of seed viability is a high priority in agriculture. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy is one of the most popular devices among other vibrational spectroscopies. This study aims to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to determine the viability of soybean seeds. Viable and artificial ageing seeds as non-viable soybeans were used in this research. The FT-NIR spectra of soybean seeds were collected and analysed using a partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify viable and non-viable soybean seeds. Moreover, the variable importance in projection (VIP) method for variable selection combined with the PLS-DA was employed. The most effective wavelengths were selected by the VIP method, which selected 146 optimal variables from the full set of 1557 variables. The results demonstrated that the FT-NIR spectral analysis with the PLS-DA method that uses all variables or the selected variables showed good performance based on the high value of prediction accuracy for soybean viability with an accuracy close to 100%. Hence, FT-NIR techniques with a chemometric analysis have the potential for rapidly measuring soybean seed viability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Nondestructive analysis of the natural uranium mass through the measurement of delayed neutrons using the technique of pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto

    1979-01-01

    This work presents results of non destructive mass analysis of natural uranium by the pulsed source technique. Fissioning is produced by irradiating the test sample with pulses of 14 MeV neutrons and the uranium mass is calculated on a relative scale from the measured emission of delayed neutrons. Individual measurements were normalised against the integral counts of a scintillation detector measuring the 14 MeV neutron intensity. Delayed neutrons were measured using a specially constructed slab detector operated in anti synchronism with the fast pulsed source. The 14 MeV neutrons were produced via the T(d,n) 4 He reaction using a 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerated operated at 200 kV in the pulsed source mode. Three types of sample were analysed, namely: discs of metallic uranium, pellets of sintered uranium oxide and plates of uranium aluminium alloy sandwiched between aluminium. These plates simulated those of Material Testing Reactor fuel elements. Results of measurements were reproducible to within an overall error in the range 1.6 to 3.9%; the specific error depending on the shape, size and mass of the sample. (author)

  16. Use of delayed gamma rays for active non-destructive assay of {sup 235}U irradiated by pulsed neutron source (plasma focus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, T.C., E-mail: tckk@barc.gov.in [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rout, R.K. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D.B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B.S.; Ramakumar, K.L. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, S.C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    A pulsed neutron source based on plasma focus device has been used for active interrogation and assay of {sup 235}U by monitoring its delayed high energy γ-rays. The method involves irradiation of fissile material by thermal neutrons obtained after moderation of a burst of neutrons emitted upon fusion of deuterium in plasma focus (PF) device. The delayed gamma rays emitted from the fissile material as a consequence of induced fission were detected by a large volume sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector. The detector is coupled to a data acquisition system of 2k input size with 2k ADC conversion gain. Counting was carried out in pulse height analysis mode for time integrated counts up to 100 s while the temporal profile of delayed gamma has been obtained by counting in multichannel scaling mode with dwell time of 50 ms. To avoid the effect of passive (natural) and active (from surrounding materials) backgrounds, counts have been acquired for gamma energy between 3 and 10 MeV. The lower limit of detection of {sup 235}U in the oxide samples with this set-up is estimated to be 14 mg.

  17. Non-destructive assay system for uranium and plutonium in reprocessing input solutions. Hybrid K-edge/XRF Densitometer. JASPAS JC-11 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surugaya, N.; Abe, K.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, H.; Kuno, Y.

    1997-05-01

    As a part of JASPAS programme, a non-radioactive assay system for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in input dissolver solutions of a spent fuel reprocessing plant, called Hybrid K-edge/XRF Densitometer, has been developed at the Tokai Reprocessing plant (TRP) since 1991. The instrument is the one of the hybrid type combined K-edge densitometry (KED) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The KED is used to determine the uranium concentration and the XRF is used to determine the U/Pu ratio. These results give the plutonium concentration in consequence. It is considered that the instrument has the capability of timely on-site verification for input accountancy. The instrument had been installed in the analytical hot cell at the TRP and the experiments comparing with Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) method have been carried out. As the results of measurements for the actual input solutions in the acceptance and performance tests, it was typically confirmed that the precision for determining uranium concentration by the KED was within 0.2%, whereas the XRF for plutonium performed within 0.7%. This final report summarizes the design information and performance data so as to end the JASPAS programme. (author)

  18. Non-destructive soil amendment application techniques on heavy metal-contaminated grassland: Success and long-term immobilising efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Platzer, Klaus; Riesing, Johann; Horak, Othmar; Waldner, Georg; Watzinger, Andrea; Gerzabek, Martin H

    2017-01-15

    Extensive contamination of grassland with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) is a typical problem close to Pb/Zn smelter sites. The entry of Cd or Pb into the food chain is very likely, as are toxicity effects of Zn in plants. Previous promising results from pot and field experiments showed the high potential of using amendments for immobilisation to reduce metal input into the food chain via crops grown on smelter-contaminated soils at Arnoldstein (Austria) (Friesl et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to find a practical solution for large-scale contaminations in hilly regions that avoids erosion. Field application of amendments without destroying the vegetation cover (grassland) involved two approaches: (a) slurrying (Slu) the amendments into cut gaps in the vegetation cover and (b) injecting (Inj) the amendments through the vegetation cover. Here, we investigate the immobilising and long-term efficiency of treatments [gravel sludge (2.5%) + red mud (0.5%) (GS + RM)]. Risk assessment was based on soil, plant and water samples taken over a period of 10 years. Ammonium-nitrate-extractable Cd was reduced up to 50%, Pb up to 90%, and Zn over 90%. Plant uptake into the grass mixture and narrow leaf plantain was significantly reduced for Cd, Pb, and Zn. Harvesting early in vegetation period can further reduce uptake and meet the threshold for fodder crops. The reduction of these elements in the seepage water in 24 samplings within these 10 years reached 40%, 45% and 50%, respectively. Immobilisation increased microbial biomass and decreased human bioaccessibility for Pb. Our investigation of the long-term efficiency of GS + RM in all treatments shows that the Slu and Inj amendment application techniques have promising potential as a realistic and practical method for extensively contaminated hilly land. Slurrying performed best. We conclude that grassland remediation methods involving tillage are counterproductive from the viewpoint of bioaccessibility

  19. Non-destructive Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hyeon; Ryu, Taek In; Ko, Jun Bin; Hwang, Yong Hwa

    2006-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of non-destructive engineering on outline of non-destructive test, weld defects, radiographic inspection radiography, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, eddy current inspection method, strain measurement, acoustic emission inspection method, other non-destructive testing like leakage inspection method, and non-destructive mechanics for fault analysis such as Griffiths creaking theory, and stress analysis of creaking.

  20. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-08-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (≈50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying

  1. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (∼50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3 ) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm -3 ). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and

  2. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in {alpha} low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: fanny.jallu@cea.fr; Loche, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-08-15

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low {alpha}-activity fissile masses (mainly {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating {alpha} low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[{alpha}] per gram of crude waste ({approx}50 {mu}g Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm{sup -3}) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm{sup -3}). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction

  3. Non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Slam, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron radiography is similar to x ray radiography, in which the radiation is attenuating when passing through the matter, in different manner according to the nature of material . the advantage of neutron radiography rather than x ray radiography is the adjacent elements in the periodic tabl are interacting with neutrons in different rules. rather than that interaction of x ray with matter; thus the adjacent elements could be discriminated by neutron radiography than x ray radiography. there are 104 neutron radiography facilities all over the world, in 34 countries, the number of facilities, that are actually in operation, are 56 facilities in 1996, about 75% of them are using research reactors, as a neutron source, the others use radioactive neutron sources, or accelerators produce interaction to produce neutrons. there is a neutron radiography facility in SAFARI I reactor, 20 Mw use for commercial case in south africa.the most important use of neutron radiography is that, we can detect hydrogenous and liquid materials inside the metals, and black neutron absorbing material as well. the ETRR-2 is designed with a neutron radiography facility, which was commissioned in 1999,the aim of this thesis is to investigate the characteristic parameters of the facility; to assure the optimum conditions for its operation , and to assure the proper conditions for radiograph by neutrons, the benefit of this thesis is the actual operation of the ETRR-2 neutron radiography facility at the beginning half of 2002.he characterization parameters affecting the optimum conditions are: reactor power, flux distribution , n t h/ γ ratio, and Cd ratio. we investigated the optimum conditions for best resolution , best contrast, best kind of films to be used and optimum etching time. different applications of the facility have been performed, including non return valve, pin dosimeter, and pocket dosimeter

  4. Non-destructive assay employing 2D and 3D digital radiographic imaging acquired with thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Almeida, Gevaldo Lisboa de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The inner structure of some objects can only be visualized by using suitable techniques, when safety reasons or expensive costs preclude the application of invasive procedures. The kind of agent rendering an object partially transparent, unveiling thus its features, depends upon the object size and composition. As a rough rule of thumb, light materials are transparent to gamma and X-rays while the heavy ones are transparent to neutrons. When, after traversing an object, they hit a proper 2-D detector, a radiograph is produced representing a convoluted cross section, called projection, of that object. Taking a large number of such projections for different object attitudes, it is possible to obtain a 3-D tomography of the object as a map of attenuation coefficients. This procedure however, besides a time-consuming task, requires specially tailored equipment and software, not always available or affordable. Yet, in some circumstances it is feasible to replace the 3-D tomography by a stereoscopy, allowing one to visualize the spatial configuration of the object under analysis. In this work, 2-D and 3-D radiographic images have been acquired using thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes and proper imaging plates as detectors. The stereographic vision has been achieved by taking two radiographs of the same object at different angles, from the detector point of view. After a treatment to render them red-white and green-white they were properly merged to yield a single image capable to be watched with red-green glasses. All the image treatment and rendering has been performed with the software ImageJ. (author)

  5. Studies of food folates and folic acid deficiency by radioligand competitive binding assay techniques. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchy, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    Conjugese extracted from winged bean or sweet potato leaves was used to release folate from Sri Lankan foodstuffs. Total folate was then estimated by competitive binding assay using goat milk as binding agent. Of 33 foodstuffs investigated, green gram, cow pea, and red gram among the pulses and mukunuvenna, amaranth and centella among the leafy vegetables were shown to be rich sources of folate. Between 20 and 60% of total folate was lost when such foodstuffs were boiled for 60 minutes. It is thus advisable that pulses and leafy vegetables be boiled only for the minimum time necessary for tenderization before consumption

  6. Electronics system for transuranic waste assays using a photon interrogation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Lawrence, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    This report documents the development of electronics for a neutron detection system used in experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of a photon interrogation technique for transuranic (TRU) waste assays. The system consists of the neutron detection and signal conditioning circuits, variable time-gate generators, and a data acquisition system. The data acquisition system is configured using commercially available scalers, timers, teletype, and control components. The remainder of the system, with the exception of the neutron detectors, uses components designed in-house. The neutron detection system consists of 3 He proportional counters installed in a polyethylene moderator assembly. The counters are direct-coupled to a high-count-rate, current-sensitive preamplifier. The preamplifier and an additional two-stage amplifier are also installed in the moderator assembly. Signal conditioning includes baseline restoration and fast discrimination. A variable time-gate generator with logic gates allows for separation of prompt and delayed neutron counts, and generation of prompt and delayed deadtimes. The 3 He proportional counters will detect not only the neutrons from the TRU waste sample, but also the high-energy photons used to induce fission in the sample. The burst of photons (gamma flash) tends to overload and paralyze the electronics. This system has been designed to recover from a worst-case gamma flash overload within 10 microseconds. The system has met all the requirements generated for the photon interrogation experiments

  7. The DNA 'comet assay' as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, H.; Delincee, H.; Haine, H.; Rupp, H.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded

  8. Micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunosorbent technique (RIST) for the detection of immunity to clinical tetanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, G T [Royal Infirmary, Manchester (UK)

    1980-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and radioimmunosorbent assay (RIST) techniques for the detection of tetanus toxin antibodies are described. Both methods proved to be highly sensitive, and allowed the measurement of 5 x 10/sup -3/ units/ml tetanus antitoxin in human serum or plasma, sensitivity and reproducibility comparing well with other techniques previously described, and being superior to haemagglutination and latex agglutination tests. Results of the two methods correlated well, and reflected the immunization histories obtained. Micro ELISA and micro RIST would seem to be suitable for the detection of immunity, or non-immunity to clinical tetanus.

  9. A micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunosorbent technique (RIST) for the detection of immunity to clinical tetanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and radioimmunosorbent assay (RIST) techniques for the detection of tetanus toxin antibodies are described. Both methods proved to be highly sensitive, and allowed the measurement of 5 x 10 -3 units/ml tetanus antitoxin in human serum or plasma, sensitivity and reproducibility comparing well with other techniques previously described, and being superior to haemagglutination and latex agglutination tests. Results of the two methods correlated well, and reflected the immunization histories obtained. Micro ELISA and micro RIST would seem to be suitable for the detection of immunity, or non-immunity to clinical tetanus. (author)

  10. Nondestructive nuclear measurement in the fuel cycle. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement techniques are today widely used in practically all steps of the fuel cycle. This article is devoted to the presentation of the control and characterization needs and to the main passive nondestructive nuclear methods used: 1 - nondestructive nuclear measurement, needs and motivation: nuclear fuel cycle, nondestructive nuclear measurements (passive and active methods), comments; 2 - main passive nondestructive nuclear measurement methods: gamma spectroscopy (principle, detectors, electronic systems, data acquisition and signal processing, domains of application, main limitations), passive neutronic measurements (needs and motivations, neutron detectors, total neutronic counting, neutronic coincidences counting, neutronic multiplicities counting, comments). (J.S.)

  11. Can non-destructive inspection be reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, M.G.; Stoneham, A.M.; Temple, J.A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on inspection is based on the book ''The reliability of non-destructive inspection: assessing the assessment of structures under stress'' by the present authors (published by Adam Hilger 1987). Emphasis is placed on the reliability of inspection and whether cracks in welds or flaws in components can be detected. The need for non-destructive testing and the historical attitudes to non-destructive testing are outlined, along with the case of failure. Factors influencing reliable inspection are discussed, and defect detection trials involving round robin tests are described. The development of reliable inspection techniques and the costs of reliability and unreliability are also examined. (U.K.)

  12. Spectral Shifting in Nondestructive Assay Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nettleton, Anthony Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tutt, James Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaFleur, Adrienne Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    This project involves spectrum tailoring research that endeavors to better distinguish energies of gamma rays using different spectral material thicknesses and determine neutron energies by coating detectors with various materials.

  13. Non-destructive assay of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.; Bernard, P.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle generates a large variety of waste containing Pu. After treatment and conditioning the final destination of this waste is either to be disposed by shallow land burial or in underground geological repositories. The method of disposal is determined by the quantity of Pu contained in the waste to be disposed of. For this reason and taking into account the rigorous requirements of the safety authorities concerning the protection of people and the environment, it is most important to determine accurately the Pu contents in the waste. Separate abstracts were prepared for 28 papers in this book

  14. Evaluating the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the properties of high volume fly ash roller compacted concrete pavement using non-destructive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S. Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problems related to roller compacted concrete (RCC pavement are high rigidity, lower tensile strength which causes a tendency of cracking due to thermal or plastic shrinkage, flexural and fatigue loads. Furthermore, RCC pavement does not support the use of dowel bars or reinforcement due to the way it is placed and compacted, these also aided in cracking and consequently increased maintenance cost. To address these issues, high volume fly ash (HVFA RCC pavement was developed by partially replacing 50% cement by volume with fly ash. Crumb rubber was used as a partial replacement to fine aggregate in HVFA RCC pavement at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% replacement by volume. Nano silica was added at 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of cementitious materials to improve early strength development in HVFA RCC pavement and mitigate the loss of strength due to the incorporation of crumb rubber. The nondestructive technique using the rebound hammer test (RHT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV were used to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the performance of HVFA RCC pavement. The results showed that the use of HVFA as cement replacement decreases both the unit weight, compressive strength, rebound number (RN. Furthermore, the unit weight, compressive strength, RN, UPV and dynamic modulus of elasticity of HVFA RCC pavement all decreases with increase in crumb rubber content and increases with the addition of nano-silica. Combined UPV-RN (SonReb models for predicting the 28 days strength of HVFA RCC pavement based on combining UPV and RN were developed using multivariable regression (double power, bilinear, and double exponential models. The exponential combined SonReb model is the most suitable for predicting the compressive strength of HVFA RCC pavement using UPV and RN as the independent variable with better predicting ability, higher correlation compared to the single variable models. Keywords: Crumb rubber, High volume fly ash, Nano

  15. Monte carlo feasibility study of an active neutron assay technique for full-volume UF{sub 6} cylinder assay using a correlated interrogation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Karen A., E-mail: kamiller@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, P.O. Box 1663 MS E540, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, P.O. Box 1663 MS E540, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Uranium cylinder assay plays an important role in the nuclear material accounting at gas centrifuge enrichment plants. The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) was designed to determine uranium mass and enrichment in 30B and 48Y cylinders using total neutron and coincidence counting in the passive mode. 30B and 48Y cylinders are used to hold bulk UF{sub 6} feed, product, and tails at enrichment plants. In this paper, we report the results of a Monte-Carlo-based feasibility study for an active uranium cylinder assay system based on the PNEM design. There are many advantages of the active technique such as a shortened count time and a more direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The active system is based on a modified PNEM design and uses a {sup 252}Cf source as the correlated, active interrogation source. We show through comparison with a random AmLi source of equal strength how the use of a correlated driver significantly boosts the active signal and reduces the statistical uncertainty. We also discuss ways in which an active uranium cylinder assay system can be optimized to minimize background from {sup 238}U fast-neutron induced fission and direct counts from the interrogation source.

  16. Nondestructive inspection using neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron-abased experimental techniques such as neutronography, diffraction, or composition and elemental analysis are well established. They have important advantages in the non-destructive analysis of materials, making them a suitable option for quality-control protocols in industrial production lines. In addition, they are highly complementary to other non-destructive techniques, particularly X-ray analysis. Examples of industrial use include studies of pipes and ducts, concrete, or aeronautical components. Notwithstanding the above, the high cost associated with the construction and operation of the requisite neutron facilities has been an important limiting factor for their widespread use by the industrial sector. In this brief contribution, we explore the emerging (and already demonstrated) possibility of using compact, proton-accelerator-based neutron sources. these novel sources can be built and ran at a cost as low as a few ME, making them a competitive option to the more intense spallation or fission-based facilities for industrial applications. (Author)

  17. Handbook of nondestructive evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hellier, Charles

    2013-01-01

    "Fully revised to cover the latest nondestructive testing (NDT) procedures, this practical resource reviews established and emerging methods for examining materials without destroying them or altering their structure...

  18. Neutron techniques in Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An essential part of Safeguards is the ability to quantitatively and nondestructively assay those materials with special neutron-interactive properties involved in nuclear industrial or military technology. Neutron techniques have furnished most of the important ways of assaying such materials, which is no surprise since the neutronic properties are what characterizes them. The techniques employed rely on a wide selection of the many methods of neutron generation, detection, and data analysis that have been developed for neutron physics and nuclear science in general

  19. Review of the status of nondestructive measurement techniques to quantify material property degradation due to aging and planning for further evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Boyd, D.M.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Green, E.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Simonen, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in nuclear reactors are inspected periodically during the service life of the power plant to detect degradation that might occur. These inspections follow the rules specified in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These inspections are designed to detect service-induced failure mechanisms. This program is designed not to look at the detection of defects but the making of nondestructive measurements to quantify the material properties that a defect may reside in or the incipient condition(s) that may initiate a defect. This program is intended to provide an assessment of the technologies that are available to quantify with nondestructive measurements material properties or material property changes related to degradation due to aging of structural components in light water reactors. In addition, a program plan will be developed that describes the work necessary to create adequate engineering data bases for demonstrating and validating prototypic systems for making these measurements. The main thrust this year has been an extensive review of literature and an assessment of the technology. The second major activity was the planning of a workshop to bring together 30 leading experts in materials and nondestructive evaluation to discuss the state-of-the-art and to address where future work should go

  20. Ultrasonic testing of materials at level 2. Manual for the syllabi contained in IAEA-TECDOC-628, training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology for many years. The prime reason for this interest has been the need for stringent quality control standards for the safe operation of nuclear installations. The IAEA has successfully executed a number of regional projects of which NDT was an important part. These were the Regional Co-operative Arrangements for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America (ARCAL), the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), the African Regional Co-operative Agreement (AFRA) and lately the NDT Regional Project in West Asia. Through these projects a large number of persons have been trained in Member States and a state of self-sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many of them. There has long been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines and related books in order, firstly, to guide IAEA experts who were involved in this training programme and, secondly, to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and consequent competence of personnel. The syllabi for training courses have been published in the form of two publications, IAEA-TECDOC-407 and IAEA-TECDOC-628. IAEA-TECDOC-628, as well as most of the international standards on the subject of training and certification of NDT personnel includes ISO 9712. The next logical step is to compile the textbooks and training manuals. Work in this regard has been undertaken and a manual on radiographic testing was issued in 1992 in the Training Course Series. This publication is a continuation of that effort. Earlier training notes on this subject existed in the form of IAEA-TECDOC-462, which was compiled in accordance with the syllabus of IAEA-TECDOC-407. These fulfilled the training needs of the member countries of RCA for quite some time. The present book is in fact an expanded and

  1. DNA Comet Assay. A simple screening technique for identification of some irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    DNA Comet Assay method was carried out to detect irradiation treatment of some foods like meat, spices, beans and lentils. The fresh meat of cow and duck were irradiated up to radiation doses of 3 kGy, the spices (cardamoms and cumin black) were irradiated to radiation doses of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy while the beans (black beans and white beans) and lentils (red and green lentils) were irradiated to 0.5 and 1 kGy. All the foods were then analyzed for radiation treatment using simple microgel electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei (DNA Comet Assay). Sedimentation, lysis and staining times were adjusted to get optimized conditions for correct and easy analysis of each food. Using these optimized conditions, it was found out that radiation damaged DNA showed comets in case of irradiated food samples, whereas in non-treated food samples, round or conical spots of stained DNA were visible. Shape, length and intensity of these comets were also radiation dose dependent. Screening of unirradiated and irradiated samples by Comet Assay was successful in the case of all the foods under consideration under the optimized conditions of assay. Therefore, for different kinds of irradiated foods studied in the present study, the DNA Comet Assay can be used as a rapid, simple and inexpensive screening test. (author)

  2. Nondestructive Testing with Shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seog Weon

    2001-01-01

    Nondestructive testing(NDT) is one of the fundamental tools to improve the quality of commercial and industrial products. NDT is potentially a major application of interferometry. Interferometry(ESPI, Shearography, ect) has successfully been applied in various industrial environments such as high performance aircraft, home appliance, automotive, and laminates on engine structures, etc. Today's industry demands high performance components with toughest mechanical features and ultimate safety standards. Especially in automotive and aircraft industry the development process focuses on tailor-made design and solutions to meet customer specifications. To reconcile economy, ligh-weight construction has become a key issue. Many companies are looking for new advanced NDT techniques to archive cost efficiency over the limitations of classical methods. ESPI and shearography allow a rapid, full field and 3D-measurement without contact. In this paper recent applications of ESPI and shearography for NDT are described. Advanced features of classical techniques are specified and new applications in material and component testing are presented

  3. Nondestructive testing of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufino, Randy R.; Relunia, Estrella

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive testing of concrete is highly inhomogeneous which makes it cumbersome to setup experimental procedures and analyze experimental data. However, recent research and development activities have discovered the different methods of NDT, like the electromagnetic method, ultrasonic pulse velocity test, pulse echo/impact echo test, infrared thermography, radar or short pulse radar techniques, neutron and gamma radiometry, radiography, carbonation test and half-cell potential method available for NDT of concrete structures. NDT of concrete is emerging as a useful tool for quality control and assurance. This papers also describes the more common NDT methods discussed during the two-week course on 'Nondestructive Testing of Concrete Structures', held at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) in Malaysia, which was jointly organized by MINT and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  4. A technique for combining neutron and gamma-ray data into a single assay value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Mercer, D.; Sharpe, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors explored the potentials of using both neutron and gamma-ray measurements on a single item and combining these data into a single assay value. The purpose was to improve assay capability for sample matrices that are difficult to measure. They chose an empirical approach because they wanted to address difficult-to-measure items for which the assay problem is complex. They used the tomographic gamma scanner; a passive, high-efficiency neutron counter with add-a-source and multiplicity; and an active neutron, californium shuffler to obtain measurements. Twenty-four 200-L drums were measured with various matrices using all three machines. The matrices were chosen specifically to spain the difficult-to-measure assay problems for some or all of the instruments. For example, the authors measured a drum filled with concrete and another filled with metal. The data from these measurements were analyzed using the alternating conditional expectation algorithm, which is one of a class of generalized additive models. Other data fusion algorithms are also possible and are being explored. The intent was to find ways to combine the data that would reduce the matrix-induced measurement error

  5. Uranium and thorium loadings determined by chemical and nondestructive methods in HTGR fuel rods for the Fort St. Vrain Early Validation Irradiation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Rushton, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain Early Validation Irradiation Experiment is an irradiation test of reference and of improved High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuels in the Fort St. Vrain Reactor. The irradiation test includes fuel rods fabricated at ORNL on an engineering scale fuel rod molding machine. Fuel rods were nondestructively assayed for 235 U content by a technique based on the detection of prompt-fission neutrons induced by thermal-neutron interrogation and were later chemically assayed by using the modified Davies Gray potentiometric titration method. The chemical analysis of the thorium content was determined by a volumetric titration method. The chemical assay method for uranium was evaluated and the results from the as-molded fuel rods agree with those from: (1) large samples of Triso-coated fissile particles, (2) physical mixtures of the three particle types, and (3) standard solutions to within 0.05%. Standard fuel rods were fabricated in order to evaluate and calibrate the nondestructive assay device. The agreement of the results from calibration methods was within 0.6%. The precision of the nondestructive assay device was established as approximately 0.6% by repeated measurements of standard rods. The precision was comparable to that estimated by Poisson statistics. A relative difference of 0.77 to 1.5% was found between the nondestructive and chemical determinations on the reactor grade fuel rods

  6. Nondestructive analysis of irradiated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudey, N.D.; Frick, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The principal nondestructive examination techniques presently used to assess the physical integrity of reactor fuels and cladding materials include gamma-scanning, profilometry, eddy current, visual inspection, rod-to-rod spacing, and neutron radiography. LWR fuels are generally examined during annual refueling outages, and are conducted underwater in the spent fuel pool. FBR fuels are primarily examined in hot cells after fuel discharge. Although the NDE techniques are identical, LWR fuel examinations emphasize tests to demonstrate adherence to technical specification and reliable fuel performance; whereas, FBR fuel examinations emphasize aspects more related to the relative performance of different types of fuel and cladding materials subjected to variable irradiation conditions

  7. Applications of radioimmunoassay techniques in endocrine studies. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusic, E.T.

    1977-04-01

    The final report consists of a description of the research done, a reference to where the abstract of the results obtained was published, and a list of the corresponding publications and of those in preparation. Work has been done on radioimmunoassay techniques for measuring plasma corticoid values, plasma renin activity (with own reagents), and clinical and research studies measuring aldosterone, corticosterone, and cortisol in control and hypophysectomized patients. Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism has been initiated by radioimmunoassay techniques. Another study concerned the mechanism of K ions on aldosterone production

  8. The real defect and its nondestructive characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, H.

    1982-01-01

    Nondestructive test techniques to evaluate defect severity and component degradation are typically based on transmission of energy into the material to be inspected. The capabilities of such techniques are controlled by physical phenomena which generally do not coincide with inspection requirements. This paper reviews several recent developments (mainly in ultrasonic and eddy current testing) which highlight the state of the art

  9. Image-based ELISA on an activated polypropylene microtest plate--a spectrophotometer-free low cost assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2013-10-15

    In this communication, we report ELISA technique on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPµTP) as an illustrative example of a low cost diagnostic assay. Activated test zone in APPµTP binds a capture biomolecule through covalent linkage thereby, eliminating non-specific binding often prevalent in absorption based techniques. Efficacy of APPµTP is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody in patient's sera. Detection is done by taking the image of the assay solution by a desktop scanner and analyzing the color of the image. Human IgE quantification by color saturation in the image-based assay shows excellent correlation with absorbance-based assay (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.992). Significance of the relationship is seen from its p value which is 4.087e-11. Performance of APPµTP is also checked with respect to microtiter plate and paper-based ELISA. APPµTP can quantify an analyte as precisely as in microtiter plate with insignificant non-specific binding, a necessary prerequisite for ELISA assay. In contrast, paper-ELISA shows high non-specific binding in control sera (false positive). Finally, we have carried out ELISA steps on APPµTP by ultrasound waves on a sonicator bath and the results show that even in 8 min, it can convincingly differentiate a test sample from a control sample. In short, spectrophotometer-free image-based miniaturized ELISA on APPµTP is precise, reliable, rapid, and sensitive and could be a good substitute for conventional immunoassay procedures widely used in clinical and research laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Techniques for improving shuffler assay results for 55-gallon waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Prettyman, T.H.; Stuenkel, D.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate assays of the fissile contents in waste drums are needed to ensure the most proper and economical handling and disposal of the waste. An improvement of accuracy will mean fewer drums disposed as transuranic waste when they really contain low-level waste, saving both money and burial sites. Shufflers are used for assaying waste drums and are very accurate with nonmoderating matrices (such as iron). In the active mode they count delayed neutrons released after fissions are induced by irradiation neutrons from a 252 Cf source. However, as the hydrogen density from matrices such as paper or gloves increases, the accuracy can suffer without proper attention. The neutron transport and fission probabilities change with the hydrogen density, causing the neutron count rate to vary with the position of the fissile material within the drum. The magnitude of this variation grows with the hydrogen density

  11. Review of the status of nondestructive measurement techniques to quantify material property degradation due to aging and planning for further evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Green, E.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Simonen, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in nuclear reactors are inspected periodically during the service life of the power plant to detect degradation that might occur. These inspections follow the rules specified in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These inspections are designed to detect service-induced failure mechanisms. This program is designed not to look at the detection of defects but the marking of nondestructive measurements to quantify the material properties that a defect may reside in or the incipient condition(s) that may initiate a defect. This program is intended to provide an assessment of the technologies that are available to quantify with nondestructive measurements material properties or material property changes related to degradation due to aging of structural components in light water reactors. In addition, a program plan will be developed that describes the work necessary to create adequate engineering data bases for demonstrating and validating prototypic systems for making these measurements. The main thrust this year has been an extensive review of literature and an assessment of the technology. The second major activity was the planning of a workshop to bring together 30 leading experts in materials and NDE to discuss the state-of-the-art and to address where future work should go

  12. Nondestructive quality evaluation technology of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sang Ha

    1997-01-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural products has been interested to many researchers for many years and as the result, several nondestructive techniques and so many papers have been reported for quality evaluation of agricultural products. These nondestructive techniques are based on the detection of mechanical, optical, electrical, electro-magnetical, dielectric and vibrational properties of agricultural products that are well correlated with certain quality factors of the products such as color, shape, firmness, sugar content, external or internal defects, moisture content, etc. The sophistication of nondestructive methods has evolved rapidly with modem technologies. In this paper an emphasis was put on reviewing some of those papers and techniques which could be led to on-line measurement for practical use.

  13. Detection of hypoxic fractions in murine tumors by comet assay: Comparison with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Q.; Kavanagh, M.C.; Newcombe, D.

    1995-01-01

    The alkaline comet assay was used to detect the hypoxic fractions of murine tumors. A total of four tumor types were tested using needle aspiration biopsies taken immediately after a radiation dose of 15 Gy. Initial studies confirmed that the normalized tail moment, a parameter reflecting single-strand DNA breaks induced by the radiation, was linearly related to radiation dose. Further, it was shown that for a mixed population (1:1) of cells irradiated under air-breathing or hypoxic conditions, the histogram of normal tail moment values obtained from analyzing 400 cells in the population had a double peak which, when fitted with two Gaussian distributions, gave a good estimate of the proportion of the two subpopulations. For the four tumor types, the means of the calculated hypoxic fractions from four or five individual tumors were 0.15 ± 0.04 for B16F1, 0.08 ± 0.04 for KHT-LP1, 0.17 ± 0.04 for RIF-1 and 0.04 ± 0.01 for SCCVII. Analysis of variance showed that the hypoxic fraction in KHT-LP1 tumors is significantly lower than those of the other three tumors (P = 0.026) but that there is no significant difference in hypoxic fraction between B16F1, RIF-1 and SCCVII tumors (P = 0.574). Results from multiple samples taken from each of five RIF-1 tumors showed that the intertumor heterogeneity of hypoxic fractions was greater than that within the same tumor. The mean hypoxic fraction obtained using the comet assay for the four tumor types was compared with the hypoxic fraction determined by the clonogenic assay, or median pO 2 values, or [ 3 H]misonidazole binding in the same tumor types. The values of hypoxic fraction obtained with the comet assay were two to four times lower than those measured by the paired survival method. Preliminary results obtained with a dose of 5 Gy were consistent with those obtained using 15 Gy. These results suggest the further development of the comet assay for clinical studies. 21 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Nondestructive testing 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings contain 24 contributions, out of which 14 have been inputted in INIS. These deal with materials for nondestructive testing and various nondestructive testing systems, with the evaluation of radiograms and with the application of radiographic, ultrasonic and eddy current methods to the detection of defects in materials, to the inspection of nuclear reactor components and in other fields of technology. (B.S.)

  15. Non-Destructive Testing for Concrete Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengku Sarah Tengku Amran; Noor Azreen Masenwat; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a technique to determine the integrity of a material, component or structure. It is essential in the inspection of alteration, repair and new construction in the building industry. There are a number of non-destructive testing techniques that can be applied to determine the integrity of concrete in a completed structure. Each has its own advantages and limitations. For concrete, these problems relate to strength, cracking, dimensions, delamination, and inhomogeneities. NDT is reasonably good and reliable tool to measure the property of concrete which also gives the fair indication of the compressive strength development. This paper discussed the concrete inspection using combined methods of NDT. (author)

  16. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 4. Moisture determination in coal: survey of electromagnetic techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.; Brown, D.R.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Elias, E.

    1979-01-01

    This survey consists of two basic parts. The first consists of a survey of various non-nuclear moisture determination techniques. Three techniques are identified as promising for eventual on-line application with coal; these are the capacitance, microwave attenuation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The second part is devoted to an in-depth analysis of these three techniques and the current extent to which they have been applied to coal. With a given coal type, accuracies of +- 1% absolute in moisture content are achievable with all three techniques. The accuracy of the two electromagnetic techniques has been demonstrated in the laboratory and on-line in coal burning plants, whereas only small samples have been analyzed with NMR. The current shortcoming of the simple electromagnetic techniques is the sensitivity of calibrations to physical parameters and coal type. NMR is currently limited by small sample sizes and non-rugged design. These findings are summarized and a list of manufacturers of moisture analyzers is given in the Appendix

  17. Identification of radiation treatment of foods using novel technique of 'DNA comet assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, H.M.; Wasim, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of food using ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf life thereby contributing to safer and more plentiful food supply. Food control agencies throughout the world need some reliable, simple and rapid methods for the detection foods to ensure free choice of consumer and to enforce labeling. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to screen irradiated and unirradiated samples of several kinds of foods. In the present study samples of fresh and frozen beef has investigated for the detection of irradiation treatment. The samples were subjected to radiation doses of 0,4.5 and 7 KGy and were stored in freezer before analysis. The cells were extracted into cold PBS solutions, embedded into agarose gel on microscope slides, lysed and eletrophoressed at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2 minutes. The fragmented DNA as a irradiation treatment was stretched in the gel producing the dose dependent comets. These comets were visible using a simple transmission microscope after silver staining. The controlled and irradiation samples of meat were clearly distinguishable on the basis of the stained patterns of DNA in from of round or conical intact cells for unirradiated samples or in from of comets for irradiated samples. It is therefore concluded that DNA comet Assay offers a potential to screen unirradiated and irradiated meat samples. (author)

  18. Detection of radiation treatment of meat by novel techniques of DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf life; thereby contributing to safer and more plentiful food supply. Food control agencies throughout the world need some reliable, simple and rapid methods for detection of irradiated foods to ensure free choice of consumer and to enforce labeling. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to screen irradiated and unirradiated samples of several kinds of foods. In the present study, frozen beef has been investigated for detection of irradiation treatment. The samples were subjected to radiation doses of 0,4,5 and 7.0 kGy and were stored in freezer before analysis. The cells were extracted into cold PBS solutions, embedded into the agarose gel on microscope slides, lysed and electrophoressed at a voltage of 2v/cm for 2 min. The fragmented DNA as a result of irradiation treatment was stretched in the gel producing the dose dependent comets. These comets were visible using a simple transmission microscope after silver staining. The controlled and irradiated samples of meat were clearly distinguishable on the basis of the stained patterns of DNA in form of round or conical intact cells for unirradiated samples or in form of comets for irradiated samples. It is therefore, concluded that 'DNA Comet Assay' offers a potential to screen unirradiated and irradiated meat samples. (author)

  19. Comparison of Enzymatic Assay and Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique in the Assessment of Microbial Quality of the Karoon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Nikaeen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological monitoring of surface waters designated for use as drinking water is essential by water utilities for the design and operation of drinking water treatment plants. Enzymatic assays have been applied as a rapid alternative approach to assess the microbiological quality of freshwater. In this study, the LMX broth (LMX as an enzymatic assay was compared with the standard method of multiple tube fermentation technique (MTF for the microbial monitoring of the Karoon River. Enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli averaged 9928 and 6684 MPN/ 100 ml by the LMX and 7564 and 6546 MPN/ 100 ml for the MTF, respectively. This difference was statistically significant for TC but the overall analysis revealed no difference between E. coli recoveries on LMX and MTF. In conclusion, LMX can be used for the enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in surface waters as it is less lobar-intensive, yields faster result, and simultaneously detects both total coliforms and E. coli.

  20. Application of non-destructive impedance-based monitoring technique for cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Liu, Mou-Chuan; Pai, Che-An; Lin, Chun-Li; Yen, Kuang-I

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the application of non-destructive testing based on the impedance theory in the cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Fifty Ni-Ti ProTaper instruments were divided into five groups (n=10 in Groups A to E). Groups A to D were subjected to cyclic fatigue within an artificial canal (Group E was the control group). The mean value of the total life limit (TLL), defined as the instrument being rotated until fracture occurred was found to be 104 s in Group A. Each rotary instrument in Groups B, C and D were rotated until the tested instruments reached 80% (84 s), 60% (62 s) and 40% (42 s) of the TLL. After fatigue testing, each rotary instrument was mounted onto a custom-developed non-destructive testing device to give the tip of the instrument a progressive sideways bend in four mutually perpendicular directions to measure the corresponding impedance value (including the resistance and the reactance). The results indicated that the impedance value showed the same trend as the resistance, implying that the impedance was primarily affected by the resistance. The impedance value for the instruments in the 80% and 60% TLL groups increased by about 6 mΩ (about 7.5%) more than that of the instruments in the intact and 40% TLL groups. The SEM analysis result showed that crack striations were only found at the tip of the thread on the cracked surface of the instrument, consistent with the impedance measurements that found the impedance value of the cracked surface to be significantly different from those in other surfaces. These findings indicate that the impedance value may represent an effective parameter for evaluating the micro-structural status of Ni-Ti rotary instruments subjected to fatigue loading. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, M A; Armenise, E; White, R P; Hirsch, P R; Goulding, K W T

    2013-12-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colorimetric technique based on the Lowry assay (frequently used to measure protein and humic substances as distinct pools in microbial biofilms). The accuracies of both the Bradford assay and a modified Lowry microplate method were compared in factorial combination. Protein was quantified in soil-extracts (extracted with citrate), including standard additions of model protein (BSA) and polyphenol (Sigma H1675-2). Using the Lowry microplate assay described, no interfering effects of citrate were detected even with concentrations up to 5 times greater than are typically used to extract soil protein. Moreover, the Bradford assay was found to be highly susceptible to two simultaneous and confounding artefacts: 1) the colour development due to added protein was greatly inhibited by polyphenol concentration, and 2) substantial colour development was caused directly by the polyphenol addition. In contrast, the Lowry method enabled distinction between colour development from protein and non-protein origin, providing a more accurate quantitative analysis. These results suggest that the modified-Lowry method is a more suitable measure of extract protein (defined by standard equivalents) because it is less confounded by the high polyphenolic content which is so typical of soil extracts.

  2. The Attainment of High Sensitivity and Precision in Radioimmunoassay Techniques as Exemplified in a Simple Assay of Serum Insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, Janet; Ekins, R. P. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Middlesex Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1970-02-15

    Recent controversy has underlined the fundamental confusion surrounding the concepts of assay ''sensitivity'' and ''precision'' and, in particular, their optimization in radioimmunoassay and other saturation assay procedures. Many formal definitions of sensitivity (e.g. that laid down by the American Chemical Society) express this concept in terms of the slope of the ''dose'' response curve; nevertheless, in common usage, the term is normally regarded as a synonym for the detection limit of the measurement technique. However, a technique which is ''sensitive'' in the formal sense may not display a low limit of detection, and it is readily demonstrable that, in radioimmunoassay systems in particular, there are circumstances in which increase in the slope of the response curve may lead to an increase in the detection limit of the assay. The authors have based their insulin assay protocols on mathematical principles specifically designed to lead to the minimization of the detection limit. The method depends on the use of (uncoated) charcoal for the separation of free and bound labelled insulin in incubation mixtures in which insulin-free human serum is used as diluent. The detection limit of the method is approximately 1 pg/ml of incubation mixture, corresponding to roughly 0.25 {mu}U/ml of serum at the serum dilutions used. In a formal comparative study, the method has been shown to be more sensitive, precise and accurate than other methods relying on double antibody or chromato-electrophoietic separation. The relevance of such factors as high specific activity labelled hormone to the attainment of high sensitivity is discussed. (author)

  3. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay: a sensitive technique for measuring radiation-induced chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, M.; Morley, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was demonstrated by the detection in human lymphocytes of in vitro exposures of as low as 0.02 Gy of X-rays. To determine the suitability of this new method for measuring in vivo exposure to radiation the authors have performed initial longitudinal studies on (a) cancer patients undergoing partial body fractionated radiotherapy and (b) BALB-C mice following in vivo whole body irradiation with acute single doses of X-rays. The results for radiotherapy patients indicate that the dose fractions have an additive effect on the observed micronucleus frequency which appeared to decline following three months after completion of therapy. Results with irradiated mice showed a sharp increase in micronucleus frequency for splenocytes sampled immediately after treatment and the rate of decline in micronucleus frequency during the first week after treatment was dose-dependent. (author)

  4. Lectin-enzyme binding assays : development of the technique and applications in biochemistry and medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Pekelharing

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this work is to determine if lectins can be used in "sandwich" ELISA techniques so that the glycosylation of specific proteins in mixtures could be characterised in a fast and sensitive way without prior purification of the protein. Furthermore, the feasability of

  5. Non-destructive measurement technologies for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    1998-04-01

    There are three aspects that need to be in place in order to maintain a valid safeguards system: (1) Physical protection; guarding the access to nuclear materials using physical protection and surveillance. (2) Accounting systems; computer based accounting systems that provide the current location of nuclear materials, quantities, and the uncertainty in the assayed values. (3) Measurement systems; detectors, data acquisition systems and data analysis methods that provide accurate assays of nuclear material quantities for the accounting system. The authors expand on this third aspect, measurement systems, by discussing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. NDA is defined as the quantitative or qualitative determination of the kind and/or amount of nuclear material in an item without alteration or invasion of the item. This is contrasted with destructive analysis which is the process of taking small samples from the item in question, analyzing those samples by chemical analysis, destroying the original nature of the samples in the process (hence the term destructive), and applying the results to the entire item. Over the past 30 years, numerous techniques, using the atomic and nuclear properties of the actinides, have been developed for reliable, rapid, accurate, and tamper-proof NDA of nuclear materials. The authors distinguish between two types of measurements: the first involving the detection of spontaneously emitted radiation, produced by the natural radioactive decay processes; the second involving the detection of induced radiation, produced by irradiating the sample with an external radiation source

  6. Pu abundances, concentrations, and isotopics by x- and gamma-ray spectrometry assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.; Prindle, A.L.; Gomes, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Two x- and gamma-ray systems were recently installed at-line in gloveboxes and will measure Pu solution concentrations from 5 to 105 g/L. These NDA technique, developed and refined over the past decade, are now used domestically and internationally for nuclear material process monitoring and accountability needs. In off- and at-line installations, they can measure solution concentrations to 0.2%. The K-XRFA systems use a transmission source to correct for solution density. The gamma-ray systems use peaks from 59- to 208-keV to determine solution concentrations and relative isotopics. A Pu check source monitors system stability. These two NDA techniques can be combined to form a new, NDA measurement methodology. With the instrument located outside of a glovebox, both relative Pu isotopics and absolute Pu abundances of a sample located inside a glovebox can be measured. The new technique works with either single or dual source excitation; the former for a detector 6 to 20 cm away with no geometric corrections needed; the latter requires geometric corrections or source movement if the sample cannot be measured at the calibration distance. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Modelling, simulation and visualisation for electromagnetic non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art and the recent development of modelling, simulation and visualization for eddy current Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) technique. Simulation and visualization has aid in the design and development of electromagnetic sensors and imaging techniques and systems for Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Testing (ENDT); feature extraction and inverse problems for Quantitative Non-Destructive Testing (QNDT). After reviewing the state-of-the art of electromagnetic modelling and simulation, case studies of Research and Development in eddy current NDT technique via magnetic field mapping and thermography for eddy current distribution are discussed. (author)

  8. Magnetic particle separation technique: a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rongsen; Shen Decun

    1998-01-01

    Five types of magnetic particles without or with aldehyde, amino and carboxyl functional groups, respectively were used to immobilize first or second antibody by three models, i. e. physical adsorption, chemical coupling and immuno-affinity, forming four types of magnetic particle antibodies. The second antibody immobilized on polyacrolein magnetic particles through aldehyde functional groups and the first antibodies immobilized on carboxylic polystyrene magnetic particles through carboxyl functional groups were recommended to apply to RIAs and/or IRMAs. Streptavidin immobilized on commercial magnetic particles through amino functional groups was successfully applied to separating specific PCR product for quantification of human cytomegalovirus. In the paper typical data on reliability of these magnetic particle ligands were reported and simplicity of the magnetic particle separation technique was discussed. The results showed that the technique was a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay. (author)

  9. Establishment of 60Co dose calibration curve using fluorescent in situ hybridization assay technique: Result of preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noriah Jamal; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Nelly Bo Nai Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at establishing an in-vitro 60 Co dose calibration curve using Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization assay technique for the Malaysian National Bio dosimetry Laboratory. Blood samples collected from a female healthy donor were irradiated with several doses of 60 Co radiation. Following culturing of lymphocytes, microscopic slides are prepared, denatured and hybridized. The frequencies of translocation are estimated in the metaphases. A calibration curve was then generated using a regression technique. It shows a good fit to a linear-quadratic model. The results of this study might be useful in estimating absorbed dose for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation retrospectively. This information may be useful as a guide for medical treatment for the assessment of possible health consequences. (author)

  10. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  11. Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation technique: a rapid and reliable assay for studying plant-bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalapati Srinivasa R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem is one of the most widely used systems to understand the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and plant innate immunity. Several inoculation methods have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions in this model system. However, none of the methods reported to date are similar to those occurring in nature and amicable to large-scale mutant screens. Results In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable seedling flood-inoculation method based on young Arabidopsis seedlings grown on MS medium. This method has several advantages over conventional soil-grown plant inoculation assays, including a shorter growth and incubation period, ease of inoculation and handling, uniform infection and disease development, requires less growth chamber space and is suitable for high-throughput screens. In this study we demonstrated the efficacy of the Arabidopsis seedling assay to study 1 the virulence factors of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, including type III protein secretion system (TTSS and phytotoxin coronatine (COR; 2 the effector-triggered immunity; and 3 Arabidopsis mutants affected in salicylic acid (SA- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs-mediated pathways. Furthermore, we applied this technique to study nonhost resistance (NHR responses in Arabidopsis using nonhost pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. tabaci, pv. glycinea and pv. tomato T1, and confirmed the functional role of FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 in NHR. Conclusions The Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation assay provides a rapid, efficient and economical method for studying Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interactions with minimal growth chamber space and time. This assay could also provide an excellent system for investigating the virulence mechanisms of P. syringae. Using this method, we demonstrated that FLS2 plays a critical role in conferring NHR against nonhost pathovars of P. syringae, but not to

  12. Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques

  13. Non-Destructive Assessment of Concrete Structures Reliability and Limits of Single and Combined Techniques State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 207-INR

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book gives information on non destructive techniques for assessment of concrete structures. It synthesizes the best of international knowledge about what techniques can be used for assessing material properties (strength) and structural properties (geometry, defects...). It describes how the techniques can be used so as to answer a series of usual questions, highlighting their capabilities and limits, and providing advices for a better use of techniques. It also focuses on possible combinations of techniques so as to improve the assessment. It is based on many illustrative examples and give in each case references to standards and guidelines.

  14. Liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing at level 2. Manual for the syllabi contained in IAEA-TECDOC-628, training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology in the world for many decades. The prime reason for this has been the need for stringent standards for quality control for safe operation of industrial as well a nuclear installations. It has successfully executed a number of programmes and regional projects of which NDT was an important part. Through these programmes a large number of persons have been trained in the member states and a state of self sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many of them. All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines and related books in order, firstly, to guide the IAEA experts who were involved in this training programme and, secondly, to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and consequent competence of personnel. The syllabi for training courses have been published in the form of two TECDOC publications. The first was IAEA-TECDOC-407 which contained syllabi for the basic five methods, i.e. liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, eddy current testing, radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing, and the second and revised is IAEA-TECDOC-628 which includes additional methods of visual testing and leak testing. IAEA-TECDOC-628, as well as most of the international standards on the subject of training and certification of NDT personnel including ISO 9712, define three levels of competence, namely, Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. Among these, Level 1 is the lowest and Level 3 the highest. The intermediate Level 2 is considered to be the most appropriate for persons who, beside other duties, are expected to independently undertake practical testing in the relevant method of NDT; develop NDT procedures adapted to various problems; prepare written instructions; make accept/reject decisions in accordance with relevant standards and

  15. Liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing at level 2. Manual for the syllabi contained in IAEA-TECDOC-628, training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology in the world for many decades. The prime reason for this has been the need for stringent standards for quality control for safe operation of industrial as well a nuclear installations. It has successfully executed a number of programmes and regional projects of which NDT was an important part. Through these programmes a large number of persons have been trained in the member states and a state of self sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many of them. All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines and related books in order, firstly, to guide the IAEA experts who were involved in this training programme and, secondly, to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and consequent competence of personnel. The syllabi for training courses have been published in the form of two TECDOC publications. The first was IAEA-TECDOC-407 which contained syllabi for the basic five methods, i.e. liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, eddy current testing, radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing, and the second and revised is IAEA-TECDOC-628 which includes additional methods of visual testing and leak testing. IAEA-TECDOC-628, as well as most of the international standards on the subject of training and certification of NDT personnel including ISO 9712, define three levels of competence, namely, Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. Among these, Level 1 is the lowest and Level 3 the highest. The intermediate Level 2 is considered to be the most appropriate for persons who, beside other duties, are expected to independently undertake practical testing in the relevant method of NDT; develop NDT procedures adapted to various problems; prepare written instructions; make accept/reject decisions in accordance with relevant standards and

  16. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Techniques for the non-destructive and continuous analysis of sediment cores. Application in the Iberian continental margin; Tecnicas para el analisis no destructivo y en continuo de testigos de sedimento. Aplicacion en el Margen Continental de Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigola, J.; Canals, M.; Mata, P.

    2015-07-01

    Sediment sequences are the most valuable record of long-term environmental conditions at local, regional and/or global scales. Consequently, they are amongst the best archives of the climatic and oceanographic his- tory of the Earth. In the last few decades a strong effort has been made, both in terms of quantity and quality, to improve our knowledge regarding the evolution of our planet from marine and lake sediment records, and also from other records such as ice cores. Such an effort requires reinforcing the geographical coverage and achieving the highest possible robustness in the reconstruction of past environments. Such a target requires the optimization of the time resolution of the records and reconstructions so that fast, high frequency shifts, such as those occurring nowadays due to the on-going global warming, can be disentangled. Beyond paleoenvironmental research, other disciplines have also contributed significantly to the fast growing number of sediment cores already available worldwide. Knowing the physical state and the chemical composition of sedimentary deposits is essential for land management purposes and for many industrial applications. A number of key technological developments are now allowing the acquisition for the first time of massive amounts of multiple parameters from sediment cores in a non-destructive, fast, continuous, repetitive and high-resolution form. In this paper we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art continuous and non-destructive analytical techniques used by the geo scientific community for the study of sediment cores and we present some examples of the application of these methods in several studies carried out around the Iberian Margin. (Author)

  18. Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

    1991-11-12

    The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL.

  19. Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A ampersand P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A ampersand P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL

  20. Nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  1. Nondestructive nuclear measurement in the fuel cycle. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement techniques are today widely used in practically all steps of the fuel cycle. This article is devoted to the presentation of the control and characterization needs and to the main active nondestructive nuclear methods used: 1 - main active nondestructive nuclear measurement methods: active neutronic measurement (needs and motivations, physical principle, measurement of delayed neutrons following a continuous irradiation, measurement of prompt neutrons (differential die-away technique - DDT), measurement of prompt and delayed neutrons (Sphincs method), neutronic method coupled to gamma spectroscopy), measurement by induced photo-fissions (needs and motivations, physical principle); 2 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  2. Techniques for induction of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) by Calyculin-A and micronucleus assay for biodosimetry in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Duy; Tran Que; Hoang Hung Tien; Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organization are interested in biological dosimetry method for radiation emergency medicine currently. Some cytogenetic techniques such as premature chromosome condensation (PCC) induced by Calyculin-A and micronucleus (MN) assay are necessary to develop biodosimetry in Vietnam. In this study, we optimized the condition for MN assay with 6 µg/ml Cytochalasin-B concentration and 72.5 hours for peripheral lymphocyte blood culture. The optimization for PCC method is 50 nM Calyculin-A concentration for 45 minutes peripheral lymphocyte blood treatment. For samples exposed to 3.0 Gy gamma 60 Co (dose rate 0.0916 Gy/s), the frequency of MN is 19.02 ± 0.38%, NBP is 1.95 ± 0.28%, dicentric and ring is 41.43 ± 8.12% and frag and min is 63.33 ± 5.16%. For samples exposed to 6.0 Gy gamma 60 Co (dose rate 0.0916 Gy/s), the frequency of ring-PCC is 17.73 ± 2.46%, extra unite is 218.91± 7.58%, dicentric is 83.81 ± 1.09%, ring is 10.75 ± 1.74%, fragment and minute is 193.17 ± 13.10%. MN and ring-PCC are specific marker applying for biodosimetry. (author)

  3. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Joshi, V.B.; Bhanti, D.P.; Bhagwat, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m 3 (3.73x10 -17 Ci/m 3 ) to 36.41x10 -6 Bq/m 3 (9.84x10 -16 Ci/m 3 ) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  4. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006).

  5. Information System for Nuclear Materials Assay Techniques. Final Report on Work Performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria under Contract No. 995/TC (Jan. 1, 1971 - Jan. 1, 1972)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyster, J. R.; Kull, L. A.

    1972-07-01

    During the last several years, Safeguards programs in the U.S. and abroad have generated increasing amounts of information relating to non-destructive measurements and assay techniques for fissionable isotopes. This barrage of data, including ideas for new techniques, prototype design information, operating experience, and critical technical evaluations, has been stimulated by the concerned interest of a number of national and international agencies over the effectiveness of controls for the flow of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle. In anticipation of an international community which will depend increasingly on nuclear energy to satisfy its power requirements, responsible agencies have diverted resources, time, and talent into the development of more accurate measurements techniques - since good measurements are one of the cornerstones of effective materials control. This paper concerns itself with a data management problem which is beginning to appear concomitant with the increase in the production rate of Safeguards information. The problem can be broken down into three parts: 1. The collection of all available data. 2. The condensation and arrangement of the data into a general format to form a data base. 3. The development of a retrieval system which provides convenient access to the data base for users with specific information requirements. This additional effort, is required in order that the information being generated can be readily put to use in the variety of tasks for which it was originally intended. Administrators of government research programs, plant operators' and engineers, technical people working in the measurement field, and national and international inspectors charged with enforcement of existing Safeguards regulations and agreements - all can easily be shown to benefit from a complete but condensed record of Safeguards experience. (author)

  6. Advanced non-destructive methods for an efficient service performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Clossen-von Lanken Schulz, M.; Oberlin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the power generation industry's desire to decrease outage time and extend inspection intervals for highly stressed turbine parts, advanced and reliable Non-destructive methods were developed by Siemens Non-destructive laboratory. Effective outage performance requires the optimized planning of all outage activities as well as modern Non-destructive examination methods, in order to examine the highly stressed components (turbine rotor, casings, valves, generator rotor) reliably and in short periods of access. This paper describes the experience of Siemens Energy with an ultrasonic Phased Array inspection technique for the inspection of radial entry pinned turbine blade roots. The developed inspection technique allows the ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine blades without blade removal. Furthermore advanced Non-destructive examination methods for joint bolts will be described, which offer a significant reduction of outage duration in comparison to conventional inspection techniques. (authors)

  7. Non-destructive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouvet, A.

    1978-01-01

    The non-destructive controls permit, while respecting their integrity, the direct and individual examination of parts or complete objects as they are manufactured, as well as to follow the evolution of their eventual defects while in operation. The choice of control methods depends on the manufacturing process and shapes of parts, on the physical properties of their components as well as the nature, position and size of the defects which are likely to be detected. Whether it is a question of controls by means of ionizing radiation, flux of neutrons, ultrasons, acoustic source, sweating, magnetoscopy. Foucault currents, thermography, detection of leaks or non-destructive metallography, each has a limited field of application such that they are less competitive than complementary [fr

  8. Improvement of the reliability on nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young H.; Lee, Hyang Beom; Shin, Young Kil; Jung, Hyun Jo; Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo

    2002-03-01

    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of Nuclear Power Plant. The nondestructive testing methods which are frequently used in the Nuclear Power Plant are eddy current testing for the inspection of steam generator tubes and ultrasonic testing for the inspection of weldments. In order to improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the subjects carried out in this study are as follows : development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field, evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing and development of multi-Gaussian beam modeling technique to predict accurate signal of signal beam ultrasonic testing with the efficiency in calculation time

  9. Improvement of the reliability on nondestructive inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young H. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyang Beom [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan National Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of Nuclear Power Plant. The nondestructive testing methods which are frequently used in the Nuclear Power Plant are eddy current testing for the inspection of steam generator tubes and ultrasonic testing for the inspection of weldments. In order to improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the subjects carried out in this study are as follows : development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field, evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing and development of multi-Gaussian beam modeling technique to predict accurate signal of signal beam ultrasonic testing with the efficiency in calculation time.

  10. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  11. Nondestructive testing of pavements and pavement bases (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964--Dec 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habercom, G.E. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Eighty references on nondestructive methods for quality assurance of pavements and pavement bases are presented. Vibration, nuclear activation, radiometry, and acoustic detection are among the various techniques employed

  12. Implementation of the non-destructive ultrasound testing by immersion through the transmission technique, applied to the quality control of nuclear fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Jofre, David Christian

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of global development, which seeks to reduce the enrichment of U 235 in nuclear fuels for research reactors, the Fuel Elements Plant (PEC) of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) has worked with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL-USA), for the fabrication of high density fuel plates based on the dispersion of Uranium-Molybdenum alloy powders (UMo), which are subjected to inspections and tests to qualify as a compliant product for use in nuclear research reactors. It is in this matter where the Non Destructive Test (NDT) of immersion ultrasound used in both facilities differs in its acceptance criteria, when is used different testing techniques; On the one hand, the PEC uses the pulse-echo technique, while the INL uses the transmission technique. Therefore, the present work is focused on the implementation of the ultrasound by immersion using the transmission technique. During the development of the work, the physical and virtual configuration of the ultrasound equipment was possible and elaborate an operation procedure, which allows to inspect through this technique, a series of fuel plates based on UMo and U 3 Si 2 powders, with different characteristics. The results allow to characterize the signals obtained in fuel plates according to the nuclear fuel material used. There is an inverse relationship between the uranium load per unit volume (uranium density, gU/cm 3 ) used in the fuel plate and the transmittance of the ultrasonic beam through the areas where there is nuclear fuel material (meat); the effect produced by a dispersed combustible material is observed and it is possible to identify discontinuities that may be present in the fuel plate. Finally, an inspection technical instruction for U 3 Si 2 fuel plates is elaborated, where acceptance and rejection criteria are defined

  13. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeon [National Acadamy of Agricultural Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon S. [Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington (United States)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  14. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan; Mo, Chang Yeon; Kim, Moon S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  15. Development of non-destructive examination techniques for CFC-metal joints in annular geometry and their application to the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, E.; Visca, E.; Orsini, A.; Sacchetti, M.; Borruto, T.M.R.; Varone, P.; Vesprini, R.

    1995-01-01

    The design of plasma-facing components for ITER, as for any of the envisaged next-step machines, relies heavily on the use of brazed junctions to couple armour materials to the heat sink and cooling tubes. Moreover, the typical number of brazed components and the envisaged effects of local overheating due to failure in a single brazed junction stress the importance of having a set of NDE techniques developed that can ensure the flawless quality of the joint. The qualification and application of two NDE techniques (ultrasonic and thermographic analysis) for inspection of CFC-to-metal joints is described with particular regard to the annular geometry typical of macroblock/monoblock solutions for divertor high-heat-flux components. The results of the eddy current inspection are not reported. The development has been focused specifically on the joint between carbon-fiber composite and TZM molybdenum alloy; techniques for the production of reference defect samples have been devised and a set of reference defect samples produced. The comparative results of the NDE inspections are reported and discussed, also on the basis of the destructive examination of the samples. The nature and size of relevant and detectable defects are discussed together with hints for a possible NDE strategy for divertor high-heat-flux components

  16. Proceedings CORENDE: Regional congress on nondestructive and structural evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Works are presented at the CORENDE: Regional Congress on Nondestructive and Structural Evaluation organized by the National Atomic Energy Commission and the National Technological University (Mendoza). This congress wants to be the forum where people from research, industry and marketing might meet and discuss ideas towards the fostering of these new cultural habits. Papers covering all disciplines contributing to the evaluation of components, systems and structures are welcome: nondestructive evaluation methods and techniques (ultrasound, eddy currents and other electromagnetic methods, acoustic emission, radiography, thermography, leak testing, dye-penetrants, visual inspection, etc.), personnel certification, welding inspection, nondestructive metallography, optics and lasers, fluid-structure interaction, vibrations, extensometry, modelling of structures [es

  17. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  18. Automated Defect Recognition as a Critical Element of a Three Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Smart Non-Destructive Testing Technique in Additive Manufacturing of Near Net-Shape Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Szabo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a state of the art automated defect recognition (ADR system is presented that was developed specifically for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT of powder metallurgy (PM parts using three dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography (CT imaging, towards enabling online quality assurance and enhanced integrity confidence. PM parts exhibit typical defects such as microscopic cracks, porosity, and voids, internal to components that without an effective detection system, limit the growth of industrial applications. Compared to typical testing methods (e.g., destructive such as metallography that is based on sampling, cutting, and polishing of parts, CT provides full coverage of defect detection. This paper establishes the importance and advantages of an automated NDT system for the PM industry applications with particular emphasis on image processing procedures for defect recognition. Moreover, the article describes how to establish a reference library based on real 3D X-ray CT images of net-shape parts. The paper follows the development of the ADR system from processing 2D image slices of a measured 3D X-ray image to processing the complete 3D X-ray image as a whole. The introduced technique is successfully integrated into an automated in-line quality control system highly sought by major industry sectors in Oil and Gas, Automotive, and Aerospace.

  19. On the mechanism of nondestructive evaluation of cementite content in steels using a combination of magnetic Barkhausen noise and magnetic force microscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, L.; Rabe, U.; Altpeter, I.; Hirsekorn, S.; Dobmann, G.

    2014-03-01

    The influence of carbon content in the form of globular cementite precipitates in unalloyed steels was macroscopically characterized by means of magnetic hysteresis loop and Barkhausen noise techniques. The choice of the frequency of the applied field has a strong influence on the Barkhausen noise profiles. At sufficiently high frequency (0.5 Hz) there are two peaks, one at lower field, the amplitude of which corresponds to the amount of ferrite and one at higher field, the amplitude of which corresponds to the amount of the cementite phase, respectively. Magnetic force microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction techniques were used to determine the magnetic and crystallographic microstructures of the steels. Cementite has its own domain structure and stray fields which influence the magnetization process of the steel by its own magnetic contribution. When an external magnetic field is applied, the magnetization process in ferrite occurs mainly at lower fields through the 180° and 90° domain walls. A higher field is required for the observation of 180° domain wall movements in cementite.

  20. On the mechanism of nondestructive evaluation of cementite content in steels using a combination of magnetic Barkhausen noise and magnetic force microscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, L., E-mail: leonardo.batista@izfp.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Rabe, U. [Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); University of the Saarland, LZPQ, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Altpeter, I.; Hirsekorn, S.; Dobmann, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    The influence of carbon content in the form of globular cementite precipitates in unalloyed steels was macroscopically characterized by means of magnetic hysteresis loop and Barkhausen noise techniques. The choice of the frequency of the applied field has a strong influence on the Barkhausen noise profiles. At sufficiently high frequency (0.5 Hz) there are two peaks, one at lower field, the amplitude of which corresponds to the amount of ferrite and one at higher field, the amplitude of which corresponds to the amount of the cementite phase, respectively. Magnetic force microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction techniques were used to determine the magnetic and crystallographic microstructures of the steels. Cementite has its own domain structure and stray fields which influence the magnetization process of the steel by its own magnetic contribution. When an external magnetic field is applied, the magnetization process in ferrite occurs mainly at lower fields through the 180° and 90° domain walls. A higher field is required for the observation of 180° domain wall movements in cementite. - Highlights: • Magnetic Barkhausen noise profiles of unalloyed steels show a double peak. • The two peaks correspond to the ferrite and cementite phases, respectively. • Magnetic force microscopy was used to image magnetic domains and their dynamics. • Domain wall movements occur at lower fields in ferrite than in cementite. • These microscopic observations correlate qualitatively with the macroscopic results.

  1. On the mechanism of nondestructive evaluation of cementite content in steels using a combination of magnetic Barkhausen noise and magnetic force microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, L.; Rabe, U.; Altpeter, I.; Hirsekorn, S.; Dobmann, G.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of carbon content in the form of globular cementite precipitates in unalloyed steels was macroscopically characterized by means of magnetic hysteresis loop and Barkhausen noise techniques. The choice of the frequency of the applied field has a strong influence on the Barkhausen noise profiles. At sufficiently high frequency (0.5 Hz) there are two peaks, one at lower field, the amplitude of which corresponds to the amount of ferrite and one at higher field, the amplitude of which corresponds to the amount of the cementite phase, respectively. Magnetic force microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction techniques were used to determine the magnetic and crystallographic microstructures of the steels. Cementite has its own domain structure and stray fields which influence the magnetization process of the steel by its own magnetic contribution. When an external magnetic field is applied, the magnetization process in ferrite occurs mainly at lower fields through the 180° and 90° domain walls. A higher field is required for the observation of 180° domain wall movements in cementite. - Highlights: • Magnetic Barkhausen noise profiles of unalloyed steels show a double peak. • The two peaks correspond to the ferrite and cementite phases, respectively. • Magnetic force microscopy was used to image magnetic domains and their dynamics. • Domain wall movements occur at lower fields in ferrite than in cementite. • These microscopic observations correlate qualitatively with the macroscopic results

  2. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  3. Capability and limitation study of the DDT passive-active neutron waste assay instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Coop, K.L.; Estep, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    The differential-dieaway-technique passive-active neutron assay system is widely used by transuranic waste generators to certify their drummed waste for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Stricter criteria being established for waste emplacement at the WIPP site has led to a renewed interest in improvements to and a better understanding of current nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Our study includes the effects of source position, extreme matrices, high neutron backgrounds, and source self-shielding to explore the system's capabilities and limitations and to establish a basis for comparison with other NDA systems. 11 refs

  4. Tracking Color Shift in Ballpoint Pen Ink Using Photoshop Assisted Spectroscopy: A Nondestructive Technique Developed to Rehouse a Nobel Laureate's Manuscript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kristi; Herro, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Many historically and culturally significant documents from the mid-to-late twentieth century were written in ballpoint pen inks, which contain light-sensitive dyes that present problems for collection custodians and paper conservators. The conservation staff at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health, conducted a multiphase project on the chemistry and aging of ballpoint pen ink that culminated in the development of a new method to detect aging of ballpoint pen ink while examining a variety of storage environments. NLM staff determined that ballpoint pen ink color shift can be detected noninvasively using image editing software. Instructions are provided on how to detect color shift in digitized materials using a technique developed specifically for this project-Photoshop Assisted Spectroscopy. 1 The study results offer collection custodians storage options for historic documents containing ballpoint pen ink.

  5. Bio-functions and molecular carbohydrate structure association study in forage with different source origins revealed using non-destructive vibrational molecular spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yan, Xiaogang; Mostafizar Rahman, M; Prates, Luciana L; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-08-05

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate forage carbohydrate molecular structure profiles; 2) bio-functions in terms of CHO rumen degradation characteristics and hourly effective degradation ratio of N to OM (HED N/OM ), and 3) quantify interactive association between molecular structures, bio-functions and nutrient availability. The vibrational molecular spectroscopy was applied to investigate the structure feature on a molecular basis. Two sourced-origin alfalfa forages were used as modeled forages. The results showed that the carbohydrate molecular structure profiles were highly linked to the bio-functions in terms of rumen degradation characteristics and hourly effective degradation ratio. The molecular spectroscopic technique can be used to detect forage carbohydrate structure features on a molecular basis and can be used to study interactive association between forage molecular structure and bio-functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical investigation of Mudéjar polychrome on the carpentry in the Casa de Pilatos palace in Seville using non-destructive XRF and complementary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, M. A.; Robador, M. D.; Perez-Rodriguez, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    The pigments, execution technique and repainting used on the polychrome wood ceilings and doors in the Casa de Pilatos (Seville, Spain) were studied using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment. Cross-sections of small samples were also analysed by optical microscopy, SEM with EDX analysis, micro-Raman and micro-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These carpentry works are magnificent examples of the Mudéjar art made in Spain in the early 16th century. Portable X-ray fluorescence gave good information on the different components of the polychrome. The SEM-EDX study of the surfaces of small samples gave information on their components and also characterized the compounds that had been deposited or formed by environmental contamination or by the alteration of some pigments. The SEM-EDX study of cross-sections facilitated the characterization of all layers and pigments from the support to the most external layer. The following pigments were characterized: red (cinnabar/vermillion, lead oxide, iron oxides and orpiment/realgar), black (carbon black), white (white lead and titanium barium white), yellow-orange-red-brown (orpiment/realgar and iron oxides), green (chromium oxide), blue (indigo blue and ultramarine blue), and gilding (gold leaf on bole). False gold, bronze and brass were also found. The pigments were applied with the oil painting technique over a support layer that had been primed with animal glue. This support layer was gypsum in some cases and white lead in others. This study is essential to the polychrome conservation of the studied artwork, and it will help clarify uncertainties in the history and painting of Mudéjar art.

  7. Analytical investigation of Mudéjar polychrome on the carpentry in the Casa de Pilatos palace in Seville using non-destructive XRF and complementary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, M A; Robador, M D; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

    2017-02-15

    The pigments, execution technique and repainting used on the polychrome wood ceilings and doors in the Casa de Pilatos (Seville, Spain) were studied using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment. Cross-sections of small samples were also analysed by optical microscopy, SEM with EDX analysis, micro-Raman and micro-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These carpentry works are magnificent examples of the Mudéjar art made in Spain in the early 16th century. Portable X-ray fluorescence gave good information on the different components of the polychrome. The SEM-EDX study of the surfaces of small samples gave information on their components and also characterized the compounds that had been deposited or formed by environmental contamination or by the alteration of some pigments. The SEM-EDX study of cross-sections facilitated the characterization of all layers and pigments from the support to the most external layer. The following pigments were characterized: red (cinnabar/vermillion, lead oxide, iron oxides and orpiment/realgar), black (carbon black), white (white lead and titanium barium white), yellow-orange-red-brown (orpiment/realgar and iron oxides), green (chromium oxide), blue (indigo blue and ultramarine blue), and gilding (gold leaf on bole). False gold, bronze and brass were also found. The pigments were applied with the oil painting technique over a support layer that had been primed with animal glue. This support layer was gypsum in some cases and white lead in others. This study is essential to the polychrome conservation of the studied artwork, and it will help clarify uncertainties in the history and painting of Mudéjar art. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, Zeinab; Mohamed, Salwa; Hendawy, Mohamed; Rabia, Ibrahim; Attia, Mohy; Shaker, Zeinab; Diab, Tarek M

    2013-02-01

    A field applicable diagnostic technique, the dipstick assay, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing human Schistosoma mansoni infection. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen (AWTA) was employed in dipstick and sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating schistosome antigen (CSA) in both serum and urine samples. Based on clinical and parasitological examinations, 60 S. mansoni-infected patients, 30 patients infected with parasites other than schistosomiasis, and 30 uninfected healthy individuals were selected. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick assay in urine samples were 86.7% and 90.0%, respectively, compared to 90.0% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity of sandwich ELISA. In serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.3% and 91.7% for dipstick assay vs. 91.7% and 95.0% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of dipstick assay in urine and serum samples was 88.3% and 90.0%, while it was 90.8% and 93.3% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic indices of dipstick assay and ELISA either in serum or in urine were statistically comparable (P>0.05). In conclusion, the dipstick assay offers an alternative simple, rapid, non-invasive technique in detecting CSA or complement to stool examinations especially in field studies.

  9. Ionizing radiations for non-destructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Venkataraman, B.

    1989-01-01

    A state of the art of major non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques based on ionising radiations is presented. These techniques are broadly classified into three categories, namely, radiography, radiation gaging and analytical applications. The basic principles behind each method are explained and salient features of each technique which make it suitable for a particular task are described. Several illustrative applications drawn from the nuclear industry are given. The monograph is intended to serve as an introductory guide to scientist and engineers engaged in NDT activities. (M.G.B.). 32 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Study of the porosity of synthetic sandstones by nondestructive nuclear techniques; Estudo da porosidade de arenitos sinteticos por tecnicas nucleares nao destrutivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Leonardo Carmezini

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, nuclear techniques have been used to describe structural characteristics of ceramic samples. These samples were produced to serve as simulates of sandstones and their mainly component was silica (SiO{sub 2}). Three sets of these samples with different characteristics were analyzed with the gamma ray transmission and the X-ray microtomography. They had the function to describe parameters as porosity point to point and total average porosity, for the transmission case, and 2D sections average porosity, total average porosity and size porous distribution for microtomography, as well as to investigate possible irregularities in bulk sample. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of: a 2 x 2 crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an {sup 241}Am radioactive source (59.54 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Lead collimators with 2 mm diameter were placed on the source way out and on the detector entrance. The microtomographic measurements were done with a Skyscan system, model 1172, with a X-ray tube with 20-100 kV of voltage range and a CCD camera. Employing gamma ray transmission method was possible to obtain overall porosity values from 25.8 to 34.0 % and from 24.8 to 29.2 % for samples with parallelepiped and cylinder shape, respectively, for ceramic I set; from 58.5 to 61.0 % and from 57.1 to 61.7 % for the same geometric shape of ceramic II set. The samples analyzed by the microtomography achieved resolutions of 1.73 {mu}m, 0.64 {mu}m and 1.28 {mu}m for samples of ceramic set I, II and III, respectively. This methodology provided average total porosity values from 26.6 to 29.4 %, from 48.4 to 51.0 % and from 28.2 to 30.6 % to I, II and III ceramic sets, respectively. The porous size profiles of each ceramic sample were also measured. (author)

  11. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, A.; Eriksson, M.; Pettersson, H. B. L.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR μ-XRF and confocal SR μ-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 μm × 3 μm beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR μ-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal μ-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10-15 μm peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM-EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor.

  12. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelsson, A., E-mail: axel.israelsson@liu.se [Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Eriksson, M. [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, 17116 Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, H.B.L. [Department of Radiation Physics, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR μ-XRF and confocal SR μ-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 μm × 3 μm beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR μ-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal μ-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10–15 μm peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM–EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor. - Highlights: • Uranium at the fg level was detectable and the uranium distribution in single hair shafts was derived. • The uranium is located peripherally on the shafts in what seems to be a layer of approximately 10-15 μm thickness. • Uranium bearing particles were found on hairs that had not been washed.

  13. [Evaluation of TB-beads assay utilizing the technique of magnetic beads--an innovative assay method for detection of acid fast bacilli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Masanori; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Obayashi, Konen; Ando, Yukio; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kimu, Minhi; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The centrifuge method with the use of Semi-Alkalin Proteinase (SAP) and NALC-NaOH, recommended by the "2007 edition of the assay guideline for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis," has significantly contributed to improving the sensitivities and specificities of both smear and culture tests for detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, this method poses some challenges in terms of its cumbersome and time-consuming assay protocol. "TB-beads (Kyokuto Pharmaceutical Industrial Co., Ltd.)" is a newly-developed method for detection of AFB utilizing magnetic beads. We evaluated the quality of this method in comparison with the centrifuge method, focusing on the results of smear and culture tests. This evaluation study was conducted using both 5 positive and 5 negative sputum samples. The sensitivity of TB-beads for fluorescent smear tests, conducted using "Acri-stain," was almost the same as that of the centrifuge method. One advantage of TB-beads, however, was that it was very convenient to practice microscopic observation due to the clear background of the smeared glass slides. The comparison of the contamination rates between the two methods showed that TB-beads suggested significantly lower contamination rates. The centrifuge method resulted in 50% and 60% of contamination rates for HK Semisolid Isolation Medium and BacT/ALERT MP, respectively. On the other hand, the contamination rates of TB-beads for both of the culture methods were only 10%. With regard to the 5 positive sputum samples, the comparison of the detection rates between the centrifuge and TB-Beads method was made utilizing Myco Acid, Ogawa K, and BacT/ALERT MP. The TB-Beads method suggested higher detection rates for Myco Acid and Ogawa K, while there were no significant differences between the two methods for BacT/ALERT MP (16-23 days). TB-beads is an easy method that allows to simplify the process of smear tests, and contributes to significantly reducing the contamination rate of culture

  14. Technical regulation of nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    It starts with the explanation of definition of nondestructive inspection and qualifications for a inspection. It lists the technical regulations of nondestructive inspections which are radiographic testing, ultrasonic flaw detecting test, liquid penetrant test, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current test visual inspection and leakage test.

  15. First nondestructive measurements of power MOSFET single event burnout cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique to nondestructively measure single event burnout cross sections for N-channel power MOSFETs is presented. Previous measurements of power MOSFET burnout susceptibility have been destructive and thus not conducive to providing statistically meaningful burnout probabilities. The nondestructive technique and data for various device types taken at several accelerators, including the LBL Bevalac, are documented. Several new phenomena are observed

  16. Novel double-isotope technique for enzymatic assay of catecholamines, permitting high precision, sensitivity and plasma sample capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; Jenner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A novel use of a double-isotope method is described which allows radioenzymatic assays to combine precision and sensitivity. In the catechol O-methyltransferase assay separate portions of each plasma sample are incubated with either S-[ 3 H]- or S-[ 14 C]-adenosyl-L-methionine. Standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the latter portions and are thus converted into standards of [ 14 C]metadrenalines. These are added to the 3 H-labelled portions after the incubation, where they function as tracers. The final recovery of 14 C radioactivity corrects for (a) the efficiency of methylation in the plasma sample concerned and (b) the recovery of metadrenalines during the extraction procedures. The 3 H/ 14 C ratio is constant in each assay for a given catecholamine concentration and is determined for samples to which standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the 3 H- (as well as the 14 C-) labelled portions before the initial incubation. The sensitivity of the assay is increased by using high specific radioactivity S-[ 3 H]adenosyl-L-methionine, and low backgrounds are maintained by catecholamine depletion in vivo in the rats used for enzyme preparation. Both catecholamines (1.5 pg/ml; 10 pmol/l) may be detected; the coefficients of variation are 3.0 and 3.2% for noradrenaline and adrenaline respectively (intra-assay) and 4.6 and 5.0% (inter-assay). (author)

  17. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  18. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  19. 4. International colloquium on nondestructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The different papers about non destructive testing (ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, radiography etc...) are presented. The colloquium deals particularly with utilization in the nuclear field for quality of materials, quality control, improvement of performances or automation [fr

  20. Dynamics-based Nondestructive Structural Monitoring Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    made from AS4/8552-2 carbon epoxy prepregs . The layup sequence: was [(0/45/90/-45)S]2 as illustrated in Figure 3.37. Each layer had the thickness of...layer composite laminates C11 143.8582 C12 4.1803 C13 4.1803 C22 10.6533 C23 3.281 C33 10.6533 C44 3.674 C55 4.895 C66 4.895 Table 3.IX...interface, it is desired to find an optimal wave impinging into the composite laminates by choosing an appropriate loading frequency and guided wave

  1. Development of non-destructive testing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T.Y.; Ro, G.H.; Chung, T.Y.; Lim, B.K.

    1981-01-01

    This report consists of two parts. In the first part, the results of the eddy current examination of steam generator, which is a part of the first inservice inspection of Kori-1 nuclear plant, are summarized. In the second part, the CRT signal interpretation of eddy current tester (EM 3300) on the dentings of steam generator tubings, which was once a controversial issue in evaluating results of Kori-1 steam generators is investigated. As a result of denting study of steam generator tubings, especially partial denting tubings, it becomes clear that CRT signals of eddy current tester are related to the depth and the arc angle of denting but little to the width of it

  2. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Final report - V. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molesworth, T.V.; Strachan, N.R.; Findlay, D.J.S.; Wise, M.O.; Forrest, K.R.; Rogers, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a summary of research work carried out in support of the development of an integrated assay system for the quality checking of Intermediate Level Waste encapsulated in cement. Four non-destructive techniques were originally identified as being viable methods for obtaining radiometric inventory data from a cemented 500 litre ILW package. The major part of the programme was devoted to the development of two interrogation techniques; active neutron for measuring the total fissile content and active gamma for measuring the total actinide content. An electron linear accelerator was used to supply the interrogating beam for these two methods. In addition the linear accelerator beam could be used for high energy radiography. The results of this work are described and the performances and limitations of the non-destructive methods are summarised. The main engineering and operational features which influence the design of an integrated assay facility are outlined and a conceptual layout for a facility to inspect 750 ILW drums a year is described. Details of the detection methods, data processing and potential application of the assay facility are given in three associated HMIP reports. (Author)

  3. Non-destructive testing of electronic component packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderle, C.

    1975-01-01

    A non-destructive method of investigating packaged parts of semiconductor components by X radiation is described and the relevant theoretical relations limiting this technique are derived. The application of the technique is demonstrated in testing several components. The described method is iNsimple and quick. (author)

  4. Analytical nondestructive evaluation for materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev

    1993-01-01

    Science and technology of nondestructive testing and evaluation has contributed immensely to the safety and productivity of industrial plants. In recent years, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has emerged as a frontline research area of equal if not greater technological relevance, for materials characterization as well. A comprehensive range of techniques from qualitative nondestructive testing for quality control of engineering products and materials to quantitative NDE for materials characterization is being used by the engineering industry and materials researchers, for better understanding of the manufacturing practices and materials behaviour. Quantitative NDE is considered essential for ensuring fitness for purpose at the start of the life in case the component has been designed using fracture mechanics parameters. Quantitative NDE is also vital for assessing degradation of material during service. Moreover, quantitative NDE enables characterization of dynamics of certain phenomenon (not achievable by destructive test methodologies) leading to better understanding of the performance of materials in relation to unavoidable defects in the materials. As the next logical step, the need for an analytical approach to NDE is felt. The need and motivation for such an approach is addressed and the means to achieve this objective are identified. It is argued that analytical NDE is essential to meet the challenges of characterization, intelligent processing of materials and life prediction of components and plants. These requirements are of significant importance in the context of recent developments in materials engineering, and for enhancing the competitive advantage of Indian engineering industry in the international market. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  5. Industrial strategy for nondestructive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Michaut, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    For Electricite de France, the nondestructive control strategy passes by a responsibility of services, a competition between companies, a clarification of the market access and a dialogue with the companies

  6. Study on a new calibration methods of in-situ HPGe γ spectrometers used for non-destructive analyzing radioactivity in nuclear facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xuefu; Song Lijun; Wang Yulai; Wen Fuping; Liao Haitao; Ban Ying; Xia Yihua; Li Ruixiang; Li Hang; Tu Xingmin

    2007-06-01

    A new calibration technique, which is the Monte Carlo modeling technique, of in-situ HPGe γ spectrometers used for non-destructive analyzing radioactivity in nuclear facilities decommissioning, is presented. A series of assay for some stainless steel pipes and tanks in some nuclear facilities/laboratories of CIAE are taken on site with the in-situ HPGe γ spectrometer. At the same time, some examples are taken and analyzed in laboratories. The relative bias/variation between the values of activity measured by in-situ HPGe γ spectrometers on site and that analyzed in laboratory is less than ±45.0%. (authors)

  7. Quantitative radiological characterization of waste. Integration of gamma spectrometry and passive/active neutron assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Gianluca; Mauro, Egidio; Gagliardi, Filippo; Gorello, Edoardo [Nucleco S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    The radiological characterization of drums through Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) techniques commonly relies on gamma spectrometry. This paper introduces the procedure developed in Nucleco for the NDA radiological characterization of drums when the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is expected/observed. The procedure is based on the integration of a gamma spectrometry in SGS mode (Segmented Gamma Scanner) and a passive/active neutron assay. The application of this procedure is discussed on a real case of drums. The extension of the integration procedure to other gamma spectrometry systems is also discussed.

  8. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Redmile-Gordon, M.A.; Armenise, E.; White, R.P.; Hirsch, P.R.; Goulding, K.W.T.

    2013-01-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colori...

  9. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for quantitation of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF). Comparison with agglutination techniques and radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay (RIPEGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, D.; Jaeger, L.; Hein, G.; Henzgen, M.; Fiebig, H.; Schlenvoigt, G.; Vogelsang, H. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin; Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften)

    1985-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay capable of detecting nanogram quantities of human IgM rheumatoid factor using a monoclonal anti-..mu..-chain antibody is described. Human IgG did not interfere with the detection of IgM RF by this method. The small nonspecific binding of nonRF IgM to the human IgG coated tubes utilized in the assay must be corrected for by assaying samples in parallel bovine serum albumin coated control tubes only in cases of deviation of IgM from normal range. 69 coded and randomly arranged sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), nonrheumatic joint diseases and healthy adult control subjects were investigated by this method, agglutination techniques as well as RIPEGA. A good correlation between solid-phase radioimmunoassay and agglutination techniques was found. Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher concentrations of IgM RF than seronegative RA patients or control subjects.

  10. Nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUKEM has transferred know-how from reactor technology to materials testing. The high and to a large extent new quality standards in the nuclear industry necessitate reliable measuring and testing equipment of the highest precision. Many of the tasks presented to us could not be solved with the equipment available on the market, for which reason we have developed our own measuring, testing and control systems. We have therefore acquired considerable experience in dealing with specific measuring, testing and control tasks and can handle even out-of-the-way problems that are submitted to us from a wide variety of fields. Our mechanical systems for the checking of close-tolerance gaps, the automatic determination of pellet dimensions and the measurement of absolute lengths and absolute velocities are in use in many different industrial fields. We have succeeded in solving unusual testing and sorting problems with the aid of automated surface testing equipment working on optical principles. Our main activities in the field of non-destructive testing have been concentrated on ultrasonic and eddy current testing and, of late, acoustic emission analysis. NUKEM ultrasonic systems are notable for their high defect detection rate and testing accuracy, combined with high testing speed. The equipment we supply includes ultrasonic rotary systems for the production testing of quality tubes, ultrasonic immersion systems for the final testing of reactor cladding tubes, weld testing equipment, and test equipment for the bonds in multi-layer plates. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Reports from the Yayoi symposium on quantitative non-destructive evaluation, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The report consists of four parts. The first part deals with nondestructive evaluation in the nuclear power industry, focusing on in-service inspection in nuclear power plant, eddy current crack detection test of steam generator heat-exchanger tube, and nondestructive test of thin-wall components. The second part discusses inverse problems and quantification for nondestructive evaluation, centering on the identification of defect by boundary element method, quantification by using supersonic wave, defect shape recognition by the electrical potential method, and a neural network applied to crack type recognition. The third part deals with the application of electromagnetic phenomena to nondestructive evaluation, focusing on a superconducting quantum interference device, electromagnetic measurement in the iron industry, and nondestructive measurement of residual stress by magnetic process. The fourth part discusses visualization techniques for nondestructive evaluation, focusing on image processing, neutron radiography, X-ray CT, defect diagnosis by infrared rays, and visualization of magnetic field. (N.K.)

  12. Biochemical techniques for the characterization of G-quadruplex structures: EMSA, DMS footprinting, and DNA polymerase stop assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daekyu; Hurley, Laurence H

    2010-01-01

    The proximal promoter region of many human growth-related genes contains a polypurine/polypyrimidine tract that serves as multiple binding sites for Sp1 or other transcription factors. These tracts often contain a guanine-rich sequence consisting of four runs of three or more contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, corresponding to a general motif known for the formation of an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Recent results provide strong evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures form naturally within these polypurine/polypyrimidine tracts in many human promoter regions, raising the possibility that the transcriptional control of these genes can be modulated by G-quadruplex-interactive agents. In this chapter, we describe three general biochemical methodologies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), dimethylsulfate (DMS) footprinting, and the DNA polymerase stop assay, which can be useful for initial characterization of G-quadruplex structures formed by G-rich sequences.

  13. Two-monoclonal-antibody sandwich-type assay for thyrotropin, with use of an avidin-biotin separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, W.D.; Griffin, J.; Zahradnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive, specific, noncompetitive, sandwich-type radioimmunoassay for human thyrotropin (hTSH), which can be performed in 30 min. The assay involves two monoclonal antibodies, selected for high affinity and specificity and also for reaction against antigenic sites on hTSH that are distal from each other. One of these antibodies is labeled with 125 I; the other is conjugated covalently to biotin. Polystyrene beads were also conjugated covalently to biotin. After conjugation, the beads were incubated with avidin. These beads represent a rapid, simple method for separating hTSH-bound antibody from free antibody. The biotin-antibody-hTSH- 125 I-labeled antibody complexes bind to the beads and hTSH concentration is directly related to counts per minute. This assay can detect hTSH at a concentration of 0.06 milli-unit/L in serum

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1–10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients. PMID:26111048

  18. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grazia Recchia

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL and breakpoint cluster region (BCR genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1 when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  19. Comparing differential tolerance of native and non-indigenous marine species to metal pollution using novel assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piola, Richard F.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests anthropogenic disturbance may disproportionately advantage non-indigenous species (NIS), aiding their establishment within impacted environments. This study used novel laboratory- and field-based toxicity testing to determine whether non-indigenous and native bryozoans (common within marine epibenthic communities worldwide) displayed differential tolerance to the common marine pollutant copper (Cu). In laboratory assays on adult colonies, NIS showed remarkable tolerance to Cu, with strong post-exposure recovery and growth. In contrast, native species displayed negative growth and reduced feeding efficiency across most exposure levels. Field transplant experiments supported laboratory findings, with NIS growing faster under Cu conditions. In field-based larval assays, NIS showed strong recruitment and growth in the presence of Cu relative to the native species. We suggest that strong selective pressures exerted by the toxic antifouling paints used on transport vectors (vessels), combined with metal contamination in estuarine environments, may result in metal tolerant NIS advantaged by anthropogenically modified selection regimes. - Greater tolerance to pollutants in marine NIS may increase the risk of invasion in port and harbours worldwide by providing a competitive advantage over native taxa.

  20. Assay techniques for detection of exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide. Technical bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This technical bulletin provides analytical techniques to identify toxic chemical agents in urine or blood samples. It is intended to provide the clinician with laboratory tests to detect exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide.

  1. Non-destructive controls in the mechanical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarlan, L

    1978-12-01

    The sequence of operations implicating the mechanical industries from the suppliers to their customers is briefly recalled; a description of the field of application of non-destructive control methods in these industries is given. Follows a description of some recent typical applications of the principal methods: radiography, ultrasonic waves, magnetism, acoustic emission, sonic control, tracer techniques.

  2. Non-destructive control: technologies, applications and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A description of NDC - nondestructive controls - (acoustic emission, Eddy currents, infrared and thermal, liquid penetrants, magnetic particles, radiographic, ultrasonic, visual and optical techniques) is given with various industrial applications and market trends. Some research projects, contacts and a list of NDC systems main manufacturers are given. (A.B.). 37 figs. and tabs

  3. Stress wave nondestructive evaluation of Douglas-fir peeler cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; John I. Zerbe; Xiping Wang; David W. Green; Roy F. Pellerin

    2005-01-01

    With the need for evaluating the utilization of veneer peeler log cores in higher value products and the increasing importance of utilizing round timbers in poles, posts, stakes, and building construction components, we conducted a cooperative project to verify the suitability of stress wave nondestructive evaluation techniques for assessing peeler cores and some...

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of oriented strand board exposed to decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Robert J. Ross; William J. Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of...

  5. Assessment of litter prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in preweaned piglets utilizing an antemortem tracheobronchial mucus collection technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Karriker, Locke; Main, Rodger; Christianson, Eric; Marsteller, Thomas; Hammen, Kristin; Bates, Jessica; Thomas, Paul; Ellingson, Josh; Harmon, Karen; Abate, Sarah; Crawford, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    The swine industry currently lacks validated antemortem methods of detecting baseline herd prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The focus of our study was to evaluate alternative antemortem detection techniques and to determine baseline litter prevalence in preweaned pig populations utilizing the selected technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Preliminary data was analyzed on weaned piglets with evidence of respiratory disease (n = 32). Five sample types (antemortem nasal swab, tracheobronchial mucus, postmortem deep airway swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue) were collected from each pig. Individual samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae using qPCR. Compared to nasal swabs, tracheobronchial mucus demonstrated higher test sensitivity (P hyopneumoniae. Two out of 180 litters revealed a positive result (1.1%). Individual qPCR assays were run on the samples collected from sow farm 4. Five out of 30 samples revealed a positive result (16.7%). Tracheobronchial mucus collection in combination with qPCR is a sensitive antemortem sampling technique that can be used to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in preweaned pigs, thus providing insight into the infection dynamics across the entire farrow-to-finish process. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, complement fixation, anticomplement immunofluorescence and passive haemaglutination techniques for detecting cytomegalovirus IgG antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, J C; Hannington, G; Bakir, T M.F.; Stern, H; Kangro, H; Griffiths, P D; Heath, R B [Saint George' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK); Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-12-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were found to be comparable in sensitivity and specificity for detecting cytomegalovirus IgG antibody, and 10 to 100 times more sensitive than complement-fixation (CF), anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) and passive haemagglutination (PHA). In screening tests for antibody, the frequency of false-positive and -negative results was 0.6% for RIA and ELISA, 1.5% for CF, 1.6% for ACIF and 3.6% for PHA. PHA was the least satisfactory test, largely because of technical problems.

  8. 49 CFR 192.243 - Nondestructive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 192.243 Section 192.243... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.243 Nondestructive testing. (a) Nondestructive testing of welds must be performed by any process, other than trepanning, that...

  9. A reliable radiochromatographic assay technique for hepatic microsomal 16α-hydroxylase activity towards oestrone 3-sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsoulis, C.J.; Hobkirk, R.

    1980-01-01

    A reliable procedure for the assay of liver microsomal 16α-hydroxylation of oestrone 3-sulphate has been developed for the guinea pig. It is based on the rapid, quantitative separation of oestradiol and oestriol by Sephadex LH-20 columns after the chemical reduction and enzymic hydrolysis of the incubation products. Microsomal preparations and incubation conditions that optimized 16α-hydroxylation of oestrone 3-sulphate were employed. Under these circumstances, reduction of the substrate at C-17 and hydrolysis of the sulphate were minimized. Conditions were established that yielded reaction linearity with respect to time and microsomal concentration. This hydroxylation had an absolute requirement for NADPH, which could not be satisfied by NADH. Apparent Ksub(m) values for oestrone 3-sulphate and NADPH, under the conditions used, were 14μM and 0.17mM respectively. 16α-hydroxylase activity was present in the liver microsomal fraction from heavily pigmented, female English Shorthaired guinea pigs. Much lower activity was detected in mature pigmented males and albino females. No activity could be demonstrated in mature, albino males. (author)

  10. Trypanosomosis surveillance on Zanzibar island, using the trypanosomal antigen detection ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbwambo, H A [Animal Disease Research Inst. (ADRI), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    The effectiveness of trypanosomosis control programs depends greatly on prior knowledge of basic data of the epidemiological situation of the disease, which in turns depends, among others, on the use of techniques that give a fairly quick and accurate diagnosis. An antigen-detection (Ag) ELISA was first introduced into Tanzania and validated at the Animal Disease Research Institute (ADRI) through the FAO/IAEA Research Contract (RC) No. 5030/NL. Incorporation of the Ag-ELISA technique into a FAO animal disease control project (1986-1993) on Unguja island, in 1992, revealed useful information of high trypanosomosis prevalence in an area previously declared free of the disease using just stained blood smears and buffy coat examinations. This triggered further efforts into more intensive surveys of the tsetse and trypanosomosis situation on Unguja island. The present study is a continuation of previous work in an effort to confirm the practical application of Ag-ELISA in trypanosomosis control operations. Results obtained from a known tsetse and trypanosomosis-free area, on Pemba island, showed a high specificity of the test for Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei. A preliminary cut-off value of 10% (Percent Positivity = PP) was used. When the PP of 10 was used on sera of trypanosomosis-endemic areas (Mangapwani, Ndijani, Dunga and Kikungwi) on Unguja island, the results reflected the `real` trypanosomis situation in the affected area. This was most strongly felt in the Mangapwani area, where tsetse and trypanosomosis were considered under control by 1994 (no tsetse flies were caught and no samples were encountered positive by the buffy coat technique). However, it should be stressed that the buffy coat technique and the Ag-ELISA complement each other and should be used in conjunction. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Trypanosomosis surveillance on Zanzibar island, using the trypanosomal antigen detection ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbwambo, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of trypanosomosis control programs depends greatly on prior knowledge of basic data of the epidemiological situation of the disease, which in turns depends, among others, on the use of techniques that give a fairly quick and accurate diagnosis. An antigen-detection (Ag) ELISA was first introduced into Tanzania and validated at the Animal Disease Research Institute (ADRI) through the FAO/IAEA Research Contract (RC) No. 5030/NL. Incorporation of the Ag-ELISA technique into a FAO animal disease control project (1986-1993) on Unguja island, in 1992, revealed useful information of high trypanosomosis prevalence in an area previously declared free of the disease using just stained blood smears and buffy coat examinations. This triggered further efforts into more intensive surveys of the tsetse and trypanosomosis situation on Unguja island. The present study is a continuation of previous work in an effort to confirm the practical application of Ag-ELISA in trypanosomosis control operations. Results obtained from a known tsetse and trypanosomosis-free area, on Pemba island, showed a high specificity of the test for Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei. A preliminary cut-off value of 10% (Percent Positivity = PP) was used. When the PP of 10 was used on sera of trypanosomosis-endemic areas (Mangapwani, Ndijani, Dunga and Kikungwi) on Unguja island, the results reflected the 'real' trypanosomis situation in the affected area. This was most strongly felt in the Mangapwani area, where tsetse and trypanosomosis were considered under control by 1994 (no tsetse flies were caught and no samples were encountered positive by the buffy coat technique). However, it should be stressed that the buffy coat technique and the Ag-ELISA complement each other and should be used in conjunction. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  13. X-ray computerized tomography used in non-destructive testing of aerospace materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschio, Celio; Alencar Lotufo, Roberto de

    1996-01-01

    This work reports the development of nondestructive testing procedures for aerospace materials, using a medical tomograph (80 to 150 KeV), associated to the image digital processing techniques through the KHOROS system

  14. Development of nondestructive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.P.; You, K.G.; Kwak, K.J.; Jeong, Y.M.

    1980-01-01

    Defect sizing experiment was carried out by using the satellite pulse technique with ultrasonic method. The mode-changed pulses which come from both ends of the artificial flaws in the fabricated sample have been measured on the screen of cathod ray tube with both video mode and radio-frequency mode. The measured values of the flows deviate from the real values less than 10%. (author)

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v ethanol-water extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM, total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM, and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM, and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity. Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  16. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Tayebi-Meigooni, Amin

    2015-06-11

    Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol) and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v) ethanol-water) extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM)), total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM), and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM), and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity). Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  18. Developments in non-destructive beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    With the large average beam currents being achieved in accelerators and storage rings, there is an increasing need for non-destructive beam diagnostic devices. For continuous beams, position monitors of the capacitive pick-up type are replaced by resonant devices that respond to the transverse displacement of the beam centroid. Bunch length monitors of the SLAC type using resonant cavities operating in the TM 010 mode can be used for continuous beams. The more detailed information derivable from beam profile scanners requires development of improved non-destructive devices. Profile monitors which scan the visible light produced by high current beams may be more reliable than ones using the residual ionization if the light intensity from gas molecules following nonionizing collisions with beam particles gives a measure of the beam current density independent of the local electron density. The intense Balmer series lines from neutral hydrogen beams have been used successfully to measure beam profiles. At CRNL and at LASL, beam light profile monitors are being developed for high average current accelerators. Three or more projections will be recorded to allow tomographic reconstruction of the two-dimensional beam current density. Light detection is either by intensified Reticons or ISIT vidicons. The use of three or more beam light monitors on a beam transport line will also permit estimates of the transverse emittance to be made through the reconstruction technique

  19. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmire, V.L.; Scarborough, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Impure plutonium metal is routinely processed by molten salt extraction (MSE) to reduce the amount of americium in the metal product. Individuals form four technical groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) participated in a study designed to evaluate the accuracy of various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for measuring the plutonium content in MSE residues. This study was performed to improve in-house accountability of these items and to identify assay methods that would be acceptable for determining receiver's values for MSE salts from off-site sources. Recent upgrades have been made in a segmented gamma scan system, in a thermal neutron coincidence counter, and in the software of a gamma isotopic system that supports the calorimeters at LAPF. The authors evaluated the newer systems against the older systems versus destructive qualitative analyses. Fourteen containers of MSE residues were selected to be studied. Seven of these salts originated at LAPF and seven originated at Rockwell International Rocky Flats plant. Measurements have been performed on these items in their original containers, and the items have been repackaged into a different geometry and assayed again

  20. Nondestructive testing: Neutron radiography and neutron activation. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the physics and engineering communities database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of neutron radiography and neutron activation for nondestructive testing of materials. The development and evaluation of neutron activation analysis and neutron diffraction examination of liquids and solids are presented. Citations also discuss nondestructive assay, verification, evaluation, and multielement analysis of biomedical, environmental, industrial, and geological materials. Nondestructive identification of chemical agents, explosives, weapons, and drugs in sealed containers are explored. (Contains a minimum of 83 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)