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Sample records for nonadditive gene action

  1. Nature of gene action and genetic parameters for yield and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reza

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... by several chickpea breeders to evaluate the potential of populations for intra population improvement and the usefulness of parents in inter population breeding prog- rams, and to select inbred lines in hybrid breeding programs. The estimation of additive and non-additive gene action through this ...

  2. GENE ACTION AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS AMONG LINES DERIVED FROM VARIETAL CROSSES OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of genetic action, heritability and genetic variability is useful and permits plant breeder to design efficient breeding strategies in soybean.  The objectives of this study were to determine gene action, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of quantitative characters that could be realized through selection of segregation progenies. The F1 population and F2 progenies of six crosses among five soybean varieties were evaluated at Muneng Experimental Station, East Java during the dry season of 2014.  The lines were planted in a randomized block design with four replications.  The seeds of each F1 and F2 progenies and parents were planted in four rows of 3 m long, 40 cm x 20 cm plant spacing, one plant per hill. The result showed that pod number per plant, seed yield, plant yield and harvest index were found to be predominantly controlled by additive gene effects.  Seed size was also controlled by additive gene effects, with small seed dominant to large seed size.  Plant height was found to be controlled by both additive and nonadditive gene effects.  Similarly, days to maturity was due mainly to additive and nonadditive gene effects, with earliness dominant to lateness.  Days to maturity had the highest heritability estimates of 49.3%, followed by seed size (47.0%, harvest index (45.8%, and pod number per plant (45.5%.  Therefore, they could be used in the selection of a high yielding soybean genotype in the F3 generation. 

  3. Non-additive measure and integral

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Non-Additive Measure and Integral is the first systematic approach to the subject. Much of the additive theory (convergence theorems, Lebesgue spaces, representation theorems) is generalized, at least for submodular measures which are characterized by having a subadditive integral. The theory is of interest for applications to economic decision theory (decisions under risk and uncertainty), to statistics (including belief functions, fuzzy measures) to cooperative game theory, artificial intelligence, insurance, etc. Non-Additive Measure and Integral collects the results of scattered and often isolated approaches to non-additive measures and their integrals which originate in pure mathematics, potential theory, statistics, game theory, economic decision theory and other fields of application. It unifies, simplifies and generalizes known results and supplements the theory with new results, thus providing a sound basis for applications and further research in this growing field of increasing interest. It also co...

  4. Non-additive Effects in Genomic Selection

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    Luis Varona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, genomic selection has become a standard in the genetic evaluation of livestock populations. However, most procedures for the implementation of genomic selection only consider the additive effects associated with SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers used to calculate the prediction of the breeding values of candidates for selection. Nevertheless, the availability of estimates of non-additive effects is of interest because: (i they contribute to an increase in the accuracy of the prediction of breeding values and the genetic response; (ii they allow the definition of mate allocation procedures between candidates for selection; and (iii they can be used to enhance non-additive genetic variation through the definition of appropriate crossbreeding or purebred breeding schemes. This study presents a review of methods for the incorporation of non-additive genetic effects into genomic selection procedures and their potential applications in the prediction of future performance, mate allocation, crossbreeding, and purebred selection. The work concludes with a brief outline of some ideas for future lines of that may help the standard inclusion of non-additive effects in genomic selection.

  5. Non-additive measures theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narukawa, Yasuo; Sugeno, Michio; 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012)

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and timely report in the area of non-additive measures and integrals. It is based on a panel session on fuzzy measures, fuzzy integrals and aggregation operators held during the 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012) in Girona, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. The book complements the MDAI 2012 proceedings book, published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) in 2012. The individual chapters, written by key researchers in the field, cover fundamental concepts and important definitions (e.g. the Sugeno integral, definition of entropy for non-additive measures) as well some important applications (e.g. to economics and game theory) of non-additive measures and integrals. The book addresses students, researchers and practitioners working at the forefront of their field.  

  6. Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressé, Steve

    2014-11-01

    The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

  7. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

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    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. UG157 and DPU915 were good general combiners. Two crosses namely PDB 88-31/DPU 915 and PLU 277/KAU7 had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  8. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. �UG157� and �DPU915� were good general combiners. Two crosses namely �PDB 88-31�/�DPU 915� and �PLU 277�/�KAU7� had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  9. Analysis of gene expression in resynthesized Brassica napus Allopolyploids using arabidopsis 70mer oligo microarrays.

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    Robert T Gaeta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization

  10. A Simple Axiomatization of Nonadditive Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.K. Sarin (Rakesh); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides an extension of Savage's subjective expected utility theory for decisions under uncertainty. It includes in the set of events both unambiguous events for which probabilities are additive and ambiguous events for which probabilities are permitted to be nonadditive. The

  11. Nonadditive protein accumulation patterns in Maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids during embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Caroline; Schützenmeister, André; Schütz, Wolfgang; Madlung, Johannes; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2010-12-03

    Heterosis describes the superior performance of heterozygous F(1)-hybrid plants compared to their homozygous parental inbred lines. In the present study, heterosis was detected for length, weight, and the time point of seminal root primordia initiation in maize (Zea mays L.) embryos of the reciprocal F(1)-hybrids UH005xUH250 and UH250xUH005. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteome survey of the most abundant proteins of the reciprocal hybrids and their parental inbred lines 25 and 35 days after pollination revealed that 141 of 597 detected proteins (24%) exhibited nonadditive accumulation in at least one hybrid. Approximately 44% of all nonadditively accumulated proteins displayed an expression pattern that was not distinguishable from the low parent value. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses and subsequent functional classification of the 141 proteins revealed that development, protein metabolism, redox-regulation, glycolysis, and amino acid metabolism were the most prominent functional classes among nonadditively accumulated proteins. In 35-day-old embryos of the hybrid UH250xUH005, a significant up-regulation of enzymes related to glucose metabolism which often exceeded the best parent values was observed. A comparison of nonadditive protein accumulation between rice and maize embryo data sets revealed a significant overlap of nonadditively accumulated proteins suggesting conserved organ- or tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms in monocots related to heterosis.

  12. Mate choice for nonadditive genetic benefits correlate with MHC dissimilarity in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2010), s. 1683-1696 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Additive genetic benefit * female mate choice * genetic compatibility * good genes * mate choice * MHC * nonadditive genetic benefit * olfactory cues * Rhodeus ocellatus * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.659, year: 2010

  13. A simple axiomatization of nonadditive expected utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Sarin, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides an extension of Savage's subjective expected utility theory for decisions under uncertainty. It includes in the set of events both unambiguous events for which probabilities are additive as well as ambiguous events for which probabilities are permitted to be nonadditive. The main

  14. Non-additive dissipation in open quantum networks out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Mark T.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study a simple non-equilibrium quantum network whose dynamics can be expressed and exactly solved in terms of a time-local master equation. Specifically, we consider a pair of coupled fermionic modes, each one locally exchanging energy and particles with an independent, macroscopic thermal reservoir. We show that the generator of the asymptotic master equation is not additive, i.e. it cannot be expressed as a sum of contributions describing the action of each reservoir alone. Instead, we identify an additional interference term that generates coherences in the energy eigenbasis, associated with the current of conserved particles flowing in the steady state. Notably, non-additivity arises even for wide-band reservoirs coupled arbitrarily weakly to the system. Our results shed light on the non-trivial interplay between multiple thermal noise sources in modular open quantum systems.

  15. Including nonadditive genetic effects in mating programs to maximize dairy farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliloo, H; Pryce, J E; González-Recio, O; Cocks, B G; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J

    2017-02-01

    We compared the outcome of mating programs based on different evaluation models that included nonadditive genetic effects (dominance and heterozygosity) in addition to additive effects. The additive and dominance marker effects and the values of regression on average heterozygosity were estimated using 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 7,902 and 7,510 Holstein cows with calving interval and production (milk, fat, and protein yields) records, respectively. Expected progeny values were computed based on the estimated genetic effects and genotype probabilities of hypothetical progeny from matings between the available genotyped cows and the top 50 young genomic bulls. An index combining the traits based on their economic values was developed and used to evaluate the performance of different mating scenarios in terms of dollar profit. We observed that mating programs with nonadditive genetic effects performed better than a model with only additive effects. Mating programs with dominance and heterozygosity effects increased milk, fat, and protein yields by up to 38, 1.57, and 1.21 kg, respectively. The inclusion of dominance and heterozygosity effects decreased calving interval by up to 0.70 d compared with random mating. The average reduction in progeny inbreeding by the inclusion of nonadditive genetic effects in matings compared with random mating was between 0.25 to 1.57 and 0.64 to 1.57 percentage points for calving interval and production traits, respectively. The reduction in inbreeding was accompanied by an average of A$8.42 (Australian dollars) more profit per mating for a model with additive, dominance, and heterozygosity effects compared with random mating. Mate allocations that benefit from nonadditive genetic effects can improve progeny performance only in the generation where it is being implemented, and the gain from specific combining abilities cannot be accumulated over generations. Continuous updating of genomic predictions and mate

  16. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Patterson, Courtney M; Classen, Aimée T; Simberloff, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To maximize limited conservation funds and prioritize management projects that are likely to succeed, accurate assessment of invasive nonnative species impacts is essential. A common challenge to prioritization is a limited knowledge of the difference between the impacts of a single nonnative species compared to the impacts of nonnative species when they co-occur, and in particular predicting when impacts of co-occurring nonnative species will be non-additive. Understanding non-additivity is important for management decisions because the management of only one co-occurring invader will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant. Nonnative plants are frequently associated with changes in soil biotic and abiotic characteristics, which lead to plant-soil interactions that influence the performance of other species grown in those soils. Whether co-occurring nonnative plants alter soil properties additively or non-additively relative to their effects on soils when they grow in monoculture is rarely addressed. We use a greenhouse plant-soil feedback experiment to test for non-additive soil impacts of two common invasive nonnative woody shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence

  17. Binary non-additive hard sphere mixtures: fluid demixing, asymptotic decay of correlations and free fluid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Paul; Schmidt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Using a fundamental measure density functional theory we investigate both bulk and inhomogeneous systems of the binary non-additive hard sphere model. For sufficiently large (positive) non-additivity the mixture phase separates into two fluid phases with different compositions. We calculate bulk fluid-fluid coexistence curves for a range of size ratios and non-additivity parameters and find that they compare well to simulation results from the literature. Using the Ornstein-Zernike equation, we investigate the asymptotic, r→∞, decay of the partial pair correlation functions, g ij (r). At low densities a structural crossover occurs in the asymptotic decay between two different damped oscillatory modes with different wavelengths corresponding to the two intra-species hard-core diameters. On approaching the fluid-fluid critical point there is a Fisher-Widom crossover from exponentially damped oscillatory to monotonic asymptotic decay. Using the density functional we calculate the density profiles for the planar free fluid-fluid interface between coexisting fluid phases. We show that the type of asymptotic decay of g ij (r) not only determines the asymptotic decay of the interface profiles, but is also relevant for intermediate and even short-ranged behaviour. We also determine the surface tension of the free fluid interface, finding that it increases with non-additivity, and that on approaching the critical point mean-field scaling holds.

  18. Between and beyond additivity and non-additivity : the statistical modelling of genotype by environment interaction in plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Eeuwijk, van, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    In plant breeding it is a common observation to see genotypes react differently to environmental changes. This phenomenon is called genotype by environment interaction. Many statistical approaches for analysing genotype by environment interaction rely heavily on the analysis of variance model. Genotype by environment interaction is then taken to be equivalent to non-additivity. This thesis criticizes the analysis of variance approach. Modelling genotype by environment interaction by non-addit...

  19. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Mao

    Full Text Available Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  20. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  1. Efficient strategy for detecting gene × gene joint action and its application in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Won, Sungho; Kwon, Min-Seok; Mattheisen, Manuel; Park, Suyeon; Park, Changsoon; Kihara, Daisuke; Cichon, Sven; Ophoff, Roel; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Baur, Max; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofmann, A.; Lange, Christoph; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new approach to detect gene × gene joint action in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for case-control designs. This approach offers an exhaustive search for all two-way joint action (including, as a special case, single gene action) that is computationally feasible at the

  2. Gene specific actions of thyroid hormone receptor subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Z Lin

    Full Text Available There are two homologous thyroid hormone (TH receptors (TRs α and β, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR family. While TRs regulate different processes in vivo and other highly related NRs regulate distinct gene sets, initial studies of TR action revealed near complete overlaps in their actions at the level of individual genes. Here, we assessed the extent that TRα and TRβ differ in target gene regulation by comparing effects of equal levels of stably expressed exogenous TRs +/- T(3 in two cell backgrounds (HepG2 and HeLa. We find that hundreds of genes respond to T(3 or to unliganded TRs in both cell types, but were not able to detect verifiable examples of completely TR subtype-specific gene regulation. TR actions are, however, far from identical and we detect TR subtype-specific effects on global T(3 response kinetics in HepG2 cells and many examples of TR subtype specificity at the level of individual genes, including effects on magnitude of response to TR +/- T(3, TR regulation patterns and T(3 dose response. Cycloheximide (CHX treatment confirms that at least some differential effects involve verifiable direct TR target genes. TR subtype/gene-specific effects emerge in the context of widespread variation in target gene response and we suggest that gene-selective effects on mechanism of TR action highlight differences in TR subtype function that emerge in the environment of specific genes. We propose that differential TR actions could influence physiologic and pharmacologic responses to THs and selective TR modulators (STRMs.

  3. Efficient strategy for detecting gene × gene joint action and its application in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sungho; Kwon, Min-Seok; Mattheisen, Manuel; Park, Suyeon; Park, Changsoon; Kihara, Daisuke; Cichon, Sven; Ophoff, Roel; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Baur, Max; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofmann, A; Lange, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new approach to detect gene × gene joint action in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for case-control designs. This approach offers an exhaustive search for all two-way joint action (including, as a special case, single gene action) that is computationally feasible at the genome-wide level and has reasonable statistical power under most genetic models. We found that the presence of any gene × gene joint action may imply differences in three types of genetic components: the minor allele frequencies and the amounts of Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium may differ between cases and controls, and between the two genetic loci the degree of linkage disequilibrium may differ between cases and controls. Using Fisher's method, it is possible to combine the different sources of genetic information in an overall test for detecting gene × gene joint action. The proposed statistical analysis is efficient and its simplicity makes it applicable to GWASs. In the current study, we applied the proposed approach to a GWAS on schizophrenia and found several potential gene × gene interactions. Our application illustrates the practical advantage of the proposed method. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Amino-Acid Network Clique Analysis of Protein Mutation Non-Additive Effects: A Case Study of Lysozme

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    Dengming Ming

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing amino-acid mutations in enzyme design has been a very challenging task in modern bio-industrial applications. It is well known that many successful designs often hinge on extensive correlations among mutations at different sites within the enzyme, however, the underpinning mechanism for these correlations is far from clear. Here, we present a topology-based model to quantitively characterize non-additive effects between mutations. The method is based on the molecular dynamic simulations and the amino-acid network clique analysis. It examines if the two mutation sites of a double-site mutation fall into to a 3-clique structure, and associates such topological property of mutational site spatial distribution with mutation additivity features. We analyzed 13 dual mutations of T4 phage lysozyme and found that the clique-based model successfully distinguishes highly correlated or non-additive double-site mutations from those additive ones whose component mutations have less correlation. We also applied the model to protein Eglin c whose structural topology is significantly different from that of T4 phage lysozyme, and found that the model can, to some extension, still identify non-additive mutations from additive ones. Our calculations showed that mutation non-additive effects may heavily depend on a structural topology relationship between mutation sites, which can be quantitatively determined using amino-acid network k-cliques. We also showed that double-site mutation correlations can be significantly altered by exerting a third mutation, indicating that more detailed physicochemical interactions should be considered along with the network clique-based model for better understanding of this elusive mutation-correlation principle.

  5. Estimating additive and non-additive genetic variances and predicting genetic merits using genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

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    Guosheng Su

    Full Text Available Non-additive genetic variation is usually ignored when genome-wide markers are used to study the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits in human, wild life, model organisms or farm animals. However, non-additive genetic effects may have an important contribution to total genetic variation of complex traits. This study presented a genomic BLUP model including additive and non-additive genetic effects, in which additive and non-additive genetic relation matrices were constructed from information of genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. In addition, this study for the first time proposed a method to construct dominance relationship matrix using SNP markers and demonstrated it in detail. The proposed model was implemented to investigate the amounts of additive genetic, dominance and epistatic variations, and assessed the accuracy and unbiasedness of genomic predictions for daily gain in pigs. In the analysis of daily gain, four linear models were used: 1 a simple additive genetic model (MA, 2 a model including both additive and additive by additive epistatic genetic effects (MAE, 3 a model including both additive and dominance genetic effects (MAD, and 4 a full model including all three genetic components (MAED. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability were 0.397, 0.373, 0.379 and 0.357 for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. Estimated dominance variance and additive by additive epistatic variance accounted for 5.6% and 9.5% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. Based on model MAED, the estimate of broad-sense heritability was 0.506. Reliabilities of genomic predicted breeding values for the animals without performance records were 28.5%, 28.8%, 29.2% and 29.5% for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. In addition, models including non-additive genetic effects improved unbiasedness of genomic predictions.

  6. Nonadditive entropy and nonextensive statistical mechanics - Some central concepts and recent applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review central concepts concerning nonextensive statistical mechanics, based on the nonadditive entropy shown. Among others, we focus on possible realizations of the q-generalized Central Limit Theorem, including at the edge of chaos of the logistic map, and for quasi-stationary states of many-body long-range-interacting Hamiltonian systems.

  7. Non-additive costs and interactions alter the competitive dynamics of co-occurring ecologically distinct plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R; Platt, Thomas G; Fuqua, Clay; Bever, James D

    2014-03-22

    Plasmids play an important role in shaping bacterial evolution and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. As modular genetic elements that are often conjugative, the selective pressures that act on plasmid-borne genes are distinct from those that act on the chromosome. Many bacteria are co-infected by multiple plasmids that impart niche-specific phenotypes. Thus, in addition to host-plasmid dynamics, interactions between co-infecting plasmids are likely to be important drivers of plasmid population dynamics, evolution and ecology. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a facultative plant pathogen that commonly harbours two distinct megaplasmids. Virulence depends on the presence of the tumour-inducing (Ti) plasmid, with benefits that are primarily restricted to the disease environment. Here, we demonstrate that a second megaplasmid, the At plasmid, confers a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere. To assess the individual and interactive costs of these plasmids, we generated four isogenic derivatives: plasmidless, pAt only, pTi only and pAtpTi, and performed pairwise competitions under carbon-limiting conditions. These studies reveal a low cost to the virulence plasmid when outside of the disease environment, and a strikingly high cost to the At plasmid. In addition, the costs of pAt and pTi in the same host were significantly lower than predicted based on single plasmid costs, signifying the first demonstration of non-additivity between naturally occurring co-resident plasmids. Based on these empirically demonstrated costs and benefits, we developed a resource-consumer model to generate predictions about the frequencies of these genotypes in relevant environments, showing that non-additivity between co-residing plasmids allows for their stable coexistence across environments.

  8. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nettleton Dan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47% of the M. truncatula probe sets. Probe set signal intensities were analyzed using MicroArray Suite v.5.0 (MAS and robust multi-array average (RMA algorithms. Based on MAS analysis, the two heterotic hybrids performed similarly, with about 27% of genes showing differential expression among the parents and their hybrid compared to 12.5% for the non-heterotic hybrid. At a false discovery rate of 0.15, 4.7% of differentially expressed genes in hybrids (~300 genes showed nonadditive expression compared to only 0.5% (16 genes in the non-heterotic hybrid. Of the nonadditively expressed genes, approximately 50% showed expression levels that fell outside the parental range in heterotic hybrids, but only one of 16 showed a similar profile in the non-heterotic hybrid. Genes whose expression differed in the parents were three times more likely to show nonadditive expression than genes whose parental transcript levels were equal. Conclusion The higher proportions of probe sets with expression level that differed from the parental midparent value and that were more extreme than either parental value in the heterotic hybrids compared to a non-heterotic hybrid were also found using RMA. We conclude that nonadditive expression of transcript levels may contribute to heterosis for biomass

  9. Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding, based on a long-term selection ... The gene action involved in the expression of production characters was investigated, using the effect of the theoretical inbreeding ..... and predicted selection responses for growth, fat and lean traits in mice. J. Anim. Sci.

  10. A non-additive repulsive contribution in an equation of state: The development for homonuclear square well chains equation of state validated against Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Thi-Kim-Hoang; Passarello, Jean-Philippe; Hemptinne, Jean-Charles de; Lugo, Rafael; Lachet, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    This work consists of the adaptation of a non-additive hard sphere theory inspired by Malakhov and Volkov [Polym. Sci., Ser. A 49(6), 745–756 (2007)] to a square-well chain. Using the thermodynamic perturbation theory, an additional term is proposed that describes the effect of perturbing the chain of square well spheres by a non-additive parameter. In order to validate this development, NPT Monte Carlo simulations of thermodynamic and structural properties of the non-additive square well for a pure chain and a binary mixture of chains are performed. Good agreements are observed between the compressibility factors originating from the theory and those from molecular simulations.

  11. Species traits and their non-additive interactions control the water economy of bryophyte cushions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, P.; Lee, W.G.; During, H.J.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; van der Putten, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    1. Ecological processes in mixed-species assemblages are not always an additive function of those in monocultures. In areas with high ground cover of bryophytes, renowned for their considerable water retention capacity, non-additive interactions in mixed-species cushions could play a key role in the

  12. Quasi-chemical approach for adsorption of mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, O.A. [Instituto de Bionanotecnología (INBIONATEC-CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Santiago de Estero, RN 9 Km 1125 Villa el Zanjón, Santiago del Estero G4206XCP (Argentina); Pasinetti, P.M., E-mail: pmp@unsl.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Física Aplicada (INFAP), Universidad Nacional de San Luis—CONICET, Ejército de los Andes 950, D5700BWS San Luis (Argentina); Ramirez-Pastor, A.J. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Física Aplicada (INFAP), Universidad Nacional de San Luis—CONICET, Ejército de los Andes 950, D5700BWS San Luis (Argentina)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The classical quasi-chemical approach is generalized to model non-additive mixtures. • The formalism allows to obtain the partial isotherms and the differential heat of adsorption. • A rich variety of low-temperature phases is observed in the adsorbed layer. • Theoretical results show a good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. - Abstract: The statistical thermodynamics of binary mixtures with non-additive lateral interactions was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the classical quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). The traditional assumption of a strictly pairwise additive nearest-neighbors interaction is replaced by a more general one, namely that the bond linking a certain atom with any of its neighbors depends considerably on how many of them are actually present (or absent) on the sites in the first coordination shell of the atom. The total and partial adsorption isotherms are given for both attractive and repulsive lateral interactions between the adsorbed species. Interesting behaviors are observed and discussed in terms of the low-temperature phases formed in the system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical model.

  13. Three- and four-body nonadditivities in nucleic acid tetramers: a CCSD(T) study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitoňák, Michal; Neogrady, P.; Hobza, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2010), s. 1369-1378 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0428/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA * dispersion energy * nonadditivity * CCSD(T) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  14. Digital gene expression analysis of gene expression differences within Brassica diploids and allopolyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Bao; Fang, Tingting; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-27

    Brassica includes many successfully cultivated crop species of polyploid origin, either by ancestral genome triplication or by hybridization between two diploid progenitors, displaying complex repetitive sequences and transposons. The U's triangle, which consists of three diploids and three amphidiploids, is optimal for the analysis of complicated genomes after polyploidization. Next-generation sequencing enables the transcriptome profiling of polyploids on a global scale. We examined the gene expression patterns of three diploids (Brassica rapa, B. nigra, and B. oleracea) and three amphidiploids (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata) via digital gene expression analysis. In total, the libraries generated between 5.7 and 6.1 million raw reads, and the clean tags of each library were mapped to 18547-21995 genes of B. rapa genome. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were compared. Moreover, the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were explored among diploids as well as between diploids and amphidiploids. Gene ontological analysis was performed to functionally categorize these DEGs into different classes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis was performed to assign these DEGs into approximately 120 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and peroxisomal pathway were enriched. The non-additive genes in Brassica amphidiploids were analyzed, and the results indicated that orthologous genes in polyploids are frequently expressed in a non-additive pattern. Methyltransferase genes showed differential expression pattern in Brassica species. Our results provided an understanding of the transcriptome complexity of natural Brassica species. The gene expression changes in diploids and allopolyploids may help elucidate the morphological and physiological differences among Brassica species.

  15. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    breeds managed in a relatively intensive but high stocking rate environment, ... gene action (additive or non-additive) affecting economically important traits, genetic ... Birth weight and weaning weight are important traits in weaner production ...

  16. Actionable gene-based classification toward precision medicine in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ichikawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intertumoral heterogeneity represents a significant hurdle to identifying optimized targeted therapies in gastric cancer (GC. To realize precision medicine for GC patients, an actionable gene alteration-based molecular classification that directly associates GCs with targeted therapies is needed. Methods A total of 207 Japanese patients with GC were included in this study. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor tissues were obtained from surgical or biopsy specimens and were subjected to DNA extraction. We generated comprehensive genomic profiling data using a 435-gene panel including 69 actionable genes paired with US Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies, and the evaluation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and microsatellite instability (MSI status. Results Comprehensive genomic sequencing detected at least one alteration of 435 cancer-related genes in 194 GCs (93.7% and of 69 actionable genes in 141 GCs (68.1%. We classified the 207 GCs into four The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA subtypes using the genomic profiling data; EBV (N = 9, MSI (N = 17, chromosomal instability (N = 119, and genomically stable subtype (N = 62. Actionable gene alterations were not specific and were widely observed throughout all TCGA subtypes. To discover a novel classification which more precisely selects candidates for targeted therapies, 207 GCs were classified using hypermutated phenotype and the mutation profile of 69 actionable genes. We identified a hypermutated group (N = 32, while the others (N = 175 were sub-divided into six clusters including five with actionable gene alterations: ERBB2 (N = 25, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B (N = 10, KRAS (N = 10, BRCA2 (N = 9, and ATM cluster (N = 12. The clinical utility of this classification was demonstrated by a case of unresectable GC with a remarkable response to anti-HER2 therapy in the ERBB2 cluster. Conclusions This actionable gene

  17. EVAPORATION: a new vapour pressure estimation methodfor organic molecules including non-additivity and intramolecular interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present EVAPORATION (Estimation of VApour Pressure of ORganics, Accounting for Temperature, Intramolecular, and Non-additivity effects, a method to predict (subcooled liquid pure compound vapour pressure p0 of organic molecules that requires only molecular structure as input. The method is applicable to zero-, mono- and polyfunctional molecules. A simple formula to describe log10p0(T is employed, that takes into account both a wide temperature dependence and the non-additivity of functional groups. In order to match the recent data on functionalised diacids an empirical modification to the method was introduced. Contributions due to carbon skeleton, functional groups, and intramolecular interaction between groups are included. Molecules typically originating from oxidation of biogenic molecules are within the scope of this method: aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, esters, nitrates, acids, peroxides, hydroperoxides, peroxy acyl nitrates and peracids. Therefore the method is especially suited to describe compounds forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA.

  18. Modeling of non-additive mixture properties using the Online CHEmical database and Modeling environment (OCHEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprisiu Ioana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu is a web-based platform that provides tools for automation of typical steps necessary to create a predictive QSAR/QSPR model. The platform consists of two major subsystems: a database of experimental measurements and a modeling framework. So far, OCHEM has been limited to the processing of individual compounds. In this work, we extended OCHEM with a new ability to store and model properties of binary non-additive mixtures. The developed system is publicly accessible, meaning that any user on the Web can store new data for binary mixtures and develop models to predict their non-additive properties. The database already contains almost 10,000 data points for the density, bubble point, and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures. For these data, we developed models for both qualitative (azeotrope/zeotrope and quantitative endpoints (density and bubble points using different learning methods and specially developed descriptors for mixtures. The prediction performance of the models was similar to or more accurate than results reported in previous studies. Thus, we have developed and made publicly available a powerful system for modeling mixtures of chemical compounds on the Web.

  19. Gene-environment interaction and behavioral disorders: a developmental perspective based on endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Maziade, Michel; Molteni, Massimo; D'Amato, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that 'No aspect of human behavioral genetics has caused more confusion and generated more obscurantism than the analysis and interpretation of various types of non-additivity and non-independence of gene and environmental action and interaction' (Eaves LJ et al 1977 Br J Math Stat Psychol 30:1-42). On the other hand, a bulk of newly published studies appear to speak in favour of common and frequent interplay--and possibly interaction--between identified genetic polymorphisms and specified environmental variables in shaping behavior and behavioral disorders. Considerable interest has arisen from the introduction of putative functional 'endophenotypes' which would represent a more proximate biological link to genes, as well as an obligatory intermediate of behavior. While explicit criteria to identify valid endophenotypes have been offered, a number of new 'alternative phenotypes' are now being proposed as possible 'endophenotypes' for behavioral and psychiatric genetics research, sometimes with less than optimal stringency. Nonetheless, we suggest that some endophenotypes can be helpful in investigating several instances of gene-environment interactions and be employed as additional tools to reduce the risk for spurious results in this controversial area.

  20. A general description of additive and nonadditive elements of sperm competitiveness and their relation to male fertilization success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, Leif

    2013-05-01

    A complete understanding of male reproductive success, and thus sexual selection, often requires an insight into male success in sperm competition. Genuine conclusions on male sperm competitiveness can only be made in real competitive situations. However, statistical analyses of sperm competitiveness from fertilization success data have been shown to be problematic. Here, I first outline a comprehensive general description of the different additive and nonadditive elements relevant for the outcome of sperm competition staged between two males. Based on this description, I will highlight two main problems that are frequently encountered in experiments aiming at estimating sperm competitiveness. First, I focus on potential problems when using standardized competitors versus random mating trials, because trials with standardized competitors do not allow generalization if male-male interactions are important. Second, I illustrate the necessity to analyze data on the logit scale rather than on raw proportions, because only the logit scale allows a clean separation of additive and nonadditive effects (i.e., male × male and female × male interactions). © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution © 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  2. Temporal Drivers of Liking Based on Functional Data Analysis and Non-Additive Models for Multi-Attribute Time-Intensity Data of Fruit Chews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesten, Carla; Bi, Jian

    2018-06-03

    Conventional drivers of liking analysis was extended with a time dimension into temporal drivers of liking (TDOL) based on functional data analysis methodology and non-additive models for multiple-attribute time-intensity (MATI) data. The non-additive models, which consider both direct effects and interaction effects of attributes to consumer overall liking, include Choquet integral and fuzzy measure in the multi-criteria decision-making, and linear regression based on variance decomposition. Dynamics of TDOL, i.e., the derivatives of the relative importance functional curves were also explored. Well-established R packages 'fda', 'kappalab' and 'relaimpo' were used in the paper for developing TDOL. Applied use of these methods shows that the relative importance of MATI curves offers insights for understanding the temporal aspects of consumer liking for fruit chews.

  3. Statistical Physics of Neural Systems with Nonadditive Dendritic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Breuer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How neurons process their inputs crucially determines the dynamics of biological and artificial neural networks. In such neural and neural-like systems, synaptic input is typically considered to be merely transmitted linearly or sublinearly by the dendritic compartments. Yet, single-neuron experiments report pronounced supralinear dendritic summation of sufficiently synchronous and spatially close-by inputs. Here, we provide a statistical physics approach to study the impact of such nonadditive dendritic processing on single-neuron responses and the performance of associative-memory tasks in artificial neural networks. First, we compute the effect of random input to a neuron incorporating nonlinear dendrites. This approach is independent of the details of the neuronal dynamics. Second, we use those results to study the impact of dendritic nonlinearities on the network dynamics in a paradigmatic model for associative memory, both numerically and analytically. We find that dendritic nonlinearities maintain network convergence and increase the robustness of memory performance against noise. Interestingly, an intermediate number of dendritic branches is optimal for memory functionality.

  4. Tsallis non-additive entropy and natural time analysis of seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.

    2017-12-01

    Within the context of Tsallis non-additive entropy [1] statistical mechanics -in the frame of which kappa distributions arise [2,3]- a derivation of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law of seismicity has been proposed [4,5]. Such an analysis leads to a generalized GR law [6,7] which is applied here to the earthquakes in Japan and California. These seismic data are also studied in natural time [6] revealing that although some properties of seismicity may be recovered by the non-additive entropy approach, temporal correlations between successive earthquake magnitudes should be also taken into account [6,8]. The importance of such correlations is strengthened by the observation of periods of long range correlated earthquake magnitude time series [9] a few months before all earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger in the entire Japanese area from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) almost simultaneously with characteristic order parameter variations of seismicity [10]. These variations appear approximately when low frequency abnormal changes of the electric and magnetic field of the Earth (less than around 1Hz) are recorded [11] before strong earthquakes as the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan in 2011 [12]. 1. C Tsallis, J Stat Phys 52 (1988) 479 2. G Livadiotis, and D J McComas, J Geophys Res 114 (2009) A11105 3. G Livadiotis, Kappa Distributions. (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 2017. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-804638-8.01001-9 4. O Sotolongo-Costa, A Posadas, Phys Rev Lett 92 (2004) 048501 5. R Silva, G França, C Vilar, J Alcaniz, Phys Rev E 73 (2006) 026102 6. N Sarlis, E Skordas, P Varotsos, Phys Rev E 82 (2010) 021110 7. L Telesca, Bull Seismol Soc Am 102 (2012) 886-891 8. P Varotsos, N Sarlis, E Skordas, Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. (Springer, Berlin) 2011. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16449-1 9. P Varotsos, N Sarlis, E Skordas, J Geophys Res Space Physics 119 (2014) 9192. 10. N Sarlis, E Skordas, P Varotsos, T

  5. Nature and prevalence of non-additive toxic effects in industrially relevant mixtures of organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mukherji, Suparna

    2009-06-01

    The concentration addition (CA) and the independent action (IA) models are widely used for predicting mixture toxicity based on its composition and individual component dose-response profiles. However, the prediction based on these models may be inaccurate due to interaction among mixture components. In this work, the nature and prevalence of non-additive effects were explored for binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures composed of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). The toxicity of each individual component and mixture was determined using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay. For each combination of chemicals specified by the 2(n) factorial design, the percent deviation of the predicted toxic effect from the measured value was used to characterize mixtures as synergistic (positive deviation) and antagonistic (negative deviation). An arbitrary classification scheme was proposed based on the magnitude of deviation (d) as: additive (50%, class-IV) antagonistic/synergistic. Naphthalene, n-butanol, o-xylene, catechol and p-cresol led to synergism in mixtures while 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and 1, 3-dimethylnaphthalene contributed to antagonism. Most of the mixtures depicted additive or antagonistic effect. Synergism was prominent in some of the mixtures, such as, pulp and paper, textile dyes, and a mixture composed of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The organic chemical industry mixture depicted the highest abundance of antagonism and least synergism. Mixture toxicity was found to depend on partition coefficient, molecular connectivity index and relative concentration of the components.

  6. A Novel Nonadditive Collaborative-Filtering Approach Using Multicriteria Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chung Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although single-criterion recommender systems have been successfully used in several applications, multicriteria rating systems which allow users to specify ratings for various content attributes of individual items are gaining importance in recommendation context. An overall rating of an unrated item is often obtained by the weighted average method (WAM when criterion weights are available. However, the assumption of additivity for the WAM is not always reasonable. For this reason, this paper presents a new collaborative-filtering approach using multicriteria ratings, in which a nonadditive technique in Multicriteria decision making (MCDM, namely, the Choquet integral, is used to aggregate multicriteria ratings for unrated items. Subsequently, the system can recommend items with higher overall ratings for each user. The degrees of importance of the respective criteria are determined by a genetic algorithm. In contrast to the additive weighted average aggregation, the Choquet integral does not ignore the interaction among criteria. The applicability of the proposed approach to the recommendation of the initiators on a group-buying website is examined. Experimental results demonstrate that the generalization ability of the proposed approach performs well compared with other similarity-based collaborative-filtering approaches using multicriteria ratings.

  7. Gene effects and combining ability in some bread wheat genotypes to yellow rust disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, A R; Taeb, M; Afshari, F; Khavari, S; Abbaspoor, M

    2009-01-15

    Ten wheat lines were studied to determine gene effects and combining ability in some bread wheat genotypes to yellow rust disease. Ten parental lines and F1 were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Mashhad, Iran. Two races (134E134A+ and 4E0A+) were used for this study. Latent Period (LP) and Infection Type (IT) were measured in the field and greenhouse. Results showed significant differences between races in their pathogenicity and between genotypes in their resistance to the pathogen. Diallel cross carried out between the parents and progenies and thereafter were analyzed by the method of Griffing and Haymans. The General Combining Ability (GCA) and Special Combining Ability (SCA) for all traits were significant and showed additive variance was more important. Test for validity of diallel hypothesis proved epistasis effect for all traits. P1, P2 and F1 showed significant difference between all traits in generations mean analysis. Average degree of dominance ranged from partial to over dominance for resistance or susceptibility. Dominance, additive and epistatic types of gene action were responsible for the genetic control of the traits. However, except for additive-additive component, non-additive effect of genes could not be fixed by self-fertilization.

  8. Canalization of Gene Action in the Gossypium Leaf Shape System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The important, .... Canalization of gene action is important from two aspects. In the first .... indices for the heterozygotes also agree with Silow's actual figures, and it may be inferred .... demic outbreaks which often annihilate the whole stock.

  9. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuebbing, Sara E.; Patterson, Courtney M.; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2016-01-01

    shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned...... by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth...... in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence of the nonnative L. sinense relative to this native herbaceous community, and could provide an explanation of why native species...

  10. Modifications to the Patient Rule-Induction Method that utilize non-additive combinations of genetic and environmental effects to define partitions that predict ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyson, Greg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    This article extends the Patient Rule-Induction Method (PRIM) for modeling cumulative incidence of disease developed by Dyson et al. (Genet Epidemiol 31:515-527) to include the simultaneous consideration of non-additive combinations of predictor variables, a significance test of each combination,...

  11. Good genes, genetic compatibility and the evolution of polyandry: use of the diallel cross to address competing hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, T M

    2007-03-01

    Genetic benefits can enhance the fitness of polyandrous females through the high intrinsic genetic quality of females' mates or through the interaction between female and male genes. I used a full diallel cross, a quantitative genetics design that involves all possible crosses among a set of genetically homogeneous lines, to determine the mechanism through which polyandrous female decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) obtain genetic benefits. I measured several traits related to fitness and partitioned the phenotypic variance into components representing the contribution of additive genetic variance ('good genes'), nonadditive genetic variance (genetic compatibility), as well as maternal and paternal effects. The results reveal a significant variance attributable to both nonadditive and additive sources in the measured traits, and their influence depended on which trait was considered. The lack of congruence in sources of phenotypic variance among these fitness-related traits suggests that the evolution and maintenance of polyandry are unlikely to have resulted from one selective influence, but rather are the result of the collective effects of a number of factors.

  12. The Origin of the Non-Additivity in Resonance-Assisted Hydrogen Bond Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2017-11-09

    The concept of resonance-assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB) has been widely accepted, and its impact on structures and energetics can be best studied computationally using the block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and able to derive strictly electron-localized structures self-consistently. In this work, we use the BLW method to examine a few molecules that result from the merging of two malonaldehyde molecules. As each of these molecules contains two hydrogen bonds, these intramolecular hydrogen bonds may be cooperative or anticooperative, depended on their relative orientations, and compared with the hydrogen bond in malonaldehyde. Apart from quantitatively confirming the concept of RAHB, the comparison of the computations with and without π resonance shows that both σ-framework and π-resonance contribute to the nonadditivity in these RAHB systems with multiple hydrogen bonds.

  13. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed using 6×6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants.

  14. Effect of ethylene action inhibitors upon wound-induced gene expression in tomato pericarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henstrand, J.M.; Handa, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of wound-ethylene to wound-induced gene expression was investigated in unripe tomato pericarp using inhibitors of ethylene action. Wounded unripe tomato pericarp was treated with 2,5-norbornadiene or silver thiosulfate to inhibit specifically the induction of ethylene-dependent mRNA species. Poly(A) + RNAs isolated from these tissues after 12 hours of wounding were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and [ 35 S]methionine-labeled polypeptides were compared to unwounded controls after separation by one and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that mechanical wounding induces a dramatic shift in gene expression (over 50 mRNA species) but expression of less than 15% of these genes is affected by the treatment with ethylene action inhibitors. A selective decrease in mRNAs coding for a 37 kilodalton doublet and 75 kilodalton polypeptides is observed in 2,5-norbornadiene and silver thiosulfate treated wounded pericarp. Levels of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNAs induced in wounded tissue were not influenced by inhibitors of ethylene action

  15. Gene ontology analysis of pairwise genetic associations in two genome-wide studies of sporadic ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly clear that common human diseases have a complex genetic architecture characterized by both additive and nonadditive genetic effects. The goal of the present study was to determine whether patterns of both additive and nonadditive genetic associations aggregate in specific functional groups as defined by the Gene Ontology (GO. Results We first estimated all pairwise additive and nonadditive genetic effects using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method that makes few assumptions about the underlying genetic model. Statistical significance was evaluated using permutation testing in two genome-wide association studies of ALS. The detection data consisted of 276 subjects with ALS and 271 healthy controls while the replication data consisted of 221 subjects with ALS and 211 healthy controls. Both studies included genotypes from approximately 550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Each SNP was mapped to a gene if it was within 500 kb of the start or end. Each SNP was assigned a p-value based on its strongest joint effect with the other SNPs. We then used the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA method and software to assign a p-value to each gene based on the overabundance of significant SNPs at the α = 0.05 level in the gene. We also used EVA to assign p-values to each GO group based on the overabundance of significant genes at the α = 0.05 level. A GO category was determined to replicate if that category was significant at the α = 0.05 level in both studies. We found two GO categories that replicated in both studies. The first, ‘Regulation of Cellular Component Organization and Biogenesis’, a GO Biological Process, had p-values of 0.010 and 0.014 in the detection and replication studies, respectively. The second, ‘Actin Cytoskeleton’, a GO Cellular Component, had p-values of 0.040 and 0.046 in the detection and replication studies, respectively. Conclusions Pathway

  16. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  17. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N ...

  18. Behavior of genetic (covariance components in populations simulated from non-additive genetic models of dominance and overdominance Comportamento dos componentes de (covariância genética em populações simuladas a partir de modelos genéticos não-aditivos de dominância e sobredominância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Emídio Cunha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term behavior of the genetic variability of quantitative traits simulated from models with additive and non-additive gene action in control and phenotypic selection populations. Both traits, one with low (h² = 0.10 and the other with high (h² = 0.60 heritability, were controlled by 600 biallelic loci. From a standard genome, it was obtained six genetic models which included the following: only the additive gene effects; complete and positive dominance for 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the loci; and positive overdominance for 50% of the loci. In the models with dominance deviation, the additive allelic effects were also included for 100% of the loci. Genetic variability was quantified from generation to generation using the genetic variance components. In the absence of selection, genotypic and additive genetic variances were higher. In the models with non-additive gene action, a small magnitude covariance component raised between the additive and dominance genetic effects whose correlation tended to be positive on the control population and negative under selection. Dominance variance increased as the number of loci with dominance deviation or the value of the deviation increased, implying on the increase in genotypic and additive genetic variances among the successive models.Objetivou-se estudar a variabilidade genética a curto prazo de características quantitativas simuladas a partir de modelos com ação gênica aditiva e não-aditiva em populações controle e de seleção fenotípica. As duas características, uma de baixa (h² = 0,10 e outra de alta (h² = 0,60 herdabilidade, foram controladas por 600 locos bialélicos. A partir de um genoma-padrão, foram obtidos seis modelos genéticos que incluíram: apenas efeitos aditivos dos genes; dominância completa e positiva para 25, 50, 75 e 100% dos locos; e sobredominância positiva para 50% dos locos. Nos modelos com desvio da dominância tamb

  19. Non-additive non-interacting kinetic energy of rare gas dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaili; Nafziger, Jonathan; Wasserman, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Approximations of the non-additive non-interacting kinetic energy (NAKE) as an explicit functional of the density are the basis of several electronic structure methods that provide improved computational efficiency over standard Kohn-Sham calculations. However, within most fragment-based formalisms, there is no unique exact NAKE, making it difficult to develop general, robust approximations for it. When adjustments are made to the embedding formalisms to guarantee uniqueness, approximate functionals may be more meaningfully compared to the exact unique NAKE. We use numerically accurate inversions to study the exact NAKE of several rare-gas dimers within partition density functional theory, a method that provides the uniqueness for the exact NAKE. We find that the NAKE decreases nearly exponentially with atomic separation for the rare-gas dimers. We compute the logarithmic derivative of the NAKE with respect to the bond length for our numerically accurate inversions as well as for several approximate NAKE functionals. We show that standard approximate NAKE functionals do not reproduce the correct behavior for this logarithmic derivative and propose two new NAKE functionals that do. The first of these is based on a re-parametrization of a conjoint Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional. The second is a simple, physically motivated non-decomposable NAKE functional that matches the asymptotic decay constant without fitting.

  20. Ionic pairing in binary liquids of charged hard spheres with non-additive diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Giaquinta, P.V.; Thakur, J.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    We examine types of short range order that arise in binary liquids from a combination of Coulombic interactions and non-additivity of excluded volumes, the initial motivation being observations of complex formation by hydrated ions in concentrated aqueous solutions. The model is a fluid of charged hard spheres with contact distances σsub(+-)not=1/2(σsub(++)+σsub(--)), its structural functions being evaluated in the mean spherical approximation and in the hypernetted chain approximation. Cation-anion pairing is clearly seen in the calculated structural functions for negative deviations from additivity (σsub(+-) σsub(++)=σsub(--)) favour long-wavelength concentration fluctuations and demixing in a neutral mixture: these are suppressed by Coulombic interactions in favour of microscopic intermixing of the two species in the local liquid structure, up to like-ion pairing. Contact is made with diffraction from concentrated aqueous solutions of cadmium sulphate and other instances of possible applicability of the model are pointed out. (author)

  1. Non-Additive Expression of Homoeologous Genes is Established Upon Polyploidization in Hexaploid Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional views on the potential genetic effects of polyploidy in allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have primarily emphasized aspects of greater coding sequence variation and the enhanced potential to acquire new gene functions through mutation of redundant loci. The extent and significa...

  2. A Classical Genetic Solution to Enhance the Biosynthesis of Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, Daryush; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA) for all the andrographolides. PMID:24586262

  3. A classical genetic solution to enhance the biosynthesis of anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valdiani

    Full Text Available Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG, neoandrographolide (NAG, and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA for all the andrographolides.

  4. A classical genetic solution to enhance the biosynthesis of anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Tan, Soon Guan; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Maziah, Mahmood; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA ) for all the andrographolides.

  5. Liver lipid molecules induce PEPCK-C gene transcription and attenuate insulin action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoxun

    2007-01-01

    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) plays key roles in gluconeogenesis, glyceroneogenesis, and cataplerosis. Experiments were designed to examine the effects of endogenous lipid molecules from rat livers on the expression of PEPCK-C gene in primary rat hepatocytes. The lipid extracts prepared from livers of Zucker fatty, lean, and Wistar rats induced the expression levels of PEPCK-C transcripts. Insulin-mediated reduction of PEPCK-C gene expression was attenuated by the same treatment. The lipid extracts induced the relative luciferase activity of reporter gene constructs that contain a 2.2-kb 5' promoter fragment of PEPCK-C gene, but not the construct that contains only the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of its mRNA. The estimated half life of PEPCK-C transcripts in the presence of the lipid extract is the same as that in the absence of it. My results demonstrate for the first time that endogenous lipid molecules induce PEPCK-C gene transcription and attenuate insulin action in liver

  6. Genetic analysis of some agronomic traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Alam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 10×10 half diallel experiment was conducted on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. to ascertain the gene action and genetic parameters of ten traits including 50% flowering, no. of pods per plant, plant height, harvest index, pod index, 100 pod weight, 100 kernel weight, pod size, diseases infection and yield per plot. The experiments were carried out in the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU, Mymensingh during the cropping season of 2010-2011. The estimates of gene effects indicated that significance of both additive and non-additive variance for pod size, 100 pod weight and diseases infection among the traits and presence of over dominance satisfying assumptions of diallel except dormancy. However, both the additive and non-additive gene affects together importance to control of most quantitative traits in the groundnut. The average degree of dominance (H1/D 1/2 (H1 = dominance variance, D = additive variance was higher than one, indicating over dominance for all the traits. The narrow-sense heritability was high for 50% flowering (38%, harvest index (35%, pod size (52%, 100 pod weight (35% and yield per plot (41% indicating that great genetic gain could be achieved for them.

  7. Genetic interactions between Shox2 and Hox genes during the regional growth and development of the mouse limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Stanley J; Wang, Fan; Cobb, John

    2014-11-01

    The growth and development of the vertebrate limb relies on homeobox genes of the Hox and Shox families, with their independent mutation often giving dose-dependent effects. Here we investigate whether Shox2 and Hox genes function together during mouse limb development by modulating their relative dosage and examining the limb for nonadditive effects on growth. Using double mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in single embryos, we first show that Shox2 and Hox genes have associated spatial expression dynamics, with Shox2 expression restricted to the proximal limb along with Hoxd9 and Hoxa11 expression, juxtaposing the distal expression of Hoxa13 and Hoxd13. By generating mice with all possible dosage combinations of mutant Shox2 alleles and HoxA/D cluster deletions, we then show that their coordinated proximal limb expression is critical to generate normally proportioned limb segments. These epistatic interactions tune limb length, where Shox2 underexpression enhances, and Shox2 overexpression suppresses, Hox-mutant phenotypes. Disruption of either Shox2 or Hox genes leads to a similar reduction in Runx2 expression in the developing humerus, suggesting their concerted action drives cartilage maturation during normal development. While we furthermore provide evidence that Hox gene function influences Shox2 expression, this regulation is limited in extent and is unlikely on its own to be a major explanation for their genetic interaction. Given the similar effect of human SHOX mutations on regional limb growth, Shox and Hox genes may generally function as genetic interaction partners during the growth and development of the proximal vertebrate limb. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Explaining individual differences in alcohol intake in adults: evidence for genetic and cultural transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; Geels, Lot M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to describe what proportion of variation in adult alcohol intake is attributable to genetic differences among individuals and what proportion to differences in environmental experiences individuals have been exposed to. Effects of age, gender, spousal resemblance, and cultural transmission of alcohol intake from parents to offspring were taken into account. In a twin-family design, the effects of genetic and cultural transmission and shared and nonshared environment on alcohol intake were estimated with genetic structural equation models. Data originated from adult twins, their siblings, parents (n = 12,587), and spouses (n = 429) registered with the population-based Netherlands Twin Register (63.5% female; ages 18-97 years). Alcohol intake (grams per day) was higher among men than women and increased with age. Broad-sense heritability estimates were similar across sex and age (53%). Spousal resemblance was observed (r = .39) but did not significantly affect the heritability estimates. No effects of cultural transmission were detected. In total, 23% of the variation in alcohol intake was explained by additive genetic effects, 30% by dominant (nonadditive) gene action, and 47% by environmental effects that were not shared among family members. Individual differences in adult alcohol intake are explained by genetic and individual-specific environmental effects. The same genes are expressed in males and females and in younger and older participants. A substantial part of the heritability of alcohol intake is attributable to nonadditive gene action. Effects of cultural transmission that have been reported in adolescence are not present in adulthood.

  9. Additive vs non-additive genetic components in lethal cadmium tolerance of Gammarus (Crustacea): Novel light on the assessment of the potential for adaptation to contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumot, Arnaud; Gos, Pierre; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Questioning the likelihood that populations adapt to contamination is critical for ecotoxicological risk assessment. The appraisal of genetic variance in chemical sensitivities within populations is currently used to evaluate a priori this evolutionary potential. Nevertheless, conclusions from this approach are questionable since non-additive genetic components in chemical tolerance could limit the response of such complex phenotypic traits to selection. Coupling quantitative genetics with ecotoxicology, this study illustrates how the comparison between cadmium sensitivities among Gammarus siblings enabled discrimination between genetic variance components in chemical tolerance. The results revealed that, whereas genetically determined differences in lethal tolerance exist within the studied population, such differences were not significantly heritable since genetic variance mainly relied on non-additive components. Therefore the potential for genetic adaptation to acute Cd stress appeared to be weak. These outcomes are discussed in regard to previous findings for asexual daphnids, which suggest a strong potency of genetic adaptation to environmental contamination, but which contrast with compiled field observations where adaptation is not the rule. Hereafter, we formulate the reconciling hypothesis of a widespread weakness of additive components in tolerance to contaminants, which needs to be further tested to gain insight into the question of the likelihood of adaptation to contamination.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin derived from the tropical plant Curcuma longa has a long history of use as a dietary agent, food preservative, and in traditional Asian medicine. It has been used for centuries to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Extensive research over several decades has attempted to identify the molecular mechanisms of curcumin action. Curcumin modulates numerous molecular targets by altering their gene expression, signaling pathways, or through direct interaction. Curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1), growth factors (e.g., VEGF, EGF, FGF), growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, HER-2, AR), enzymes (e.g., COX-2, LOX, MMP9, MAPK, mTOR, Akt), adhesion molecules (e.g., ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), apoptosis related proteins (e.g., Bcl-2, caspases, DR, Fas), and cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1). Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1, STAT) and their signaling pathways. Based on its ability to affect multiple targets, curcumin has the potential for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancers, arthritis, allergies, atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative disease, hepatic disorders, obesity, diabetes, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of modulation of gene expression by curcumin. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budry, L.; Balsalobre, A.; Gauthier, Y.; Khetchoumian, K.; L'Honore, A.; Vallette-Kasic, S.; Brue, T; Figarella-Branger, D.; Meij, B.P.; Drouin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15;26(20):2299-310. doi: 10.1101/gad.200436.112. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B,

  12. Candidate gene association study in type 2 diabetes indicates a role for genes involved in beta-cell function as well as insulin action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Barroso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common, serious metabolic disorder with a substantial inherited component. It is characterised by defects in both insulin secretion and action. Progress in identification of specific genetic variants predisposing to the disease has been limited. To complement ongoing positional cloning efforts, we have undertaken a large-scale candidate gene association study. We examined 152 SNPs in 71 candidate genes for association with diabetes status and related phenotypes in 2,134 Caucasians in a case-control study and an independent quantitative trait (QT cohort in the United Kingdom. Polymorphisms in five of 15 genes (33% encoding molecules known to primarily influence pancreatic beta-cell function-ABCC8 (sulphonylurea receptor, KCNJ11 (KIR6.2, SLC2A2 (GLUT2, HNF4A (HNF4alpha, and INS (insulin-significantly altered disease risk, and in three genes, the risk allele, haplotype, or both had a biologically consistent effect on a relevant physiological trait in the QT study. We examined 35 genes predicted to have their major influence on insulin action, and three (9%-INSR, PIK3R1, and SOS1-showed significant associations with diabetes. These results confirm the genetic complexity of Type 2 diabetes and provide evidence that common variants in genes influencing pancreatic beta-cell function may make a significant contribution to the inherited component of this disease. This study additionally demonstrates that the systematic examination of panels of biological candidate genes in large, well-characterised populations can be an effective complement to positional cloning approaches. The absence of large single-gene effects and the detection of multiple small effects accentuate the need for the study of larger populations in order to reliably identify the size of effect we now expect for complex diseases.

  13. Identification and expression profiles of sRNAs and their biogenesis and action-related genes in male and female cones of Pinus tabuliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shi-Hui; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Hu-Wei; Li, Pei; Li, Yue; Li, Wei

    2015-09-15

    Small RNA (sRNA) play pivotal roles in reproductive development, and their biogenesis and action mechanisms are well characterised in angiosperm plants; however, corresponding studies in conifers are very limited. To improve our understanding of the roles of sRNA pathways in the reproductive development of conifers, the genes associated with sRNA biogenesis and action pathways were identified and analysed, and sRNA sequencing and parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) were performed in male and female cones of the Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis). Based on high-quality reference transcriptomic sequences, 21 high-confidence homologues involved in sRNA biogenesis and action in P. tabuliformis were identified, including two different DCL3 genes and one AGO4 gene. More than 75 % of genes involved in sRNA biogenesis and action have higher expression levels in female than in male cones. Twenty-six microRNA (miRNA) families and 74 targets, including 46 24-nt sRNAs with a 5' A, which are specifically expressed in male cones or female cones and probably bind to AGO4, were identified. The sRNA pathways have higher activity in female than in male cones, and the miRNA pathways are the main sRNA pathways in P. tabuliformis. The low level of 24-nt short-interfering RNAs in conifers is not caused by the absence of biogenesis-related genes or AGO-binding proteins, but most likely caused by the low accumulation of these key components. The identification of sRNAs and their targets, as well as genes associated with sRNA biogenesis and action, will provide a good starting point for investigations into the roles of sRNA pathways in cone development in conifers.

  14. REST mediates androgen receptor actions on gene repression and predicts early recurrence of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Charlotte; Ceder, Jens; Iglesias Gato, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate tumorgenesis through actions that are not fully understood. We identified the repressor element (RE)-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) as a mediator of AR actions on gene repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that AR binds...... in cell cycle progression, including Aurora Kinase A, that has previously been implicated in the growth of NE-like castration-resistant tumors. The analysis of prostate cancer tissue microarrays revealed that tumors with reduced expression of REST have higher probability of early recurrence, independently...... of their Gleason score. The demonstration that REST modulates AR actions in prostate epithelia and that REST expression is negatively correlated with disease recurrence after prostatectomy, invite a deeper characterization of its role in prostate carcinogenesis....

  15. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2014-06-01

    Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southeast China. Solidago had more rapid mass and N loss rate than Phragmites when they decomposed separately. Litter mixing decreased N loss rate in Phragmites litter and increased that of Solidago. Large decreases in Phragmites mass loss and smaller increases in Solidago mass loss caused negative non-additive effect. Solidago litter extracts reduced soil C decomposition and N processes, suggested an inhibitory effect of Solidago secondary compounds. These results are consistent with the idea that nutrient transfer and secondary compounds both affected litter mixtures decomposition.

  16. Natural time analysis and Tsallis non-additive entropy statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.

    2016-12-01

    Upon analyzing the seismic data in natural time and employing a sliding natural time window comprising a number of events that would occur in a few months, it has been recently uncovered[1] that a precursory Seismic Electric Signals activity[2] initiates almost simultaneously with the appearance of a minimum in the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity [3]. Such minima have been ascertained [4] during periods of the magnitude time series exhibiting long range correlations [5] a few months before all earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger that occurred in the entire Japanese area from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake). Before and after these minima, characteristic changes of the temporal correlations between earthquake magnitudes are observed which cannot be captured by Tsallis non-additive entropy statistical mechanics in the frame of which it has been suggested that kappa distributions arise [6]. Here, we extend the study concerning the existence of such minima in a large area that includes Aegean Sea and its surrounding area which exhibits in general seismo-tectonics [7] different than that of the entire Japanese area. References P. A. Varotsos et al., Tectonophysics, 589 (2013) 116. P. Varotsos and M. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics 188 (1991) 321. P.A. Varotsos et al., Phys Rev E 72 (2005) 041103. N. V. Sarlis et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (2013) 13734. P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, and E. S. Skordas, J Geophys Res Space Physics 119 (2014), 9192, doi: 10.1002/2014JA0205800. G. Livadiotis, and D. J. McComas, J Geophys Res 114 (2009) A11105, doi:10.1029/2009JA014352. S. Uyeda et al., Tectonophysics, 304 (1999) 41.

  17. Imaging reporter gene for monitoring gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, V. de; Baillet, G.; Tamgac, F.; Tofighi, M.; Weinmann, P.; Vergote, J.; Moretti, J.L.; Tamgac, G.

    2002-01-01

    Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)

  18. Cogena, a novel tool for co-expressed gene-set enrichment analysis, applied to drug repositioning and drug mode of action discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhilong; Liu, Ying; Guan, Naiyang; Bo, Xiaochen; Luo, Zhigang; Barnes, Michael R

    2016-05-27

    Drug repositioning, finding new indications for existing drugs, has gained much recent attention as a potentially efficient and economical strategy for accelerating new therapies into the clinic. Although improvement in the sensitivity of computational drug repositioning methods has identified numerous credible repositioning opportunities, few have been progressed. Arguably the "black box" nature of drug action in a new indication is one of the main blocks to progression, highlighting the need for methods that inform on the broader target mechanism in the disease context. We demonstrate that the analysis of co-expressed genes may be a critical first step towards illumination of both disease pathology and mode of drug action. We achieve this using a novel framework, co-expressed gene-set enrichment analysis (cogena) for co-expression analysis of gene expression signatures and gene set enrichment analysis of co-expressed genes. The cogena framework enables simultaneous, pathway driven, disease and drug repositioning analysis. Cogena can be used to illuminate coordinated changes within disease transcriptomes and identify drugs acting mechanistically within this framework. We illustrate this using a psoriatic skin transcriptome, as an exemplar, and recover two widely used Psoriasis drugs (Methotrexate and Ciclosporin) with distinct modes of action. Cogena out-performs the results of Connectivity Map and NFFinder webservers in similar disease transcriptome analyses. Furthermore, we investigated the literature support for the other top-ranked compounds to treat psoriasis and showed how the outputs of cogena analysis can contribute new insight to support the progression of drugs into the clinic. We have made cogena freely available within Bioconductor or https://github.com/zhilongjia/cogena . In conclusion, by targeting co-expressed genes within disease transcriptomes, cogena offers novel biological insight, which can be effectively harnessed for drug discovery and

  19. Genetic analysis of plant height in induced mutants of aromatic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Inheritance of plant height in five gamma-ray induced mutants of aromatic rice cultivar Gobindabhog was studied through 6 x 6 diallel cross and segregation analyses. Diallel analysis revealed presence of additive and non-additive gene action with the preponderance of the latter. Proportion of dominant and recessive alleles was distributed unequally among the parents. The direction of dominance was towards tallness. The number of groups of genes was found to be three. The segregation analysis indicated the role of a single major recessive gene for height reduction in three mutants and, in another mutant, a single major recessive gene with negative modifiers. The other semi-dwarf mutant had two major recessive genes with almost equal effect in height reduction. The mutant allele(s) of the latter two mutants were non-allelic to sd sub(1) gene, which could be used as an alternative source of Dee Gee Woo Gen to widen the genetic diversity in semi-dwarfism [it

  20. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-04-25

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P 5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals.

  1. Linkage disequilibrium and association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B S

    2008-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium refers to the association between alleles at different loci. The standard definition applies to two alleles in the same gamete, and it can be regarded as the covariance of indicator variables for the states of those two alleles. The corresponding correlation coefficient rho is the parameter that arises naturally in discussions of tests of association between markers and genetic diseases. A general treatment of association tests makes use of the additive and nonadditive components of variance for the disease gene. In almost all expressions that describe the behavior of association tests, additive variance components are modified by the squared correlation coefficient rho2 and the nonadditive variance components by rho4, suggesting that nonadditive components have less influence than additive components on association tests.

  2. Characterization and expression patterns of small RNAs in synthesized Brassica hexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-06-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.

  3. Transcriptional regulation by nonclassical action of thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeller Lars C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid hormone (TH is essential for normal development, growth and metabolism. Its effects were thought to be principally mediated through triiodothyronine (T3, acting as a ligand for the nuclear TH receptors (TRs α and β residing on thyroid hormone response elements (TREs in the promoter of TH target genes. In this classical model of TH action, T3 binding to TRs leads to recruitment of basal transcription factors and increased transcription of TH responsive genes. Recently, the concept of TH action on gene expression has become more diverse and now includes nonclassical actions of T3 and T4: T3 has been shown to activate PI3K via the TRs, which ultimately increases transcription of certain genes, e.g. HIF-1α. Additionally, both T3 and thyroxine (T4 can bind to a membrane integrin, αvβ3, which leads to activation of the PI3K and MAPK signal transduction pathways and finally also increases gene transcription, e.g. of the FGF2 gene. Therefore, these initially nongenomic, nonclassical actions seem to serve as additional interfaces for transcriptional regulation by TH. Aim of this perspective is to summarize the genes that are currently known to be induced by nonclassical TH action and the mechanisms involved.

  4. EFFECTS OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTIONS ON SERUM MYOSTATIN AND FOLLISTATIN-LIKE RELATED GENE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel Taylor

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of concentric and eccentric muscle actions on the contents of serum myostatin and follistatin-like related gene (FLRG. Eight untrained males performed one exercise bout with each leg, separated by three weeks. One bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of eccentric muscle actions of the knee extensors at 150% of the concentric 1-RM while the other bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of concentric muscle actions at 75% 1-RM. The legs used and the bouts performed were randomized. Five days prior to each exercise bout, baseline measurements were taken for muscle strength. For both bouts, a venous blood sample was obtained immediately prior to exercise and again at 6, 24, and 48 hr post-exercise. Data were analyzed with 2 X 4 (bout x test ANOVA (p < 0.05. Increases in serum myostatin and FLRG occurred with each exercise bout and, excluding 48 hr post-exercise, were significantly correlated to one another (p < 0.05. After eccentric exercise, peak increases of 68% and 50% (p < 0.05 were observed for myostatin and FLRG, respectively. Similar increases of 54% and 44% (p < 0.05 were observed after concentric muscle actions. There was no significant difference in expression of myostatin or FLRG as a function of muscle action type. Our results suggest that a single bout of exercise with either eccentric or concentric muscle actions appear to elicit a similar increase in serum myostatin and FLRG. Therefore, the type of muscle action may not be as much a mitigating factor for increasing serum myostatin and FLRG rather than the muscle action per se.

  5. A high-resolution gene expression atlas of epistasis between gene-specific transcription factors exposes potential mechanisms for genetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameith, Katrin; Amini, Saman; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; van Leenen, Dik; Brok, Mariel; Brabers, Nathalie; Lijnzaad, Philip; van Hooff, Sander R; Benschop, Joris J; Lenstra, Tineke L; Apweiler, Eva; van Wageningen, Sake; Snel, Berend; Holstege, Frank C P; Kemmeren, Patrick

    2015-12-23

    Genetic interactions, or non-additive effects between genes, play a crucial role in many cellular processes and disease. Which mechanisms underlie these genetic interactions has hardly been characterized. Understanding the molecular basis of genetic interactions is crucial in deciphering pathway organization and understanding the relationship between genotype, phenotype and disease. To investigate the nature of genetic interactions between gene-specific transcription factors (GSTFs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we systematically analyzed 72 GSTF pairs by gene expression profiling double and single deletion mutants. These pairs were selected through previously published growth-based genetic interactions as well as through similarity in DNA binding properties. The result is a high-resolution atlas of gene expression-based genetic interactions that provides systems-level insight into GSTF epistasis. The atlas confirms known genetic interactions and exposes new ones. Importantly, the data can be used to investigate mechanisms that underlie individual genetic interactions. Two molecular mechanisms are proposed, "buffering by induced dependency" and "alleviation by derepression". These mechanisms indicate how negative genetic interactions can occur between seemingly unrelated parallel pathways and how positive genetic interactions can indirectly expose parallel rather than same-pathway relationships. The focus on GSTFs is important for understanding the transcription regulatory network of yeast as it uncovers details behind many redundancy relationships, some of which are completely new. In addition, the study provides general insight into the complex nature of epistasis and proposes mechanistic models for genetic interactions, the majority of which do not fall into easily recognizable within- or between-pathway relationships.

  6. Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCL. Furthermore, KGBE administration suppressed NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, without altering serum cholesterol levels, in ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat-diet. Treatment with KGBE increased phase II gene expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production, NF-κB activation, and inflammatory gene expression in primary macrophages. Importantly, these cellular events were blocked by selective inhibitors of HO-1 and GCL. In addition, these inhibitors reversed the suppressive effect of KGBE on TNF-α-mediated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, resulting in decreased interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes. These results suggest that KGBE ameliorates atherosclerosis by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic genes via upregulation of phase II enzymes and thus has therapeutic or preventive potential for atherosclerosis.

  7. Heritability, genetic advance and correlation studies of some important traits in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bughio, H.R.; Asad, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Bughio, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variability, estimates of broad sense heritability, genetic advance as percent of mean and genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were observed in eight rice genotypes at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam in 2005. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was exhibited for number of fertile grains per panicle, number of productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant, indicating additive gene action and possibility of improving these traits by simple selection. High heritability with moderate genetic advance was exhibited for plant height, 1000-grain weight and panicle length indicating the involvement of additive and non-additive type of gene action and postponement of selection programs for the improvement of these traits. The characters productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fertile grains per panicle, panicle fertility percentage and 1000-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield per plant. While plant height and days to 50% flowering were observed non-significant and negatively correlated with grain yield per plant. Fertile grain had significant and positive correlation with panicle fertility percentage. (author)

  8. Liver upregulation of genes involved in cortisol production and action is associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla, Esther; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Vicent, David; Sánchez-Franco, Franco; Barabash, Ana; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio J; Rubio, Miguel Angel

    2012-03-01

    Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, which converts cortisone (inactive) to cortisol, is downregulated in obesity. However, this compensation fails in obese with metabolic abnormalities, such as diabetes. To further characterize the tissue-specific cortisol regeneration in obesity, we have investigated the mRNA expression of genes related to local cortisol production, i.e., 11β-HSD1, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and cortisol action, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a cortisol target gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver, and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifty morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, 14 men (mean age, 41.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI, 48.0 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) and 36 women (mean age, 44.6 ± 1.9 years; BMI, 44.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)), were classified as having MS (MS+, n = 20) or not (MS-, n = 30). Tissue mRNA levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hepatic mRNA levels of these genes were higher in obese patients with MS (11β-HSD1, P = 0.002; H6PDH, P = 0.043; GR, P = 0.033; PEPCK, P = 0.032) and positively correlated with the number of clinical characteristics that define the MS. The expression of the four genes positively correlated among them. In contrast to the liver, these genes were not differently expressed in VAT or SAT, when MS+ and MS- obese patients were compared. Coordinated liver-specific upregulation of genes involved in local cortisol regeneration and action support the concept that local hepatic hypercortisolism contributes to development of MS in morbidly obese patients.

  9. Logistic regression models for polymorphic and antagonistic pleiotropic gene action on human aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Bathum, L; Christiansen, L

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we apply logistic regression models to measure genetic association with human survival for highly polymorphic and pleiotropic genes. By modelling genotype frequency as a function of age, we introduce a logistic regression model with polytomous responses to handle the polymorphic...... situation. Genotype and allele-based parameterization can be used to investigate the modes of gene action and to reduce the number of parameters, so that the power is increased while the amount of multiple testing minimized. A binomial logistic regression model with fractional polynomials is used to capture...... the age-dependent or antagonistic pleiotropic effects. The models are applied to HFE genotype data to assess the effects on human longevity by different alleles and to detect if an age-dependent effect exists. Application has shown that these methods can serve as useful tools in searching for important...

  10. Two novel mutations in the BCHE gene in patients with prolonged duration of action of mivacurium or succinylcholine during anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gätke, Mona R; Bundgaard, Jens R; Viby-Mogensen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyses the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium used during general anaesthesia. Hereditary low BChE activity may result in an extensively prolonged duration of action of these drugs, especially in patients who are homozygous for the atypi......Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyses the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium used during general anaesthesia. Hereditary low BChE activity may result in an extensively prolonged duration of action of these drugs, especially in patients who are homozygous...... for the atypical or silent variants. We present three novel mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) identified in three families in which a member had experienced severely prolonged duration of action of succinylcholine....

  11. Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W

    2010-05-01

    Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm.

  12. Non-additive effects of RBP4, ESR1 and IGF2 polymorphisms on litter size at different parities in a Chinese-European porcine line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Estefânia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to study the effects on litter size of variants of the porcine genes RBP4, ESR1 and IGF2, currently used in genetic tests for different purposes. Moreover, we investigated a possible effect of the interaction between RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII polymorphisms. The IGF2-intron3-G3072A polymorphism is actually used to select lean growth, but other possible effects of this polymorphism on reproductive traits need to be evaluated. Methods Detection of polymorphisms in the genomic and cDNA sequences of RBP4 gene was carried out. RBP4-MspI and IGF2-intron3-G3072A were genotyped in a hyperprolific Chinese-European line (Tai-Zumu and three new RBP4 polymorphisms were genotyped in different pig breeds. A bivariate animal model was implemented in association analyses considering the number of piglets born alive at early (NBA12 and later parities (NBA3+ as different traits. A joint analysis of RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII was performed to test their possible interaction. In the IGF2 analysis, paternal or maternal imprinting effects were also considered. Results Four different RBP4 haplotypes were detected (TGAC, GGAG, GAAG and GATG in different pig breeds and wild boars. A significant interaction effect between RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII polymorphisms of 0.61 ± 0.29 piglets was detected on NBA3+. The IGF2 analysis revealed a significant increase on NBA3+ of 0.74 ± 0.37 piglets for the paternally inherited allele A. Conclusions All the analyzed pig and wild boar populations shared one of the four detected RBP4 haplotypes. This suggests an ancestral origin of the quoted haplotype. The joint use of RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII polymorphisms could be implemented to select for higher prolificacy in the Tai-Zumu line. In this population, the paternal allele IGF2-intron3-3072A increased litter size from the third parity. The non-additive effects on litter size reported here should be tested before implementation in other pig

  13. Extreme weather-year sequences have nonadditive effects on environmental nitrogen losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Necpalova, Magdalena; Archontoulis, Sotirios V; Anex, Robert P; Bourguignon, Marie; Herzmann, Daryl; Mitchell, David C; Sawyer, John E; Zhu, Qing; Castellano, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather years, characterized by abnormal precipitation and temperature, are increasing. In isolation, these years have disproportionately large effects on environmental N losses. However, the sequence of extreme weather years (e.g., wet-dry vs. dry-wet) may affect cumulative N losses. We calibrated and validated the DAYCENT ecosystem process model with a comprehensive set of biogeophysical measurements from a corn-soybean rotation managed at three N fertilizer inputs with and without a winter cover crop in Iowa, USA. Our objectives were to determine: (i) how 2-year sequences of extreme weather affect 2-year cumulative N losses across the crop rotation, and (ii) if N fertilizer management and the inclusion of a winter cover crop between corn and soybean mitigate the effect of extreme weather on N losses. Using historical weather (1951-2013), we created nine 2-year scenarios with all possible combinations of the driest ("dry"), wettest ("wet"), and average ("normal") weather years. We analyzed the effects of these scenarios following several consecutive years of relatively normal weather. Compared with the normal-normal 2-year weather scenario, 2-year extreme weather scenarios affected 2-year cumulative NO 3 - leaching (range: -93 to +290%) more than N 2 O emissions (range: -49 to +18%). The 2-year weather scenarios had nonadditive effects on N losses: compared with the normal-normal scenario, the dry-wet sequence decreased 2-year cumulative N 2 O emissions while the wet-dry sequence increased 2-year cumulative N 2 O emissions. Although dry weather decreased NO 3 - leaching and N 2 O emissions in isolation, 2-year cumulative N losses from the wet-dry scenario were greater than the dry-wet scenario. Cover crops reduced the effects of extreme weather on NO 3 - leaching but had a lesser effect on N 2 O emissions. As the frequency of extreme weather is expected to increase, these data suggest that the sequence of interannual weather

  14. Water- and nitrogen-dependent alterations in the inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency in winter wheat at the leaf and whole-plant level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Dominika; Górny, Andrzej G

    2012-11-01

    The effects of contrasting water and nitrogen (N) supply on the observed inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency (TE) at the flag-leaf and whole-season levels were examined in winter wheat. Major components of the photosynthetic capacity of leaves and the season-integrated efficiency of water use in vegetative and grain mass formation were evaluated in parental lines of various origins and their diallel F(2)-hybrids grown in a factorial experiment under different moisture and N status of the soil. A broad genetic variation was mainly found for the season-long TE measures. The variation range in the leaf photosynthetic indices was usually narrow, but tended to slightly enhance under water and N shortage. Genotype-treatment interaction effects were significant for most characters. No consistency between the leaf- and season-long TE measures was observed. Preponderance of additivity-dependent variance was mainly identified for the season-integrated TE and leaf CO(2) assimilation rate. Soil treatments exhibited considerable influence on the phenotypic expression of gene action for the residual leaf measures. The contribution of non-additive gene effects and degree of dominance tended to increase in water- and N-limited plants, especially for the leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The results indicate that promise exists to improve the season-integrated TE. However, selection for TE components should be prolonged for later hybrid generations to eliminate the masking of non-additive causes. Such evaluation among families grown under sub-optimal water and nitrogen supply seems to be the most promising strategy in winter wheat.

  15. Coexpression of nuclear receptors and histone methylation modifying genes in the testis: implications for endocrine disruptor modes of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocrine disruptor chemicals elicit adverse health effects by perturbing nuclear receptor signalling systems. It has been speculated that these compounds may also perturb epigenetic mechanisms and thus contribute to the early origin of adult onset disease. We hypothesised that histone methylation may be a component of the epigenome that is susceptible to perturbation. We used coexpression analysis of publicly available data to investigate the combinatorial actions of nuclear receptors and genes involved in histone methylation in normal testis and when faced with endocrine disruptor compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression patterns of a set of genes were profiled across testis tissue in human, rat and mouse, plus control and exposed samples from four toxicity experiments in the rat. Our results indicate that histone methylation events are a more general component of nuclear receptor mediated transcriptional regulation in the testis than previously appreciated. Coexpression patterns support the role of a gatekeeper mechanism involving the histone methylation modifiers Kdm1, Prdm2, and Ehmt1 and indicate that this mechanism is a common determinant of transcriptional integrity for genes critical to diverse physiological endpoints relevant to endocrine disruption. Coexpression patterns following exposure to vinclozolin and dibutyl phthalate suggest that coactivity of the demethylase Kdm1 in particular warrants further investigation in relation to endocrine disruptor mode of action. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides proof of concept that a bioinformatics approach that profiles genes related to a specific hypothesis across multiple biological settings can provide powerful insight into coregulatory activity that would be difficult to discern at an individual experiment level or by traditional differential expression analysis methods.

  16. Heterosis and inbreeding depression for panicle characters in crosses involving induced mutants of aromatic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasib, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve crosses of aromatic rice utilizing four γ-ray induced mutants 88-8-3 and 33-9-15 of Tulaipanja and 124-17-4 and 21-6-1 of Gobindabhog and three basmati varieties were evaluated for heterosis and inbreeding depression for different panicle characters. All the hybrids except the two hybrids of 124-17-4 with Pakistan Basmati and Pusa Basmati I manifested significantly positive heterosis for grain yield panicle -1 . High magnitude of heterosis coupled with positive inbreeding depression for panicle length, secondary branches panicle -1 , spikelet number panicle -1 , panicle weight and grain yield panicle -1 in several crosses indicating the presence of nonadditive gene action. The results indicate the scope of exploiting heterosis in aromatic rice. (author)

  17. heritability, combining ability and inheritance of storage root dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 4International Potato Center, Apartado 1558, Lima 12, Peru .... contamination, then peeled and sectioned into multiple longitudinal slices. .... non-additive gene effects play vital roles in the expression of RDM in early ...

  18. Cell-Specific Actions of a Human LHX3 Gene Enhancer During Pituitary and Spinal Cord Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Mullen, Rachel D.

    2013-01-01

    The LIM class of homeodomain protein 3 (LHX3) transcription factor is essential for pituitary gland and nervous system development in mammals. In humans, mutations in the LHX3 gene underlie complex pediatric syndromes featuring deficits in anterior pituitary hormones and defects in the nervous system. The mechanisms that control temporal and spatial expression of the LHX3 gene are poorly understood. The proximal promoters of the human LHX3 gene are insufficient to guide expression in vivo and downstream elements including a conserved enhancer region appear to play a role in tissue-specific expression in the pituitary and nervous system. Here we characterized the activity of this downstream enhancer region in regulating gene expression at the cellular level during development. Human LHX3 enhancer-driven Cre reporter transgenic mice were generated to facilitate studies of enhancer actions. The downstream LHX3 enhancer primarily guides gene transcription in α-glycoprotein subunit -expressing cells secreting the TSHβ, LHβ, or FSHβ hormones and expressing the GATA2 and steroidogenic factor 1 transcription factors. In the developing nervous system, the enhancer serves as a targeting module active in V2a interneurons. These results demonstrate that the downstream LHX3 enhancer is important in specific endocrine and neural cell types but also indicate that additional regulatory elements are likely involved in LHX3 gene expression. Furthermore, these studies revealed significant gonadotrope cell heterogeneity during pituitary development, providing insights into the cellular physiology of this key reproductive regulatory cell. The human LHX3 enhancer-driven Cre reporter transgenic mice also provide a valuable tool for further developmental studies of cell determination and differentiation in the pituitary and nervous system. PMID:24100213

  19. Nonadditive entropy: The concept and its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    2009-01-01

    S q is, for any q≠1, nonadditive. Indeed, for two probabilistically independent subsystems, it satisfies S q (A+B)/k=[S q (A)/k]+[S q (B)/k]+(1-q)[S q (A)/k][S q (B)/k]≠S q (A)/k+S q (B)/k. This form will turn out to be extensive for an important class of nonlocal correlations, if q is set equal to a special value different from unity, noted q ent where ent stands for entropy. In other words, for such systems, we verify that S q ent (N)∝N(N>>1), thus legitimating the use of the classical thermodynamical relations. Standard systems, for which S BG is extensive, obviously correspond to q ent =1. Quite complex systems exist in the sense that, for them, no value of q exists such that S q is extensive. Such systems are out of the present scope: they might need forms of entropy different from S q , or perhaps -more plainly- they are just not susceptible at all for some sort of thermostatistical approach. Consistently with the results associated with S q , the q-generalizations of the Central Limit Theorem and of its extended Levy-Gnedenko form have been achieved. These recent theorems could of course be the cause of the ubiquity of q -exponentials, q -Gaussians and related mathematical forms in natural, artificial and social systems. All of the above, as well as presently available experimental, observational and computational confirmations -in high-energy physics and elsewhere- are briefly reviewed. Finally, we address a confusion which is quite common in the literature, namely referring to distinct physical mechanisms versus distinct regimes of a single physical mechanism. (orig.)

  20. Nonadditive entropy: The concept and its use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsallis, C.

    2009-06-01

    have in fact been repeatedly introduced before 1988. The entropic form Sq is, for any q neq 1 , nonadditive. Indeed, for two probabilistically independent subsystems, it satisfies ensuremath S_q(A+B)/k=[S_q(A)/k]+ [S_q(B)/k]+(1-q)[S_q(A)/k][S_q(B)/k] neq S_q(A)/k+S_q(B)/k . This form will turn out to be extensive for an important class of nonlocal correlations, if q is set equal to a special value different from unity, noted qent (where ent stands for entropy . In other words, for such systems, we verify that ensuremath S_{q_{ent}}(N) ∝ N (N ≫ 1) , thus legitimating the use of the classical thermodynamical relations. Standard systems, for which SBG is extensive, obviously correspond to q ent = 1 . Quite complex systems exist in the sense that, for them, no value of q exists such that Sq is extensive. Such systems are out of the present scope: they might need forms of entropy different from Sq, or perhaps -more plainly- they are just not susceptible at all for some sort of thermostatistical approach. Consistently with the results associated with Sq, the q -generalizations of the Central Limit Theorem and of its extended Lévy-Gnedenko form have been achieved. These recent theorems could of course be the cause of the ubiquity of q -exponentials, q -Gaussians and related mathematical forms in natural, artificial and social systems. All of the above, as well as presently available experimental, observational and computational confirmations -in high-energy physics and elsewhere- are briefly reviewed. Finally, we address a confusion which is quite common in the literature, namely referring to distinct physical mechanisms versus distinct regimes of a single physical mechanism.

  1. Combining ability of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines resistant to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... evaluated across four locations in Kenya under artificial and natural infestation in 2009. Genotype (G) ... harvested area of annual food crops and 25% of total ..... to additive rather than non-additive gene effects, and selection ...

  2. Generation mean analysis for quantitative traits in sesame (Sesamum indicum L. crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayarajan Sharmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its components in sesame (Sesamum indicum L. we carried out generation mean analysis using the following four crosses of different sesame cultivars: VS 9510 x Co1; NIC 7907 x TMV 3; Cianno 13/10x VRI 1; and Si 1115/1 x TMV 3. The P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these generations were studied for seven quantitative traits. The analysis showed the presence of additive, dominance and epistatic gene interactions. The additive dominance model was adequate for plant height in the NIC 7907 x TMV3 and Si 1115/1x TMV 3 crosses and for capsule length in the VS 9510 x Co1, NIC 7907 x TMV 3 and Si 1115/1 x TMV 3 crosses. An epistatic digenic model was assumed for the remaining crosses. Duplicate-type epistasis played a greater role than complementary epistasis. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene action for all the traits studied.

  3. Effects of Drought on Morphological Traits in Some Cowpea Genotypes by Evaluating Their Combining Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Afolarin Olajide

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation was conducted to understand the genetic effects of combining ability for four different morphological traits, on 42 hybrids in randomized complete block design with three replications in water-stressed and well-watered environments. The significance of the additive variance (D and dominance variance (H1 indicated the presence of both additive and nonadditive gene actions in both environments. Among the parents, there was asymmetrical distribution of positive and negative dominant genes and the preponderance of overdominance gene action for all the traits in both environments. This study also indicated a minimum of ten genes for plant height in water-stressed environment and minimum of three and eight genes for terminal leaflet area and number of leaves per plant in both environments, respectively. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability ranged from 13.0% for number of branches per plant in water-stressed to 95.0% in well-watered environment for terminal leaflet area. The study revealed that Danilla, IT93K-432-1, and IT97K-499-35 were the best general combiners for all traits, Danilla × IT97K-499-35, and Danilla × IT93K-432-1 were found to be the best specific combiners for all traits in water-stressed environment. Genetic interactions, additive × additive and additive × dominance, were more pronounced in the inheritance of the traits. This indicated that the selection for these traits should be delayed till advanced generations.

  4. Environmental interaction, additive and non-additive genetic variability is involved in the expression of tissue and whole-plant heat tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez-ur-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat tolerance is measured at tissue level by cellular membrane thermostability (CMT and at the whole plant level by the heat tolerance index (HTI. Eight upland cotton cultivars and 15 crosses were used to determine the type and extent of genetic variability associated with the expression of these traits between and within environments. Heat stress and non-stress conditions were used as the CMT environments and years for HTI. The wide variation in heterotic expression and combining ability effects observed for CMT and HTI suggest multigenic inheritance of these traits. Significant genetic variability across environments was evident but the traits were not highly heritable because of substantial environmental interaction. The available genetic variability included both additive and non-additive components, but the proportion of additive genetic variability was high for HTI. The parental cultivars CRIS-19 and CIM-448 were good donor parents for high CMT under heat-stressed conditions, and MNH-552 and N-Karishma under non-stressed conditions. Cultivar FH-634 was a good donor parent for HTI. The results show two types of general combining ability (GCA inheritance among high CMT parents: positive GCA inheritance expressed by CRIS-19 in the presence of heat stress and MNH-552 and N-Karishma in the absence of heat stress; and negative GCA inheritance expressed by FH-900 in the presence of heat stress. It was also evident that genes controlling high CMT in cultivar CRIS-19 were different from those present in the MNH-552, N-Karishma and FH-900 cultivars. Similarly, among high HTI parents, FH-634 showed positive and CIM-443 negative GCA inheritance. No significant relationship due to genetic causes existed between tissue and whole plant heat tolerance, diminishing the likelihood of simultaneous improvement and selection of the two traits.

  5. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  6. Chromosomal locations and modes of action of genes of the retinoid (vitamin A) system support their involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.B. [Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-08-14

    Vitamin A (retinoid), an essential nutrient for fetal and subsequent mammalian development, is involved in gene expression, cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and death. Retinoic acid (RA) the morphogenic derivative of vitamin A is highly teratogenic. In humans retinoid excess or deficit can result in brain anomalies and psychosis. This review discusses chromosomal loci of genes that control the retinoid cascade in relation to some candidate genes in schizophrenia. The paper relates the knowledge about the transport, delivery, and action of retinoids to what is presently known about the pathology of schizophrenia, with particular reference to the dopamine hypothesis, neurotransmitters, the glutamate hypothesis, neurotransmitters, the glutamate hypothesis, retinitis pigmentosa, dermatologic disorders, and craniofacial anomalies. 201 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Gene expression profiles in human and mouse primary cells provide new insights into the differential actions of vitamin D3 metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Tuohimaa

    Full Text Available 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH2D3 had earlier been regarded as the only active hormone. The newly identified actions of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH2D3 broadened the vitamin D3 endocrine system, however, the current data are fragmented and a systematic understanding is lacking. Here we performed the first systematic study of global gene expression to clarify their similarities and differences. Three metabolites at physiologically comparable levels were utilized to treat human and mouse fibroblasts prior to DNA microarray analyses. Human primary prostate stromal P29SN cells (hP29SN, which convert 25(OHD3 into 1α,25(OH2D3 by 1α-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP27B1, displayed regulation of 164, 171, and 175 genes by treatment with 1α,25(OH2D3, 25(OHD3, and 24R,25(OH2D3, respectively. Mouse primary Cyp27b1 knockout fibroblasts (mCyp27b1 (-/-, which lack 1α-hydroxylation, displayed regulation of 619, 469, and 66 genes using the same respective treatments. The number of shared genes regulated by two metabolites is much lower in hP29SN than in mCyp27b1 (-/-. By using DAVID Functional Annotation Bioinformatics Microarray Analysis tools and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we identified the agonistic regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling between 1α,25(OH2D3 and 25(OHD3 and unique non-classical actions of each metabolite in physiological and pathological processes, including cell cycle, keratinocyte differentiation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis signaling, gene transcription, immunomodulation, epigenetics, cell differentiation, and membrane protein expression. In conclusion, there are three distinct vitamin D3 hormones with clearly different biological activities. This study presents a new conceptual insight into the vitamin D3 endocrine system, which may guide the strategic use of vitamin D3 in disease prevention and treatment.

  8. Nonadditive entropy: The concept and its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsallis, C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe (United States)

    2009-06-15

    {sub 1}=S{sub BG}). In the context of cybernetics and information theory, this and similar forms have in fact been repeatedly introduced before 1988. The entropic form S{sub q} is, for any q{ne}1, nonadditive. Indeed, for two probabilistically independent subsystems, it satisfies S{sub q}(A+B)/k=[S{sub q}(A)/k]+[S{sub q}(B)/k]+(1-q)[S{sub q}(A)/k][S{sub q}(B)/k]{ne}S{sub q}(A)/k+S{sub q}(B)/k. This form will turn out to be extensive for an important class of nonlocal correlations, if q is set equal to a special value different from unity, noted q{sub ent} where ent stands for entropy. In other words, for such systems, we verify that S{sub q{sub ent}}(N){proportional_to}N(N>>1), thus legitimating the use of the classical thermodynamical relations. Standard systems, for which S{sub BG} is extensive, obviously correspond to q{sub ent}=1. Quite complex systems exist in the sense that, for them, no value of q exists such that S{sub q} is extensive. Such systems are out of the present scope: they might need forms of entropy different from S{sub q}, or perhaps -more plainly- they are just not susceptible at all for some sort of thermostatistical approach. Consistently with the results associated with S{sub q}, the q-generalizations of the Central Limit Theorem and of its extended Levy-Gnedenko form have been achieved. These recent theorems could of course be the cause of the ubiquity of q -exponentials, q -Gaussians and related mathematical forms in natural, artificial and social systems. All of the above, as well as presently available experimental, observational and computational confirmations -in high-energy physics and elsewhere- are briefly reviewed. Finally, we address a confusion which is quite common in the literature, namely referring to distinct physical mechanisms versus distinct regimes of a single physical mechanism. (orig.)

  9. The effects of dominance, regular inbreeding and sampling design on Q(ST), an estimator of population differentiation for quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Jérôme; Büchi, Lucie

    2006-02-01

    To test whether quantitative traits are under directional or homogenizing selection, it is common practice to compare population differentiation estimates at molecular markers (F(ST)) and quantitative traits (Q(ST)). If the trait is neutral and its determinism is additive, then theory predicts that Q(ST) = F(ST), while Q(ST) > F(ST) is predicted under directional selection for different local optima, and Q(ST) sampling designs and find that it is always best to sample many populations (>20) with few families (five) rather than few populations with many families. Provided that estimates of Q(ST) are derived from individuals originating from many populations, we conclude that the pattern Q(ST) > F(ST), and hence the inference of directional selection for different local optima, is robust to the effect of nonadditive gene actions.

  10. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Brij K; Mishra, R; Jena, S N; Shukla, Sudhir

    2016-09-01

    The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis were also higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhance the yield potential.

  11. Modalities of gene action predicted by the classical evolutionary biological theory of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, George M

    2007-04-01

    What might now be referred to as the "classical" evolutionary biological theory of why we age has had a number of serious challenges in recent years. While the theory might therefore have to be modified under certain circumstances, in the author's opinion, it still provides the soundest theoretical basis for thinking about how we age. Nine modalities of gene action that have the potential to modulate processes of aging are reviewed, including the two most widely reviewed and accepted concepts ("antagonistic pleiotropy" and "mutation accumulation"). While several of these nine mechanisms can be regarded as derivatives of the antagonistic pleiotropic concept, they frame more specific questions for future research. Such research should pursue what appears to be the dominant factor in the determination of intraspecific variations in longevity-stochastic mechanisms, most likely based upon epigenetics. This contrasts with the dominant factor in the determination of interspecific variations in longevity-the constitutional genome, most likely based upon variations in regulatory loci.

  12. Integrating Crop Growth Models with Whole Genome Prediction through Approximate Bayesian Computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Technow

    Full Text Available Genomic selection, enabled by whole genome prediction (WGP methods, is revolutionizing plant breeding. Existing WGP methods have been shown to deliver accurate predictions in the most common settings, such as prediction of across environment performance for traits with additive gene effects. However, prediction of traits with non-additive gene effects and prediction of genotype by environment interaction (G×E, continues to be challenging. Previous attempts to increase prediction accuracy for these particularly difficult tasks employed prediction methods that are purely statistical in nature. Augmenting the statistical methods with biological knowledge has been largely overlooked thus far. Crop growth models (CGMs attempt to represent the impact of functional relationships between plant physiology and the environment in the formation of yield and similar output traits of interest. Thus, they can explain the impact of G×E and certain types of non-additive gene effects on the expressed phenotype. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC, a novel and powerful computational procedure, allows the incorporation of CGMs directly into the estimation of whole genome marker effects in WGP. Here we provide a proof of concept study for this novel approach and demonstrate its use with synthetic data sets. We show that this novel approach can be considerably more accurate than the benchmark WGP method GBLUP in predicting performance in environments represented in the estimation set as well as in previously unobserved environments for traits determined by non-additive gene effects. We conclude that this proof of concept demonstrates that using ABC for incorporating biological knowledge in the form of CGMs into WGP is a very promising and novel approach to improving prediction accuracy for some of the most challenging scenarios in plant breeding and applied genetics.

  13. Natural Genetic Variation and Candidate Genes for Morphological Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Valeria Paula; Mensch, Julián; Hasson, Esteban; Fanara, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a complex character associated to several fitness related traits that vary within and between species as a consequence of environmental and genetic factors. Latitudinal and altitudinal clines for different morphological traits have been described in several species of Drosophila and previous work identified genomic regions associated with such variation in D. melanogaster. However, the genetic factors that orchestrate morphological variation have been barely studied. Here, our main objective was to investigate genetic variation for different morphological traits associated to the second chromosome in natural populations of D. melanogaster along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Argentina. Our results revealed weak clinal signals and a strong population effect on morphological variation. Moreover, most pairwise comparisons between populations were significant. Our study also showed important within-population genetic variation, which must be associated to the second chromosome, as the lines are otherwise genetically identical. Next, we examined the contribution of different candidate genes to natural variation for these traits. We performed quantitative complementation tests using a battery of lines bearing mutated alleles at candidate genes located in the second chromosome and six second chromosome substitution lines derived from natural populations which exhibited divergent phenotypes. Results of complementation tests revealed that natural variation at all candidate genes studied, invected, Fasciclin 3, toucan, Reticulon-like1, jing and CG14478, affects the studied characters, suggesting that they are Quantitative Trait Genes for morphological traits. Finally, the phenotypic patterns observed suggest that different alleles of each gene might contribute to natural variation for morphological traits. However, non-additive effects cannot be ruled out, as wild-derived strains differ at myriads of second chromosome loci that may interact

  14. DOSE RESPONSE FROM HIGH THROUGHPUT GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES AND THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND CELL LINE ON INFERRED MODE OF ACTION BY ONTOLOGIC ENRICHMENT (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene expression with ontologic enrichment and connectivity mapping tools is widely used to infer modes of action (MOA) for therapeutic drugs. Despite progress in high-throughput (HT) genomic systems, strategies suitable to identify industrial chemical MOA are needed. The L1000 is...

  15. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Consolo, Mary; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

  16. Classifying chemical mode of action using gene networks and machine learning: a case study with the herbicide linuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornostay, Anna; Cowie, Andrew M; Hindle, Matthew; Baker, Christopher J O; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The herbicide linuron (LIN) is an endocrine disruptor with an anti-androgenic mode of action. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve knowledge of androgen and anti-androgen signaling in the teleostean ovary and to (2) assess the ability of gene networks and machine learning to classify LIN as an anti-androgen using transcriptomic data. Ovarian explants from vitellogenic fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed to three concentrations of either 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), flutamide (FLUT), or LIN for 12h. Ovaries exposed to DHT showed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol (E2) production while FLUT and LIN had no effect on E2. To improve understanding of androgen receptor signaling in the ovary, a reciprocal gene expression network was constructed for DHT and FLUT using pathway analysis and these data suggested that steroid metabolism, translation, and DNA replication are processes regulated through AR signaling in the ovary. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that FLUT and LIN shared more regulated gene networks in common compared to DHT. Using transcriptomic datasets from different fish species, machine learning algorithms classified LIN successfully with other anti-androgens. This study advances knowledge regarding molecular signaling cascades in the ovary that are responsive to androgens and anti-androgens and provides proof of concept that gene network analysis and machine learning can classify priority chemicals using experimental transcriptomic data collected from different fish species. © 2013.

  17. Mining tissue specificity, gene connectivity and disease association to reveal a set of genes that modify the action of disease causing genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reverter Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue specificity of gene expression has been linked to a number of significant outcomes including level of expression, and differential rates of polymorphism, evolution and disease association. Recent studies have also shown the importance of exploring differential gene connectivity and sequence conservation in the identification of disease-associated genes. However, no study relates gene interactions with tissue specificity and disease association. Methods We adopted an a priori approach making as few assumptions as possible to analyse the interplay among gene-gene interactions with tissue specificity and its subsequent likelihood of association with disease. We mined three large datasets comprising expression data drawn from massively parallel signature sequencing across 32 tissues, describing a set of 55,606 true positive interactions for 7,197 genes, and microarray expression results generated during the profiling of systemic inflammation, from which 126,543 interactions among 7,090 genes were reported. Results Amongst the myriad of complex relationships identified between expression, disease, connectivity and tissue specificity, some interesting patterns emerged. These include elevated rates of expression and network connectivity in housekeeping and disease-associated tissue-specific genes. We found that disease-associated genes are more likely to show tissue specific expression and most frequently interact with other disease genes. Using the thresholds defined in these observations, we develop a guilt-by-association algorithm and discover a group of 112 non-disease annotated genes that predominantly interact with disease-associated genes, impacting on disease outcomes. Conclusion We conclude that parameters such as tissue specificity and network connectivity can be used in combination to identify a group of genes, not previously confirmed as disease causing, that are involved in interactions with disease causing

  18. Inheritance of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) resistance in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolsawat, O; Mahanil, S; Laosuwan, P; Wongkaew, S; Tharapreuksapong, A; Reisch, B I; Tantasawat, P A

    2013-12-13

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two of the major diseases of most grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Thailand. Therefore, breeding grapevines for improved downy mildew and anthracnose resistance is crucial. Factorial crosses were made between three downy mildew and/or anthracnose resistant lines ('NY88.0517.01', 'NY65.0550.04', and 'NY65.0551.05'; male parents) and two or three susceptible cultivars of V. vinifera ('Black Queen', 'Carolina Black Rose', and/or 'Italia'; female parents). F1 hybrid seedlings were evaluated for downy mildew and anthracnose resistance using a detached/excised leaf assay. For both diseases, the general combining ability (GCA) variance among male parents was significant, while the variance of GCA among females and the specific combining ability (SCA) variance were not significant, indicating the prevalence of additive over non-additive gene actions. The estimated narrow sense heritabilities of downy mildew and anthracnose resistance were 55.6 and 79.2%, respectively, suggesting that downy mildew/anthracnose resistance gene(s) were highly heritable. The 'Carolina Black Rose x NY65.0550.04' cross combination is recommended for future use.

  19. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Rajper, T.A.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F 1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  20. DisseminACTION: disseminating science in the information age (www.action-euproject.eu: a website for researchers and parents)

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Mauri

    2015-01-01

    www.action-euproject.eu is a website designed at the University of Cagliari, by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, within the project “ACTION – Aggression in Children: unravelling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies”, a collaborative project which includes twelve international partners, funded under the 7th Framework Programme for Research, technological Development and Demonstration.Its aim is to properly disseminate official news, events, ...

  1. Marine Microbial Gene Abundance and Community Composition in Response to Ocean Acidification and Elevated Temperature in Two Contrasting Coastal Marine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R. Currie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems are exposed to a range of human-induced climate stressors, in particular changing carbonate chemistry and elevated sea surface temperatures as a consequence of climate change. More research effort is needed to reduce uncertainties about the effects of global-scale warming and acidification for benthic microbial communities, which drive sedimentary biogeochemical cycles. In this research, mesocosm experiments were set up using muddy and sandy coastal sediments to investigate the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations (750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature (ambient +4°C on the abundance of taxonomic and functional microbial genes. Specific quantitative PCR primers were used to target archaeal, bacterial, and cyanobacterial/chloroplast 16S rRNA in both sediment types. Nitrogen cycling genes archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA and bacterial nitrite reductase (nirS were specifically targeted to identify changes in microbial gene abundance and potential impacts on nitrogen cycling. In muddy sediment, microbial gene abundance, including amoA and nirS genes, increased under elevated temperature and reduced under elevated CO2 after 28 days, accompanied by shifts in community composition. In contrast, the combined stressor treatment showed a non-additive effect with lower microbial gene abundance throughout the experiment. The response of microbial communities in the sandy sediment was less pronounced, with the most noticeable response seen in the archaeal gene abundances in response to environmental stressors over time. 16S rRNA genes (amoA and nirS were lower in abundance in the combined stressor treatments in sandy sediments. Our results indicated that marine benthic microorganisms, especially in muddy sediments, are susceptible to changes in ocean carbonate chemistry and seawater temperature, which ultimately may have an impact upon key benthic biogeochemical cycles.

  2. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Gamal El-Dien

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The open-pollinated (OP family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates’ offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of “half-sibling” in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure.

  3. hebp3, a novel member of the heme-binding protein gene family, is expressed in the medaka meninges with higher abundance in females due to a direct stimulating action of ovarian estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Kiyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Kataaki

    2013-02-01

    The brains of teleost fish exhibit remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. To dissect the molecular basis for the development and reversal of sex differences in the teleost brain, we screened for genes differentially expressed between sexes in the brain of medaka (Oryzias latipes). One of the genes identified in the screen as being preferentially expressed in females was found to be a new member of the heme-binding protein gene family that includes hebp1 and hebp2 and was designated here as hebp3. The medaka hebp3 is expressed in the meninges with higher abundance in females, whereas there is no expression within the brain parenchyma. This female-biased expression of hebp3 is not attributable to the direct action of sex chromosome genes but results from the transient and reversible action of estrogens derived from the ovary. Moreover, estrogens directly activate the transcription of hebp3 via a palindromic estrogen-responsive element in the hebp3 promoter. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that hebp3 is a novel transcriptional target of estrogens, with female-biased expression in the meninges. The definite but reversible sexual dimorphism of the meningeal hebp3 expression may contribute to the development and reversal of sex differences in the teleost brain.

  4. Tracing the transcriptomic changes in synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica using an RNA-Seq approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    Full Text Available Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  5. Tracing the Transcriptomic Changes in Synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica Using an RNA-Seq Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Mei, Shiyong; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassica rapa , Brassica carinata , and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B . rapa , were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant–pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B . carinata , several played roles in plant–pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  6. Gene action in some yield attributes of bread wheat under two water regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, A.; Mahmood, A.; Naeem-ud-Din; Shabbir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Breeders are always interested in the task of developing new varieties for changing environments. Thus, they have to deal with new crosses to select desired combinations. Grain yield is a complex character that is influenced by the fluctuating behavior of the environment. To overcome this situation, it is necessary to breed wheat varieties which perform better than existing ones under diverse conditions. A complete diallel cross was prepared from eight parental wheat accessions with a range of tolerance to drought. F1 hybrids and parents were grown at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal. At maturity peduncle length, number of spike lets per spike, number of grains per spike, dry weight per plant at maturity and harvest index were recorded. Over-dominance genetic effects were important for the expression of number of spike lets per spike, number of grains per spike, dry weight per plant at maturity and harvest index under irrigated and rain fed conditions while additive type of gene action were important for the expression of peduncle length under irrigated and rain fed conditions. Average degree of dominance for peduncle length is 0.683 and 0.829 under irrigated and rain fed conditions respectively. Average degree of dominance for peduncle length was less than unity showing partial dominance and greater than unity showing over dominance in all characters under both irrigated and rain fed conditions. (author)

  7. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  8. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steve

    2001-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  9. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  10. IMPACT web portal: oncology database integrating molecular profiles with actionable therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzsche, Jennifer D; Yoo, Minjae; Kim, Jihye; Amato, Carol M; Robinson, William A; Tan, Aik Choon

    2018-04-20

    With the advancement of next generation sequencing technology, researchers are now able to identify important variants and structural changes in DNA and RNA in cancer patient samples. With this information, we can now correlate specific variants and/or structural changes with actionable therapeutics known to inhibit these variants. We introduce the creation of the IMPACT Web Portal, a new online resource that connects molecular profiles of tumors to approved drugs, investigational therapeutics and pharmacogenetics associated drugs. IMPACT Web Portal contains a total of 776 drugs connected to 1326 target genes and 435 target variants, fusion, and copy number alterations. The online IMPACT Web Portal allows users to search for various genetic alterations and connects them to three levels of actionable therapeutics. The results are categorized into 3 levels: Level 1 contains approved drugs separated into two groups; Level 1A contains approved drugs with variant specific information while Level 1B contains approved drugs with gene level information. Level 2 contains drugs currently in oncology clinical trials. Level 3 provides pharmacogenetic associations between approved drugs and genes. IMPACT Web Portal allows for sequencing data to be linked to actionable therapeutics for translational and drug repurposing research. The IMPACT Web Portal online resource allows users to query genes and variants to approved and investigational drugs. We envision that this resource will be a valuable database for personalized medicine and drug repurposing. IMPACT Web Portal is freely available for non-commercial use at http://tanlab.ucdenver.edu/IMPACT .

  11. An entropy-based analysis of lane changing behavior: An interactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-05-19

    As a novelty, this article proposes the nonadditive entropy framework for the description of driver behaviors during lane changing. The authors also state that this entropy framework governs the lane changing behavior in traffic flow in accordance with the long-range vehicular interactions and traffic safety. The nonadditive entropy framework is the new generalized theory of thermostatistical mechanics. Vehicular interactions during lane changing are considered within this framework. The interactive approach for the lane changing behavior of the drivers is presented in the traffic flow scenarios presented in the article. According to the traffic flow scenarios, 4 categories of traffic flow and driver behaviors are obtained. Through the scenarios, comparative analyses of nonadditive and additive entropy domains are also provided. Two quadrants of the categories belong to the nonadditive entropy; the rest are involved in the additive entropy domain. Driving behaviors are extracted and the scenarios depict that nonadditivity matches safe driving well, whereas additivity corresponds to unsafe driving. Furthermore, the cooperative traffic system is considered in nonadditivity where the long-range interactions are present. However, the uncooperative traffic system falls into the additivity domain. The analyses also state that there would be possible traffic flow transitions among the quadrants. This article shows that lane changing behavior could be generalized as nonadditive, with additivity as a special case, based on the given traffic conditions. The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this article, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that the Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either the extensive or nonextensive entropy region would

  12. Peculiarities of biological effect of pulsed laser radiation and 60Co γ rays on microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petin, V.G.; Rusina, L.K.; Sebrant, Yu.V.; Baranov, V.Yu.; Malyuta, D.D.; Nyz'ev, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivity of yeast cells of different ploidy and bacterial cells of different strains to pulsed laser radiation and combined action of laser and ionizing radiation has been studied. Laser preirradiation of yeast cells did not change the cell sensitivity to the ionizing radiation. The biological effect was non-additive after the exposure to sequence of pulses in comparison with the exposure to a single pulse. The failure of cell reproductive ability after laser irradiation was irrepairable

  13. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor G. Czinner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most general, equilibrium compatible, nonadditive entropy composition rule of Abe, we consider the simplest non-parametric approach that is generated by the explicit nonadditive form of the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This analysis extends our previous results on the Schwarzschild case, and shows that the zeroth law-compatible temperature function in the model is independent of the mass–energy parameter of the black hole. By applying the Poincaré turning point method, we also study the thermodynamic stability problem in the system.

  14. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and

  15. The Non-Genomic Actions of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S Hii

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in 1920, a great deal of effort has gone into investigating the physiological actions of vitamin D and the impact its deficiency has on human health. Despite this intense interest, there is still disagreement on what constitutes the lower boundary of adequacy and on the Recommended Dietary Allowance. There has also been a major push to elucidate the biochemistry of vitamin D, its metabolic pathways and the mechanisms that mediate its action. Originally thought to act by altering the expression of target genes, it was realized in the mid-1980s that some of the actions of vitamin D were too rapid to be accounted for by changes at the genomic level. These rapid non-genomic actions have attracted as much interest as the genomic actions and they have spawned additional questions in an already busy field. This mini-review attempts to summarise the in vitro and in vivo work that has been conducted to characterise the rapid non-genomic actions, the mechanisms that give rise to these properties and the roles that these play in the overall action of vitamin D at the cellular level. Understanding the effects of vitamin D at the cellular level should enable the design of elegant human studies to extract the full potential of vitamin D to benefit human health.

  16. Genetic options for improving fodder yield and quality in forage sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving yield and quality of fodder from forage sorghum is important, especially in the semi-arid tropics, where sorghum is a major source of fodder. The aim of this work was to understand the genetic basis of fodder yield and quality traits, and character associations, and to estimate combining ability of the parents. The experiment was carried out during 2 successive rainy seasons using 10 parents crossed in a half-diallel design. Significant differences among the genotypes for fodder yield, quality and cell wall constituents were observed. Important quality traits, crude protein and digestibility (IVOMD, were not correlated with fodder yield, indicating the potential to improve yield and quality simultaneously in forage sorghum. General combining ability and specific combining ability variances showed that, for almost all characters, both additive and non-additive gene effects were important, with a predominance of non-additive effects. Parental lines SEVS4, HC308 and UPMC503 were good general combiners for yield and quality. The brown midrib lines, EC582508 and EC582510, were good general combiners for low lignin and high IVOMD. Strategies for improving forage sorghum to suit animal and biofuel industries are discussed.Keywords: Digestibility, crude protein, ADL, diallel analysis, gene effects.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(349-58

  17. Combined effects of night warming and light pollution on predator-prey interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Colleen R; Barton, Brandon T; Zhu, Likai; Radeloff, Volker C; Oliver, Kerry M; Harmon, Jason P; Ives, Anthony R

    2017-10-11

    Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness. However, for the more-visual predator, warming and light had non-additive effects in which together they caused much lower aphid abundances. These results are particularly relevant for agriculture near urban areas that experience both light pollution and warming from urban heat islands. Because warming and light pollution can have non-additive effects, predicting their possible combined consequences over broad spatial scales requires knowing how they co-occur. We found that night-time temperature change since 1949 covaried positively with light pollution, which has the potential to increase their non-additive effects on pea aphid control by 70% in US alfalfa. Our results highlight the importance of non-additive effects of multiple environmental factors on species and food webs, especially when these factors co-occur. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Voltage-gated sodium channels: action players with many faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmann, Tamara T.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential and thereby play an important role in propagation of the electrical impulse in excitable tissues like muscle, nerve and the heart. Duplication of the sodium channels encoding genes during evolution generated the

  19. Gene Expression Profiling on the Molecular Action of Danshen-Gegen Formula in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Postmenopausal Women with Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Koon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danshen-Gegen formula (DG is a traditional Chinese herbal formula which has long been used to treat cardiovascular disease. DG was found to be a cardiovascular tonic in our recent research. However, a comprehensive investigation of the molecular mechanism of DG in cardiovascular disease has not been performed. The aim of this study was to clarify the transcriptional profiling of genes modulated by DG on postmenopausal women by using DNAmicroarray technology. We obtained 29 whole blood samples both from DG-treated and placebo-treated subjects. Blood lipid profile and intima-media thickness (IMT were measured. Affymetrix GeneChip was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs, followed by validation by the real-time PCR method. The results showed that DG-treated group has a significant improvement in IMT and lipid profile as compared to placebo-treated group. For the genomic study, the DG-treated group has a higher number of DEGs identified as compared to the placebo-treated group. Two important biological processes of “regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by hormone” and “regulation of smooth muscle proliferation” have been identified by GePS in the DG-treated group. No significant biological process and cellular components were identified in the placebo-treated group. This genomic study on the molecular action of DG in postmenopausal women gathered sufficient molecular targets and pathways to reveal that DG could improve neointima thickening and hypertension.

  20. Gene doping: the hype and the reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D J

    2008-06-01

    Some spectacular results from genetic manipulation of laboratory rodents and increasing developments in human gene therapy raise the spectre of genetic modification or 'gene doping' in sports. Candidate targets include the induction of muscle hypertrophy through overexpression of specific splice variants of insulin-like growth factor-1 or blockade of the action of myostatin, increasing oxygen delivery by raising the hematocrit through the use of erythropoietin, induction of angiogenesis with vascular endothelial growth factors or related molecules and changes in muscle phenotype through expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor- delta and associated molecules. Some of these potential genetic enhancements, particularly where the genetic modification and its action are confined to the muscles, may be undetectable using current tests. This had lead to exaggerated predictions that gene doping in athletics will be common within the next few years. However, a review of the methods of gene transfer and the current 'state of the art' in development of genetic treatments for human disease show that the prospects for gene doping remain essentially theoretical at present. Despite this conclusion, it will be important to continue to monitor improvements in the technology and to develop methods of detection, particularly those based on identifying patterns of changes in response to doping as opposed to the detection of specific agents.

  1. Coordinated action of histone modification and microRNA regulations in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zheng, Guantao; Dong, Dong

    2015-10-10

    Both histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal role in gene expression regulation. Although numerous studies have been devoted to explore the gene regulation by miRNA and epigenetic regulations, their coordinated actions have not been comprehensively examined. In this work, we systematically investigated the combinatorial relationship between miRNA and epigenetic regulation by taking advantage of recently published whole genome-wide histone modification data and high quality miRNA targeting data. The results showed that miRNA targets have distinct histone modification patterns compared with non-targets in their promoter regions. Based on this finding, we proposed a machine learning approach to fit predictive models on the task to discern whether a gene is targeted by a specific miRNA. We found a considerable advantage in both sensitivity and specificity in diverse human cell lines. Finally, we found that our predicted miRNA targets are consistently annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Our work is the first genome-wide investigation of the coordinated action of miRNA and histone modification regulations, which provide a guide to deeply understand the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An investigation of gene action on different traits of tobacco under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Nicotiana tabacum). Information Bulletin Coresta Congress japan. 183. SHoaei DM, Honarnejad R (2003). Gene effects and Combining ability of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Burley Tobacco. Information Bulletin ...

  3. Thyroid hormone action: Astrocyte-neuron communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eMorte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone action is exerted mainly through regulation of gene expression by binding of T3 to the nuclear receptors. T4 plays an important role as a source of intracellular T3 in the central nervous system via the action of the type 2 deiodinase, expressed in the astrocytes. A model of T3 availability to neural cells has been proposed and validated. The model contemplates that brain T3 has a double origin: a fraction is available directly from the circulation, and another is produced locally from T4 in the astrocytes by type 2 deiodinase. The fetal brain depends almost entirely on the T3 generated locally. The contribution of systemic T3 increases subsequently during development to account for approximately 50% of total brain T3 in the late postnatal and adult stages. In this article we review the experimental data in support of this model, and how the factors affecting T3 availability in the brain, such as deiodinases and transporters, play a decisive role in modulating local thyroid hormone action during development.

  4. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maklakov AA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive models and compatibility (non-additive models where the strength of selection is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses of inbred lines, we assayed egg production, egg-to-adult survival, and lifetime offspring production of the outbred F1 daughters (F1 productivity. Results We used the bio model to estimate six components of genetic and environmental variance in fitness. We found sizeable additive and non-additive genetic variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should be inclusive and should include quantifications of offspring reproductive success. We note that our estimate of additive genetic variance in F1 productivity (CVA = 14% is sufficient to generate indirect selection on female choice. However, our results also show that the major determinant of offspring fitness is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis

  5. Genetic Analysis of Elevated Mastitis Risk Based on Mastitis Indicator Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Løvendahl, Peter

    Whole-genome sequences and multiple trait phenotypes from large numbers of individuals will soon be available. Well established statistical modeling approaches enable the genetic analyses of complex trait phenotypes while accounting for a variety of additive and non-additive genetic mechanisms....... These modeling approaches have proven to be highly useful to determine population genetic parameters as well as prediction of genetic risk or value. We present statistical modelling approaches that use prior biological information for evaluating the collective action of sets of genetic variants. We have applied...

  6. Estrogen-Responsive Genes Overlap with Triiodothyronine-Responsive Genes in a Breast Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bueno Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that estrogen plays an important role in the progression and treatment of breast cancer. However, the role of triiodothyronine (T3 remains controversial. We have previously shown its capacity to stimulate the development of positive estrogen receptor breast carcinoma, induce the expression of genes (PR, TGF-alpha normally stimulated by estradiol (E2, and suppress genes (TGF-beta normally inhibited by E2. Since T3 regulates growth hormones, metabolism, and differentiation, it is important to verify its action on other genes normally induced by E2. Therefore, we used DNA microarrays to compare gene expression patterns in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells treated with E2 and T3. Several genes were modulated by both E2 and T3 in MCF-7 cells (Student’s t-test, P 2.0, pFDR < 0.05. We confirmed our microarray results by real-time PCR. Our findings reveal that certain genes in MCF-7 cells can be regulated by both E2 and T3.

  7. Nature of gene action for fruit quality characters of tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. P. Hazra

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... additive x additive type non-allelic interaction with negative sign for the characters, which will hinder ..... artificial gene dosage series in tomato to study the mechanisms by ... physical properties affected by food processing.

  8. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  9. The Pathway From Genes to Gene Therapy in Glaucoma: A Review of Possibilities for Using Genes as Glaucoma Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of diseases with gene therapy is advancing rapidly. The use of gene therapy has expanded from the original concept of re-placing the mutated gene causing the disease to the use of genes to con-trol nonphysiological levels of expression or to modify pathways known to affect the disease. Genes offer numerous advantages over conventional drugs. They have longer duration of action and are more specific. Genes can be delivered to the target site by naked DNA, cells, nonviral, and viral vectors. The enormous progress of the past decade in molecular bi-ology and delivery systems has provided ways for targeting genes to the intended cell/tissue and safe, long-term vectors. The eye is an ideal organ for gene therapy. It is easily accessible and it is an immune-privileged site. Currently, there are clinical trials for diseases affecting practically every tissue of the eye, including those to restore vision in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis. However, the number of eye trials compared with those for systemic diseases is quite low (1.8%). Nevertheless, judg-ing by the vast amount of ongoing preclinical studies, it is expected that such number will increase considerably in the near future. One area of great need for eye gene therapy is glaucoma, where a long-term gene drug would eliminate daily applications and compliance issues. Here, we review the current state of gene therapy for glaucoma and the possibilities for treating the trabecular meshwork to lower intraocular pressure and the retinal ganglion cells to protect them from neurodegeneration. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  10. Convergent microRNA actions coordinate neocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca-Mayo, Olga; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Neocortical development is a complex process that, at the cellular level, involves tight control of self-renewal, cell fate commitment, survival, differentiation and delamination/migration. These processes require, at the molecular level, the precise regulation of intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic factors with coordinated action in a spatially and temporally specific manner. Transcriptional regulation plays an important role during corticogenesis; however, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of various aspects of central nervous system development. miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that control the expression of the majority of protein coding genes (i.e., targets). How do different miRNAs achieve precise control of gene networks during neocortical development? Here, we critically review all the miRNA-target interactions validated in vivo, with relevance to the generation and migration of pyramidal-projection glutamatergic neurons, and for the initial formation of cortical layers in the embryonic development of rodent neocortex. In particular, we focus on convergent miRNA actions, which are still a poorly understood layer of complexity in miRNA signaling, but potentially one of the keys to disclosing how miRNAs achieve the precise coordination of complex biological processes such as neocortical development.

  11. PPARγ partial agonist GQ-16 strongly represses a subset of genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, Flora Aparecida [Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília (Brazil); Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Cvoro, Aleksandra [Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Amato, Angelica A. [Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília (Brazil); Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Filgueira, Carly S.; Arumanayagam, Anithachristy Sigamani [Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Caro Alves de Lima, Maria do; Rocha Pitta, Ivan [Laboratório de Planejamento e Síntese de Fármacos – LPSF, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco de [Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília (Brazil); Webb, Paul, E-mail: pwebb@HoustonMethodist.org [Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists that improve insulin resistance but trigger side effects such as weight gain, edema, congestive heart failure and bone loss. GQ-16 is a PPARγ partial agonist that improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of obesity and diabetes without inducing weight gain or edema. It is not clear whether GQ-16 acts as a partial agonist at all PPARγ target genes, or whether it displays gene-selective actions. To determine how GQ-16 influences PPARγ activity on a gene by gene basis, we compared effects of rosiglitazone (Rosi) and GQ-16 in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes using microarray and qRT-PCR. Rosi changed expression of 1156 genes in 3T3-L1, but GQ-16 only changed 89 genes. GQ-16 generally showed weak effects upon Rosi induced genes, consistent with partial agonist actions, but a subset of modestly Rosi induced and strongly repressed genes displayed disproportionately strong GQ-16 responses. PPARγ partial agonists MLR24 and SR1664 also exhibit disproportionately strong effects on transcriptional repression. We conclude that GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist effects but efficiently represses some negatively regulated PPARγ responsive genes. Strong repressive effects could contribute to physiologic actions of GQ-16. - Highlights: • GQ-16 is an insulin sensitizing PPARγ ligand with reduced harmful side effects. • GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist activities at PPARγ-induced genes. • GQ-16 exerts strong repressive effects at a subset of genes. • These inhibitor actions should be evaluated in models of adipose tissue inflammation.

  12. PPARγ partial agonist GQ-16 strongly represses a subset of genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, Flora Aparecida; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Amato, Angelica A.; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Filgueira, Carly S.; Arumanayagam, Anithachristy Sigamani; Caro Alves de Lima, Maria do; Rocha Pitta, Ivan; Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco de; Webb, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists that improve insulin resistance but trigger side effects such as weight gain, edema, congestive heart failure and bone loss. GQ-16 is a PPARγ partial agonist that improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of obesity and diabetes without inducing weight gain or edema. It is not clear whether GQ-16 acts as a partial agonist at all PPARγ target genes, or whether it displays gene-selective actions. To determine how GQ-16 influences PPARγ activity on a gene by gene basis, we compared effects of rosiglitazone (Rosi) and GQ-16 in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes using microarray and qRT-PCR. Rosi changed expression of 1156 genes in 3T3-L1, but GQ-16 only changed 89 genes. GQ-16 generally showed weak effects upon Rosi induced genes, consistent with partial agonist actions, but a subset of modestly Rosi induced and strongly repressed genes displayed disproportionately strong GQ-16 responses. PPARγ partial agonists MLR24 and SR1664 also exhibit disproportionately strong effects on transcriptional repression. We conclude that GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist effects but efficiently represses some negatively regulated PPARγ responsive genes. Strong repressive effects could contribute to physiologic actions of GQ-16. - Highlights: • GQ-16 is an insulin sensitizing PPARγ ligand with reduced harmful side effects. • GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist activities at PPARγ-induced genes. • GQ-16 exerts strong repressive effects at a subset of genes. • These inhibitor actions should be evaluated in models of adipose tissue inflammation

  13. Characterization of actions of octanoate on porcine preadipocytes and adipocytes differentiated in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shunichi, E-mail: shunsuzu@affrc.go.jp [Transgenic Pig Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2 Ikenodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0901 (Japan); Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Onishi, Akira [Transgenic Pig Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2 Ikenodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0901 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Octanoate regulated gene expressions in a way distinct from rosiglitasone. ► Octanoate upregulatedPPRE and LXRE reporter activities. ► Octanoate may act on some PPARγ-target genes competitively with other ligands. - Abstract: Octanoate is used to induce adipogenic differentiation and/or lipid accumulation in preadipocytes of domestic animals. However, information on detailed actions of octanoate and the characteristics of octanoate-induced adipocytes is limited. The aim of this study was to examine these issues by comparing the outcomes of the effects of octanoate with those of rosiglitazone, which is a well-defined activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. The adipocytes that were differentiated with 5 mM of octanoate had dispersed and diversely sized lipid droplets compared to those that were differentiated with 1 μM of rosiglitazone. The gene expression levels of adiponectin, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, perilipin 1, and perilipin 4 were much higher in the adipocytes that were differentiated with rosiglitazone than in those differentiated with octanoate, while the gene expression levels of lipoprotein lipase and perilipin 2 were decreased in rosiglitazone-differentiated adipocytes compared to octanoate-differentiated adipocytes. However, the expressions of aP2 and CD36 genes were comparably induced. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that PPAR and liver-X-receptor activities were upregulated by octanoate more effectively than by rosiglitazone. Overall, these results suggested that the action of octanoate was complicated and may be dependent on the targeted genes and cellular status.

  14. Modern spandrels: the roles of genetic drift, gene flow and natural selection in the evolution of parallel clines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, James S; Johnson, Marc T J; Ness, Rob W

    2018-05-16

    Urban environments offer the opportunity to study the role of adaptive and non-adaptive evolutionary processes on an unprecedented scale. While the presence of parallel clines in heritable phenotypic traits is often considered strong evidence for the role of natural selection, non-adaptive evolutionary processes can also generate clines, and this may be more likely when traits have a non-additive genetic basis due to epistasis. In this paper, we use spatially explicit simulations modelled according to the cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide, HCN) polymorphism in white clover ( Trifolium repens ) to examine the formation of phenotypic clines along urbanization gradients under varying levels of drift, gene flow and selection. HCN results from an epistatic interaction between two Mendelian-inherited loci. Our results demonstrate that the genetic architecture of this trait makes natural populations susceptible to decreases in HCN frequencies via drift. Gradients in the strength of drift across a landscape resulted in phenotypic clines with lower frequencies of HCN in strongly drifting populations, giving the misleading appearance of deterministic adaptive changes in the phenotype. Studies of heritable phenotypic change in urban populations should generate null models of phenotypic evolution based on the genetic architecture underlying focal traits prior to invoking selection's role in generating adaptive differentiation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Hormonal control of spermatogenesis: expression of FSJH receptor and androgen receptor genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Blok (Leen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractFSH and testosterone are the main hormonal regulators of spermatogenesis. The actions of androgens and FSH are mediated by their respective receptors. Receptor gene expression (mRNA and protein). is an important determinant of hormone action. Biochemical aspects of the regulation of

  16. Actions of sex steroids on kisspeptin expression and other reproduction-related genes in the brain of the teleost fish European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M V; Servili, A; Molés, G; Gueguen, M M; Carrillo, M; Kah, O; Felip, A

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptins are well known as mediators of the coordinated communication between the brain-pituitary axis and the gonads in many vertebrates. To test the hypothesis that gonadal steroids regulate kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression in European sea bass (a teleost fish), we examined the brains of gonad-intact (control) and castrated animals, as well as castrated males (GDX) and ovariectomized females (OVX) that received testosterone (T) and estradiol (E 2 ) replacement, respectively, during recrudescence. In GDX males, low expression of kiss1 mRNA is observed by in situ hybridization in the caudal hypothalamus (CH) and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), although hypothalamic changes in kiss1 mRNA levels were not statistically different among the groups, as revealed by real-time PCR. However, T strongly decreased kiss2 expression levels in the hypothalamus, which was documented in the MBH and the nucleus of the lateral recess (NRLd) in GDX T-treated sea bass males. Conversely, it appears that E 2 evokes low kiss1 mRNA in the CH, while there were cells expressing kiss2 in the MBH and NRLd in these OVX females. These results demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are presumably sensitive to the feedback actions of sex steroids in the sea bass, suggesting that the MBH represents a major site for sex steroid actions on kisspeptins in this species. Also, recent data provide evidence that both positive and negative actions occur in key factors involved in sea bass reproductive function, including changes in the expression of gnrh-1/gonadotropin, cyp19b, er and ar genes and sex steroid and gonadotropin plasma levels in this teleost fish. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Genome scan for nonadditive heterotic trait loci reveals mainly underdominant effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiba, Efrat; Glikaite, Ilana; Levy, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Fridman, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The overdominant model of heterosis explains the superior phenotype of hybrids by synergistic allelic interaction within heterozygous loci. To map such genetic variation in yeast, we used a population doubling time dataset of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 × 16 diallel and searched for major contributing heterotic trait loci (HTL). Heterosis was observed for the majority of hybrids, as they surpassed their best parent growth rate. However, most of the local heterozygous loci identified by genome scan were surprisingly underdominant, i.e., reduced growth. We speculated that in these loci adverse effects on growth resulted from incompatible allelic interactions. To test this assumption, we eliminated these allelic interactions by creating hybrids with local hemizygosity for the underdominant HTLs, as well as for control random loci. Growth of hybrids was indeed elevated for most hemizygous to HTL genes but not for control genes, hence validating the results of our genome scan. Assessing the consequences of local heterozygosity by reciprocal hemizygosity and allele replacement assays revealed the influence of genetic background on the underdominant effects of HTLs. Overall, this genome-wide study on a multi-parental hybrid population provides a strong argument against single gene overdominance as a major contributor to heterosis, and favors the dominance complementation model.

  18. Global gene expression analysis of early response to chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetu Bernard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy (CT resistance in ovarian cancer (OC is broad and encompasses diverse unrelated drugs, suggesting more than one mechanism of resistance. To better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the immediate response of OC cells to CT exposure, we have performed gene expression profiling in spheroid cultures derived from six OC cell lines (OVCAR3, SKOV3, TOV-112, TOV-21, OV-90 and TOV-155, following treatment with 10,0 μM cisplatin, 2,5 μM paclitaxel or 5,0 μM topotecan for 72 hours. Results Exposure of OC spheroids to these CT drugs resulted in differential expression of genes associated with cell growth and proliferation, cellular assembly and organization, cell death, cell cycle control and cell signaling. Genes, functionally involved in DNA repair, DNA replication and cell cycle arrest were mostly overexpressed, while genes implicated in metabolism (especially lipid metabolism, signal transduction, immune and inflammatory response, transport, transcription regulation and protein biosynthesis, were commonly suppressed following all treatments. Cisplatin and topotecan treatments triggered similar alterations in gene and pathway expression patterns, while paclitaxel action was mainly associated with induction of genes and pathways linked to cellular assembly and organization (including numerous tubulin genes, cell death and protein synthesis. The microarray data were further confirmed by pathway and network analyses. Conclusion Most alterations in gene expression were directly related to mechanisms of the cytotoxics actions in OC spheroids. However, the induction of genes linked to mechanisms of DNA replication and repair in cisplatin- and topotecan-treated OC spheroids could be associated with immediate adaptive response to treatment. Similarly, overexpression of different tubulin genes upon exposure to paclitaxel could represent an early compensatory effect to this drug action. Finally, multicellular

  19. Cell transfection as a tool to study growth hormone action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norstedt, G; Enberg, B; Francis, S

    1994-01-01

    The isolation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) cDNA clones has made possible the transfection of GHRs into cultured cells. Our aim in this minireview is to show how the application of such approaches have benefited GHR research. GH stimulation of cells expressing GHR cDNAs can cause an alteration...... is important in GH action. The GH signals are transmitted to the nucleus and GH regulated genes have now begun to be characterized. The ability to use cell transfection for mechanistic studies of GH action will be instrumental to define domains within the receptor that are of functional importance...

  20. Mode of gene action of inheritance for resistance to rice yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mather's scaling test was applied to the data generated from each cross and the results indicated that generation means depended on additive and dominance gene effects. An epistatic effect was suggested in the generation mean analysis using Hayman's method and the primary effect was assumed to be additive and ...

  1. Predominant Non-additive Effects of Multiple Stressors on Autotroph C:N:P Ratios Propagate in Freshwater and Marine Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, Juan M.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; Carrillo, Presentación

    2018-01-01

    A continuing challenge for scientists is to understand how multiple interactive stressor factors affect biological interactions, and subsequently, ecosystems–in ways not easily predicted by single factor studies. In this review, we have compiled and analyzed available research on how multiple stressor pairs composed of temperature (T), light (L), ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nutrients (Nut), carbon dioxide (CO2), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and salinity (S) impact the stoichiometry of autotrophs which in turn shapes the nature of their ecological interactions within lower trophic levels in streams, lakes and oceans. Our analysis from 66 studies with 320 observations of 11 stressor pairs, demonstrated that non-additive responses predominate across aquatic ecosystems and their net interactive effect depends on the stressor pair at play. Across systems, there was a prevalence of antagonism in freshwater (60–67% vs. 47% in marine systems) compared to marine systems where synergism was more common (49% vs. 33–40% in freshwaters). While the lack of data impeded comparisons among all of the paired stressors, we found pronounced system differences for the L × Nut interactions. For this interaction, our data for C:P and N:P is consistent with the initial hypothesis that the interaction was primarily synergistic in the oceans, but not for C:N. Our study found a wide range of variability in the net effects of the interactions in freshwater systems, with some observations supporting antagonism, and others synergism. Our results suggest that the nature of the stressor pairs interactions on C:N:P ratios regulates the “continuum” commensalistic-competitive-predatory relationship between algae and bacteria and the food chain efficiency at the algae-herbivore interface. Overall, the scarce number of studies with even more fewer replications in each study that are available for freshwater systems have prevented a more detailed, insightful analysis. Our findings

  2. Predominant Non-additive Effects of Multiple Stressors on Autotroph C:N:P Ratios Propagate in Freshwater and Marine Food Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villar-Argaiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuing challenge for scientists is to understand how multiple interactive stressor factors affect biological interactions, and subsequently, ecosystems–in ways not easily predicted by single factor studies. In this review, we have compiled and analyzed available research on how multiple stressor pairs composed of temperature (T, light (L, ultraviolet radiation (UVR, nutrients (Nut, carbon dioxide (CO2, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and salinity (S impact the stoichiometry of autotrophs which in turn shapes the nature of their ecological interactions within lower trophic levels in streams, lakes and oceans. Our analysis from 66 studies with 320 observations of 11 stressor pairs, demonstrated that non-additive responses predominate across aquatic ecosystems and their net interactive effect depends on the stressor pair at play. Across systems, there was a prevalence of antagonism in freshwater (60–67% vs. 47% in marine systems compared to marine systems where synergism was more common (49% vs. 33–40% in freshwaters. While the lack of data impeded comparisons among all of the paired stressors, we found pronounced system differences for the L × Nut interactions. For this interaction, our data for C:P and N:P is consistent with the initial hypothesis that the interaction was primarily synergistic in the oceans, but not for C:N. Our study found a wide range of variability in the net effects of the interactions in freshwater systems, with some observations supporting antagonism, and others synergism. Our results suggest that the nature of the stressor pairs interactions on C:N:P ratios regulates the “continuum” commensalistic-competitive-predatory relationship between algae and bacteria and the food chain efficiency at the algae-herbivore interface. Overall, the scarce number of studies with even more fewer replications in each study that are available for freshwater systems have prevented a more detailed, insightful analysis. Our

  3. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  4. Genes, stress, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    A relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) has long been suspected on the basis of family and twin studies. A metaanalysis of reports on the basis of twin studies has estimated MDD's degree of heritability to be 0.33 (confidence interval, 0.26-0.39). Among families exhibiting an increased prevalence of MDD, risk of developing the illness was enhanced in members exposed to a highly stressful environment. Aberrant genes can predispose to depression in a number of ways, for example, by diminishing production of growth factors that act during brain development. An aberrant gene could also increase or decrease a neurotransmitter's release into synapses, its actions, or its duration of activity. The gene products of greatest interest at present are those involved in the synthesis and actions of serotonin; among them, the serotonin-uptake protein localized within the terminals and dendrites of serotonin-releasing neurons. It has been found that the Vmax of platelet serotonin uptake is low in some patients with MDD; also, Vmax is highly correlated in twins. Antidepressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act on this uptake protein. The specific genetic locus causing serotonin uptake to be lower in some patients with major depression involves a polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the gene for the uptake protein. The gene itself exists as several alleles, the short "S" allele and the long "L" allele. The S variant is associated with less, and the L variant with more, of the uptake protein. The effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms in young adults was found to be significantly stronger among SS or SL subjects than among LL subjects. Neuroimaging studies showed that people with the SS or SL alleles exhibited a greater activation of the amygdala in response to fearful stimuli than those with LL. It has been reported recently that mutations in the gene that controls

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Interactions of Polyhomeotic with Polycomb Group Genes of Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, N. N.; Sinclair, DAR.; Campbell, R. B.; Brock, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Polycomb (Pc) group genes of Drosophila are negative regulators of homeotic genes, but individual loci have pleiotropic phenotypes. It has been suggested that Pc group genes might form a regulatory hierarchy, or might be members of a multimeric complex that obeys the law of mass action. Recently, it was shown that polyhomeotic (ph) immunoprecipitates in a multimeric complex that includes Pc. Here, we show that duplications of ph suppress homeotic transformations of Pc and Pcl, supporting ...

  8. In Vitro Global Gene Expression Analyses Support the Ethnopharmacological Use of Achyranthes aspera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochi R. Subbarayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes aspera (family Amaranthaceae is known for its anticancer properties. We have systematically validated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of this plant. However, we do not know its mode of action. Global gene expression analyses may help decipher its mode of action. In the absence of identified active molecules, we believe this is the best approach to discover the mode of action of natural products with known medicinal properties. We exposed human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2 (CRL-1420 to 34 μg/mL of LE for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Gene expression analyses were performed using whole human genome microarrays (Agilent Technologies, USA. In our analyses, 82 (54/28 genes passed the quality control parameter, set at FDR ≤ 0.01 and FC of ≥±2. LE predominantly affected pathways of immune response, metabolism, development, gene expression regulation, cell adhesion, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulation (CFTR, and chemotaxis (MetaCore tool (Thomson Reuters, NY. Disease biomarker enrichment analysis identified LE regulated genes involved in Vasculitis—inflammation of blood vessels. Arthritis and pancreatitis are two of many etiologies for vasculitis. The outcome of disease network analysis supports the medicinal use of A. aspera, viz, to stop bleeding, as a cure for pancreatic cancer, as an antiarthritic medication, and so forth.

  9. Signaling pathway-focused gene expression profiling in pressure overloaded hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Musumeci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The β-blocker propranolol displays antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties in the heart subjected to pressure overload. Yet the underlying mechanisms responsible for these important effects remain to be completely understood. The purpose of this study was to determine signaling pathway-focused gene expression profile associated with the antihypertrophic action of propranolol in pressure overloaded hearts. To address this question, a focused real-time PCR array was used to screen left ventricular RNA expression of 84 gene transcripts representative of 18 different signaling pathways in C57BL/6 mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC or sham surgery. On the surgery day, mice received either propranolol (80 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 14 days. TAC caused a 49% increase in the left ventricular weight-to-body weight (LVW/BW ratio without changing gene expression. Propranolol blunted LVW/BW ratio increase by approximately 50% while causing about a 3-fold increase in the expression of two genes, namely Brca1 and Cdkn2a, belonging to the TGF-beta and estrogen pathways, respectively. In conclusion, after 2 weeks of pressure overload, TAC hearts show a gene expression profile superimposable to that of sham hearts. Conversely, propranolol treatment is associated with an increased expression of genes which negatively regulate cell cycle progression. It remains to be established whether a mechanistic link between gene expression changes and the antihypertrophic action of propranolol occurs.

  10. Ultradian hormone stimulation induces glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pulses of gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; Wiench, Malgorzata; John, Sam; Conway-Campbell, Becky L; McKenna, Mervyn A; Pooley, John R; Johnson, Thomas A; Voss, Ty C; Lightman, Stafford L; Hager, Gordon L

    2009-09-01

    Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian hormone stimulation induces cyclic GR-mediated transcriptional regulation, or gene pulsing, both in cultured cells and in animal models. Equilibrium receptor-occupancy of regulatory elements precisely tracks the ligand pulses. Nascent RNA transcripts from GR-regulated genes are released in distinct quanta, demonstrating a profound difference between the transcriptional programs induced by ultradian and constant stimulation. Gene pulsing is driven by rapid GR exchange with response elements and by GR recycling through the chaperone machinery, which promotes GR activation and reactivation in response to the ultradian hormone release, thus coupling promoter activity to the naturally occurring fluctuations in hormone levels. The GR signalling pathway has been optimized for a prompt and timely response to fluctuations in hormone levels, indicating that biologically accurate regulation of gene targets by GR requires an ultradian mode of hormone stimulation.

  11. Action of multiple intra-QTL genes concerted around a co-localized transcription factor underpins a large effect QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shalabh; Kumar Biswal, Akshaya; Min, Aye; Henry, Amelia; Oane, Rowena H.; Raorane, Manish L.; Longkumer, Toshisangba; Pabuayon, Isaiah M.; Mutte, Sumanth K.; Vardarajan, Adithi R.; Miro, Berta; Govindan, Ganesan; Albano-Enriquez, Blesilda; Pueffeld, Mandy; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Slamet-Loedin, Inez; Sundarvelpandian, Kalaipandian; Tsai, Yuan-Ching; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Hsing, Yue-Ie C.; Kumar, Arvind; Kohli, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Sub-QTLs and multiple intra-QTL genes are hypothesized to underpin large-effect QTLs. Known QTLs over gene families, biosynthetic pathways or certain traits represent functional gene-clusters of genes of the same gene ontology (GO). Gene-clusters containing genes of different GO have not been elaborated, except in silico as coexpressed genes within QTLs. Here we demonstrate the requirement of multiple intra-QTL genes for the full impact of QTL qDTY12.1 on rice yield under drought. Multiple evidences are presented for the need of the transcription factor ‘no apical meristem’ (OsNAM12.1) and its co-localized target genes of separate GO categories for qDTY12.1 function, raising a regulon-like model of genetic architecture. The molecular underpinnings of qDTY12.1 support its effectiveness in further improving a drought tolerant genotype and for its validity in multiple genotypes/ecosystems/environments. Resolving the combinatorial value of OsNAM12.1 with individual intra-QTL genes notwithstanding, identification and analyses of qDTY12.1has fast-tracked rice improvement towards food security. PMID:26507552

  12. Controlling Attention through Action: Observing Actions Primes Action-Related Stimulus Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that planning an action "backward-primes" perceptual dimension related to this action: planning a grasp facilitates the processing of visual size information, while planning a reach facilitates the processing of location information. Here we show that dimensional priming of perception through action occurs even in the…

  13. IGF-I Gene Therapy in Aging Rats Modulates Hippocampal Genes Relevant to Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Joaquín; Abba, Martin C; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Ogundele, Olalekan M; Paiva, Isabel; Morel, Gustavo R; Outeiro, Tiago F; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2018-03-14

    In rats, learning and memory performance decline during normal aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies. In aging rats, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), is known to significantly improve spatial memory accuracy as compared to control counterparts. A constellation of gene expression changes underlie the hippocampal phenotype of aging but no studies on the effects of IGF-I on the hippocampal transcriptome of old rodents have been documented. Here, we assessed the effects of IGF-I gene therapy on spatial memory performance in old female rats and compared them with changes in the hippocampal transcriptome. In the Barnes maze test, experimental rats showed a significantly higher exploratory frequency of the goal hole than controls. Hippocampal RNA-sequencing showed that 219 genes are differentially expressed in 28-month-old rats intracerebroventricularly injected with an adenovector expressing rat IGF-I as compared with placebo adenovector-injected counterparts. From the differentially expressed genes, 81 were down and 138 upregulated. From those genes, a list of functionally relevant genes, concerning hippocampal IGF-I expression, synaptic plasticity as well as neuronal function was identified. Our results provide an initial glimpse at the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of IGF-I in the aging brain.

  14. Duplication of the IGFBP-2 gene in teleost fish: protein structure and functionality conservation and gene expression divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 is a secreted protein that binds and regulates IGF actions in controlling growth, development, reproduction, and aging. Elevated expression of IGFBP-2 is often associated with progression of many types of cancers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the identification and characterization of two IGFBP-2 genes in zebrafish and four other teleost fish. Comparative genomics and structural analyses suggest that they are co-orthologs of the human IGFBP-2 gene. Biochemical assays show that both zebrafish igfbp-2a and -2b encode secreted proteins that bind IGFs. These two genes exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns. During embryogenesis, IGFBP-2a mRNA is initially detected in the lens, then in the brain boundary vasculature, and subsequently becomes highly expressed in the liver. In the adult stage, liver has the highest levels of IGFBP-2a mRNA, followed by the brain. Low levels of IGFBP-2a mRNA were detected in muscle and in the gonad in male adults only. IGFBP-2b mRNA is detected initially in all tissues at low levels, but later becomes abundant in the liver. In adult males, IGFBP-2b mRNA is only detected in the liver. In adult females, it is also found in the gut, kidney, ovary, and muscle. To gain insights into how the IGFBP-2 genes may have evolved through partitioning of ancestral functions, functional and mechanistic studies were carried out. Expression of zebrafish IGFBP-2a and -2b caused significant decreases in the growth and developmental rates and their effects are comparable to that of human IGFBP-2. IGFBP-2 mutants with altered IGF binding-, RGD-, and heparin-binding sites were generated and their actions examined. While mutating the RGD and heparin binding sites had little effect, altering the IGF binding site abolished its biological activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that IGFBP-2 is a conserved regulatory protein and it inhibits

  15. A general information theoretical proof for the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiren

    2008-01-01

    We show that the conservation and the non-additivity of information, together with the additivity of entropy makes entropy increase in an isolated system. The collapse of the entangled quantum state offers an example of the information non-additivity. Nevertheless, the later is also true in other fields, in which the interaction information is important. Examples are classical statistical mechanics, social statistics and financial processes. The second law of thermodynamics is thus proven in its most general form. It is exactly true, not only in quantum and classical physics but also in other processes in which the information is conservative and non-additive. (author)

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Gene Overexpression Resources in Cereals for Functional Genomics and Discovery of Useful Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi Abe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification and elucidation of functions of plant genes is valuable for both basic and applied research. In addition to natural variation in model plants, numerous loss-of-function resources have been produced by mutagenesis with chemicals, irradiation, or insertions of transposable elements or T-DNA. However, we may be unable to observe loss-of-function phenotypes for genes with functionally redundant homologs, and for those essential for growth and development. To offset such disadvantages, gain-of-function transgenic resources have been exploited. Activation-tagged lines have been generated using obligatory overexpression of endogenous genes by random insertion of an enhancer. Recent progress in DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics has enabled the preparation of genomewide collections of full-length cDNAs (fl-cDNAs in some model species. Using the fl-cDNA clones, a novel gain-of-function strategy, Fl-cDNA OvereXpressor gene (FOX-hunting system, has been developed. A mutant phenotype in a FOX line can be directly attributed to the overexpressed fl-cDNA. Investigating a large population of FOX lines could reveal important genes conferring favorable phenotypes for crop breeding. Alternatively, a unique loss-of-function approach Chimeric REpressor gene Silencing Technology (CRES-T has been developed. In CRES-T, overexpression of a chimeric repressor, composed of the coding sequence of a transcription factor (TF and short peptide designated as the repression domain, could interfere with the action of endogenous TF in plants. Although plant TFs usually consist of gene families, CRES-T is effective, in principle, even for the TFs with functional redundancy. In this review, we focus on the current status of the gene-overexpression strategies and resources for identifying and elucidating novel functions of cereal genes. We discuss the potential of these research tools for identifying useful genes and phenotypes for application in crop

  14. DNA secondary structure of the released strand stimulates WRN helicase action on forked duplexes without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byungchan, E-mail: bbccahn@mail.ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Bohr, Vilhelm A. [Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, Biomedical Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities. {yields} We found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. {yields} These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently. -- Abstract: Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by aging-related phenotypes and genomic instability. WS is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a nuclear protein, Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family, that interestingly possesses both helicase and exonuclease activities. Previous studies have shown that the two activities act in concert on a single substrate. We investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities and found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently, and we propose that the uncoordinated action may be relevant to the in vivo activity of WRN.

  15. Action preferences and the anticipation of action outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, D.L.; Schaefers, T.; Canal Bruland, R.

    2014-01-01

    Skilled performers of time-constrained motor actions acquire information about the action preferences of their opponents in an effort to better anticipate the outcome of that opponent's actions. However, there is reason to doubt that knowledge of an opponent's action preferences would unequivocally

  16. Non-additive effects of ocean acidification in combination with warming on the larval proteome of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Ewan; Artigaud, Sébastien; Le Souchu, Pierrick; Miner, Philippe; Corporeau, Charlotte; Essid, Hafida; Pichereau, Vianney; Nunes, Flavia L D

    2016-03-01

    /or temperature may be more informative of how populations will respond to contemporary climate change. We showed that concurrent acidification and warming mitigates the negative effects of pH alone on size of larvae, but proteomic analysis reveals altered patterns of metabolism and an increase in oxidative stress suggesting non-additive effects of the interaction between pH and temperature on protein abundance. Thus, even small changes in climate may influence development, with potential consequences later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IGF-I and GH: potential use in gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harridge, Stephen D R; Velloso, Cristiana P

    2009-08-01

    Gene doping is the term given to the potential misuse of gene therapy for the purposes of enhancing athletic performance. Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), the prime target of growth hormone action, is one candidate gene for improving performance. In recent years a number of transgenic and somatic gene transfer studies on animals have shown that upregulation of IGF-I stimulates muscle growth and improves function. This increase in muscle IGF-I is not reflected in measurable increases in circulating IGF-I. Whilst the responses obtained in the animal studies would appear to give clear benefits for performance, the transfer of such techniques to humans still presents many technical challenges. Further challenges will also be faced by the anti doping authorities in detecting the endogenously produced products of enhanced gene expression.

  18. TargetRNA: a tool for predicting targets of small RNA action in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaden, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Many small RNA (sRNA) genes in bacteria act as posttranscriptional regulators of target messenger RNAs. Here, we present TargetRNA, a web tool for predicting mRNA targets of sRNA action in bacteria. TargetRNA takes as input a genomic sequence that may correspond to an sRNA gene. TargetRNA then uses a dynamic programming algorithm to search each annotated message in a specified genome for mRNAs that evince basepair-binding potential to the input sRNA sequence. Based on the calculated basepair-...

  19. Novel Trypanosomatid-Bacterium Association: Evolution of Endosymbiosis in Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostygov, A.Y.; Dobáková, Eva; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, A.; Váhala, D.; Maslov, D. A.; Votýpka, Jan; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2016), č. článku e01985-15. ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Grant - others:EU COST Action CM1307 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : leader rna gene * insect trypanosomatids * monoxenous trypanosomatids * neotropical heteroptera * Trichomonas vaginalis * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.956, year: 2016

  20. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  1. Givental action and trivialisation of circle action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the Givental group action on genus zero cohomological field theories, also known as formal Frobenius manifolds or hypercommutative algebras, naturally arises in the deformation theory of Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras. We prove that the Givental action is equal to an action

  2. Improving Interpretation of Cardiac Phenotypes and Enhancing Discovery With Expanded Knowledge in the Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, Ruth C; Roncaglia, Paola; Howe, Douglas G; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Khodiyar, Varsha K; Berardini, Tanya Z; Tweedie, Susan; Foulger, Rebecca E; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Campbell, Nancy H; Huntley, Rachael P; Talmud, Philippa J; Blake, Judith A; Breckenridge, Ross; Riley, Paul R; Lambiase, Pier D; Elliott, Perry M; Clapp, Lucie; Tinker, Andrew; Hill, David P

    2018-02-01

    A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology. As a result, the Gene Ontology now contains terms that comprehensively describe the roles of proteins in cardiac muscle cell action potential, electrical coupling, and the transmission of the electrical impulse from the sinoatrial node to the ventricles. Evaluating the effectiveness of this approach to inform data analysis demonstrated that Gene Ontology annotations, analyzed within an expanded ontological context of heart processes, can help to identify candidate genes associated with arrhythmic disease risk loci. We determined that a combination of curation and ontology development for heart-specific genes and processes supports the identification and downstream analysis of genes responsible for the spread of the cardiac action potential through the heart. Annotating these genes and processes in a structured format facilitates data analysis and supports effective retrieval of gene-centric information about cardiac defects. © 2018 The Authors.

  3. Nutritional Effect on Androgen-Response Gene Expression and Prostate Tumor Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2001-01-01

    .... The dietary influence on ventral prostate weight does not seem to involve androgen action axis because dietary components did not influence the expression of several androgen-response genes, serum testosterone...

  4. Differential Gene Expression by Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in Response to Phenolic Compounds Reveals New Genes Involved in Tannin Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Inés; Jiménez, Natalia; Curiel, José Antonio; Peñas, Elena; López de Felipe, Félix; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2017-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that can degrade food tannins by the successive action of tannase and gallate decarboxylase enzymes. In the L. plantarum genome, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of gallate decarboxylase ( lpdC , or lp_2945 ) is only 6.5 kb distant from the gene encoding inducible tannase ( L. plantarum tanB [ tanB Lp ], or lp_2956 ). This genomic context suggests concomitant activity and regulation of both enzymatic activities. Reverse transcription analysis revealed that subunits B ( lpdB , or lp_0271 ) and D ( lpdD , or lp_0272 ) of the gallate decarboxylase are cotranscribed, whereas subunit C ( lpdC , or lp_2945 ) is cotranscribed with a gene encoding a transport protein ( gacP , or lp_2943 ). In contrast, the tannase gene is transcribed as a monocistronic mRNA. Investigation of knockout mutations of genes located in this chromosomal region indicated that only mutants of the gallate decarboxylase (subunits B and C), tannase, GacP transport protein, and TanR transcriptional regulator ( lp_2942 ) genes exhibited altered tannin metabolism. The expression profile of genes involved in tannin metabolism was also analyzed in these mutants in the presence of methyl gallate and gallic acid. It is noteworthy that inactivation of tanR suppresses the induction of all genes overexpressed in the presence of methyl gallate and gallic acid. This transcriptional regulator was also induced in the presence of other phenolic compounds, such as kaempferol and myricetin. This study complements the catalog of L. plantarum expression profiles responsive to phenolic compounds, which enable this bacterium to adapt to a plant food environment. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus plantarum is a bacterial species frequently found in the fermentation of vegetables when tannins are present. L. plantarum strains degrade tannins to the less-toxic pyrogallol by the successive action of tannase and gallate decarboxylase enzymes. The genes encoding these enzymes are

  5. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, C.; Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M.

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  6. Identification of Plagl1/Zac1 binding sites and target genes establishes its role in the regulation of extracellular matrix genes and the imprinted gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrault, Annie; Dantec, Christelle; Le Digarcher, Anne; Chotard, Laëtitia; Bilanges, Benoit; Parrinello, Hugues; Dubois, Emeric; Rialle, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Bouschet, Tristan; Journot, Laurent

    2017-10-13

    PLAGL1/ZAC1 undergoes parental genomic imprinting, is paternally expressed, and is a member of the imprinted gene network (IGN). It encodes a zinc finger transcription factor with anti-proliferative activity and is a candidate tumor suppressor gene on 6q24 whose expression is frequently lost in various neoplasms. Conversely, gain of PLAGL1 function is responsible for transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, a rare genetic disease that results from defective pancreas development. In the present work, we showed that Plagl1 up-regulation was not associated with DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest. It was rather associated with physiological cell cycle exit that occurred with contact inhibition, growth factor withdrawal, or cell differentiation. To gain insights into Plagl1 mechanism of action, we identified Plagl1 target genes by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome-wide transcriptomics in transfected cell lines. Plagl1-elicited gene regulation correlated with multiple binding to the proximal promoter region through a GC-rich motif. Plagl1 target genes included numerous genes involved in signaling, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix composition, including collagens. Plagl1 targets also included 22% of the 409 genes that make up the IGN. Altogether, this work identified Plagl1 as a transcription factor that coordinated the regulation of a subset of IGN genes and controlled extracellular matrix composition. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettne Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM, and that these can be used with gene set analysis (GSA methods for chemical treatment identification, for pharmacological mechanism elucidation, and for comparing compound toxicity profiles. Methods We created 30,211 chemical response-specific gene sets for human and mouse by next-gen TM, and derived 1,189 (human and 588 (mouse gene sets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD. We tested for significant differential expression (SDE (false discovery rate -corrected p-values Results Next-gen TM-derived gene sets matching the chemical treatment were significantly altered in three GE data sets, and the corresponding CTD-derived gene sets were significantly altered in five GE data sets. Six next-gen TM-derived and four CTD-derived fibrate gene sets were significantly altered in the PPARA knock-out GE dataset. None of the fibrate signatures in cMap scored significant against the PPARA GE signature. 33 environmental toxicant gene sets were significantly altered in the triazole GE data sets. 21 of these toxicants had a similar toxicity pattern as the triazoles. We confirmed embryotoxic effects, and discriminated triazoles from other chemicals. Conclusions Gene set analysis with next-gen TM-derived chemical response-specific gene sets is a scalable method for identifying similarities in gene responses to other chemicals, from which one may infer potential mode of action and/or toxic effect.

  8. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  9. Distinct actions of ancestral vinclozolin and juvenile stress on neural gene expression in the male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross eGillette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical vinclozolin during gestation of an F0 generation and/or chronic restraint stress during adolescence of the F3 descendants affects behavior, physiology, and gene expression in the brain. Genes related to the networks of growth factors, signaling peptides and receptors, steroid hormone receptors and enzymes, and epigenetic related factors were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction via Taqman low density arrays targeting 48 genes in the central amygdaloid nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, medial preoptic area, lateral hypothalamus, and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. We found that growth factors are particularly vulnerable to ancestral exposure in the central and medial amygdala; restraint stress during adolescence affected neural growth factors in the medial amygdala. Signaling peptides were affected by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence primarily in hypothalamic nuclei. Steroid hormone receptors and enzymes were strongly affected by restraint stress in the medial preoptic area. Epigenetic related genes were affected by stress in the ventromedial hypothalamus and by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence independently in the central amygdala. It is noteworthy that the lateral hypothalamus showed no effects of either manipulation. Gene expression is discussed in the context of behavioral and physiological measures previously published.

  10. Distinct actions of ancestral vinclozolin and juvenile stress on neural gene expression in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Skinner, Michael K; Crews, David

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical vinclozolin during gestation of an F0 generation and/or chronic restraint stress during adolescence of the F3 descendants affects behavior, physiology, and gene expression in the brain. Genes related to the networks of growth factors, signaling peptides, and receptors, steroid hormone receptors and enzymes, and epigenetic related factors were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction via Taqman low density arrays targeting 48 genes in the central amygdaloid nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, medial preoptic area (mPOA), lateral hypothalamus (LH), and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. We found that growth factors are particularly vulnerable to ancestral exposure in the central and medial amygdala; restraint stress during adolescence affected neural growth factors in the medial amygdala. Signaling peptides were affected by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence primarily in hypothalamic nuclei. Steroid hormone receptors and enzymes were strongly affected by restraint stress in the mPOA. Epigenetic related genes were affected by stress in the ventromedial nucleus and by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence independently in the central amygdala. It is noteworthy that the LH showed no effects of either manipulation. Gene expression is discussed in the context of behavioral and physiological measures previously published.

  11. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  12. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  13. Comparative proteomic study on Brassica hexaploid and its parents provides new insights into the effects of polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanyue; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. Although genomic and transcriptomic changes have been observed in polyploids, the effects of polyploidization on proteomic divergence are poorly understood. In this study, we reported quantitative analysis of proteomic changes in leaves of Brassica hexaploid and its parents using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 2044 reproducible proteins were quantified by at least two unique peptides. We detected 452 proteins differentially expressed between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 100 proteins were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggested a trend of non-additive protein regulation following genomic merger and doubling. Functional categories of cellular component biogenesis, immune system process, and response to stimulus, were significantly enriched in non-additive proteins, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids. In particular, majority of the total 452 differentially expressed proteins showed expression level dominance of one parental expression, and there was an expression level dominance bias toward the tetraploid progenitor. In addition, the percentage of differentially expressed proteins that matched previously reported differentially genes were relatively low. This study aimed to get new insights into the effects of polyploidization on proteomic divergence. Using iTRAQ LC-MS/MS technology, we identified 452 differentially expressed proteins between allopolyploid and its parents which involved in response to stimulus, multi-organism process, and immune system process, much more than previous studies using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry technology. Therefore, our manuscript represents the most comprehensive analysis of protein profiles in allopolyploid and its parents, which will lead to a better understanding of

  14. Bacteria as vectors for gene therapy of cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baban, Chwanrow K

    2012-01-31

    Anti-cancer therapy faces major challenges, particularly in terms of specificity of treatment. The ideal therapy would eradicate tumor cells selectively with minimum side effects on normal tissue. Gene or cell therapies have emerged as realistic prospects for the treatment of cancer, and involve the delivery of genetic information to a tumor to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. However, there is still much to be done before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved, primarily developing the means of targeting genes to tumors safely and efficiently. An emerging family of vectors involves bacteria of various genera. It has been shown that bacteria are naturally capable of homing to tumors when systemically administered resulting in high levels of replication locally. Furthermore, invasive species can deliver heterologous genes intra-cellularly for tumor cell expression. Here, we review the use of bacteria as vehicles for gene therapy of cancer, detailing the mechanisms of action and successes at preclinical and clinical levels.

  15. Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rubeis, Silvia; He, Xin; Goldberg, Arthur P; Poultney, Christopher S; Samocha, Kaitlin; Cicek, A Erucment; Kou, Yan; Liu, Li; Fromer, Menachem; Walker, Susan; Singh, Tarinder; Klei, Lambertus; Kosmicki, Jack; Shih-Chen, Fu; Aleksic, Branko; Biscaldi, Monica; Bolton, Patrick F; Brownfeld, Jessica M; Cai, Jinlu; Campbell, Nicholas G; Carracedo, Angel; Chahrour, Maria H; Chiocchetti, Andreas G; Coon, Hilary; Crawford, Emily L; Curran, Sarah R; Dawson, Geraldine; Duketis, Eftichia; Fernandez, Bridget A; Gallagher, Louise; Geller, Evan; Guter, Stephen J; Hill, R Sean; Ionita-Laza, Juliana; Jimenz Gonzalez, Patricia; Kilpinen, Helena; Klauck, Sabine M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Lee, Irene; Lei, Irene; Lei, Jing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Ma'ayan, Avi; Marshall, Christian R; McInnes, Alison L; Neale, Benjamin; Owen, Michael J; Ozaki, Noriio; Parellada, Mara; Parr, Jeremy R; Purcell, Shaun; Puura, Kaija; Rajagopalan, Deepthi; Rehnström, Karola; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sabo, Aniko; Sachse, Michael; Sanders, Stephan J; Schafer, Chad; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Skuse, David; Stevens, Christine; Szatmari, Peter; Tammimies, Kristiina; Valladares, Otto; Voran, Annette; Li-San, Wang; Weiss, Lauren A; Willsey, A Jeremy; Yu, Timothy W; Yuen, Ryan K C; Cook, Edwin H; Freitag, Christine M; Gill, Michael; Hultman, Christina M; Lehner, Thomas; Palotie, Aaarno; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Sklar, Pamela; State, Matthew W; Sutcliffe, James S; Walsh, Christiopher A; Scherer, Stephen W; Zwick, Michael E; Barett, Jeffrey C; Cutler, David J; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; Daly, Mark J; Buxbaum, Joseph D

    2014-11-13

    The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder involves the interplay of common and rare variants and their impact on hundreds of genes. Using exome sequencing, here we show that analysis of rare coding variation in 3,871 autism cases and 9,937 ancestry-matched or parental controls implicates 22 autosomal genes at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, plus a set of 107 autosomal genes strongly enriched for those likely to affect risk (FDR < 0.30). These 107 genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, incur de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects. Many of the genes implicated encode proteins for synaptic formation, transcriptional regulation and chromatin-remodelling pathways. These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones.

  16. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 restores insulin action in leucine-treated skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, A; Salehzadeh, F; Metayer-Coustard, S

    2009-01-01

    Excessive nutrients, especially amino acids, impair insulin action on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that the branched-chain amino acid leucine reduces acute insulin action in primary myotubes via a negative feedback mechanism involving ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1...... to excessive leucine. In conclusion, S6K1 plays an important role in the regulation of insulin action on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle....

  17. Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Evelyne; Keysers, Christian; Umiltà, M Alessandra; Fogassi, Leonardo; Gallese, Vittorio; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2002-08-02

    Many object-related actions can be recognized by their sound. We found neurons in monkey premotor cortex that discharge when the animal performs a specific action and when it hears the related sound. Most of the neurons also discharge when the monkey observes the same action. These audiovisual mirror neurons code actions independently of whether these actions are performed, heard, or seen. This discovery in the monkey homolog of Broca's area might shed light on the origin of language: audiovisual mirror neurons code abstract contents-the meaning of actions-and have the auditory access typical of human language to these contents.

  18. Tributyltin synergizes with 20-hydroxyecdysone to produce endocrine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying H; Kwon, Gwijun; Li, Hong; Leblanc, Gerald A

    2011-09-01

    One of the great challenges facing modern toxicology is in predicting the hazard associated with chemical mixtures. The development of effective means of predicting the toxicity of chemical mixtures requires an understanding of how chemicals interact to produce nonadditive outcomes (e.g., synergy). We hypothesized that tributyltin would elicit toxicity in daphnids (Daphnia magna) by exaggerating physiological responses to 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling via synergistic activation of the retinoid X receptor (RXR):ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) complex. Using reporter gene assays, we demonstrated that RXR, alone, is activated by a variety of ligands including tributyltin, whereas RXR:EcR heterodimers were not activated by tributyltin. However, tributyltin, in combination with the daphnid EcR ligand 20-hydroxyecdysone, caused concentration-dependent, synergistic activation of the RXR:EcR reporter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that tributyltin did not enhance the activity of 20-hydroxyecdysone by increasing binding of the receptor complex to a DR-4 DNA-binding site. Exposure of daphnids to elevated concentrations of 20-hydroxyecdysone caused premature and incomplete ecdysis resulting in death. Tributyltin exaggerated this effect of exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone. Further, exposure of daphnids to tributyltin enhanced the inductive effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone on expression of the 20-hydroxyecdysone-inducible gene HR3. Continuous, prolonged exposure of maternal daphnids to concentrations of tributyltin resulted in mortality concurrent with molting. Taken together, these results demonstrate that xenobiotics, such as tributyltin, can interact with RXR to influence gene expression regulated by the heterodimeric partner to RXR. The result of such interactions can be toxicity due to inappropriate or exaggerated hormonal signaling. The application of the in vitro/in vivo approach used in this study is discussed in relation to modeling of nonadditive interactions

  19. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  20. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  1. Genomic Analysis Reveals Contrasting PIFq Contribution to Diurnal Rhythmic Gene Expression in PIF-Induced and -Repressed Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guiomar; Soy, Judit; Monte, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Members of the PIF quartet (PIFq; PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5) collectively contribute to induce growth in Arabidopsis seedlings under short day (SD) conditions, specifically promoting elongation at dawn. Their action involves the direct regulation of growth-related and hormone-associated genes. However, a comprehensive definition of the PIFq-regulated transcriptome under SD is still lacking. We have recently shown that SD and free-running (LL) conditions correspond to "growth" and "no growth" conditions, respectively, correlating with greater abundance of PIF protein in SD. Here, we present a genomic analysis whereby we first define SD-regulated genes at dawn compared to LL in the wild type, followed by identification of those SD-regulated genes whose expression depends on the presence of PIFq. By using this sequential strategy, we have identified 349 PIF/SD-regulated genes, approximately 55% induced and 42% repressed by both SD and PIFq. Comparison with available databases indicates that PIF/SD-induced and PIF/SD-repressed sets are differently phased at dawn and mid-morning, respectively. In addition, we found that whereas rhythmicity of the PIF/SD-induced gene set is lost in LL, most PIF/SD-repressed genes keep their rhythmicity in LL, suggesting differential regulation of both gene sets by the circadian clock. Moreover, we also uncovered distinct overrepresented functions in the induced and repressed gene sets, in accord with previous studies in other examined PIF-regulated processes. Interestingly, promoter analyses showed that, whereas PIF/SD-induced genes are enriched in direct PIF targets, PIF/SD-repressed genes are mostly indirectly regulated by the PIFs and might be more enriched in ABA-regulated genes.

  2. The action of a dietary retinoid on gene expression and cancer induction in electron-irradiated rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Chen, S.; Xu, G.; Wu, F.; Tang, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Current models of radiation carcinogenesis generally assume that the DNA is damaged in a variety of ways by the radiation and that subsequent cell divisions contribute to the conversion of the damage to heritable mutations. Cancer may seem complex and intractable, but its complexity provides multiple opportunities for preventive interventions. Mitotic inhibitors are among the strongest cancer preventive agents, not only slowing the growth rate of preneoplasias but also increasing the fidelity of DNA repair processes. Ionizing radiation, including electrons, is a strong inducer of cancer in rat skin, and dietary retinoids have shown potent cancer preventive activity in the same system. A non-toxic dietary dose of retinyl acetate altered gene expression levels 24 hours after electron irradiation of rat skin. Of the 8740 genes on an Affymetrix rat expression array, the radiation significantly (5 fold or higher) altered 188, while the retinoid altered 231, including 16 radiation-altered genes that were reversely altered. While radiation strongly affected the expression of stress response, immune/inflammation and nucleic acid metabolism genes, the retinoid most strongly affected proliferation-related genes, including some significant reversals, such as, keratin 14, retinol binding protein, and calcium binding proteins. These results point to reversal of proliferation-relevant genes as a likely basis for the anti-radiogenic effects of dietary retinyl acetate. (author)

  3. Genetic and environmental contributions to body mass index: comparative analysis of monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins and same-age unrelated siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, N L; Feng, R; McGuire, S A; Allison, D B; Miller, S

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies have established that a substantial percentage of variance in obesity-related phenotypes is explained by genetic components. However, only one study has used both virtual twins (VTs) and biological twins and was able to simultaneously estimate additive genetic, non-additive genetic, shared environmental and unshared environmental components in body mass index (BMI). Our current goal was to re-estimate four components of variance in BMI, applying a more rigorous model to biological and virtual multiples with additional data. Virtual multiples share the same family environment, offering unique opportunities to estimate common environmental influence on phenotypes that cannot be separated from the non-additive genetic component using only biological multiples. Data included 929 individuals from 164 monozygotic twin pairs, 156 dizygotic twin pairs, five triplet sets, one quadruplet set, 128 VT pairs, two virtual triplet sets and two virtual quadruplet sets. Virtual multiples consist of one biological child (or twins or triplets) plus one same-aged adoptee who are all raised together since infancy. We estimated the additive genetic, non-additive genetic, shared environmental and unshared random components in BMI using a linear mixed model. The analysis was adjusted for age, age(2), age(3), height, height(2), height(3), gender and race. Both non-additive genetic and common environmental contributions were significant in our model (P-valuesrole in BMI and that common environmental factors such as diet or exercise also affect BMI. This conclusion is consistent with our earlier study using a smaller sample and shows the utility of virtual multiples for separating non-additive genetic variance from common environmental variance.

  4. Dissociable contribution of prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic genes to learning in economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Eric; Saez, Ignacio; Zhu, Lusha; Houser, Daniel E; Myung, Noah; Zhong, Songfa; Ebstein, Richard P; Chew, Soo Hong; Hsu, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Game theory describes strategic interactions where success of players' actions depends on those of coplayers. In humans, substantial progress has been made at the neural level in characterizing the dopaminergic and frontostriatal mechanisms mediating such behavior. Here we combined computational modeling of strategic learning with a pathway approach to characterize association of strategic behavior with variations in the dopamine pathway. Specifically, using gene-set analysis, we systematically examined contribution of different dopamine genes to variation in a multistrategy competitive game captured by (i) the degree players anticipate and respond to actions of others (belief learning) and (ii) the speed with which such adaptations take place (learning rate). We found that variation in genes that primarily regulate prefrontal dopamine clearance--catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and two isoforms of monoamine oxidase--modulated degree of belief learning across individuals. In contrast, we did not find significant association for other genes in the dopamine pathway. Furthermore, variation in genes that primarily regulate striatal dopamine function--dopamine transporter and D2 receptors--was significantly associated with the learning rate. We found that this was also the case with COMT, but not for other dopaminergic genes. Together, these findings highlight dissociable roles of frontostriatal systems in strategic learning and support the notion that genetic variation, organized along specific pathways, forms an important source of variation in complex phenotypes such as strategic behavior.

  5. Exploring autophagy with Gene Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that is well conserved among eukaryotes. It is one of the strategies that cells use to catabolize substances in a controlled way. Autophagy is used for recycling cellular components, responding to cellular stresses and ridding cells of foreign material. Perturbations in autophagy have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration, cardiac disease and cancer. The growing knowledge about autophagic mechanisms needs to be collected in a computable and shareable format to allow its use in data representation and interpretation. The Gene Ontology (GO) is a freely available resource that describes how and where gene products function in biological systems. It consists of 3 interrelated structured vocabularies that outline what gene products do at the biochemical level, where they act in a cell and the overall biological objectives to which their actions contribute. It also consists of ‘annotations’ that associate gene products with the terms. Here we describe how we represent autophagy in GO, how we create and define terms relevant to autophagy researchers and how we interrelate those terms to generate a coherent view of the process, therefore allowing an interoperable description of its biological aspects. We also describe how annotation of gene products with GO terms improves data analysis and interpretation, hence bringing a significant benefit to this field of study. PMID:29455577

  6. Diversity in the glucose transporter-4 gene (SLC2A4 in humans reflects the action of natural selection along the old-world primates evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose is an important source of energy for living organisms. In vertebrates it is ingested with the diet and transported into the cells by conserved mechanisms and molecules, such as the trans-membrane Glucose Transporters (GLUTs. Members of this family have tissue specific expression, biochemical properties and physiologic functions that together regulate glucose levels and distribution. GLUT4 -coded by SLC2A4 (17p13 is an insulin-sensitive transporter with a critical role in glucose homeostasis and diabetes pathogenesis, preferentially expressed in the adipose tissue, heart muscle and skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that natural selection acted on SLC2A4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We re-sequenced SLC2A4 and genotyped 104 SNPs along a approximately 1 Mb region flanking this gene in 102 ethnically diverse individuals. Across the studied populations (African, European, Asian and Latin-American, all the eight common SNPs are concentrated in the N-terminal region upstream of exon 7 ( approximately 3700 bp, while the C-terminal region downstream of intron 6 ( approximately 2600 bp harbors only 6 singletons, a pattern that is not compatible with neutrality for this part of the gene. Tests of neutrality based on comparative genomics suggest that: (1 episodes of natural selection (likely a selective sweep predating the coalescent of human lineages, within the last 25 million years, account for the observed reduced diversity downstream of intron 6 and, (2 the target of natural selection may not be in the SLC2A4 coding sequence. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the contrast in the pattern of genetic variation between the N-terminal and C-terminal regions are signatures of the action of natural selection and thus follow-up studies should investigate the functional importance of different regions of the SLC2A4 gene.

  7. Our actions in my mind: Motor imagery of joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Knoblich, Günther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    How do people imagine performing actions together? The present study investigated motor imagery of joint actions that requires integrating one's own and another's part of an action. In two experiments, individual participants imagined jumping alone or jointly next to an imagined partner. The joint...... condition required coordinating one's own imagined actions with an imagined partner's actions to synchronize landing times. We investigated whether the timing of participants' own imagined jumps would reflect the difference in jump distance to their imagined partner's jumps. The results showed...... of joint jumping. These findings link research on motor imagery and joint action, demonstrating that individuals are able to integrate simulations of different parts of a joint action....

  8. Duplication and diversification of the hypoxia-inducible IGFBP-1 gene in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Kamei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is the primary force of new gene evolution. Deciphering whether a pair of duplicated genes has evolved divergent functions is often challenging. The zebrafish is uniquely positioned to provide insight into the process of functional gene evolution due to its amenability to genetic and experimental manipulation and because it possess a large number of duplicated genes.We report the identification and characterization of two hypoxia-inducible genes in zebrafish that are co-ortholgs of human IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1. IGFBP-1 is a secreted protein that binds to IGF and modulates IGF actions in somatic growth, development, and aging. Like their human and mouse counterparts, in adult zebrafish igfbp-1a and igfbp-1b are exclusively expressed in the liver. During embryogenesis, the two genes are expressed in overlapping spatial domains but with distinct temporal patterns. While zebrafish IGFBP-1a mRNA was easily detected throughout embryogenesis, IGFBP-1b mRNA was detectable only in advanced stages. Hypoxia induces igfbp-1a expression in early embryogenesis, but induces the igfbp-1b expression later in embryogenesis. Both IGFBP-1a and -b are capable of IGF binding, but IGFBP-1b has much lower affinities for IGF-I and -II because of greater dissociation rates. Overexpression of IGFBP-1a and -1b in zebrafish embryos caused significant decreases in growth and developmental rates. When tested in cultured zebrafish embryonic cells, IGFBP-1a and -1b both inhibited IGF-1-induced cell proliferation but the activity of IGFBP-1b was significantly weaker.These results indicate subfunction partitioning of the duplicated IGFBP-1 genes at the levels of gene expression, physiological regulation, protein structure, and biological actions. The duplicated IGFBP-1 may provide additional flexibility in fine-tuning IGF signaling activities under hypoxia and other catabolic conditions.

  9. Endothelial actions of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2012-05-01

    The cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is critically involved in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. Its cGMP-producing GC-A receptor is densely expressed in the microvascular endothelium of the lung and systemic circulation, but the functional relevance is controversial. Some studies reported that ANP stimulates endothelial cell permeability, whereas others described that the peptide attenuates endothelial barrier dysfunction provoked by inflammatory agents such as thrombin or histamine. Many studies in vitro addressed the effects of ANP on endothelial proliferation and migration. Again, both pro- and anti-angiogenic properties were described. To unravel the role of the endothelial actions of ANP in vivo, we inactivated the murine GC-A gene selectively in endothelial cells by homologous loxP/Cre-mediated recombination. Our studies in these mice indicate that ANP, via endothelial GC-A, increases endothelial albumin permeability in the microcirculation of the skin and skeletal muscle. This effect is critically involved in the endocrine hypovolaemic, hypotensive actions of the cardiac hormone. On the other hand the homologous GC-A-activating B-type NP (BNP), which is produced by cardiac myocytes and many other cell types in response to stressors such as hypoxia, possibly exerts more paracrine than endocrine actions. For instance, within the ischaemic skeletal muscle BNP released from activated satellite cells can improve the regeneration of neighbouring endothelia. This review will focus on recent advancements in our understanding of endothelial NP/GC-A signalling in the pulmonary versus systemic circulation. It will discuss possible mechanisms accounting for the discrepant observations made for the endothelial actions of this hormone-receptor system and distinguish between (patho)physiological and pharmacological actions. Lastly it will emphasize the potential therapeutical implications derived from the

  10. Hepatic gene expression profiling using GeneChips in zebrafish exposed to 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.L.; Thomason, R.G.; Lee, D.M.; Brill, J.L.; Price, B.B.; Carr, G.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Versteeg, D.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States)], E-mail: versteeg.dj@pg.com

    2008-04-28

    Concentration and time-dependent changes in hepatic gene expression were examined in adult, female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L of a model androgen, 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT). At 24 and 168 h, fish were sacrificed and liver was extracted for gene expression analysis using custom Affymetrix GeneChip Zebrafish Genome Microarrays. In an effort to link gene expression changes to higher levels of biological organization, blood was collected for measurement of plasma steroid hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T)) and vitellogenin (VTG) using ELISA. Body and ovary weight were also measured. A significant reduction in E2 occurred at 24 h (0.7 and 4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) following MDHT exposure. In contrast, T was significantly increased at 24 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L). 171 and 575 genes were significantly affected in a concentration-dependent manner at either 24 or 168 h by MDHT exposure at p {<=} 0.001 and p {<=} 0.01, respectively. Genes involved in retinoic acid metabolism (e.g. aldehyde dehydrogenase 8, member A1; retinol dehydrogenase 12), steroid biosynthesis and metabolism (e.g. hydroxysteroid (11{beta}) dehydrogenase 2; hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta-), hormone transport (e.g. sex hormone binding globulin), and regulation of cell growth and proliferation (e.g. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1; spermidinespermine N(1)-acetyltransferase) were affected by MDHT exposure. In this study, we identified genes involved in a variety of biological processes that have the potential to be used as markers of exposure to androgenic substances. Genes identified in this study provide information on the potential mode of action of strong androgens in female fish. In addition, when used for screening of EDC's, these genes may also serve as sensitive markers of exposure to androgenic compounds.

  11. Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Kandiah; Jeyaseelan; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Aguiyi, John Chinyere; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart.

  12. Dichotomy of major genes and polygenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to facilitate domestication and breeding of new or underexploited crop species, the genetic basis of many traits must be critically investigated, and both naturally occurring and induced mutations should be utilized. Classically, most breeding procedures have invoked the dichotomy of major genes versus polygenes (or discrete versus continuously varying traits) which is briefly reviewed here from several viewpoints. Clearly, the evidence for two distinct classes of genes (or gene effects on phenotype) and traits is largely a product of different forms of genetic analyses and their primary objectives as well as of researchers' expectations. Superimposed on the simplest Mendelian ratios and genome maps are numerous sources of molecular variation and gene expression at many levels of phenotypic description. Many attempts to delineate developmental pathways and to identify genes controlling discrete vs. quantitative phenotypic variation have resulted in emphasis on multigenic models with specific gene effects at mappable loci but nonetheless modified by small effects. Thus, quantitative genetic variation may arise from multi-genic and multi-allelic systems of both structural and regulatory gene action and gene interactions which, from an empirical breeding perspective, might be adequately described by the biometrical and evolutionary models. Polygenic analyses were conceptually based on genetic parameters in these models (as caricatures of reality) but efforts to modify or reject them by identifying and mapping sources of phenotypic variation through newer genetic methods are likely to enrich and not displace biometrical methods. Domestication programmes, in particular, should employ the entire array of genetic discoveries and methodologies. (author). 71 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Genes and (Common) Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Yun; Mao, Xizeng; Wei, Liping

    2008-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn), the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction. PMID:18179280

  14. Genes and (common pathways underlying drug addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn, the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

  15. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  16. Female Drosophila melanogaster gene expression and mate choice: the X chromosome harbours candidate genes underlying sexual isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I Bailey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of female choice mechanisms favouring males of their own kind is considered a crucial step during the early stages of speciation. However, although the genomics of mate choice may influence both the likelihood and speed of speciation, the identity and location of genes underlying assortative mating remain largely unknown.We used mate choice experiments and gene expression analysis of female Drosophila melanogaster to examine three key components influencing speciation. We show that the 1,498 genes in Zimbabwean female D. melanogaster whose expression levels differ when mating with more (Zimbabwean versus less (Cosmopolitan strain preferred males include many with high expression in the central nervous system and ovaries, are disproportionately X-linked and form a number of clusters with low recombination distance. Significant involvement of the brain and ovaries is consistent with the action of a combination of pre- and postcopulatory female choice mechanisms, while sex linkage and clustering of genes lead to high potential evolutionary rate and sheltering against the homogenizing effects of gene exchange between populations.Taken together our results imply favourable genomic conditions for the evolution of reproductive isolation through mate choice in Zimbabwean D. melanogaster and suggest that mate choice may, in general, act as an even more important engine of speciation than previously realized.

  17. Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonism and cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Newman, Lawrence; Ashina, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key signaling molecule involved in migraine pathophysiology. Efficacy of CGRP monoclonal antibodies and antagonists in migraine treatment has fueled an increasing interest in the prospect of treating cluster headache (CH) with CGRP antagonism. The exact...... role of CGRP and its mechanism of action in CH have not been fully clarified. A search for original studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English was performed in PubMed and in ClinicalTrials.gov . The search term used was "cluster headache and calcitonin gene related peptide......" and "primary headaches and calcitonin gene related peptide." Reference lists of identified articles were also searched for additional relevant papers. Human experimental studies have reported elevated plasma CGRP levels during both spontaneous and glyceryl trinitrate-induced cluster attacks. CGRP may play...

  18. Assessment of combining ability for yield and quality components in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohini, N.; Lakshmanan, V.; Saraladevi, D.; Amalraj, J.J.; Govindaraju, P.

    2017-07-01

    Six parental genotypes and their thirty F1 hybrids in a full diallel cross system with reciprocals, were used in the present study to estimate combining ability for five quantitative and five qualitative traits in hot pepper. The mean sum of squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were significant for all the characters which suggest that these parents could have performed differently in different combinations indicating interallelic interactions. All the traits studied exhibited greater SCA variance than GCA, suggesting that these traits are controlled by non-additive gene action. Analysis of the GCA effects of parents for various traits revealed that LCA625, K1 and PKM1 were the best general combiners for almost all the traits. Estimates of SCA effects showed that the hybrids LCA625 × K1, K1 × Arka LohitandPusa Jwala × PKM1were found to be the best combiners for yield and its attributes. The hybrid K1 × Arka Lohitwas the best reciprocal combiner for quality parameters based on its better mean performance and combining ability. These results suggest that commercial production of hot pepper hybrids and isolation of pure lines from these hybrids is a possible way to enhance the yield and fruit quality.

  19. The time between intention and action affect the experience of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel C. Vinding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a study investigating how the delay between the intention to act and the following action, influenced the experience of action. In experiments investigating sense of agency and experience of action, the contrast is most often between voluntary and involuntary actions. It is rarely asked whether different types of intentions influence the experience of action differently. To investigate this we distinguished between proximal intentions (i.e. intentions for immediate actions and delayed intentions (i.e. intentions with a temporal delay between intention and action. The distinction was implemented in an intentional binding paradigm, by varying the delay between the time where participants formed the intention to act and the time at which they performed the action. The results showed that delayed intentions were followed by a stronger binding effect for the tone following the action compared to proximal intentions. The actions were reported to have occurred earlier for delayed intentions than for proximal intentions. This effect was independent of the binding effect usually found in intentional binding experiments. This suggests that two perceptual shifts occurred in the contrast between delayed intentions and proximal intentions: The first being the binding effect, the second a general shift in the perceived time of action. Neither the stronger binding effect for tone, nor the earlier reports of action, differed across delays for delayed intentions. The results imply that delayed intentions and proximal intentions have a different impact on the experience of action.

  20. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor; Caba Heilbron, Fabian; Niebles, Juan Carlos; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates

  1. Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhong Zha

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA can induce growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and has been used in clinic for treatment of neuroblastoma. It has been reported that RA induces the expression of several HOXD genes in human neuroblastoma cell lines, but their roles in RA action are largely unknown. The HOXD cluster contains nine genes (HOXD1, HOXD3, HOXD4, and HOXD8-13 that are positioned sequentially from 3' to 5', with HOXD1 at the 3' end and HOXD13 the 5' end. Here we show that all HOXD genes are induced by RA in the human neuroblastoma BE(2-C cells, with the genes located at the 3' end being activated generally earlier than those positioned more 5' within the cluster. Individual induction of HOXD8, HOXD9, HOXD10 or HOXD12 is sufficient to induce both growth arrest and neuronal differentiation, which is associated with downregulation of cell cycle-promoting genes and upregulation of neuronal differentiation genes. However, induction of other HOXD genes either has no effect (HOXD1 or has partial effects (HOXD3, HOXD4, HOXD11 and HOXD13 on BE(2-C cell proliferation or differentiation. We further show that knockdown of HOXD8 expression, but not that of HOXD9 expression, significantly inhibits the differentiation-inducing activity of RA. HOXD8 directly activates the transcription of HOXC9, a key effector of RA action in neuroblastoma cells. These findings highlight the distinct functions of HOXD genes in RA induction of neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

  2. Gene expression profiling in Ishikawa cells: A fingerprint for estrogen active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, Kathleen; Simon, Stephanie; Mueller, Stefan O.

    2009-01-01

    Several anthropogenous and naturally occurring substances, referred to as estrogen active compounds (EACs), are able to interfere with hormone and in particular estrogen receptor signaling. EACs can either cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife populations or have beneficial effects on estrogen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine global gene expression profiles in estrogen receptor (ER)-proficient Ishikawa plus and ER-deficient Ishikawa minus endometrial cancer cells treated with selected well-known EACs (Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Zearalenone, Resveratrol, Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT). We also investigated the effect of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) on the expression patterns caused by these compounds. Transcript levels were quantified 24 h after compound treatment using Illumina BeadChip Arrays. We identified 87 genes with similar expression changes in response to all EAC treatments in Ishikawa plus. ICI lowered the magnitude or reversed the expression of these genes, indicating ER dependent regulation. Apart from estrogenic gene regulation, Bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, Zearalenone, Genistein and Resveratrol displayed similarities to ICI in their expression patterns, suggesting mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In particular, the predominant antiestrogenic expression response of Resveratrol could be clearly distinguished from the other test compounds, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Divergent gene expression patterns of the phytoestrogens, as well as weaker estrogenic gene expression regulation determined for the anthropogenous chemicals Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT, warrants a careful assessment of potential detrimental and/or beneficial effects of EACs. The characteristic expression fingerprints and the identified subset of putative marker genes can be used for screening chemicals with an unknown mode of action and for predicting their potential to exert endocrine disrupting effects

  3. The SKP1-like gene family of Arabidopsis exhibits a high degree of differential gene expression and gene product interaction during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Dezfulian

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes several families of polypeptides that are known or predicted to participate in the formation of the SCF-class of E3-ubiquitin ligase complexes. One such gene family encodes the Skp1-like class of polypeptide subunits, where 21 genes have been identified and are known to be expressed in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis based on deduced polypeptide sequence organizes the family of ASK proteins into 7 clades. The complexity of the ASK gene family, together with the close structural similarity among its members raises the prospect of significant functional redundancy among select paralogs. We have assessed the potential for functional redundancy within the ASK gene family by analyzing an expanded set of criteria that define redundancy with higher resolution. The criteria used include quantitative expression of locus-specific transcripts using qRT-PCR, assessment of the sub-cellular localization of individual ASK:YFP auto-fluorescent fusion proteins expressed in vivo as well as the in planta assessment of individual ASK-F-Box protein interactions using bimolecular fluorescent complementation techniques in combination with confocal imagery in live cells. The results indicate significant functional divergence of steady state transcript abundance and protein-protein interaction specificity involving ASK proteins in a pattern that is poorly predicted by sequence-based phylogeny. The information emerging from this and related studies will prove important for defining the functional intersection of expression, localization and gene product interaction that better predicts the formation of discrete SCF complexes, as a prelude to investigating their molecular mode of action.

  4. Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivanen, L.; Pezeril, M.; Wang, Q.A.; Mehaute, A. Le

    2005-01-01

    The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

  5. Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek J. Zijlstra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of β-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 are discussed.

  6. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  7. A Mini HIP HOP Assay Uncovers a Central Role for Copper and Zinc in the Antifungal Mode of Action of Allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Thomas A K; Panaretou, Barry

    2017-05-10

    Garlic contains the organosulfur compound allicin which exhibits potent antifungal activity. Here we demonstrate the use of a highly simplified yeast chemical genetic screen to characterize its mode of action. By screening 24 validated yeast gene deletion "signature" strains for which hypersensitivity is characteristic for common antifungal modes of action, yeast lacking the high affinity Cu 2+ transporter Ctr1 was found to be hypersensitive to allicin. Focusing on transition metal related genes identified two more hypersensitive strains lacking the Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ transcription factors Mac1 and Zap1. Hypersensitivity in these strains was reversed by the addition of Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ ions, respectively. The results suggest the antifungal activity of allicin is mediated through restricted Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ uptake or inhibition of Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ metalloproteins. As certain antimicrobial modes of action are much more common than others, the approach taken here provides a useful way to identify them early on.

  8. Climate Action Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Partnerships Contact Us Climate Action Team & Climate Action Initiative The Climate Action programs and the state's Climate Adaptation Strategy. The CAT members are state agency secretaries and the . See CAT reports Climate Action Team Pages CAT Home Members Working Groups Reports Back to Top

  9. Effects of BDNF polymorphisms on antidepressant action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2010-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the down-regulation of the signaling pathway involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecular element known to regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of major depression. The restoration of BDNF activity induced by antidepressant treatment has been implicated in the antidepressant therapeutic mechanism. Because there is variability among patients with major depressive disorder in terms of response to antidepressant treatment and since genetic factors may contribute to this inter-individual variability in antidepressant response, pharmacogenetic studies have tested the associations between genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes related to antidepressant therapeutic action. In human BDNF gene, there is a common functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF. Because of the potentially important role of BDNF in the antidepressant mechanism, many pharmacogenetic studies have tested the association between this polymorphism and the antidepressant therapeutic response, but they have produced inconsistent results. A recent meta-analysis of eight studies, which included data from 1,115 subjects, suggested that the Val/Met carriers have increased antidepressant response in comparison to Val/Val homozygotes, particularly in the Asian population. The positive molecular heterosis effect (subjects heterozygous for a specific genetic polymorphism show a significantly greater effect) is compatible with animal studies showing that, although BDNF exerts an antidepressant effect, too much BDNF may have a detrimental effect on mood. Several recommendations are proposed for future antidepressant pharmacogenetic studies of BDNF, including the consideration of multiple polymorphisms and a haplotype approach, gene-gene interaction, a single antidepressant regimen, controlling for age and gender interactions, and pharmacogenetic

  10. A generalization of Hamilton’s rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    smith, jeff; Van Dyken, J. David; Zee, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hamilton’s rule states that cooperation will evolve if the fitness cost to actors is less than the benefit to recipients multiplied by their genetic relatedness. This rule makes many simplifying assumptions, however, and does not accurately describe social evolution in organisms like microbes where selection is both strong and nonadditive. We derived a generalization of Hamilton’s rule and measured its parameters in Myxococcus xanthus bacteria. Nonadditivity made cooperative sporulation surpr...

  11. A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin Action, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-Fish Oil Supplementation and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Jamilian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3 supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM. Participants with GDM (n = 40, aged 18–40 years, were randomized to take either 1000 mg fish oil capsules, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid (n = 20, or placebo (n = 20 twice a day for 6 weeks. Gene expression related to insulin, lipids, and inflammation was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of GDM women using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR method. Results of RT-PCR indicated that omega-3 supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ (P = 0.04 in PBMCs of patients with GDM, compared with the placebo. In addition, gene expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR (P < 0.001, interleukin-1 (IL-1 (P = 0.007, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α (P = 0.01 was downregulated in PBMCs of women with GDM, following omega-3 supplementation. No significant effect of omega-3 supplementation was indicated on gene expression of IL-8 in PBMCs of patients with GDM. Overall, fish oil supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-1, and TNF-α, but not gene expression of IL-8.

  12. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  13. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    triazoles. We confirmed embryotoxic effects, and discriminated triazoles from other chemicals. Conclusions Gene set analysis with next-gen TM-derived chemical response-specific gene sets is a scalable method for identifying similarities in gene responses to other chemicals, from which one may infer potential mode of action and/or toxic effect. PMID:23356878

  14. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  15. Impulsive action and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijda, Nico H

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically, without prior intention (called impulsive actions), or intentionally. Impulsive actions reflect the simplest and biologically most general form in which emotions can cause action, since they require no reflection, no foresight, and no planning. Impulsive actions are determined conjointly by the nature of action readiness, the affordances perceived in the eliciting event as appraised, and the individual's action repertoire. Those actions from one's repertoire are performed that both match the perceived affordances and the aim of the state of action readiness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential reconstructed gene interaction networks for deriving toxicity threshold in chemical risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi; Maxwell, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Nan; Perkins, Edward J; Zhang, Chaoyang; Gong, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathway alterations reflected as changes in gene expression regulation and gene interaction can result from cellular exposure to toxicants. Such information is often used to elucidate toxicological modes of action. From a risk assessment perspective, alterations in biological pathways are a rich resource for setting toxicant thresholds, which may be more sensitive and mechanism-informed than traditional toxicity endpoints. Here we developed a novel differential networks (DNs) appro...

  17. Bioreducible liposomes for gene delivery: from the formulation to the mechanism of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Candiani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A promising strategy to create stimuli-responsive gene delivery systems is to exploit the redox gradient between the oxidizing extracellular milieu and the reducing cytoplasm in order to disassemble DNA/cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes. On these premises, we previously described the synthesis of SS14 redox-sensitive gemini surfactant for gene delivery. Although others have attributed the beneficial effects of intracellular reducing environment to reduced glutathione (GSH, these observations cannot rule out the possible implication of the redox milieu in its whole on transfection efficiency of bioreducible transfectants leaving the determinants of DNA release largely undefined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of addressing this issue, SS14 was here formulated into binary and ternary 100 nm-extruded liposomes and the effects of the helper lipid composition and of the SS14/helper lipids molar ratio on chemical-physical and structural parameters defining transfection effectiveness were investigated. Among all formulations tested, DOPC/DOPE/SS14 at 25:50:25 molar ratio was the most effective in transfection studies owing to the presence of dioleoyl chains and phosphatidylethanolamine head groups in co-lipids. The increase in SS14 content up to 50% along DOPC/DOPE/SS14 liposome series yielded enhanced transfection, up to 2.7-fold higher than that of the benchmark Lipofectamine 2000, without altering cytotoxicity of the corresponding lipoplexes at charge ratio 5. Secondly, we specifically investigated the redox-dependent mechanisms of gene delivery into cells through tailored protocols of transfection in GSH-depleted and repleted vs. increased oxidative stress conditions. Importantly, GSH specifically induced DNA release in batch and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of helper lipids carrying unsaturated dioleoyl chains and phosphatidylethanolamine head groups significantly improved transfection efficiencies

  18. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim...... of the study was to assess the clinical significance of genetic variants in butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients with a suspected prolonged duration of action of succinylcholine after ECT....

  19. Cell cycle and anti-estrogen effects synergize to regulate cell proliferation and ER target gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Dalvai

    Full Text Available Antiestrogens are designed to antagonize hormone induced proliferation and ERalpha target gene expression in mammary tumor cells. Commonly used drugs such as OH-Tamoxifen and ICI 182780 (Fulvestrant block cell cycle progression in G0/G1. Inversely, the effect of cell cycle stage on ER regulated gene expression has not been tested directly. We show that in ERalpha-positive breast cancer cells (MCF-7 the estrogen receptor gene and downstream target genes are cell cycle regulated with expression levels varying as much as three-fold between phases of the cell cycle. Steroid free culture conditions commonly used to assess the effect of hormones or antiestrogens on gene expression also block MCF-7 cells in G1-phase when several ERalpha target genes are overexpressed. Thus, cell cycle effects have to be taken into account when analyzing the impact of hormonal treatments on gene transcription. We found that antiestrogens repress transcription of several ERalpha target genes specifically in S phase. This observation corroborates the more rapid and strong impact of antiestrogen treatments on cell proliferation in thymidine, hydroxyurea or aphidicolin arrested cells and correlates with an increase of apoptosis compared to similar treatments in lovastatin or nocodazol treated cells. Hence, cell cycle effects synergize with the action of antiestrogens. An interesting therapeutic perspective could be to enhance the action of anti-estrogens by associating hormone-therapy with specific cell cycle drugs.

  20. Transport and transformation of genetic information in the critical zone: The case of antibiotic resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to material and energy flows, the dynamics and functions of the Earth's critical zone are intensively mediated by biological actions performed by diverse organisms. These biological actions are modulated by the expression of functional genes and their translation into enzymes that catalyze geochemical reactions, such as nutrient turnover and pollutant biodegradation. Although geobiology, as an interdisciplinary research area, is playing and vital role in linking biological and geochemical processes at different temporal and spatial scales, the distribution and transport of functional genes have rarely been investigated from the Earth's critical zone perspectives. To illustrate the framework of studies on the transport and transformation of genetic information in the critical zone, antibiotic resistance is taken as an example. Antibiotic resistance genes are considered as a group of emerging contaminants, and their emergence and spread within the critical zone on one hand are induced by anthropogenic activities, and on other hand are threatening human health worldwide. The transport and transformation of antibiotic resistance genes are controlled by both horizontal gene transfer between bacterial cells and the movement of bacteria harboring antibiotic resistance genes. In this paper, the fate and behavior of antibiotic resistance genes will be discussed in the following aspects: 1) general overview of environmental antibiotic resistance; 2) high through quantification of the resistome in various environmental media; 3) pathways of resistance gene flow within the critical zone; and 4) potential strategies in mitigating antibiotic resistance, particularly from the critical zone perspectives.

  1. Freedom and enforcement in action a study in formal action theory

    CERN Document Server

    Czelakowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Action theory is the object of growing attention in a variety of scientific disciplines, and this is the first volume to offer a synthetic view of the range of approaches possible in the topic. The volume focuses on the nexus of formal action theory with a startlingly diverse set of subjects, which range from logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and automata theory to jurisprudence, deontology, and economics. It covers semantic, mathematical and logical aspects of action, showing how the problem of action breaks the boundaries of traditional branches of logic located in syntactics and semantics and now lies on lies on the borderline between logical pragmatics and praxeology.   The chapters here focus on specialized tasks in formal action theory, beginning with a thorough description and formalization of the language of action, and moving through material on the differing models of action theory to focus on probabilistic models, the relations of formal action theory to deontic logic, and its key appl...

  2. Female choice for male cuticular hydrocarbon profile in decorated crickets is not based on similarity to their own profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, S; Capodeanu-Nägler, A; Gershman, S N; Weddle, C B; Rapkin, J; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2015-12-01

    Indirect genetic benefits derived from female mate choice comprise additive (good genes) and nonadditive genetic benefits (genetic compatibility). Although good genes can be revealed by condition-dependent display traits, the mechanism by which compatibility alleles are detected is unclear because evaluation of the genetic similarity of a prospective mate requires the female to assess the genotype of the male and compare it to her own. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), lipids coating the exoskeleton of most insects, influence female mate choice in a number of species and offer a way for females to assess genetic similarity of prospective mates. Here, we determine whether female mate choice in decorated crickets is based on male CHCs and whether it is influenced by females' own CHC profiles. We used multivariate selection analysis to estimate the strength and form of selection acting on male CHCs through female mate choice, and employed different measures of multivariate dissimilarity to determine whether a female's preference for male CHCs is based on similarity to her own CHC profile. Female mating preferences were significantly influenced by CHC profiles of males. Male CHC attractiveness was not, however, contingent on the CHC profile of the choosing female, as certain male CHC phenotypes were equally attractive to most females, evidenced by significant linear and stabilizing selection gradients. These results suggest that additive genetic benefits, rather than nonadditive genetic benefits, accrue to female mate choice, in support of earlier work showing that CHC expression of males, but not females, is condition dependent. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Theory on the mechanism of distal action of transcription factors: looping of DNA versus tracking along DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugan, R, E-mail: rmurugan@gmail.co [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we develop a theory on the mechanism of distal action of the transcription factors, which are bound at their respective cis-regulatory enhancer modules on the promoter-RNA polymerase II (PR) complexes to initiate the transcription event in eukaryotes. We consider both the looping and tracking modes of their distal communication and calculate the mean first passage time that is required for the distal interactions of the complex of enhancer and transcription factor with the PR via both these modes. We further investigate how this mean first passage time is dependent on the length of the DNA segment (L, base-pairs) that connects the cis-regulatory binding site and the respective promoter. When the radius of curvature of this connecting segment of DNA is R that was induced upon binding of the transcription factor at the cis-acting element and RNAPII at the promoter in cis-positions, our calculations indicate that the looping mode of distal action will dominate when L is such that L > 2{pi}R and the tracking mode of distal action will be favored when L < 2{pi}R. The time required for the distal action will be minimum when L = 2{pi}R where the typical value of R for the binding of histones will be R {approx} 16 bps and L {approx} 10{sup 2} bps. It seems that the free energy associated with the binding of the transcription factor with its cis-acting element and the distance of this cis-acting element from the corresponding promoter of the gene of interest is negatively correlated. Our results suggest that the looping and tracking modes of distal action are concurrently operating on the transcription activation and the physics that determines the timescales associated with the looping/tracking in the mechanism of action of these transcription factors on the initiation of the transcription event must put a selection pressure on the distribution of the distances of cis-regulatory modules from their respective promoters of the genes. The computational analysis

  4. Learning about goals : development of action perception and action control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, Stephan Alexander

    2014-01-01

    By using innovative paradigms, the present thesis provides convincing evidence that action-effect learning, and sensorimotor processes in general play a crucial role in the development of action- perception and production in infancy. This finding was further generalized to sequential action.

  5. Variations in testosterone pathway genes and susceptibility to testicular cancer in Norwegian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, W; Aschim, E L; Andersen, J M; Witczak, O; Fosså, S D; Haugen, T B

    2012-12-01

    Imbalance between the oestrogen and androgen levels in utero is hypothesized to influence testicular cancer (TC) risk. Thus, variation in genes involved in the action of sex hormones may contribute to variability of an individual's susceptibility to TC. Mutations in testosterone pathway genes may alter the level of testosterone in vivo and hypothetically the risk of developing TC. Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), 5α-reductase II (SRD5A2) and androgen receptor (AR) are key elements in androgen action. A case-control study comprising 651 TC cases and 313 controls in a Norwegian population was conducted for investigation of polymorphisms in the LHR, SRD5A and AR genes and their possible association with TC. A statistical significant difference was observed in patients being heterozygous for the LHR Asn312Ser polymorphism when comparing genotypes between all TC cases and controls (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.48-0.89, p(adj) = 0.049). No statistically significant difference between the histological subtypes seminoma and non-seminoma was observed. Our results may suggest a possible association between genetic variation in the LHR gene and the risk of developing TC. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions

  8. Creativity as action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter......, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not “inside” individual creators but “in...

  9. Genome-wide identification of KANADI1 target genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Merelo

    Full Text Available Plant organ development and polarity establishment is mediated by the action of several transcription factors. Among these, the KANADI (KAN subclade of the GARP protein family plays important roles in polarity-associated processes during embryo, shoot and root patterning. In this study, we have identified a set of potential direct target genes of KAN1 through a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation/DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq and genome-wide transcriptional profiling using tiling arrays. Target genes are over-represented for genes involved in the regulation of organ development as well as in the response to auxin. KAN1 affects directly the expression of several genes previously shown to be important in the establishment of polarity during lateral organ and vascular tissue development. We also show that KAN1 controls through its target genes auxin effects on organ development at different levels: transport and its regulation, and signaling. In addition, KAN1 regulates genes involved in the response to abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinins and gibberellins. The role of KAN1 in organ polarity is antagonized by HD-ZIPIII transcription factors, including REVOLUTA (REV. A comparison of their target genes reveals that the REV/KAN1 module acts in organ patterning through opposite regulation of shared targets. Evidence of mutual repression between closely related family members is also shown.

  10. Theory on the mechanism of distal action of transcription factors: looping of DNA versus tracking along DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a theory on the mechanism of distal action of the transcription factors, which are bound at their respective cis-regulatory enhancer modules on the promoter-RNA polymerase II (PR) complexes to initiate the transcription event in eukaryotes. We consider both the looping and tracking modes of their distal communication and calculate the mean first passage time that is required for the distal interactions of the complex of enhancer and transcription factor with the PR via both these modes. We further investigate how this mean first passage time is dependent on the length of the DNA segment (L, base-pairs) that connects the cis-regulatory binding site and the respective promoter. When the radius of curvature of this connecting segment of DNA is R that was induced upon binding of the transcription factor at the cis-acting element and RNAPII at the promoter in cis-positions, our calculations indicate that the looping mode of distal action will dominate when L is such that L > 2πR and the tracking mode of distal action will be favored when L 2 bps. It seems that the free energy associated with the binding of the transcription factor with its cis-acting element and the distance of this cis-acting element from the corresponding promoter of the gene of interest is negatively correlated. Our results suggest that the looping and tracking modes of distal action are concurrently operating on the transcription activation and the physics that determines the timescales associated with the looping/tracking in the mechanism of action of these transcription factors on the initiation of the transcription event must put a selection pressure on the distribution of the distances of cis-regulatory modules from their respective promoters of the genes. The computational analysis of the upstream sequences of promoters of various genes in the human and mouse genomes for the presence of putative cis-regulatory elements for a set of known transcription factors using

  11. Two seven-transmembrane domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O proteins cofunction in Arabidopsis root thigmomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M

    2009-07-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane-localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gbeta subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism.

  12. Two Seven-Transmembrane Domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O Proteins Cofunction in Arabidopsis Root Thigmomorphogenesis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H. Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane–localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gβ subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism. PMID:19602625

  13. Estimates of Combining Ability and Heterosis for Yield and Its Related Traits in Pearl Millet Inbred Lines under Downy Mildew Prevalent Areas of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Kanfany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is an important cereal crop for smallholder farmers’ food security in West and Central Africa. However, its production has stagnated due to several factors such as the continuous use of local populations. A set of 17 inbred lines was crossed with Sosat C 88 and Souna 3 following a line × tester mating design. The F1 hybrids, their parents, and a check were evaluated in Bambey and Nioro research stations during the rainy season of 2017. Data on downy mildew incidence, plant height, flowering time, panicle length and diameter, productive tillers, thousand-grain weight, panicle, and grain yield were recorded. GCA and SCA mean squares were significant for most of the traits indicating that both additive and nonadditive gene effects were involved in the control of the inheritance of these traits. However, the contribution of GCA to total mean squares was higher than that of SCA for all the traits, providing that additive gene action was more important in their inheritance. The top-cross hybrid IBL155-2-1 × Sosat C 88 exhibited negative and significant SCA effects for downy mildew incidence, flowering time, and plant height. Lines IBL003-B-1, IBL091-1-1, IBL095-4-1, IBL110-B-1, and IBL 206-1-1 had positive GCA effects for grain yield and negative GCA effects for downy mildew, flowering time, and plant height. These lines can be used as parents to create synthetic varieties or hybrids.

  14. The effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the effective action in quantum field theory was introduced into physics by Julian Schwinger in 1954. The effective action summarizes, in a single functional, all the quantum properties of the fields under consideration. The functional derivative of the effective action yields the effective field equations, which replace the classical field equations as descriptors of the dynamical behavior of quantized fields. Solutions of these equations are 'in-out' matrix elements of the field operators and, when substituted back into the effective action itself, yield logarithms of the corresponding 'in-out' amplitudes. The classical field equations are gauge covariant, a fact that derives from the gauge invariance of the classical action. One has learned how to construct effective actions that are similarly gauge invariant (in each order of perturbation theory) and that yield effective field equations having the covariance properties of their classical analogs. Despite this advance, problems remain, stemming from the fact that there is not one but an infinite number of gauge invariant effective actions, one for every background-covariant choice of supplementary conditions and ghost fields. Vilkovisky (1984) has argued persuasively that by requiring additionally that the effective action be invariant under local invertible changes in the choice of basic field variables, one can construct a natural unique gauge invariant effective action. This lecture will examine Vilkovisky's ideas. 3 refs

  15. Fungicidal activity of peptides encoded by immunoglobulin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Sperind?, Martina; Giovati, Laura; D?Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from previous works disclosed the antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-tumour and/or immunomodulatory activity exerted, through different mechanisms of action, by peptides expressed in the complementarity-determining regions or even in the constant region of antibodies, independently from their specificity and isotype. Presently, we report the selection, from available databases, of peptide sequences encoded by immunoglobulin genes for the evaluation of their potential biological activitie...

  16. Health Effects of Bioactive Components in Plant Foods; Results and Opinion of the EU-COST926 Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Piskula, M.; Bovy, Arnaud; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the main results of EU-action: “COST 926: Impact of new technologies on the health benefits and safety of bioactive plant compounds”. The bioavailability and the effects on gene expression of various bioactive components in plant foods are described in relation with their

  17. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia

    2010-01-01

    and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples...... the direct approach. It also has low power in detecting non-additive effect genes. Indirect genetic association using offspring from families with both parents as nonagenarians is nearly as powerful as using offspring from families with one centenarian parent. In conclusion, the indirect design can be a good......Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct...

  18. Channel sialic acids limit hERG channel activity during the ventricular action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norring, Sarah A; Ednie, Andrew R; Schwetz, Tara A; Du, Dongping; Yang, Hui; Bennett, Eric S

    2013-02-01

    Activity of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) 1 voltage-gated K(+) channels is responsible for portions of phase 2 and phase 3 repolarization of the human ventricular action potential. Here, we questioned whether and how physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in surface N-glycosylation modified hERG channel function. Voltage-dependent hERG channel gating and activity were evaluated as expressed in a set of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines under conditions of full glycosylation, no sialylation, no complex N-glycans, and following enzymatic deglycosylation of surface N-glycans. For each condition of reduced glycosylation, hERG channel steady-state activation and inactivation relationships were shifted linearly by significant depolarizing ∼9 and ∼18 mV, respectively. The hERG window current increased significantly by 50-150%, and the peak shifted by a depolarizing ∼10 mV. There was no significant change in maximum hERG current density. Deglycosylated channels were significantly more active (20-80%) than glycosylated controls during phases 2 and 3 of action potential clamp protocols. Simulations of hERG current and ventricular action potentials corroborated experimental data and predicted reduced sialylation leads to a 50-70-ms decrease in action potential duration. The data describe a novel mechanism by which hERG channel gating is modulated through physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in N-glycosylation; reduced channel sialylation increases hERG channel activity during the action potential, thereby increasing the rate of action potential repolarization.

  19. Experiencing Action Evaluation's Cyclic Process: Partnering Conflict, Reflection, and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe experiences in and offer suggestions from a course entitled "Educational Innovation for Excellence Through Action Research, Conflict Resolution, and Organizational Learning"--an action evaluation (AE). The class was taught using the principles of action research and AE. The authors explore the impact…

  20. The action of hyperthermia on gene expression in Friend erythroleukemia cells by dimethyl sulfoxide or X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.; Einspenner, M.; Ewing, D.; Borsa, J.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of heat on gene control and on cell killing by X-rays or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied in cultured Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC). FELC are very sensitive to heat and X-rays in terms of survival, as measured by the colony-forming assay. Heat inactivation kinetics are similar for FELC and Chinese hamster cells. Thermal enhancement of cell inactivation by irradiation was observed at 42.0 and 45.0deg C, and increased as a function of heating time. The simultaneous application of heat and X-rays had a greater effect in terms of cell inactivation. Dimethyl sulfoxide could induce FELC to synthesize hemoglobin, and hyperthermia could inhibit this response. Likewise, hyperthermia could affect induction of heme synthesis by irradiation. Heating before irradiation enhanced production of heme synthesis, whereas heating after irradiation inhibited induction of heme synthesis. The effects of hyperthermia on the survival and gene induction endpoints were compared. Thus, heat can affect both cell survival and gene induction by irradiation or DMSO. The two endpoints of gene induction and survival (proliferative capacity) responded differently, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to heat and X-rays, implying that different cellular targets are affected for each of these endpoints

  1. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  2. Comparative effects of DHEA and DHT on gene expression in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Vernon E; Arnold, Julia T; Lei, Hanh; Izmirlian, Grant; Blackman, Marc R

    2006-01-01

    DHEA is widely used as a dietary supplement in older men. Because DHEA can be converted to androgens or estrogens, such use may promote prostate cancer. In this study, the effects of DHEA were compared with those of DHT using gene expression array profiles in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. LNCaP cells were exposed to DHEA (300 nM), DHT (300 nM), or vehicle for 48 h, and mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix HU-95 gene chips. Gene expression values were sorted in ascending order on the p-values corresponding to the extent of differential RNA expression between control and either hormone treatment. S100 calcium binding protein, neurotensin, 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase, and anterior-gradient 2 homologue were the four most differentially expressed genes (p-values all DHT treatment (p DHT were used for pathway analysis. DHT decreased expression of more genes involved in intercellular communication, signal transduction, nucleic acid binding and transport, and in structural components, such as myosin and golgin, than DHEA. These data revealed consistent, measurable changes in gene expression patterns following treatment of LNCaP prostate cancer cells with DHEA and DHT. Understanding the mechanisms of DHEA versus DHT actions in the prostate may help clarify the separate and interactive effects of androgenic and estrogenic actions in prostate cancer progression.

  3. BK channels regulate spontaneous action potential rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian ( approximately 24 hr rhythms are generated by the central pacemaker localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Although the basis for intrinsic rhythmicity is generally understood to rely on transcription factors encoded by "clock genes", less is known about the daily regulation of SCN neuronal activity patterns that communicate a circadian time signal to downstream behaviors and physiological systems. Action potentials in the SCN are necessary for the circadian timing of behavior, and individual SCN neurons modulate their spontaneous firing rate (SFR over the daily cycle, suggesting that the circadian patterning of neuronal activity is necessary for normal behavioral rhythm expression. The BK K(+ channel plays an important role in suppressing spontaneous firing at night in SCN neurons. Deletion of the Kcnma1 gene, encoding the BK channel, causes degradation of circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that loss of robust behavioral rhythmicity in Kcnma1(-/- mice is due to the disruption of SFR rhythms in the SCN, we used multi-electrode arrays to record extracellular action potentials from acute wild-type (WT and Kcnma1(-/- slices. Patterns of activity in the SCN were tracked simultaneously for up to 3 days, and the phase, period, and synchronization of SFR rhythms were examined. Loss of BK channels increased arrhythmicity but also altered the amplitude and period of rhythmic activity. Unexpectedly, Kcnma1(-/- SCNs showed increased variability in the timing of the daily SFR peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BK channels regulate multiple aspects of the circadian patterning of neuronal activity in the SCN. In addition, these data illustrate the characteristics of a disrupted SCN rhythm downstream of clock gene-mediated timekeeping and its relationship to behavioral rhythms.

  4. Willed action, free will, and the stochastic neurodynamics of decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eRolls

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the randomness of the firing times of neurons in decision-making attractor neuronal networks that is present before the decision cues are applied can cause statistical fluctuations that influence the decision that will be taken. In this rigorous sense, it is possible to partially predict decisions before they are made. This raises issues about free will and determinism. There are many decision-making networks in the brain. Some decision systems operate to choose between gene-specified rewards such as taste, touch, and beauty (in for example the peacock’s tail. Other processes capable of planning ahead with multiple steps held in working memory may require correction by higher order thoughts that may involve explicit, conscious, processing. The explicit system can allow the gene-specified rewards not to be selected or deferred. The decisions between the selfish gene-specified rewards, and the explicitly calculated rewards that are in the interests of the individual, the phenotype, may themselves be influenced by noise in the brain. When the explicit planning system does take the decision, it can report on its decision-making, and can provide a causal account rather than a confabulation about the decision process. We might use the terms ‘willed action’ and ‘free will’ to refer to the operation of the planning system that can think ahead over several steps held in working memory with which it can take explicit decisions. Reduced connectivity in some of the default mode cortical regions including the precuneus that are active during self-initiated action appears to be related to the reduction in the sense of self and agency, of causing willed actions, that can be present in schizophrenia.

  5. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W; Balleine, Bernard W

    2014-11-05

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Multimodal responsive action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    ; Raymond 2003; Schegloff and Lerner 2009), including those with multimodal actions (e.g. Olsher 2004; Fasulo & Monzoni 2009). Some responsive actions can also be completed with bodily behavior alone, such as: when an agreement display is achieved by using only nonvocal actions (Jarmon 1996), when...... the recipient’s gaze shift becomes a significant part of the speaker’s turn construction (Goodwin 1980), and when head nods show the recipient’s affiliation with the speaker’s stance (Stivers 2008). Still, much room remains for extending our current understanding of responding actions that necessarily involve...... a hairstylist and a client negotiate the quality of the service that has been provided. Here, the first action is usually the stylist’s question and/or explanation of the new cut that invites the client’s assessment/(dis)agreement, accompanied with embodied actions that project an imminent self...

  7. Long non-coding RNAs: Mechanism of action and functional utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahmad Bhat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent RNA sequencing studies have revealed that most of the human genome is transcribed, but very little of the total transcriptomes has the ability to encode proteins. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are non-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Members of the non-coding genome include microRNA (miRNA, small regulatory RNAs and other short RNAs. Most of long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs are poorly annotated. Recent recognition about lncRNAs highlights their effects in many biological and pathological processes. LncRNAs are dysfunctional in a variety of human diseases varying from cancerous to non-cancerous diseases. Characterization of these lncRNA genes and their modes of action may allow their use for diagnosis, monitoring of progression and targeted therapies in various diseases. In this review, we summarize the functional perspectives as well as the mechanism of action of lncRNAs. Keywords: LncRNA, X-chromosome inactivation, Genome imprinting, Transcription regulation, Cancer, Immunity

  8. The toxic effects of flame retardants: a gene expression study in elucidating their carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagula, Mary; Al-Dhumani, Ali; Al-Dhumani, Sajaad; Mastro, Alexandra

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants widely used in many commercial products, including building materials, electronics, furnishings, motor vehicles, airplanes, plastics, polyurethane foams, and textiles. Although the specific toxic action of these chemicals is not clear, it is reported that they can cause serious damage to the nervous, reproductive, and endocrine systems. These chemicals are branded as "probable carcinogens" by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Therefore, this study is taken up to investigate the expression of genes namely, TP-53, RAD1, CRADD, and ATM, which are involved in apoptosis, DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. For this study human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are exposed to 5 μM of BDE-85 (a penta-BDE) and BDE-209 (deca-BDE). The results of this report reveal significant alteration in all the genes under investigation in BDE-85 and BDE-209 exposed cells. The BDE-85 induced responses are significantly more than BDE-209. These results emphasize the congener specific action of PBDEs on the expression of genes relevant to DNA repair and cell division of HUVEC cells.

  9. Inferring Action Structure and Causal Relationships in Continuous Sequences of Human Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and MySQL . However, all participants participated from in-lab computers. Results Figure 6 shows the distribution of participants’ raw key presses... Java program to present video of action sequences and collect ratings. The program presented all 12 actions, non-actions, and part-actions

  10. RCRA corrective action determination of no further action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    On July 27, 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a regulatory framework (55 FR 30798) for responding to releases of hazardous waste and hazardous constituents from solid waste management units (SWMUs) at facilities seeking permits or permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The proposed rule, 'Corrective Action for Solid Waste Management Units at Hazardous Waste Facilities', would create a new Subpart S under the 40 CFR 264 regulations, and outlines requirements for conducting RCRA Facility Investigations, evaluating potential remedies, and selecting and implementing remedies (i.e., corrective measures) at RCRA facilities. EPA anticipates instances where releases or suspected releases of hazardous wastes or constituents from SWMUs identified in a RCRA Facility Assessment, and subsequently addressed as part of required RCRA Facility Investigations, will be found to be non-existent or non-threatening to human health or the environment. Such releases may require no further action. For such situations, EPA proposed a mechanism for making a determination that no further corrective action is needed. This mechanism is known as a Determination of No Further Action (DNFA) (55 FR 30875). This information Brief describes what a DNFA is and discusses the mechanism for making a DNFA. This is one of a series of Information Briefs on RCRA corrective action

  11. A importância do gene p53 na carcinogênese humana The importance of the p53 gene in human carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes C. Fett-Conte

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Existem várias razões que justificam o título de "guardião do genoma" do gene P53. Seu envolvimento, direto ou indireto, tem sido observado na etiopatogenia de praticamente todas as neoplasias humanas, incluindo as leucemias e linfomas. Conhecer seus mecanismos de ação é fundamental para compreender os aspectos moleculares da carcinogênese. O presente trabalho apresenta uma revisão sobre as características deste gene e sua importância no diagnóstico, prognóstico e terapêutica, o que faz dele um alvo em potencial das estratégias de terapia gênica.There are several reasons which justify the name of 'guardian of the genome' given to the P53 gene. Its involvement either directly or indirectly has been observed in the pathology of practically all human neoplasias, including leukemia and lymphomas. Knowledge of its mechanisms of action is fundamental to understand molecular aspects of carcinogenesis. This work presents a revision of the characteristics of this gene and its importance in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment and why this makes it a potential target for gene therapy strategies.

  12. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) current inhibition selectively prolongs action potential of midmyocardial cells to augment transmural dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, C; Yasuda, S; Yamashita, H; Okada, J; Hisada, T; Sugiura, S

    2015-08-01

    The majority of drug induced arrhythmias are related to the prolongation of action potential duration following inhibition of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)) mediated by the hERG channel. However, for arrhythmias to develop and be sustained, not only the prolongation of action potential duration but also its transmural dispersion are required. Herein, we evaluated the effect of hERG inhibition on transmural dispersion of action potential duration using the action potential clamp technique that combined an in silico myocyte model with the actual I(Kr) measurement. Whole cell I(Kr) current was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the hERG channel. The measured current was coupled with models of ventricular endocardial, M-, and epicardial cells to calculate the action potentials. Action potentials were evaluated under control condition and in the presence of 1, 10, or 100 μM disopyramide, an hERG inhibitor. Disopyramide dose-dependently increased the action potential durations of the three cell types. However, action potential duration of M-cells increased disproportionately at higher doses, and was significantly different from that of epicardial and endocardial cells (dispersion of repolarization). By contrast, the effects of disopyramide on peak I(Kr) and instantaneous current-voltage relation were similar in all cell types. Simulation study suggested that the reduced repolarization reserve of M-cell with smaller amount of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current levels off at longer action potential duration to make such differences. The action potential clamp technique is useful for studying the mechanism of arrhythmogenesis by hERG inhibition through the transmural dispersion of repolarization.

  13. Regulation of gene expression by low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation in Pisum sativum: Isolation of novel genes by suppression subtractive hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sävenstrand, H.; Brosché, M.; Strid, A.

    2002-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate genes differentially regulated by low levels (UV-B BE,300 0.13 W m -2 ) of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 290–320 nm) in Pisum sativum. Six genes were regulated, two of which were novel. The mRNA levels for these two (PsTSDC and PsUOS1) were increased and depressed by UV-B treatment, respectively. Domains in the PsTSDC translation product was similar to TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor-similar) domains and a NB-ARC domain (nucleotide-binding domain in APAF-1, R gene products and CED-4). The PsUOS1 translation product was similar to an open reading frame in Arabidopsis. Genes encoding embryo-abundant protein (PsEMB) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase (PsSAMS) were induced by UV-B, whereas the transcript levels for genes encoding sucrose transport protein (PsSUT) or ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (PsR5P3E) were decreased. These regulation patterns are novel, and the PsEMB and PsR5P3E sequences are reported for the first time. The stress-specificity of regulation of these genes were tested by ozone fumigation (100 ppb O 3 ). Qualitatively, the similarity of expression after both UV-B and ozone exposure suggests that, for these genes, similar stress-response pathways are in action. (author)

  14. Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao Huang; Weiqiang Wang; Shengfeng He; Lau, Rynson W H

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for localizing all action events in the input video. To this end, we first propose to temporally segment the input video into action atoms, which are the smallest units that may contain an action. We then apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm with several egocentric cues to generate TAPs. Finally, we propose two actionness networks to score the likelihood of each TAP containing an action. The top ranked candidates are returned as output TAPs. Experimental results show that the proposed TAP detection framework performs significantly better than relevant approaches for egocentric action detection.

  15. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....... They are generated jointly by the stakeholders of a system and the involved action researchers and are tested every time that the prescriptions for action contained in them are followed by a system's stakeholders....

  16. A novel transcriptomics based in vitro method to compare and predict hepatotoxicity based on mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Abrew, K. Nadira; Overmann, Gary J.; Adams, Rachel L.; Tiesman, Jay P.; Dunavent, John; Shan, Yuqing K.; Carr, Gregory J.; Daston, George P.; Naciff, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    High-content data have the potential to inform mechanism of action for toxicants. However, most data to support this notion have been generated in vivo. Because many cell lines and primary cells maintain a differentiated cell phenotype, it is possible that cells grown in culture may also be useful in predictive toxicology via high-content approaches such as whole-genome microarray. We evaluated global changes in gene expression in primary rat hepatocytes exposed to two concentrations of ten hepatotoxicants: acetaminophen (APAP), β-naphthoflavone (BNF), chlorpromazine (CPZ), clofibrate (CLO), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), methapyrilene (MP), valproic acid (VPA), phenobarbital (PB) and WY14643 at two separate time points. These compounds were selected to cover a range of mechanisms of toxicity, with some overlap in expected mechanism to address the question of how predictive gene expression analysis is, for a given mode of action. Gene expression microarray analysis was performed on cells after 24 h and 48 h of exposure to each chemical using Affymetrix microarrays. Cluster analysis suggests that the primary hepatocyte model was capable of responding to these hepatotoxicants, with changes in gene expression that appear to be mode of action-specific. Among the different methods used for analysis of the data, a combination method that used pathways (MOAs) to filter total probesets provided the most robust analysis. The analysis resulted in the phthalates clustering closely together, with the two other peroxisome proliferators, CLO and WY14643, eliciting similar responses at the whole-genome and pathway levels. The Cyp inducers PB, MP, CPZ and BNF also clustered together. VPA and APAP had profiles that were unique. A similar analysis was performed on externally available (TG-GATES) in vivo data for 6 of the chemicals (APAP, CLO, CPZ, MP, MP and WY14643) and compared to the in vitro result. These results indicate that transcription

  17. Genome-wide misexpression of X-linked versus autosomal genes associated with hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuemei; Shapiro, Joshua A; Ting, Chau-Ti; Li, Yan; Li, Chunyan; Xu, Jin; Huang, Huanwei; Cheng, Ya-Jen; Greenberg, Anthony J; Li, Shou-Hsien; Wu, Mao-Lien; Shen, Yang; Wu, Chung-I

    2010-08-01

    Postmating reproductive isolation is often manifested as hybrid male sterility, for which X-linked genes are overrepresented (the so-called large X effect). In contrast, X-linked genes are significantly under-represented among testis-expressing genes. This seeming contradiction may be germane to the X:autosome imbalance hypothesis on hybrid sterility, in which the X-linked effect is mediated mainly through the misexpression of autosomal genes. In this study, we compared gene expression in fertile and sterile males in the hybrids between two Drosophila species. These hybrid males differ only in a small region of the X chromosome containing the Ods-site homeobox (OdsH) (also known as Odysseus) locus of hybrid sterility. Of genes expressed in the testis, autosomal genes were, indeed, more likely to be misexpressed than X-linked genes under the sterilizing action of OdsH. Since this mechanism of X:autosome interaction is only associated with spermatogenesis, a connection between X:autosome imbalance and the high rate of hybrid male sterility seems plausible.

  18. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific Zinc Finger Nucleases: Usability for targeted HIV gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively. However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. Methods and Results First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol and (b two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN. Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN. Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of

  19. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific zinc finger nucleases: usability for targeted HIV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayengera, Misaki

    2011-07-22

    Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases) AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively). However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX) at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i) to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN) with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii) to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV) that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a) 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif) arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol) and (b) two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN). Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN). Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs) that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively) is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of the safety and efficacy of either of these

  20. Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    is therefore limited. The clinical use of verapamil in cluster headache is reviewed and several relevant drug interactions are mentioned. Finally, its possible mode of action in cluster headache is discussed. The effect of verapamil in cluster headache most likely takes place in the hypothalamus......Verapamil is used mainly in cardiovascular diseases. High-dose verapamil (360-720 mg) is, however, currently the mainstay in the prophylactic treatment of cluster headache. The oral pharmacokinetics are variable. The pharmacodynamic effect of verapamil, the effect on blood pressure, also varies.......Verapamil is an L-type calcium channel blocker but it is also a blocker of other calcium channels (T-, P-, and possibly N- and Q-type Ca(2+) channels) and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channel. With so many different actions of verapamil, it is impossible at the present time to single out a certain...

  1. Emotions and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Frijda, N.H.; Fischer, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationships between emotion and action. Emotion, by its very nature, is change in action readiness to maintain or change one's relationship to an object or event. Motivation, or motivational change, is one of the key aspects of emotions. Even so, action follows only

  2. Developmental and Functional Expression of miRNA-Stability Related Genes in the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, ?rica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Ot?vio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We fi...

  3. Subtype-specific promoter-driven action potential imaging for precise disease modelling and drug testing in hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhifen; Xian, Wenying; Bellin, Milena; Dorn, Tatjana; Tian, Qinghai; Goedel, Alexander; Dreizehnter, Lisa; Schneider, Christine M.; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Ng, Judy King Man; Hinkel, Rabea; Pane, Luna Simona; Mummery, Christine L.; Lipp, Peter; Moretti, Alessandra; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Sinnecker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiomyocytes (CMs) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are increasingly used in disease modelling and drug evaluation. However, they are typically a heterogeneous mix of ventricular-, atrial-, and nodal-like cells based on action potentials (APs) and gene expression.

  4. Genetic and nongenetic determinants of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 messenger ribonucleic acid levels and insulin action in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Poulsen, Pernille; Ling, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    -stimulated expressions of GLUT4 were independently and significantly related to whole-body in vivo insulin action, nonoxidative glucose metabolism, and glucose oxidation. CONCLUSION: We show that skeletal muscle GLUT4 gene expression in twins is significantly and independently related to glucose metabolism...

  5. Genome-wide screening for genes whose deletions confer sensitivity to mutagenic purine base analogs in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozmin Stanislav G

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-hydroxylated base analogs, such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP and 2-amino-6-hydroxylaminopurine (AHA, are strong mutagens in various organisms due to their ambiguous base-pairing properties. The systems protecting cells from HAP and related noncanonical purines in Escherichia coli include specialized deoxyribonucleoside triphosphatase RdgB, DNA repair endonuclease V, and a molybdenum cofactor-dependent system. Fewer HAP-detoxification systems have been identified in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Cellular systems protecting from AHA are unknown. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide search for genes whose deletions confer sensitivity to HAP and AHA in yeast. Results We screened the library of yeast deletion mutants for sensitivity to the toxic and mutagenic action of HAP and AHA. We identified novel genes involved in the genetic control of base analogs sensitivity, including genes controlling purine metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, and amino acid metabolism. Conclusion We developed a method for screening the yeast deletion library for sensitivity to the mutagenic and toxic action of base analogs and identified 16 novel genes controlling pathways of protection from HAP. Three of them also protect from AHA.

  6. Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene Variation Predicts Preschoolers' Developing Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Christine; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Hallinan, Elizabeth; Liu, Xudong; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in preschoolers' understanding that human action is caused by internal mental states, or representational theory of mind (RTM), are heritable, as are developmental disorders such as autism in which RTM is particularly impaired. We investigated whether polymorphisms of genes affecting dopamine (DA) utilization and metabolism…

  7. Linear non-additive set-functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Mesiar, Radko; Ralescu, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2004), s. 89-98 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : aumann integral * Choquet integral * fuzzy measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2004

  8. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Tamar; Prizak, Roshan; Guet, Calin; Barton, Nicholas H.; Tkacik, Gasper

    Gene activity is mediated by the specificity of binding interactions between special proteins, called transcription factors, and short regulatory sequences on the DNA, where different protein species preferentially bind different DNA targets. Limited interaction specificity may lead to crosstalk: a regulatory state in which a gene is either incorrectly activated due to spurious interactions or remains erroneously inactive. Since each protein can potentially interact with numerous DNA targets, crosstalk is inherently a global problem, yet has previously not been studied as such. We construct a theoretical framework to analyze the effects of global crosstalk on gene regulation, using statistical mechanics. We find that crosstalk in regulatory interactions puts fundamental limits on the reliability of gene regulation that are not easily mitigated by tuning proteins concentrations or by complex regulatory schemes proposed in the literature. Our results suggest that crosstalk imposes a previously unexplored global constraint on the functioning and evolution of regulatory networks, which is qualitatively distinct from the known constraints that act at the level of individual gene regulatory elements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant agreement Nr. 291734 (T.F.) and ERC Grant Nr. 250152 (N.B.).

  10. Response and binding elements for ligand-dependent positive transcription factors integrate positive and negative regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.G.; Glass, C.K.; Adler, S.; Crenshaw, E.B. III; He, X.; Lira, S.A.; Elsholtz, H.P.; Mangalam, H.J.; Holloway, J.M.; Nelson, C.; Albert, V.R.; Ingraham, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, regulated initiation of mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II is dependent on the actions of a variety of positive and negative trans-acting factors that bind cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements. These transcription factors may exert their actions in a tissue-specific manner or function under control of plasma membrane or intracellular ligand-dependent receptors. A major goal in the authors' laboratory has been to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the serial activation of hormone-encoding genes in the pituitary during development and the positive and negative regulation of their transcription. The anterior pituitary gland contains phenotypically distinct cell types, each of which expresses unique trophic hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. The structurally related prolactin and growth hormone genes are expressed in lactotrophs and somatotrophs, respectively, with their expression virtually limited to the pituitary gland. The reported transient coexpression of these two structurally related neuroendocrine genes raises the possibility that the prolactin and growth hormone genes are developmentally controlled by a common factor(s)

  11. Functional characterization of bursicon receptor and genome-wide analysis for identification of genes affected by bursicon receptor RNAi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba R.

    2010-01-01

    Bursicon is an insect neuropeptide hormone that is secreted from the central nervous system into the hemolymph and initiates cuticle tanning. The receptor for bursicon is encoded by the rickets (rk) gene and belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The bursicon and its receptor regulate cuticle tanning as well as wing expansion after adult eclosion. However, the molecular action of bursicon signaling remains unclear. We utilized RNA interference (RNAi) and microarray to study the function of the bursicon receptor (Tcrk) in the model insect, Tribolium castaneum. The data included here showed that in addition to cuticle tanning and wing expansion reported previously, Tcrk is also required for development and expansion of integumentary structures and adult eclosion. Using custom microarrays, we identified 24 genes that are differentially expressed between Tcrk RNAi and control insects. Knockdown in the expression of one of these genes, TC004091, resulted in the arrest of adult eclosion. Identification of genes that are involved in bursicon receptor mediated biological processes will provide tools for future studies on mechanisms of bursicon action. PMID:20457145

  12. Implication of the changing concept of genes on plant breeder’s work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio D. Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent genome sequencing of some species has accumulated evidence that for a large number of traits, thecontrol and action of genes are far more complex than previously thought. This article discusses possible implications of newinsights into the gene concept on the work of plant breeders. Apparently, the successful application of biotechnological techniques is not as simple as once assumed. The evident changes in the available concept of genes confirmed what the past experience had shown,i.e, selection should focus on the phenotype, under the same conditions as the plant is to be cultivated in. Advanced vocationaltraining of plant breeders must be continuously maintained, focusing on phenotype-based selection in as accurate as possibleexperiments.

  13. Multiple mutualist effects on genomewide expression in the tripartite association between Medicago truncatula, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Stinchcombe, John R

    2016-10-01

    While all species interact with multiple mutualists, the fitness consequences and molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain largely unknown. We combined factorial ecological experiments with genomewide expression analyses to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of model legume Medicago truncatula to rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. We found synergistic effects of these mutualists on plant performance and examined unique features of plant gene expression responses to multiple mutualists. There were genomewide signatures of mutualists and multiple mutualists on expression, with partners often affecting unique sets of genes. Mycorrhizal fungi had stronger effects on plant expression than rhizobia, with 70% of differentially expressed genes affected by fungi. Fungal and bacterial mutualists had joint effects on 10% of differentially expressed genes, including unexpected, nonadditive effects on some genes with important functions such as nutrient metabolism. For a subset of genes, interacting with multiple mutualists even led to reversals in the direction of expression (shifts from up to downregulation) compared to interacting with single mutualists. Rhizobia also affected the expression of several mycorrhizal genes, including those involved in nutrient transfer to host plants, indicating that partner species can also impact each other's molecular phenotypes. Collectively, these data illustrate the diverse molecular mechanisms and transcriptional responses associated with the synergistic benefits of multiple mutualists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Natural Product Osthole Attenuates Yeast Growth by Extensively Suppressing the Gene Expressions of Mitochondrial Respiration Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Shen, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The fast growing evidences have indicated that the natural product osthole is a promising drug candidate for fighting several serious human diseases, for example, cancer and inflammation. However, the mode-of-action (MoA) of osthole remains largely incomplete. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition activity of osthole using fission yeast as a model, with the goal of understanding the osthole's mechanism of action, especially from the molecular level. Microarray analysis indicated that osthole has significant impacts on gene transcription levels (In total, 214 genes are up-regulated, and 97 genes are down-regulated). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that 11 genes belong to the "Respiration module" category, especially including the components of complex III and V of mitochondrial respiration chain. Based on GSEA and network analysis, we also found that 54 up-regulated genes belong to the "Core Environmental Stress Responses" category, particularly including many transporter genes, which suggests that the rapidly activated nutrient exchange between cell and environment is part of the MoA of osthole. In summary, osthole can greatly impact on fission yeast transcriptome, and it primarily represses the expression levels of the genes in respiration chain, which next causes the inefficiency of ATP production and thus largely explains osthole's growth inhibition activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). The complexity of the osthole's MoA shown in previous studies and our current research demonstrates that the omics approach and bioinformatics tools should be applied together to acquire the complete landscape of osthole's growth inhibition activity.

  15. Gene expression profiles give insight into the molecular pathology of bone in primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppe, Sjur; Stilgren, Lis; Olstad, Ole K

    2006-01-01

    to bone and extra-cellular matrix, showed altered expression. Of these were 85 up- and 14 down-regulated before operation. The majority of regulated genes represented structural and adhesion proteins, but included also proteases and protease regulators which promote resorption. Increased expressions...... of collagen type 1 and osteocalcin mRNAs in disease reflecting the PTH anabolic action were paralleled by increased concentrations of these proteins in serum. In addition, genes encoding transcriptional factors and their regulators as well as cellular signal molecules were up-regulated during disease....... The identified genetic signature represents the first extensive description of the ensemble of bone and matrix related mRNAs, which are regulated by chronic PTH action. These results identify the molecular basis for this skeletal disease, and provide new insight into this clinical condition with potential...

  16. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  17. Candidate genes revealed by a genome scan for mosquito resistance to a bacterial insecticide: sequence and gene expression variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jean-Philippe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome scans are becoming an increasingly popular approach to study the genetic basis of adaptation and speciation, but on their own, they are often helpless at identifying the specific gene(s or mutation(s targeted by selection. This shortcoming is hopefully bound to disappear in the near future, thanks to the wealth of new genomic resources that are currently being developed for many species. In this article, we provide a foretaste of this exciting new era by conducting a genome scan in the mosquito Aedes aegypti with the aim to look for candidate genes involved in resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti insecticidal toxins. Results The genome of a Bti-resistant and a Bti-susceptible strains was surveyed using about 500 MITE-based molecular markers, and the loci showing the highest inter-strain genetic differentiation were sequenced and mapped on the Aedes aegypti genome sequence. Several good candidate genes for Bti-resistance were identified in the vicinity of these highly differentiated markers. Two of them, coding for a cadherin and a leucine aminopeptidase, were further examined at the sequence and gene expression levels. In the resistant strain, the cadherin gene displayed patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms consistent with the action of positive selection (e.g. an excess of high compared to intermediate frequency mutations, as well as a significant under-expression compared to the susceptible strain. Conclusion Both sequence and gene expression analyses agree to suggest a role for positive selection in the evolution of this cadherin gene in the resistant strain. However, it is unlikely that resistance to Bti is conferred by this gene alone, and further investigation will be needed to characterize other genes significantly associated with Bti resistance in Ae. aegypti. Beyond these results, this article illustrates how genome scans can build on the body of new genomic information (here, full

  18. Cross-species global and subset gene expression profiling identifies genes involved in prostate cancer response to selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhir Rajiv

    2004-08-01

    tissue microarrays to demonstrate a significant association between downregulated protein expression and tumorigenesis, a process that is the reverse of what is seen in the presence of Selenium. Conclusions Thus the outlined process demonstrates similar baseline and selenium induced gene expression profiles between rat and human prostate cancers, and provides a method for identifying testable functional pathways for the action of Selenium's chemopreventive properties in prostate cancer.

  19. No association between type 1 diabetes and genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Mortensen, Henrik B; Carstensen, Bendix

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D-receptor (VDR) gene and vitamin D metabolism genes have been associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). OBJECTIVE: We wanted to examine if the most widely studied SNPs in genes important for production, transport......, and action of vitamin D were associated with T1D or to circulating levels of vitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a juvenile Danish population. METHODS: We genotyped eight SNPs in five vitamin D metabolism genes in 1467 trios. 25(OH)D status were analyzed in 1803 children (907 patients and 896 siblings......). RESULTS: We did not demonstrate association with T1D for SNPs in the following genes: CYP27B1, VDR, GC, CYP2R1, DHCR7, and CYP24A1. Though, variants in the GC gene were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels in the joint model. CONCLUSION: Some of the most examined SNPs in vitamin D metabolism genes...

  20. Impulsive action and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,

  1. From entrepreneurial intentions to actions: Self-control and action-related doubt, fear, and aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderen, van Marco; Kautonen, Teemu; Fink, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on the Rubicon model of action phases to study the actions or lack of actions that follow the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Concurrently, it examines the roles of selfcontrol and action-related emotions in explaining the intention–action gap using longitudinal

  2. Negotiating action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    After years of working towards a climate accord, the Paris Agreement of 2015 marked the shift from negotiating to reach consensus on climate action to implementation of such action. The challenge now is to ensure transparency in the processes and identify the details of what is required.

  3. Myriad and the mass media: the covering of a gene patent controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Bubela, Tania; Murdoch, C J

    2007-12-01

    We explore how the print media in four jurisdictions framed the controversy surrounding Myriad Genetic's BRCA patents and consider the possible influence of media on public perceptions and policy reform. We used a broad search strategy to collect newspaper articles from Factiva and Lexis/Nexis on Myriad Genetics and the BRCA gene and identified the main triggers for those articles. We then selected articles on the BRCA gene patents for coding. The coding frame queried the presence or absence of either positive or negative statements about gene patenting and a subjective assessment of the tone of the article. We compared the differences in tone and number of positive and negative statements between jurisdictions (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States). Myriad Genetic's BRCA1/2 gene patents sparked significant international newspaper coverage in comparison to other stories on gene patenting controversies. Only 55.9% of 143 articles presented a variety of perspectives. The majority of articles (77.6%) had a negative overall tenor; only 6.29% had a positive overall tenor, whereas 16.1% were neutral. There were significant differences in the overall tenor between jurisdictions, with Canadian coverage being overwhelmingly negative in comparison with the other three jurisdictions. The main triggers for news coverage were largely local licensing deals, actions at regional patent offices, and statements and publications by prominent figures. Myriad's patents were largely portrayed as a negative story, except in Utah where Myriad Genetics is located, and as an example of the problems associated with gene patents. The story was primarily framed as a social dilemma that needed to be addressed. In Canada there was a disproportionate level of coverage of the political response to the threat of patent infringement action against government testing laboratories and potential impacts on public health care. In Europe and elsewhere in the United States, the opposition

  4. Joint effects of pesticides and ultraviolet-B radiation on amphibian larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shuangying; Wages, Mike; Willming, Morgan; Cobb, George P.; Maul, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of multiple stressors may be linked to global amphibian declines. Of these, pesticides and UVB radiation co-exposures were examined on the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to provide information that may be useful for amphibian conservation. The independent action model and inferential statistics were used to examine interactions between pesticides (malathion, endosulfan, α-cypermethrin, or chlorothalonil) and environmentally relevant UVB exposures. UVB radiation alone caused 35–68% mortality and nearly 100% of malformations. Pesticides and UVB had additive effects on larval mortality; however, several non-additive effects (antagonistic and synergistic interactions) were observed for total body length. Insecticides mainly affected axial development, whereas UVB radiation caused high incidence of edema, gut malformations, and abnormal tail tips. These results suggest that sublethal developmental endpoints were more sensitive for detecting joint effects. This work has implications for amphibian risk assessments for ecosystems where pesticides and high UVB radiation may co-occur. - Highlights: • Interactive effects of UVB radiation-pesticide co-exposures were examined in frogs. • UVB radiation alone caused 35–68% mortality and nearly 100% of malformations. • Pesticides and UVB had additive effects on larval mortality. • Several non-additive effects were observed for total body length. • Amphibian risk assessments should consider UVB radiation exposure as a co-stressor. - Possible interactions between pesticides and UVB radiation support the idea that amphibian risk assessments should consider these co-stressors when high UVB radiation exposure is high.

  5. Actions and Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de

    2017-01-01

    as Aristotelian syllogistic reasoning. Her constant analytical care to defend a philosophy of action against metaphysical assumptions and taken-for-granted “psychologisms” shows that an action-perspective is as analytic as ever one of decision-making. What differs is that the latter seems constantly attracted......How management philosophy is conceived depends on if pragmatism is acknowledged or not! After having been under the main domination of management science both research and education has until recently widened its scope from a decision-making to an action-perspective. It seems to be a recent...... reconnection to pragmatism that makes the 2011 Carnegie report propose to rethink management in liberal arts terms, whilst the vastly influential 1959 Carnegie Pierson report distanced itself from American pragmatism thus focusing on decisions and forgetting actions. Actions may contain decisions and choices...

  6. Types of gene effects governing the inheritance of oleic and linoleic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleic and linoleic acids are major fatty acids in peanut determining the quality and shelf-life of peanut products. A better understanding on the inheritance of these characters is an important for high-oleic breeding programs. The objective of this research was to determine the gene actions for oleic acid, linoleic acid, the ratio ...

  7. A gene network bioinformatics analysis for pemphigoid autoimmune blistering diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Antonio; Toti, Paolo; Giuca, Maria Rita; Derchi, Giacomo; Covani, Ugo

    2015-07-01

    In this theoretical study, a text mining search and clustering analysis of data related to genes potentially involved in human pemphigoid autoimmune blistering diseases (PAIBD) was performed using web tools to create a gene/protein interaction network. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database was employed to identify a final set of PAIBD-involved genes and to calculate the overall significant interactions among genes: for each gene, the weighted number of links, or WNL, was registered and a clustering procedure was performed using the WNL analysis. Genes were ranked in class (leader, B, C, D and so on, up to orphans). An ontological analysis was performed for the set of 'leader' genes. Using the above-mentioned data network, 115 genes represented the final set; leader genes numbered 7 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), interferon gamma (IFNG), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)), class B genes were 13, whereas the orphans were 24. The ontological analysis attested that the molecular action was focused on extracellular space and cell surface, whereas the activation and regulation of the immunity system was widely involved. Despite the limited knowledge of the present pathologic phenomenon, attested by the presence of 24 genes revealing no protein-protein direct or indirect interactions, the network showed significant pathways gathered in several subgroups: cellular components, molecular functions, biological processes and the pathologic phenomenon obtained from the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The molecular basis for PAIBD was summarised and expanded, which will perhaps give researchers promising directions for the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  8. The Action Observation System when Observing Hand Actions in Autism and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Jennifer J; Hatt, Naomi V; Colombi, Costanza; Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J; Rivera, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Social impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be in part due to difficulty perceiving and recognizing the actions of others. Evidence from imitation studies, which involves both observation and execution of an action, suggests differences, in individuals with ASD, between the ability to imitate goal-directed actions involving objects (transitive actions) and the ability to imitate actions that do not involve objects (intransitive actions). In the present study, we examined whether there were differences in how ASD adolescents encoded transitive and intransitive actions compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents, by having participants view videos of a hand reaching across a screen toward an object or to where an object would be while functional magnetic resonance images were collected. Analyses focused on areas within the action observation network (AON), which is activated during the observation of actions performed by others. We hypothesized that the AON would differentiate transitive from intransitive actions only in the ASD group. However, results revealed that object presence modulated activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus of the TD group, a differentiation that was not seen in the ASD group. Furthermore, there were no significant group differences between the TD and ASD groups in any of the conditions. This suggests that there is not a global deficit of the AON in individuals with ASD while observing transitive and intransitive actions. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  11. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  12. Paired hormone response elements predict caveolin-1 as a glucocorticoid target gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus F van Batenburg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids act in part via glucocorticoid receptor binding to hormone response elements (HREs, but their direct target genes in vivo are still largely unknown. We developed the criterion that genomic occurrence of paired HREs at an inter-HRE distance less than 200 bp predicts hormone responsiveness, based on synergy of multiple HREs, and HRE information from known target genes. This criterion predicts a substantial number of novel responsive genes, when applied to genomic regions 10 kb upstream of genes. Multiple-tissue in situ hybridization showed that mRNA expression of 6 out of 10 selected genes was induced in a tissue-specific manner in mice treated with a single dose of corticosterone, with the spleen being the most responsive organ. Caveolin-1 was strongly responsive in several organs, and the HRE pair in its upstream region showed increased occupancy by glucocorticoid receptor in response to corticosterone. Our approach allowed for discovery of novel tissue specific glucocorticoid target genes, which may exemplify responses underlying the permissive actions of glucocorticoids.

  13. Mutated genes as research tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Green plants are the ultimate source of all resources required for man's life, his food, his clothes, and almost all his energy requirements. Primitive prehistoric man could live from the abundance of nature surrounding him. Man today, dominating nature in terms of numbers and exploiting its limited resources, cannot exist without employing his intelligence to direct natural evolution. Plant sciences, therefore, are not a matter of curiosity but an essential requirement. From such considerations, the IAEA and FAO jointly organized a symposium to assess the value of mutation research for various kinds of plant science, which directly or indirectly might contribute to sustaining and improving crop production. The benefit through developing better cultivars that plant breeders can derive from using the additional genetic resources resulting from mutation induction has been assessed before at other FAO/IAEA meetings (Rome 1964, Pullman 1969, Ban 1974, Ibadan 1978) and is also monitored in the Mutation Breeding Newsletter, published by IAEA twice a year. Several hundred plant cultivars which carry economically important characters because their genes have been altered by ionizing radiation or other mutagens, are grown by farmers and horticulturists in many parts of the world. But the benefit derived from such mutant varieties is without any doubt surpassed by the contribution which mutation research has made towards the advancement of genetics. For this reason, a major part of the papers and discussions at the symposium dealt with the role induced-mutation research played in providing insight into gene action and gene interaction, the organization of genes in plant chromosomes in view of homology and homoeology, the evolutionary role of gene duplication and polyploidy, the relevance of gene blocks, the possibilities for chromosome engineering, the functioning of cytroplasmic inheritance and the genetic dynamics of populations. In discussing the evolutionary role of

  14. Determinants of orofacial clefting I: Effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on cellular processes and gene expression during development of the first branchial arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Seelan, Ratnam S; Rezzoug, Francine; Warner, Dennis R; Smolenkova, Irina A; Brock, Guy; Pisano, M Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identify gene targets and cellular events mediating the teratogenic action(s) of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AzaD), an inhibitor of DNA methylation, on secondary palate development. Exposure of pregnant mice (on gestation day (GD) 9.5) to AzaD for 12h resulted in the complete penetrance of cleft palate (CP) in fetuses. Analysis of cells of the embryonic first branchial arch (1-BA), in fetuses exposed to AzaD, revealed: 1) significant alteration in expression of genes encoding several morphogenetic factors, cell cycle inhibitors and regulators of apoptosis; 2) a decrease in cell proliferation; and, 3) an increase in apoptosis. Pyrosequencing of selected genes, displaying pronounced differential expression in AzaD-exposed 1-BAs, failed to reveal significant alterations in CpG methylation levels in their putative promoters or gene bodies. CpG methylation analysis suggested that the effects of AzaD on gene expression were likely indirect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Large-scale analysis by SAGE reveals new mechanisms of v-erbA oncogene action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure Claudine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The v-erbA oncogene, carried by the Avian Erythroblastosis Virus, derives from the c-erbAα proto-oncogene that encodes the nuclear receptor for triiodothyronine (T3R. v-ErbA transforms erythroid progenitors in vitro by blocking their differentiation, supposedly by interference with T3R and RAR (Retinoic Acid Receptor. However, v-ErbA target genes involved in its transforming activity still remain to be identified. Results: By using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, we identified 110 genes deregulated by v-ErbA and potentially implicated in the transformation process. Bioinformatic analysis of promoter sequence and transcriptional assays point out a potential role of c-Myb in the v-ErbA effect. Furthermore, grouping of newly identified target genes by function revealed both expected (chromatin/transcription and unexpected (protein metabolism functions potentially deregulated by v-ErbA. We then focused our study on 15 of the new v-ErbA target genes and demonstrated by real time PCR that in majority their expression was activated neither by T3, nor RA, nor during differentiation. This was unexpected based upon the previously known role of v-ErbA. Conclusion: This paper suggests the involvement of a wealth of new unanticipated mechanisms of v-ErbA action.

  16. Historiografia wobec Action Francaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kornat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Action Franęaise in HistoriographyFrench radical right movement, Action Franęaise belongs to those political phe- nomenon in history which are differently interpreted by historiography. Principally we have eight interpretations. First ofthem is Action Franęaise own image and identity as royalist and anti-liberal "party of order”. One of the most important historical interpretation of this movement is French historian Rene Remond’s one. In his Les Droites aujourdhui Remond argued that Action Franęaise was model example of anti-liberal Right in France and in Europe of the first half of the XX century. The most popular interpretation of Action Franęaise are two: (1 Action Franęaise as an incarnation of conservative revolution (Carl Schmitt and (2 as the ideology of "integral nationalism” (Hans Konh, Carlton Hayes. Very original concept was developed by well known German historian Ernst Nolte, who considered Action Franęaise as pro- to-fascistmovement. British thinker Isaiah Berlin and Israeli historian Zeev Sternhell interpreted Action Franęaise as revolution of "anti-Enlightment” (les anti-Lumieres. Polish philosopher Stanisław Brzozowski argued that Action Franęaise was a con- seąuence of conflict between romanticism and positivism and was sure that Action Franęaise inherited much from positivistphilosophy. Non less controversial problem is forthehistorians the excommunication of Action Franęaise by Pope Pius XI in 1926. To our days there are many opposite attempts to reconstruct of this event and its origins. For many historians Pius XI tried to defend the doctrine of the Church which seemed to him intoxicated by the "nationalist and racialist heresy”. For some other writers the Vatican policy was under German influence and this caused papai action. In 1939 another Pope Pius XII decided to abolish the condemnation from 1926.

  17. Nurses in action: An introduction to action research in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. McKibbin

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Action Research is one of the new generation of qualitative research methods in the social sciences which has special significance for nurses in South Africa. The collaborative, participative and reflective qualities of Action Research appeal to practitioners, and lend themselves to joint problem solving activities in local contexts. This paper sets out a rationale for Action Research, then describes its features, strengths, and limitations. Ways of overcoming the latter are suggested. The paper concludes that Action Research has potential application in the field of nursing, not only for the purposes of practical problem solving, but also for improving the personal and professional practice of nurses, and for emancipating nurses from their subordinate position in the hierarchy of health science.

  18. Action Intentions: Action Influences Both On-Line Perception and Off-Line Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kirtley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that one role of vision is to gather information for upcoming tasks, previous studies have investigated whether the preparation for action affects visual behaviour. The current studies aimed to determine if such influences on visual selection would also influence the formation of subsequent memory representations. Two experiments were conducted- in the first, participants' action intentions towards a scene were manipulated by the performance of different grasping postures as they observed the scene. This was followed by a memory test for the objects presented. Participants' eye movements were affected by their action intention, so that performing a power grip led to significantly longer fixation durations on power grip compatible objects. In contrast, memory for the objects and their properties was not affected by the action. Our second study required participants to make the action posture during the recall phase. No effect on eye movements was found, but recall was affected, with a particular advantage for recall of the position of grip-compatible objects. Previous studies have shown that action intentions can affect the on-line perception of objects. The current study suggests this may not extend to off-line representations if they are accessed after the action has been completed or abandoned. However, the recall of information may be affected if gestures are formed during retrieval. Memory representations may not be tailored specifically to an action, but actions can still affect the recall of information.

  19. Decision Making for Healthcare Resource Allocation: Joint v. Separate Decisions on Interacting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Helen; Gray, Alastair

    2018-05-01

    Standard guidance for allocating healthcare resources based on cost-effectiveness recommends using different decision rules for independent and mutually exclusive alternatives, although there is some confusion around the definition of "mutually exclusive." This paper reviews the definitions used in the literature and shows that interactions (i.e., non-additive effects, whereby the effect of giving 2 interventions simultaneously does not equal the sum of their individual effects) are the defining feature of mutually exclusive alternatives: treatments cannot be considered independent if the costs and/or benefits of one treatment are affected by the other treatment. The paper then identifies and categorizes the situations in which interventions are likely to have non-additive effects, including interventions targeting the same goal or clinical event, or life-saving interventions given to overlapping populations. We demonstrate that making separate decisions on interventions that have non-additive effects can prevent us from maximizing health gained from the healthcare budget. In contrast, treating combinations of independent options as though they were "mutually exclusive" makes the analysis more complicated but does not affect the conclusions. Although interactions are considered by the World Health Organization, other decision makers, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), currently make independent decisions on treatments likely to have non-additive effects. We propose a framework by which interactions could be considered when selecting, prioritizing, and appraising healthcare technologies to ensure efficient, evidence-based decision making.

  20. The Prose of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ulrik; Thrane, Sof

    2014-01-01

    risks changes over time in response to a lack of action on reported risks. In these processes Frontline Managers take on new responsibilities to make General Managers take action on reported risk. The reporting practice changes from the mere identification of risk to risk assessment and, finally......, to incorporating the possible response into the risk report. These findings add to extant literature by illustrating that actions do not automatically flow from the identification of risk. Rather, risk and action are dynamically interrelated in the sense that the prose in the risk report is a variable input...... to generate action and that a lack of action encourages managers to change their approach to reporting....

  1. Genes, psychological traits and civic engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Christopher T.; Settle, Jaime E.; Loewen, Peter John; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Civic engagement is a classic example of a collective action problem: while civic participation improves life in the community as a whole, it is individually costly and thus there is an incentive to free ride on the actions of others. Yet, we observe significant inter-individual variation in the degree to which people are in fact civically engaged. Early accounts reconciling the theoretical prediction with empirical reality focused either on variation in individuals’ material resources or their attitudes, but recent work has turned to genetic differences between individuals. We show an underlying genetic contribution to an index of civic engagement (0.41), as well as for the individual acts of engagement of volunteering for community or public service activities (0.33), regularly contributing to charitable causes (0.28) and voting in elections (0.27). There are closer genetic relationships between donating and the other two activities; volunteering and voting are not genetically correlated. Further, we show that most of the correlation between civic engagement and both positive emotionality and verbal IQ can be attributed to genes that affect both traits. These results enrich our understanding of the way in which genetic variation may influence the wide range of collective action problems that individuals face in modern community life. PMID:26503688

  2. Deducing the temporal order of cofactor function in ligand-regulated gene transcription: theory and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward J; Guo, Chunhua; Simons, S Stoney; Chow, Carson C

    2012-01-01

    Cofactors are intimately involved in steroid-regulated gene expression. Two critical questions are (1) the steps at which cofactors exert their biological activities and (2) the nature of that activity. Here we show that a new mathematical theory of steroid hormone action can be used to deduce the kinetic properties and reaction sequence position for the functioning of any two cofactors relative to a concentration limiting step (CLS) and to each other. The predictions of the theory, which can be applied using graphical methods similar to those of enzyme kinetics, are validated by obtaining internally consistent data for pair-wise analyses of three cofactors (TIF2, sSMRT, and NCoR) in U2OS cells. The analysis of TIF2 and sSMRT actions on GR-induction of an endogenous gene gave results identical to those with an exogenous reporter. Thus new tools to determine previously unobtainable information about the nature and position of cofactor action in any process displaying first-order Hill plot kinetics are now available.

  3. Action research: Scandinavian Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article focus on paradigms, methods and ethics of action research in the Scandinavian countries. The special features of the action research paradigm is identified. A historical overview follows of some main action research projects in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The tendency towards upsclae...... action research projects from organisational or small community projects yo large-scale, regional based network apporaches are also outlined and discussed. Finally, a synthesised approach of the classical, socio-technical action research approach and the large-scale network and holistic approaches...

  4. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, M.; Hunnius, S.; Elk, M. van; Ede, F.L. van; Bekkering, H.

    2011-01-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor.

  5. Botanical compounds and their regulation of nuclear receptor action: the case of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Bonneton, François; Chen, Xiao Yong; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-02-05

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are major pharmacological targets that allow an access to the mechanisms controlling gene regulation. As such, some NRs were identified as biological targets of active compounds contained in herbal remedies found in traditional medicines. We aim here to review this expanding literature by focusing on the informative articles regarding the mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). We exemplified well-characterized TCM action mediated by NR such as steroid receptors (ER, GR, AR), metabolic receptors (PPAR, LXR, FXR, PXR, CAR) and RXR. We also provided, when possible, examples from other traditional medicines. From these, we draw a parallel between TCMs and phytoestrogens or endocrine disrupting chemicals also acting via NR. We define common principle of action and highlight the potential and limits of those compounds. TCMs, by finely tuning physiological reactions in positive and negative manners, could act, in a subtle but efficient way, on NR sensors and their transcriptional network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  8. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S; Gross, Timothy S; Johnson, Kevin G; Sepúlveda, María S; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2006-07-20

    Dieldrin and p,p'-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p'-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p'-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p'-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha in the liver. p,p'-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor alpha. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action.

  9. Androgens regulate gene expression in avian skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Fuxjager

    Full Text Available Circulating androgens in adult reproductively active male vertebrates influence a diversity of organ systems and thus are considered costly. Recently, we obtained evidence that androgen receptors (AR are expressed in several skeletal muscles of three passeriform birds, the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus, zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata, and ochre-bellied flycatcher (Mionectes oleagieus. Because skeletal muscles that control wing movement make up the bulk of a bird's body mass, evidence for widespread effects of androgen action on these muscles would greatly expand the functional impact of androgens beyond their well-characterized effects on relatively discrete targets throughout the avian body. To investigate this issue, we use quantitative PCR (qPCR to determine if androgens alter gene mRNA expression patterns in wing musculature of wild golden-collared manakins and captive zebra finches. In manakins, the androgen testosterone (T up-regulated expression of parvalbumin (PV and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, two genes whose products enhance cellular Ca(2+ cycling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. In T-treated zebra finches, the anti-androgen flutamide blunted PV and IGF-I expression. These results suggest that certain transcriptional effects of androgen action via AR are conserved in passerine skeletal muscle tissue. When we examined wing muscles of manakins, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers, we found that expression of PV and IGF-I varied across species and in a manner consistent with a function for AR-dependent gene regulation. Together, these findings imply that androgens have the potential to act on avian muscle in a way that may enhance the physicality required for successful reproduction.

  10. Exome sequencing reveals frequent deleterious germline variants in cancer susceptibility genes in women with invasive breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Marissa S; Hart, Steven N; Kalari, Krishna R; Suman, Vera; Schahl, Kimberly A; Dockter, Travis J; Felten, Sara J; Sinnwell, Jason P; Thompson, Kevin J; Tang, Xiaojia; Vedell, Peter T; Barman, Poulami; Sicotte, Hugues; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Northfelt, Donald W; Gray, Richard J; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Ingle, James N; Moyer, Ann M; Visscher, Daniel W; Jones, Katie; Conners, Amy; McDonough, Michelle; Wieben, Eric D; Wang, Liewei; Weinshilboum, Richard; Boughey, Judy C; Goetz, Matthew P

    2015-09-01

    When sequencing blood and tumor samples to identify targetable somatic variants for cancer therapy, clinically relevant germline variants may be uncovered. We evaluated the prevalence of deleterious germline variants in cancer susceptibility genes in women with breast cancer referred for neoadjuvant chemotherapy and returned clinically actionable results to patients. Exome sequencing was performed on blood samples from women with invasive breast cancer referred for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Germline variants within 142 hereditary cancer susceptibility genes were filtered and reviewed for pathogenicity. Return of results was offered to patients with deleterious variants in actionable genes if they were not aware of their result through clinical testing. 124 patients were enrolled (median age 51) with the following subtypes: triple negative (n = 43, 34.7%), HER2+ (n = 37, 29.8%), luminal B (n = 31, 25%), and luminal A (n = 13, 10.5%). Twenty-eight deleterious variants were identified in 26/124 (21.0%) patients in the following genes: ATM (n = 3), BLM (n = 1), BRCA1 (n = 4), BRCA2 (n = 8), CHEK2 (n = 2), FANCA (n = 1), FANCI (n = 1), FANCL (n = 1), FANCM (n = 1), FH (n = 1), MLH3 (n = 1), MUTYH (n = 2), PALB2 (n = 1), and WRN (n = 1). 121/124 (97.6%) patients consented to return of research results. Thirteen (10.5%) had actionable variants, including four that were returned to patients and led to changes in medical management. Deleterious variants in cancer susceptibility genes are highly prevalent in patients with invasive breast cancer referred for neoadjuvant chemotherapy undergoing exome sequencing. Detection of these variants impacts medical management.

  11. PTTSA Action Plan Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA) Report identified findings with respect to the way Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, (including Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Kauai Test Facility (KTF)) conducts its environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) activities. It presented Action Plan Requirements (APR) addressing these findings. The purpose of this PTTSA Action Plan Report is to assist in managing these action plan requirements by collecting, prioritizing, and estimating required resources. The specific objectives addressed by this report include: collection of requirements for the resolution of the findings presented in the PTTSA Report; consolidation of proposed Action Plan Requirements into logical Action Plan groupings for efficiency of resolution; categorization of Action Plans according to severity of the hazards represented by the findings; provision of a basis for long-range planning and issues management; documentation of the status of the proposed corrective actions; establishment of traceability of the corrective action to the original problem or issue; and integration of these plans into the existing ES ampersand H structure. The Action Plans in this report are an intermediate step between the identification of a problem or a finding in the PTTSA Report and the execution of the solution. They consist of requirements for solution, proposed actions, and an estimate of the time and (where applicable) resources required to develop the solution. This report is an input to the process of planning, resource commitment, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance of problem resolution. 2 figs

  12. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  13. Impactos de se ignorarem os efeitos genéticos não-aditivos de dominância na avaliação genética animal Impacts of ignoring the non-additive genetic effects of dominance on animal genetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Emídio Cunha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os impactos de se ignorarem os efeitos de dominância sobre a estimação de parâmetros genéticos e a predição de valores genéticos pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita sob modelo animal aditivo empregando-se o MTDFREML. Para a mesma arquitetura genômica, foram simulados dois modelos de ação gênica: um deles incluiu apenas efeitos aditivos dos genes e o outro, efeitos aditivos e dominância completa e positiva para 100% dos locos. Sob cada modelo genético, foram geradas três populações-base correspondentes às características com herdabilidades de 0,15 (baixa, 0,30 (média e 0,60 (alta. A partir das populações-base, foram geradas as populações iniciais, que, submetidas a seleção e a acasalamentos ao acaso, durante seis gerações consecutivas e discretas, resultaram cada uma em 18.000 indivíduos com registro. As estimativas dos componentes de variância e herdabilidade obtidas no modelo com ação gênica aditiva foram semelhantes aos seus valores reais para todas as características, ao passo que, sob ação gênica de dominância, todos os componentes foram superestimados, principalmente a variância genética aditiva. A variância de dominância não-estimada pelo modelo animal adotado foi redistribuída entre os componentes genético aditivo e residual estimados. Houve perda na acurácia da avaliação genética sob o modelo genético com dominância e essa perda foi traduzida por correlações mais baixas entre os valores genéticos verdadeiros e preditos dos animais. Há necessidade de novos estudos, já que os genomas simulados podem não corresponder aos sistemas biológicos verdadeiros.The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of ignoring the dominance effects on the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of genetic values by the restricted maximum likelihood method, under the additive animal model, using MTDFREML. Two gene action models were

  14. Was Muller's 1946 Nobel Prize research for radiation-induced gene mutations peer-reviewed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2018-06-06

    This historical analysis indicates that it is highly unlikely that the Nobel Prize winning research of Hermann J. Muller was peer-reviewed. The published paper of Muller lacked a research methods section, cited no references, and failed to acknowledge and discuss the work of Gager and Blakeslee (PNAS 13:75-79, 1927) that claimed to have induced gene mutation via ionizing radiation six months prior to Muller's non-data Science paper (Muller, Science 66(1699):84-87, 1927a). Despite being well acclimated into the scientific world of peer-review, Muller choose to avoid the peer-review process on his most significant publication. It appears that Muller's actions were strongly influenced by his desire to claim primacy for the discovery of gene mutation. The actions of Muller have important ethical lessons and implications today, when self-interest trumps one's obligations to society and the scientific culture that supports the quest for new knowledge and discovery.

  15. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Friberg, U.; Maklakov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should...... is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis) for F1 productivity. We discuss the processes that may maintain additive and non-additive genetic variance for fitness and how these relate to indirect selection...

  16. Gene expression regulation in photomorphogenesis from the perspective of the central dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the environment a young seedling encounters, the developmental program following seed germination could be skotomorphogenesis in the dark or photomorphogenesis in the light. Light signals are interpreted by a repertoire of photoreceptors followed by sophisticated gene expression networks, eventually resulting in developmental changes. The expression and functions of photoreceptors and key signaling molecules are highly coordinated and regulated at multiple levels of the central dogma in molecular biology. Light activates gene expression through the actions of positive transcriptional regulators and the relaxation of chromatin by histone acetylation. Small regulatory RNAs help attenuate the expression of light-responsive genes. Alternative splicing, protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, the formation of diverse transcriptional complexes, and selective protein degradation all contribute to proteome diversity and change the functions of individual proteins.

  17. Albertans and Climate Change, taking action : key actions to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    In October 2002, Alberta Environment released Canada's first government action plan that addresses climate change and reduces greenhouse gases. This document outlines the progress that Alberta has made since the launch of the action plan entitled Albertans and Climate Change, taking action. The document highlights 32 key actions involving government leadership, technology and innovation, carbon management, energy conservation, renewable and alternative energy, carbon storage in agricultural and forestry sinks, and adaptation to climate change. Among the initiatives is a green power contract signed by the Government of Alberta which states that by 2005, 90 per cent of the electricity used in provincial government operations will come from green power sources. Investment into clean coal technology, fuel cell technology and combined greenhouse heat and power technology was also highlighted

  18. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; De Scorbiac, Marie; Du Repaire, Philippine

    2011-01-01

    On December 12, 2011, Luc Oursel, Executive Officer of AREVA, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Executive Officer, presented the group's 'Action 2016' strategic action plan based on an in-depth analysis of the market's outlook. This document makes, first, a Detailed presentation of the 'Action 2016' plan and then presents the group's financial outlook: - Full-year 2011 immediate accounting consequences of the new market environment: operating losses expected in 2011; - 2012-2013 transition period Objective: self-finance capex in cumulative terms; - 2014-2016: safe growth and cash generation, free operating cash flow at break-even beginning in 2013, above euro 1 bn per year beginning in 2015

  19. RCRA corrective action ampersand CERCLA remedial action reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This reference guide provides a side-by-side comparison of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA Remedial Action, focusing on the statutory and regulatory requirements under each program, criterial and other factors that govern a site's progress, and the ways in which authorities or requirements under each program overlap and/or differ. Topics include the following: Intent of regulation; administration; types of sites and/or facilities; definition of site and/or facility; constituents of concern; exclusions; provisions for short-term remedies; triggers for initial site investigation; short term response actions; site investigations; remedial investigations; remedial alternatives; clean up criterial; final remedy; implementing remedy; on-site waste management; completion of remedial process

  20. Subliminal action priming modulates the perceived intensity of sensory action consequences☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Sidarus, Nura; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of control over the consequences of one’s actions depends on predictions about these consequences. According to an influential computational model, consistency between predicted and observed action consequences attenuates perceived stimulus intensity, which might provide a marker of agentic control. An important assumption of this model is that these predictions are generated within the motor system. However, previous studies of sensory attenuation have typically confounded motor-specific perceptual modulation with perceptual effects of stimulus predictability that are not specific to motor action. As a result, these studies cannot unambiguously attribute sensory attenuation to a motor locus. We present a psychophysical experiment on auditory attenuation that avoids this pitfall. Subliminal masked priming of motor actions with compatible prime–target pairs has previously been shown to modulate both reaction times and the explicit feeling of control over action consequences. Here, we demonstrate reduced perceived loudness of tones caused by compatibly primed actions. Importantly, this modulation results from a manipulation of motor processing and is not confounded by stimulus predictability. We discuss our results with respect to theoretical models of the mechanisms underlying sensory attenuation and subliminal motor priming. PMID:24333539

  1. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor gene and their associations with metabolic parameters and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMost actions of glucocorticoids (GCs) are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The interindividual response to GCs varies considerably, as demonstrated by a variable suppressive response to 0.25-mg dexamethasone (DEX). Several polymorphisms in the gene coding

  2. ParticipACTION: Overview and introduction of baseline research on the "new" ParticipACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides a brief overview of the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization "ParticipACTION"; introduces the "new" ParticipACTION; describes the research process leading to the collection of baseline data on the new ParticipACTION; and outlines the accompanying series of papers in the supplement presenting the detailed baseline data. Methods Information on ParticipACTION was gathered from close personal involvement with the organization, from interviews and meetings with key leaders of the organization, from published literature and from ParticipACTION archives. In 2001, after nearly 30 years of operation, ParticipACTION ceased operations because of inadequate funding. In February 2007 the organization was officially resurrected and the launch of the first mass media campaign of the "new" ParticipACTION occurred in October 2007. The six-year absence of ParticipACTION, or any equivalent substitute, provided a unique opportunity to examine the impact of a national physical activity social marketing organization on important individual and organizational level indicators of success. A rapid response research team was established in January 2007 to exploit this natural intervention research opportunity. Results The research team was successful in obtaining funding through the new Canadian Institutes of Health Research Intervention Research (Healthy Living and Chronic Disease Prevention Funding Program. Data were collected on individuals and organizations prior to the complete implementation of the first mass media campaign of the new ParticipACTION. Conclusion Rapid response research and funding mechanisms facilitated the collection of baseline information on the new ParticipACTION. These data will allow for comprehensive assessments of future initiatives of ParticipACTION.

  3. Revisiting progesterone receptor (PR) actions in breast cancer: Insights into PR repressive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Cecilia J; Cenciarini, Mauro E; Elizalde, Patricia V

    2018-05-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) is a master regulator in female reproductive tissues that controls developmental processes and proliferation and differentiation during the reproductive cycle and pregnancy. PR also plays a role in progression of endocrine-dependent breast cancer. As a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors, the main action of PR is to regulate networks of target gene expression in response to binding its cognate steroid hormone, progesterone. Liganded-PR transcriptional activation has been thoroughly studied and associated mechanisms have been described while progesterone-mediated repression has remained less explored. The present work summarizes recent advances in the understanding of how PR-mediated repression is accomplished in breast cancer cells and highlights the significance of fully understanding the determinants of context-dependent PR action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific......Contemporary society encounters profound economical, socio-ecological and political crises challenging the democratic foundation of our societies. This book addresses the potentials and challenges for Action Research supporting democratic alternatives. It offers a broad spectrum of examples from...... Scandinavian Action Research showing different openings towards democratic development. The book’s first part contributes with a wide range of examples such as Action Research in relation to the Triple Helix/Mode II contexts, to design as a democratic process, to renewal of welfare work and public institutions...

  5. Grasp it loudly! Supporting actions with semantically congruent spoken action words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fargier

    Full Text Available Evidence for cross-talk between motor and language brain structures has accumulated over the past several years. However, while a significant amount of research has focused on the interaction between language perception and action, little attention has been paid to the potential impact of language production on overt motor behaviour. The aim of the present study was to test whether verbalizing during a grasp-to-displace action would affect motor behaviour and, if so, whether this effect would depend on the semantic content of the pronounced word (Experiment I. Furthermore, we sought to test the stability of such effects in a different group of participants and investigate at which stage of the motor act language intervenes (Experiment II. For this, participants were asked to reach, grasp and displace an object while overtly pronouncing verbal descriptions of the action ("grasp" and "put down" or unrelated words (e.g. "butterfly" and "pigeon". Fine-grained analyses of several kinematic parameters such as velocity peaks revealed that when participants produced action-related words their movements became faster compared to conditions in which they did not verbalize or in which they produced words that were not related to the action. These effects likely result from the functional interaction between semantic retrieval of the words and the planning and programming of the action. Therefore, links between (action language and motor structures are significant to the point that language can refine overt motor behaviour.

  6. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.; Pimentel, P.A.E.; Cruces, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The chlorophyllin is a sodium salt of the chlorophyll that has a strong protective action of the damage induced by different agents so much physical as chemical. In Drosophila there is reported this effect in somatic cells. In contrast, in germinal cells using tests with the sexual chromosomes has not been found such inhibitory action. For this reason, in this occasion we will refer to the effect of the lethality induced in autosome chromosomes, in particular to the chromosome II of this species. For such effect groups of males of the line Canton-S its were pre-treated for 24h with or without 69 mm of CCS and later on treaties with or without 40 Gy of gamma irradiation. The males were then subjected to the technical Cy L / Pm for the detection of recessive lethals. In the third generation the respective counts of the descendant of each one of them to determine the corresponding categories for each extracted chromosome were made. To be mendelian crosses it is expected for a normal chromosome a proportion 2:1 of individuals with genotype Cy L / +: +/+. The absence of individuals +/+ it is indicative of a lethal gene, until 10% of these individuals of each male's total descendant, it is considered that is carrying of a semi lethal gene. The sum of lethal and semi lethals constitutes the category detrimental. The obtained results indicated that the pre-treatment with CCS reduces in a significant way the frequency of induced lethals by 40 Gy of gamma rays. The fact that an effect inhibitor has not been observed in the test of recessive lethal bound to the sex obtained previously, it contrasts with the effect observed in the chromosome II, results of this study and with the one observed in the chromosome III in somatic cells. The above-mentioned shows a differential action of the CCS between sexual chromosomes and autosomal before the effect of the gamma radiation. At the moment we don't have an explanation to these evidences. To evaluate the action of the chlorophyllin

  7. Evaluated the Up –regulation in Gene ‎Expression of Hepatic Insulin Gene and ‎Hepatic Insulin Receptor Gene in Type 1 ‎Diabetic Rats Treated with Cuscuta chinesis ‎Lam.‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia ‎ H. Al-Sultany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available         This research was conducted to study the hypoglycemic activity of C. chinesis Lam on type 1 diabetic disease and investigate the  molecular and histological mechanism of  its action .many parameters was investigated , Fasting blood glucose (FBG, Fasting serum insulin,Hepatic Insulin Gene Expression, pancreas Insulin Gene Expression ,Hepatic Insulin  Receptors Gene expression  and histological sections of pancrease and liver.54 Rattus rattus male rats weighting(180 -200g were divided into 3 groups: A normal control daily administrated with Dw, B Diabetic control daily administrated with Dw  and C  diabetic group daily administrated with 400 mg/Kg body weight of C. chinesis  Lam. methanolic extract, each group consisted of  18 rats and further divided into (3 sub- groups 1 ,2  and 3. According to the period of administration  30, 60 and  90 days respectively. The results showing  the daily administration of 400 mg/Kg body weight of C. chinesis  Lam. methanolic extract for 60 day causing significance  decrease  in FBG and In the other hand each of fasting serum insulin, hepatic Insulin gene expression,pancreas Insulin gene expression and hepatic Insulin receptor gene expression was increased in group C in compare to B group and return all studied parameters involving pancrease and liver texture to the normal state ,which were statically morphologically  not appeared any significant difference from A group .this study concluded that the daily administration type 1 diabetic rats with 400 mg/Kg body weight of C. chinesis  Lam. extract for 60 day was return  fasting serum insulin and FBG to normal value by  upregulated  the gene expression of hepatic INS Gene ,INSR gene , pancreas INS Gene ,regenerate pancreatic beta- cell and returnthe texture of both liver and pancrease to the normal state

  8. Two Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase genes influence motor control and development in different ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among its other biological roles, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7), encoded by two ace genes in most insects, catalyses the breakdown of acetylcholine, thereby terminating synaptic transmission. ace1 encodes the synaptic enzyme and ace2 has other essential actions in many insect species, such...

  9. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  10. Molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, I.D.; Aleksandrova, M.V.; Lapidus, I.L.; Karpovskij, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The classical paradigm of spatially unrelated lesions for gene mutations and chromosomal exchange breakpoints induced by ionizing radiations in eukaryotic cells was re-examined in the experiments on the mapping of gamma-ray- or neutron-induced breakpoints in and outside of white (w) and vestigial (vg) genes of Drosophila melanogaster using the in situ hybridization of the large fragments of the genes under study with the polythene chromosomes of the relevant mutants. The results for the random sample of 60 inversion and translocation breakpoints analysed to date have shown that (i) 50% of them are mapped as the hot spots within big introns of both the genes, and (ii) 21 of 60 breaks (35%) are located outside of genes. It is important to note that 26% (16/60) of the breakpoints analysed are flanked by the deletions, the sizes of which vary from the quarter to a whole of the gene. It was found that the deletions flank both the inversion and translocation breakpoints and arise more often after action of neutrons than photons. An unexpectedly high frequency of the multiple-damaged w and vg mutants that have the gene/point mutation and additional, but separate, chromosome exchange (the so-called double- or triple-site mutants) has shown that the genetic danger of ionizing radiation is higher than usually accepted on the base of single gene/point mutation assessments. 11 refs., 3 figs

  11. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Nancy D; Kocerha, Jannet; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Gross, Timothy; Holm, Stewart E

    2004-08-18

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The 'Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204

  13. scid Thymocytes with TCRbeta gene rearrangements are targets for the oncogenic effect of SCL and LMO1 transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervinsky, D S; Lam, D H; Melman, M P; Gross, K W; Aplan, P D

    2001-09-01

    SCL and LMO1 were both discovered by virtue of their activation by chromosomaltranslocation in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Overexpression of SCL and LMO1 in the thymus of transgenic mice leads to T-ALL at a young age. scid (severe combined immunodeficient) mice are unable to efficiently recombine antigen receptor genes and consequently display a developmental block at the CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+ transition. To test the hypothesis that this developmental block would protect SCL/LMO1 transgenic mice from developing T-ALL, we crossed the SCL and LMO1 transgenes onto a scid background. The age of onset for T-ALL in the SCL/LMO1/scid mice was significantly delayed (P < 0.001) compared with SCL/LMO1/wild-type mice. Intriguingly, all of the SCL/LMO1/scid malignancies displayed clonal, in-frame TCRbeta gene rearrangements. Taken together, these findings suggest that the "leaky" scid thymocyte that undergoes a productive TCRbeta gene rearrangement is susceptible to the oncogenic action of SCL and LMO1 and additionally suggests that TCRbeta gene rearrangements may be required for the oncogenic action of SCL and LMO1.

  14. Multiple analytical approaches reveal distinct gene-environment interactions in smokers and non smokers in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshan Ihsan

    Full Text Available Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR, classification and regression tree (CART and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.69;95%CI = 1.11-2.59,p = 0.01, whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR = 0.40;95%CI = 0.25-0.65,p<0.001 and OR = 0.51;95%CI = 0.33-0.78,p = 0.002 respectively. In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg or AA (His/His and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR = 3.73;95%CI = 1.33-10.55,p = 0.006, whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR = 2.93;95%CI = 1.15-7.51,p = 0.01. MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His with testing balance accuracy (TBA of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with

  15. Brain-to-brain hyperclassification reveals action-specific motor mapping of observed actions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Lachat, Fanny; Peltola, Tomi; Lahnakoski, Juha M; Koistinen, Olli-Pekka; Glerean, Enrico; Vehtari, Aki; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Seeing an action may activate the corresponding action motor code in the observer. It remains unresolved whether seeing and performing an action activates similar action-specific motor codes in the observer and the actor. We used novel hyperclassification approach to reveal shared brain activation signatures of action execution and observation in interacting human subjects. In the first experiment, two "actors" performed four types of hand actions while their haemodynamic brain activations were measured with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The actions were videotaped and shown to 15 "observers" during a second fMRI experiment. Eleven observers saw the videos of one actor, and the remaining four observers saw the videos of the other actor. In a control fMRI experiment, one of the actors performed actions with closed eyes, and five new observers viewed these actions. Bayesian canonical correlation analysis was applied to functionally realign observers' and actors' fMRI data. Hyperclassification of the seen actions was performed with Bayesian logistic regression trained on actors' data and tested with observers' data. Without the functional realignment, between-subjects accuracy was at chance level. With the realignment, the accuracy increased on average by 15 percentage points, exceeding both the chance level and the accuracy without functional realignment. The highest accuracies were observed in occipital, parietal and premotor cortices. Hyperclassification exceeded chance level also when the actor did not see her own actions. We conclude that the functional brain activation signatures underlying action execution and observation are partly shared, yet these activation signatures may be anatomically misaligned across individuals.

  16. The minimalist grammar of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  19. What good are actions? Accelerating learning using learned action priors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The computational complexity of learning in sequential decision problems grows exponentially with the number of actions available to the agent at each state. We present a method for accelerating this process by learning action priors that express...

  20. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luheshi, G N; Gardner, J D; Rushforth, D A; Loudon, A S; Rothwell, N J

    1999-06-08

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, injection of leptin increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hypothalamus of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) inhibited the suppression of food intake caused by central or peripheral injection of leptin (60 and 84%, respectively) and abolished the leptin-induced increase in body temperature in both cases. Mice lacking (gene knockout) the main IL-1 receptor (80 kDa, R1) responsible for IL-1 actions showed no reduction in food intake in response to leptin. These data indicate that leptin actions in the brain depend on IL-1, and we show further that the effect of leptin on fever, but not food intake, is abolished by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Thus, we propose that in addition to its role in body weight regulation, leptin may mediate neuroimmune responses via actions in the brain dependent on release of IL-1 and prostaglandins.

  1. Subliminal action priming modulates the perceived intensity of sensory action consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Sidarus, Nura; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-02-01

    The sense of control over the consequences of one's actions depends on predictions about these consequences. According to an influential computational model, consistency between predicted and observed action consequences attenuates perceived stimulus intensity, which might provide a marker of agentic control. An important assumption of this model is that these predictions are generated within the motor system. However, previous studies of sensory attenuation have typically confounded motor-specific perceptual modulation with perceptual effects of stimulus predictability that are not specific to motor action. As a result, these studies cannot unambiguously attribute sensory attenuation to a motor locus. We present a psychophysical experiment on auditory attenuation that avoids this pitfall. Subliminal masked priming of motor actions with compatible prime-target pairs has previously been shown to modulate both reaction times and the explicit feeling of control over action consequences. Here, we demonstrate reduced perceived loudness of tones caused by compatibly primed actions. Importantly, this modulation results from a manipulation of motor processing and is not confounded by stimulus predictability. We discuss our results with respect to theoretical models of the mechanisms underlying sensory attenuation and subliminal motor priming. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mirroring "meaningful" actions: sensorimotor learning modulates imitation of goal-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-06-19

    Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions. One reason for the lack of research on goal-directed actions is that imitation of such actions is commonly confounded with the tendency to respond in a spatially compatible manner. However, since the most prominent account of mirror neuron function, and hence of imitation, suggests that these cells encode goal-directed actions, it is important to establish whether sensorimotor learning can also modulate imitation of goal-directed actions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that imitation of goal-directed grasping can be measured while controlling for spatial compatibility, and Experiment 2 showed that this imitation effect can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Together these data support the hypothesis that the capacity for behavioural imitation, and the properties of the mirror neuron system, are constructed in the course of development through associative learning.

  3. Genetics of drought tolerance at seedling and maturity stages in Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, N.H.; Ahsan, M.; Naveed, M.; Sadaqat, H.A.; Javed, I.

    2016-11-01

    Shortage of irrigation water at critical growth stages of maize is limiting its production worldwide. Breeding drought-tolerant cultivars is one possible solution while identification of potential genotypes is crucial for genetic improvement. To assess genetic variation for seedling-stage drought tolerance, we tested 40 inbred lines in a completely randomized design under glasshouse conditions. From these, two contrasting inbred lines were used to develop six basic generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1F1, BC2F2). These populations were then evaluated in a triplicated factorial randomized complete block design under non-stressed and drought-stressed conditions. For statistical analyses, a nested block design was employed to ignore the replication effects. Significant differences (p=0.01) were recorded among the genotypes for investigated seedling-traits. Absolute values of fresh root length, fresh root weight, and dry root weight lead to select two genotypes, one tolerant (WFTMS) and one susceptible (Q66). Estimates of heritability, genetic advance, and genotypic correlation coefficients were higher and significant for most of the seedling-traits. Generation variance analysis revealed additive gene action. Narrow-sense heritability [F2 = 65; F8 = 79] revealed the same results. Generation mean analysis signified additive genetic effects in the inheritance of cob girth, non-additive for plant height, grains per ear row and grain yield per plant, and environmental for ear leaf area, cob length, grain rows per ear, biomass per plant, and 100-grain weight under drought-stressed conditions. For conferring drought-tolerance in maize, breeders can adopt the recombinant breeding strategy to pyramid the desirable genes. (Author)

  4. Identifying noncoding risk variants using disease-relevant gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Uzun, Yasin; Gao, Peng; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Shizhong; Tan, Kai

    2018-02-16

    Identifying noncoding risk variants remains a challenging task. Because noncoding variants exert their effects in the context of a gene regulatory network (GRN), we hypothesize that explicit use of disease-relevant GRNs can significantly improve the inference accuracy of noncoding risk variants. We describe Annotation of Regulatory Variants using Integrated Networks (ARVIN), a general computational framework for predicting causal noncoding variants. It employs a set of novel regulatory network-based features, combined with sequence-based features to infer noncoding risk variants. Using known causal variants in gene promoters and enhancers in a number of diseases, we show ARVIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods that use sequence-based features alone. Additional experimental validation using reporter assay further demonstrates the accuracy of ARVIN. Application of ARVIN to seven autoimmune diseases provides a holistic view of the gene subnetwork perturbed by the combinatorial action of the entire set of risk noncoding mutations.

  5. Modes of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Makoto; Buckingham, Steven D; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects play a key role in fast excitatory neurotransmission. Several classes of insecticides target insect nAChRs, which are composed of subunit members of a family of multiple subunit encoding genes. Alternative splicing and RNA A-to-I editing can add further to receptor diversity. Native and recombinant receptors have been explored as sites of insecticide action using radioligands, electrophysiology and site-directed mutagenesis. We have reviewed the properties of native and recombinant insect nAChRs, the challenges of functional recombinant insect nAChR expression, nAChR interactions with ligands acting at orthosteric and allosteric sites and in particular their interactions with insecticides. Actions on insect nAChRs of cartap, neonicotinoids, spinosyns, sulfoxamines, butenolides and mesoionic insecticides are reviewed and current knowledge of their modes of action are addressed. Mutations that add to our understanding of insecticide action and those leading to resistance are discussed. Co-crystallisation of neonicotinoids with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a surrogate for the nAChR ligand binding domain, has proved instructive. Toxicity issues relating to insecticides targeting nAChRs are also considered. An overview of insecticide classes targeting insect nAChRs has enhanced our understanding of these important receptors and their insecticide binding sites. However, the subunit composition of native nAChRs remains poorly understood and functional expression still presents difficulties. These topics together with improved understanding of the precise sites of insecticide actions on insect nAChRs will be the subject of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  7. A concerted action of a paired-type homeobox gene, aristaless, and a homolog of Hox11/tlx homeobox gene, clawless, is essential for the distal tip development of the Drosophila leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Takuya; Saigo, Kaoru

    2005-03-15

    The subdivision of the developing field by region-specific expression of genes encoding transcription factors is an essential step during appendage development in arthropod and vertebrates. In Drosophila leg development, the distal-most region (pretarsus) is specified by the expression of homeobox genes, aristaless and Lim1, and its immediate neighbor (distal tarsus) is specified by the expression of a pair of Bar homeobox genes. Here, we show that one additional gene, clawless, which is a homolog of vertebrate Hox11/tlx homeobox gene family and formerly known as C15, is specifically expressed in the pretarsus and cooperatively acts with aristaless to repress Bar and possibly to activate Lim1. Similar to aristaless, the maximal expression of clawless requires Lim1 and its co-factor, Chip. Bar attenuates aristaless and clawless expression through Lim1 repression. Aristaless and Clawless proteins form a complex capable of binding to specific DNA targets, which cannot be well recognized solely by Aristaless or Clawless.

  8. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  9. Global identification of bursicon-regulated genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerntsen Brenda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bursicon is a heterodimer neuropeptide responsible for regulating cuticle sclerotization and wing expansion in several insect species. Recent studies indicate that the action of bursicon is mediated by a specific G protein-coupled receptor DLGR2 and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. However, little is known regarding the genes that are regulated by bursicon. The identification of bursicon-regulated genes is the focus of this investigation. Results We used DNA microarray analysis to identify bursicon-regulated genes in neck-ligated flies (Drosophila melanogaster that received recombinant bursicon (r-bursicon. Fifty four genes were found to be regulated by bursicon 1 h post r-bursicon injection, 52 being up-regulated and 2 down-regulated while 33 genes were influenced by r-bursicon 3 h post-injection (24 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated genes. Analysis of these genes by inference from the fly database http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu revealed that these genes encode proteins with diverse functions, including cell signaling, gene transcription, DNA/RNA binding, ion trafficking, proteolysis-peptidolysis, metabolism, cytoskeleton formation, immune response and cell-adhesion. Twenty eight genes randomly selected from the microarray-identified list were verified by real time PCR (qPCR which supported the microarray data. Temporal response studies of 13 identified and verified genes by qPCR revealed that the temporal expression patterns of these genes are consistent with the microarray data. Conclusion Using r-bursicon, we identified 87 genes that are regulated by bursicon, 30 of which have no previously known function. Most importantly, all genes randomly selected from the microarray-identified list were verified by real time PCR. Temporal analysis of 13 verified genes revealed that the expression of these genes was indeed induced by bursicon and correlated well with the cuticle sclerotization process. The composite data suggest that

  10. Staying mindful in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning is a well-proven method to integrate ‘task’ and ‘process’, as learning about team and self (process) takes place while delivering on a task or business challenge of real importance (task). An Action Lab® is an intensive Action Learning programme lasting for 5 days, which aims...... at balancing and integrating individual challenges and business challenges, as well as the ‘Action’ and the ‘Learning’ of Action Learning. However, in spite of the aspiration to balance and integrate ‘task’ and ‘process’, a tendency and a challenge is experienced: When deeply involved in delivering...... this tendency by sharing a study looking into what hinders and promotes mindful awareness on the process, while dealing with a business challenge in an Action Lab®. Drawing on the findings, the account of practice will share some recommendations for the Action Learning facilitator to take up the challenge...

  11. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  12. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  13. Endocrine Parameters and Phenotypes of the Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Disrupted (GHR−/−) Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Edward O.; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E.; Funk, Kevin; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S.; Okada, Shigeru; Ding, Juan; Cruz-Topete, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR−/−) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR−/− mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans. PMID:21123740

  14. Effects of Digested Onion Extracts on Intestinal Gene Expression: An Interspecies Comparison Using Different Intestine Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J W de Wit

    Full Text Available Human intestinal tissue samples are barely accessible to study potential health benefits of nutritional compounds. Numbers of animals used in animal trials, however, need to be minimalized. Therefore, we explored the applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP technique to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd and white onion extracts (WOd were used as model food compounds and transcriptomics was applied to obtain more insight into which extent mode of actions depend on the model. The three intestine models shared 9,140 genes which were used to compare the responses to digested onions between the models. Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that genes up- or down-regulated by WOd in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices were similarly regulated by YOd, indicating comparable modes of action for the two onion species. Highly variable responses to onion were found in the pig SISP model. By focussing only on genes with significant differential expression, in combination with a fold change > 1.5, 15 genes showed similar onion-induced expression in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices and 2 overlapping genes were found between the human Caco-2 and pig SISP model. Pathway analyses revealed that mainly processes related to oxidative stress, and especially the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, were affected by onions in all three models. Our data fit with previous in vivo studies showing that the beneficial effects of onions are mostly linked to their antioxidant properties. Taken together, our data indicate that each of the in vitro and ex vivo intestine models used in this study, taking into account their limitations, can be used to determine modes of action of nutritional compounds and can thereby reduce the number of animals used in conventional nutritional intervention studies.

  15. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth / For Parents / What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... acción contra el asma? What's an Asthma Action Plan? An asthma action plan (or management plan) is ...

  16. Intrinsic noise of microRNA-regulated genes and the ceRNA hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Noorbakhsh

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate genes post-transciptionally by binding and degrading target eukaryotic mRNAs. We use a quantitative model to study gene regulation by inhibitory microRNAs and compare it to gene regulation by prokaryotic small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs. Our model uses a combination of analytic techniques as well as computational simulations to calculate the mean-expression and noise profiles of genes regulated by both microRNAs and sRNAs. We find that despite very different molecular machinery and modes of action (catalytic vs stoichiometric, the mean expression levels and noise profiles of microRNA-regulated genes are almost identical to genes regulated by prokaryotic sRNAs. This behavior is extremely robust and persists across a wide range of biologically relevant parameters. We extend our model to study crosstalk between multiple mRNAs that are regulated by a single microRNA and show that noise is a sensitive measure of microRNA-mediated interaction between mRNAs. We conclude by discussing possible experimental strategies for uncovering the microRNA-mRNA interactions and testing the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA hypothesis.

  17. Vitamin K: novel molecular mechanisms of action and its roles in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is involved in blood coagulation mediated by maintaining the activity of coagulation factors in the liver. Vitamin K also has extrahepatic actions and has been shown to prevent bone fractures in clinical studies. In addition, epidemiological studies suggest that a lack of vitamin K is associated with several geriatric diseases, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, dementia and arteriosclerosis. It has also been shown that vitamin K contributes to the prevention and treatment of some kinds of malignancies. Recently, we discovered a novel role for vitamin K as a ligand of the nuclear receptor, steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR). In addition to its established roles as a cofactor of γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) in mediating post-transcriptional modifications, vitamin K has a different mode of action mediated by transcriptional regulation of SXR/PXR target genes. Analysis of bone tissue from PXR-deficient mice showed that the bone protective effects of vitamin K are partially mediated by SXR/PXR-dependent signaling. The discoveries of a novel mode of vitamin K action have opened up new possibilities that vitamin K might be useful for prevention or treatment of a variety of diseases that affect the geriatric population. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Ghatalia

    Full Text Available Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T, matched normal kidney (N and metastatic tumor tissue (M may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79 compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187. Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001. The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation.

  19. Gene transcription and biomarker responses in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milan, Massimo; Pauletto, Marianna; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca [Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padova, Viale dell' Universita 16, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Marin, Maria Gabriella [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Matozzo, Valerio, E-mail: matozzo@bio.unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that continuously enter aquatic environments. Presently, little information is available about the effects of these substances on non-target organisms, such as bivalves. We investigated the effects of ibuprofen (IBU) on the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Clams were exposed for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days to 0, 100 and 1000 {mu}g IBU/L, and established biomarker responses (haemolymph lysozyme, gill acetylcholinesterase and digestive gland superoxide dismutase activities) as well as digestive gland transcriptome were evaluated. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant effects of both 'IBU concentration' and 'exposure duration' on biomarker responses. Overall, the enzyme activities were generally lower in IBU-exposed clams than in controls. Although limited knowledge of the mollusc transcriptome makes it difficult to interpret the effects of IBU on clams, the gene transcription analysis using DNA microarrays enabled the identification of the putative molecular mode of action of the IBU. The functional analysis of differentially transcribed genes suggests that IBU can interfere with various signalling pathways in clams, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, apoptosis, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors, and nuclear factor-kappa B. In addition, several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g., glutathione S-transferase, sulfotransferase, cytochrome P450) were also found to be significantly affected by IBU exposure. In summary, the integrated approach of gene transcription analysis and biomarker responses facilitated the elucidation of the putative mechanisms of action of IBU in non-target species.

  20. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene transcription and biomarker responses in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, Massimo; Pauletto, Marianna; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Matozzo, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that continuously enter aquatic environments. Presently, little information is available about the effects of these substances on non-target organisms, such as bivalves. We investigated the effects of ibuprofen (IBU) on the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Clams were exposed for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days to 0, 100 and 1000 μg IBU/L, and established biomarker responses (haemolymph lysozyme, gill acetylcholinesterase and digestive gland superoxide dismutase activities) as well as digestive gland transcriptome were evaluated. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant effects of both “IBU concentration” and “exposure duration” on biomarker responses. Overall, the enzyme activities were generally lower in IBU-exposed clams than in controls. Although limited knowledge of the mollusc transcriptome makes it difficult to interpret the effects of IBU on clams, the gene transcription analysis using DNA microarrays enabled the identification of the putative molecular mode of action of the IBU. The functional analysis of differentially transcribed genes suggests that IBU can interfere with various signalling pathways in clams, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, apoptosis, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors, and nuclear factor-kappa B. In addition, several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g., glutathione S-transferase, sulfotransferase, cytochrome P450) were also found to be significantly affected by IBU exposure. In summary, the integrated approach of gene transcription analysis and biomarker responses facilitated the elucidation of the putative mechanisms of action of IBU in non-target species.

  2. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite ident...

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, July--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, April-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1987) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1987) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, January-March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This corrective action decision document (CADD)/corrective action plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU is located in the northeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 720 corrective action sites. A total of 747 underground nuclear detonations took place within this CAU between 1957 and 1992 and resulted in the release of radionuclides (RNs) in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. The CADD portion describes the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the corrective action investigation (CAI) stage, presents the corrective action objectives, and describes the actions recommended to meet the objectives. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP presents CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use-restriction boundaries identified and negotiated by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The UGTA strategy assumes that active remediation of subsurface RN contamination is not feasible with current technology. As a result, the corrective action is based on a combination of characterization and modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls. The strategy is implemented through a four-stage approach that comprises the following: (1) corrective action investigation plan (CAIP), (2) CAI, (3) CADD/CAP, and (4) closure report (CR) stages.

  10. Confirming the RNAi-mediated mechanism of action of siRNA-based cancer therapeutics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Adam D; Robbins, Marjorie; Tavakoli, Iran; Levi, Jasna; Hu, Lina; Fronda, Anna; Ambegia, Ellen; McClintock, Kevin; MacLachlan, Ian

    2009-03-01

    siRNAs that specifically silence the expression of cancer-related genes offer a therapeutic approach in oncology. However, it remains critical to determine the true mechanism of their therapeutic effects. Here, we describe the preclinical development of chemically modified siRNA targeting the essential cell-cycle proteins polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and kinesin spindle protein (KSP) in mice. siRNA formulated in stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALP) displayed potent antitumor efficacy in both hepatic and subcutaneous tumor models. This was correlated with target gene silencing following a single intravenous administration that was sufficient to cause extensive mitotic disruption and tumor cell apoptosis. Our siRNA formulations induced no measurable immune response, minimizing the potential for nonspecific effects. Additionally, RNAi-specific mRNA cleavage products were found in tumor cells, and their presence correlated with the duration of target mRNA silencing. Histological biomarkers confirmed that RNAi-mediated gene silencing effectively inhibited the target's biological activity. This report supports an RNAi-mediated mechanism of action for siRNA antitumor effects, suggesting a new methodology for targeting other key genes in cancer development with siRNA-based therapeutics.

  11. Spatio-Temporal Layout of Human Actions for Improved Bag-of-Words Action Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how human action recognition can be improved by considering spatio-temporal layout of actions. From literature, we adopt a pipeline consisting of STIP features, a random forest to quantize the features into histograms, and an SVM classifier. Our goal is to detect 48 human actions,

  12. The human oxytocin gene promoter is regulated by estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S; Zingg, H H

    1990-04-15

    Gonadal steroids affect brain function primarily by altering the expression of specific genes, yet the specific mechanisms by which neuronal target genes undergo such regulation are unknown. Recent evidence suggests that the expression of the neuropeptide gene for oxytocin (OT) is modulated by estrogens. We therefore examined the possibility that this regulation occurred via a direct interaction of the estrogen-receptor complex with cis-acting elements flanking the OT gene. DNA-mediated gene transfer experiments were performed using Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells and chimeric plasmids containing portions of the human OT gene 5'-glanking region linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. We identified a 19-base pair region located at -164 to -146 upstream of the transcription start site which is capable of conferring estrogen responsiveness to the homologous as well as to a heterologous promoter. The hormonal response is strictly dependent on the presence of intracellular estrogen receptors, since estrogen induced stimulation occurred only in Neuro-2a cells co-transfected with an expression vector for the human estrogen receptor. The identified region contains a novel imperfect palindrome (GGTGACCTTGACC) with sequence similarity to other estrogen response elements (EREs). To define cis-acting elements that function in synergism with the ERE, sequences 3' to the ERE were deleted, including the CCAAT box, two additional motifs corresponding to the right half of the ERE palindrome (TGACC), as well as a CTGCTAA heptamer similar to the "elegans box" found in Caenorhabditis elegans. Interestingly, optimal function of the identified ERE was fully independent of these elements and only required a short promoter region (-49 to +36). Our studies define a molecular mechanism by which estrogens can directly modulate OT gene expression. However, only a subset of OT neurons are capable of binding estrogens, therefore, direct action of estrogens on the OT gene may be

  13. Sensitivity to Lovastatin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Deleted for Pleiotropic Drug Resistance (PDR) Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The use of statins is well established in human therapy, and model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are commonly used in studies of drug action at molecular and cellular levels. The investigation of the resistance mechanisms towards statins may suggest new approaches to improve therapy...... based on the use of statins. We investigated the susceptibility to lovastatin of S. cerevisiae strains deleted for PDR genes, responsible for exporting hydrophobic and amphi-philic drugs, such as lovastatin. Strains deleted for the genes tested, PDR1, PDR3, PDR5 and SNQ2, exhibited remarkably different...

  14. Gene dosage compensation calibrates four regulatory RNAs to control Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Sine L; Tu, Kimberly C; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2009-01-01

    the quorum regulatory RNAs 1-4 (Qrr1-4). The four Qrr sRNAs are functionally redundant. That is, expression of any one of them is sufficient for wild-type quorum-sensing behaviour. Here, we show that the combined action of two feedback loops, one involving the sRNA-activator LuxO and one involving the sRNA......Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinately regulate gene expression in response to changes in cell-population density. At the core of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing signal transduction pathway reside four homologous small RNAs (sRNAs), named......-target HapR, promotes gene dosage compensation between the four qrr genes. Gene dosage compensation adjusts the total Qrr1-4 sRNA pool and provides the molecular mechanism underlying sRNA redundancy. The dosage compensation mechanism is exquisitely sensitive to small perturbations in Qrr levels. Precisely...

  15. How artefacts influence our actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, A.J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Artefacts can influence our actions in several ways. They can be instruments, enabling and facilitating actions, where their presence affects the number and quality of the options for action available to us. They can also influence our actions in a morally more salient way, where their presence

  16. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  17. The processing of actions and action-words in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeo, Liuba; Cecchetto, Cinzia; Mazzon, Giulia; Granello, Giulia; Cattaruzza, Tatiana; Verriello, Lorenzo; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with prime consequences on the motor function and concomitant cognitive changes, most frequently in the domain of executive functions. Moreover, poorer performance with action-verbs versus object-nouns has been reported in ALS patients, raising the hypothesis that the motor dysfunction deteriorates the semantic representation of actions. Using action-verbs and manipulable-object nouns sharing semantic relationship with the same motor representations, the verb-noun difference was assessed in a group of 21 ALS-patients with severely impaired motor behavior, and compared with a normal sample's performance. ALS-group performed better on nouns than verbs, both in production (action and object naming) and comprehension (word-picture matching). This observation implies that the interpretation of the verb-noun difference in ALS cannot be accounted by the relatedness of verbs to motor representations, but has to consider the role of other semantic and/or morpho-phonological dimensions that distinctively define the two grammatical classes. Moreover, this difference in the ALS-group was not greater than the noun-verb difference in the normal sample. The mental representation of actions also involves an executive-control component to organize, in logical/temporal order, the individual motor events (or sub-goals) that form a purposeful action. We assessed this ability with action sequencing tasks, requiring participants to re-construct a purposeful action from the scrambled presentation of its constitutive motor events, shown in the form of photographs or short sentences. In those tasks, ALS-group's performance was significantly poorer than controls'. Thus, the executive dysfunction manifested in the sequencing deficit -but not the selective verb deficit- appears as a consistent feature of the cognitive profile associated with ALS. We suggest that ALS can offer a valuable model to study the relationship between

  18. Dual anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic action of topical ivermectin 1% in papulopustular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, M; Gonser, L; Belge, K; Braunsdorf, C; Nordin, R; Scheu, A; Borelli, C

    2017-11-01

    Recently, therapy of rosacea with inflammatory lesions (papulopustular) has improved substantially with the approval of topical ivermectin 1% cream. It is assumed to have a dual mode of action with anti-inflammatory capacities and anti-parasitic effects against Demodex, which however has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. To find scientific rationale for the dual anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic mode of action of topical ivermectin 1% cream in patients with rosacea. A monocentric pilot study was performed including 20 caucasion patients with moderate to severe rosacea, as assessed by investigator global assessment (IGA score ≥3) and a Demodex density ≥15/cm 2 . Patients were treated with topical ivermectin 1% cream once daily (Soolantra ® ) for ≥12 weeks. The density of Demodex mites was assessed with skin surface biopsies. Expression of inflammatory and immune markers was evaluated with RT-PCR and by immunofluorescence staining. The mean density of mites was significantly decreased at week 6 and week 12 (P < 0.001). The gene expression levels of IL-8, LL-37, HBD3, TLR4 and TNF-α were downregulated at both time points. Reductions in gene expression were significant for LL-37, HBD3 and TNF-α at both follow-up time points and at week 12 for TLR4 (all P < 0.05). Reduced LL-37 expression (P < 0.05) and IL-8 expression were confirmed on the protein level by immunofluorescence staining. All patients improved clinically, and 16 of 20 patients reached therapeutic success defined as IGA score ≤1. Topical ivermectin 1% cream acts by a dual, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic mode of action against rosacea by killing Demodex spp. in vivo, in addition to significantly improving clinical signs and symptoms in the skin. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Re-construction of action awareness depends on an internal model of action-outcome timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Machts, Judith; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-04-01

    The subjective time of an instrumental action is shifted towards its outcome. This temporal binding effect is partially retrospective, i.e., occurs upon outcome perception. Retrospective binding is thought to reflect post-hoc inference on agency based on sensory evidence of the action - outcome association. However, many previous binding paradigms cannot exclude the possibility that retrospective binding results from bottom-up interference of sensory outcome processing with action awareness and is functionally unrelated to the processing of the action - outcome association. Here, we keep bottom-up interference constant and use a contextual manipulation instead. We demonstrate a shift of subjective action time by its outcome in a context of variable outcome timing. Crucially, this shift is absent when there is no such variability. Thus, retrospective action binding reflects a context-dependent, model-based phenomenon. Such top-down re-construction of action awareness seems to bias agency attribution when outcome predictability is low. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view. © 2014 The Authors. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Action and Interactiv research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...... to actual action research/interactive research....

  2. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  3. Multiple interactions between maternally-activated signalling pathways control Xenopus nodal-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Maria; Hilton, Emma; Old, Robert

    2002-03-01

    We have investigated the induction of the six Xenopus nodal-related genes, Xnr1-Xnr6, by maternal determinants. The beta-catenin pathway was modelled by stimulation using Xwnt8, activin-like signalling was modelled by activin, and VegT action was studied by overexpression in animal cap explants. Combinations of factors were examined, and previously unrecognised interactions were revealed in animal caps and whole embryos. For the induction of Xnr5 and Xnr6 in whole embryos, using a beta-catenin antisense morpholino oligonucleotide or a dominant negative XTcf3, we have demonstrated an absolute permissive requirement for the beta-catenin/Tcf pathway, in addition to the requirement for VegT action. In animal caps Xnr5 and Xnr6 are induced in response to VegT overexpression, and this induction is dependent upon the concomitant activation of the beta-catenin pathway that VegT initiates in animal caps. For the induction of Xnr3, VegT interacts negatively so as to inhibit the induction otherwise observed with wnt-signalling alone. The negative effect of VegT is not the result of a general inhibition of wnt-signalling, and does not result from an inhibition of wnt-induced siamois expression. A 294 bp proximal promoter fragment of the Xnr3 gene is sufficient to mediate the negative effect of VegT. Further experiments, employing cycloheximide to examine the dependence of Xnr gene expression upon proteins translated after the mid-blastula stage, demonstrated that Xnrs 4, 5 and 6 are 'primary' Xnr genes whose expression in the late blastula is solely dependent upon factors present before the mid-blastula stage.

  4. Heat shock protein 90β: A novel mediator of vitamin D action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, Giana; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Sonna, Larry A.; Lindauer, Meghan L.; Wood, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in vitamin D action in Caco-2 cells using geldanamycin (GA) to block Hsp90 function and RNA interference to reduce Hsp90β expression. When cells were exposed to GA, vitamin D-mediated gene expression and transcriptional activity were inhibited by 69% and 54%, respectively. Gel shift analysis indicated that GA reduced vitamin D-mediated DNA binding activity of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We tested the specific role of Hsp90β by knocking down its expression with stably expressed short hairpin RNA. Vitamin D-induced gene expression and transcriptional activity were reduced by 90% and 80%, respectively, in Hsp90β-deficient cells. Nuclear protein for VDR and RXRα, its heterodimer partner, were not reduced in Hsp90β-deficient cells. These findings indicate that Hsp90β is needed for optimal vitamin D responsiveness in the enterocyte and demonstrate a specific role for Hsp90β in VDR signaling

  5. Control of radiation sensitivity of mammalian cells. Regulation of expression of DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kayo; Morita, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    This review describes authors' investigations concerning regulation of expression of DNA repair genes for the purpose of control of radiosensitivity of mammalian cells for cancer radiotherapy. One of their experiments concerns the enhancement of sensitivity to radiation and anti-tumor agents by suppressing the expression of mammalian Rad51 gene which playing a central role in recombination repair against DNA double-strand break, by RNA interference (RNAi). Described are the mode of action of RNAi, mechanism of suppression of Rad51 gene expression by it, enhancing effect in radiosensitivity, stable suppression and enhancement by hairpin RNA and its possible usefulness in cancer therapy. The other concerns the histone H2AX gene, which delivering the repair signal post phosphorylation in chromatin against the double-strand break. Experimental results of suppression of the histone H2AX gene by tet-off system, enhancement of radiosensitivity by the suppression and functional recovery by the gene transfer are described, and the radiosensitivity can be thus artificially controlled by tetracycline in authors' F9 2AX (tet/tet) cells. (N.I.)

  6. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism at the results of losartan use in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Poniatowskaya

    2015-03-01

    Odessa National Medical University   Summary The article presented is an original investigation where the effects of losartan in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have been evaluated. The effect of therapy has been estimated with the help of gene ACE allelic variant. The dependence of enalapril antihypertensive action and nephroprotective action of ACE polymorphism has been revealed. The results obtained show a different effect on ACE allele variants of lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension and T2DM and complications in the form of hypertriglyceridemia in the patients with DD-genotype.   Key words: type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, I / D polymorphism of the gene ACE, pharmacogenetics, losartan.

  7. Transforming Welfare Institutions through Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette

    Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika......Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika...

  8. [Expression and functions of adaptive response genes in Escherichia coli treated with mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents. Interference with SOS response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, S V; Makhova, E V; Moshkovskaia, E Iu

    1999-04-01

    The expression of genes belonging to the Ada regulon of Escherichia coli under the action of mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents--high-efficiency antitumor HMM, ACNU, and BCNU preparations--was studied. The functional specificity of the alkA, alkB, and aidB1 genes concerning both the structure and volume of DNA alkylation and the specificity of cell preadaptation was revealed. Additional experimental evidence for the role of the aidB1 gene as a unique "hazard gene", a component of the E. coli ada operon, was obtained. A phenomenon of positive interference between alternative SOS and Ada responses was observed for the first time upon gene expression.

  9. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on inflammation and insulin action in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Hussey, Sophie E; Sanchez-Avila, Alicia; Tantiwong, Puntip; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggest that chronic elevation of circulating intestinal-generated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (i.e., metabolic endotoxemia) could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, the effect of LPS in human muscle is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown whether blockade/down regulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 can prevent the effect of LPS on insulin action and glucose metabolism in human muscle cells. In the present study we compared plasma LPS concentration in insulin resistant [obese non-diabetic and obese type 2 diabetic (T2DM)] subjects versus lean individuals. In addition, we employed a primary human skeletal muscle cell culture system to investigate the effect of LPS on glucose metabolism and whether these effects are mediated via TLR4. Obese non-diabetic and T2DM subjects had significantly elevated plasma LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) concentrations. Plasma LPS (r = -0.46, P = 0.005) and LBP (r = -0.49, P = 0.005) concentrations negatively correlated with muscle insulin sensitivity (M). In human myotubes, LPS increased JNK phosphorylation and MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression. This inflammatory response led to reduced insulin-stimulated IRS-1, Akt and AS160 phosphorylation and impaired glucose transport. Both pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with TAK-242, and TLR4 gene silencing, suppressed the inflammatory response and insulin resistance caused by LPS in human muscle cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that elevations in plasma LPS concentration found in obese and T2DM subjects could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and that antagonists of TLR4 may improve insulin action in these individuals.

  10. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    of organizational talk and their associated activities, the paper discusses the different ways time shape the relationship between talk and action. Acknowledging that talk gives rise to different expectations over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk-action relationships...

  11. Preferential Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Derrick A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical rationale for preferential affirmative action presented by Daniel C. Maguire in "A New American Justice." Maintains that self-interest bars present society's acceptance of Maguire's theories of justice, as demonstrated in negative reactions to the Harvard Law Review's affirmative action plan. (MJL)

  12. Action and reaction in the theories of direct interparticle action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    Newton's third law of motion is examined in the context of the theories of direct interpaticle action. In such theories, interactions between particles travel backward and forward in time at speeds not exceeding the speed of light. It is shown that while in the flat spacetime the equality of action and reaction can be clearly demonstrated, the situation is considerably more complicated in the curved spacetime. The phenomenon of gravitational scattering intervenes to destroy the equality of action and reaction. Nevertheless, when gravitation is taken into account, there is no violation of the conservation law of energy and momentum. These results are discussed in the framework of general relativity for the case of the electromagnetic interaction

  13. Molecular mechanism of sphingosine-1-phosphate action in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diem-Hang Nguyen-Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a lethal muscle-wasting disease. Studies in Drosophila showed that genetic increase of the levels of the bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P or delivery of 2-acetyl-5-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI, an S1P lyase inhibitor, suppresses dystrophic muscle degeneration. In the dystrophic mouse (mdx, upregulation of S1P by THI increases regeneration and muscle force. S1P can act as a ligand for S1P receptors and as a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Because Drosophila has no identified S1P receptors and DMD correlates with increased HDAC2 levels, we tested whether S1P action in muscle involves HDAC inhibition. Here we show that beneficial effects of THI treatment in mdx mice correlate with significantly increased nuclear S1P, decreased HDAC activity and increased acetylation of specific histone residues. Importantly, the HDAC2 target microRNA genes miR-29 and miR-1 are significantly upregulated, correlating with the downregulation of the miR-29 target Col1a1 in the diaphragm of THI-treated mdx mice. Further gene expression analysis revealed a significant THI-dependent decrease in inflammatory genes and increase in metabolic genes. Accordingly, S1P levels and functional mitochondrial activity are increased after THI treatment of differentiating C2C12 cells. S1P increases the capacity of the muscle cell to use fatty acids as an energy source, suggesting that THI treatment could be beneficial for the maintenance of energy metabolism in mdx muscles.

  14. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk...

  15. Renormalized action improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references

  16. Mathematics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    December 2004-November 2007 Denmark, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain have cooperated in the project Mathematics in Action (MiA). The MiA project is supported by the Grundtvig action in the Socrates program of the European Commission. The aim of the project...

  17. Central Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Browns White Fat via Sympathetic Action in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Nicholas; Stevanovic, Darko M; Fisher, Ffolliott M; Cisu, Theodore I; Chee, Melissa J; Nguyen, Ngoc L; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S; Bartness, Timothy J; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has multiple metabolic actions, including the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Although FGF21 stimulated browning results from a direct interaction between FGF21 and the adipocyte, browning is typically associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system through cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that FGF21 can act via the brain, to increase sympathetic activity and induce browning, independent of cell-autonomous actions. We administered FGF21 into the central nervous system via lateral ventricle infusion into male mice and found that the central treatment increased norepinephrine turnover in target tissues that include the inguinal white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Central FGF21 stimulated browning as assessed by histology, expression of uncoupling protein 1, and the induction of gene expression associated with browning. These effects were markedly attenuated when mice were treated with a β-blocker. Additionally, neither centrally nor peripherally administered FGF21 initiated browning in mice lacking β-adrenoceptors, demonstrating that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for FGF21 action. These data indicate that FGF21 can signal in the brain to activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  18. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  19. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    and scale, the use of the object can provide a strong invariant for the detection of motion primitives. In this paper we propose an unsupervised learning approach for action primitives that makes use of the human movements as well as the object state changes. We group actions according to the changes......Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions....... In this paper we observe that human actions and objects can be seen as being intertwined: we can interpret actions from the way the body parts are moving, but as well from how their effect on the involved object. While human movements can look vastly different even under minor changes in location, orientation...

  20. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha L; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E

    2014-12-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions-walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting-while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustworthiness, the actions were filmed multiple times, with the actor conveying the traits with different levels of intensity. In total, we made 2,783 action videos (in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional format), each lasting 7 s with a frame rate of 50 fps. All videos were filmed in a green-screen studio in order to isolate the action information from all contextual detail and to provide a flexible stimulus set for future use. In order to validate the traits conveyed by each action, we asked participants to rate each of the actions corresponding to the trait that the actor portrayed in the two-dimensional videos. To provide a useful database of stimuli of multiple actions conveying multiple traits, each video name contains information on the gender of the actor, the action executed, the trait conveyed, and the rating of its perceived intensity. All videos can be downloaded free at the following address: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~neb506/databases.html. We discuss potential uses for the database in the analysis of the perception of whole-body actions.

  1. Antiviral activity and specific modes of action of bacterial prodigiosin against Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zeng, Cheng; Liu, RenHua; Chen, Jie; Li, Ru; Wang, XinYan; Bai, WenWen; Liu, XiaoYuan; Xiang, TingTing; Zhang, Lin; Wan, YongJi

    2016-05-01

    Prodigiosin, the tripyrrole red pigment, is a bacterial secondary metabolite with multiple bioactivities; however, the antiviral activity has not been reported yet. In the present study, we found the antiviral activity of bacterial prodigiosin on Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)-infected cells in vitro, with specific modes of action. Prodigiosin at nontoxic concentrations selectively killed virus-infected cells, inhibited viral gene transcription, especially viral early gene ie-1, and prevented virus-mediated membrane fusion. Under prodigiosin treatment, both progeny virus production and viral DNA replication were significantly inhibited. Fluorescent assays showed that prodigiosin predominantly located in cytoplasm which suggested it might interact with cytoplasm factors to inhibit virus replication. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicates that prodigiosin possesses significant antiviral activity against BmNPV.

  2. APOBEC3B-Mediated Cytidine Deamination Is Required for Estrogen Receptor Action in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Periyasamy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor α (ERα is the key transcriptional driver in a large proportion of breast cancers. We report that APOBEC3B (A3B is required for regulation of gene expression by ER and acts by causing C-to-U deamination at ER binding regions. We show that these C-to-U changes lead to the generation of DNA strand breaks through activation of base excision repair (BER and to repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathways. We provide evidence that transient cytidine deamination by A3B aids chromatin modification and remodelling at the regulatory regions of ER target genes that promotes their expression. A3B expression is associated with poor patient survival in ER+ breast cancer, reinforcing the physiological significance of A3B for ER action.

  3. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism, and cancer: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Knaap (Ronald); C. Siemes (Claire); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism all influence serum angiotensin II action. Because angiotensin II levels have been associated with cancer, the objective of the current

  4. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Grognet

    Full Text Available Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs, complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  5. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July to September 1982) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the licensee with respect to the enforcement action. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security. This publication is issued on a quarterly basis to include significant enforcement actions resolved during the preceding quarter

  6. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  7. Freedom in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, N. van

    2015-01-01

    Free will is the capacity to select and execute one really possible action alternative. In recent years this simple libertarian picture of our capacity to freely act has drawn much criticism. Many neuroscientists claim that we do not have a capacity to select alternative courses of action since our

  8. A minimal architecture for joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Butterfill, Stephen; Knoblich, Günther

    2010-01-01

    What kinds of processes and representations make joint action possible? In this paper we suggest a minimal architecture for joint action that focuses on representations, action monitoring and action prediction processes, as well as ways of simplifying coordination. The architecture spells out...... minimal requirements for an individual agent to engage in a joint action. We discuss existing evidence in support of the architecture as well as open questions that remain to be empirically addressed. In addition, we suggest possible interfaces between the minimal architecture and other approaches...... to joint action. The minimal architecture has implications for theorizing about the emergence of joint action, for human-machine interaction, and for understanding how coordination can be facilitated by exploiting relations between multiple agents’ actions and between actions and the environment....

  9. In tobacco BY-2 cells xyloglucan oligosaccharides alter the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Lien; Perrotta, Lara; Acosta, Alexis; Orellana, Esteban; Spadafora, Natasha; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Beatrice M; Albani, Diego; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Francis, Dennis; Rogers, Hilary J

    2014-10-01

    Xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) are breakdown products of XGs, the most abundant hemicelluloses of the primary cell walls of non-Poalean species. Treatment of cell cultures or whole plants with XGOs results in accelerated cell elongation and cell division, changes in primary root growth, and a stimulation of defence responses. They may therefore act as signalling molecules regulating plant growth and development. Previous work suggests an interaction with auxins and effects on cell wall loosening, however their mode of action is not fully understood. The effect of an XGO extract from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) on global gene expression was therefore investigated in tobacco BY-2 cells using microarrays. Over 500 genes were differentially regulated with similar numbers and functional classes of genes up- and down-regulated, indicating a complex interaction with the cellular machinery. Up-regulation of a putative XG endotransglycosylase/hydrolase-related (XTH) gene supports the mechanism of XGO action through cell wall loosening. Differential expression of defence-related genes supports a role for XGOs as elicitors. Changes in the expression of genes related to mitotic control and differentiation also support previous work showing that XGOs are mitotic inducers. XGOs also affected expression of several receptor-like kinase genes and transcription factors. Hence, XGOs have significant effects on expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

  10. Observed Human Actions, and Not Mechanical Actions, Induce Searching Errors in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Moriguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent neurophysiological studies have shown that several human brain regions involved in executing actions are activated by merely observing such actions via a human, and not by a mechanical hand. At a behavioral level, observing a human’s movements, but not those of a robot, significantly interferes with ongoing executed movements. However, it is unclear whether the biological tuning in the observation/execution matching system are functional during infancy. The present study examines whether a human’s actions, and not a mechanical action, influence infants’ execution of the same actions due to the observation/execution matching system. Twelve-month-old infants were given a searching task. In the tasks, infants observed an object hidden at location A, after which either a human hand (human condition or a mechanical one (mechanical condition searched the object correctly. Next, the object was hidden at location B and infants were allowed to search the object. We examined whether infants searched the object at location B correctly. The results revealed that infants in the human condition were more likely to search location A than those in the mechanical condition. Moreover, the results suggested that infants’ searching behaviors were affected by their observations of the same actions by a human, but not a mechanical hand. Thus, it may be concluded that the observation/execution matching system may be biologically tuned during infancy.

  11. Temporal profile of estrogen-dependent gene expression in LHRH-producing GT1-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varju, Patricia; Chang, Ken C; Hrabovszky, Erik; Merchenthaler, István; Liposits, Zsolt

    2009-02-01

    The long-term cellular effects of estrogens are mediated by nuclear estrogen receptors which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression. Hypothalamic targets of estrogen action include luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-secreting neurons controlling reproduction in vertebrates. Microarray analysis and qRT-PCR studies were performed on GT1-7, immortalized LHRH neurons after 17beta-estradiol treatment to reveal the nature of estrogen-regulated genes and the time course of changes in their expression profile. More than 1000 transcripts showed robust responses to estrogen treatment and the majority of responding genes were up-regulated. Early-responding genes showed altered expression 0.5-2h after estrogen exposure, whereas late-responding genes changed after 24-48h treatment. Up-regulated genes encoded transcription factors, molecules involved in cellular movement, cell death, immune response, neurotransmitter and neuropeptide receptors, ion channels and transporters. The 17beta-estradiol modulation of 12 genes - representing characteristic gene clusters - has been confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our studies highlighted diverse gene networks, cell regulatory mechanisms and metabolic pathways through which estrogen may alter gene expression in immortalized LHRH neurons. The findings also support the notion that genomic effects of estrogen targeting in vivo directly the LHRH neuronal network of mammals play an important role in the central feedback regulation of the reproductive axis by estrogen.

  12. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, lennart; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2006-01-01

    The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research.......The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research....

  13. Inheritance and gene expression of a root-growth inhibiting mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, H.; Futsuhara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: A root-growth inhibiting mutant was induced in the dwarf mutant line, 'Fukei 71', through ethylene-imine. The mutant is characterised by the excessive inhibition of both seminal and crown roots elongation just after germination, although its shoots grow nearly normal. To study the genetics, the mutant was crossed with its original line 'Fukei 71' and some other normal cultivars. Results show that the root-growth inhibition is controlled by a recessive gene (rt), independent of the dwarf gene, d-50(t) locus in Fukei 71. For elucidating the gene action on root morphogenesis, histological and cytological experiments were carried out using a longitudinal and transverse thin section of seminal and/or crown root tips. Observations suggest that the rt gene affects the normal formation of the epidermal system which is differentiated from the protoderm of the root apical meristem. (author)

  14. How and why actions are selected: action selection and the dark room problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venter Elmarie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine an evolutionary approach to the action selection problem and illustrate how it helps raise an objection to the predictive processing account. Clark examines the predictive processing account as a theory of brain function that aims to unify perception, action, and cognition, but - despite this aim - fails to consider action selection overtly. He off ers an account of action control with the implication that minimizing prediction error is an imperative of living organisms because, according to the predictive processing account, action is employed to fulfill expectations and reduce prediction error. One way in which this can be achieved is by seeking out the least stimulating environment and staying there (Friston et al. 2012: 2. Bayesian, neuroscientific, and machine learning approaches into a single framework whose overarching principle is the minimization of surprise (or, equivalently, the maximization of expectation. But, most living organisms do not find, and stay in, surprise free environments. This paper explores this objection, also called the “dark room problem”, and examines Clark’s response to the problem. Finally, I recommend that if supplemented with an account of action selection, Clark’s account will avoid the dark room problem.

  15. Interpersonal Movement Synchrony Responds to High- and Low-Level Conversational Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Paxton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Much work on communication and joint action conceptualizes interaction as a dynamical system. Under this view, dynamic properties of interaction should be shaped by the context in which the interaction is taking place. Here we explore interpersonal movement coordination or synchrony—the degree to which individuals move in similar ways over time—as one such context-sensitive property. Studies of coordination have typically investigated how these dynamics are influenced by either high-level constraints (i.e., slow-changing factors or low-level constraints (i.e., fast-changing factors like movement. Focusing on nonverbal communication behaviors during naturalistic conversation, we analyzed how interacting participants' head movement dynamics were shaped simultaneously by high-level constraints (i.e., conversation type; friendly conversations vs. arguments and low-level constraints (i.e., perceptual stimuli; non-informative visual stimuli vs. informative visual stimuli. We found that high- and low-level constraints interacted non-additively to affect interpersonal movement dynamics, highlighting the context sensitivity of interaction and supporting the view of joint action as a complex adaptive system.

  16. Quantum decision theory as quantum theory of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a general theory of quantum information processing devices, that can be applied to human decision makers, to atomic multimode registers, or to molecular high-spin registers. Our quantum decision theory is a generalization of the quantum theory of measurement, endowed with an action ring, a prospect lattice and a probability operator measure. The algebra of probability operators plays the role of the algebra of local observables. Because of the composite nature of prospects and of the entangling properties of the probability operators, quantum interference terms appear, which make actions noncommutative and the prospect probabilities nonadditive. The theory provides the basis for explaining a variety of paradoxes typical of the application of classical utility theory to real human decision making. The principal advantage of our approach is that it is formulated as a self-consistent mathematical theory, which allows us to explain not just one effect but actually all known paradoxes in human decision making. Being general, the approach can serve as a tool for characterizing quantum information processing by means of atomic, molecular, and condensed-matter systems

  17. Multi-species sequence comparison reveals conservation of ghrelin gene-derived splice variants encoding a truncated ghrelin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Thomas, Patrick B; Walpole, Carina M; Maugham, Michelle; Fung, Jenny N T; Yap, Pei-Yi; O'Keeffe, Angela J; Lai, John; Whiteside, Eliza J; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is a potent orexigen produced predominantly in the stomach. It has a number of other biological actions, including roles in appetite stimulation, energy balance, the stimulation of growth hormone release and the regulation of cell proliferation. Recently, several ghrelin gene splice variants have been described. Here, we attempted to identify conserved alternative splicing of the ghrelin gene by cross-species sequence comparisons. We identified a novel human exon 2-deleted variant and provide preliminary evidence that this splice variant and in1-ghrelin encode a C-terminally truncated form of the ghrelin peptide, termed minighrelin. These variants are expressed in humans and mice, demonstrating conservation of alternative splicing spanning 90 million years. Minighrelin appears to have similar actions to full-length ghrelin, as treatment with exogenous minighrelin peptide stimulates appetite and feeding in mice. Forced expression of the exon 2-deleted preproghrelin variant mirrors the effect of the canonical preproghrelin, stimulating cell proliferation and migration in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. This is the first study to characterise an exon 2-deleted preproghrelin variant and to demonstrate sequence conservation of ghrelin gene-derived splice variants that encode a truncated ghrelin peptide. This adds further impetus for studies into the alternative splicing of the ghrelin gene and the function of novel ghrelin peptides in vertebrates.

  18. Gene expression patterns of the coral Acropora millepora in response to contact with macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, T. L.; Rasher, D. B.; Snell, T. W.; Hay, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Contact with macroalgae often causes coral mortality, but the roles of abrasion versus shading versus allelopathy in these interactions are rarely clear, and effects on gene expression are unknown. Identification of gene expression changes within corals in response to contact with macroalgae can provide insight into the mode of action of allelochemicals, as well as reveal transcriptional strategies of the coral that mitigate damage from this competitive interaction, enabling the coral to survive. Gene expression responses of the coral Acropora millepora after long-term (20 days) direct contact with macroalgae ( Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Dictyota bartayresiana, Galaxaura filamentosa, and Turbinaria conoides) and short-term (1 and 24 h) exposure to C. fastigiata thalli and their hydrophobic extract were assessed. After 20 days of exposure, T. conoides thalli elicited no significant change in visual bleaching or zooxanthellae PSII quantum yield within A. millepora nubbins, but stimulated the greatest alteration in gene expression of all treatments. Chlorodesmis fastigiata, D. bartayresiana, and G. filamentosa caused significant visual bleaching of coral nubbins and reduced the PSII quantum yield of associated zooxanthellae after 20 days, but elicited fewer changes in gene expression relative to T. conoides at day 20. To evaluate initial molecular processes leading to reduction of zooxanthella PSII quantum yield, visual bleaching, and coral death, short-term exposures to C. fastigiata thalli and hydrophobic extracts were conducted; these interactions revealed protein degradation and significant changes in catalytic and metabolic activity within 24 h of contact. These molecular responses are consistent with the hypothesis that allelopathic interactions lead to alteration of signal transduction and an imbalance between reactive oxidant species production and antioxidant capabilities within the coral holobiont. This oxidative imbalance results in rapid protein degradation

  19. Novel method to load multiple genes onto a mammalian artificial chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tóth

    Full Text Available Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe's disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest.

  20. Novel method to load multiple genes onto a mammalian artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, Vilmos; Udvardy, Andor; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Katona, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs) was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe's disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest.

  1. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  2. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, January-June 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during two quarterly periods (January to June 1982) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the licensee with respect to the enforcement action. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security. The intention is that this publication will be issued on a quarterly basis to include significant enforcement actions resolved during the preceding quarter

  3. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  4. Translating visual information into action predictions: Statistical learning in action and nonaction contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Claire D; Gerson, Sarah A; Hunnius, Sabine

    2018-05-01

    Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects. Both implicit and explicit measures of learning were compared between agent and ghost conditions. Implicit learning was measured via predictive eye movements to upcoming actions or events, and explicit learning was measured via both uninstructed reproduction of the action sequences and verbal reports of the regularities. The findings revealed that participants, regardless of condition, readily learned the regularities and made correct predictive eye movements to upcoming events during online observation. However, different patterns of explicit-learning outcomes emerged following observation: Participants were most likely to re-create the sequence regularities and to verbally report them when they had observed an actor create a contingent effect. These results suggest that the shift from implicit predictions to explicit knowledge of what has been learned is facilitated when observers perceive another agent's actions and when these actions cause effects. These findings are discussed with respect to the potential role of the motor system in modulating how statistical regularities are learned and used to modify behavior.

  5. Electrotransfer parameters as a tool for controlled and targeted gene expression in skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spela Kos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin is an attractive target for gene electrotransfer. It consists of different cell types that can be transfected, leading to various responses to gene electrotransfer. We demonstrate that these responses could be controlled by selecting the appropriate electrotransfer parameters. Specifically, the application of low or high electric pulses, applied by multi-electrode array, provided the possibility to control the depth of the transfection in the skin, the duration and the level of gene expression, as well as the local or systemic distribution of the transgene. The influence of electric pulse type was first studied using a plasmid encoding a reporter gene (DsRed. Then, plasmids encoding therapeutic genes (IL-12, shRNA against endoglin, shRNA against melanoma cell adhesion molecule were used, and their effects on wound healing and cutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors were investigated. The high-voltage pulses resulted in gene expression that was restricted to superficial skin layers and induced a local response. In contrast, the low-voltage electric pulses promoted transfection into the deeper skin layers, resulting in prolonged gene expression and higher transgene production, possibly with systemic distribution. Therefore, in the translation into the clinics, it will be of the utmost importance to adjust the electrotransfer parameters for different therapeutic approaches and specific mode of action of the therapeutic gene.

  6. Undefined familial colorectal cancer and the role of pleiotropism in cancer susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Sara E; Broderick, Peter; Chubb, Daniel; Kinnersley, Ben; Sherborne, Amy L; Houlston, Richard S

    2016-10-01

    Although family history is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) a genetic diagnosis cannot be obtained in over 50 % of familial cases when screened for known CRC cancer susceptibility genes. The genetics of undefined-familial CRC is complex and recent studies have implied additional clinically actionable mutations for CRC in susceptibility genes for other cancers. To clarify the contribution of non-CRC susceptibility genes to undefined-familial CRC we conducted a mutational screen of 114 cancer susceptibility genes in 847 patients with early-onset undefined-familial CRC and 1609 controls by analysing high-coverage exome sequencing data. We implemented American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines for assigning pathogenicity to variants. Globally across all 114 cancer susceptibility genes no statistically significant enrichment of likely pathogenic variants was shown (6.7 % cases 57/847, 5.3 % controls 85/1609; P = 0.15). Moreover there was no significant enrichment of mutations in genes such as TP53 or BRCA2 which have been proposed for clinical testing in CRC. In conclusion, while we identified genes that may be considered interesting candidates as determinants of CRC risk warranting further research, there is currently scant evidence to support a role for genes other than those responsible for established CRC syndromes in the clinical management of familial CRC.

  7. Teaching about Tort Law--My Actions, My Actions, Somebody Got Hurt!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that uses cases to teach students about three types of torts: intentional wrongs, negligence, and strict liability. Torts are wrongful actions (not involving a breech of contract) that may result in a civic action. Includes lesson procedures, objectives, and student handouts on torts and negligence cases. (MJP)

  8. Differential transcriptome analysis between Populus and its synthesized allotriploids driven by second-division restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shiping; Huang, Zhen; Li, Yun; Liao, Ting; Suo, Yujing; Zhang, Pingdong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we compared transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Populus section Tacamahaca triploid driven by second-division restitution and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-seq method. A total of 4,080 genes were differentially expressed between the high-growth vigor allotriploids (SDR-H) and their parents, and 719 genes were non-additively expressed in SDR-H. Differences in gene expression between the allotriploid and male parent were more significant than those between the allotriploid and female parent, which may be caused by maternal effects. We observed 3,559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the SDR-H and male parent. Notably, the genes were mainly involved in metabolic process, cell proliferation, DNA methylation, cell division, and meristem and developmental growth. Among the 1,056 DEGs between SDR-H and female parent, many genes were associated with metabolic process and carbon utilization. In addition, 1,789 DEGs between high- and low-growth vigor allotriploid were mainly associated with metabolic process, auxin poplar transport, and regulation of meristem growth. Our results indicated that the higher poplar ploidy level can generate extensive transcriptomic diversity compared with its parents. Overall, these results increased our understanding of the driving force for phenotypic variation and adaptation in allopolyploids driven by second-division restitution. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...... formalisms, and inheriting all the main features of the Meta-Environment....

  10. Analysis of homeobox gene action may reveal novel angiogenic pathways in normal placental vasculature and in clinical pregnancy disorders associated with abnormal placental angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma eMurthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes are essential for both the development of the blood and lymphatic vascular systems, as well as for their maintenance in the adult. Homeobox genes comprise an important family of transcription factors, which are characterised by a well conserved DNA binding motif; the homeodomain. The specificity of the homeodomain allows the transcription factor to bind to the promoter regions of batteries of target genes and thereby regulates their expression. Target genes identified for homeodomain proteins have been shown to control fundamental cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We and others have reported that homeobox genes are expressed in the placental vasculature, but our knowledge of their downstream target genes is limited. This review highlights the importance of studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which homeobox genes and their downstream targets may regulate important vascular cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and endothelial tube formation, which are essential for placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. A better understanding of the molecular targets of homeobox genes may lead to new therapies for aberrant angiogenesis associated with clinically important pregnancy pathologies, including fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia.

  11. Facilitating Dissident Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thydal, Signe; Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2018-01-01

    Firefund.net. crowdfunds and provides resources for direct action movements. The organisation positions itself within a political struggle to create a global solidarity network. Firefund.net’s challenges and possibilities are analysed in relation to juridical issues and issues of control and shar......Firefund.net. crowdfunds and provides resources for direct action movements. The organisation positions itself within a political struggle to create a global solidarity network. Firefund.net’s challenges and possibilities are analysed in relation to juridical issues and issues of control...... to support radical initiatives without breaking the law: some activists sympathise with movements in a juridical grey zone. Both issues are relevant to social movements and current direct action....

  12. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  13. An alternative methodological approach to value analysis of regions, municipal corporations and clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Sabolovič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with theoretical conception of value analysis of regions, municipal corporations and clusters. The subject of this paper is heterodox approach to sensitivity analysis of finite set of variables based on non-additive measure. For dynamic analysis of trajectory of general value are sufficient robust models based on maximum entropy principle. Findings concern explanation of proper fuzzy integral – Choquet integral. The fuzzy measure is represented by theory of capacities (Choquet, 1953 on powerset. In fine, the conception of the New integral for capacities (Lehler, 2005 is discussed. Value analysis and transmission constitutes remarkable aspect of performance evaluation of regions, municipal corporations and clusters. In the light of high ratio of soft variables, social behavior, intangible assets and human capital within those types of subjects the fuzzy integral introduce useful tool for modeling. The New integral afterwards concerns considerable characteristic of people behavior – risk averse articulated concave function and non-additive operator. Results comprehended tools enabling observation of synergy, redundancy and inhibition of value variables as consequence of non-additive measure. In fine, results induced issues for future research.

  14. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  15. Action principles for the Vlasov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, H.; Morrison, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Five action principles for the Vlasov--Poisson and Vlasov--Maxwell equations, which differ by the variables incorporated to describe the distribution of particles in phase space, are presented. Three action principles previously known for the Vlasov--Maxwell equations are altered so as to produce the Vlasov--Poisson equation upon variation with respect to only the particle variables, and one action principle previously known for the Vlasov--Poisson equation is altered to produce the Vlasov--Maxwell equations upon variations with respect to particle and field variables independently. Also, a new action principle for both systems, which is called the leaf action, is presented. This new action has the desirable features of using only a single generating function as the dynamical variable for describing the particle distribution, and manifestly preserving invariants of the system known as Casimir invariants. The relationships between the various actions are described, and it is shown that the leaf action is a link between actions written in terms of Lagrangian and Eulerian variables

  16. Inhibitory effect and mode of action of chitosan solution against rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlan; Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhou, Kaile; Wang, Yanli; Luo, Ju; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2014-06-04

    Inhibitory effect and mode of action of chitosan solution against rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 was examined in this study. Result from this study indicated that chitosan solutions at 0.10, 0.20, and 0.40mg/mL inhibited the in vitro growth of Aaa strain RS-1, and in general the inhibitory efficiency increased with the increase of both chitosan concentration and the incubation time. Antibacterial activity of chitosan in this study may be mainly due to the damage of cell membrane, which was evidenced by both the cell lysis observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the increased release of cell materials based on the measurement of cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, chitosan solutions at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mg/mL markedly inhibited bacterial biofilm formation compared to the control, and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of chitosan concentration. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR of the 10 secretion system related genes revealed the differential expression of genes in particular ompA/motB, emphasizing the importance of this gene in the response of Aaa strain RS-1 to chitosan stress. These results indicated that the antibacterial mode of action of chitosan may be mainly due to membrane disruption and lysis, reduction of biofilm formation, and gene expression change. Overall, the results clearly indicated that chitosan had the potential to control bacterial brown stripe of rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Precise regulation of gene expression dynamics favors complex promoter architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoters process signals through recruitment of transcription factors and RNA polymerase, and dynamic changes in promoter activity constitute a major noise source in gene expression. However, it is barely understood how complex promoter architectures determine key features of promoter dynamics. Here, we employ prototypical promoters of yeast ribosomal protein genes as well as simplified versions thereof to analyze the relations among promoter design, complexity, and function. These promoters combine the action of a general regulatory factor with that of specific transcription factors, a common motif of many eukaryotic promoters. By comprehensively analyzing stationary and dynamic promoter properties, this model-based approach enables us to pinpoint the structural characteristics underlying the observed behavior. Functional tradeoffs impose constraints on the promoter architecture of ribosomal protein genes. We find that a stable scaffold in the natural design results in low transcriptional noise and strong co-regulation of target genes in the presence of gene silencing. This configuration also exhibits superior shut-off properties, and it can serve as a tunable switch in living cells. Model validation with independent experimental data suggests that the models are sufficiently realistic. When combined, our results offer a mechanistic explanation for why specific factors are associated with low protein noise in vivo. Many of these findings hold for a broad range of model parameters and likely apply to other eukaryotic promoters of similar structure.

  18. One nuclear calcium transient induced by a single burst of action potentials represents the minimum signal strength in activity-dependent transcription in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Oberlaender, Kristin; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-07-01

    Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus. We found that a single burst of action potentials, consisting of 24.4±5.1 action potentials during a 6.7±1.9s depolarization of 19.5±2.0mV causing a 9.3±0.9s somatic calcium transient, is sufficient to activate transcription of the immediate early gene arc (also known as Arg3.1). The total arc mRNA yield produced after a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient was very small and, compared to unstimulated control neurons, did not lead to a significant increase in arc mRNA levels measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) of cell lysates. Significantly increased arc mRNA levels became detectable in hippocampal neurons that had undergone 5-8 consecutive burst-induced nuclear calcium transients at 0.05-0.15Hz. These results indicate that a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient can activate gene expression and that transcription is rapidly shut off after synaptic stimulation has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucocorticoid receptor action in metabolic and neuronal function [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Garabedian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR have effects on a variety of cell types, eliciting important physiological responses via changes in gene expression and signaling. Although decades of research have illuminated the mechanism of how this important steroid receptor controls gene expression using in vitro and cell culture–based approaches, how GR responds to changes in external signals in vivo under normal and pathological conditions remains elusive. The goal of this review is to highlight recent work on GR action in fat cells and liver to affect metabolism in vivo and the role GR ligands and receptor phosphorylation play in calibrating signaling outputs by GR in the brain in health and disease. We also suggest that both the brain and fat tissue communicate to affect physiology and behavior and that understanding this “brain-fat axis” will enable a more complete understanding of metabolic diseases and inform new ways to target them.

  20. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k + ) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k + gene expression where the H S V-1 t k + gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([ 18 F]F H P G; [ 18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([ 123 / 131 I]I V R F U; [ 124 / 131I ]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [ 123 / 131I ]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k + reporter gene will be presented

  1. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  2. Interval-based reconstruction for uncertainty quantification in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczak, Florentin; Loquin, Kevin; Buvat, Irène; Strauss, Olivier; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2018-02-01

    A new directed interval-based tomographic reconstruction algorithm, called non-additive interval based expectation maximization (NIBEM) is presented. It uses non-additive modeling of the forward operator that provides intervals instead of single-valued projections. The detailed approach is an extension of the maximum likelihood—expectation maximization algorithm based on intervals. The main motivation for this extension is that the resulting intervals have appealing properties for estimating the statistical uncertainty associated with the reconstructed activity values. After reviewing previously published theoretical concepts related to interval-based projectors, this paper describes the NIBEM algorithm and gives examples that highlight the properties and advantages of this interval valued reconstruction.

  3. Predictability of multispecies competitive interactions in three populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, A L S; Wilson, C C; Neff, B D

    2015-04-01

    Juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three allopatric populations (LaHave, Sebago and Saint-Jean) were placed into artificial streams with combinations of four non-native salmonids: brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Non-additive effects, as evidenced by lower performance than predicted from weighted summed two-species competition trials, were detected for S. salar fork length (LF ) and mass, but not for survival, condition factor or riffle use. These data support emerging theory on niche overlap and species richness as factors that can lead to non-additive competition effects. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Modeling intentional inhibition of actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by cognitive and neurological literature on action ownership and action awareness, in this paper a computational cognitive model for intentional inhibition (i.e.; the capacity to voluntarily suspend or inhibit an action) is introduced. The interplay between (positive) potential selection of

  5. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  6. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  7. Live-action Virtual Reality Games

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Luis; Clua, Esteban; Silva, Alexandre Ribeiro; Feijó, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of "live-action virtual reality games" as a new genre of digital games based on an innovative combination of live-action, mixed-reality, context-awareness, and interaction paradigms that comprise tangible objects, context-aware input devices, and embedded/embodied interactions. Live-action virtual reality games are "live-action games" because a player physically acts out (using his/her real body and senses) his/her "avatar" (his/her virtual representation) in t...

  8. Action Research: Some basic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research.......The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research....

  9. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center: Functional Signature Ontology Tool: Triplicate Measurements of Reporter Gene Expression in Response to Individual Genetic and Chemical Perturbations in HCT116 Cells | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to use an eight-gene expression profile to define functional signatures for small molecules and natural products with heretofore undefined mechanism of action. Two genes in the eight gene set are used as internal controls and do not vary across gene expression array data collected from the public domain. The remaining six genes are found to vary independently across a large collection of publically available gene expression array datasets.  Read the abstract

  10. Socially extended intentions-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    According to a widely accepted constraint on the content of intentions, here called the exclusivity constraint, one cannot intend to perform another agent’s action, even if one might be able to intend that she performs it. For example, while one can intend that one’s guest leaves before midnight......, one cannot intend to perform her act of leaving. However, Deborah Tollefsen’s (2005) account of joint activity requires participants to have intentions-in-action (in John Searle’s (1983) sense) that violate this constraint. I argue that the exclusivity constraint should not be accepted...... as an unconditional constraint on the contents of intentions-in-action: one may intend to perform a basic action that belongs both to oneself and to another agent. Based on the phenomenology of tool use, I first argue that intentions-in-action of one’s basic actions may be technologically extended, meaning...

  11. Patients with prolonged effect of succinylcholine or mivacurium had novel mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Sine; Færk, Gitte; Bundgaard, Jens R.

    2016-01-01

    with prolonged duration of action to succinylcholine and mivacurium. Patients were studied if they had equivocal phenotypes on the basis of BChE activity, biochemical inhibitor reactions and with pedigree if possible. Complete nucleotide sequencing was performed to describe the genotype and pedigree was used......Introduction Mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE) can result in prolonged duration of action of the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium, as BChE hydrolyses these drugs. Hereditary low BChE activity can cause extensively prolonged apnoea during general...... anaesthesia when these drugs are used. The aim of this study was to describe novel mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients who have experienced prolonged duration of action of mivacurium or succinylcholine. Methods The Danish Cholinesterase Research Unit registers patients...

  12. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Echelard

    2006-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort

  14. Human action in a Genomic Era: debates on human nature Ação humana na Era do Genoma: debates sobre a natureza humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Gomes Rotondaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The supposed properties of 'genes' have led natural scientists to claim authority to explain the reasons of human action, behavior, and even human nature, which has traditionally been the object of study of the humanities. The aim of this paper is to discuss the possibilities of sociological theory dealing with the biological reductionism that establishes the strict articulation between 'human nature' and 'human action', presented in several speeches and papers by scientists and journalists and supported by features of 'genes'. I intend to argue that sociological theories may broaden their scope of analysis by encompassing biological dimensions, which does not necessarily mean adopting a biological reductionist approach.As supostas propriedades dos 'genes' levam os cientistas naturais a reivindicar autoridade para explicar as razões de atos, comportamentos e até a natureza humana, tradicional objeto de estudo das ciências humanas. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir as possibilidades de a teoria sociológica lidar com o reducionismo biológico, que estabelece uma articulação exata entre 'natureza humana' e 'ação humana'. Tal reducionismo está presente em discursos e artigos de cientistas e jornalistas, e é embasado por características dos 'genes'. Argumento que as teorias sociológicas podem ampliar suas possibilidades de análise se incorporarem dimensões biológicas, o que não implica necessariamente adotar uma abordagem reducionista.

  15. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

  16. Beginning and Becoming: Hannah Arendt's Theory of Action and Action Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance and implications of Hannah Arendt's theory of action for action research. Using example